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Sample records for myelopathy laminectomy laminectomy

  1. Long-term clinical and radiological follow-up after laminectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Laiginhas, Ana Rita Aleixo; Silva, Pedro Alberto; Pereira, Paulo; Vaz, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of laminectomy in the surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is established even though postoperative cervical sagittal balance changes and a risk for long-term instability have been described. The aim of the present study is to investigate its clinical efficacy and the radiological outcome in the long-term. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed consecutive cases of patients with CSM, who underwent cervical laminectomy between 1995 and 2010 at the Hospital São João (n = 106). Clinical files were consulted, and the patients reassessed in order to collect information on complaints, previous neurological deficits, surgery and its complications. Subjective and objective clinical evaluation (by three myelopathy scores) and imaging studies were undertaken in order to assess the long-term cervical sagittal curvature and presence of instability. Results: After applying exclusion criteria, 57 patients were able to complete the follow-up. A favorable statistically significant difference was obtained when comparing clinical scores. Ninety-one percent of patients were satisfied with the outcome of the surgery. Only 1 patient developed kyphosis according to Ishihara index and none according to the method of Matsumoto. Four patients developed subclinical cervical instability. No clinical-imaging correlation was found. Conclusions: If patients are properly selected cervical laminectomy without additional instrumentation is effective in offering a clinical improvement to patients with CSM with a low incidence of clinically significant radiological deterioration. PMID:26543671

  2. Fluorotic cervical compressive myelopathy, 20 years after laminectomy: A rare event

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Gupta, AK; Sood, Shashank; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord compression in flourosis is a common complication. These complications are mainly due to compression of the spinal cord by thickening and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum. Surgical decompression is the treatment of choice for fluorotic spinal cord compression. The recurrence of spinal cord compression after surgical decompression in flourosis is a rare event. Case Description: We are presenting a case of a 63-year-old man who belonged to Kanpur, an endemic fluorosis region in India, with symptoms of cervical cord compression cranial to the operative site, 20 years after laminectomy for cervical fluorotic myelopathy. Urinary and serum fluoride levels were elevated. The patient underwent a skeletal survey: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed a postoperative defect of laminectomy, osteosclerosis, osteophyte formation, calcification of the intraosseus membrane in the forearm, thickening and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament at C1, thickening and ossification of the residual ligamentum flavum at C1/C2, and dural calcification at the C2 vertebral level and compressive myelopathy. The patient refused surgical decompression and was managed with tizanidine HCl (an antispasticity medicine), a sublingual single night dose, 8 mg for symptomatic relief. Conclusion: The recurrence of spinal cord compression in the fluorotic spine 20 years after laminectomy is a very unusual event and hence the patient should be kept under observation for a long duration. This case report contributes to the literature associated with the management of fluorotic spine. PMID:21297933

  3. Alternative Procedures for the Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Arthroplasty, Oblique Corpectomy, Skip Laminectomy: Evaluation of Comparative Effectiveness and Safety.

    PubMed

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Arnold, Paul M; Fourney, Daryl R; Bransford, Richard J; Fischer, Dena J; Skelly, Andrea C

    2013-09-10

    Study Design. Systematic Review.Objective. To perform an evidence synthesis of the literature assessing the efficacy of arthroplasty, oblique corpectomy without fusion, and skip laminectomy to treat symptomatic cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).Summary of Background Data. Traditionally, patients with symptomatic cervical spinal cord compression due to degenerative disease have been treated with anterior or posterior approaches or both. Recent reports suggest that there are several non-traditional management strategies which merit attention. The anterior procedures include decompression and anterior reconstruction with an artificial disc, and oblique corpectomy without fusion. A posterior option is decompression, utilizing the skip laminectomy technique.Methods. We conducted a systematic search in Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration Library for literature published through October 15, 2012 on human studies published in the English language containing abstracts to answer the following key questions: (1) Is there evidence that artificial disc replacement (ADR) following neural decompression results in equal or improved outcomes compared to anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) for CSM? (2) Describe the outcomes of oblique corpectomy without fusion for CSM. (3) Is there evidence that skip laminectomy results in equal or improved outcomes compared to laminoplasty for CSM?Results. The initial literature search yielded 141 unique, potentially relevant citations, which were evaluated against the inclusion/exclusion criteria set a priori. A total of 10 studies were selected for inclusion. For question one, two studies suggested that neurologic outcomes favored ADR compared to ACDF, while functional and pain outcomes were inconsistently reported. For question two, five reported case series suggested favorable neurologic, functional and pain outcomes associated with oblique corpectomy in subjects with CSM, compared to the pretreatment condition. For question three, three studies comparing laminoplasty to skip laminectomy suggested similar neurologic outcomes between treatment groups, although functional and pain outcomes were inconsistently reported.Conclusion. A paucity of high-quality literature exists regarding treatment outcomes associated with arthroplasty, oblique corpectomy without fusion, and skip laminectomy for symptomatic CSM. Comparative prospective studies with long-term follow-up and standardized outcome measures are needed to appropriately assess treatment outcomes associated with these alternative techniques.Recommendation #1. No recommendation can be made from comparative literature regarding treatment outcomes comparing ADR to ACDF for CSM.Overall Strength of Evidence. InsufficientStrength of Recommendation. StrongRecommendation #2. No recommendation can be made from comparative literature regarding treatment outcomes comparing laminoplasty to skip laminectomy for CSM.Overall Strength of Evidence. LowStrength of Recommendation. StrongSummary Statement. Oblique corpectomy is an option in selected cases of CSM. It should not be considered a first line treatment strategy due to the relatively high morbidity associated with this procedure. PMID:24026161

  4. Laminoplasty versus laminectomy and fusion for multilevel cervical myelopathy: a meta-analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Jaebong; Kang, James D; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Posterior cervical surgery, expansive laminoplasty (EL) or laminectomy followed by fusion (LF), is usually performed in patients with multilevel (? 3) cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the superiority of either of these techniques is still open to debate. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and postoperative kyphosis in patients undergoing EL versus LF by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS Included in the meta-analysis were all studies of EL versus LF in adults with multilevel CSM in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane library. A random-effects model was applied to pool data using the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, such as the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) grade, the cervical curvature index (CCI), and the visual analog scale (VAS) score for neck pain. RESULTS Seven studies comprising 302 and 290 patients treated with EL and LF, respectively, were included in the final analyses. Both treatment groups showed slight cervical lordosis and moderate neck pain in the baseline state. Both groups were similarly improved in JOA grade (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.54, p = 0.07) and neck pain VAS score (MD -0.33, 95% CI -1.50 to 0.84, p = 0.58). Both groups evenly lost cervical lordosis. In the LF group lordosis seemed to be preserved in long-term follow-up studies, although the difference between the 2 treatment groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Both EL and LF lead to clinical improvement and loss of lordosis evenly. There is no evidence to support EL over LF in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Any superiority between EL and LF remains in question, although the LF group shows favorable long-term results. PMID:25815808

  5. Arachnoiditis from myelography and laminectomy in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J G; Barthelemy, C R; Haughton, V M; Lipman, B T; Ho, K C

    1984-01-01

    Clinical reports have suggested that myelography and laminectomy may produce more arachnoiditis than myelography alone. The effect of experimental lumbar myelography and laminectomy on arachnoiditis in monkeys was studied. Arachnoiditis was as severe after myelography alone as after myelography and laminectomy. Minimal arachnoiditis was found myelographically and histologically after myelography with metrizamide 300 mg l/ml, and severe arachnoiditis was found after myelography with iophendylate whether or not laminectomy was performed. Laminectomy alone produced insignificant arachnoid changes. Experimental myelography preceding laminectomy did not increase the risk of arachnoiditis. PMID:6421130

  6. Laminectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... done along with a diskectomy , foraminotomy , and spinal fusion . You will be asleep and feel no pain ( ... the spine. Your surgeon may do a spinal fusion to make sure your spinal column is stable ...

  7. Incarcerated herniation of the cervical spinal cord after laminectomy for an ossification of the yellow ligament.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2010-07-01

    A 74-year-old man showed a spastic gait and myelopathy in both the hands. Computed tomography revealed an OPLL on C3 and C4, bony spurs on the dorsal side of C4-C6, and an OYL on C3 and C4. We scheduled a two-stage decompression for both the OPLL and OYL. First, we performed laminectomy on the C3-C6 segments and resected the OYL. We did not observe any dural tear or CSF leakage in the dura. The patient's neurological symptoms improved. After the laminectomy, his myelopathy recurred. Postoperative MRI showed a spinal cord herniation. We had the C3/4 anterior cervical disectomy and fusion as we planned. In addition, we performed a surgery to repair the damaged dura mater at the site of spinal cord herniation at the same second surgery. The integrity of the arachnoid membrane was preserved. The patient's myelopathy gradually improved. There have been no reports on postoperative neurological deterioration caused by spinal cord herniation associated with a dural defect at the laminectomy site, without dural tear in the surgery after the resection of a posteriorly located cervical OYL. The possibility of a dural defect in OYL cases should be considered when planning a laminectomy for the resection of the OYL. PMID:19937353

  8. Clinical and surgical outcomes after lumbar laminectomy: An analysis of 500 patients

    PubMed Central

    Bydon, Mohamad; Macki, Mohamed; Abt, Nicholas B.; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to determine the clinical and surgical outcomes following lumbar laminectomy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of neurosurgical patients who underwent first-time, bilateral, 1-3 level laminectomies for degenerative lumbar disease. Patients with discectomy, complete facetectomy, and fusion were excluded. Results: Five hundred patients were followed for an average of 46.79 months. Following lumbar laminectomy, patients experienced statistically significant improvement in back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, weakness, and sensory deficits. The rate of intraoperative durotomy was 10.00%; however, 1.60% experienced a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak. The risk of experiencing at least one postoperative complication with a lumbar laminectomy was 5.60%. Seventy-two patients (14.40%) required reoperations for progression of degenerative disease over a mean of 3.40 years. The most common symptoms prior to reoperation included back pain (54.17%), radiculopathy (47.22%), weakness (18.06%), sensory deficit (15.28%), and neurogenic claudication (19.44%). The relative risk of reoperation for patients with postoperative back pain was 6.14 times higher than those without postoperative back pain (P < 0.001). Of the 72 patients undergoing reoperations, 55.56% underwent decompression alone, while 44.44% underwent decompression and posterolateral fusions. When considering all-time reoperations, the lifetime risk of requiring a fusion after a lumbar laminectomy based on this study (average follow-up of 46.79 months) was 8.0%. Conclusion: Patients experienced statistically significant improvements in back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, motor weakness, and sensory deficit following lumbar laminectomy. Incidental durotomy rate was 10.00%. Following a first-time laminectomy, the reoperation rate was 14.4% over a mean of 3.40 years. PMID:26005583

  9. Evaluation of tenoxicam on prevention of arachnoiditis in rat laminectomy model.

    PubMed

    Cemil, Berker; Kurt, Gokhan; Ayd?n, Cansel; Akyurek, Nalan; Erdogan, Bulent; Ceviker, Necdet

    2011-08-01

    Post laminectomy arachnoiditis has been shown by experiments with rats and post operative radiological imaging in humans. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the efficacy of tenoxicam in preventing arachnoiditis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and L3 laminectomy was performed. In the tenoxicam group, 0.5 mg/kg tenoxicam was applied intraperitoneally. Normal saline was applied intraperitoneally in the control group. Later, the rats were killed at weeks 3 and 6, and the laminectomy sites were evaluated pathologically for arachnoiditis. The results showed that 6 weeks after surgery, the tenoxicam group showed lowest arachnoiditis grades. However, statistically significant difference was not found in arachnoiditis between the control group and the tenoxicam group. Based on these findings it is concluded that application of the tenoxicam after lumbar laminectomy did not effectively reduce arachnoiditis. Performing the most effective surgical technique without damage around tissue in a small surgical wound and having meticulous hemostasis in surgery seem to be the key for preventing arachnoiditis effectively. PMID:21327813

  10. Incidence of Pinhole Type Durotomy and Subsequent Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Following Simple Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bawany, Faizan Imran; Emaduddin, Muhammad; Hussain, Mehwish; Yousuful Islam, Mohammad; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors of pinhole type of durotomy and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage following a simple laminectomy for spinal stenosis. Overview of Literature The incidence of spinal stenosis is expected to rise with increasing life expectancy. Moreover, lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common indication for spinal injury in the geriatric population. It is therefore important to identify and prevent the risks associated with laminectomy, the most widely used surgical procedure for spinal stenosis. The serious complication of incidental dural tear or durotomy and subsequent CSF leakage has not been studied in the region of Southeast Asia. Methods In this cross sectional study, we included 138 adult patients (age>18 years), who underwent a simple laminectomy for lumbar stenosis between 2011 and 2012. CSF leakage was the main outcome variable. Patients' wounds were examined for CSF leakage up to 1 week postoperatively. Results The incidence of pinhole type durotomy and subsequent CSF leakage in our region was 8.7%. Univariate analysis showed that hypertension, diabetes and smoking were significantly associated with durotomy and increased CSF leakage by 16.72, 44.25, and 33.71 times, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that only smoking and diabetes significantly increased the chances of leakage. Conclusions Glycemic control and cessation of smoking prior to a simple laminectomy procedure reduced the incidence of a dural tear. Larger clinical studies on this lethal complication are required. PMID:26240710

  11. Tisseel does not reduce postoperative drainage, length of stay, and transfusion requirements for lumbar laminectomy with noninstrumented fusion versus laminectomy alone

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typically, fibrin sealants (FSs) and fibrin glues (FGs) are used to strengthen dural repairs during spinal surgery. In 2014, Epstein demonstrated that one FS/FG, Tisseel (Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA) equalized the average times to drain removal and length of stay (LOS) for patients with versus without excess bleeding (e.g. who did not receive Tisseel) undergoing multilevel laminectomies with 1-2 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF).[6] Methods: Here Tisseel was utilized to promote hemostasis for two populations; 39 patients undergoing average 4.4 level lumbar laminectomies with average 1.3 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF), and 48 patients undergoing average 4.0 level laminectomies alone (Lam). We compared the average operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for the LamF versus Lam groups. Results: The average operative times, EBL, postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements were all greater for LamF versus Lam patients; operative times (4.1 vs. 3.0 h), average EBL (192.3 vs. 147.9 cc), drainage (e.g. day 1; 199.6 vs. 167.4 cc; day 2; 172.9 vs. 63.9 cc), average LOS (4.6 vs. 2.5 days), and transfusion requirements (11 LamF patients; 18 Units [U] RBC versus 2 Lam patients; 3 U RBC). Conclusions: Utilizing Tisseel to facilitate hemostasis in LamF versus Lam still resulted in greater operative times, EBL, postoperative average drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for patients undergoing the noninstrumented fusions. Although Tisseel decreases back bleeding within the spinal canal, it does not reduce blood loss from LamF decorticated transverse processes. PMID:26005579

  12. Predicting Discharge Placement and Health Care Needs After Lumbar Spine Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Saddam F; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Waitman, Russell L; Burton, Douglas C; Arnold, Paul M; Sharma, Neena K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore factors associated with discharge placement (DP) and need for skilled assistance after patients are discharged to home following lumbar Laminectomy Methods A retrospective analysis of 339 patients who underwent lumbar laminectomy was conducted. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify significant covariates and to construct two regression models: a primary model to predict DP, home versus inpatient rehabilitation/skilled nursing facility (IR/SNF), and a secondary model to predict the need for skilled assistance once patients are discharged to home. Results Sample included 48.7% females, 68.2% married, 56.3% independent in daily activities, and 85.2% discharged to home. Subjects were 56.06±12.75 years old and had 31.35±6.2 BMI. Of those discharged to home, 17.7% needed skilled assistance. Patients stayed 4.41±3.55 days in the hospital and walked 203.38±144.87 feet during hospital stay. Age, distance walked during hospital stay, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were significant positive predictors for discharge to home versus IR/SNF, whereas single living status, diminished prior level of function, and longer LOS were predictors of need for skilled assistance after discharge to home. Conclusion Age, mobility, marital status, prior level of function and LOS are key variables in determining healthcare needs following lumbar Laminectomy. PMID:24925036

  13. Comparison of standard laminectomy with an optimized ejection method for the removal of spinal cords from rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Heather S; Jones, Charles; Caplazi, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    For researchers seeking to collect spinal cord samples from mice and rats while avoiding acid decalcification, few options are available. Laminectomy is the standard method which yields high quality samples, yet is time consuming and technically difficult. Ejection of the cord from the vertebral column is another technique commonly used; however, the literature suggests that this method can damage the spinal tissues and is typically avoided when histology of samples is the desired endpoint. Here, we describe an optimized method for ejection of spinal cords from rats and mice, and compare histological quality of these samples with those collected via laminectomy. Our results show that ejection can yield high quality spinal cord samples and may be suitable for use as an alternative to laminectomy. PMID:24039319

  14. Incidence and management of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas in 336 multilevel laminectomies with noninstrumented fusions

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence (e.g., 3–27%) and the types of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas occurring during multilevel lumbar laminectomy with noninstrumented spinal fusions varies. Methods: From 2000 to 2015, we retrospectively evaluated the incidence/etiologies of CSF fistulas occurring for 336 patients undergoing average 4.7 laminectomies with average 1.4 level noninstrumented fusions over a 15 year period. The varied etiologies of CSF leaks included; ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) extending through the dura, postoperative surgical scar, iatrogenic traumatic leak, epidural steroid injections (ESI), resection of synovial cysts, and the removal of intradural tumors. Techniques for primary repairs included combinations of; 7-0 Gore-Tex (Newark, Delaware, USA) sutures, micro-dural staples, muscle patch/other (e.g., bovine pericardial) grafts, fibrin sealants/glues (e.g., Tisseel; Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA), and Duragen (Integra LifeSciences, Hawthorne, NY, USA) including both the thin and suturable types. Results: The etiologies of CSF fistulas in descending order included: Epidural spinal injections (ESI) (7 patients), synovial cysts (6 patients), OYL (5 patients), and equally for postoperative scar and intradural tumors (3 patients). CSF fistulas occurred in 24 (7.14%) of 336 patients; this frequency was reduced to 4.2% when ESI and intradural tumors were excluded. Conclusion: CSF fistulas occurred in 7.14% of 336 patients undergoing average 4.7 multilevel laminectomies with average 1.4 level noninstrumented fusions attributed to a lumbar stenosis with mild/moderate instability. The dural repair addressed seven prior ESI, six synovial cysts, five OYL, and operative scarring and intradural tumors (three apiece). Knowing the pathologies contributing to CSF fistulas should help the surgeon to better anticipate and treat these fistulas. PMID:26605107

  15. Clinical outcomes and safety assessment in elderly patients undergoing decompressive laminectomy for lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To assess safety, risk factors and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with spinal stenosis after decompressive laminectomy. Methods A prospective cohort of patients 70 years and older with spinal stenosis undergoing conventional laminectomy without fusion (n = 101) were consecutively enrolled from regular clinical practice and reassessed at 3 and 12 months. Primary outcome was change in health related quality of life measured (HRQL) with EuroQol-5 D (EQ-5D). Secondary outcomes were safety assessment, changes in Oswestry disability index (ODI), Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS) score for self reported health, VAS score for leg and back pain and patient satisfaction. We used regression analyses to evaluate risk factors for less improvement. Results The mean EQ-5 D total score were 0.32, 0.63 and 0.60 at baseline, 3 months and 12 months respectively, and represents a statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvement. Effect size was > 0.8. Mean ODI score at baseline was 44.2, at 3 months 25.6 and at 27.9. This represents an improvement for all post-operative scores. A total of 18 (18.0%) complications were registered with 6 (6.0%) classified as major, including one perioperative death. Patients stating that the surgery had been beneficial at 3 months was 82 (89.1%) and at 12 months 73 (86.9%). The only predictor found was patients with longer duration of leg pain had less improvement in ODI (P < 0.001). Increased age or having complications did not predict a worse outcome in any of the outcome variables. Conclusions Properly selected patients of 70 years and older can expect a clinical meaningful improvement of HRQL, functional status and pain after open laminectomy without fusion. The treatment seems to be safe. However, patients with longstanding leg-pain prior to operation are less likely to improve one year after surgery. PMID:21092227

  16. Efficacy of closed wound suction drainage after single-level lumbar laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Payne, D H; Fischgrund, J S; Herkowitz, H N; Barry, R L; Kurz, L T; Montgomery, D M

    1996-10-01

    The use of closed suction drainage after spinal surgery remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the indications for closed suction drainage after single-level lumbar surgery. Two hundred patients who were scheduled to undergo single-level lumbar surgery without fusion were prospectively randomized into two groups. One group had a closed wound suction drain placed deep to the lumbodorsal fascia before routine closure, whereas the second group had no drain placed. Hemostasis was achieved in all patients before the surgeon had knowledge of the randomization outcome. All drains were removed on the 2nd postoperative day, and the amount of drainage was recorded. After surgery, the patients were evaluated for signs and symptoms of continued wound drainage, hematoma/seroma formation, and/or infection as well as evidence of an acquired neurologic deficit. One hundred three patients had a drain placed before closure and two patients developed postoperative wound infection, both of which were successfully treated with orally administered antibiotics. Of the 97 patients who had no drain placed after the surgical procedure, one patient developed a postoperative wound infection that was treated with surgical incision and drainage, as well as intravenously administered antibiotics. Statistical analysis revealed that the presence or absence of a drain did not affect the postoperative infection rate. No new neurologic deficits occurred in any postoperative patient. The use of drains in single-level lumbar laminectomy without fusion did not affect patient outcome. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection or wound healing and no patient developed a postoperative neurologic deficit. PMID:8938608

  17. Prognostic Factors of Surgical Outcome after Spinous Process-Splitting Laminectomy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Toshiya; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective case review. Purpose To assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes and identify the predictive factors associated with poor clinical outcomes after lumbar spinous process-splitting laminectomy (LSPSL) for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Overview of Literature LSPSL is an effective surgical treatment for LSS. Special care should be taken in patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS). Methods A consecutive retrospective case review of patients undergoing LSPSL for LSS with a minimum 2-year follow-up was performed. Mild DLS and mild degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) were included in the study. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and recovery rate were reviewed. Poor clinical outcome was defined as a recovery rate <50% using Hirabayashi's method. Results A total of 52 patients (mean age, 72 years) met the inclusion criteria and had a mean follow-up of 2.6 years (range, 2-4.5 years). The preoperative diagnosis was LSS in 19, DS in 19, and DLS in 14 cases. The mean JOA score significantly increased from 14.6 to 23.2 at the final follow-up. The overall mean recovery rate was 60.1%. Thirteen patients (25%) were assigned to the poor outcome group. A higher rate of pre-existing DLS was observed in the poor outcome (poor) group (good, 15%; poor, 62%; p=0.003) than in the good outcome (good) group. None of the patient factors examined were associated with a poor outcome. A progression of slippage ?5 mm was found in 8 of 24 patients (33%) in the DS group. A progression of curvature ?5° was found in 5 of 14 patients (36%) in the DLS group. The progression of scoliosis and slippage did not influence the clinical outcome. Conclusions The clinical and radiographic outcomes of LSPSL for LSS were favorable. Pre-existing DLS was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome. PMID:26435788

  18. Radicular Pain due to Subsidence of the Nitinol Shape Memory Loop for Stabilization after Lumbar Decompressive Laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Deog-Ryeong

    2015-01-01

    A number of dynamic stabilization systems have been used to overcome the problems associated with spinal fusion with rigid fixation recently and the demand for an ideal dynamic stabilization system is greater for younger patients with multisegment disc degeneration. Nitinol, a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium, is flexible at low temperatures and regains its original shape when heated, and the Nitinol shape memory loop (SML) implant has been used as a posterior tension band mostly in decompressive laminectomy cases because the Nitinol implant has various characteristics such as high elasticity and a tensile force, flexibility, and biological compatibility. The reported short-term outcomes of the application of SMLs as posterior column supporters in cervical and lumbar decompressive laminectomies seem to be positive, and complications are minimal except for the rare occurrence of pullout and fracture of the SML. However, there was no report of neurological complications related to neural compression in spite of the use of the loop of SML in the epidural space. The authors report a case of delayed development of radiating pain caused by subsidence of the SML resulting epidural compression. PMID:25674347

  19. Spinous Process splitting Laminectomy: Clinical outcome and Radiological analysis of extent of decompression

    PubMed Central

    Srikantha, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spinous process splitting laminectomy (SPSL) is a useful technique in achieving adequate decompression for lumbar canal stenosis, has the advantage of simultaneously decompressing multiple levels and minimising injury to the paraspinal muscles. Some concern has been expressed over the efficacy of this technique in decompressing lateral recesses. This study was undertaken to assess the clinical outcome of SPSL technique and radiologically assess the extent of decompression. Patients and Methods Thirty-nine consecutive patients treated by SPSL for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis were methodically assessed for demographic data, clinical findings, Pre- and post-op VAS, JOA scores and spinal canal dimensions on imaging. Surgical technique for SPSL is described. Results The mean age of the patients was 66.9 yrs. The mean follow-up was 7.3 months. The mean pre- and post-operative VAS scores were 7.8 and 3.7, respectively. The mean pre- and post-operative JOA scores were 6.3 and 11.2, respectively. The mean JOA recovery rate was 57.3%. 77% of the patients were in the ‘good’ or ‘excellent’ McNab's grades at follow-up. Radiologic results were assessed separately at the 118 levels decompressed by the SPSL technique. The ratio increase for the spinal canal dimensions on post-operative images were as follows – Interfacet distance–116.6%; Effective AP distance–67.6%; Right lateral recess depth–165.1%; Right lateral recess angle–145.5%; Left lateral recess depth–149.3%; Left lateral recess angle–133.6%; Cross-sectional spinal canal area–163.8%. There was no worsening of pre-existing degenerative listhesis or scoliosis in any case. Conclusion SPSL achieves effective central and lateral recess decompression, at the same time minimising injury to the paraspinal muscles thus reducing post-operative pain and aiding in quicker mobilisation and recovery. It is an effective tool to treat multiple level spinal stenosis, especially in elderly patients who have pre-existing spinal deformities which can precipitate into frank instability after conventional procedures. PMID:26114089

  20. Risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration in dogs undergoing a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy: 100 cases (2002-2014).

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, F E; Cardy, T J A; Liebel, F X; Garosi, L; Kenny, P J; Volk, H A; De Decker, S

    2015-12-01

    Early post-operative neurological deterioration is a well-known complication following dorsal cervical laminectomies and hemilaminectomies in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate potential risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration following these surgical procedures. Medical records of 100 dogs that had undergone a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy between 2002 and 2014 were assessed retrospectively. Assessed variables included signalment, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs, neurological status before surgery, diagnosis, surgical site, type and extent of surgery and duration of procedure. Outcome measures were neurological status immediately following surgery and duration of hospitalisation. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify variables to be included in a multivariate model. Diagnoses included osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (OACSM; n?=?41), acute intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE; 31), meningioma (11), spinal arachnoid diverticulum (10) and vertebral arch anomalies (7). Overall 54% (95% CI 45.25-64.75) of dogs were neurologically worse 48?h post-operatively. Multivariate statistical analysis identified four factors significantly related to early post-operative neurological outcome. Diagnoses of OACSM or meningioma were considered the strongest variables to predict early post-operative neurological deterioration, followed by higher (more severely affected) neurological grade before surgery and longer surgery time. This information can aid in the management of expectations of clinical staff and owners with dogs undergoing these surgical procedures. PMID:26542365

  1. Toothpaste artifact of the spinal cord observed in a victim of traffic accident who died of pulmonary thrombotic embolism after laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Furumiya, Junichi

    2009-04-01

    Toothpaste artifact of the spinal cord is generally known as artificial and morphological change in the field of neuropathology. It is considered that while the spinal cord is pressed on local parts with some solid bodies, the inner spinal tissue pressed penetrates into the weak vicinity of pressed parts and consequently pencil-shaped morphological change, toothpaste artifact, occurs. We report an autopsy case with toothpaste artifact of the spinal cord. A 77-year-old man, who was a front-seat passenger and was injured to the vertebra in a traffic accident, complained suddenly of dyspnea and precordial oppression during a rest on bed in a hospital 18 days after laminectomy, and he died of pulmonary embolism originated in thrombi in the deep veins of lower extremities. The toothpaste artificial change of spinal cord was microscopically observed at the near site of laminectomy. Slight bleeding was observed in a margin of the slipped area, but there was no reactive change. In present case, external compression of spinal cord which occurred accidentally during the period after the operation or at cardiopulmonary resuscitation seems to have caused the toothpaste artifact. PMID:19299187

  2. Trends in inpatient setting laminectomy for excision of herniated intervertebral disc: Population-based estimates from the US nationwide inpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Brian P.; Hanak, Brian W.; Caracci, James R.; Redjal, Navid; Nahed, Brian V.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Coumans, Jean-Valery C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Herniated intervertebral discs can result in pain and neurological compromise. Treatment for this condition is categorized as surgical or non-surgical. We sought to identify trends in inpatient surgical management of herniated intervertebral discs using a national database. Methods: Patient discharges identified with a principal procedure relating to laminectomy for excision of herniated intervertebral disc were selected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD), under the auspices of a data user agreement. These surgical patients did not undergo instrumented fusion. To account for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample weighting schema, design-adjusted analyses were used. The estimates of standard errors were calculated using SUDAAN software (Research Triangle International, NC, USA). This software is based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM); a uniform and standardized coding system. Results: Using International Classification of Disease 9th Revision clinical modifier (ICD-9 CM) procedure code 80.51, we were able to identify disc excision, in part or whole, by laminotomy or hemilaminectomy. The incidence of laminectomy for the excision of herniated intervertebral disc has decreased dramatically from 1993 where 266,152 cases were reported [CI = 22,342]. In 2007, only 123,398 cases were identified [CI = 12,438]. The average length of stay in 1993 was 4 days [CI = 0.17], and in 2007 it decreased to just 2 days [CI = 0.17]. Both these comparisons were significantly different at P < 0.001. The average inflation adjusted (2007 buying power) charge of the procedure in 1993 was 14,790.87 USD [CI = 916.85]. This value rose in 2007 to 24,639 USD [CI = 1,485.51]. This difference was significant at P < 0.001. Conclusions: National estimates indicate that the incidence of inpatient laminectomy for the excision of herniated intervertebral disc has decreased significantly. This trend is multifactorial and is likely related to developments in outcomes research, the growing popularity of alternative procedures (intervertebral instrumented fusion), and transition to an ambulatory setting of surgical care. PMID:21297929

  3. Ossified Ligamentum Flavum causing Cervical Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Song, Jye Young; Park, Jin Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo

    2012-03-01

    Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) causing compressive cervical myelopathy or radiculopathy is rare. A 50-year-old male was admitted for progressive hypesthesia and paresthesia of both hands and a gradually worsening gait. MRI and CT scans demonstrated ossification of the left ligamentum flavum with dural sac and cord compression at the C5-6 level. The ossified ligamentum flavum was removed through a subtotal laminectomy and left side foraminotomy of the C5-6. Postoperatively, his gait improved remarkably and the sensory symptoms gradually resolved. PMID:25983784

  4. Pregabalin versus tramadol for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Koramutla Pradeep; Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar; Gurajala, Indira; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and treatment of postoperative pain continues to be a major challenge in postoperative care. Opioid analgesics, with their well-known side effects, continue to represent a cornerstone in postoperative pain control. Anticonvulsant medications are established treatments for neuropathic pain. Pregabalin (S-[+]-3-isobutylgaba), a structural analog of gamma-Aminobutyric acid, has been used for the treatment of various neuropathic pain and also as an adjunctive therapy for adults with partial onset seizures. This study was thus taken up to primarily assess and compare the analgesic and anxiolytic effects of administering pregabalin and tramadol preoperatively for patients undergoing elective decompressive lumbar laminectomy. The study group included 75 patients between the ages of 20–60 years belonging to American Society of Anesthesiology-1 (ASA) and ASA-2 patients. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups of 25 patients each. The placebo group received a placebo capsule, the tramadol group received a 100 mg capsule, while the pregabalin group received a 150 mg capsule orally 1 hour before anesthetic induction. Pregabalin showed statistically significant analgesic effects compared to placebo, but the effect was found to be less prevalent compared to tramadol. The need for rescue analgesia was the least prevalent in tramadol patients followed by pregabalin patients, and reached a maximum in the control group. Pregabalin showed statistically significant anxiolytic effects compared to placebo, and this was associated with less sedation in comparison to tramadol. Pregabalin had fewer numbers of postoperative complications of nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness in comparison to tramadol. The results of this study support the clinical use of pregabalin in the postsurgical setting for pain relief, as it is well tolerated, and usually presents with transient adverse effects. PMID:23837006

  5. Surgery for thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Gen-Lin; Gu, Yong; Pan, Wen-Ming; Dong, Ren-Bin; Qiu, Zhi-Jie; Wu, Ji-Bin; Mei, Xin

    2009-10-01

    Between January 1996 and December 2003, our department treated 16 patients (10 men and 6 women; average age 57.5 years) by performing a laminectomy for thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF). We followed up all patients for 36 to 86 months (mean follow-up time, 57.3 months). The mean (+/-standard deviation) Japanese Orthopaedic Association score increased from 5.0+/-1.4 points before the operation to 7.7+/-1.9 points at the last follow-up (p<0.01). The average values for pre-operative and post-operative kyphosis of the involved vertebrae were 5.8 degrees +/-4.1 degrees and 8.8 degrees +/-6.0 degrees , respectively; the mean increase in kyphosis was only 3.0 degrees +/-2.4 degrees . An intraoperative dural tear was the main complication and none of the patients developed severe neurological complications. We conclude that laminectomy was both effective and safe in the treatment of thoracic OLF, but it must be performed with great care because of frequent dural adhesions to the OLF. The increase in kyphosis after the laminectomy was minimal when most of the facet joints were left intact and when the patient followed a back extensor exercise program post-operatively. PMID:19564112

  6. [Laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy].

    PubMed

    Fransen, P

    2014-10-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common condition. Uninstrumented laminectomy may be complicated by postoperative instability, whereas anterior or posterior decompression with fusion may be associated with stiffness and adjacent segment disease. Cervical laminoplasty, initially oriented towards pediatric patients and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, becomes an interesting surgical alternative to decompress and reconstruct cervical anatomy without fusion. Eighteen patients (12 men, 6 women), mean age 64.2 who presented with CSM were treated surgically using multilevel laminoplasty, and reviewed after 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Clinical evaluation was performed based on the Benzel-JOA and Nurick scores. The preoperative mean Benzel-JOA score was 13.55; Preoperative mean Nurick score was 1.88. Preoperative MRI was carried-out in 16/18 patients. Intramedullary hyperintensity in T2 was observed in 6 patients. The operation was performed on 2 levels (4 patients) 3 levels (11 patients) and 4 levels (3 patients). We used the open-door hinged laminoplasty technique, using metallic implants, without bone graft. At one month FU, mean JOA score was 15.44, and Nurick dropped to 1.05. At 6 months, mean JOA was 16.28 and Nurick was 0.71. At one year, the mean JOA score was 16.16, and Nurick was 0.83. At 2 years, mean JOA was 17.5, and Nurick was 0.25. One infection, one dural tear and one transient episode of C5 paresthesia were observed. We conclude that spinal cord decompression by open-door laminoplasty for CSM allows significant clinical improvement observed progressively in the two years following surgery. PMID:25239380

  7. Lumbar Laminectomy and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... have. Most things in spinal surgery, other than spinal cord compression in the neck or in the thoracic ... do here. If we were in the cervical spinal cord, we cannot touch it because we can paralyze ...

  8. Thoracic spinal stenosis and myelopathy: report of two rare cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Amato, V; Giannachi, L; Irace, C; Corona, C

    2012-12-01

    The authors report two cases of thoracic spinal canal stenosis (SCS) and myelopathy. One is extremely unusual because of degenerative changes occurred in the upper thoracic spine. The other because of its multiple etiology among which calcification and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) in a Caucasian man. Both patients presented with an history of slowly progressive spastic paraparesis. In the first case computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed hypertrophy of the legamentum flavum and laminae causing compression of the spinal cord at T2-T3. In the second case diagnostic imaging showed three levels of stenosis in the lower thoracic spine due to degenerative changes, calcification and OLF with cord damage at T9-T10. A decompressive laminectomy and medial facetectomy was performed in both patients. The ligamentum flavum, hypertrophied and infolded in the first case and calcified and ossified in the second, was removed with careful dissection of the dural adhesions. Both patients showed a rapid post-operative recovery and regained autonomous walking within 1 month of surgery. Thoracic spinal cord stenosis is a rare and complex disorder because of differential diagnosis, neuroimaging features and treatment options. Regardless of its cause, prompt surgical decompression plays a key role in improving the functional outcome of myelopathy. PMID:23111299

  9. Two Cases of Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Cervical Myelopathy Successfully Treated by Simple Decompression without Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Bum; Lee, Young Seok; Nam, Taek Kyun; Park, Yong Sook; Kim, Young Baeg

    2015-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a congenital developmental disorder of cervical spine, showing short neck with restricted neck motion, low hairline, and high thoracic cage due to multilevel cervical fusion. Radiculopathy or myelopathy can be accompanied. There were 2 patients who were diagnosed as KFS with exhibited radiological and physical characteristics. Both patients had stenosis and cord compression at C1 level due to anterior displacement of C1 posterior arch secondary to kyphotic deformity of upper cervical spine, which has been usually indicative to craniocervical fixation. One patient was referred due to quadriparesis detected after surgery for aortic arch aneurysmal dilatation. The other patient was referred to us due to paraparesis and radiating pain in all extremities developed during gynecological examinations. Decompressive C1 laminectomy was done for one patient and additional suboccipital craniectomy for the other. No craniocervical fixation was done because there was no spinal instability. Motor power improved immediately after the operation in both patients. Motor functions and spinal stability were well preserved in both patients for 2 years. In KFS patients with myelopathy at the C1 level without C1-2 instability, a favorable outcome could be achieved by a simple decompression without spinal fixation. PMID:26512291

  10. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM)

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Overview What is cervical spondylotic myelopathy? Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a compression of the spinal cord in the neck. (When ...

  11. Perioperative Risks Associated with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Based on Surgical Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Macagno, Angel; Liu, Shian; Marascalchi, Bryan J; Yang, Sun; Boniello, Anthony J; Bendo, John A; Lafage, Virginie C

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have provided nationwide estimates of patient characteristics and procedure-related complications, or examined postsurgical outcomes for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) comparatively with respect to surgical approach. The objective of this study is to identify patients at risk for morbidity and mortality directly related with the selected approach, report an overall nation-wide complication rate for each approach against which surgeons can compare themselves, and direct future research to improve patient outcomes. Methods Patients surgically treated for CSM were retrospectively identified using ICD-9-CM codes from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Four cohorts were compared for demographics and hospital system-related data: anterior (ACDF, ACCF), posterior decompression without fusion, decompression with posterior fusion, and combined anterior-posterior. Multivariate analysis was also used to determine the odds ratio of morbidity and mortality among the cohorts. Results 54,416 discharges were identified between 2001 and 2010: 34,400 anterior, 9,014 decompression procedures without fusion, 8,741 decompression procedures with posterior fusion, and 2,261 combined anterior-posterior. Groups were statistically different with respect to age, length of hospital stay, mortality, and complications. Groups were statistically different for Deyo score except between posterior decompression only and combined approaches. Using multivariate analysis and adjusting for covariates, the combined (2.74[2.18-3.44]) and laminectomy (1.22[1.04-1.44]) cohorts had an increased risk of mortality when compared to anterior alone. Conclusion These findings are the first to determine the rates and odds of perioperative risks directly related to combined anterior-posterior procedures. This study provides clinically useful data for surgeons to educate patients and direct future research to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26196031

  12. Thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of ligamentum flavum: a retrospective analysis of predictors of surgical outcome and factors affecting preoperative neurological status.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Amish V; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Mascarenhas, Amrithlal A; Mittal, Vivek K; Sangondimath, Gururaj M

    2011-02-01

    Despite good posterior decompression of thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF), recovery varies widely from 25 to 100%. Neurological status on presentation also varies widely in different patients. We, therefore retrospectively studied relation of various clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters with preoperative neurological status and postoperative recovery in 25 patients who underwent decompressive laminectomy for thoracic myelopathy due to OLF. Patients were assessed using leg-trunk-bladder scores of JOA scale and recovery rate (RR) was calculated as RR = postoperative score - preoperative score/11 - preoperative score × 100. With Pearson's correlation, postoperative recovery rate (RR) significantly correlated with preoperative duration of symptoms, JOA score, sensory JOA score, canal grade, dural canal-body ratio (DCBR), intramedullary signal size (ISS), and intramedullary signal type (IST) on MRI. On MRI, two types of signal changes were identified: normal in T1/hyperintense in T2 representing cord edema and hypointense in T1/hyperintense in T2 representing cystic changes indicating lesser and higher grades, respectively. Presence or absence of signal changes did not correlate with postoperative recovery; but whenever present, ISS greater than 15 mm significantly compromised recovery. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) identified preoperative duration of symptoms and preoperative ISS as significant predictors of postoperative outcome. Based on MRA, we formulated a multiple regression equation to predict RR as Predicted RR = 83.4 + (0.1 × age in years) - (0.7 × preoperative duration of symptoms in months) + (1.5 × preoperative JOA score) + (0.2 × preoperative canal grade in percentage) - (2.5 × ISS in mm) - (1.5 × IST in grade). Though age, preoperative anal sensations, spasticity, canal grade, DCBR, ISS, and IST significantly correlated with preoperative neurological status, MRA identified ISS as most important factor determining preoperative neurological status. Preoperative duration of symptoms and developmentally narrow canal had no influence on preoperative neurological status. Patients with developmentally narrow canal showed significant correlation with younger age at onset of myelopathy. To conclude, only independent factor determining preoperative neurological status is ISS. Predictors of postoperative recovery are preoperative duration of symptoms and ISS. Postoperative recovery can be predicted by formulated equation. PMID:20473624

  13. Acute transverse myelopathy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Bucknall, R C

    1989-01-01

    A sixteen year old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus developed acute transverse myelopathy. She was treated with high dose steroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange and regained partial neurological function. Previous descriptions of transverse myelopathy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus are reviewed, with particular reference to the efficacy of high dose steroid treatment. PMID:2662918

  14. Rare Thoracolumbar Facet Synovial Cyst Presenting as Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Dahuja, Gitanshu; Kaur, Rashmeet

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord compressing syndrome due to synovial cyst (SC) of the thoracolumbar spine is a rare clinical condition. In this report we aim to heighten awareness of the thoracolumbar facet synovial cyst as a possible cause of thoracic myelopathy. The SC was removed thoroughly by laminectomy. The patient had an excellent recovery. The etiological and therapeutic aspects are discussed. PMID:26512282

  15. Cost-effectiveness of three treatment strategies for lumbar spinal stenosis: Conservative care, laminectomy, and the Superion interspinous spacer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Louise H.; Nelson, Teresa; Patel, Vikas V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is a painful and debilitating condition resulting in healthcare costs totaling tens of billions of dollars annually. Initial treatment consists of conservative care modalities such as physical therapy, NSAIDs, opioids, and steroid injections. Patients refractory to these therapies can undergo decompressive surgery, which has good long-term efficacy but is more traumatic and can be associated with high post-operative adverse event (AE) rates. Interspinous spacers have been developed to offer a less-invasive alternative. The objective of this study was to compare the costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained of conservative care (CC) and decompressive surgery (DS) to a new minimally-invasive interspinous spacer. Methods A Markov model was developed evaluating 3 strategies of care for lumbar spinal stenosis. If initial therapies failed, the model moved patients to more invasive therapies. Data from the Superion FDA clinical trial, a prospective spinal registry, and the literature were used to populate the model. Direct medical care costs were modeled from 2014 Medicare reimbursements for healthcare services. QALYs came from the SF-12 PCS and MCS components. The analysis used a 2-year time horizon with a 3% discount rate. Results CC had the lowest cost at $10,540, while Spacers and DS were nearly identical at about $13,950. CC also had the lowest QALY increase (0.06), while Spacers and DS were again nearly identical (.28). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) for Spacers compared to CC was $16,300 and for DS was $15,200. Conclusions Both the Spacer and DS strategies are far below the commonly cited $50,000/QALY threshold and produced several times the QALY increase versus CC, suggesting that surgical care provides superior value (cost / effectiveness) versus sustained conservative care in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:26273546

  16. Diagnosis and medical and surgical management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    SaterenZoller, Elizabeth; Cannella, Dominic; Chyatte, Douglas; Fogelson, Jeremy; Sharma, Manish

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a complex condition with subtle history and examination findings that mimic other conditions. Primary care physician assistants often are the first providers to evaluate these patients. This article describes cervical spondylotic myelopathy, its diagnosis and management, and recent data that offer strong evidence that patients who undergo surgical decompression show significant improvement over patients who are treated conservatively. PMID:26352869

  17. Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Injections into the Neck.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Jeffrey W; Malik, Rabia; Layzer, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    Three cases of longitudinally extensive cervical myelopathies temporally associated with neck injections are presented. The spinal cord injury was similar radiographically, despite a number of different needle approaches and substances injected. In recent years, there have been reports of an acute cervical myelopathy immediately following an injection procedure in the neck. Various explanations have been offered for this unfortunate complication, including (1) direct injection into the cord leading to traumatic injury, (2) injection of particulate matter into the arterial supply of the cord causing microvascular embolism and spinal cord infarction, and (3) intraneural injection of the chemical with centripetal spread of the injectant from the nerve trunk to the substance of the cord. The merits of each of these 3 mechanisms in explaining these cases are discussed. Albeit rare, acute cervical myelopathy should be considered a potential complication from any deep injection of chemicals into the neck. PMID:26425248

  18. Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Injections into the Neck

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Jeffrey W.; Layzer, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Three cases of longitudinally extensive cervical myelopathies temporally associated with neck injections are presented. The spinal cord injury was similar radiographically, despite a number of different needle approaches and substances injected. In recent years, there have been reports of an acute cervical myelopathy immediately following an injection procedure in the neck. Various explanations have been offered for this unfortunate complication, including (1) direct injection into the cord leading to traumatic injury, (2) injection of particulate matter into the arterial supply of the cord causing microvascular embolism and spinal cord infarction, and (3) intraneural injection of the chemical with centripetal spread of the injectant from the nerve trunk to the substance of the cord. The merits of each of these 3 mechanisms in explaining these cases are discussed. Albeit rare, acute cervical myelopathy should be considered a potential complication from any deep injection of chemicals into the neck. PMID:26425248

  19. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Clinical syndrome and natural history.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D M; Brower, R S

    1992-07-01

    A wide-based spastic gait is the classical presentation of the patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A complete neurologic evaluation is needed to determine the degree of involvement and to classify the clinical syndrome. The natural history seems to be one of static neurologic deficit or episodic progression. PMID:1620540

  20. Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Deepak Arora, Ankur; Deka, Pranjal; Mukund, Amar Bhatnagar, Shorav; Jindal, Deepti Kumar, Niteen Pamecha, Viniyendra

    2013-08-01

    A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft.

  1. Arachnoiditis Ossificans – A Rare Cause of Progressive Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Christopher J; Abrames, Erik L; O’Brien, William T

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare cause of chronic, progressive myelopathy. In contrast to the more common benign causes of meningeal calcification, arachnoiditis ossificans results in replacement of portions of the spinal arachnoid by bone as an end-stage complication of adhesive arachnoiditis. It is usually the sequela of prior trauma or interventional procedures. Prognosis and treatment options depend upon the location and degree of spinal stenosis with thoracic involvement being more common and more severe than lumbar spine involvement. The imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging may be confusing; however, the findings of intraspinal ossification on computed tomography are characteristics and diagnostic. We present a classic case of arachnoiditis ossificans in an elderly man who presented with progressive myelopathy and a recent fall, along with a review of the literature. The imaging in this case not only identified the characteristic findings of arachnoiditis ossificans but also identified secondary findings of the underlying causative etiology. PMID:26401174

  2. Update on the Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Lebl, Darren R; Bono, Christopher M

    2015-11-01

    Spondylotic degeneration in the cervical spine may result in static and/or dynamic spinal cord compression that can lead to the associated signs and symptoms of myelopathy. Clinical examination combined with appropriate imaging studies help to confirm the diagnosis. Classic natural history and basic science studies suggest a pernicious course of demyelination and neurologic decline in a large subset of patients. The characterization of disease severity and progression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy has improved in recent years with imaging and data from prospective and multicenter studies. Additionally, advances in surgical techniques, implants, and imaging modalities have improved the identification of surgical candidates with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and associated treatment strategies. Surgical treatment, via an anterior, posterior, or a combined approach, is primarily intended to arrest neurologic progression, although it can improve function in many patients. Alignment and the characteristics and location of spinal cord compression help determine the ideal surgical approach. Distinct complications associated with each technique may be mitigated by appropriate patient selection and should be discussed preoperatively to ensure informed decision making. PMID:26498584

  3. Cervical degenerative intraspinal cyst: a case report and literature review involving 132 cases

    PubMed Central

    Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Kato, Fumihiko

    2012-01-01

    Intraspinal and extradural cysts in the cervical spine are rare disorders that may cause myelopathy or radiculopathy. A synovial cyst or ganglion derived from the facet joint and that from a ligamentum flavum have been reported. We report a surgical case of degenerative intraspinal cyst, causing cervical myelopathy. MRI of a case revealed cystic lesion at C4–5. Spinal cord was compressed by cyst and symptoms of myelopathy were also observed. The patient with cervical spinal canal stenosis underwent laminoplasty and excision of the cyst. The patient recovered well immediately after the surgery. Literature review showed that 133 patients have been reported, including the present case. Previous reports indicated that most cysts occurred in old patients and at the atlanto–axial or C7–T1 junction, and laminectomy or laminoplasty with excision of the cyst gave good results in most cases. PMID:23195823

  4. Increased seroreactivity to HERV-K10 peptides in patients with HTLV myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, we had shown that persons infected with human T-cell lymphoma leukemia virus 1 or 2 (HTLV-1 or 2) had an increased prevalence of antibodies to a peptide in the Pol protein of the retrovirus HERV-K10, homologous to a peptide in HTLV gp21 envelope protein. The prevalence rate was higher in those with myelopathy vs. non-myelopathy. We have now extended our observations to a cohort restricted to North America in whom the diagnosis of HTLV myelopathy was rigorously confirmed to also test for reactivity to another HERV-K10 peptide homologous to the HTLV p24 Gag protein. Methods Sera from 100 volunteer blood donors (VBD), 53 patients with large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL), 74 subjects with HTLV-1 or 2 infection (58 non-myelopathy and 16 myelopathy) and 83 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were evaluated in ELISA assays using the above peptides. Results The HTLV myelopathy patients had a statistically significant increased prevalence of antibodies to both HERV-K10 peptides (87.5%) vs. the VBD (0%), LGLL patients (0%), MS patients (4.8%), and the HTLV positive non-myelopathy subjects (5.2%). Conclusion The data suggest that immuno-cross-reactivity to HERV-K10 peptides and/or transactivation of HERV-K10 expression by the HTLV Tax protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and spastic ataxia. PMID:24365054

  5. Thoracic extraosseous, epidural, cavernous hemangioma: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manish S.; Borkar, Sachin A.; Kumar, Amandeep; Sharma, M. C.; Sharma, Bhawani S.; Mahapatra, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with mid-thoracic backache and progressive, ascending, spastic, paraparesis for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extraosseous, extradural mass, without any bone invasion at the T2-T4 vertebral levels, located dorsal to the thecal sac. The spinal cord was compressed ventrally. The lesion was totally excised after a T2-T4 laminectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. The authors reported this case and reviewed the literature, to explain why extraosseous, extradural, cavernous hemangiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extradural thoracic compressive myelopathy. PMID:24250167

  6. Thoracic extraosseous, epidural, cavernous hemangioma: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manish S; Borkar, Sachin A; Kumar, Amandeep; Sharma, M C; Sharma, Bhawani S; Mahapatra, Ashok K

    2013-07-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with mid-thoracic backache and progressive, ascending, spastic, paraparesis for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extraosseous, extradural mass, without any bone invasion at the T2-T4 vertebral levels, located dorsal to the thecal sac. The spinal cord was compressed ventrally. The lesion was totally excised after a T2-T4 laminectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. The authors reported this case and reviewed the literature, to explain why extraosseous, extradural, cavernous hemangiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extradural thoracic compressive myelopathy. PMID:24250167

  7. Preliminary documentation of the comparable efficacy of vitoss versus NanOss bioactive as bone graft expanders for posterior cervical fusion

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laminectomies with posterior cervical instrumented fusions often utilize bone graft expanders to supplement cervical lamina/iliac crest autograft/bone marrow aspirate (BMA). Here we compared posterior fusion rates utilizing two graft expanders; Vitoss (Orthovita, Malvern, PA, USA) vs. NanOss Bioactive (Regeneration Technologies Corporation [RTI: Alachua, FL, USA]). Methods: Two successive prospective cohorts of patients underwent 1-3 level laminectomies with 5-9 level posterior cervical fusions to address cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and/or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The first cohort of 72 patients received Vitoss, while the second cohort or 20 patients received NanOss. Fusions were performed utilizing the Vertex/Rod/Eyelet System (Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA) with braided titanium cables through the base of intact spinous processes (not lateral mass screws) cephalad and caudad to laminectomy defects. Fusion was documented by an independent neuroradiologist blinded to the study design, utilizing dynamic X-rays and two dimensional computed tomography (2D-CT) studies up to 6 months postoperatively, or until fusion or pseudarthrosis was confirmed at 1 year. Results: Vitoss and NanOss resulted in comparable times to fusion: 5.65 vs. 5.35 months. Dynamic X-ray and CT-documented pseudarthrosis developed in 2 of 72 Vitoss patients at one postoperative year (e.g. bone graft resorbed secondary to early deep wound infections), while none occurred in the 20 patients receiving NanOss. Conclusion: In this preliminary study combining cervical laminectomy/fusions, the time to fusion (5.65 vs. 5.35 months), pseudarthrosis (2.7% vs. 0%), and infection rates (2.7% vs. 0%) were nearly comparable sequentially utilizing Vitoss (72 patients) vs. NanOss (20 patients) as bone graft expanders. PMID:26005578

  8. Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit levels in the serum of cervical compressive myelopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ohya, Junichi; Hayakawa, Kentaro; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the serum levels of the phosphorylated form of the high molecular weight neurofilament subunit (pNF-H) in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy. pNF-H is becoming increasingly recognized as a biomarker for axonal injury, however, it remains unclear whether serum pNF-H is elevated in chronic spinal cord compression. We examined 26 patients who underwent surgery for cervical compressive myelopathy. Peripheral blood samples were obtained both preoperatively and 1 week after surgery to evaluate the serum pNF-H levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A history of recent aggravation of myelopathy was also investigated. Of the 26 myelopathy patients, the preoperative serum pNF-H level was negative in 20 patients and moderately elevated in six. Patients who were positive for pNF-H were more likely to have had a recent aggravation of myelopathy compared with the pNF-H negative patients (83 versus 25%; p=0.02). All patients who were positive for pNF-H before surgery remained positive after surgery. Two patients who became positive after surgery demonstrated a neurologic deterioration associated with the surgery. In conclusion, the serum pNF-H level was negative in the majority of patients with cervical compressive myelopathy. Our results suggest that an elevated serum level of pNF-H is associated with an acute worsening of myelopathy and that a positive conversion of pNF-H after surgery is a marker of perioperative neural damage. PMID:26195334

  9. Idiopathic spinal epidural lipomatosis: urgent decompression in an atypical case

    PubMed Central

    Resurrección Giner, M.

    2007-01-01

    Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is very rare and frequently associated to chronic exogenous steroid use, obesity and Cushing syndrome. The idiopathic cases where no identifiable association with SEL are found constitute only 17% of all cases. The usual clinical manifestations of this entity consist of dorsal or lumbar pain with paresthesias and weakness in lower limbs, but acute symptoms of myelopathy are exceptional. We report a case of acute paraparesis and urinary retention caused by thoracic SEL in a 55-year-old male who did not have any recognized predisposing factor for this condition. Urgent surgical decompression was performed in order to relieve the symptoms. Slow but progressive improvement was assessed after surgery. We consider this case to be exceptional due to the needing to perform an urgent decompressive laminectomy to treat a rapidly progressive myelopathy caused by idiopathic SEL. PMID:17876611

  10. Regorafenib-induced transverse myelopathy after stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sibo; Nissenblatt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers large doses of radiation with great accuracy, but is known to have deleterious effects on the vascular compartment of irradiated tissues. Combining SBRT with targeted anti-angiogenesis agents, while able to increase therapeutic efficacy, may unexpectedly precipitate vascular-based toxicities. In this report, we describe a patient with colon cancer who developed transverse myelopathy from regorafenib 2 years after receiving SBRT for three metastatic liver lesions. Regorafenib (Stivarga), formerly BAY 73-4506, (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Montville, NJ) is a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with anti-angiogenic effects used in metastatic colon cancer. Its most common side effects are fatigue, diarrhea and hypertension. However, severe neurologic toxicity has not been previously recognized. Here, we illustrate a case in which the patient developed hyperalgesia and radicular pain 2 weeks after starting regorafenib. Several studies report an increased neurological toxicity when angiogenesis inhibitors are given after radiation therapy, and we postulate that the angioinhibitory effects of regorafenib accelerated subclinical microvascular injury from SBRT. This unexpected toxicity may be clinically relevant when giving targeted angiogenesis inhibitors after SBRT. PMID:25436137

  11. Progression rate of myelopathy in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Clarissa Troller; Pereira, Fernanda Santos; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Coelho, Daniella Moura; Torrez, Vitor; Oses, Jean Pierre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Schestatsky, Pedro; Felix, Vitor Torres; Matte, Ursula; Torman, Vanessa Leotti; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2015-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy heterozygote women can present adult onset myeloneuropathy and little is known about its natural history. We aimed to describe the progression rate of the neurological impairment in the prospective follow-up of our cohort and to look for prognostic factors. The neurological scales Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM) were applied at baseline in 29 symptomatic carriers and in follow-up visits. Age at onset, disease duration, X inactivation pattern, determination of the allele expressed, plasma levels of the very long chain fatty acids and of the neuron-specific enolase, and somato-sensory evoked potentials, were taken at baseline. The slope of the linear regression of both JOA and SSPROM versus disease duration since the first symptom was estimated using mixed modeling. JOA and SSPROM decreased 0.42 and 1.87 points per year, respectively (p?

  12. Sudden myelopathy secondary to therapeutic total-body hyperthermia after spinal-cord irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, M.A.; Parks, L.C.; Bebin, J.

    1981-03-05

    Hyperthermia is a new method of treatment receiving increasing clinical attention in cancer therapy. Its efficacy has been well demonstrated in animals, but its indications, contraindications, and appropriate place in cancer therapy have yet to be defined. We report three cases of acute myelopathy in patients undergoing hyperthermia after spinal-cord irradiation within the preceding two months. Post-mortem examination in one case revealed findings similar to those seen in myelopathy resulting from long-term irradiation. Several neurologic side effects have been reported previously with total-body hyperthermia - most commonly peripheral neuropathy, but not myelopathy. The mechanism of action of hyperthermia in cancer therapy (with or without prior irradiation) is unknown. The experience reported suggests that in some patients hyperthermia may potentiate radiation-induced damage to the spinal cord or otherwise interact to cause acute spinal-cord necrosis.

  13. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Lal, Anupam; Prabhakar, S.; Khandelwal, N.

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  14. Cervical disc arthroplasty for the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Khong, Peter; Bogduk, Nikolai; Ghahreman, Ali; Davies, Mark

    2013-10-01

    The concept of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the anterior treatment of cervical pathology has existed for approximately half a decade. In this time, multiple devices have been developed for this purpose, with the ultimate aim to provide an alternative to fusion. Fifty-five patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy underwent CDA over a 5 year period. Data was collected on 46 patients, which included Visual Analogue Scale scores for neck pain and arm pain, Neck Disability Index scores, Short Form-36 v2 (SF-36) and Nurick grades for myelopathy patients. Preoperative data and data obtained at the latest clinical follow-up (median 48 months, range, 10-76 months) were analysed to assess the intermediate term efficacy of the procedure. In patients with radiculopathy, arm pain improved by 88% (p<0.001). In those presenting with myelopathy, the Nurick grades improved from a median of 1 to 0 (p<0.001). In both groups of patients, improvements in pain and neurologic deficit were accompanied by significant improvements in multiple domains of the SF-36. Using a composite system which considered neck pain, arm pain, function and myelopathy, we arrived at an overall success rate of 73%. We concluded that CDA is an effective intervention for improving neurologic deficit, arm pain and local neck symptoms that translated into improvements in physical and social functioning in the intermediate term. PMID:23871454

  15. Ossified Posterior Longitudinal Ligament With Massive Ossification of the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Causing Dysphagia in a Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Shinichi; Tachibana, Toshiya; Maruo, Keishi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Tsuji, Shotaro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Descriptive case report. To report a case of a diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) patient with both massive ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament (OALL) leading to severe dysphagia as well as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) causing mild cervical myelopathy, warranting not only an anterior approach but also a posterior one. Although DISH can cause massive OALL in the cervical spine, severe dysphagia resulting from DISH is a rare occurrence. OALLs are frequently associated with OPLL. Treatment for a DISH patient with OPLL in setting of OALL-caused dysphagia is largely unknown. A 70-year-old man presented with severe dysphagia with mild cervical myelopathy. Neurological examination showed mild spastic paralysis and hyper reflex in his lower extremities. Plane radiographs and computed tomography of the cervical spine revealed a discontinuous massive OALL at C4-5 and continuous type OPLL at C2-6. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pronounced spinal cord compression due to OPLL at C4-5. Esophagram demonstrated extrinsic compression secondary to OALL at C4-5. We performed posterior decompressive laminectomy with posterior lateral mass screw fixation, as well as both resection of OALL and interbody fusion at C4-5 by the anterior approach. We performed posterior decompressive laminectomy with posterior lateral mass screw fixation, as well as both resection of OALL and interbody fusion at C4-5 by the anterior approach. Severe dysphagia markedly improved without any complications. We considered that this patient not only required osteophytectomy and fusion by the anterior approach but also required decompression and spinal fusion by the posterior approach to prevent both deterioration of cervical myelopathy and recurrence of OALL after surgery. PMID:26266365

  16. Breed Distribution of SOD1 Alleles Previously Associated with Canine Degenerative Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, R; Coates, JR; Johnson, GC; Hansen, L; Awano, T; Kolicheski, A; Ivansson, E; Perloski, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; O'Brien, DP; Guo, J; Katz, ML; Johnson, GS

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous reports associated 2 mutant SOD1 alleles (SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T) with degenerative myelopathy in 6 canine breeds. The distribution of these alleles in other breeds has not been reported. Objective To describe the distribution of SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T in 222 breeds. Animals DNA from 33,747 dogs was genotyped at SOD1:c.118, SOD1:c.52, or both. Spinal cord sections from 249 of these dogs were examined. Methods Retrospective analysis of 35,359 previously determined genotypes at SOD1:c.118G>A or SOD1:c.52A>T and prospective survey to update the clinical status of a subset of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias. Results The SOD1:c.118A allele was found in cross-bred dogs and in 124 different canine breeds whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele was only found in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Most of the dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A homozygotes, but 8 dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes and had no other sequence variants in their SOD1 amino acid coding regions. The updated clinical conditions of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias suggest that SOD1:c.118A homozygotes are at a much higher risk of developing degenerative myelopathy than are SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We conclude that the SOD1:c.118A allele is widespread and common among privately owned dogs whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele is rare and appears to be limited to Bernese Mountain Dogs. We also conclude that breeding to avoid the production of SOD1:c.118A homozygotes is a rational strategy. PMID:24524809

  17. Prevalence and Distribution of Thoracic and Lumbar Compressive Lesions in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kodera, Ryuzo; Yoshiiwa, Toyomi; Kawano, Masanori; Kaku, Nobuhiro; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Purpose This study analyzed the prevalence and distribution of horacic and lumbar compressive lesions in cervical spondylotic myelopathy as well as their relationships with cervical developmental spinal canal stenosis (DCS) by using whole-spine postmyelographic computed tomography. Overview of Literature There are few studies on missed compressive lesions of the spinal cord or cauda equina at the thoracolumbar level in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Furthermore, the relationships between DCS, and the prevalence and distribution of thoracic and lumbar compressive lesions are unknown. Methods Eighty patients with symptomatic cervical spondylotic myelopathy were evaluated. Preoperative image data were obtained. Patients were classified as DCS or non-DCS (n=40 each) if their spinal canal longitudinal diameter was <12 mm at any level or ?12 mm at all levels, respectively. Compressive lesions in the anterior and anteroposterior parts, ligamentum flavum ossification, posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, and spinal cord tumors at the thoracolumbar levels were analyzed. Results Compressive lesions in the anterior and anteroposterior parts were observed in 13 (16.3%) and 45 (56.3%) patients, respectively. Ligamentum flavum and posterior longitudinal ligament ossification were observed in 19 (23.8%) and 3 (3.8%) patients, respectively. No spinal cord tumors were observed. Thoracic and lumbar compressive lesions of various causes tended to be more common in DCS patients than non-DCS patients, although the difference was statistically insignificant. Conclusions Surveying compressive lesions and considering the thoracic and lumbar level in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in DCS patients are important for preventing unexpected neurological deterioration and predicting accurate neurological condition after cervical surgery. PMID:25901233

  18. Biotinidase deficiency should be considered in individuals exhibiting myelopathy with or without and vision loss.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry

    2015-11-01

    Multiple symptomatic children with biotinidase deficiency have exhibited spastic para- or tetraplegia due to myelopathy with and without vision loss. Although this has been a feature of what has been designated as delayed onset-biotinidase deficiency, myelopathy is likely also on the continuum of clinical features seen in younger children who have had these features attributed to dysfunction of the upper brain rather than of the spinal cord. Because many countries are still not screening their newborns for biotinidase deficiency, the disorder should be included in the differential diagnosis of individuals with myelopathic symptoms. Many of these children have gone weeks to months before they were correctly diagnosed with biotinidase deficiency. Rapid recognition that a child with myelopathy with and without vision loss has biotinidase deficiency will undoubtedly facilitate prompt treatment, increase the possibility of complete recovery and avoid potential residual permanent neurological damage. Newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency would avoid the delay in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who otherwise may present with myelopathic or other neurological symptoms. PMID:26358973

  19. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed.

  20. Delayed Bilateral C5 Palsy following Circumferential Decompression and Fusion in Patient with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    C5 palsy is a common complication after cervical decompressive surgery, which have 0 to 30% complication rate. A 61-year-old female patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy showed bilateral C5 palsy following circumferential decompression and fusion. Unexpectedly, bilateral C5 palsy was noted in different time points on postoperative day 2 and 8, respectively. Steroid injection and physical therapy were performed, and her motor function is recovering. Surgeons should make an effort to prevent possible C5 palsy when performing cervical decompression surgery. PMID:26512284

  1. Chronic active VZV infection manifesting as zoster sine herpete, zoster paresis and myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Morita, Y; Osaki, Y; Doi, Y; Forghani, B; Gilden, D H

    2003-08-15

    After lumbar-distribution zoster, an HTLV-1-seropositive woman developed chronic radicular sacral-distribution pain (zoster sine herpete), cervical-distribution zoster paresis and thoracic-distribution myelopathy. Detection of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgM and VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with reduced serum/CSF ratios of anti-VZV IgG compared to normal serum/CSF ratios for albumin and total IgG, proved that VZV caused the protracted neurological complications. Diagnosis by antibody testing led to aggressive antiviral treatment and a favorable outcome. PMID:12809993

  2. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M

    2014-09-01

    Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event. PMID:24905393

  3. Atlantoaxial Subluxation due to an Os Odontoideum in an Achondroplastic Adult: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rahimizadeh, Abolfazl; Soufiani, Housain F.; Hassani, Valiolah; Rahimizadeh, Ava

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the first example of an adult achondroplastic dwarf with progressive quadriparesis secondary to atlantoaxial subluxation as a consequence of an os odontoideum. Actually, craniocervical region is a frequent site of compression and myelopathy in achondroplasia particularly in children as a result of small foramen magnum and hypertrophied opisthion. Moreover, very rarely in achondroplastic patients, coexistence of atlantoaxial instability as the sequel of os odontoideum can result in further compression of the already compromised cervicomedullary neural tissues, the scenario that has been reported only in five achondroplastic children. Herein, a 39-year-old achondroplastic male suffering such an extremely rare combination is presented. With C1-C2 screw rod instrumentation, atlas arch laminectomy, limited suboccipital craniectomy, and release of dural fibrous bands, reduction, decompression, and stabilization could be achieved properly resulting in steady but progressive recovery. PMID:26693369

  4. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a review of surgical indications and decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Law, M. D.; Bernhardt, M.; White, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. The key to the initial diagnosis is a careful neurologic examination. The physical findings may be subtle, thus a high index of suspicion is helpful. Poor prognostic indicators and, therefore, absolute indications for surgery are: 1. Progression of signs and symptoms. 2. Presence of myelopathy for six months or longer. 3. Compression ratio approaching 0.4 or transverse area of the spinal cord of 40 square millimeters or less. Improvement is unusual with nonoperative treatment and almost all patients progressively worsen. Surgical intervention is the most predictable way to prevent neurologic deterioration. The recommended decompression is anterior when there is anterior compression at one or two levels and no significant developmental narrowing of the canal. For compression at more than two levels, developmental narrowing of the canal, posterior compression, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, we recommend posterior decompression. In order for posterior decompression to be effective there must be lordosis of the cervical spine. If kyphosis is present, anterior decompression is needed. Kyphosis associated with a developmentally narrow canal or posterior compression may require combined anterior and posterior approaches. Fusion is required for instability. Images Figure 1 PMID:8209553

  5. Surgical Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Associated Hypertension—A Retrospective Study of 309 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wen-yu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Bin; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Nie, Lin; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease, and various risk factors are known to be involved in it. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common non-traumatic cause of myelopathy, which displays neurological symptoms and may induce systemic symptoms. To date, it is still unknown whether CSM is associated with hypertension, and if so, whether the decompression operations can attenuate CSM associated hypertension. Here, a total of 309 patients with CSM who received anterior or posterior decompression surgery were enrolled as subjects. Blood pressure measurements were performed before and within one week after the surgery. Among the 309 subjects, 144 (46.6%) of them exhibited hypertension before surgery, a significantly higher ratio than that of the whole population. One week after surgery, blood pressure of 106 (73.6%) patients turned back to normal. Blood pressure of another 37(25.7%) patients decreased with different degrees, although still higher than normal. Moreover, it appears that both approaches were effective in improving blood pressure, while the posterior approach was more effective in decreasing systolic blood pressure. We speculate this type of hypertension might result from hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system as the heart rate of these patients decreased after surgery as well. Collectively, compression of spinal cord in CSM patients might be associated with hypertension, and decompression surgery largely attenuated this type of hypertension. These findings prove CSM to be a potential associated factor of high blood pressure and may shed light on therapies of hypertension in clinics. PMID:26193469

  6. Intramedullary Sarcoidosis Presenting with Delayed Spinal Cord Swelling after Cervical Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Du Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:25535524

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute intramedullary myelopathy: radiological differential diagnosis for the on-call radiologist.

    PubMed

    Sheerin, F; Collison, K; Quaghebeur, G

    2009-01-01

    Spinal cord disease is often viewed as having a poor outcome. Although in certain conditions this is true, non-traumatic myelopathy encompasses a vast array of diseases some of which are exquisitely responsive to treatment. Accurate diagnosis becomes important as damage is often progressive and long-term disability and morbidity is related to the degree of neurological impairment when the diagnosis is reached. Out-of-hours magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is generally requested and performed to ascertain whether there is spinal cord compression; however, there are other causes of a cord syndrome, which are more subtle. This review aims to provide a summary of the imaging features of non-traumatic intramedullary spinal cord emergencies, many of which may appear radiologically similar. PMID:19070702

  8. Management of surgical splenorenal shunt-related hepatic myelopathy with endovascular interventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Qiang; Liu, Feng-Yong; Duan, Feng

    2012-12-21

    We present a case with hepatic myelopathy (HM) due to a surgical splenorenal shunt that was successfully treated by endovascular interventional techniques. A 39-year-old man presented with progressive spastic paraparesis of his lower limbs 14 mo after a splenorenal shunt. A portal venogram identified a widened patent splenorenal shunt. We used an occlusion balloon catheter initially to occlude the shunt. Further monitoring of the patient revealed a decrease in his serum ammonia level and an improvement in leg strength. We then used an Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) to enable closure of the shunt. During the follow up period of 7 mo, the patient experienced significant clinical improvement and normalization of blood ammonia, without any complications. Occlusion of a surgically created splenorenal shunt with AVP represents an alternative therapy to surgery or coil embolization that can help to relieve shunt-induced HM symptoms. PMID:23323015

  9. Intramedullary cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, R N; Hughes, J E; Sachdev, R K; Jarenwattananon, A

    1986-08-01

    In 1976 a 28-year-old Ecuadoran male suffered paraparesis after a kick to his back. Iophendylate myelography was followed by thoracic laminectomy with incomplete resolution of the paraparesis. One year later, worsening of the paraparesis was managed by further thoracic laminectomy without improvement. In 1978 a spinal cord stimulator was implanted via low thoracic laminectomy as a measure to counter his spasticity. In 1984 metrizamide myelography and computed tomography scanning were performed for increasing spastic paraparesis that disclosed an intramedullary lesion at the T-4 level. Exploration and myelotomy revealed an intramedullary cysticercal cyst, which was totally removed. PMID:3726745

  10. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: pathogenesis, management, and current surgical approaches. A review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachary A; Buchanan, Colin C; Raphael, Dan; Khoo, Larry T

    2011-03-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is an important cause of cervical myelopathy that results from bony ossification of the cervical or thoracic posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL). It has been estimated that nearly 25% of patients with cervical myelopathy will have features of OPLL. Patients commonly present in their mid-40s or 50s with clinical evidence of myelopathy. On MR and CT imaging, this can be seen as areas of ossification that commonly coalesce behind the cervical vertebral bodies, leading to direct ventral compression of the cord. While MR imaging will commonly demonstrate associated changes in the soft tissue, CT scanning will better define areas of ossification. This can also provide the clinician with evidence of possible dural ossification. The surgical management of OPLL remains a challenge to spine surgeons. Surgical alternatives include anterior, posterior, or circumferential decompression and/or stabilization. Anterior cervical stabilization options include cervical corpectomy or multilevel anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, while posterior stabilization approaches include instrumented or noninstrumented fusion or laminoplasty. Each of these approaches has distinct advantages and disadvantages. While anterior approaches may provide more direct decompression and best improve myelopathy scores, there is soft-tissue morbidity associated with the anterior approach. Posterior approaches, including laminectomy and fusion and laminoplasty, may be well tolerated in older patients. However, there often is associated axial neck pain and less improvement in myelopathy scores. In this review, the authors discuss the epidemiology, imaging findings, and clinical presentation of OPLL. The authors additionally discuss the merits of the different surgical techniques in the management of this challenging disease. PMID:21361748

  11. Antemortem diagnosis and successful management of noncompressive segmental myelopathy in a Siberian-Bengal mixed breed tiger.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Lynch, Kate; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Welle, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Robert; Whittington, Julia K

    2013-12-01

    A 10-yr-old female spayed mixed breed tiger presented for a 9-day history of acute and nonprogressive paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion suggestive of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy with regional spinal cord edema, decreased disk signal intensity at L2-L3, and mild intervertebral disk protrusion at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed no overt evidence of infection or neoplasia. Medical therapy was instituted, including corticosteroids and gastroprotectants as well as nursing care and physical therapy. The tiger began showing clinical improvement 2 wk after initiating treatment, progressing to the point where the animal was standing and intermittently walking. Three months after diagnosis, the tiger had regained muscle strength of its hind limbs and walked regularly with improving coordination. This case is the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful medical management of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a large exotic felid. PMID:24450082

  12. Syphilitic myelopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pains" Difficulty walking Loss of coordination Loss of reflexes Muscle weakness Wide-based gait (the person walks ... that react abnormally to light Reduced or absent reflexes due to nerve damage Tests may include the ...

  13. Spine surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in your back where nerve roots leave your spinal column Laminectomy -- surgery to remove the lamina, two small ... to take pressure off your spinal nerves or spinal column Spinal fusion -- the fusing of two bones together ...

  14. Foraminotomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or laminectomy ). The surgeon may do a spinal fusion to make sure your spinal column is stable ... spine surgery. If you had foraminotomy and spinal fusion, the spinal column above and below the fusion ...

  15. Riluzole blocks perioperative ischemia-reperfusion injury and enhances postdecompression outcomes in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Karadimas, Spyridon K; Laliberte, Alex M; Tetreault, Lindsay; Chung, Young Sun; Arnold, Paul; Foltz, Warren D; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    Although surgical decompression is considered the gold standard treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), a proportion of cases show postoperative decline or continue to exhibit substantial neurological dysfunction. To investigate this further, we first examined data from the prospective multicenter AOSpine North America CSM study, finding that 9.3% of patients exhibited postoperative functional decline (?mJOA, ?-1) and that 44% of patients were left with substantial neurological impairment 6 months postoperatively. Notably, 4% of patients experienced perioperative neurological complications within 20 days after surgery in otherwise uneventful surgeries. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and to test a combination therapeutic strategy for CSM, we performed surgical decompression in a rat model of CSM, randomizing some animals to also receive the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug riluzole. Spinal cord blood flow measurements increased after decompression surgery in rats. CSM rats showed a transient postoperative neurological decline akin to that seen in some CSM patients, suggesting that ischemia-reperfusion injury may occur after decompression surgery. Riluzole treatment attenuated oxidative DNA damage in the spinal cord and postoperative decline after decompression surgery. Mechanistic in vitro studies also demonstrated that riluzole preserved mitochondrial function and reduced oxidative damage in neurons. Rats receiving combined decompression surgery and riluzole treatment displayed long-term improvements in forelimb function associated with preservation of cervical motor neurons and corticospinal tracts compared to rats treated with decompression surgery alone. PMID:26631633

  16. Symptomatic lumbar disc protrusion causing progressive myelopathy in a low-lying cord.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Shreya; Shetty, Rohit; Collins, Iona

    2012-06-01

    Low-lying cord is an uncommon entity, and cord compression due lumbar disc disease is rarely encountered. We discuss our experience with a case of lumbar cord compression secondary to a large disc protrusion, which caused myelopathy in a low-lying/tethered cord. A 77-year-old woman with known spina bifida occulta presented with 6-week history of severe low back pain and progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-lying tethered cord and a large disc prolapse at L2/3 causing cord compression with associated syringomyelia. Medical comorbidities precluded her from anterior decompression, and therefore a posterior decompression was performed. She recovered full motor power in her lower limbs and could eventually walk unaided. She had a deep wound infection, which was successfully treated with debridement, negative pressure therapy (vacuum-assisted closure pump), and antibiotics. Six months after surgery, her Oswestry Disability Index improved from 55% preoperatively to 20%. Posterior spinal cord decompression for this condition has been successful in our case, and we believe that the lumbar lordosis may have helped indirectly decompress the spinal cord by posterior decompression alone. PMID:24353956

  17. A pragmatic neurological screen for patients with suspected cord compressive myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad E; Hegedus, Eric; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Goode, Adam

    2007-09-01

    Physical therapists commonly use screening tests to identify upper motoneuron lesions such as cord compressive myelopathy (CCM), the presence of which necessitates appropriate medical referral. Signs and symptoms of CCM include sensory and ataxic changes of the lower extremities, poorly coordinated gait, weakness, tetraspasticity, clumsiness, spasticity, hyperreflexia, and primitive reflexes. Clinical tests and measures such as Hoffmann sign, clonus, Lhermitte sign, the grip and release test, the finger escape sign, the Babinski test, and the inverted supinator sign have historically been used as screens for CCM. For effectiveness as a screen, a clinical test or measure should demonstrate high sensitivity. Diagnostic accuracy studies have shown that clinical tests and measures for CCM often display low sensitivity, indicating that a negative finding may falsely suggest the absence of a condition or disease that actually is present. To counter the low levels of sensitivity, screening should include a combination of a thorough patient history, recognition of and appropriate referral for cauda equina symptoms, and clusters of any pertinent contributory tests and measures. PMID:17636158

  18. Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H becomes elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acutely worsening symptoms of compression myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakajima, Arata; Sonobe, Masato; Terajima, Fumiaki; Saito, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Fusako; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Yamazaki, Masashi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    It is known that the severity of compression myelopathy sometimes worsens rapidly and results in poor functional recovery because of limited axonal regeneration. Levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H), which indicate axonal degeneration, are elevated in other neurological disorders. To our knowledge, there has been no examination of pNF-H levels in compression myelopathy. Therefore, we conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to evaluate pNF-H levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with worsening symptoms of cervical compression myelopathy. From January 2011 to March 2013, 51 samples of CSF were collected from patients at the time of myelography before spinal surgery. The indications for surgery were acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM) in eight, chronic compression myelopathy (CM) in six, and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) in 37 patients. The pNF-H levels were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean ± standard deviation pNF-H value was 2127.1 ± 556.8 pg/ml in AM patients, 175.8 ± 67.38 pg/ml in CM patients and 518.7 ± 665.7 pg/ml in LCS patients. A significant increase in pNF-H levels was detected in the CSF of patients with AM compared with those with either CM or LCS. The clinical outcome of surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy was satisfactory in both AM and CM patients. Despite the limitations of small sample size and lack of healthy CSF control data due to ethical considerations, our results suggest that pNF-H in CSF can act as a biomarker that reflects the severity of AM. PMID:25065845

  19. Possible causes of seizure after spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Seizure after laminectomy for spinal procedure is very rare and has not been reported after lipomyelomeningocele surgery beforehand. Here, two cases of seizure following laminectomy for lipomyelomeningocele are reported. The exact etiology of the event is unknown but anesthetic material, pneumocephalus, intracranial hypotension subsequent to cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal procedures, spinal-induced seizure and the potential toxic effect of fat molecules could be considered. PMID:21042506

  20. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Coping Strategies for Pain in Patients with Residual Neuropathic Pain after Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single-center retrospective cohort study. Purpose To clarify the prognostic value of preoperative coping strategies for pain due to compressive cervical myelopathy. Overview of Literature Preoperative physical function, imaging and electrophysiological findings are known predictors of surgical outcomes. However, coping strategies for pain have not been considered. Methods Postoperative questionnaires, concerning health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and daily living activities, were sent to 78 patients with compressive cervical myelopathy who had suffered from neuropathic pain before laminoplasty, and been preoperatively assessed with respect to their physical and mental status and coping strategies for pain. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to clarify the extent to which the patient's preoperative coping strategies could explain the variance in postoperative HRQOL and activity levels. Results Forty-two patients with residual neuropathic pain after laminoplasty were analyzed by questionnaires (28 men, 14 women; mean age, 62.7±10.2 years; symptom duration, 48.0±66.0 months). The valid response rate was 53.8%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that preoperative coping strategies, which involved coping self-statements, diverting attention, and catastrophizing, were independently associated with postoperative HRQOL and activity level, and could explain 7% to 11% of their variance. Combinations of the coping strategies for pain and upper/lower motor functions could explain 26% to 36% of the variance in postoperative HRQOL and activity level. Conclusions Preoperative coping strategies for pain are good predictors of postoperative HRQOL and activities of daily living in patients with postoperative residual neuropathic pain due to compressive cervical myelopathy. PMID:26435783

  1. One stage laminoplasty and posterior herniotomy for the treatment of myelopathy caused by cervical stenosis with cervical disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Bin; Chen, Bohua; Ma, Xue-Xiao; Xi, Yong-Ming; Xiang, Hong-Fei; Hu, You-Gu; Zhang, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce a method of one stage laminoplasty and posterior herniotomy for myelopathy caused by cervical stenosis with cervical disc herniation and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this surgery. From 1999 to 2008, 18 patients with myelopathy caused by cervical stenosis with cervical disc herniation who underwent this procedure were included. The average age was 63 years (range 48-74 years), and the average follow-up period was 46 months (range 3-108 months). Neurologic status was evaluated using the JOA scoring system. Neurological symptoms improvement was seen in all patients after surgery. The average JOA score was 14.22±1.86 by final follow-up, which was higher than preoperative values (P<0.01), and the average improvement in neurological function was 76.63%. Neurologic examination showed that excellent results had been obtained by 10 patients, good results by 8 patients, with no fair or poor results. 2 patients developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage after surgery and recovered during the follow-up period. One patient with cervical disc herniation developed postoperative C5 palsy on the axle side on the third day after surgery. She completely recovered by 1 month after surgery. No other patients experienced postoperative neurologic complications. Complete anterior and posterior decompression of the spinal cord was achieved after surgery. We concluded that one stage laminoplasty and posterior herniotomy is an effective, reliable, and safe procedure for the treatment of myelopathy caused by cervical stenosis with cervical disc herniation. PMID:26309625

  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presentation of a human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 myelopathy--insight into pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alkhawajah, Nuha M; Chapman, Kristine M; Moore, G R Wayne; Oger, Joel

    2015-09-01

    A 41-year-old human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-positive woman developed a syndrome with upper and lower motor neuron signs sometime after bilateral vertebral artery dissections. Over 2 years, she developed a progressive myelopathy affecting predominantly the motor system. She had the picture of a 'person in a barrel' and died from complications. At autopsy, spinal cord revealed inflammatory infiltrates and extensive gliosis involving mainly the anterior horns. The vertebral arterial dissections may have permitted the entry of infected lymphocytes and macrophages, secreting cytokines and metalloproteinases, into the medulla progressing to the spinal cord. Few cases with pathological correlation have been reported. PMID:26224593

  3. Electrophysiological assessments of the motor pathway in diabetic patients with compressive cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Kamei, Naosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Ujigo, Satoshi; Sumiyoshi, Norihiko; Rikita, Takanori; Takazawa, Atsushi; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT The occurrence of compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM) increases in adults over 50 years of age. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) is a frequent comorbidity for people of this age and may impact the severity of CCM. The authors assessed motor pathway function in diabetic patients with CCM to investigate the correlation between electrophysiological parameters and clinical symptoms. METHODS Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADM) and the abductor hallucis muscle (AH) following transcranial magnetic stimulation, as were M- and F-waves following electrical stimulation of the ulnar and tibial nerves, in 22 patients with CCM and diabetes mellitus (DM) who had not experienced symptomatic diabetic neuropathy (CCM-DM group), in 92 patients with CCM alone (CCM group), and in 24 healthy adults (control group). The peripheral conduction time (PCT; measured from the ADM and AH) was calculated as follows: (M-wave latency + F-wave latency -1)/2. The central motor conduction time (CMCT; measured from the ADM and AH) was calculated by subtracting the PCT from the onset latency of the MEPs. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for cervical myelopathy was obtained before and 1 year after surgery as a clinical outcome measure. RESULTS MEP, PCT, and CMCT parameters in the CCM-DM and CCM groups were significantly longer than those in the control group (p = 0.000-0.007). The PCTs in the CCM-DM group were significantly longer than those in the CCM group (p = 0.001-0.003). No significant differences were detected in the MEP and CMCT parameters between the CCM-DM and CCM groups (p = 0.080-1.000). The JOA score before surgery in the CCM-DM group was 10.7 ± 2.0 points and was significantly lower than that in the CCM group (12.2 ± 2.5 points, p = 0.015). In the CCM-DM group, JOA scores before surgery correlated with MEP-AH (r = -0.610, p = 0.012) and PCT-AH (r = -0.676, p = 0.004) values, but not with CMCT values, while the JOA scores were related to both MEP and CMCT parameters in the CCM group. The JOA scores improved to 13.8 ± 2.2 points after surgery (p = 0.001) and correlated with MEP-AH (r = -0.667, p = 0.005) and PCT-AH (r = -0.611, p = 0.012) in the CCM-DM group. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that MEP, PCT, and CMCT parameters each reveal abnormalities in the upper and lower motor neurons even in patients with DM. The results also show a prolonged PCT in CCM-DM patients, despite having no history of diabetic neuropathy. Corticospinal tract impairments are similar between CCM and CCM-DM patients, while the JOA score of the CCM-DM patients is lower than that in the CCM patients. The JOA score in CCM-DM patients may be influenced by additional impairments in peripheral nerves or other diabetic complications. These electrophysiological studies may be useful for screening motor pathway function for CCM in patients with DM. PMID:26340381

  4. Cortical Reorganization Is Associated with Surgical Decompression of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andrew; Cheong, Priscilia W. T.; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Tiruchelvarayan, Rajendra; Guo, Chang Ming; Yue, Wai Mun; Chen, John; Lo, Yew Long

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) results in sensorimotor limb deficits, bladder, and bowel dysfunction, but mechanisms underlying motor plasticity changes before and after surgery are unclear. Methods. We studied 24 patients who underwent decompression surgery and 15 healthy controls. Patients with mixed upper and lower limb dysfunction (Group A) and only lower limb dysfunction (Group B) were then analysed separately. Results. The sum amplitude of motor evoked potentials sMEP (p < 0.01) and number of focal points where MEPs were elicited (N) (p < 0.001) were significantly larger in CSM patients compared with controls. For Group A (16 patients), sMEP (p < 0.01) and N (p < 0.001) showed similar findings. However, for Group B (8 patients), only N (p = 0.03) was significantly larger in patients than controls. Group A had significantly increased grip strength (p = 0.02) and reduced sMEP (p = 0.001) and N (p = 0.003) after surgery. Changes in sMEP (cMEP) significantly correlated inversely with improved feeding (p = 0.03) and stacking (p = 0.04) times as was the change in number of focal points (NDiff) with improved writing times (p = 0.03). Group B did not show significant reduction in sMEP or N after surgery, or significant correlation of cMEP or NDiff with all hand function tests. No significant differences in H reflex parameters obtained from the flexor carpi radialis, or central motor conduction time changes, were noted after surgery. Discussion. Compensatory expansion of motor cortical representation occurs largely at cortical rather than spinal levels, with a tendency to normalization after surgery. These mirrored improvements in relevant tasks requiring utilization of intrinsic hand muscles. PMID:26609437

  5. Probabilities of Radiation Myelopathy Specific to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to Guide Safe Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun; Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON ; Weinberg, Vivian; Ma, Lijun; Chang, Eric; Chao, Sam; Muacevic, Alexander; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Soltys, Scott; Gerszten, Peter C.; Ryu, Sam; Angelov, Lilyana; Gibbs, Iris; Wong, C. Shun; Larson, David A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.

  6. Embolization followed by surgery for treatment of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula causing acute myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, I-Han; Lee, Han-Chung; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Cho, Der-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. There are three subtypes, and the treatment strategies for each are different. Subtype B (multiple fistulas) can be treated by either embolization or surgery. On the basis of a case from our treatment experience, we propose a method for achieving optimal outcome while minimizing nerve injury. Case Description: A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with acute myelopathy caused by a perimedullary AVF. Initially, we treated her by embolization using the chemical agent Onyx. Her symptoms improved immediately but gradually returned beginning 1 week later. Two months later, the symptoms had returned to pretreatment status, so we removed the fistulas surgically. Severe adhesions between nerve and occult venous varices were noted during the operation. Afterward, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. Histopathological sections showed an inflammatory reaction around the varices. Conclusions: We initially considered several possible reasons for the return of symptoms: (a) Hypoperfusion of the spinal cord; (b) mass effect of the occult vein varices; (c) residual AVF or vascular remodeling resulting in recurrent cord hypertension; (d) Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation resulting in nerves adhering to each other and to occult venous varices. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings ruled out the first three, leaving Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation as the probable reason. Given our treatment experience and the pros and cons of the two methods, we propose that initial embolization followed by surgery after 5 days to remove occult venous varices is the ideal strategy for treating perimedullary AVF of subtype B. PMID:26069849

  7. A plasma diagnostic model of human T-cell leukemia virus-1 associated myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Makoto; Araya, Natsumi; Sato, Tomoo; Saichi, Naomi; Fujii, Risa; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Ueda, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is induced by chronic inflammation in spinal cord due to HTLV-1 infection. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin or proviral load are clinically measured as disease grading biomarkers, however, they are not exactly specific to HAM/TSP. Therefore, we aimed to identify HAM/TSP-specific biomarker molecules and establish a novel less-invasive plasma diagnostic model for HAM/TSP. Methods Proteome-wide quantitative profiling of CSFs from six asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (AC) and 51 HAM/TSP patients was performed. Fourteen severity grade biomarker proteins were further examined plasma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays (n = 71). Finally, we constructed three-factor logistic regression model and evaluated the diagnostic power using 105 plasma samples. Results Quantitative analysis for 1871 nonredundant CSF proteins identified from 57 individuals defined 14 CSF proteins showing significant correlation with Osame's motor disability score (OMDS). Subsequent ELISA experiments using 71 plasma specimens confirmed secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) demonstrated the same correlations in plasma (R = ?0.373 and R = 0.431, respectively). In this training set, we constructed a HAM/TSP diagnostic model using SPARC, VCAM1, and viral load. Sensitivity and specificity to diagnose HAM/TSP patients from AC (AC vs. OMDS 1–11) were 85.3% and 81.1%, respectively. Importantly, this model could be also useful for determination of therapeutic intervention point (OMDS 1–3 + AC vs. OMDS 4–11), exhibiting 80.0% sensitivity and 82.9% specificity. Interpretation We propose a novel less-invasive diagnostic model for early detection and clinical stratification of HAM/TSP. PMID:25815350

  8. FDG-PET SUV can distinguish between spinal sarcoidosis and myelopathy with canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sakushima, Ken; Yabe, Ichiro; Shiga, Tohru; Yashima-Yamada, Moemi; Tsuji-Akimoto, Sachiko; Terae, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2011-02-01

    Spinal cord sarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spinal cord sarcoidosis sometimes resembles that of the non-inflammatory spinal cord lesion. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is an effective method to detect both systemic and central nervous system lesions in sarcoidosis. This study compared the standard uptake value (SUV) of FDG-PET between spinal cord sarcoidosis and non-inflammatory spinal cord lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent both spinal MRI and FDG-PET scans. We used SUV to evaluate the FDG-PET uptake of the lesion. The region of interest was the center of high-intensity areas on T2-weighted MR images. We included three patients with spinal cord sarcoidosis, five with myelomalacia caused by cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, one with spinal cord edema associated with cervical spondylosis, and one with spinal cord edema associated with dural arteriovenous fistula. The spinal cord sarcoidosis group had a significantly higher SUV (mean 4.38, range 3.30-4.93) than patients with the other diseases (mean 1.87, range 1.42-2.74). The SUV of FDG-PET thus may be able to distinguish spinal cord sarcoidosis from other non-inflammatory lesions. FDG-PET can play an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord sarcoidosis because the gadolinium enhancement in MRI is sometimes seen in spondylotic myelopathy or vascular malformation. FDG-PET is informative for the accurate diagnosis of spinal cord sarcoidosis and may enable clinicians to start treatment at an earlier stage. PMID:20820799

  9. Intravenous Injections of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Modulated the Redox State in a Rat Model of Radiation Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Lian-Bing; Qiu, Zhu; Ren, Hong-Bo; Wu, Jia-Yan; Wang, Tao; Bao, Zhong-Hui; Yang, Ji-Fan; Zheng, Ke; Li, Shao-Lin; Wei, Li; You, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidative effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) in a rat model of radiation myelopathy. UC-MSCs were isolated from Wharton's jelly (WJ) of umbilical cords. An irradiated cervical spinal cord rat model (C2-T2 segment) was generated using a (60)Co irradiator to deliver 30?Gy of radiation. UC-MSCs were injected through the tail vein at 90 days, 97 days, 104 days, and 111 days after-irradiation. Histological damage was examined by cresyl violet/Nissl staining. The activities of two antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the spinal cord were measured by the biomedical assay. In addition, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in the spinal cord were determined by ELISA methods. Multiple injections of UC-MSCs through the tail vein ameliorated neuronal damage in the spinal cord, increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and GPX, and increased the levels of VEGF and Ang-2 in the spinal cord. Our results suggest that multiple injections of UC-MSCs via the tail vein in the rat model of radiation myelopathy could significantly improve the antioxidative microenvironment in vivo. PMID:26366180

  10. Common ?-chain blocking peptide reduces in vitro immune activation markers in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, Raya; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Tagaya, Yutaka; Azimi, Nazli; Basheer, Asjad; Jacobson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a progressive inflammatory myelopathy occurring in a subset of HTLV-1-infected individuals. Despite advances in understanding its immunopathogenesis, an effective treatment remains to be found. IL-2 and IL-15, members of the gamma chain (?c) family of cytokines, are prominently deregulated in HAM/TSP and underlie many of the characteristic immune abnormalities, such as spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (SP), increased STAT5 phosphorylation in the lymphocytes, and increased frequency and cytotoxicity of virus-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs). In this study, we describe a novel immunomodulatory strategy consisting of selective blockade of certain ?c family cytokines, including IL-2 and IL-15, with a ?c antagonistic peptide. In vitro, a PEGylated form of the peptide, named BNZ132-1-40, reduced multiple immune activation markers such as SP, STAT5 phosphorylation, spontaneous degranulation of CD8+ T cells, and the frequency of transactivator protein (Tax)-specific CD8+ CTLs, thought to be major players in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. This strategy is thus a promising therapeutic approach to HAM/TSP with the potential of being more effective than single monoclonal antibodies targeting either IL-2 or IL-15 receptors and safer than inhibitors of downstream signaling molecules such as JAK1 inhibitors. Finally, selective cytokine blockade with antagonistic peptides might be applicable to multiple other conditions in which cytokines are pathogenic. PMID:26283355

  11. Common ?-chain blocking peptide reduces in vitro immune activation markers in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Raya; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Tagaya, Yutaka; Azimi, Nazli; Basheer, Asjad; Jacobson, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a progressive inflammatory myelopathy occurring in a subset of HTLV-1-infected individuals. Despite advances in understanding its immunopathogenesis, an effective treatment remains to be found. IL-2 and IL-15, members of the gamma chain (?c) family of cytokines, are prominently deregulated in HAM/TSP and underlie many of the characteristic immune abnormalities, such as spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (SP), increased STAT5 phosphorylation in the lymphocytes, and increased frequency and cytotoxicity of virus-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs). In this study, we describe a novel immunomodulatory strategy consisting of selective blockade of certain ?c family cytokines, including IL-2 and IL-15, with a ?c antagonistic peptide. In vitro, a PEGylated form of the peptide, named BNZ132-1-40, reduced multiple immune activation markers such as SP, STAT5 phosphorylation, spontaneous degranulation of CD8(+) T cells, and the frequency of transactivator protein (Tax)-specific CD8(+) CTLs, thought to be major players in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. This strategy is thus a promising therapeutic approach to HAM/TSP with the potential of being more effective than single monoclonal antibodies targeting either IL-2 or IL-15 receptors and safer than inhibitors of downstream signaling molecules such as JAK1 inhibitors. Finally, selective cytokine blockade with antagonistic peptides might be applicable to multiple other conditions in which cytokines are pathogenic. PMID:26283355

  12. Immunopathogenesis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: Recent Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mineki; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is a chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by spastic paraparesis, sphincter dysfunction, and mild sensory disturbance in the lower extremities. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence from host population genetics, viral genetics, DNA expression microarrays, and assays of lymphocyte function suggests that complex virus-host interactions and the host immune response play an important role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Especially, the efficiency of an individual's cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response to HTLV-1 limits the HTLV-1 proviral load and the risk of HAM/TSP. This paper focuses on the recent advances in HAM/TSP research with the aim to identify the precise mechanisms of disease, in order to develop effective treatment and prevention. PMID:23198155

  13. Intravenous Injections of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Modulated the Redox State in a Rat Model of Radiation Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Lian-Bing; Qiu, Zhu; Ren, Hong-Bo; Wu, Jia-Yan; Wang, Tao; Bao, Zhong-Hui; Yang, Ji-Fan; Zheng, Ke; Li, Shao-Lin; Wei, Li; You, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidative effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) in a rat model of radiation myelopathy. UC-MSCs were isolated from Wharton's jelly (WJ) of umbilical cords. An irradiated cervical spinal cord rat model (C2-T2 segment) was generated using a 60Co irradiator to deliver 30?Gy of radiation. UC-MSCs were injected through the tail vein at 90 days, 97 days, 104 days, and 111 days after-irradiation. Histological damage was examined by cresyl violet/Nissl staining. The activities of two antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the spinal cord were measured by the biomedical assay. In addition, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in the spinal cord were determined by ELISA methods. Multiple injections of UC-MSCs through the tail vein ameliorated neuronal damage in the spinal cord, increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and GPX, and increased the levels of VEGF and Ang-2 in the spinal cord. Our results suggest that multiple injections of UC-MSCs via the tail vein in the rat model of radiation myelopathy could significantly improve the antioxidative microenvironment in vivo. PMID:26366180

  14. A systematic review of clinical and surgical predictors of complications following surgery for degenerative cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Côté, Pierre; Singh, Anoushka; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Although generally safe and effective, surgery for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is associated with complications in 11%-38% of patients. Several predictors of postoperative complications have been proposed but few are used to detect high-risk patients. A standard approach to identifying "at-risk" patients would improve surgeons' ability to prevent and manage these complications. The authors aimed to compare the complication rates between various surgical procedures used to treat CSM and to identify patient-specific, clinical, imaging, and surgical predictors of complications. METHODS The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1948 to September 2013. Cohort studies designed to evaluate predictors of complications and intervention studies conducted to compare different surgical approaches were included. Each article was critically appraised independently by 2 reviewers, and the evidence was synthesized according to the principles outlined by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. RESULTS A total of 5472 citations were retrieved. Of those, 60 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. These studies included 36 prognostic cohort studies and 28 comparative intervention studies. High evidence suggests that older patients are at a greater risk of perioperative complications. Based on low evidence, other clinical factors such as body mass index, smoking status, duration of symptoms, and baseline severity score, are not predictive of complications. With respect to surgical factors, low to moderate evidence suggests that estimated blood loss, surgical approach, and number of levels do not affect rates of complications. A longer operative duration (moderate evidence), however, is predictive of perioperative complications and a 2-stage surgery is related to an increased risk of major complications (high evidence). In terms of surgical techniques, higher rates of neck pain were found in patients undergoing laminoplasty compared with anterior spinal fusion (moderate evidence). In addition, with respect to laminoplasty techniques, there was a lower incidence of C-5 palsy in laminoplasty with concurrent foraminotomy compared with nonforaminotomy (low evidence). CONCLUSIONS The current review suggests that older patients are at a higher risk of perioperative complications. A longer operative duration and a 2-stage surgery both reflect increased case complexity and can indirectly predict perioperative complications. PMID:26407090

  15. Comparison of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Score and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire Scores: Time-Dependent Changes in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy and Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Sakaura, Hironobu; Fujimori, Takahito; Nagamoto, Yukitaka; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To identify differences in time-dependent perioperative changes between the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and the JOA Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) score in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) who underwent cervical laminoplasty. Overview of Literature The JOA score does not take into consideration patient satisfaction or quality of life. Accordingly, the JOACMEQ was designed in 2007 as a patient-centered assessment tool. Methods We studied 21 patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty. We objectively evaluated the time-dependent changes in JOACMEQ scores and JOA scores for all patients before surgery and at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Results The average total JOA score and the recovery rate improved significantly after surgery in both groups, with a slightly better recovery rate in the OPLL group. Cervical spine function improved significantly in the CSM group but not in the OPLL group. Upper- and lower-extremity functions were more stable in the CSM group than in the OPLL group. The effectiveness rate of the JOACMEQ for measuring quality of life was quite low in both groups. In both groups, the Spearman contingency coefficients were dispersed widely except for upper- and lower-extremity function. Conclusions Scores for upper- and lower-extremity function on the JOACMEQ correlated well with JOA scores. Because the JOACMEQ can also assess cervical spine function and quality of life, factors that cannot be assessed by the JOA score alone, the JOACMEQ is a more comprehensive evaluation tool. PMID:25705334

  16. Accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Diagnosing Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy in Patients Showing Spinal Cord Compression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungbo; Lee, Young Han; Chung, Tae-Sub; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Kim, In Seong; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Suh, Jin-Suck; Park, Jung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the performance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in patients with deformed spinal cord but otherwise unremarkable conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Materials and Methods A total of 33 patients who underwent MRI of the cervical spine including DTI using two-dimensional single-shot interleaved multi-section inner volume diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging and whose spinal cords were deformed but showed no signal changes on conventional MRI were the subjects of this study. Mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity (LD), radial diffusivity (RD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured at the most stenotic level. The calculated performance of MD, FA, MD?FA (considered positive when both the MD and FA results were positive), LD?FA (considered positive when both the LD and FA results were positive), and RD?FA (considered positive when both the RD and FA results were positive) in diagnosing CSM were compared with each other based on the estimated cut-off values of MD, LD, RD, and FA from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the clinical diagnosis of CSM from medical records as the reference standard. Results The MD, LD, and RD cut-off values were 1.079 × 10-3, 1.719 × 10-3, and 0.749 × 10-3 mm2/sec, respectively, and that of FA was 0.475. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were: 100 (4/4), 44.8 (13/29), 20 (4/20), and 100 (13/13) for MD; 100 (4/4), 27.6 (8/29), 16 (4/25), and 100 (8/8) for FA; 100 (4/4), 58.6 (17/29), 25 (4/16), and 100 (17/17) for MD?FA; 100 (4/4), 68.9 (20/29), 30.8 (4/13), and 100 (20/20) for LD?FA; and 75 (3/4), 68.9 (20/29), 25 (3/12), and 95.2 (20/21) for RD?FA in percentage value. Diagnostic performance comparisons revealed significant differences only in specificity between FA and MD?FA (p = 0.003), FA and LD?FA (p < 0.001), FA and RD?FA (p < 0.001), MD and LD?FA (p = 0.024) and MD and RD?FA (p = 0.024). Conclusion Fractional anisotropy combined with MD, RD, or LD is expected to be more useful than FA and MD for diagnosing CSM in patients who show deformed spinal cords without signal changes on MRI. PMID:26576120

  17. Venous Congestive Myelopathy due to Chronic Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis Treated with Endovascular Stenting: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Diego Z.; Hughes, Joshua D.; Liebo, Greta B.; Bendel, Emily C.; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Klaas, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Impaired inferior vena cava (IVC) outflow can lead to collateralization of blood to the valveless epidural venous plexus, causing epidural venous engorgement and venous congestion. Herein we describe a case of chronic IVC thrombosis presenting as venous congestive myelopathy treated with angioplasty and endovascular stenting. The pathophysiological mechanisms of cord injury are hypothesized, and IVC stenting application is evaluated. Methods Case report and review of the literature. Results IVC outflow obstruction has only rarely been associated with neurologic dysfunction, with reports of lumbosacral nerve root compression in the cases of IVC agenesis, compression, or occlusion. Although endovascular angioplasty with stenting is emerging as a leading treatment option for chronic IVC thrombosis, its use to treat neurologic complications is limited to one case report for intractable sciatica. Our case is the first description of IVC thrombosis presenting with venous congestive myelopathy, and treated successfully with IVC stenting. Conclusion Venous congestive myelopathy should be seen as a broader clinical condition, including not only typical dural arteriovenous fistulas, but also disorders of venous outflow. Therefore, identifying a rare, but potentially treatable, etiology is important to avoid permanent neurologic deficits. IVC stenting is proposed as a novel and effective treatment approach. PMID:25825633

  18. Cox Decompression Manipulation and Guided Rehabilitation of a Patient With a Post Surgical C6-C7 Fusion With Spondylotic Myelopathy and Concurrent L5-S1 Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Joachim, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe combined treatment utilizing Cox distraction manipulation and guided rehabilitation for a patient with spine pain and post-surgical C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and L5-S1 radiculopathy. Clinical features A 38-year-old man presented to a chiropractic clinic with neck pain and a history of an anterior cervical spine plate fusion at C6-7 after a work related accident 4 years earlier. He had signs and symptoms of spondolytic myelopathy and right lower back, right posterior thigh pain and numbness. Intervention and outcome The patient was treated with Cox technique and rehabilitation. The patient experienced a reduction of pain on a numeric pain scale from 8/10 to 3/10. The patient was seen a total of 12 visits over 3 months. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions A patient with a prior C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and concurrent L5-S1 radiculopathy improved after a course of rehabilitation and Cox distraction manipulation. Further research is needed to establish its efficiency. PMID:25685119

  19. HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: Semiautomatic Quantification of Spinal Cord Atrophy from 3-Dimensional MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Evangelou, Iordanis E.; Unsong, Oh; Massoud, Raya; Jacobson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a disabling neurological disorder characterized by inflammatory changes in the spinal cord. We used a semiautomatic technique to quantify spinal cord volume from 3-dimensional MR images of patients with HAM/TSP. METHODS Five patients and 5 matched healthy volunteers (HVs) underwent MRI of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord at 1.5 T. Quantification of the spinal cord volume was obtained from 3-dimensional MR images using a semiautomatic technique based on level sets. An unpaired t-test was used to assess statistical significance. RESULTS Significant differences were found between mean spinal cord volume of HVs and HAM/TSP patients. The thoracic spinal cord volume was 14,050 ± 981 mm3 for HVs and 8,774 ± 2,218 mm3 for HAM/TSP patients (P = .0079), a reduction of 38%. The cervical spinal cord volume was 9,721 ± 797 mm3 for HVs and 6,589 ± 897 mm3 for HAM/TSP patients (P = .0079), a reduction of 32%. These results suggest that atrophy is evident throughout the spinal cord not routinely quantified. CONCLUSIONS Semiautomatic spinal cord volume quantification is a sensitive technique for quantifying the extent of spinal cord involvement in HAM/TSP. PMID:22303896

  20. Cervical myelopathy due to single level disc herniation presenting as intramedullary mass lesion: What to do first?

    PubMed

    Ek?i, Murat ?akir; Özcan Ek?i, Emel Ece; Y?lmaz, Baran; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy (CM) is mostly a degenerative process ending in myelopathic and/or radiculopathic syndromes. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CM appears as a hyperintense area near the spondylotic spine. This high intensity signal depends on the impact of outer forces and their duration. It also determines the prognosis of the surgical candidate. A 40-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with right upper extremity weakness and hypoesthesia that had started 2 months earlier. On neurological examination there was 2/5 motor weakness of right biceps brachii, and hypoesthesia over right C6 dermatome. Right upper extremity deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive, but lower ones were hyperactive. After clinical and radiological work-up, preliminary diagnosis was directed to a spinal intramedullary tumor. Total resection of the herniated cervical disc fragment and the mass lesion was managed. Pathology of the mass lesion was compatible with subacute infarct tissue and inflammatory response. Final diagnosis was CM under effect of cervical disc herniation. Contrast-enhanced spinal cord myelopathic lesions are very rare and resemble much more tumors and inflammatory processes. However, the principal treatment approach totally differs depending on pathology. When there are both a disc herniation and a high clinical suspicion; biopsy should be delayed. The most probable solution will be surgery for the disc disease with thorough preoperative scanning of vascular malformations; clinical and radiological close follow-up after surgery. Biopsy or surgical resection can be performed if patient deteriorates despite the primary surgery. PMID:25972718

  1. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Katia N; Macêdo, Maíra C; Andrade, Rosana P; Mendes, Selena D; Martins, José V; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord – HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis – and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions. PMID:25759588

  2. The Practical Application of Clinical Prediction Rules: A Commentary Using Case Examples in Surgical Patients with Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Le, David; Côté, Pierre; Fehlings, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Commentary. Objective?This commentary aims to discuss the practical applications of a clinical prediction rule (CPR) developed to predict functional status in patients undergoing surgery for the treatment of degenerative cervical myelopathy. Methods?Clinical cases from the AOSpine CSM-North America study were used to illustrate the application of a prediction rule in a surgical setting and to highlight how this CPR can be used to ultimately enhance patient care. Results?A CPR combines signs and symptoms, patient characteristics, and other predictive factors to estimate disease probability, treatment prognosis, or risk of complications. These tools can influence allocation of health care resources, inform clinical decision making, and guide the design of future research studies. In a surgical setting, CPRs can be used to (1) manage patients' expectations of outcome and, in turn, improve overall satisfaction; (2) facilitate shared decision making between patient and physician; (3) identify strategies to optimize surgical results; and (4) reduce heterogeneity of care and align surgeons' perceptions of outcome with objective evidence. Conclusions?Valid and clinically-relevant CPRs have tremendous value in a surgical setting. PMID:26682095

  3. Biomechanical analysis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: The influence of dynamic factors and morphometry of the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Norihiro; Kato, Yoshihiko; Imajo, Yasuaki; Kawano, Syunichi; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) have the same clinical symptoms that vary according to the degree of spinal cord compression and the cross-sectional cord shape. We used a three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) to analyze the stress distributions of the spinal cord with neck extension under three cross-sectional cord shapes. Methods Experimental condition for the 3D-FEM spinal cord, ligamentum flavum, and anterior compression shape (central, lateral, and diffuse types) was established. To simulate neck extension, the spinal cord was extended by 20° and the ligamentum flavum was shifted distally according to movement of the cephalad lamina. Results The stress distribution in the spinal cord increased due to invagination of the ligamentum flavum into the neck extension. The range of stress distribution observed for the diffuse type was wider than for the central and lateral types. In addition, the stress distribution in the spinal cord was increased by the pincer movement of the ligamentum flavum and by the anterior compression of the spinal cord. The range of stress distribution observed for the diffuse type under antero-posterior compression was also wider than for the central and lateral types. Conclusion This simulation model showed that the clinical symptoms of CSM due to compression of the diffuse type may be stronger than for the central and lateral types. Therefore, careful follow-up is recommended for anterior compression of the spinal cord of diffuse type. PMID:22925752

  4. Canine degenerative myelopathy: biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Matthew J; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. PMID:23707216

  5. Early detection of cervical spondylotic myelopathy using diffusion tensor imaging: Experiences in 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahmadli, Uzeyir; Ulrich, Nils H; Yuqiang, Yao; Nanz, Daniel; Sarnthein, Johannes; Kollias, Spyros S

    2015-10-01

    *These authors contributed equally to this work.The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for early detection of pathological alterations in the myelon in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) without T2-weighted imaging (T2W) signal abnormalities but with a narrowed spinal canal with corresponding clinical correlation. Axial DTI at 1.5T together with routine magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 18 patients fulfilling above mentioned criteria. Quantitative fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated. Values at the narrowest cervical levels were compared to pre- and poststenotic levels and the interindividual means were tested for statistically significant differences by means of paired t-tests. The correlation between the grade and width of canal stenosis in the axial plane was measured. FA was significantly reduced at the stenotic level, compared to prestenotic level, whereas no significant differences were found when compared to poststenotic level. No significant differences between ADC values at stenotic level versus both adjacent non-stenotic levels were found, suggesting very early stage of degeneration. ADC values correlated significantly with the width of the spinal canal at the prestenotic level, but not at the poststenotic level. Findings indicate sufficient robustness of routine implementation of DTI at 1.5T to detect abnormalities in the spinal cord of CSM patients, before apparent T2W signal abnormalities and marked clinical deterioration. Therefore, larger and long-term studies should be conducted to establish the DTI scalar metrics that would indicate early intervention for a better clinical outcome in patients with clinical signs of CSM. PMID:26452521

  6. Different Approaches for Treating Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Retrospective Study of 153 Cases from a Single Spinal Center

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiumao; Jiang, Liang; Liu, Zhongjun; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Hua; Wei, Feng; Yu, Miao; Wu, Fengliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The optimal surgical treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) remains controversial. This study compared the outcomes of three surgical approaches for MSCM treatment, focusing on the efficacy and safety of a combined approach. Methods This retrospective study included 153 consecutive MCSM patients (100 men, 53 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 55.7 ± 9.4 years) undergoing operations involving ?3 intervertebral segments. The patients were divided into three groups according to surgical approach: anterior (n = 19), posterior (n = 76), and combined (n = 58). We assessed demographic variables, perioperative parameters, and clinical outcomes ?12 months after surgery (20.5 ± 7.6 months), including Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, improvement, recovery rate, and complications. Results The anterior group had the most favorable preoperative conditions, including the highest preoperative JOA score (12.95 ± 1.86, p = 0.046). In contrast, the combined group had the highest occupancy ratio (48.0% ± 11.6%, p = 0.002). All groups showed significant neurological improvement at final follow-ups, with JOA recovery rates of 59.7%, 54.6%, and 68.9% in the anterior, posterior, and combined groups, respectively (p = 0.163). After multivariable adjustments, the groups did not have significantly different clinical outcomes (postoperative JOA score, p = 0.424; improvement, p = 0.424; recovery rate, p = 0.080). Further, subgroup analyses of patients with occupancy ratios ?50% showed similar functional outcomes following the posterior and combined approaches. Overall complication rates did not differ significantly among the three approaches (p = 0.600). Occupancy ratios did not have a significant negative influence on postoperative recovery following the posterior approach. Conclusions If applied appropriately, all three approaches are effective for treating MCSM. All three approaches had equivalent neurological outcomes, even in subgroups with high occupancy ratios. Further investigations of surgical approaches to MCSM are needed, particularly prospective multicenter studies with long-term follow-up. PMID:26460488

  7. Outcome Measures of Functionality, Social Interaction, and Pain in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Validation Study for the Iranian Version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Alizadeh, Pooyan; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and validate the Iranian version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient-reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods Ninety-three cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy were entered into the study and completed the CNFDS pre and postoperatively at the 6 month follow-up. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association Score was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, construct validity (item scale correlation), and responsiveness to change were assessed. Results Mean age of the patients was 54.3 years (standard deviation, 8.9). The Cronbach ? coefficient was satisfactory (?=0.84). Test-retest reliability as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score correlated strongly with the CNFDS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=-0.80; p<0.001). Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the CNFDS was acceptable, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. These results also indicate that the instrument was responsive to change (p<0.0001). Conclusions The findings suggest that the Iranian version of the CNFDS is a valid measure to assess functionality, social interaction, and pain among patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:26713123

  8. Isolated Spinal Metastasis with Spinal Cord Compression Leads to a Diagnosis of a Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Galgano, Michael; Libohova, Silva; Marawar, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid carcinoma initially presents with clinical symptoms due to metastatic lesions in less than 5% of cases. Spinal cord compression from an epidural metastatic lesion as a first symptom is extremely rare. One would expect such a presentation to occur much later in the course of the disease. Methods: We are presenting a case report of a follicular thyroid carcinoma that presented with spinal cord compression from a thoracic epidural metastatic lesion in a previously healthy 55-year-old male. A single metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting with posterior spinal cord compression is rare. In this particular case, our management included a mid-thoracic laminectomy, followed by resection of the epidural lesion. Once the surgical pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a follicular thyroid carcinoma, the general surgery team performed a near total thyroidectomy, after which he received radioactive iodine therapy. The patient is symptom-free at his three-year follow-up. Conclusion: Initial presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma with symptomatic thoracic myelopathy from an epidural metastasis is very uncommon. An early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention provided an excellent outcome.

  9. Application of Intrawound Vancomycin Powder during Spine Surgery in a Patient with Dialysis-Dependent Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jackson; Burke, Shane M.; Qu, Evan; Hwang, Steven W.; Riesenburger, Ron I.

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal surgery are a serious complication that can be minimized with prophylaxis. Vancomycin is a common agent used in the prevention of SSI. Given that vancomycin is renally cleared, its use requires careful observation in dialysis-dependent patients due to toxicity at supratherapeutic levels. Since minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for vancomycin have increased due to the emergence of resistant pathogens, the use of vancomycin in such patients is further complicated. Local instillation of vancomycin powder is thought to provide additional protection against SSI and have lower systemic absorption. We present a patient with end-stage renal disease that developed progressively debilitating cervical spondylotic myelopathy necessitating multilevel laminectomy and instrumented fusion. Prior to closure, 1 gram of vancomycin powder was sprinkled into the surgical incision. Postoperative serum vancomycin levels were well below those associated with nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Based on this experience, we reviewed the relevant guidelines that were designed to prevent postoperative infections in such dialysis-dependent patients. Intrawound application of vancomycin may be a legitimate and safe option for SSI prophylaxis in patients with renal failure on dialysis. PMID:26185703

  10. Surgical Treatment for Atlanto-Occipital Subluxation due to Destructive Spondyloarthropathy in a Patient Undergoing Long-Term Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yasuaki; Kato, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) has been reported in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Cervical spinal lesions, including those of the upper cervical spine, are reported to be some of the most common. To our knowledge, we report for the first time, a case of atlanto-occipital subluxation requiring surgical treatment due to severe myelopathy and nuchal pain in a patient undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The patient was a 66-year-old woman who had undergone hemodialysis for 40 years. She visited our hospital due to an acute progression of gait disturbance and severe nuchal pain. Computed tomography showed posterior subluxation of the atlanto-occipital joints. DSA was also observed in the lower cervical spine. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal canal stenosis at both the upper and lower cervical levels. We performed Oc-C7 fixation, C1 laminectomy, and C3-C7 laminoplasty. We first recognized that the atlanto-occipital subluxation was caused by the extremely long-term, in this case, 40 years, hemodialysis. PMID:26240725

  11. Complications corner: Anterior thoracic disc surgery with dural tear/CSF fistula and low-pressure pleural drain led to severe intracranial hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Oudeman, Eline A.; Tewarie, Rishi D. S. Nandoe; Jöbsis, G. Joost; Arts, Mark P.; Kruyt, Nyika D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thoracic disc surgery can lead to a life-threatening complication: intracranial hypotension due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula. Case Description: We report a 63-year-old male with paraparesis due to multiple herniated thoracic discs, with compressive myelopathy. The patient required a circumferential procedure including a laminectomy/fusion followed by an anterior thoracic decompression to address both diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) anteriorly and posterior stenosis. The postoperative course was complicated by severe intracranial hypotension attributed to the erroneous placement of a low-pressure drain placed in the pleural cavity instead of a lumbar drain; this resulted in subdural hematoma's necessitating subsequent surgery. Conclusion: Severe neurological deterioration occurring after thoracic decompressive surgery may rarely be attributed to intracranial hypotension due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula. Patients should be treated with external lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for 3–5 days rather than a low-pressure pleural drain to avoid the onset of intracranial hypotension leading to symptomatic subdural hematomas. PMID:26005575

  12. Measuring Surgical Outcomes in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: Assessment of Minimum Clinically Important Difference

    PubMed Central

    Auffinger, Brenda M.; Lall, Rishi R.; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Wong, Albert P.; Lam, Sandi K.; Koski, Tyler; Fessler, Richard G.; Smith, Zachary A.

    2013-01-01

    Object The concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) has been used to measure the threshold by which the effect of a specific treatment can be considered clinically meaningful. MCID has previously been studied in surgical patients, however few studies have assessed its role in spinal surgery. The goal of this study was to assess the role of MCID in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Data was collected on 30 patients who underwent ACDF for CSM between 2007 and 2012. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual-Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Component Summary PRO scores were collected. Five distribution- and anchor-based approaches were used to calculate MCID threshold values average change, change difference, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The Health Transition Item of the SF-36 (HTI) was used as an external anchor. Results Patients had a significant improvement in all mean physical PRO scores postoperatively (p<0.01) NDI (29.24 to 14.82), VAS (5.06 to 1.72), and PCS (36.98 to 44.22). The five MCID approaches yielded a range of values for each PRO: 2.00–8.78 for PCS, 2.06–5.73 for MCS, 4.83–13.39 for NDI, and 0.36–3.11 for VAS. PCS was the most representative PRO measure, presenting the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.94). MDC values were not affected by the choice of anchor and their threshold of improvement was statistically greater than the chance of error from unimproved patients. Conclusion SF-36 PCS was the most representative PRO measure. MDC appears to be the most appropriate MCID method. When MDC was applied together with HTI anchor, the MCID thresholds were: 13.39 for NDI, 3.11 for VAS, 5.56 for PCS and 5.73 for MCS. PMID:23826290

  13. [A Case of Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome due to Perimedullary AVF: Remission and Aggravation Mechanism Considered by an Open Surgical Biopsy and Intraoperative ICG Angiography].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Fumiaki; Akasaki, Yasuharu; Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Arai, Takao; Isoshima, Akira; Nagashima, Hiroyasu; Murayama, Yuichi

    2015-08-01

    Foix-Alajouanine syndrome (FAS), also known as congestive myelopathy due to spinal vascular malformations, presents with paraplegia, sensory disturbance of lower limbs, and dysfunction of the bladder and rectum. Although FAS is characterized by a subacute onset of neurological symptoms that may wax and wane over a few years, the progression mechanism remains unclear. We report a case of FAS due to an angiographically occult arteriovenous fistula (AVF) that was diagnosed by an open surgical biopsy and intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. The patient was a 74-year-old female who presented with a one-year history of gradually progressive gait disturbance, weakness, and decreased sensation in her legs associated with bladder and rectum dysfunction. MRI showed intramedullary T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity at level Th4-12, and intramedullary enhancing with a Gd-DTPA lesion at level Th8-12. A true-FISP image of the MRI revealed an abnormal tortuous vessel in the dorsal spinal subarachnoid space, but digital subtraction angiography of the spine at the C1-L5 level showed no abnormality. The patient also underwent Th8-12 laminectomy for open biopsy. ICG angiography revealed blood flow stagnation in an abnormally enlarged posterior spinal vein. Histological findings indicated necrotizing myelopathy and stenosis with wall thickening of the posterior spinal vein. We hypothesized that the progression mechanism in the present case may have resulted from histological changes in the draining veins of an AVF. Intraoperative ICG angiography may be a valuable method, not only for diagnosing AVFs but also for determining the existence and pathological characteristics of FAS. PMID:26224468

  14. Comparison between anterior cervical discectomy with fusion and anterior cervical corpectomy with fusion for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Qi; Li, Jinjun; Su, Nan; Wang, Bingqiang; Li, Dong; Meng, Hai; Wang, Qi; Lin, Jisheng; Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF) or anterior cervical corpectomy with fusion (ACCF) is superior in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively compare the efficacy and safety of ACDF and ACCF in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, People’s Republic of China), and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, People’s Republic of China) were systematically searched to identify all available studies comparing efficacy and safety between patients receiving ACDF and ACCF. The weighted mean difference (WMD) was pooled to compare the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores, visual analog scale scores, hospital stay, operation time, and blood loss. The risk ratio was pooled to compare the incidence of complications and fusion rate. Pooled estimates were calculated by using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model according to the heterogeneity among studies. Results Eighteen studies (17 observational studies and one randomized controlled trial) were included in this meta-analysis. Our results suggest that hospital stay (WMD =?1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: ?2.29, ?0.27; P=0.014), operation time (WMD =?26.9, 95% CI: ?46.13, ?7.67; P=0.006), blood loss (WMD =?119.36, 95% CI: ?166.94, ?71.77; P=0.000), and incidence of complications (risk ratio =0.51, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.80; P=0.003) in the ACDF group were significantly less than that in the ACCF group. However, other clinical outcomes, including post-Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (WMD =?0.27, 95% CI: ?0.57, 0.03; P=0.075), visual analog scale score (WMD =0.03, 95% CI: ?1.44, 1.50; P=0.970), and fusion rate (risk ratio =1.04, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.09; P=0.158), between the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion Evidence from the meta-analysis of 18 studies demonstrated that surgical options of cervical spondylotic myelopathy using ACDF or ACCF seemed to have similar clinical outcomes. However, ACDF was found to be superior to ACCF in terms of hospital stay, operation time, blood loss, and incidence of complications. PMID:26604771

  15. Immunogenetics and the Pathological Mechanisms of Human T-Cell Leukemia VirusType 1- (HTLV-1-)Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mineki

    2010-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that complex virus-host interactions play an important role in determining the risk of HAM/TSP. This review focuses on the role of the immune response in controlling or limiting viral persistence in HAM/TSP patients, and the reason why some HTLV-1-infected people develop HAM/TSP whereas the majority remains asymptomatic carriers of the virus. PMID:20169122

  16. SPINE Volume 35, Number 19, pp 17891793 2010, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    SPINE Volume 35, Number 19, pp 1789­1793 ©2010, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Effect of Bilateral Laminotomy Versus Laminectomy on the Motion and Stiffness of the Human Lumbar Spine simulation model of the lumbar spine was used to study the intervertebral motion characteristics

  17. Utility of the MMPI Pain Assessment Index in Predicting Outcome After Lumbar Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the ability of the Pain Assesment Index, determined from presurgery Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores, to predict outcome subsequent to lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. The PAI was found to have good ability to identify patients who were doing well after surgery, but low power in predicting which patients would have…

  18. Characterization of Thoracic Motor and Sensory Neurons and Spinal Nerve Roots in Canine Degenerative Myelopathy, a Potential Disease Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Brandie R.; Coates, Joan R.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Shelton, G. Diane; Katz, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Canine Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) is a progressive adult-onset multisystem degenerative disease with many features in common with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As with some forms of ALS, DM is associated with mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Clinical signs include general proprioceptive ataxia and spastic upper motor neuron paresis in pelvic limbs, which progress to flaccid tetraplegia and dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to characterize DM as a potential disease model for ALS. We previously reported that intercostal muscle atrophy develops in dogs with advanced stage DM. To determine if other components of the thoracic motor unit (MU) also demonstrated morphological changes consistent with dysfunction, histopathologic and morphometric analyses were conducted on thoracic spinal motor neurons (MN) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and in motor and sensory nerve root axons from DM-affected Boxers and Pembroke Welsh Corgis (PWCs). No alterations in MNs, or motor root axons were observed in either breed. However, advanced stage PWCs exhibited significant losses of sensory root axons, and numerous DRG sensory neurons displayed evidence of degeneration. These results indicate that intercostal muscle atrophy in DM is not preceded by physical loss of the motor neurons innervating these muscles, or of their axons. Axonal loss in thoracic sensory roots and sensory nerve death suggest sensory involvement may play an important role in DM disease progression. Further analysis of the mechanisms responsible for these morphological findings would aid in the development of therapeutic intervention for DM and some forms of ALS. PMID:24375814

  19. HLA DRB1*DQB1* haplotype in HTLV-I-associated familial infective dermatitis may predict development of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    SciTech Connect

    LaGrenade, L.; Miller, W.; Pate, E.; Rodgers-Johnson, P.

    1996-01-02

    A possible causal association between infective dermatitis and HTLV-I infection was reported in 1990 and confirmed in 1992. We now report familial infective dermatitis (ID) occurring in a 26-year-old mother and her 9-year-old son. The mother was first diagnosed with ID in 1969 at the age of 2 years in Dermatology Unit at the University Hospital of the West Indies (U.H.W.I.) in Jamacia. The elder of her 2 sons was diagnosed with ID at the age of 3 years, also at U.H.W.I. Both mother and son are HTLV-I-seropositive. A second, younger son, currently age 2 years, is also HTLV-I-seropositive, but without clinical evidence of ID. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), class II, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping documented a shared class II haplotype, DRB1*DQB1* (1101-0301), in the mother and her 2 sons. This same haplotype has been described among Japanese patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and has been associated with a possible pathologically heightened immune response to HTLV-I infection. The presence of this haplotype in these familial ID cases with clinical signs of HAM/TSP may have contributed to their risk for development of HAM/TSP. The unaffected, HTLV-I-seropositive, younger son requires close clinical follow-up. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Quantitative assessment of hsp70, IL-1? and TNF-? in the spinal cord of dogs with E40K SOD1-associated degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Lovett, M C; Coates, J R; Shu, Y; Oglesbee, M J; Fenner, W; Moore, S A

    2014-05-01

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disease commonly associated with an E40K missense mutation in the SOD1 gene. DM has many similarities to some familial forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and may serve as an important disease model for therapy development. Pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and heat shock protein (hsp) 70 play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS. The focus of the current work was to determine whether an inflammatory phenotype is present in canine DM as defined by IL-1?, TNF-?, and hsp70 responses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and spinal cord tissue. Concentrations of hsp70, IL-1? and TNF-? were below the limits of detection by ELISA in the CSF of both normal and DM-affected dogs. Immunohistochemical staining for hsp70 was significantly increased in ependymal cells lining the spinal cord central canal of DM-affected dogs (P?=?0.003). This was not associated with increased IL-1? or TNF-? staining, but was associated with increased CD18 staining in the gray matter of DM-affected dogs. These results suggest that hsp70 in spinal cord tissue is a potential inflammatory signature in canine DM. PMID:24662024

  1. Association of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis in North-East of Iran (Mashhad)

    PubMed Central

    Shirdel, Abbas; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Sahebari, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Mirfeizi, Seyedeh Zahra; Hutchinson, Ian; Ziaee, Aghigh; Rafatpanah, Houshang

    2013-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms leading to the development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-I infected individuals are not fully understood. Host genetic factors appear to be involved as risk factors for developing HAM/TSP. We investigated the possible contribution of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as a risk factor to HAM/TSP by comparing frequencies of promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms in HTLV-I infected Iranian patients who either remained asymptomatic or developed HAM/TSP and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Healthy, uninfected individuals from the same region served as healthy controls. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of IL-10 promoter alleles and genotypes at position -819 and -592 between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls (P=0.01), and between HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls (P=0.02). The frequency of the low IL-10 producer haplotype (-1082*A, -819*T, -592*A) was significantly associated with HTLV-I carriage or HAM/TSP compared with healthy controls (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that IL-10 -819*T and -592*A alleles are significant risk factors for developing HTLLV-I infection but do not appear to convey additional risk for developing HAM/TSP. PMID:24470873

  2. Association of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis in North-East of Iran (Mashhad).

    PubMed

    Shirdel, Abbas; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Sahebari, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Mirfeizi, Seyedeh Zahra; Hutchinson, Ian; Ziaee, Aghigh; Rafatpanah, Houshang

    2013-03-01

    The underlying mechanisms leading to the development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-I infected individuals are not fully understood. Host genetic factors appear to be involved as risk factors for developing HAM/TSP. We investigated the possible contribution of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as a risk factor to HAM/TSP by comparing frequencies of promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms in HTLV-I infected Iranian patients who either remained asymptomatic or developed HAM/TSP and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Healthy, uninfected individuals from the same region served as healthy controls. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of IL-10 promoter alleles and genotypes at position -819 and -592 between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls (P=0.01), and between HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls (P=0.02). The frequency of the low IL-10 producer haplotype (-1082*A, -819*T, -592*A) was significantly associated with HTLV-I carriage or HAM/TSP compared with healthy controls (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that IL-10 -819*T and -592*A alleles are significant risk factors for developing HTLLV-I infection but do not appear to convey additional risk for developing HAM/TSP. PMID:24470873

  3. HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Is Not Associated with SNP rs12979860 of the IL-28B Gene

    PubMed Central

    Vallinoto, Antonio C. R.; Santana, Bárbara Brasil; Sá, Keyla S. G.; Ferreira, Tuane C. S.; Sousa, Rita Catarina M.; Azevedo, Vânia N.; Feitosa, Rosimar N. M.; Machado, Luiz Fernando A.; Ishak, Marluísa O. G.; Ishak, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between the rs12979860 polymorphism in the IL-28B gene and HTLV-1 infection as well as the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1-infected patients (26 HAM/TSP symptomatic and 53 asymptomatic) and 300 seronegative healthy controls were investigated. Plasma levels of the cytokines TNF-?, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-? from infected patients were measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The HTLV proviral load was measured using a real-time PCR assay, and T-cell subset counts were determined by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was used to genotype the rs12979860 SNP. The allelic and genotypic distributions displayed no significant differences among the investigated groups. No significant association between the serum cytokine levels and the presence of the rs12979860 SNP in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects was observed. A positive correlation (p = 0.0015) between TNF-? and IFN-? was observed in the asymptomatic group, but a positive correlation was only observed (p = 0.0180) between TNF-? and IL-6 in the HAM/TSP group. The proviral load was significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic subjects. The present results do not support a previous report indicating an association between the SNP rs12979860 and HAM/TSP outcome. PMID:26609200

  4. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion versus anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion in the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: systematic review and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhi-qiang; Du, Jing-yu; Ling, Zhi-heng; Xu, Hai-dong; Lin, Xiang-jin

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, the decision to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively determine the efficacy of ACDF and ACCF in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Methods We searched several databases for related research articles published in English or Chinese. We extracted and assessed the data independently. We determined the pooled data, data heterogeneity, and overall effect, respectively. Results We identified 15 eligible studies with 1,368 patients. We found that blood loss and numbers of complications during surgery in ACDF were significantly less that in ACCF; however, other clinical outcomes, such as operation time, bone fusion failure, post Japanese Orthopedic Association scores, recovery rates, and visual analog scale scores between ACDF and ACCF with multilevel CSM were not significantly different. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that surgical treatments of multilevel CSM are similar in terms of most clinical outcomes using ACDF or ACCF. PMID:25673996

  5. Texture-based characterization of pre- and post-operative T2-weighted magnetic resonance signals of the cervical spinal cord in cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniatis, Ioannis; Klironomos, George; Gatzounis, George; Panayiotakis, George

    2009-10-01

    The utility of texture analysis regarding the provision of quantitative prognostic factors, potentially valuable to the prediction of the post-operative outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients, is investigated. The clinical sample of the study comprised six subjects, who had undergone surgical therapeutic intervention for CSM. Following a specific imaging protocol, a pair of MR images of the cervical spine, corresponding to pre- and post-operative MR scans, was obtained for each of the patients. Accordingly, 12 sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were studied. Employing custom developed software, a Region Of Interest (ROI) within the spinal cord, corresponding to the region of the high-intensity CSM MR signal, was segmented on each image, according to the region growing method. Utilizing custom developed algorithms, the following sets of textural features were generated from the segmented ROIs: (i) gradient features, (ii) mean values of features from co-occurrence matrices (co-occurrence features) and (iii) range values of co-occurrence features. Utilizing each one of these sets of features, as well as the least-squares minimum distance and the quadratic classification algorithms, pattern recognition classification schemes were implemented for the discrimination between pre-operative and post-operative MR signals. Statistical analysis revealed the existence of statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between textural features generated from pre-operative and post-operative high-intensity MR signals. The classification accuracies accomplished ranged from 75% to 100%. Textural features, descriptive of relevant properties of the high-intensity MR signal in CSM, may be considered as quantitative information of potential value for the prediction of the post-operative outcome of CSM patients.

  6. Electrophysiological analysis shows dizziness as the first symptom in human T cell lymphotropic virus type-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Labanca, Ludimila; Starling, Ana Lúcia Borges; de Sousa-Pereira, Silvio Roberto; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Carvalho, Lucas Novaes; Fernandes, Daniele Rosa; Utsch Gonçalves, Denise

    2015-06-01

    Dizziness is a symptom in human T cell lymphotropic virus type-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and may occur due to vestibulospinal tract dysfunction. This tract can be assessed by an electrophysiological test called vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). The aim was to correlate the result of VEMP generated by acoustic stimuli and dizziness in individuals with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-asymptomatic infection and HAM/TSP. VEMP was recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscle of 60 HTLV-1-negative adults (60±8 years) and 60 individuals infected with HTLV-1, 30 being asymptomatic (59±8 years) and 30 with HAM/TSP (59±8 years). In all groups, 90% of the participants were women. VEMP was generated by acoustic stimuli (short tone bursts), with an intensity of 118 dBHL and band-pass filter from 10?Hz to 1,500?Hz, and presented 200 stimuli at a frequency of 1,000?Hz with a record time of 60?ms. Of 60 HTLV-1-negative individuals, 14 (23%) reported dizziness; VEMP was normal in all. In the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, 11(37%) complained of dizziness (p=0.31); VEMP was altered in four (40%) subjects with dizziness and in one (5%) without dizziness (p=0.00). In the group with HAM/TSP, dizziness was reported by 17 (57%) subjects (p=0.002); VEMP was altered in 11 (64%) with dizziness and in 5 (38%) without dizziness (p=0.15). Dizziness without an apparent etiology in HTLV-1-asymptomatic carriers deserves attention in terms of a possible subclinical spinal cord involvement that can be clarified through spinal electrophysiological tests. Damage of the vestibulospinal tract seems to occur in the early stages of HAM/TSP. PMID:25760424

  7. A Review of Fibrocartilaginous Embolic Myelopathy and Different Types of Peracute Non-Compressive Intervertebral Disk Extrusions in Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    De Risio, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses terminology, pathological, clinical, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment, outcome, and prognostic factors of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCEM), acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE), and intradural/intramedullary intervertebral disk extrusion (IIVDE). FCEM, ANNPE, and IIVDE have a similar clinical presentation characterized by peracute onset of neurological dysfunction that is generally non-progressive after the initial 24–48?h. Differentiating between these conditions can be challenging, however, certain clinical and imaging findings can help. FCEM can occur in both adult and immature animals, whereas ANNPE or IIVDE have been reported only in animals older than 1?year. In dogs, ANNPE and IIVDE most commonly occur in the intervertebral disk spaces between T12 and L2, whereas FCEM has not such site predilection. In cats, FCEM occurs more frequently in the cervical spinal cord than in other locations. Data on cats with ANNPE and IIVDE are limited. Optimal MRI definition and experience in neuroimaging can help identify the findings that allow differentiation between FCEM, ANNPE, and IIVDE. In animals with ANNPE and IIVDE, the affected intervertebral disk space is often narrowed and the focal area of intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted images is located above the affected intervertebral disk space. In dogs with ANNPE signal changes associated with the extruded nucleus pulposus and epidural fat disruption can be identified in the epidural space dorsal to the affected intervertebral disk. Identification of a linear tract (predominantly hyperintense on T2-weighted images, iso to hypointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2*-weighted gradient recall echo images) extending from the intervertebral disk into the spinal cord parenchyma is highly suggestive of IIVDE. Treatment of FCEM and ANNPE is conservative. Dogs reported with IIVDE have been managed either conservatively or surgically. Prognostic factors include degree of neurological dysfunction (particularly loss of nociception) and disease-specific MRI variables. PMID:26664953

  8. Single-stage Anterior and Posterior Fusion Surgery for Correction of Cervical Kyphotic Deformity Using Intervertebral Cages and Cervical Lateral Mass Screws: Postoperative Changes in Total Spine Sagittal Alignment in Three Cases with a Minimum Follow-up of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    OGIHARA, Satoshi; KUNOGI, Junichi

    The surgical treatment of cervical kyphotic deformity remains challenging. As a surgical method that is safer and avoids major complications, the authors present a procedure of single-stage anterior and posterior fusion to correct cervical kyphosis using anterior interbody fusion cages without plating, as illustrated by three consecutive cases. Case 1 was a 78-year-old woman who presented with a dropped head caused by degeneration of her cervical spine. Case 2 was a 54-year-old woman with athetoid cerebral palsy. She presented with cervical myelopathy and cervical kyphosis. Case 3 was a 71-year-old woman with cervical kyphotic deformity following a laminectomy. All three patients underwent anterior release and interbody fusion with cages and posterior fusion with cervical lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation. Postoperative radiographs showed that correction of kyphosis was 39° in case 1, 43° in case 2, and 39° in case 3. In all three cases, improvement of symptoms was established without major perioperative complications, solid fusion was achieved, and no loss of correction was observed at a minimum follow-up of 61 months. We also report that preoperative total spine sagittal malalignment was improved after corrective surgery for cervical kyphosis and was maintained at the latest follow-up in all three cases. The combination of anterior fusion cages and LMS is considered a safe and effective procedure in cases of severe cervical kyphotic deformity. Preoperative total spine sagittal malalignment improved, accompanied by correction of cervical kyphosis, and was maintained at last follow-up in all three cases. PMID:26119893

  9. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... between the vertebrae results in narrowing of the space for the spinal cord and its branches, known ... and cervical stenosis refers to narrowing of the space for the spinal cord or nerve branches in ...

  10. Amyotrophic cervical myelopathy in adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Toma, S; Shiozawa, Z

    1995-01-01

    The clinical and radiological features in seven patients who had asymmetric muscular atrophy of the hand and forearm when young are reported and a new hypothesis for its aetiology is proposed. Investigation of body growth curves (a surrogate for velocity of arm growth) showed close relation between (a) the age when the body height increased most rapidly and the onset age of this disorder, and (b) the age when the rapid body growth period ended and the age when symptom progression ceased. Cervical radiological evidence is provided showing asymmetric anterior cord atrophy, disappearance of slackness of dorsal roots in neck extension, and anterior and lateral displacement of the lower cervical cord against the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies during neck flexion. These results suggest that disproportionate shortening of the dorsal roots is further accentuated during the juvenile growth spurt, which determines the onset and self limited course of the condition, and that repeated neck flexion causes micro-trauma and relative ischaemia of anterior horn cells, which finally results in atrophy of the muscles innervated by motoneurons with long axons. Predisposing anatomical factors are a straight neck due to lack of physiological cervical lordosis and the presence of foreshortened dorsal roots. Images PMID:7823068

  11. Case Report: A case report highlighting bilateral EDB wasting as a clinical marker for lumbar canal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bijoy Mohan; Munakomi, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Herein we discuss a case of a 55 year old male presenting with history suggestive of sciatica on the left leg. Straight leg raising (SLR) test was positive at 45 degrees on the left side. His ankle reflex was absent and the power of extensor hallusus longus (EHL) was 4/5 on the same side. MRI lumbosacral spine revealed left paramedian disc prolapsed on L4/L5 level with spinal canal diameter of 9mm.However since his bilateral extensor digitorm brevis (EDB) were wasted, we suspected associated lumbar canal stenosis and thereby opted for laminectomy and discectomy in this case. Intraoperatively dural wasting, hypertrophied facets and narrow canal were confirmed. Laminectomy, medial facectectomy and discectomy were carried out. The patient recovered uneventfully with resolution of his sciatica-like pain. Bilateral EDB wasting thereby provides a clinical clue to the underlying lumbar canal stenosis and can help in making correct therapeutic decisions. PMID:26535113

  12. Chiari I malformation associated with atlanto-occipital assimilation presenting as orthopnea and cough syncope: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mangubat, Erwin Zeta; Wilson, Tom; Mitchell, Brian A; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-08-01

    Although it is not uncommon for patients with Chiari I malformations to present with respiratory complaints, cough syncope is a rare presenting symptom. We report an adult patient who harbored both a Chiari I malformation and atlanto-occipital assimilation who complained of cough syncope, orthopnea, and central sleep apnea. The patient underwent decompressive craniectomy of the posterior fossa and cervical level 2 laminectomy. However, due to a possible initial underappreciation of the profound narrowing of the foramen magnum as a result of these concomitant pathologies, the patient may have had continued impaired cerebrospinal fluid flow, leading to a symptomatic pseudomeningocele and requiring a more extensive decompression that included a cervical level 3 laminectomy as well as a temporary lumbar drain. On 2-year follow-up, he has remained asymptomatic. PMID:25083365

  13. Chiari I malformation associated with atlanto-occipital assimilation presenting as orthopnea and cough syncope.

    PubMed

    Mangubat, Erwin Zeta; Wilson, Tom; Mitchell, Brian A; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Although it is not uncommon for patients with Chiari I malformations to present with respiratory complaints, cough syncope is a rare presenting symptom. We report an adult patient who had both a Chiari I malformation and atlanto-occipital assimilation, and complained of cough syncope, orthopnea, and central sleep apnea. The patient underwent decompressive craniectomy of the posterior fossa and a cervical level 2 laminectomy. However, due to an initial under-appreciation of the profound narrowing of the foramen magnum as a result of these concomitant pathologies, the patient had continued impaired cerebrospinal fluid flow, leading to a symptomatic pseudomeningocele and required a more extensive decompression that included a cervical level 3 laminectomy as well as a temporary lumbar drain. On 2 year follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:24080068

  14. Study on different surgical approaches for acute Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lianbing; Fang, Liangqin; Qiu, Yihua; Xing, Shunming; Chen, Dechun; He, Xiang; Wang, Jinxin; Lai, Jing; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Jiefeng; Liao, Teng; Tan, Junming

    2014-01-01

    To compare the long and short term effectiveness and complications of different surgical approaches for Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome and find a better surgical method for the disease. In this study, follow up records of 144 patients received conventional laminectomy and minimally invasive decompression and fenestration 48 hours within acute injury of lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome were analyzed. Surgical outcome immediately and 3, 6, 12, 36 months after the surgery were compared to evaluate the effectiveness two different approaches. The results indicated that there are no significant differences regarding age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) score as well as Frankel scores before the surgery, and significant differences VAS score as well as Frankel scores immediately after the surgery. In conclusion, minimally invasive decompression and fenestration can be of the same effectiveness and less complications comparing with the conventional laminectomy. PMID:25674258

  15. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III; Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  16. Perioperative outcomes in minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Belton, Patrick; Zarzour, Hekmat; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare minimally invasive (MIS) and open techniques for MIS lumbar laminectomy, direct lateral and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries with respect to length of surgery, estimated blood loss (EBL), neurologic complications, perioperative transfusion, postoperative pain, postoperative narcotic use, and length of stay (LOS). METHODS: A systematic review of previously published studies accessible through PubMed was performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Statistical data was calculated with analysis of variance with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 11 pertinent laminectomy studies, 20 direct lateral studies, and 27 TLIF studies were found. For laminectomy, MIS techniques resulted in a significantly longer length of surgery (177.5 min vs 129.0 min, P = 0.04), shorter LOS (4.3 d vs 5.3 d, P = 0.01) and less perioperative pain (visual analog scale: 16 ± 17 vs 34 ± 31, P = 0.04). There is evidence of decreased narcotic use for MIS patients (postoperative intravenous morphine use: 9.3 mg vs 42.8 mg), however this difference is of unknown significance. Direct lateral approaches have insufficient comparative data to establish relative perioperative outcomes. MIS TLIF had superior EBL (352 mL vs 580 mL, P < 0.0001) and LOS (7.7 d vs 10.4 d, P < 0.0001) and limited data to suggest lower perioperative pain. CONCLUSION: Based on perioperative outcomes data, MIS approach is superior to open approach for TLIF. For laminectomy, MIS and open approaches can be chosen based on surgeon preference. For lateral approaches, there is insufficient evidence to find non-inferior perioperative outcomes at this time. PMID:26716097

  17. Concurrent occipital hypoplasia, occipital dysplasia, syringohydromyelia, and hydrocephalus in a Yorkshire terrier

    PubMed Central

    Cagle, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of a 7.5-year-old neutered male Yorkshire terrier with mild generalized ataxia and intermittent neck scratching led to a diagnosis of caudal occipital malformation and syringohydromyelia. Surgical exploration led to a diagnosis of occipital dysplasia with concurrent occipital hypoplasia. Following a dorsal laminectomy of the first cervical vertebra there was no progression or improvement a month later. PMID:21037897

  18. Commentary: Unnecessary preoperative epidural steroid injections lead to cerebrospinal fluid leaks confirmed during spinal stenosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasingly, older patients with severe spinal stenosis/instability undergo multiple unnecessary preoperative epidural spinal injections (ESI), despite their risks and lack of long-term benefits. Here we add to the list of risks by showing how often preoperative ESI lead to punctate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas documented during subsequent surgery (e.g. multilevel laminectomies with non-instrumented fusions). Methods: A series of 39 patients with spinal stenosis/instability prospectively underwent multilevel laminectomy/non-instrumented fusion utilizing lamina autograft and NanOss Bioactive. We asked how often preoperative ESI were performed in this population and how frequently they contributed to operatively confirmed punctate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas. Notably, CSF leaks were clearly attributed to ESI, as they were located centrally/paracentrally at the L4-L5 level, just below hypertrophied/ossified yellow ligament (OYL), and were the exact size of a Tuohy needle with clean edges. Results: An average of 4.1 (range 2-12) preoperative ESI were performed in 33 of 39 patients undergoing average 4.3 level laminectomies and 1.3 level non-instrumented fusions; 6 (18.2%) patients exhibited operatively confirmed, punctate CSF fistulas attributed to these ESI. The most recent injections were administered between 2 and 5 weeks prior to surgery (average 3.9 weeks). Fistulas were primarily repaired with 7-0 GORE-TEX sutures and fibrin Sealant (Tisseel). Conclusions: Of 33 patients undergoing multilevel laminectomies with non-instrumented fusions receiving preoperative ESI, 6 (18.2%) had operatively confirmed punctate CSF fistulas due to preoperative ESI performed an average of 4.1 times per patient. PMID:25289153

  19. Marfan syndrome and symptomatic sacral cyst: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Paul M.; Teuber, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Context Meningeal abnormalities such as dural ectasia are seen in Marfan syndrome, but spinal meningeal cysts are rarely seen. These cysts usually asymptomatic and often found incidentally on magnetic resonance imaging, large cysts may cause neurological deficits and pain secondary to nerve root compression. Design Case reports. Findings Two patients with Marfan syndrome presented with urinary symptoms secondary to dural ectasia and sacral cysts. Patient 1 had a history of low back pain, erectile dysfunction, and occasional urinary incontinence and groin pain with recent symptom worsening. He underwent L5 partial laminectomy and S1-S2 laminectomy with sacral cyst decompression. Nine weeks later, he underwent drainage of a sacral pseudomeningocele. Pain and urinary symptoms resolved, and he remains neurologically normal 2 years after surgery. Patient 2 presented after a fall on his tailbone, complaining of low back pain and difficulty urinating. Physical therapy was implemented, but after 4 weeks, urinary retention had not improved. He then underwent resection of the sacral cyst and S1-S3 laminectomy. Pain and paresthesias resolved and bowel function returned to normal. Other than needing intermittent self-catheterization, all other neurologic findings were normal 30 months after surgery. Conclusion/clinical relevance Surgical goals for sacral cysts include resection as well as closure of the dura, which can be challenging due to thinning from ectasia. Neurosurgical intervention in Marfan syndrome is associated with a high risk of dural tears and osseous complications, and should be performed only when symptoms are severe. PMID:23941798

  20. Tax Posttranslational Modifications and Interaction with Calreticulin in MT-2 Cells and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastian; Alberti, Carolina; Barriga, Andres; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Ramírez, Eugenio; Ferreira, Arturo; Tanaka, Yuetsu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The human retrovirus human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Axonal degeneration in HAM/TSP patients occurs without neuron infection, with the secreted viral Tax protein proposed to be involved. We previously found that Tax secreted into the culture medium of MT-2 cells (HTLV-1-infected cell line) produced neurite retraction in neuroblastoma cells differentiated to neuronal type. To assess the relevance of Tax posttranslational modifications on this effect, we addressed the question of whether Tax secreted by MT-2 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HTLV-1-infected subjects is modified. The interaction of Tax with calreticulin (CRT) that modulates intracellular Tax localization and secretion has been described. We studied Tax localization and modifications in MT-2 cells and its interaction with CRT. Intracellular Tax in MT-2 cells was assessed by flow cytometry, corresponding mainly to a 71-kDa protein followed by western blot. This protein reported as a chimera with gp21 viral protein—confirmed by mass spectrometry—showed no ubiquitination or SUMOylation. The Tax–CRT interaction was determined by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation. Extracellular Tax from HAM/TSP PBMCs is ubiquitinated according to western blot, and its interaction with CRT was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. A positive correlation between Tax and CRT secretion was observed in HAM/TSP PBMCs and asymptomatic carriers. For both proteins inhibitors and activators of secretion showed secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi complex. Tax, present in PBMC culture medium, produced neurite retraction in differentiated neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that Tax, whether ubiquitinated or not, is active for neurite retraction. PMID:24321043

  1. Genes Related to Antiviral Activity, Cell Migration, and Lysis Are Differentially Expressed in CD4+ T Cells in Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Malmegrim de Farias, Kelen Cristina Ribeiro; Sousa, Alessandra De Paula; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T cells and these cells play a central role in HTLV-1 infection. In this study, we investigated the global gene expression profile of circulating CD4+ T cells from the distinct clinical status of HTLV-1-infected individuals in regard to TAX expression levels. CD4+ T cells were isolated from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier (HAC) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients in order to identify genes involved in HAM/TSP development using a microarray technique. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that healthy control (CT) and HTLV-1-infected samples clustered separately. We also observed that the HAC and HAM/TSP groups clustered separately regardless of TAX expression. The gene expression profile of CD4+ T cells was compared among the CT, HAC, and HAM/TSP groups. The paxillin (Pxn), chemokine (C-X-C motif?) receptor 4 (Cxcr4), interleukin 27 (IL27), and granzyme A (Gzma) genes were differentially expressed between the HAC and HAM/TSP groups, regardless of TAX expression. The perforin 1 (Prf1) and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) genes were increased in the HAM/TSP group and presented a positive correlation to the expression of TAX and the proviral load (PVL). The frequency of CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) was higher in HTLV-1-infected individuals. Foxp3 gene expression was positively correlated with cell lysis-related genes (Gzma, Gzmb, and Prf1). These findings suggest that CD4+ T cell activity is distinct between the HAC and HAM/TSP groups. PMID:24041428

  2. Risk factors for scoliosis in children with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Fowler, B. Zach

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors for scoliosis in children treated for neuroblastoma. Methods and materials: From 1957 to 1997, 58 children with neuroblastoma were treated at one institution and have survived a minimum of 5 years. There were 35 boys and 23 girls with a median age of 6 months (range, 2 weeks to 15 years) at initial diagnosis. Primary site was located in the adrenal gland in 25 (43.1%), abdominal/nonadrenal in 16 (27.6%), thoracic in 12 (20.7%), cervical in 3 (5.3%), and pelvic region in 2 (3.5%). The International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage was Stage 1 in 10 (17.2%), Stage 2A in 7 (12.1%), Stage 2B in 5 (8.6%), Stage 3 in 22 (37.9%), Stage 4 in 4 (6.9%), and Stage 4S in 10 (17.2%). Thirty-three (56.9%) received chemotherapy whereas 5 (8.6%) had a laminectomy as part of the surgical procedure. Twenty-seven (46.6%) received radiotherapy (RT). Beam energy was 1.25 MV in 11 (41%), 250 kV in 10 (37%), 4 MV in 4 (15%), and 6-MV photons in 1 patient. One patient received 300 cGy in 1 fraction total skin RT using 6-MeV electrons. For the remaining patients, fraction size was 100 cGy in 6 (22%), 150-180 cGy in 11 (41%), 200 cGy in 4 (15%), and 250-300 cGy in 3. Three patients had total body irradiation at 333 cGy for 3 fractions. For all children who received RT, median total dose was 2000 cGy (range, 300-3900 cGy). Patients who were treated with RT had plain films of the irradiated area every 1 to 2 years until at least the age of puberty. Median follow-up was 10 years (range, 5-46 years). Results: The overall 5-, 10-, and 15-year scoliosis-free rates were 87.6%, 79.0%, and 76.0% respectively. Twelve (21%) developed scoliosis at a median time of 51 months (range, 8-137 months). The degree of scoliosis was mild ({<=}20 deg ) in 8 (67%). Four had scoliosis ranging from 30 deg to 66 deg ; 3 of these patients required surgical intervention, whereas 1 had an underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy which manifested itself 8 years after diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Median time to scoliosis was 23 months (range, 8-54 months) in children who had a laminectomy. On multivariate analysis, both history of laminectomy (p = 0.0005) and use of RT (p = 0.0284) were found to be risk factors for development of scoliosis. Gender, age at diagnosis, INSS stage, primary site, and use of chemotherapy were not found to be significant. Both RT fraction size and beam energy were also not significant, but increasing total RT dose was found to be significant (p = 0.0039). The 15-year scoliosis-free rates were 20% for children who had a laminectomy and 81.3% for those who did not have a laminectomy. The 15-year scoliosis-free rates for children treated with RT doses 0 cGy, 1-1750 cGy, 1751-2300 cGy, and >2300 cGy were 91.7%, 87.5%, 51.4%, and 44.4% respectively. Conclusions: Treatment-related factors, namely laminectomy and radiotherapy, were found to increase the risk of scoliosis in patients with neuroblastoma. Children who had a laminectomy were more likely to manifest scoliosis earlier. Increasing RT dose was found to impact adversely on the development of scoliosis.

  3. Patient-specific factors affecting hospital costs in lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Puffer, Ross C; Planchard, Ryan; Mallory, Grant W; Clarke, Michelle J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Health care-related costs after lumbar spine surgery vary depending on procedure type and patient characteristics. Age, body mass index (BMI), number of spinal levels, and presence of comorbidities probably have significant effects on overall costs. The present study assessed the impact of patient characteristics on hospital costs in patients undergoing elective lumbar decompressive spine surgery. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of elective lumbar decompression surgeries, with a focus on specific patient characteristics to determine which factors drive postoperative, hospital-related costs. Records between January 2010 and July 2012 were searched retrospectively. Only elective lumbar decompressions including discectomy or laminectomy were included. Cost data were obtained using a database that allows standardization of a list of hospital costs to the fiscal year 2013-2014. The relationship between cost and patient factors including age, BMI, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System grade were analyzed using Student t-tests, ANOVA, and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS There were 1201 patients included in the analysis, with a mean age of 61.6 years. Sixty percent of patients in the study were male. Laminectomies were performed in 557 patients (46%) and discectomies in 644 (54%). Laminectomies led to an increased hospital stay of 1.4 days (p < 0.001) and increased hospital costs by $1523 (p < 0.001) when compared with discectomies. For laminectomies, age, BMI, ASA grade, number of levels, and durotomy all led to significantly increased hospital costs and length of stay on univariate analysis, but ASA grade and presence of a durotomy did not maintain significance on multivariate analysis for hospital costs. For a laminectomy, patient age ? 65 years was associated with a 0.6-day increased length of stay and a $945 increase in hospital costs when compared with patient age < 65 years (p < 0.001). A durotomy during a laminectomy increased length of stay by 1.0 day and increased hospital costs by $1382 (p < 0.03). For discectomies, age, ASA grade, and durotomy were significantly associated with increased hospital costs on univariate analysis, but BMI was not. Only age and presence of a durotomy maintained significance on multivariate analysis. There was a significant increase in hospital length of stay in patients undergoing discectomy with increasing age, BMI, ASA grade, and presence of a durotomy on univariate analysis. However, only age and presence of a durotomy maintained significance on multivariate analysis. For discectomies, age ? 65 years was associated with a 0.7-day increased length of stay (p < 0.001) and an increase of $931 in postoperative hospital costs (p < 0.01) when compared with age < 65 years. CONCLUSIONS Patient factors such as age, BMI, and comorbidities have significant and measurable effects on the postoperative hospital costs of elective lumbar decompression spinal surgeries. Knowledge of how these factors affect costs will become important as reimbursement models change. PMID:26360143

  4. Interrater Reliability of the Postoperative Epidural Fibrosis Classification: A Histopathologic Study in the Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Jirarattanaphochai, Kitti; Sumananont, Chat; Wittayapairoj, Kriangkrai; Sukhonthamarn, Kamolsak

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Agreement study. Purpose To validate the interrater reliability of the histopathological classification of the post-laminectomy epidural fibrosis in an animal model. Overview of Literature Epidural fibrosis is a common cause of failed back surgery syndrome. Many animal experiments have been developed to investigate the prevention of epidural fibrosis. One of the common outcome measurements is the epidural fibrous adherence grading, but the classification has not yet been validated. Methods Five identical sets of histopathological digital files of L5-L6 laminectomized adult Sprague-Dawley rats, representing various degrees of postoperative epidural fibrous adherence were randomized and evaluated by five independent assessors masked to the study processes. Epidural fibrosis was rated as grade 0 (no fibrosis), grade 1 (thin fibrous band), grade 2 (continuous fibrous adherence for less than two-thirds of the laminectomy area), or grade 3 (large fibrotic tissue for more than two-thirds of the laminectomy area). A statistical analysis was performed. Results Four hundred slides were independently evaluated by each assessor. The percent agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between each pair of assessors varied from 73.5% to 81.3% and from 0.81 to 0.86, respectively. The overall ICC was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.86). Conclusions The postoperative epidural fibrosis classification showed almost perfect agreement among the assessors. This classification can be used in research involving the histopathology of postoperative epidural fibrosis; for example, for the development of preventions of postoperative epidural fibrosis or treatment in an animal model. PMID:26240719

  5. Limited Unilateral Decompression and Pedicle Screw Fixation with Fusion for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with Unilateral Radiculopathy: A Retrospective Analysis of 25 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Miao, Hai-xiong; Wang, Yong; Chen, An-fu; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lumbar spinal stenosis is conventionally treated with surgical decompression. However, bilateral decompression and laminectomy is more invasive and may not be necessary for lumbar stenosis patients with unilateral radiculopathy. We aimed to report the outcomes of unilateral laminectomy and bilateral pedicle screw fixation with fusion for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and unilateral radiculopathy. Methods Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis with unilateral lower extremity radiculopathy who received limited unilateral decompression and bilateral pedicle screw fixation were included and evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS) pain and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores preoperatively and at follow-up visits. Ligamentum flavum thickness of the involved segments was measured on axial magnetic resonance images. Results Twenty-five patients were included. The mean preoperative VAS score was 6.6±1.6 and 4.6±3.1 for leg and back pain, respectively. Ligamentum flavum thickness was comparable between the symptomatic and asymptomatic side (p=0.554). The mean follow-up duration was 29.2 months. The pain in the symptomatic side lower extremity (VAS score, 1.32±1.2) and the back (VAS score, 1.75±1.73) significantly improved (p=0.000 vs. baseline for both). The ODI improved significantly postoperatively (6.60±6.5; p=0.000 vs. baseline). Significant improvement in VAS pain and ODI scores were observed in patients receiving single or multi-segment decompression fusion with fixation (p<0.01). Conclusion Limited laminectomy and unilateral spinal decompression followed by bilateral pedicle screw fixation with fusion achieves satisfactory outcomes in patients with spinal stenosis and unilateral radiculopathy. This procedure is less damaging to structures that are important for maintaining posterior stability of the spine. PMID:26279816

  6. C5 Nerve root palsies following cervical spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical C5 nerve root palsies may occur in between 0% and 30% of routine anterior or posterior cervical spine operations. They are largely attributed to traction injuries/increased cord migration following anterior/posterior decompressions. Of interest, almost all studies cite spontaneous resolution of these deficits without surgery with 3–24 postoperative months. Methods: Different studies cite various frequencies for C5 root palsies following anterior or posterior cervical spine surgery. In their combined anterior/posterior series involving C4-C5 level decompressions, Libelski et al. cited up to a 12% incidence of C5 palsies. In Gu et al. series, C5 root palsies occurred in 3.1% of double-door laminoplasty, 4.5% of open-door laminoplasty, and 11.3% of laminectomy. Miller et al. observed an intermediate 6.9% frequency of C5 palsies followed by posterior cervical decompressions and fusions (PCDF). Results: Gu et al. also identified multiple risk factors for developing C5 palsies following posterior surgery; male gender, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), narrower foramina, laminectomy, and marked dorsal spinal cord drift. Miller et al. also identified an average $1918 increased cost for physical/occupational therapy for patients with C5 palsies. Conclusions: The incidence of C5 root deficits for anterior/posterior cervical surgery at C4-C5 was 12% in one series, and ranged up to 11.3% for laminectomies, while others cited 0–30%. Although identification of preoperative risk factors for C5 root deficits may help educate patients regarding these risks, there is no clear method for their avoidance at this time. PMID:26005577

  7. Giant Solitary Anterior Cervical Canal Neurofibroma: Case Report and Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Atobatele, Kazeem M.; Soyemi, Sunday O.

    2015-01-01

    Giant solitary anterior cervical canal neurofibroma (GSACCN) is rarely reported in the literature. When the large lesion is ventrally located to the spinal cord, an anterolateral approach may not be ideal due to various technical challenges. In this report, we describe a case of intradural extramedullary GSACCN located at the cervical region extending from the axis to the sixth cervical vertebrae. Here we also describe a posterior technique successfully used to resect the tumour. Therefore, the posterior approach by En bloc decompressive laminectomy and laminoplasty might be used to adequately treat the lesion. PMID:26240721

  8. Recurrent Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma in a Patient with Protein S Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Anno, Masato; Yamazaki, Takashi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Hayakawa, Keishi

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man underwent cervical laminectomy and developed two symptomatic epidural hematomas during the acute postoperative period. On both occasions, drain obstruction was the predominant cause. Congenital Protein S deficiency was diagnosed postoperatively. Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent natural anticoagulant and is essential for inhibiting thrombosis in microcirculation. We assume that Protein S deficiency followed by perioperative bed-rest and surgical invasiveness led to severe hypercoagulability and subsequent drain obstruction. The present findings suggest that both bleeding disorders and hypercoagulability are risk factors for postoperative symptomatic epidural hematoma. PMID:26236521

  9. Reconstruction of posterior neck and skull with vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap

    SciTech Connect

    Mathes, S.J.; Stevenson, T.R.

    1988-10-01

    The vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap has been successfully utilized for reconstruction in 13 patients with complex posterior skull and neck defects. This flap based on its vascular pedicle, the descending branch of the transverse cervical artery, provides well-vascularized tissue for coverage of defects related to chronic osteomyelitis, tumor extirpation, osteoradionecrosis, and dehisced cervical laminectomy wounds. Emphasis on flap design, including the location of the skin island, allows adequate wound coverage, direct donor site closure, and muscle function preservation. With its large size and wide arc of rotation, the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap provides reliable coverage for posterior trunk, cervical, and skull defects.

  10. Epidural hematoma after thoracic epidural analgesia in a patient treated with ketorolac, mefenamic acid, and naftazone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Dae Geun; Song, Jae Gyok; Kim, Seok-Kon; Kim, Juri

    2014-03-01

    A 26-year-old male undergoing thoracotomy and bleeding control received a preoperative thoracic epidural for postoperative analgesia. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred and urgent magnetic resonance imaging showed massive anterior epidural hematoma. During laminectomy and decompression, platelet dysfunction was diagnosed and preoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs medications were supposed to the cause of platelet dysfunction. After infusion of ten units of platelet concentrate, coagulopathy was improved. We should be more careful to drugs with antiplatelet effect when using regional analgesia. PMID:24729848

  11. Spinal subdural hematoma with cauda equina syndrome: A complication of combined spinal epidural anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Neha; Sethi, Priyanka; Jain, Jitesh Kumar; Agarwal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSE) is considered safe in lower limb surgeries. We report a case of sudden neurological deterioration in a stable postoperative patient who was given CSE for total knee replacement and low molecular weight heparin in postoperative period. On the 4th postoperative day, she developed sudden onset weakness in left lower limb along with bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging spine revealed a subdural hematoma at L2-L3 level. Immediate laminectomy along with cord decompression was done and patient recovered well except for a persistent foot drop on left side. PMID:25948911

  12. Spontaneous epidural hematoma due to cervico-thoracic angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Eap, C; Bannwarth, M; Jazeron, J-F; Kleber, J-C; Theret, É; Duntze, J; Litre, C-F

    2015-12-01

    Epidural angiolipomas are uncommon benign tumors of the spine. Their clinical presentation is usually a progressive spinal cord compression. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient who presented with an acute paraparesis and a spontaneous epidural hematoma, which revealed a epidural angiolipoma which extended from C7 to T3. The patient underwent a C7-T3 laminectomy, in emergency, with evacuation of the hematoma and extradural complete resection of a fibrous epidural tumor bleeding. The postoperative course was favorable with regression of neurological symptoms. Epidural angiolipomas can be revealed by spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage without traumatism. The standard treatment is total removal by surgery. PMID:26597606

  13. Avoiding Cardiovascular Collapse: Pediatric Cutaneous Mastocytosis and Anesthetic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Tew, Shannon; Taicher, Brad M

    2015-11-15

    Mastocytosis includes a spectrum of diseases characterized by abnormal mast cell infiltration in various organs, which can lead to mast cell mediator release and immediate hypersensitivity. We review anesthetic challenges presented by a 6-year-old girl with a history of mast cell mediator release because of the urticaria pigmentosa variant of cutaneous mastocytosis, factor VII deficiency, increasing episodes of urinary tract infections, and pyelonephritis. She underwent spine magnetic resonance imaging, subsequent lumbar laminectomy for fatty filum release, and a cystourethroscopy. Perioperative management included factor VII desensitization, avoidance of triggers, minimizing histamine-releasing medications, mast cell stabilization, and preparation for potential immediate hypersensitivity. PMID:26576050

  14. Recurrent cervicodorsal spinal intradural enterogenous cyst: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Zong-Fang; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Ai-Jun; Zhang, Tao; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    This report described a recurrent enterogenous cyst of the cervicodorsal spinal canal occurred in an 8-year-old boy who experienced cervical back pain at the age of 5. He had been operated for mass lesion at the same level 3 years ago. The cervical and thoracic spine MRI showed a large intradural cyst at C7-T1. The cyst was subtotally removed via posterior approach using a laminectomy. Based on the results of immunostaining, it was identified as an enterogenous cyst. A literature review related to spinal cyst is also included. PMID:26629122

  15. Validation of a Score Predicting Post-Treatment Ambulatory Status After Radiotherapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Douglas, Sarah; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Rudat, Volker; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Basic, Hiba; Karstens, Johann H.; Hoskin, Peter J.; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: A score predicting post-radiotherapy (RT) ambulatory status was developed based on 2,096 retrospectively evaluated metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients. This study aimed to validate the score in a prospective series. Methods and Materials: The score included five factors associated with post-RT ambulatory status: tumor type, interval tumor diagnosis to MSCC, visceral metastases, pre-RT motor function, time developing motor deficits. Patients were divided into five groups: 21-28, 29-31, 32-34, 35-37, 38-44 points. In this study, 653 prospectively followed patients were divided into the same groups. Furthermore, the number of prognostic groups was reduced from five to three (21-28, 29-37, 38-44 points). Post-RT ambulatory rates from this series were compared with the retrospective series. Additionally, this series was compared with 104 patients receiving decompressive surgery plus RT (41 laminectomy, 63 laminectomy plus stabilization of vertebrae). Results: In this study, post-RT ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 43.5% (29-31 points), 71.0% (32-34 points), 89.5% (35-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points). Ambulatory rates from the retrospective study were 6.2%, 43.5%, 70.0%, 86.1%, and 98.7%. After regrouping, ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 70.9% (29-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points) in this series, and 6.2%, 68.4%, and 98.7% in the retrospective series. Ambulatory rates were 0%, 62.5%, and 90.9% in the laminectomy plus RT group, and 14.3%, 83.9%, and 100% in the laminectomy + stabilization plus RT group. Conclusions: Ambulatory rates in the different groups in this study were similar to those in the retrospective study demonstrating the validity of the score. Using only three groups is simplier for clinical routine.

  16. [Spinal fractures in adults in bob-sled accidents].

    PubMed

    Olesen, R; Nielsen, C S; Eiskjaer, S P; Bünger, C E

    1995-03-27

    A case study of two adults who sustained severe burst fractures of the thoracolumbar spine (T12, L1) after trivial accidents using plastic sledges. In one case a transient conus medullaris lesion was encountered. The fractures were reduced indirectly by internal fixation as well as by direct anteposition of the fragments from the spinal canal after laminectomy. The fracture mechanism is probably a result of hyperflexion combined with very little shock absorbtion from this sledgetype. Plastic sledges seem particularly hazardous for adults. PMID:7725566

  17. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. PMID:23585503

  18. Triple Therapy with Prednisolone, Pegylated Interferon and Sodium Valproate Improves Clinical Outcome and Reduces Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Proviral Load, Tax and HBZ mRNA Expression in Patients with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Boostani, Reza; Vakili, Rosita; Hosseiny, Samane Sadat; Shoeibi, Ali; Fazeli, Bahare; Etemadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sabet, Faeze; Valizade, Narges; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2015-10-01

    Considering that there is no effective treatment for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, this study aimed to assess the impact of triple combination therapy-interferon-?, valproic acid, and prednisolone-on clinical outcomes, main HTLV-1 viral factors, and host anti-HTLV-1 antibody response. HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL), and HBZ and Tax mRNA expression levels were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 13 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis before and after treatment with 180 ?g pegylated interferon once a week, 10-20 mg/kg/day sodium valproate, and 5 mg/day prednisolone for 25 weeks using a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Furthermore, anti-HTLV-1 titer, Osame Motor Disability Score, Ashworth spasticity scale, and urinary symptoms (through standard questionnaire and clinical monitoring) were assessed in patients before and after the treatment. HTLV-1 PVL and HBZ expression significantly decreased after the treatment [PVL from 1443?±?282 to 660?±?137 copies/10(4) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (p?=?0.01); and HBZ from 8.0?±?1.5 to 3.0?±?0.66 (p?

  19. Surgical methods and efficacies for cervicothoracolumbar spinal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    DENG, QIANG; TIAN, ZHENG; SHENG, WEIBIN; GUO, HAILONG; DAN, MAI ER

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical methods and efficacies for cervicothoracolumbar spinal schwannoma (CSS). A total of 52 patients who had undergone treatment for schwannoma were retrospectively analyzed. Two methods were employed for the surgical resection of the thoracic and lumbar schwannomas: Type I (posterior midline approach semi-laminectomy with tumor resection and internal fixation with pedicle screws) was used in 24 cases, and type II (posterior midline approach laminectomy with tumor resection and internal fixation with pedicle screws) was used in 26 cases. Two cases of giant cervical schwannoma were treated via anterior-posterior combined surgery. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma in all cases (n=52). The clinical status of the patients was evaluated pre- and postoperatively using the visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index and Japanese Orthopedic Association scale, and the scores associated with the two types of surgical method were compared. Within the follow-up period, which lasted between 6 months and 3 years, no recurrence was detected, and such preoperative symptoms as radicular pain and spinal dysfunction were improved significantly. The numbness and hyperesthesia were relieved to different extents. In conclusion, methods of exposing and surgically treating CSS should be selected according to the growth site of the schwannoma in order to reduce the blood loss and surgery duration and to improve the surgical safety. PMID:26668590

  20. Preventive effect of dexamethasone gelatin sponge on the lumbosacral epidural adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fuming; Dou, Changwu; Qi, Songtao; Zhao, Liqun; Chen, Bo; Yan, Haicheng; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the preventive effect of dexamethasone gelatin sponge on the lumbosacral epidural adhesion in the laminectomy. Methods: A total of 36 Wista rats were divided into A, B, C and D groups randomly. Dexamethasone was not used in group A, Dexamethasone was used in group B, Dexamethasone was not used in group C but covered with gelatin sponge, dexamethasone gelatin sponge was used in group D. 3 rats in each group were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after operation respectively and the wound was opened to observe the dural scar formation and the dura adhesion. Immunohistochemical technique was used for histology observation. The expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 in the epidural scar and surrounding tissues were detected with western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. Results: According to the Rydell score standard, there were different degree of adhesion formation in A, B and C groups while there was no obvious adhesion formation in D group. It was confirmed that the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 in group D were lower than that of the other groups. Conclusions: Dexamethasone gelatin sponge could significantly reduce the occurrence of epidural scar tissue hyperplasia and adhesion after laminectomy in rats, and its mechanism may be related to the decreased expression of VEGF and VEGFR2. PMID:26131126

  1. CCN5 attenuates profibrotic phenotypes of fibroblasts through the Smad6-CCN2 pathway: Potential role in epidural fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    XU, HONGHAI; LIU, CONG; SUN, ZHENGMING; GUO, XIONG; ZHANG, YUELIN; LIU, MENGTING; LI, PENG

    2015-01-01

    Epidural fibrosis is characterized by the development of dense and thick scar tissue adjacent to the dural mater and ranked as the major contributor for post-operative pain recurrence after laminectomy or discectomy. Recently, CCN5 exhibited an inhibitory effect on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)/CCN2 (a critical regulator for fibrotic disease)-mediated fibrogenesis. However, its function in epidural fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms involved remain to be determined. In this study, an obvious downregulation of CCN5 was observed in scar tissues from laminectomized rats, concomitant with a marked upregulation of CCN2, suggesting a potential negative regulatory role of CCN5 in fibrogenesis. Furthermore, CCN5 overexpression notably mitigated transforming growth factor-?1-enhanced fibroblast viability and proliferation. Of note, CCN5 upregulation inhibited the switch of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts as its overexpression abrogated the expression of the myofibroblast marker, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). CCN5 upregulation also reduced an increase in collagen type I, ?1 (COL1A1) and total collagen concentrations. Additionally, CCN5 over expression decreased CCN2 expression and increased Smad6 phosphorylation. Mechanism analysis revealed that blocking Smad6 signaling significantly ameliorated the inhibitory effect of CCN5 on the CCN2 levels, accompanied by the reduction in cell proliferation and collagen production. These results confirm that CCN5 exerts an anti-fibrotic function by regulating the Smad6-CCN2 pathway, thereby indicating a potential approach for ameliorating epidural fibrosis after laminectomy. PMID:25901787

  2. A new minimally-invasive method for microinjection into the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Kohro, Yuta; Sakaguchi, Emi; Tashima, Ryoichi; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive gene delivery to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) remains challenging because existing methods to directly microinject vectors require laminectomy, which leads to tissue damage and inflammation. Such responses might hamper accurate readouts of cellular and behavioural effects of an introduced gene. Here we develop a new minimally-invasive SDH microinjection technique without the need of laminectomy in which a microcapillary is inserted into the SDH parenchyma through an intervertebral space. Using this method, we microinjected adeno-associated virus with an astrocytic promoter into the SDH and achieved efficient gene expression in an astrocyte-specific manner without gliosis, neuronal loss or inflammation. Furthermore, astrocytic loss- and gain-of-function of the transcription factor STAT3 by expressing a dominant-negative form and a constitutive-active form of STAT3, respectively, demonstrated the necessity and sufficiency of astrocytic STAT3 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury, a debilitating chronic pain state in which currently available treatments are frequently ineffective. Thus, our technique enables manipulation of gene expression in cell type- and spatial-specific manners without adverse effects, and may be useful for research in SDH physiology and pathology. PMID:26387932

  3. A new minimally-invasive method for microinjection into the mouse spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Kohro, Yuta; Sakaguchi, Emi; Tashima, Ryoichi; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive gene delivery to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) remains challenging because existing methods to directly microinject vectors require laminectomy, which leads to tissue damage and inflammation. Such responses might hamper accurate readouts of cellular and behavioural effects of an introduced gene. Here we develop a new minimally-invasive SDH microinjection technique without the need of laminectomy in which a microcapillary is inserted into the SDH parenchyma through an intervertebral space. Using this method, we microinjected adeno-associated virus with an astrocytic promoter into the SDH and achieved efficient gene expression in an astrocyte-specific manner without gliosis, neuronal loss or inflammation. Furthermore, astrocytic loss- and gain-of-function of the transcription factor STAT3 by expressing a dominant-negative form and a constitutive-active form of STAT3, respectively, demonstrated the necessity and sufficiency of astrocytic STAT3 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury, a debilitating chronic pain state in which currently available treatments are frequently ineffective. Thus, our technique enables manipulation of gene expression in cell type- and spatial-specific manners without adverse effects, and may be useful for research in SDH physiology and pathology. PMID:26387932

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF POSTERIOR APPROACH CERVICAL INTRASPINAL TUMOR RESECTION ON THE STABILITY OF CERVICAL VERTEBRA.

    PubMed

    Geng, X P; Wang, X; Meng, T; Li, J J; Li, X C; Fu, G Y

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of posterior approach cervical intraspinal tumor resection on the stability of cervical vertebra. A total of 32 patients with cervical intraspinal tumor were included and divided into a group undergoing posterior approach bilateral vertebral lamina resection (group A) (n=16) and a group undergoing posterior approach semi-laminectomy (group B) (n=16). It was found, through follow-up visits, that the incidence rate of cervical instability of the patients was 25% and the incidence rate of cervical curvature deterioration of the patients was 37.5% in group A, whereas the two incidence rates of group B were 6.25% and 12.5% respectively; the incidence rates of cervical curvature deterioration and instability were significantly increased compared to group B (P< 0.05). It is concluded that, both regular posterior approach vertebral lamina resection and semi-laminectomy influence the biomechanical change of cervical vertebra, but the influence of the latter is less. Also, it is found that, applying titanium connectors and titanium nails for rigid internal fixation maintains the completeness and stability of the structure of the cervical vertebra. PMID:26122227

  5. A Case of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Early-Onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Clinically Similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Ha, Sam Yeol; Nam, Taek Kyun

    2014-01-01

    To present a case of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) which seemed clinically similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMT1). CIDP is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy, either progressive or relapsing-remitting. It is a non-hereditary disorder characterized by symmetrical motor and sensory deficits. Rarely, spinal nerve roots can be involved, leading to CES by hypertrophic cauda equina. A 34-year-old man presented with low back pain, radicular pain, bilateral lower-extremity weakness, urinary incontinence, and constipation. He had had musculoskeletal deformities, such as hammertoes and pes cavus, since age 10. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the cauda equina. Electrophysiological testing showed increased distal latency, conduction blocks, temporal dispersion, and severe nerve conduction velocity slowing (3 m/s). We were not able to find genetic mutations at the PMP 22, MPZ, PRX, and EGR2 genes. The pathologic findings of the sural nerve biopsy revealed thinly myelinated nerve fibers with Schwann cells proliferation. We performed a decompressive laminectomy, intravenous IgG (IV-IgG) and oral steroid. At 1 week after surgery, most of his symptoms showed marked improvements except foot deformities. There was no relapse or aggravation of disease for 3 years. We diagnosed the case as an early-onset CIDP with cauda equine syndrome, whose initial clinical findings were similar to those of CMT1, and successfully managed with decompressive laminectomy, IV-IgG and oral steroid. PMID:25237436

  6. Anatomical and functional outcomes following a precise, graded, dorsal laceration spinal cord injury in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel L; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A; Devries, William H; Zhang, Yongjie; Magnuson, David S K; Whittemore, Scott R; Shields, Christopher B

    2009-01-01

    To study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), we used the LISA-Vibraknife to generate a precise and reproducible dorsal laceration SCI in the mouse. The surgical procedure involved a T9 laminectomy, dural resection, and a spinal cord laceration to a precisely controlled depth. Four dorsal hemisection injuries with lesion depths of 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.4 mm, as well as normal, sham (laminectomy and dural removal only), and transection controls were examined. Assessments including the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), footprint analysis, beam walk, toe spread reflex, Hargreaves' test, and transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) analysis were performed to assess motor, sensorimotor, and sensory function. These outcome measures demonstrated significant increases in functional deficits as the depth of the lesion increased, and significant behavioral recovery was observed in the groups over time. Quantitative histological examination showed significant differences between the injury groups and insignificant lesion depth variance within each of the groups. Statistically significant differences were additionally found in the amount of ventral spared tissue at the lesion site between the injury groups. This novel, graded, reproducible laceration SCI model can be used in future studies to look more closely at underlying mechanisms that lead to functional deficits following SCI, as well as to determine the efficacy of therapeutic intervention strategies in the injury and recovery processes following SCI. PMID:19196178

  7. Midterm outcome after unilateral approach for bilateral decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis: 5-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ramazan Alper; Türkmenoglu, Osman Nuri; Tuncer, Cengiz; Çolak, ?brahim; Ayd?n, Yunus

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the results and effectiveness of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We have conducted a prospective study to compare the midterm outcome of unilateral laminotomy with unilateral laminectomy. One hundred patients with 269 levels of lumbar stenosis without instability were randomized to two treatment groups: unilateral laminectomy (Group 1), and laminotomy (Group 2). Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form–36 Health Survey (SF-36). Spinal canal size was measured pre- and postoperatively. The spinal canal was increased to 4–6.1-fold (mean 5.1 ± SD 0.8-fold) the preoperative size in Group 1, and 3.3–5.9-fold (mean 4.7 ± SD 1.1-fold) the preoperative size in Group 2. The mean follow-up time was 5.4 years (range 4–7 years). The ODI scores decreased significantly in both early and late follow-up evaluations and the SF-36 scores demonstrated significant improvement in late follow-up results in our series. Analysis of clinical outcome showed no statistical differences between two groups. For degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis unilateral approaches allowed sufficient and safe decompression of the neural structures and adequate preservation of vertebral stability, resulted in a highly significant reduction of symptoms and disability, and improved health-related quality of life. PMID:17712577

  8. Surgical Treatment of Spinal Stenosis with and without Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Cost-Effectiveness after 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Herkowitz, Harry; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Bridwell, Keith; Longley, Michael; Andersson, Gunnar B.; Blood, Emily A.; Grove, Margaret R.; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Background The SPORT (Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial) reported favorable surgery outcomes over 2 years among patients with stenosis with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis, but the economic value of these surgeries is uncertain. Objective To assess the short-term cost-effectiveness of spine surgery relative to nonoperative care for stenosis alone and for stenosis with spondylolisthesis. Design Prospective cohort study. Data Sources Resource utilization, productivity, and EuroQol EQ-5D score measured at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment among SPORT participants. Target Population Patients with image-confirmed spinal stenosis, with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis. Time Horizon 2 years. Perspective Societal. Intervention Nonoperative care or surgery (primarily decompressive laminectomy for stenosis and decompressive laminectomy with fusion for stenosis associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis). Outcome Measures Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Among 634 patients with stenosis, 394 (62%) had surgery, most often decompressive laminectomy (320 of 394 [81%]). Stenosis surgeries improved health to a greater extent than nonoperative care (QALY gain, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.22]) at a cost of $77 600 (CI, $49 600 to $120 000) per QALY gained. Among 601 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 368 (61%) had surgery, most including fusion (344 of 368 [93%]) and most with instrumentation (269 of 344 [78%]). Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgeries significantly improved health versus non-operative care (QALY gain, 0.23 [CI, 0.19 to 0.27]), at a cost of $115 600 (CI, $90 800 to $144 900) per QALY gained. Result of Sensitivity Analysis Surgery cost markedly affected the value of surgery. Limitation The study used self-reported utilization data, 2-year time horizon, and as-treated analysis to address treatment non-adherence among randomly assigned participants. Conclusion The economic value of spinal stenosis surgery at 2 years compares favorably with many health interventions. Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgery is not highly cost-effective over 2 years but could show value over a longer time horizon. PMID:19075203

  9. Synovial cyst of the high cervical spine causing myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, G; Jeffree, M

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the myelographic and postmyelographic CT findings of an extradural mass with cord compression in an 82-year-old woman. Synovial cysts generally occur posterolaterally and are associated with degenerative facet joints; an unusual site together with facet joint disease should alert the observer to the possibility of a synovial cyst. PMID:1590200

  10. Aneurysmal bone cyst of thoracic spine: case report and brief review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Anupam; Vijay, Varun; Kori, Prakash; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted with insidious onset, gradually progressive spastic sensori-motor paraparesis, with a sensory level at D10 dermatome without bowel or bladder involvement for the last 2?months following trivial trauma on the lower back. MRI of the spine showed a low-to-intermediate signal intensity, heterogeneous mass with multiple fluid levels. A diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst was made. A D8-D9 laminectomy with near total excision of mass was performed. Histopathology of the mass showed cyst cavity filled with haemorrhage surrounded by bony trabeculae confirming the diagnosis. Following excision the patient had excellent recovery. We report this case owing to its rarity and to emphasise the importance of surgery if there is cord compression. PMID:23814197

  11. Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma on the Ventral Portion of Whole Spinal Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Young; Ha, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is an uncommon but disabling disease. This paper reports a case of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma and treatment by surgical management. A 32-year-old male presented with a 30-minute history of sudden headache, back pain, chest pain, and progressive quadriplegia. Whole-spinal sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal epidural hematoma on the ventral portion of the spinal canal. Total laminectomy from T5 to T7 was performed, and hematoma located at the ventral portion of the spinal cord was evacuated. Epidural drainages were inserted in the upper and lower epidural spaces. The patient improved sufficiently to ambulate, and paresthesia was fully recovered. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma should be considered when patients present symptoms of spinal cord compression after sudden back pain or chest pain. To prevent permanent neurologic deficits, early and correct diagnosis with timely surgical management is necessary. PMID:26512277

  12. Giant, Completely Calcified Lumbar Juxtafacet Cyst: Report of an Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kevin T.; Owens, Timothy R.; Wang, Teresa S.; Moreno, Jessica R.; Bagley, Jacob H.; Bagley, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?To report the case of one patient who developed a giant, completely calcified, juxtafacet cyst. Methods?A 57-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressively worsening lower back pain, left leg pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Imaging showed a giant, completely calcified mass arising from the left L5–S1 facet joint, with coexisting grade I L5 on S1 anterolisthesis. The patient was treated with laminectomy, excision of the mass, and L5–S1 fixation and fusion. Results?The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and had complete resolution of her symptoms as of 1-year follow-up. Conclusions?When presented with a solid-appearing, calcified mass arising from the facet joint, a completely calcified juxtafacet cyst should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25083359

  13. Intraoperative Vertebral Artery Angiography to Guide C1-2 Transarticular Screw Fixation in a Patient with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jong Chul; Park, Ki Seok; Ha, Ho Gyun

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of an athetoid cerebral palsy with quadriparesis caused by kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, severe spinal stenosis at the cervicomedullary junction, and atlantoaxial instability. The patient improved after the first surgery, which included a C1 total laminectomy and C-arm guided righ side unilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. C1-2 fixation was not performed on the other side because of an aberrant and dominant vertebral artery (VA). Eight months after the first operation, the patient required revision surgery for persistent neck pain and screw malposition. We used intraoperative VA angiography with simultaneous fluoroscopy for precise image guidance during bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. Intraoperative VA angiography allowed the accurate insertion of screws, and can therefore be used to avoid VA injury during C1-2 transarticular screw fixation in comorbid patients with atlantoaxial deformities. PMID:22639719

  14. Melanotic cyst of L5 spinal root: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Hariprakash

    2012-10-01

    Till date, 85 cases of melanotic schwannoma and 11 cases of spinal root melanoma have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with primary low back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbo-sacral spine showed at left L5-S1 foraminal lesion extending to the para-spinal compartment. Hemi-laminectomy, facetectomy, and excision of the lesion were done. It was primarily a cystic lesion with attachment to the exiting spinal nerve root. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed a fibro-collagenous stroma with no specific cell lining containing melanin pigment suggestive of a melanotic cyst. The patient was completely relieved of the back pain, and had no recurrence over a follow-up period of one and half years. This case is probably the first reported predominantly cystic, pigmented lesion, affecting the spinal root. PMID:23559992

  15. Cauda Equina Intradural Extramedullary Cavernous Haemangioma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Mihai; Grigorean, Valentin Titus; Sinescu, Crina Julieta; Lupascu, Cristian Dumitru; Popescu, George; Sandu, Aurelia Mihaela; Plesea, Iancu Emil

    2013-01-01

    Cavernous haemangioma (cavernoma) is a benign vascular lesion, exceptionally located in cauda equina. We report a case, diagnosed and operated in the Department of Neurosurgery from Pitesti County Emergency Hospital, of a 60-year-old woman with history of lumbar region distress, who presented with low back pain, paravertebral muscle contracture, and bilateral lumbar radiculopathy, with sudden onset after lifting effort. The preoperative diagnosis was done using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the patient underwent surgery—two level laminectomy, dural incision, and tumor dissection from the cauda equina nerve roots under operatory microscope. Histopathological examination confirmed the positive diagnosis of cavernoma of cauda equina. The patient's outcome was favorable, without postoperative neurological deficits. PMID:24097094

  16. Comparison of the effects on spinal reflexes of acetylsalicylate and metamizol in spinalized and normal rats.

    PubMed

    Gen?, Osman; Turgut, Sebahat; Turgut, Günfer; Kortunay, Selim

    2005-01-01

    The effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetylsalicylate and metamizol, on spinal monosynaptic reflexes were investigated in spinalized and normal rats. Adult rats (n=36) weighing 150-200 g were anesthetized with ketamine and artificially ventilated. Half of rats were spinalized at C1 level. A laminectomy was performed in the lumbosacral region. Following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve by single pulses, reflex potentials were recorded from the ipsilateral L5 ventral root. Acetylsalicylate was administered orally (100 mg/kg for both spinalized and normal rats). Metamizol was administered intramuscularly (15 mg/kg for both spinalized and normal rats). These drug administrations significantly decreased the amplitude of reflex response in all groups (p < 0.05). These data verify that observed inhibition by acetylsalicylicate and metamizol may be at the level of spinal cord. Also we suggested that the cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid may play an important role in regulating the reflex potential. PMID:16640028

  17. Inhibition of spinal reflexes by acetylsalicylate and metamizol (dipyrone) in rats.

    PubMed

    Genç, O; Turgut, S; Turgut, G; Kortunay, S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of acetylsalicylate and metamizol on spinal monosynaptic reflexes were tested in spinal rats. Adult rats were anesthetized with ketamine, artificially ventilated, and spinalized at the C1 level. A laminectomy was performed in the lumbosacral region. Following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve by single pulses, the reflex potentials were recorded from the ipsilateral L5 ventral root. Acetylsalicylate was administered orally via nasogastric tube and metamizol intramuscularly. Acetylsalicylate (50 and 100 mg/kg) and metamizol (15 mg/kg) significantly decreased the amplitude of the reflex response (p < 0.05). But the 10-mg/kg metamizol dose did not significantly decrease the amplitude of the reflex response. The cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid may play an important role in regulating the reflex potential. PMID:14512697

  18. Treatment of Costal Osteochondroma Causing Spinal Cord Compression by Costotransversectomy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Marcus D.; Mumert, Michael L.; Schmidt, Meic H.

    2015-01-01

    In laminectomies for costal osteochondroma causing spinal cord compression, visualization of the extraforaminal part of the tumor is limited. The authors describe using a costotransversectomy to resolve spinal cord compression by a costal osteochondroma invading through the neural foramen. A 21-year-old woman with hereditary multiple exostoses presented with hand numbness and progressive neck and upper back pain. Plain radiographs identified a large lesion of the T2 and T3 pedicles, with encroachment on the T2-3 neural foramen causing ~50% spinal canal stenosis. Costotransversectomy was performed to resect the cartilaginous portions of the osteochondroma, debulk the mass, and decompress the spinal canal. A mass of mature bone was left, but no appreciable cartilaginous tumor. At five-year follow-up, the patient had improvement of neck pain, no new neurological deficits. a stable residual mass, and no new osteochondromas, indicating that appropriate surgical management can yield good results and no evidence of recurrence. PMID:26236451

  19. Surgical treatment of giant cell tumor of the cervicothoracic spine with combined anterior and posterior approaches

    PubMed Central

    Habibou, M.L.; Boutarbouch, M.; Oudghiri, M.Y.; Mchome, L.; Louraoui, M.; Derraz, S.; El Ouahabi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, giant cell tumors are rare and their localization in the spine is even more so. They are locally aggressive leading to spine instability and neurologic deficits. Radical excision is highly advocated. A role of radiotherapy in these tumors is controversial. We report the case of a giant cell tumor localized in D1 and D2 on a 39-year-old patient, presented with interscapular back pain, paraparesis grade 3/5 and sphincter dysfunction. Thoracic spine computed tomogarphy and magnetic resonance imaging showed a vertebral body tumor in D1 and D2, compressing the spinal cord at the same level. The patient initially underwent decompressive laminectomy of affected levels and stabilized with laminar hooks and rods. Second surgery performed through an anterior approach whereby tumor excision together with corpectomy of D1 and D2 carried out, autograft was placed and plate applied. Three weeks postoperatively, the patient's neurologic deficit recovered fully and back pain subsided. PMID:25687442

  20. Passive reduction of spondylolisthesis on the operating room table: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D M; Fischgrund, J S

    1994-04-01

    Translational motion of low-grade spondylolisthesis is traditionally assessed with lateral flexion and extension radiographs. Maximum motion in an unanesthetized patient may be limited by patient cooperation, pain, or muscle spasm. Twenty-four patients with degenerative or isthmic spondylolisthesis were assessed with preoperative lateral flexion and extension radiographs. A lateral radiograph was obtained on the operating room table after administering an anesthetic, exposing the spine, and performing a laminectomy. The percentage slip decreased from 24 to 15 to 6% on flexion, extension, and intraoperative lateral radiographs, respectively (p < 0.001). The amount of reduction did not correlate with disc height, slip angle, slip level, or type of spondylolisthesis. Many low-grade spondylolisthesis deformities reduce almost completely on the operating table. Translational motion of spondylolisthesis is greater than preoperative flexion and extension radiographs indicate. PMID:8003835

  1. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour - a case report.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Sundar; Pandian, Chelladurai; Kumar, Suresh A

    2013-04-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are aggressive childhood malignancies and offer a significant challenge to treatment. A two years old female child presented with weakness both lower limbs. Preoperative MRI of the spine and paravertebral regionIso - hyper intense posterior placed extradural lesion, non contrast enhancing from D11-L2 levels with cord compression D9 to L3 laminectomy done. Granulation tissue found from D11 to L2. with cord compression. The granulation tissue removed in toto. The pathological findings were consistent with PNET. Post operative neurological improvement was minimal. Cranial screening ruled out any intracranialtumour. Hence a diagnosis of primary spinal PNET was made. A review of the literature shows that only 19 cases of primary intraspinal PNETs have been reported to date and the present case extradural in location. Primary intraspinal PNETs are rare tumors and carry a poor prognosis. PMID:25206019

  2. Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Teresa A.; Barkauskas, Deborah S.; Myers, Jay T.; Huang, Alex Y.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury causes an inflammatory reaction involving blood-derived macrophages and central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia. Intra-vital two-photon microscopy enables the study of macrophages and microglia in the spinal cord lesion in the living animal. This can be performed in adult animals with a traumatic injury to the dorsal column. Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. We also describe a injury model that crushes the dorsal column of the spinal cord, thereby producing a simple, easily accessible, rectangular lesion that is easily visualized in an animal through a laminectomy. Furthermore, we will outline procedures to sequentially image the animals at the anatomical site of injury for the study of cellular interactions during the first few days to weeks after injury. PMID:25489963

  3. Intraspinal transplantation of mouse and human neural precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Jason G.; Chen, Lu; Coleman, Ronald; Leang, Ronika; Plaisted, Warren C.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Lane, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the preparation and transplantation of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and mouse neural precursor cells (mNPCs) into the thoracic region of the mouse spinal cord. The techniques in this unit also describe how to prepare the mouse for surgery by performing a laminectomy to expose the spinal cord for transplantation. Here we show NPCs genetically labeled with eGFP transplanted into the spinal cord of a mouse following viralmediated demyelination can efficiently be detected via eGFP expression. Transplantation of these cells into the spinal cord is an efficacious way to determine their effects in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and spinal cord injury. PMID:24510791

  4. Stereotaxic Injection of a Viral Vector for Conditional Gene Manipulation in the Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Inquimbert, Perrine; Moll, Martin; Kohno, Tatsuro; Scholz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Intraparenchymal injection of a viral vector enables conditional gene manipulation in distinct populations of neurons or particular regions of the central nervous system. We demonstrate a stereotaxic injection technique that allows targeted gene expression or silencing in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. The surgical procedure is brief. It requires laminectomy of a single vertebra, providing for quick recovery of the animal and unimpaired motility of the spine. Controlled injection of a small vector suspension volume at low speed and use of a microsyringe with beveled glass cannula minimize the tissue lesion. The local immune response to the vector depends on the intrinsic properties of the virus employed; in our experience, it is minor and short-lived when a recombinant adeno-associated virus is used. A reporter gene such as enhanced green fluorescent protein facilitates monitoring spatial distribution of the vector, and the efficacy and cellular specificity of the transfection. PMID:23542888

  5. Primary lumbar epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum diagnosed by 16S rRNA PCR.

    PubMed

    Sanmillán, Jose Luis; Pelegrín, Iván; Rodríguez, David; Ardanuy, Carmen; Cabellos, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old woman who presented a primary spinal epidural abscess caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. This is the second report in the medical literature to associate this organism with a primary spinal epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis. After treatment with emergency laminectomy followed by 8 weeks of antibiotic treatment the patient was cured. Oral metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h) was the definitive choice of treatment. F. necrophorum spinal epidural abscess is rare, although samples for anaerobic culture should be collected in order to improve detection of anaerobic spinal infections. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA permits early diagnosis in anaerobic infections. PMID:23845584

  6. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage following thoracic spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Morofuji, Yoichi; Tsunoda, Keishi; Takeshita, Tomonori; Hayashi, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2009-03-01

    A 51-year-old man underwent surgery for ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the T9-T10 levels. Intraoperatively, the dura was opened unintentionally and a subcutaneous suction drain was placed. The patient complained of severe headache and nausea postoperatively. Brain computed tomography obtained 3 days after the surgery demonstrated remote cerebellar hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. Suboccipital decompression, C1 laminectomy, and ventriculostomy were performed and his symptoms subsided 2 months later. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage following spinal surgery is extremely rare, but may occur after any type of spinal surgery resulting in dural tear or intradural manipulation. Early diagnosis is particularly important for the treatment of remote cerebellar hemorrhage following spinal surgery. PMID:19318737

  7. Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Delong; Huff, Terry B.; Wang, Xiaofei; Shi, Riyi; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2011-10-01

    In vivo imaging of white matter is important for the mechanistic understanding of demyelination and evaluation of remyelination therapies. Although white matter can be visualized by a strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal from axonal myelin, in vivo repetitive CARS imaging of the spinal cord remains a challenge due to complexities induced by the laminectomy surgery. We present a careful experimental design that enabled longitudinal CARS imaging of de- and remyelination at single axon level in live rats. In vivo CARS imaging of secretory phospholipase A2 induced myelin vesiculation, macrophage uptake of myelin debris, and spontaneous remyelination by Schwann cells are sequentially monitored over a 3 week period. Longitudinal visualization of de- and remyelination at a single axon level provides a novel platform for rational design of therapies aimed at promoting myelin plasticity and repair.

  8. Prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement prior to lumbar surgery in morbidly obese patients: Two-case study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preoperative “prophylactic” placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in morbidly obese patients (e.g., body mass index [BMI] >40 or BMI over 35 with hypertension/diabetes) undergoing multilevel decompressive lumbar laminectomies may reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary embolism (PE), and death. Methods: Two patients, ages 69 and 68, with morbid obesity (BMI's of 40.4 and 37.5 both with hypertension and diabetes), received prophylactic IVC filters prior to L1–S1 laminectomies. Intraoperatively and postoperatively, both received alternating compression stocking prophylaxis, and received subcutaneous heparin 5000 U q12 h 48 h after surgery until discharge; none developed deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or PE, and both filters were uneventfully removed within 3 postoperative months. Results: The spinal surgical literature largely supports the placement of IVC filters for major risk factors; obesity (BMI >40), a history of DVT/PE, cancer, fusions, hypercoagulation syndromes, pulmonary/circulatory disorders, preoperative/postoperative immobility, staged procedures (five spinal levels), combined anterior-posterior surgery, iliocaval manipulation, age >80, and prolonged surgery (e.g., >261 min vs. >8 h). Although the safety and efficacy of prophylactic IVC filters for spine surgery in patients with morbidly obesity are well substantiated, those for bariatric patients are less clear. Conclusions: Prophylactic IVC filters were successfully placed/retrieved in 2 morbidly obese patients, ages 68 and 69, undergoing L1–S1 lumbar decompressions. Although the spine surgery literature documents the safety/efficacy of prophylactic IVC filters in patients with morbid obesity, the bariatric literature still has major concerns. PMID:26605108

  9. Medicare payment data for spine reimbursement; important but flawed data for evaluating utilization of resources

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Richard P.; Wolf, Michael E.; Kukreja, Sunil; Sin, Anthony; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicare data showing physician-specific reimbursement for 2012 were recently made public in the mainstream media. Given the ongoing interest in containing healthcare costs, we analyze these data in the context of the delivery of spinal surgery. Methods: Demographics of 206 leading surgeons were extracted including state, geographic area, residency training program, fellowship training, and academic affiliation. Using current procedural terminology (CPT) codes, information was evaluated regarding the number of lumbar laminectomies, lumbar fusions, add-on laminectomy levels, and anterior cervical fusions reimbursed by Medicare in 2012. Results: In 2012 Medicare reimbursed the average neurosurgeon slightly more than an orthopedic surgeon for all procedures ($142,075 vs. $110,920), but this was not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.218). Orthopedic surgeons had a statistical trend illustrating increased reimbursement for lumbar fusions specifically, $1187 versus $1073 (P = 0.07). Fellowship trained spinal surgeons also, on average, received more from Medicare ($125,407 vs. $76,551), but again this was not statistically significant (P = 0.112). A surgeon in private practice, on average, was reimbursed $137,495 while their academic counterparts were reimbursed $103,144 (P = 0.127). Surgeons performing cervical fusions in the Centers for Disease Control West Region did receive statistically significantly less reimbursement for that procedure then those surgeons in other parts of the country (P = 0.015). Surgeons in the West were reimbursed on average $849 for CPT code 22,551 while those in the Midwest received $1475 per procedure. Conclusion: Medicare reimbursement data are fundamentally flawed in determining healthcare expenditure as it shows a bias toward delivery of care in specific patient demographics. However, neurosurgeons, not just policy makers, must take ownership to analyze, investigate, and interpret these data as it will affect healthcare reimbursement and delivery moving forward. PMID:26425400

  10. Effect of carnosine, methylprednisolone and their combined application on irisin levels in the plasma and brain of rats with acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Serdal; Atci, ?brahim Burak; Kalayci, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Musa; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Aydin, Suna; Kom, Mustafa; Ayden, Omer; Aydin, Suleyman

    2015-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) might occur to anybody at any time and any age. In its treatment, methylprednisolone (MP) is a first choice worldwide, but there is still no significant breakthrough in truly beneficial treatment due to SCI's complex pathophysiology. We investigated the effect of carnosine, methylprednisolone (MP) and its combination on irisin levels in the plasma, brain and medulla spinalis tissues in SCI using a rat model. The rats were divided into 6 groups: I (Control, saline); II (sham animals with laminectomy without cross-clamping); III (SCI); IV (SCI treated with 150mg/kg carnosine); V (SCI treated with 30mg/kg methylprednisolone); and VI (SCI treated with a combination of carnosine and MP). The animals were given traumatic SCI after laminectomy, using 70-g closing force aneurysm clips (Yasargil FE 721). Irisin concentration was measured by ELISA. The distribution of irisin in brain and spinal cord tissues was examined by immunochemistry. Irisin was mainly expressed in the astrocytes and microglia of brain tissues, and multipolar neurones of the anterior horn of spinal cord tissue in rats of all groups, indicating that irisin is physiologically indispensable. MP and carnosine and the combination of the two, significantly increased irisin in plasma and were accompanied by a significant rise in irisin immunoreactivity of brain and spinal cord tissues of the injured rats compared with control and sham. This finding raises the possibility that methylprednisolone and carnosine regulate the brain and spinal cord tissues in SCI by inducing irisin expression, and may therefore offer a better neurological prognosis. PMID:26142757

  11. Single-stage posterior midline approach for dumbbell tumors of the thoracic spine, with intraoperative CT guidance

    PubMed Central

    Thorat, Jayant D.; Rajendra, T.; Thirugnanam, Agasthian; Ng, Ivan H. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several different procedures have been advocated for thoracic spine dumbbell tumor resection, combining thoracic and neurosurgical approaches, in single and multiple stages, using various incisions and positions. These have led to controversies in the ideal management. The authors report their analysis of a series of 11 patients successfully treated through a one-step midline approach for complete resection and instrumentation when indicated under intraoperative CT (ICT) guidance. Methods: The patients’ clinical presentations, imaging results, operative findings and follow-up were reviewed in 11 patients (age ranged from 11 to 62 years), over the period from August 2007 to May 2010. A single-stage, posterior midline incision approach with laminectomy, facetectomy, costotransversectomy, for complete resection of intraspinal and paraspinal components of tumor was used. Spinal instrumentation under ICT guidance was also carried out in relevant (six) cases with tumors involving junctional spinal regions such the cervico-thoracic or thoraco-lumbar region. Results: The initial clinical presenting symptom was pain in eight patients and paresthesia in one, while two patients were detected incidentally on routine chest X-rays. Total excision was achieved in 10 patients (9 schwanommas, 1 neurofibroma) with the exception of one patient who had a recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor adherent to the vertebral artery. No significant postoperative complications occurred and an early mobilization/discharge was achieved in all patients with an average hospital stay of 5 days. Conclusions: A one-step approach through a posterior midline incision is feasible, safe and efficient for complete excision of thoracic dumbbell tumors. This approach facilitates laminectomy, facetectomy, costotransversectomy and instrumentation under ICT guidance, while limiting muscle damage, blood loss, operative time, postoperative pain, thus enabling early mobilization with a reduced hospital stay. PMID:21541199

  12. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  13. Diffusion Tensor Imaging as a Predictor of Locomotor Function after Experimental Spinal Cord Injury and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Brian J.; Harel, Noam Y.; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Papademetris, Xenophon; Coman, Daniel; Wang, Xingxing; Hasan, Omar; Kaufman, Adam; Globinsky, Ronen; Staib, Lawrence H.; Cafferty, William B.J.; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-term disability with limited functional recovery linked to the extent of axonal connectivity. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of axonal integrity has been suggested as a potential biomarker for prognostic and therapeutic evaluation after trauma, but its correlation with functional outcomes has not been clearly defined. To examine this application, female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent midthoracic laminectomy followed by traumatic spinal cord contusion of differing severities or laminectomy without contusion. Locomotor scores and hindlimb kinematic data were collected for 4 weeks post-injury. Ex vivo DTI was then performed to assess axonal integrity using tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA), a numerical measure of relative white matter integrity, at the injury epicenter and at specific intervals rostral and caudal to the injury site. Immunohistochemistry for tissue sparing was also performed. Statistical correlation between imaging data and functional performance was assessed as the primary outcome. All injured animals showed some recovery of locomotor function, while hindlimb kinematics revealed graded deficits consistent with injury severity. Standard T2 magnetic resonance sequences illustrated conventional spinal cord morphology adjacent to contusions while corresponding FA maps indicated graded white matter pathology within these adjacent regions. Positive correlations between locomotor (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and gait kinematics) and imaging (FA values) parameters were also observed within these adjacent regions, most strongly within caudal segments beyond the lesion. Evaluation of axonal injury by DTI provides a mechanism for functional recovery assessment in a rodent SCI model. These findings suggest that focused DTI analysis of caudal spinal cord should be studied in human cases in relationship to motor outcome to augment outcome biomarkers for clinical cases. PMID:24779685

  14. Assessing forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury: novel forelimb tasks predict lesion severity and recovery.

    PubMed

    Khaing, Zin Z; Geissler, Sydney A; Jiang, Shan; Milman, Brian D; Aguilar, Sandra V; Schmidt, Christine E; Schallert, Timothy

    2012-02-10

    Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) can cause devastating neurological deficits, including impairment or loss of upper limb and hand function. Recently there has been increasing interest in cervical spinal cord injury models because the majority of spinal cord injuries are at cervical levels. Here we examined spontaneous functional recovery of adult rats with either laminectomy or lateral hemisection of the cervical spinal cord at C3-C4. Behavioral tests were carried out, including the forelimb locomotor scale (FLS), a postural instability test (PIT), a pasta-handling test that has been used to assess forepaw digit function and latency to eat, forelimb use during vertical-lateral wall exploration in a cylindrical enclosure, and vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing tests. In addition, a forelimb step-alternation test was developed to assess functional recovery at 12 weeks post-injury. All tests detected cSCI-induced deficits relative to laminectomy. Interestingly, the severity of deficits in the forelimb step-alternation test was associated with more extensive spinal damage, greater impairment, and less recovery in the FLS and other tests. For the pasta-handling test we found that rats with a milder cervical injury (alternators) were more likely to use both forepaws together compared to rats with a more severe injury (non-alternators). In addition, using the PIT, we detected enhanced function of the good limb, suggesting that neural plasticity on the unaffected side of the spinal cord may have occurred to compensate for deficits in the impaired forelimb. These outcome measures should be useful for investigating neural events associated with cSCI, and for developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:22022897

  15. Synergistic effect of basic fibroblast growth factor and methylprednisolone on neurological function after experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Baffour, R; Achanta, K; Kaufman, J; Berman, J; Garb, J L; Rhee, S; Friedmann, P

    1995-07-01

    The authors evaluated the effects of exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in combination with intravenous methylprednisolone on neurological function and cord angiogenesis in a model of spinal cord injury. Cord injury was produced by extradural clip compression through a T-1 laminectomy. Rats were randomized to one of six groups. Group A was given sham laminectomy without cord injury or treatment. The remaining animals were divided into five groups: untreated injury (Group B); injury treated with methylprednisolone (Group C); combined methylprednisolone and 1 microgram bFGF administered locally at the site of injury (Group D); methylprednisolone and 3 micrograms bFGF (Group E); or methylprednisolone and 3 micrograms heated bFGF (Group F). Groups C through F received treatment 1 hour after cord injury. At 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after surgery, neurological function of hindlimbs was assessed by blinded observers using an established multiple test method (toe spread, reflexes to extension, pain, and pressure as well as inclined plane and swim test) with tests graded and results expressed as a combined behavioral score. Animals were killed to study spinal cord angiogenesis in cord samples (2-mm sections proximal and distal to the injury site) by capillary density determination. Behavioral scores over time showed a significant difference among Groups B, C, D, E, and F (p = 0.0044), with Groups E and B maintaining highest and lowest scores, respectively. There was a linear dose effect of bFGF over time (p = 0.0187). At 4 weeks, scores showed a difference among the five groups (p = 0.006), with Group E showing higher scores than any other treatment group (for example, vs. group F: p = 0.035). There was a significant difference among the groups in gray matter capillary density counts: proximal (p = 0.0192) and distal (p = 0.024), whereas white matter capillary counts were similar across treatment groups. These results show: 1) possible synergism exists between methylprednisolone and bFGF, such that combinations of these drugs significantly enhance neurological recovery, 2) bFGF exhibits a dose-response effect in function but not in capillary density, and 3) heated, inactivated bFGF is not therapeutically effective. PMID:7540200

  16. Cervical spine dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with congestive myelopathy of the conus.

    PubMed

    Geibprasert, Sasikhan; Pongpech, Sirintara; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Krings, Timo

    2009-10-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are the spinal vascular malformations that are encountered most often, and they are usually encountered in the lower thoracic region. Cervical spine DAVFs are exceedingly rare and may be difficult to differentiate from radicular arteriovenous malformations, epidural arteriovenous shunts, or perimedullary AVFs. Typical angiographic findings in spinal DAVFs include a slow-flow shunt with converging feeding vessels from radiculomeningeal arteries draining via a radicular vein centripetally into perimedullary veins. The MR imaging findings such as spinal cord edema and perimedullary dilated vessels may be used to direct the spinal angiography that is needed to localize and classify the shunt. When the shunt is distant from the pathological imaging findings, the diagnosis may be difficult to establish, especially when the shunt is present at an atypical location such as the cervical spine. The authors present the case of a 51-year-old man presenting with lower thoracic and conus medullaris congestive edema due to a cervical spine DAVF that was located at the C-5 level. Transarterial embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate closed the proximal vein and completely obliterated the fistula. Clinical and imaging follow-up confirmed occlusion of the fistula, with improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:19929339

  17. Feline ischemic myelopathy and encephalopathy secondary to hyaline arteriopathy in five cats.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Helena; Eminaga, Salih; Palus, Viktor; Steinberg, Howard; Caine, Abby; Summers, Brian A; Gehrke, Joshua; West, Chad; Fox, Philip R; Donovan, Taryn; Cherubini, Giunio Bruto

    2014-10-01

    Five cats presented with acute-onset neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging in four cats showed a T2-weighted hyperintense spinal cord lesion that was mildly contrast-enhancing in three cats. Owing to inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid changes three cats were treated with immunosuppression. One cat was treated with antibiotics. All cats improved initially, but were eventually euthanased owing to the recurrence of neurological signs. Histopathology in all cats showed hyaline degeneration of the ventral spinal artery, basilar artery or associated branches with aneurysmal dilation, thrombosis and ischemic degeneration and necrosis of the spinal cord and brain. Two cats also had similar vascular changes in meningeal vessels. Vascular hyaline degeneration resulting in vascular aneurysmal dilation and thrombosis should be a differential diagnosis in cats presenting with acute central nervous system signs. PMID:24518252

  18. A case of intravascular lymphoma presenting as myelopathy diagnosed with a skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kenta; Uneda, Atsuhito; Yoshino, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with exclusively or predominantly intravascular proliferation. Without therapeutic intervention, the neurologic involvement is rapidly progressive and inevitably fatal. Most of the IVL patients have prominent or exclusive manifestations in the nervous system and there are several reports of patients presenting with spinal symptoms. Case Description: A 68-year-old male patient admitted with the complaints of progressive paraparesis. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord showed hyperintense lesions in the thoracic cord. A diagnosis of myelitis of unknown etiology was assumed, and steroid pulse therapy was administered, which temporarily improved the patient's symptoms. However, the paraparesis recurred, and other symptoms, such as vertigo, psychosis, and seizures, developed 1-month after the initial treatment. Multiple high-intensity lesions were detected in the bilateral subcortical white matter on DW MRI. Based on the patient's clinical course, IVL was suspected; however, obtaining histological confirmation was not possible, as no Gd-enhanced brain or spinal lesions were identified and repeated cerebrospinal fluid examinations were negative for tumor cells. Therefore, a random skin biopsy was performed, and IVL was diagnosed. Obtaining a comparatively favorable outcome was possible owing to the subsequent administration of R-CHOP chemotherapy. Conclusion: IVL should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical case of presumed myelitis. An early diagnosis and chemotherapy is crucial for improving the patient's outcome. When obtaining a diagnosis based on tissues other than skin is difficult, a random skin biopsy should be considered in patients with suspected IVL. PMID:26421216

  19. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.; D'Angio, G.J.; Drummond, D.S. )

    1990-02-01

    One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy.

  20. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kB? and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kB? and NF-kB p65, (P<0.05), while MPO activity was also significantly reduced. Proinflammatory cytokine level was also reduced in treated group as compared to both other groups. On the basis of this study we concluded that the use of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats. PMID:26261562

  1. Efficacy of treatment with verbascoside, biotechnologically produced by Syringa vulgaris plant cell cultures in an experimental mice model of spinal cord trauma.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Tiziana; Paterniti, Irene; Mazzon, Emanuela; Esposito, Emanuela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Galuppo, Maria; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2010-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside (VB), isolated from cultured cells of the medicinal plant Syringa vulgaris (Oleaceae) in experimental animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI was induced by the application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. SCI in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, tissue damage, and apoptosis. At 1 and 6 h after injury, the mice were treated with VB extract, administered at the dose of 2 mg/kg with intraperitoneal administration. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a marked increase on expression for nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, poly(ADP-ribose), and apoptosis events (increase of Bax and Bcl-2 expression) in the spinal cord tissue. Additionally, we demonstrate that these inflammatory events were associated with the cytokines expression (TNF-? and IL-1?), neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase), and activation of NF-?B. In contrast, all of these parameters of inflammation were attenuated by treatment with VB. In a separate set of experiment, we have clearly demonstrated that VB treatment significantly ameliorated the recovery of function (evaluated by motor recovery score). Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with VB extract reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma. PMID:20799028

  2. Variety of the Wave Change in Compound Muscle Action Potential in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Muramoto, Akio; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Animal study. Purpose To review the present warning point criteria of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and investigate new criteria for spinal surgery safety using an animal model. Overview of Literature Little is known about correlation palesis and amplitude of spinal cord monitoring. Methods After laminectomy of the tenth thoracic spinal lamina, 2-140 g force was delivered to the spinal cord with a tension gage to create a bilateral contusion injury. The study morphology change of the CMAP wave and locomotor scale were evaluated for one month. Results Four different types of wave morphology changes were observed: no change, amplitude decrease only, morphology change only, and amplitude and morphology change. Amplitude and morphology changed simultaneously and significantly as the injury force increased (p<0.05) Locomotor scale in the amplitude and morphology group worsened more than the other groups. Conclusions Amplitude and morphology change of the CMAP wave exists and could be the key of the alarm point in CMAP. PMID:26713129

  3. Rapid regrowth of a capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yoichi; Yamabe, Kazutoshi; Abe, Masamitsu

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of progressive gait disturbance. Neurological examinations showed mild weakness in his lower extremities and depreciation of deep sensation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed an intradural extramedullary enhanced lesion at the levels of the T10 and T11 vertebrae. Laminectomy of the T10 and T11 vertebrae was performed, and the vascular tumor on the spinal cord surface was completely resected. Histological analysis indicated that the lesion was a capillary hemangioma with an elevated proliferative index. Postoperatively, the patient showed rapid motor and sensory improvement. However, 6 months after the operation, MR imaging showed regrowth of the tumor although the clinical symptoms of the patient had not deteriorated. The patient has shown no tumor regrowth 9 years after the second operation. Capillary hemangiomas in the skin and soft tissues are often associated with high proliferative activity, and recurrence/regrowth is not infrequent. On the other hand, recurrence/regrowth of capillary hemangioma in the neuraxis after tumor resection has rarely been observed, even in cases of incomplete resection. The present case illustrates the treatment of recurrent capillary hemangioma of the spinal cord. PMID:23006883

  4. Secondary adrenal insufficiency after glucocorticosteroid administration in acute spinal cord injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiqing; Trbovich, Michelle; Harrow, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Context/background A 61-year-old female with cervical stenosis underwent an elective cervical laminectomy with post-op worsening upper extremity weakness. Over the first 3 weeks post-op, she received two separate courses of intravenous steroids. Two days after cessation of steroids, she presented with non-specific symptoms of adrenal insufficiency (AI). Initial formal diagnostic tests of random cortisol level and 250 µg cosyntropin challenge were non-diagnostic; however, symptoms resolved with the initiation of empiric treatment with hydrocortisone. Ten days later, repeat cosyntropin (adrenocortocotropic hormone stimulation) test confirmed the diagnosis of AI. Findings AI is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), especially in those receiving steroids acutely. Only three cases have been reported to date of AI occurring in ASCI after steroid treatment. The presenting symptoms can be non-specific (as in this patient) and easily confused with other common sequelae of ASCI such as orthostasis and diffuse weakness. The 250 µg cosyntropin simulation test may not the most sensitive test to diagnose AI in ASCI. Conclusion The non-specific presentations and variability of diagnosis criteria make diagnosis more difficult. One microgram cosyntropin simulation test may be more sensitive than higher dose. Clinicians should be aware that AI can be a potential life-threatening complication of ASCI post-steroid treatment. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can reverse symptoms and minimize mortality. PMID:24969098

  5. Selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia secondary to stroke in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Melissa Ann; Berman, Casey Melissa; Mazzola, Catherine Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is often recommended for children with spastic paraparesis and cerebral palsy. SDR reduces spasticity in the lower extremities for these children with spastic paraplegia. However, SDR is infrequently recommended for adults with spasticity. Spastic diplegia in adult patients can be due to stroke, brain or spinal cord injury from trauma, infection, toxic-metabolic disorders, and other causes. Although rarely considered, SDR is an option for adult patients with spastic diplegia as well. Case Description: The authors describe a patient who underwent a SDR with a successful postoperative outcome. This man suffered a hypertensive and hemorrhagic stroke secondary to intravenous drug abuse at age 46. A SDR was performed after two failed intrathecal baclofen pump placements due to recurrent infections, likely resulting from his immunocompromised status. The patient underwent lumbar laminectomies and dorsal rhizotomies at levels L1-S1 bilaterally. Postoperatively, the patient's spasticity was significantly reduced. His Ashworth spasticity score decreased from 4/5 to 1/5, and the reduction in tone has been durable over 3 years. Conclusion: SDR in older patients with spastic paraparesis may be considered as a treatment option. PMID:26167363

  6. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Genevay, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is most commonly due to degenerative changes in older individuals. LSS is being more commonly diagnosed and may relate to better access to advanced imaging and to an aging population. This review focuses on radicular symptoms related to degenerative central and lateral stenosis and updates knowledge of LSS pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Since patients with anatomic LSS can range from asymptomatic to severely disabled, the clinical diagnosis focuses on symptoms and examination findings associated with LSS. Imaging findings are helpful for patients with persistent, bothersome symptoms in whom invasive treatments are being considered. There is limited information from high quality studies about the relative benefits and harms of commonly used treatments. Interpreting and comparing results of available research is limited by a lack of consensus about the definition of LSS. Nevertheless, evidence supports decompressive laminectomy for patients with persistent and bothersome symptoms. Recommendations favor a shared decision making approach due to important trade-offs between alternative therapies and differences among patients in their preferences and values. PMID:20227646

  7. Spinal Myeloid Sarcoma "Chloroma" Presenting as Cervical Radiculopathy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaobang; Shahab, Imran; Lieberman, Isador H

    2015-06-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Myeloid sarcoma (also known as chloroma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may occur early in the course of acute or chronic leukemia or myeloproliferative disorders. Spinal cord invasion by myeloid sarcoma is rare. The authors report a rare case of spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Methods?A previously healthy 43-year-old man presented with progressive neck, right shoulder, and arm pain. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a very large enhancing extradural soft tissue mass extending from C7 through T1, with severe narrowing of the thecal sac at the T1 level. The patient underwent posterior cervical open biopsy, laminectomy, and decompression. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Postoperatively, a bone marrow biopsy was done, which showed myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia. The patient then received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Results?At the 10-month follow-up, the patient reported complete relief of arm pain and neck pain. X-rays showed that the overall cervical alignment was intact and there was no evidence of a recurrent lesion. MRI showed no evidence of compressive or remnant lesion. Conclusions?Spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy is rare, and it may be easily misdiagnosed. Knowledge of its clinical presentation, imaging, and histologic characterization can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26131394

  8. Cervical epidural hematoma in a healthy donor presenting stroke mimic symptoms: a rare adverse event following peripheral blood stem cell apheresis.

    PubMed

    Terabe, Satomi; Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Koyama, Daisuke; Okuno, Shingo; Harada, Yasuhiko; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yoshihara, Hisatake; Iwasaki, Toshihiro; Sugiura, Isamu

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell apheresis from a healthy donor is indispensable for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Here, we report a rare adverse event following peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. A female sibling donor, aged 61 years with an unremarkable medical history, complained of pain in the left neck and shoulder and numbness in the left upper limb 1 h after the end of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. Paralysis of the left upper and lower limbs appeared consecutively. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed no abnormalities. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated according to the standard treatment of atherothrombotic brain infarction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical cord on the following day revealed a cervical epidural hematoma. An emergency C4-C5 laminectomy was performed, and the paralysis was improved immediately after surgery. This report is the first case of cervical epidural hematoma in a healthy donor who underwent peripheral blood stem cell apheresis and presented symptoms confusingly similar to those of brain infarction. PMID:25759485

  9. Effects of serotonergic agents on respiratory recovery after cervical spinal injury.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Hui; Lee, Kun-Ze

    2015-11-15

    Unilateral cervical spinal cord hemisection (i.e., C2Hx) usually interrupts the bulbospinal respiratory pathways and results in respiratory impairment. It has been demonstrated that activation of the serotonin system can promote locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury. The present study was designed to investigate whether serotonergic activation can improve respiratory function during the chronic injury state. Bilateral diaphragm electromyogram and tidal volume were measured in anesthetized and spontaneously breathing adult rats at 8 wk post-C2Hx or C2 laminectomy. A bolus intravenous injection of a serotonin precursor [5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 10 mg/kg], a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine, 10 mg/kg), or a potent agonist for serotonin 2A receptors (TCB-2, 0.05 mg/kg) was used to activate the serotonergic system. Present results demonstrated that 5-HTP and TCB-2, but not fluoxetine, significantly increased the inspiratory activity of the diaphragm electromyogram ipsilateral to the lesion for at least 30 min in C2Hx animals, but not in animals that received sham surgery. However, the tidal volume was not increased after administration of 5-HTP or TCB-2, indicating that the enhancement of ipsilateral diaphragm activity is not associated with improvement of the tidal volume. These results suggest that exogenous activation of the serotonergic system can specifically enhance the ipsilateral diaphragmatic motor outputs, but this approach may not be sufficient to improve respiratory functional recovery following chronic cervical spinal injury. PMID:26359482

  10. Digital multimedia books produced using iBooks Author for pre-operative surgical patient information.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Matthew; Wilkinson, Caroline; Golash, Aprajay

    2014-10-01

    Presenting patients with medical information and ensuring informed consent can be difficult due to patients with varying levels of literacy, physical and mental disabilities and spoken languages. Patients obtaining information from external sources, such as the internet, can also be problematic as the information can be irrelevant, inaccurate or misleading. A patient satisfaction study was performed in order to assess the effectiveness of using ebooks in order to communicate pre and post surgical information to neurosurgical patients. 3 digital books were produced using iBooks Author (a free desktop publishing program designed by Apple) including ACDF (anterior cervical discectomy and fusion), lumbar laminectomy and lumbar discectomy. Each book contained written information organised into sections and chapters along with an array of multimedia elements including 3D animations, interactive diagrams, 3D models of anatomy and patient experience videos. 32 volunteer patients were then presented with the digital books via an iPad during their preoperative assessment and then asked to complete a questionnaire. The results demonstrated a demand for this type of digital presentation of medical information and also showed patients no longer felt the need to seek further information from external sources. PMID:25390936

  11. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Koreckij, Theodore D; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is one of the more commonly encountered spine conditions. The diagnosis of DS has changed little in the last 30 years. However, there has been an evolution in the treatment of this disease entity. There have been several landmark papers that helped govern our treatment. These helped serve as the basis for the treatment arms of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT), which offers the highest quality evidence to date. Although few would argue that the fusion of the diseased segment appears to offer the best and most durable results, treatment of this disease is best tailored to the individual. Fusion may offer the best results in the young active patient, but the same results may never become evident in the medically infirm patient. Laminectomy or unilateral laminoforaminotomy still plays a role in disease treatment. This review will focus on the diagnosis and the treatment of DS as well as discuss the author's preferred treatment of this disease. PMID:26172828

  12. Irreversible respiratory failure in an achondroplastic child: the importance of an early cervicomedullary decompression, and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Colamaria, V; Mazza, C; Beltramello, A; Polo, A; Boner, A; Antoniazzi, F; Polo, M; Luchini, P; Sgrò, V; Dalla Bernardina, B

    1991-07-01

    The authors report the case of a girl with achondroplasia suffering from a progressively worsening hypotonic quadriparesis. CT scan showed slight dilatation of ventricular and subarachnoid spaces, with well-defined evidence of cortical sulci and gyri. This aspect was compatible with the diagnosis of macrocrania and megalencephaly (CP being 51 cm). The foramen magnum was narrowed, the transverse diameter measuring 15 mm and the 50th percentile being, for age, 26 mm. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) revealed bilaterally prolonged interpeak latencies Erb-N13, slowing of central conduction time N13-N20 from right median nerve stimulation, and block from left median nerve. The suspicion of cervicomedullary compression was confirmed by MRI, showing a very marked stenosis with compression exerted by the odontoid process. Further, a stenotic cervical canal and optic nerves verticalization were manifest. The patient underwent neurosurgical decompression by suboccipital craniectomy and cervical-C1 laminectomy. In spite of treatment, both neurologic and respiratory problems (rapid, shallow and almost abdominal breathing) were unchanged. The girl died 4 1/2 months later. The authors emphasize the important role of SEPs in detection of cervicomedullary compression in achondroplastic children and also stress the necessity of an early surgical treatment as the only condition for possible clinical improvement and/or full recovery. PMID:1957977

  13. Progranulin expression is upregulated after spinal contusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Naphade, Swati B.; Kigerl, Kristina A.; Jakeman, Lyn B.; Kostyk, Sandra K.; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2015-01-01

    Progranulin (proepithelin) is a pleiotropic growth factor associated with inflammation and wound repair in peripheral tissues. It also has been implicated in the response to acute traumatic brain injury as well as to chronic neurodegenerative diseases. To determine whether changes in progranulin expression also accompany acute spinal cord injury, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to mid-thoracic (T9 level) contusion spinal cord injury and analyzed by immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. Whereas spinal cord sections prepared from non-injured laminectomy control animals contained low basal levels of progranulin immunoreactivity in gray matter, sections from injured animals contained intense immunoreactivity throughout the injury epicenter that peaked 7–14 days post injury. Progranulin immunoreactivity colocalized with myeloid cell markers CD11b and CD68, indicating that expression increased primarily in activated microglia and macrophages. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that progranulin protein levels rose after injury. On the basis of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, increased protein levels resulted from a 10-fold rise in progranulin transcripts. These data demonstrate that progranulin is dramatically induced in myeloid cells after experimental spinal cord injury and is positioned appropriately both spatially and temporally to influence recovery after injury. PMID:19946692

  14. Progranulin expression is upregulated after spinal contusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Naphade, Swati B; Kigerl, Kristina A; Jakeman, Lyn B; Kostyk, Sandra K; Popovich, Phillip G; Kuret, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Progranulin (proepithelin) is a pleiotropic growth-factor associated with inflammation and wound repair in peripheral tissues. It also has been implicated in the response to acute traumatic brain injury as well as to chronic neurodegenerative diseases. To determine whether changes in progranulin expression also accompany acute spinal cord injury, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to mid-thoracic (T9 level) contusion spinal cord injury and analyzed by immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. Whereas spinal cord sections prepared from non-injured laminectomy control animals contained low basal levels of progranulin immunoreactivity in gray matter, sections from injured animals contained intense immunoreactivity throughout the injury epicenter that peaked 7-14 days post injury. Progranulin immunoreactivity colocalized with myeloid cell markers CD11b and CD68, indicating that expression increased primarily in activated microglia and macrophages. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that progranulin protein levels rose after injury. On the basis of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, increased protein levels resulted from a tenfold rise in progranulin transcripts. These data demonstrate that progranulin is dramatically induced in myeloid cells after experimental spinal cord injury and is positioned appropriately both spatially and temporally to influence recovery after injury. PMID:19946692

  15. Hydrocephalus due to Membranous Obstruction of Magendie's Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Varthalitis, Dimitrios; Georgakoulias, Nikolaos; Orphanidis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of non communicating hydrocephalus due to membranous obstruction of Magendie's foramen. A 37-year-old woman presented with intracranial hypertension symptoms caused by the occlusion of Magendie's foramen by a membrane probably due to arachnoiditis. As far as the patient's past medical history is concerned, an Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis was described. Fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral papilledema. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant ventricular dilatation of all ventricles and turbulent flow of cerebelospinal fluid (CSF) in the fourth ventricle as well as back flow of CSF through the Monro's foramen to the lateral ventricles. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniotomy with C1 laminectomy. An occlusion of Magendie's foramen by a thickened membrane was recognized and it was incised and removed. We confirm the existence of hydrocephalus caused by fourth ventricle outflow obstruction by a membrane. The nature of this rare entity is difficult to demonstrate because of the complex morphology of the fourth ventricle. Treatment with surgical exploration and incision of the thickened membrane proved to be a reliable method of treatment without the necessity of endoscopic third ventriculostomy or catheter placement. PMID:25674349

  16. Intradural Neurocysticercosis of Lumbar Spine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Shankar; Kalra, K. L.; Chahal, Rupinder

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Cysticercosis (parasitic infection caused by Taenia solium) is the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system. However, spinal neurocysticercosis is rare. It can present as an extraspinal or intraspinal lesion, with intramedullary being the rarest location. The symptoms can vary from vague backache and radiculopathy to cauda equine syndrome. Methods?We report a 32-year-old man who presented with neurocysticercosis in the lumbar spine and cauda equine syndrome. He had low backache for 1?month, hesitancy in micturition, and decreased perianal sensation for the previous 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion extending from L2–S1 that was hyperintense in T2- and hypointense in T1-weighted images. Results?Because the patient presented with cauda equine syndrome, urgent decompressive laminectomy was done from L2–S1, and the thin-walled cysts with clear fluid were removed. Histopathologic examination confirmed neurocysticercosis. The perianal sensation and the bladder control recovered completely. Conclusion?Neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a similar picture, and urgent surgical decompression should be attempted to prevent further worsening of the neurologic symptoms. PMID:26225286

  17. Retrospective, Demographic, and Clinical Investigation of the Causes of Postoperative Infection in Patients With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Who Underwent Posterior Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Yaldiz, Can; Yaldiz, Mahizer; Ceylan, Nehir; Kacira, Ozlem Kitiki; Ceylan, Davut; Kacira, Tibet; Kizilcay, Gokhan; Tanriverdi, Taner

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Owing to the increasing population of elderly patients, a large number of patients with degenerative spondylosis are currently being surgically treated. Although basic measures for decreasing postoperative surgical infections (PSIs) are considered, it still remains among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present possible causes leading to PSI in patients who underwent surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylosis and highlight how it can be avoided to decrease morbidity and mortality. The study included 540 patients who underwent posterior stabilization due to degenerative lumbar stenosis between January 2013 and January 2014. The data before and after surgery was retrieved from the hospital charts. Patients with degenerative lumbar stenosis who were operated upon in this study had >2 levels of laminectomy and facetectomy. For this reason, posterior stabilization was performed for all the patients included in this study. Determining the causes of postoperative infection (PI) following spinal surgeries performed with instrumentation is a struggle. Seventeen different parameters that may be related to PI were evaluated in this study. The presence of systemic diseases, unknown glove perforations, and perioperative blood transfusions were among the parameters that increased the prevalence of PI. Alternatively, prolene sutures, double-layered gloves, and the use of rifampicin Sv (RIS) decreased the incidence of PI. Although the presence of systemic diseases, unnoticed glove perforations, and perioperative blood transfusions increased PIs, prolene suture material, double-layered gloves, and the use of RIS decreased PIs. PMID:26200620

  18. Thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syrinx formation secondary to myelography with Myodil, 30 years previously.

    PubMed

    Gnanalingham, Kanna K; Joshi, Shabin Man; Sabin, Ian

    2006-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis can rarely occur following irritation from foreign body substances, including certain oil based contrast agents used for myelography. We describe a patient with thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syringomyelia, 30 years following a myelogram with Myodil. A 62-year-old female presented with chronic thoraco-lumbar back pain, a spastic paraparesis and sphincter disturbance. She had undergone a myelogram with Myodil, 30 years previously for investigation of back pain. A MRI scan revealed evidence of arachnoiditis, thoracic syringomyelia (T6-T8) and an anteriorly placed, extramedullary, arachnoid cyst at T10-T12, compressing the cord. At surgery, T7-T10 thoracic laminectomies were carried out and syringo- and cysto-subarachnoid shunts were inserted. At 12 months follow-up, the sphincter disturbance, lower limb weakness and mobility problems had almost resolved. Although, the use of oil based contrast agents such as Myodil has been discontinued, the present case illustrates some of the rare sequelae of its use, manifesting decades later. Aggressive surgical intervention produced symptomatic benefit. PMID:16944225

  19. Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage after Revision Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Justin M.; Calvert, Graham; Spiker, William R.; Brodke, Darrel S.; Lawrence, Brandon D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?To report a case of remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) without intraoperative dural tear after revision lumbar spine surgery. RCH is a rare postoperative complication following spine surgery. RCH has previously been reported only in cases with intraoperative dural tear or durotomy. Methods?Case report and literature review. Results?A 58-year-old woman underwent removal of L4–S1 posterior spinal instrumented fusion (PSIF) implants and L3–L4 decompressive laminectomy with PSIF. There was no intraoperative dural tear. After doing well initially, the patient developed new neurologic symptoms and was found to have RCH. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large dural defect. After repair of the dura, the patient had dramatic improvement of her neurologic symptoms. At 1-year follow-up, the patient continued to have no neurologic sequelae. Conclusion?This report demonstrates that RCH can occur without intraoperative dural tear. Although rare, any patient with new onset of declining neurologic symptoms following spine surgery should have a brain MRI and should have RCH on the differential diagnosis. PMID:26682108

  20. Intradural solitary fibrous tumor of the lumbar spine: a distinctive case report.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Recep; Kaksi, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Sav, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasms of putative fibroblastic origin. They were originally described in the pleura but subsequently have been reported in many extraserosal sites. Solitary fibrous tumors may also occur in the meninges, central nervous system parenchyma, and spinal cord. Case. A 67-year-old male patient with progressive lower extremity weakness, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction has been admitted to our hospital. On his lumbar MRI, we detected an intradural lesion posterior to the L3 vertebral corpus. We resected the lesion by L3 total laminectomy. Immunohistological findings revealed strong and diffuse immunopositivity with vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2. Ki-67 proliferation index was 5-8%. We did not detect any recurrence 12 months after his operation. Conclusion. SFT is mostly seen in young and middle-aged patients and should be considered among differential diagnosis in cases suffering from pain, hypoesthesia, and urinary dysfunction. Gross total resection should be primary treatment. Tumors that have high Ki-67 labeling should be followed up for potential recurrences. PMID:25648160

  1. The impact of discrete modes of spinal cord injury on bladder muscle contractility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have compared the effect of spinal cord injury elicited using distinct approaches on motor and visceral function. However, the impact of such discrete modes of injury specifically on bladder muscle contractility has not been explored in detail. The goal of this study is to compare the impact of complete spinal cord transection versus clip compression at thoracic vertebra eight (T8) on bladder muscle contractility. Methods Rats underwent no treatment (Control), laminectomy (Sham, SH); complete extradural transection (TX); or cord compression with an aneurysm clip (CX). Bladders and spinal cords were harvested at 6 wk for contractility studies or histological analysis. Results Detrusor strips from TX and CX rats showed higher spontaneous activity than those from SH rats. Furthermore, the duration of the neurally-mediated contractile response was longer in TX and CX rats compared to controls and showed attenuated relaxation. No significant differences were observed between muscle strips from SH, TX or CX rats in response to KCl, ATP or phenylephrine. However, tissues from TX and CX rats showed a higher sensitivity to carbachol compared to that from SH animals. Conclusions Complete SCI in rats either by cord transection or compression elicits qualitatively similar changes in bladder muscle contractility. Whereas cord transection is arguably easier to perform experimentally, cord compression better models the situation observed clinically, such that each approach has clear advantages and limitations. PMID:23668225

  2. Spontaneous epidural hematoma of the spine associated with oral anticoagulants: 3 Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tawk, C.; El Hajj Moussa, M.; Zgheib, R.; Nohra, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous epidural hematoma of the spine (SEHS) is an extremely rare entity. Patients known to have thrombophilia or on anticoagulant drugs are the most affected. It is generally caused by a rupture of the postero-internal vertebral venous plexus secondary to minor barotrauma such as cough, peridural catheter insertion... Early diagnosis and treatment showed to have the best outcome. Cases report We report 3 cases of spontaneous epidural hematoma in patients treated by acenocoumarol, which occurred without any provocative factor. All 3 patients were treated with decompressive laminectomy. Discussion We described the MRI findings and discussed the spontaneity of the entity. Our present case studies and the review of the literature showed that early diagnosis and management of SEHS can lead to improvement of the neurological state and avoid definitive motor and sensitive deficit. Conclusion This rare entity should be suspected in every acute medullary syndrome with spinal pain, motor and/or sensory deficit. In order to decrease the sequelae, neurologically unstable patients should benefit from early diagnosis and urgent surgical decompression. PMID:26074484

  3. Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage after Revision Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Haller, Justin M; Calvert, Graham; Spiker, William R; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D

    2015-12-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?To report a case of remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) without intraoperative dural tear after revision lumbar spine surgery. RCH is a rare postoperative complication following spine surgery. RCH has previously been reported only in cases with intraoperative dural tear or durotomy. Methods?Case report and literature review. Results?A 58-year-old woman underwent removal of L4-S1 posterior spinal instrumented fusion (PSIF) implants and L3-L4 decompressive laminectomy with PSIF. There was no intraoperative dural tear. After doing well initially, the patient developed new neurologic symptoms and was found to have RCH. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large dural defect. After repair of the dura, the patient had dramatic improvement of her neurologic symptoms. At 1-year follow-up, the patient continued to have no neurologic sequelae. Conclusion?This report demonstrates that RCH can occur without intraoperative dural tear. Although rare, any patient with new onset of declining neurologic symptoms following spine surgery should have a brain MRI and should have RCH on the differential diagnosis. PMID:26682108

  4. Our experience in the diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess with the use of new diagnostic methods--computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Aleksi?-Shihabi, Anka; Dubravica, Ivica; Celi?, Sandra; Bili?, Blansa; Knezevi?, Vlatko

    2009-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman, a diabetic, presented to emergency unit for severe back pain that occurred three weeks of her having sustained a fall and blow in the back. Upon admission, she developed elevated body temperature, urinary retention and severe paraparesis of lower extremities. Laboratory testing showed increased levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (93 mm/h), leukocyte count (18.3 x 10(3)/ mL), C-reactive protein (246.5 mg/L) and liver enzymes, and abundant bacteria in urine sediment. Penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in blood culture. Antibiotic therapy according to the antibiotic sensitivity report was introduced. Magnetic resonance of thoracic spine revealed epidural liquid collection compressing the spinal medulla from Th2 to Th7. The patient was transferred to neurosurgery for posterior laminectomy and decompression, along with antibiotic therapy. Microbiology confirmed Staphylococcus aureus in the intraoperative tissue specimen. The patient was discharged from the hospital with mild paraparesis and continuing antibiotic therapy recommended. PMID:19928416

  5. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma presenting as an intradural spinal mass: report of a rare clinical presentation with an emphasis on differential diagnostic considerations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Priya; Colen, Rivka R; Bruner, Janet M; Meis, Jeanne M

    2014-10-27

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm that occurs predominantly in the soft tissues of the lower extremities. Herein we present a case of a 29 year old male who presented with bilateral femoral numbness believed to be the result of prior injury to his back. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the T4-T5 epidural space compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed and the lesion removed piecemeal. The pathology specimen consisted of multiple fragments of dura involved by a myxoid neoplasm with a nodular growth pattern. The tumor cells were arranged in anastomosing cords and strands. Individual tumor cells were small, of uniform size and shape, with small hyperchromatic nuclei and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains were performed which showed the tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and focally positive for EMA, S-100 protein and cytokeratin, whereas they were negative for CD34 and CD99. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies showed a clonal population of cells with re-arrangement of the EWSR1 locus, confirming the histologic impression of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. This is the first report of a case of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma arising from the dura, confirmed to have rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene by FISH. There have only been two other cases of dural based extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma reported prior to our case. We also briefly review the published literature and discuss differential diagnostic considerations for this rare tumor. PMID:25568751

  6. Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma Presenting as an Intradural Spinal Mass: Report of a Rare Clinical Presentation With an Emphasis on Differential Diagnostic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Priya; Colen, Rivka R.; Bruner, Janet M.; Meis, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm that occurs predominantly in the soft tissues of the lower extremities. Herein we present a case of a 29 year old male who presented with bilateral femoral numbness believed to be the result of prior injury to his back. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the T4-T5 epidural space compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed and the lesion removed piecemeal. The pathology specimen consisted of multiple fragments of dura involved by a myxoid neoplasm with a nodular growth pattern. The tumor cells were arranged in anastomosing cords and strands. Individual tumor cells were small, of uniform size and shape, with small hyperchromatic nuclei and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains were performed which showed the tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and focally positive for EMA, S-100 protein and cytokeratin, whereas they were negative for CD34 and CD99. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies showed a clonal population of cells with re-arrangement of the EWSR1 locus, confirming the histologic impression of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. This is the first report of a case of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma arising from the dura, confirmed to have rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene by FISH. There have only been two other cases of dural based extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma reported prior to our case. We also briefly review the published literature and discuss differential diagnostic considerations for this rare tumor. PMID:25568751

  7. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  8. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a novel method to detect demyelination in rat sciatic nerve in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Senapati, Arun; Peng, Yuan Bo; Kashyap, Dheerendra; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    This study was done to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to bring out differences in the anatomical substructures in the rat spinal cord and further to differentiate scattering between demyelinated and normal sciatic nerves in rat models, thereby exploring a new methodology to localize MS (multiple Sclerosis) lesions in vivo for animal studies. The experimental setup consisted of a tungsten light source, CCD array spectrometer, and bifurcated optical fibers for light delivery and detection of back scattered light from tissue. The measurement system was calibrated with reflectance standard. The spinal cord of 14 rats was exposed by laminectomy, and the measurements were taken on 8 points at intervals of 1 mm on the right and left lumbar-sacral regions and the central blood vessel. For measurements on the sciatic nerve, the spinal nerves of 84 rats were ligated according to the Chung Model. Measurements were taken on five points on both the ligated and the control nerve side after 1, 4, 7 and 14 days. The reduced scattering coefficient, ?s', was found to be higher in the lumbar-sacral regions (34.17 +/- 2.05 cm-1) than that near the central blood vessel (19.9 +/- 3.8 cm-1). Statistically, there was significant difference in scattering between the control side and the ligated side on postoperative days 4, 7, and 14. This study shows a promising diagnostic value in the future for monitoring of demyelinated CNS (central nervous system) diseases, like Multiple Sclerosis.

  9. Primary intraosseous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of spine with a giant paraspinal and retrospinal subcutaneous extension

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Ashis; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Senapati, Satya Bhushan; Patra, Sunil Kalpalata; Tripathy, Kalpalata; Burma, Subrat

    2012-01-01

    Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) encompass the tumors, which were previously termed as malignant schwannoma, neurogenic sarcoma, and neurofibrosarcoma. These are rare tumors constituting only 5% of all malignant soft tissue tumors. As per their name, they arise from the malignant proliferation of cells forming sheath of a nerve root. They cause spinal cord compression, secondary changes in the surrounding bone with variable amount of tumor tissue going into the paraspinal space. However, purely intraosseous origin of the MPNST with no visible connection with a nerve root or dura is rare and few cases have been described in the literature. Case Description: We present a primary intraosseous MPNST arising from the body of a thoracic spine with a minimal intraspinal component. However, there was a huge tumor part occupying the paraspinal and retrospinal region. The latter component was so large that it extended to lie just beneath the skin. The intraspinal component was confined to only one level. The giant extraspinal part was spanning multiple corresponding spinal level. We could not find such presentation in the literature. Conclusion: Gross total removal (GTR) followed by adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy is the optimal treatment for MPNST of spine. In case of multiple laminectomy or gross spinal instability, spinal instrumentation makes the treatment protocol complete. PMID:23372973

  10. Microscopic Posterior Transdural Resection of Cervical Retro-Odontoid Pseudotumors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yasushi; Manabe, Hideki; Sumida, Tadayoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Hamasaki, Takahiko

    2015-12-01

    Retro-odontoid pseudotumors are noninflammatory masses formed posterior to the odontoid process. Because of their anatomy, the optimal surgical approach for resecting pseudotumors is controversial. Conventionally, 3 approaches are used: the anterior transoral approach, the lateral approach, and the posterior extradural approach; however, each approach has its limitations. The posterior extradural approach is the most common; however, it remains challenging due to severe epidural veins. Although regression of pseudotumors after fusion surgery has been reported, direct decompression and a pathologic diagnosis are ideal when the pseudotumor is large. We therefore developed a new microscopic surgical technique; transdural resection. After C1 laminectomy, the dorsal and ventral dura was incised while preserving the arachnoid. Removal of the pseudotumor was performed and both of the dura were repaired. The patient's clinical symptoms subsequently improved and the pathologic findings showed degenerative fibrocartilaginous tissue. In addition, no neurological deterioration, central spinal fluid leakage, or arachnoiditis was observed. Currently, the usefulness of the transdural approach has been reported for cervical and thoracic disk herniation. According to our results, the transdural approach is recommended for resection of retro-odontoid pseudotumors because it enables direct decompression of the spinal cord and a pathologic diagnosis. PMID:26544168

  11. A refugee's perspective on their neurosurgical care in North America

    PubMed Central

    Honey, C. Michael; Poologaindran, Anujan; Mayhew, Maureen; Steen, Laura Vander; Gillis, Christopher Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing population of refugees within North America and an increasing awareness of their unique medical requirements. These requirements include both a well-recognized need to understand the different pathologies that can present in these patients as well as the rarely described need to understand their unique perspective and how this can impact their medical care, especially for routine neurosurgical conditions. This paper highlights a refugee's perspective toward the medical system in North America and documents how several aspects of this unique perspective hindered or delayed the care for the management of this patient with a cervical cord tumor. Case Description: A 34-year-old female Somalian refugee presented with an ependymoma to Vancouver General Hospital 3 days after arriving in North America. The tumor was removed through a standard posterior cervical laminectomy approach. The patient and her care workers were interviewed 6 months postoperatively to determine if any aspects of care were negatively impacted by her refugee status. Problems related to communication, medical history, mistrust of care workers, familial support, and access to follow-up care were recognized and recommendations for improvements provided. Conclusions: It is well known that the North American physicians must be familiar with the unique spectrum of medical conditions within the refugee community. This paper highlights that physicians must also be aware that refugees may have a unique perspective on our health care system that can negatively influence their care for even routine neurosurgical conditions. PMID:26629394

  12. Chemonucleolysis for relief of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, J A

    1981-01-01

    Chemonucleolysis is the nonoperative chemical removal of displaced lumbar disc material. The enzyme chymopapain, which has a wide margin of safety between its effective therapeutic and toxic doses, is effective in the management of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc. The patient will have leg pain as the dominant symptom and a 50% reduction in straight-leg raising with or without bowstring discomfort and crossover pain. Neurologic symptoms and signs are usual, as are abnormal results of contrast studies, which will verify the level of involvement. In 220 randomly selected patients who met criteria for the diagnosis of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc and did not have psychogenic or nonorganic spinal pain, a spinal stenosis or a history of a previous, unsuccessful operation to relieve the sciatica, chemonucleolysis had a success rate of 80%. The only complications were a severe anaphylactic reaction in two patients and lesser, delayed reactions in five others. All of the reactions were successfully treated. Of the 45 patients in whom chemonucleolysis was unsuccessful, 38 underwent a laminectomy. In 3 of the 38 the results of chemonucleolysis were initially good, but later the disc herniation recurred; thus, the long-term treatment failure rate was 1.4%. PMID:7011530

  13. Intradural Neurocysticercosis of Lumbar Spine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Shankar; Kalra, K L; Chahal, Rupinder

    2015-08-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Cysticercosis (parasitic infection caused by Taenia solium) is the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system. However, spinal neurocysticercosis is rare. It can present as an extraspinal or intraspinal lesion, with intramedullary being the rarest location. The symptoms can vary from vague backache and radiculopathy to cauda equine syndrome. Methods?We report a 32-year-old man who presented with neurocysticercosis in the lumbar spine and cauda equine syndrome. He had low backache for 1?month, hesitancy in micturition, and decreased perianal sensation for the previous 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion extending from L2-S1 that was hyperintense in T2- and hypointense in T1-weighted images. Results?Because the patient presented with cauda equine syndrome, urgent decompressive laminectomy was done from L2-S1, and the thin-walled cysts with clear fluid were removed. Histopathologic examination confirmed neurocysticercosis. The perianal sensation and the bladder control recovered completely. Conclusion?Neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a similar picture, and urgent surgical decompression should be attempted to prevent further worsening of the neurologic symptoms. PMID:26225286

  14. Midline Lumbar Fusion with Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw

    PubMed Central

    MIZUNO, Masaki; KURAISHI, Keita; UMEDA, Yasuyuki; SANO, Takanori; TSUJI, Masanori; SUZUKI, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    A novel cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique provides an alternative fixation technique for lumbar spine. Trajectory of CBT screw creates a caudo-cephalad path in sagittal plane and a medio-lateral path in axial plane, and engages cortical bone in the pedicle. The theoretical advantage is that it provides enhanced screw grip and interface strength. Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) is composed of posterior mid-line approach, microsurgical laminectomy, and CBT screw fixation. We adopted the MIDLF technique for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Advantages of this technique include that decompression and fusion are available in the same field, and it minimizes approach-related damages. To determine whether MIDLF with CBT screw is as effective as traditional approach and it is minimum invasive technique, we studied the clinical and radiological outcomes of MIDLF. Our results indicate that MIDLF is effective and minimum invasive technique. Evidence of effectiveness of MIDLF is that patients had good recovery score, and that CBT screw technique was safety in clinical and stable in radiological. MIDLF with CBT screw provides the surgeon with additional options for fixation. This technique is most likely to be useful for treating lumbar spondylolisthesis in combination with midline decompression and insertion of an interbody graft, such as the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion or posterior lumbar interbody fusion techniques. PMID:25169139

  15. Therapy of acute and delayed spinal infections after spinal surgery treated with negative pressure wound therapy in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Pawel; König, Matthias Alexander; Osterhoff, Georg; Wilzeck, Verena; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Jukema, Gerrolt Nico

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of the treatment of infected primary or delayed spine wounds after spinal surgery using negative pressure wound therapy. In our institution (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland) nine patients (three women and six men; mean age 68.6, range 43-87 years) were treated in the period between January to December 2011 for non-healing spinal wounds. The treatment consisted of repeated debridements, irrigation and temporary closure with negative pressure wound therapy system. Three patients were admitted with a spinal epidural abscess; two with osteoporotic lumbar fracture; two with pathologic vertebra fracture and spinal cord compression, and two with vertebra fracture after trauma. All nine patients have been treated with antibiotic therapy. In one case the hardware has been removed, in three patients laminectomy was performed without instrumentation, in five patients there was no need to remove the hardware. The average hospital stay was 16.6 days (range 11-30). The average follow-up was 3.8, range 0.5-14 months. The average number of negative pressure wound therapy procedures was three, with the range 1-11. Our retrospective study focuses on the clinical problems faced by the spinal surgeon, clinical outcomes after spinal surgery followed by wound infection, and negative pressure wound therapy. Moreover, we would like to emphasize the importance for the patients and their relatives to be fully informed about the increased complications of surgery and about the limitations of treatment of these wounds with negative pressure wound therapy. PMID:24416474

  16. Influence of intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation on iNOS, total-NOS, and ET-1 in acute spinal cord-injured rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhenchun; Dong, Yinghai; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective To research the influence of intravascular low level Laser irradiation (ILLLI) on total NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord following acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), and discuss the protective effects of ILLLI on neurons .Methods 72 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: treatment group, injury group and control group. In treatment group and injury group, after laminectomy at the level of T-13, ASCI was performed by using Allen"s method with slight modification (6g×10cm) on rabbits. After injury, rabbits were treated immediately with He-Ne laser (power 5 mW, 1 hour per day for 10 days). At the day of 10th after treatment, total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord tissues were measured. Results The expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord in injury group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while after ILLLI the level of these index in treatment group decreased statistically significantly compared with those in injury group (P<0.05). Conclusion ILLLI can significantly decrease the expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord. It indicates that ILLLI can relieve the overexpression of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 ,and thus can perform protective effects on neurons in the course of secondary spinal cord injury (SSCI) following ASCI

  17. Bronchogenic cyst of the conus medullaris with spinal cord tethering: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming-Xiang; Hu, Jia-Rui; Kang, Yi-Jun; Li, Jing; Lv, Guo-Hua; She, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts (BCs) are congenital malformations that originate from remnants of the primitive foregut. Intraspinal BCs, especially those of the conus medullaris are rare with only one case reported until now. To date, a bronchogenic cyst with spinal cord tethering has not been previously reported. We reviewed the clinical course of a 44-year-old woman, who presented with low back pain and leg weaknesss as well as sphincter disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intradural oval mass located at the conus medullaris. A tethered cord was also observed, as well as a dermal sinus tract. The mass was totally removed after an L3-L4 laminectomy without detethering during operation. Pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst. By six months after treatment, the patient had experienced nearly complete recovery. The review of literature indicated that detethering was performed in most reported cases of neurenteric cysts with spinal cord tethering, and one of six patients was diagnosed with a postoperative recurrence. The co-existence of bronchogenic cyst and a tethered spinal cord would imply associated developmental errors in embryogenesis. It is worth noting that whether detethering is necessary after the cyst removal. PMID:26097578

  18. Challenges in early operative approaches to intramedullary spinal cord tumors: Harvey Cushing's perspective.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Courtney; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Jallo, George I; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2015-10-01

    Although Harvey Cushing was mostly known for his contributions to brain tumor surgery, he was also a pioneer in the development of spinal cord surgery. This lesser known facet of Cushing's career can provide a fresh and unique perspective into how the founders of neurosurgery surmounted early challenges in the field. The authors bring to light and examine for the first time Cushing's unpublished writing "Technique of Laminectomy" along with his first 3 documented intramedullary spinal cord tumor (IMSCT) cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The authors draw lessons from the challenges in pathological classification, preoperative diagnosis, tumor localization, and surgical technique of that time. Although Cushing's attempts at exploration and resection of IMSCT as described here were of limited success, his ability to adapt his clinical and surgical technique to the challenges of the time, as well as develop skills to successfully manipulate the spinal cord during these exploratory procedures without the patients incurring neurological damage, postoperative infection, or complications, is a testament to his determination to advance the field and his meticulous operative technique. In spite of the limitations imposed on the pioneer neurosurgeons, Harvey Cushing and his contemporaries persevered through many of the challenges and built an essential part of neurosurgery's common story. PMID:26115026

  19. Is clear cell sarcoma a malignant form of psammomatous melanotic schwannoma? Case report.

    PubMed

    Sengöz, Ahmet; Ta?demiro?lu, Erol; Togay, Halit

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a case of clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in which the tumor originated in the S-1 nerve root and had been previously diagnosed as psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS). This is the third case of a spinal nerve root origin for CCS reported in the English-language literature. The similar histogenesis of CCS and malignant melanoma supports the hypothesis that biological agents or immunotherapy are potentially important areas of investigation. The patient underwent S1-3 laminectomy and gross-total resection of the mass lesion. The border of the resection was extended 1 cm distal to the tumor margin. The postoperative period was uneventful. The new histopathological diagnosis was CCS (malignant melanoma of soft tissue). Despite total resection, the patient returned with disseminated disease at the 18-month follow-up visit. His follow-up magnetic resonance image of the lumbar spine revealed sacral L5-S3 involvement of the vertebral bodies along with disseminated cauda equina seeding. A CCS originating from peripheral nerves is quite rare. The histopathological and immunohistochemical appearance of CCSs resembles those of PMSs. Surgery should be the first choice of treatment. PMID:17341045

  20. Microscopic Posterior Transdural Resection of Cervical Retro-Odontoid Pseudotumors

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Hideki; Sumida, Tadayoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Hamasaki, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Retro-odontoid pseudotumors are noninflammatory masses formed posterior to the odontoid process. Because of their anatomy, the optimal surgical approach for resecting pseudotumors is controversial. Conventionally, 3 approaches are used: the anterior transoral approach, the lateral approach, and the posterior extradural approach; however, each approach has its limitations. The posterior extradural approach is the most common; however, it remains challenging due to severe epidural veins. Although regression of pseudotumors after fusion surgery has been reported, direct decompression and a pathologic diagnosis are ideal when the pseudotumor is large. We therefore developed a new microscopic surgical technique; transdural resection. After C1 laminectomy, the dorsal and ventral dura was incised while preserving the arachnoid. Removal of the pseudotumor was performed and both of the dura were repaired. The patient’s clinical symptoms subsequently improved and the pathologic findings showed degenerative fibrocartilaginous tissue. In addition, no neurological deterioration, central spinal fluid leakage, or arachnoiditis was observed. Currently, the usefulness of the transdural approach has been reported for cervical and thoracic disk herniation. According to our results, the transdural approach is recommended for resection of retro-odontoid pseudotumors because it enables direct decompression of the spinal cord and a pathologic diagnosis. PMID:26544168

  1. Calibrated forceps model of spinal cord compression injury.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Ashley; Monterrubio, Angela; Ariza, Jeanelle; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Compression injuries of the murine spinal cord are valuable animal models for the study of spinal cord injury (SCI) and spinal regenerative therapy. The calibrated forceps model of compression injury is a convenient, low cost, and very reproducible animal model for SCI. We used a pair of modified forceps in accordance with the method published by Plemel et al. (2008) to laterally compress the spinal cord to a distance of 0.35 mm. In this video, we will demonstrate a dorsal laminectomy to expose the spinal cord, followed by compression of the spinal cord with the modified forceps. In the video, we will also address issues related to the care of paraplegic laboratory animals. This injury model produces mice that exhibit impairment in sensation, as well as impaired hindlimb locomotor function. Furthermore, this method of injury produces consistent aberrations in the pathology of the SCI, as determined by immunohistochemical methods. After watching this video, viewers should be able to determine the necessary supplies and methods for producing SCI of various severities in the mouse for studies on SCI and/or treatments designed to mitigate impairment after injury. PMID:25938880

  2. A Rare Case of Malignant Lymphoma Occurred at Spinal Epidural Space: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Jun; Hur, Junseok W.; Jin, Sung-Won; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Park, Jung-Yul

    2015-01-01

    The sacral spinal epidural space is an uncommon site for primary malignant lymphomas, presenting with symptoms associated with cauda equina compression. Especially, lumbo-sacral epidural lymphoma has been reported to be very rare. We present a rare case of 29-year-old male with sacral spinal epidural malignant lymphoma. The patient complained of tingling sensation in his buttocks that was radiating to his calf. The neurological examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast showed a well-defined extradural mass lesion at the mid L5 to mid S2 level. The lesion was iso- to hypointense on T1 and T2 weighted images and showed homogenous enhancement and a focal enhancement in the L5 vertebral body on post-contrast images. The patient underwent a L5-S2 laminectomy and subtotal excision of the lesion. Intra-operatively, the lesion was extradural and not densely adherent to the dura; the lesion was friable, not firm, fleshy, brownish and hypervascular. The histologic diagnosis was grade 2 non-Hodgkin's follicular lymphoma. Even though the primary spinal epidural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very rare disease, clinicians should take it into consideration in the differential diagnosis of patients with spinal epidural tumor. PMID:26512278

  3. Calibrated Forceps Model of Spinal Cord Compression Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Jeanelle; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Compression injuries of the murine spinal cord are valuable animal models for the study of spinal cord injury (SCI) and spinal regenerative therapy. The calibrated forceps model of compression injury is a convenient, low cost, and very reproducible animal model for SCI. We used a pair of modified forceps in accordance with the method published by Plemel et al. (2008) to laterally compress the spinal cord to a distance of 0.35 mm. In this video, we will demonstrate a dorsal laminectomy to expose the spinal cord, followed by compression of the spinal cord with the modified forceps. In the video, we will also address issues related to the care of paraplegic laboratory animals. This injury model produces mice that exhibit impairment in sensation, as well as impaired hindlimb locomotor function. Furthermore, this method of injury produces consistent aberrations in the pathology of the SCI, as determined by immunohistochemical methods. After watching this video, viewers should be able to determine the necessary supplies and methods for producing SCI of various severities in the mouse for studies on SCI and/or treatments designed to mitigate impairment after injury. PMID:25938880

  4. Successful Treatment of Chronic Donor Site Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yanow, Jennifer H; Lorenzo, Luigi Di; Worosilo, Sharon C; Pappagallo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This is a case presentation of a 45-year-old male with chronic donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest successfully treated with superior cluneal nerve blockade. Donor site pain following autologous bone harvest is a common postoperative complication of lumbar fusion procedures that can cause significant morbidity and diminish quality of life, even in the context of an otherwise successful surgery. Dysfunction of the superior cluneal nerves is an etiology of this chronic pain. The patient’s medical history, attempted treatments, and literature were reviewed. Case Presentation: A 45-year-old male with a six year history of severe pain over the right iliac crest following an otherwise successful lumbar laminectomy and fusion underwent two sets of superior cluneal nerve blocks, with sustained relief of more than 80% at seven months follow up. Conclusions: Donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest is a common surgical complication that is often resistant to conservative treatments such as physical therapy and oral medications. Blockade of the superior cluneal nerves is a safe and technically simple procedure that may result in long-term pain relief, obviating the need to consider more invasive options. PMID:26587399

  5. Chiropractic management of postoperative spine pain: a report of 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Coulis, Christopher M.; Lisi, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe chiropractic care including spinal manipulation for 3 patients with postsurgical spine pain. Clinical features Three patients with postsurgical spine pain (1 cervical fusion, 1 lumbar discectomy, and 1 lumbar laminectomy) presented for chiropractic treatment at a major US medical center. Treatment included spinal manipulation and/or flexion-distraction mobilization based on patient response to joint loading strategies. Intervention and outcomes Two patients were treated with high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation; and 1 patient was treated with flexion-distraction mobilization. Treatment frequency and duration were 4 treatments over 4 weeks for case 1, 17 treatments over 7 years for case 2, and 5 treatments over 5 weeks for case 3. Subjective improvement was noted using numeric pain scores and functional changes; and upon completion, the patients reported being “satisfied” with their overall outcome. One episode of transient benign soreness was noted by 1 patient. No additional adverse events or effects were noted. Conclusion In these 3 cases, patients with postsurgical spine pain responded positively to chiropractic care. Spinal manipulation/mobilization was tolerated without significant adverse effects. PMID:24396317

  6. Typhoid spondylodiscitis: the first reported case in Southeast Asia and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Nilgate, Sumanee; Suankratay, Chusana

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first case of typhoid spondylodiscitis in Southeast Asia, and the literature were also reviewed. A 57-year-old diabetic Thai man who presented with a one-month course of progressive low back pain associated with paraparesis and bowel-bladder dysfunction. Examination revealed local tenderness over T12 area, spastic paraparesis, impaired pinprick sensation up to T12 level, and loose anal sphincter tone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spondylodiscitis of T11 and T12 and epidural abscess causing spinal cord compression. T11 and T12 laminectomy, T11/12 discectomy, and debridement of epidural abscess were performed, and the cultures of the pus grew Salmonella Typhi. He was treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin for three weeks and was discharged from the hospital with oral ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for another five months of treatment. The patient was doing well when last seen two months after discontinuation of antimicrobial treatment. In addition, a total of ten cases of typhoid spondylitis/spondylodiscitis were reviewed. PMID:20196424

  7. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: Temporary Visual Loss After Spinal Deformity Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kueper, Janina; Loftus, Michael L; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Lebl, Darren

    2015-11-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare cause of temporary postoperative visual loss (POVL) after spinal deformity surgery. We report on 2 patients diagnosed with PRES after spinal deformity surgery, who were closely examined postoperatively. A 78-year-old woman with severe disability due to degenerative lumbar spondylosis after laminectomy was treated with transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion from L1 to L4 and posterior spinal fusion from T10 to pelvis. She developed confusion and bilateral visual loss on postoperative day 7. A second patient, a 51-year-old woman with progressive pain and decompensation caused by adult scoliosis, was treated with posterior spinal fusion from T3 to pelvis and interbody fusion from L4 to S1 via a presacral interbody fusion approach. She developed bilateral visual loss on postoperative day 15. Both patients achieved a complete recovery of their vision after medical management of PRES. Timely diagnosis of PRES and prompt intervention allow for a good patient prognosis and complete recovery of eyesight. PMID:26566564

  8. Evaluation of Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis After Short Segment Decompression and Fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Naiguo; Wang, Dachuan; Wang, Feng; Tan, Bingyi; Yuan, Zenong

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate short segment decompression of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and the efficiency of fusion treatment.After DLS surgery, the patients were retrospectively reviewed using the VAS (visual analog scale) and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) to assess clinical outcomes. All patients underwent posterior lumbar decompressive laminectomy, pedicle screw internal fixation, and posterolateral bone graft fusion surgery. Radiographic measurements included the scoliotic Cobb angle, the fused Cobb angle, the anterior intervertebral angle (AIA), the sagittal intervertebral angle (SIA), and lumbar lordosis angle. The relationships between these parameters were examined by bivariate Pearson analysis and linear regression analysis.Preoperatively, the Cobb angle at the scoliotic segment was 15.4°, which decreased to 10.2° immediately following surgery (P?

  9. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of internal fixation techniques on the canine lumbosacral junction

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Stacy; Roe, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have evaluated the effect of internal stabilization techniques after decompressive surgery on the stability of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of this canine cadaver study is to evaluate the stability of the canine lumbosacral (LS) spine in flexion and extension following laminectomy and discectomy and then stabilization with each of the three techniques: pins and polymethylmethacrylate (P/PMMA), two dorsal locking plates (SOP) or bilateral transarticular facet screws (FACET).Using a cantilever biomechanical system, bending moments were applied to the LS and range of motion (ROM) was recorded via a rotational potentiometer. With 3 Nm, the ROM (n = 4 in each group) for P/PMMA, SOP and FACET were 1.92 ± 0.96°, 2.56 ± 0.55°and 3.18 ± 1.14°, respectively. With moments up to 35 Nm, the P/PMMA specimens appeared stable. Sacroiliac motion in the SOP and FACET groups invalidated further comparisons. Each of the stabilization techniques (P/PMMA, SOP, and FACET) significantly decreased the range of motion in flexion and extension for low bending moments. PMID:26312169

  10. Intradural Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Distinctive Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kaksi, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Sav, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasms of putative fibroblastic origin. They were originally described in the pleura but subsequently have been reported in many extraserosal sites. Solitary fibrous tumors may also occur in the meninges, central nervous system parenchyma, and spinal cord. Case. A 67-year-old male patient with progressive lower extremity weakness, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction has been admitted to our hospital. On his lumbar MRI, we detected an intradural lesion posterior to the L3 vertebral corpus. We resected the lesion by L3 total laminectomy. Immunohistological findings revealed strong and diffuse immunopositivity with vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2. Ki-67 proliferation index was 5–8%. We did not detect any recurrence 12 months after his operation. Conclusion. SFT is mostly seen in young and middle-aged patients and should be considered among differential diagnosis in cases suffering from pain, hypoesthesia, and urinary dysfunction. Gross total resection should be primary treatment. Tumors that have high Ki-67 labeling should be followed up for potential recurrences. PMID:25648160

  11. Attenuation of the pulmonary chemoreflex following acute cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Lun; Lee, Kun-Ze

    2014-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary C fibers are the primary chemosensitive afferents in the lung. The activation of bronchopulmonary C fibers evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex, which is characterized by apnea, hypotension, and bradycardia and is a critical reflex that modulates cardiorespiratory responses under physiological and pathological conditions. The present study was designed to investigate whether the pulmonary chemoreflex is altered following acute cervical spinal injury. A unilateral hemisection (Hx) or laminectomy (uninjured) in the second cervical spinal cord was performed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The pulmonary chemoreflex induced by intrajugular capsaicin administration was evaluated by measuring respiratory airflow in spontaneously breathing rats and phrenic nerve activity in mechanically ventilated rats. Capsaicin treatment evoked a cessation of respiratory airflow and phrenic bursting in uninjured animals, but not in C2Hx animals. To clarify whether the attenuation of the pulmonary chemoreflex in C2Hx animals is restricted to capsaicin-induced stimuli, or generally applied to other stimuli that excite bronchopulmonary C fibers, another bronchopulmonary C-fiber stimulant (phenylbiguanide) was used to evoke the pulmonary chemoreflex in spontaneously breathing rats. We observed that phenylbiguanide-induced apnea was also blunted in C2Hx animals, suggesting that the respiratory response induced by bronchopulmonary C-fiber activation was attenuated following acute cervical spinal Hx. The blunted inhibitory respiratory response may represent a compensatory respiratory plasticity to preserve the breathing capacity and may also reduce the capability of preventing inhaled irritants in this injured condition. PMID:24557796

  12. Extra-intradural Spinal Meningioma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong Kyun; Seong, Han Yu

    2014-01-01

    Extradural spinal meningiomas are uncommon, and their pathophysiology is not entirely understood. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old woman with low back and left leg pain of 5 years duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 1.8-cm in size, with rim enhancement in the spinal canal at the T12 level and extending into the left T12-L1 foramen. In the surgical field, the mass presented with the characteristics of an extra-intradural spinal meningioma. The patient underwent a T12 total laminectomy. A linear durotomy was performed at the midline, and the intradural portion was removed. The extradural portion was not separable from the adjacent dura and the left T12 root, and it was removed by dural excision. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of psammomatous meningioma. We also conducted a literature review of similar cases. Based on our experience with this case, we believe that it is important to clearly distinguish extradural meningiomas from other types of tumors as misdiagnosis can change the operative plan. The long term prognosis of extradural meningiomas is not clear but total excision is thought to be essential. PMID:25346770

  13. Predisposing factors for dural tear in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Smorgick, Yossi; Baker, Kevin C; Herkowitz, Harry; Montgomery, David; Badve, Siddharth A; Bachison, Casey; Ericksen, Steven; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to identify risk factors for incidental durotomies in lumbar spine surgery. The authors hypothesized that the incidence of durotomy would be higher in cases involving multiple operations. METHODS The authors prospectively evaluated 523 patients who underwent lumbar and thoracolumbar spine surgery. They compared data on patients in whom a dural tear occurred and those in whom a dural tear did not occur. Data from patients in whom a dural tear occurred were compared with data from patients who did not experience durotomy. The data included basic demographic information, intraoperative data, and clinical information from a medical record review. RESULTS One hundred thirty-one patients underwent discectomy and 392 patients underwent laminectomy. Among the 131 patients who underwent discectomy 6 patients had a dural tear. Among the 392 patients who underwent discectomy 49 patients had dural tear. Patients with incidental durotomy were older (mean 65 ± 13 vs 60 ± 14 years of age; p = 0.044, t-test), and had longer surgery (146 ± 59 vs 110 ± 54 minutes; p = 0.025, t-test), compared with the patients without dural tear. The incidence of dural tear was more common in patients with a history of previous spine surgery (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In patients who underwent lumbar and thoracolumbar spine surgery for degenerative problems, previous surgery and older age were found to be predisposing factors for dural tear. PMID:25700240

  14. Prediction of Neurological Impairment in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy using a Combination of Diffusion MRI and Proton MR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Salamon, Noriko; Hardy, Anthony J.; Holly, Langston T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In the present study we investigated a combination of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) biomarkers in order to predict neurological impairment in patients with cervical spondylosis. Methods Twenty-seven patients with cervical spondylosis were evaluated. DTI and single voxel MRS were performed in the cervical cord. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) metabolite concentration ratios with respect to creatine were quantified, as well as the ratio of choline to NAA. The modified mJOA scale was used as a measure of neurologic deficit. Linear regression was performed between DTI and MRS parameters and mJOA scores. Significant predictors from linear regression were used in a multiple linear regression model in order to improve prediction of mJOA. Parameters that did not add value to model performance were removed, then an optimized multiparametric model was established to predict mJOA. Results Significant correlations were observed between the Torg-Pavlov ratio and FA (R2 = 0.2021, P = 0.019); DTI fiber tract density and FA, MD, Cho/NAA (R2 = 0.3412, P = 0.0014; R2 = 0.2112, P = 0.016; and R2 = 0.2352, P = 0.010 respectively); along with FA and Cho/NAA (R2 = 0.1695, P = 0.033). DTI fiber tract density, MD and FA at the site of compression, along with Cho/NAA at C2, were significantly correlated with mJOA score (R2 = 0.05939, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.4739, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.7034, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.4649, P < 0.0001). A combination biomarker consisting of DTI fiber tract density, MD, and Cho/NAA showed the best prediction of mJOA (R2 = 0.8274, P<0.0001), with post-hoc tests suggesting fiber tract density, MD, and Cho/NAA were all significant contributors to predicting mJOA (P = 0.00053, P = 0.00085, and P = 0.0019, respectively). Conclusion A linear combination of DTI and MRS measurements within the cervical spinal cord may be useful for accurately predicting neurological deficits in patients with cervical spondylosis. Additional studies may be necessary to validate these observations. PMID:26431174

  15. Pulse wave myelopathy: An update of an hypothesis highlighting the similarities between syringomyelia and normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Grant A

    2015-12-01

    Most hypotheses trying to explain the pathophysiology of idiopathic syringomyelia involve mechanisms whereby CSF is pumped against a pressure gradient, from the subarachnoid space into the cord parenchyma. On review, these theories have universally failed to explain the disease process. A few papers have suggested that the syrinx fluid may originate from the cord capillary bed itself. However, in these papers, the fluid is said to accumulate due to impaired fluid drainage out of the cord. Again, there is little evidence to substantiate this. This proffered hypothesis looks at the problem from the perspective that syringomyelia and normal pressure hydrocephalus are almost identical in their manifestations but only differ in their site of effect within the neuraxis. It is suggested that the primary trigger for syringomyelia is a reduction in the compliance of the veins draining the spinal cord. This reduces the efficiency of the pulse wave dampening, occurring within the cord parenchyma, increasing arteriolar and capillary pulse pressure. The increased capillary pulse pressure opens the blood-spinal cord barrier due to a direct effect upon the wall integrity and interstitial fluid accumulates due to an increased secretion rate. An increase in arteriolar pulse pressure increases the kinetic energy within the cord parenchyma and this disrupts the cytoarchitecture allowing the fluid to accumulate into small cystic regions in the cord. With time the cystic regions coalesce to form one large cavity which continues to increase in size due to the ongoing interstitial fluid secretion and the hyperdynamic cord vasculature. PMID:26362731

  16. An Interlaminotomy New Zealand White Rabbit Model to Evaluate Novel Epidural Strategies.

    PubMed

    Nevzati, Edin; Soleman, Jehuda; Schöpf, Salome Aglaia; Coluccia, Daniel; Fandino, Javier; Marbacher, Serge

    2015-11-01

    Objective?The New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model is an established animal model for examining surgical methods to prevent epidural scar formation after spine surgery. As most approaches include complete laminectomy of the rabbit vertebra, this procedure is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. We examined a less invasive technique, the microsurgical interlaminotomy, for testing epidural substance application in the rabbit spine. Methods?Surgery was performed in the cadaver rabbit spine to evaluate the approach before performing it in NZW rabbits. All surgical procedures were performed under an operation microscope. Female rabbits with a mean weight of 4770?g?±?240?g were used. Neurologic symptoms were analyzed based on predefined scores. After resection of the spinal process, the caudal part of the upper lamina was resected using a drill and a 1-mm Kerrison punch. The yellow ligament was resected resulting in a dural exposure of ? 5?×?10 mm. Results?Eight pilot interlaminotomies were performed on three cadaveric spines to establish the surgical approach. Twenty-one NZW rabbits were then operated on using the interlaminotomy model. Three rabbits (14.3%) died during surgery due to anesthesia-related complications. Two rabbits (9.5%) showed partial paresis of the lower extremities and one (4.8%) a complete paraplegia. The remaining 15 rabbits (71.4%) had an uneventful recovery without neurologic symptoms. The mean surgical duration was 88 +/- 28 minutes. Conclusion?The rabbit interlaminotomy model is associated with few neurologic deficits and a relatively short operating time. PMID:26351871

  17. Unnecessary multiple epidural steroid injections delay surgery for massive lumbar disc: Case discussion and review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidural steroid injections (ESI) in the lumbar spine are not effective over the long-term for resolving “surgical” lesions. Here, we present a patient with a massive L2–L3 lumbar disk herniation whose surgery was delayed for 4 months by multiple unnecessary ESI, resulting in a cauda equina syndrome. Methods: A 54-year-old male acutely developed increased low back and radiating left leg pain in October of 2014. In December of 2014, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a massive central/left sided disk herniation at the L2–L3 level resulting in marked thecal sac and left L2 foraminal and L3 lateral recess root compression. Despite the marked degree of neural compression, pain management treated him with 3 ESI over the next 3 months. Results: At the end of April of 2015, he presented to spine surgeon with a cauda equina syndrome. When the new MRI scan confirmed the previously documented massive central-left sided L2–L3 disk herniation, the patient emergently underwent an L1–L3 laminectomy with central-left sided L2–L3 lateral/foraminal diskectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was neurologically intact. Conclusions: Pain specialists performed multiple unnecessary lumbar ESI critically delaying spinal surgery for 4 months in this patient with a massive lumbar disk herniation who ultimately developed a cauda equina syndrome. Unfortunately, pain specialists (e.g., radiologists, anesthesiologists, and physiatrists), not specifically trained to perform neurological examinations or spinal surgery, are increasingly mismanaging spinal disease with ESI/variants. It is time for spine surgeons to speak out against this, and “take back” the care of patients with spinal surgical disease. PMID:26425398

  18. Intra-Spinal Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Transplantation Inhibits the Expression of Nuclear Factor-?B in Acute Transection Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rajiv Prasad; Qiao, Jian min; Shen, Fu guo; Bista, Krishna bahadur; Zhao, Zhong nan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) transplantation in the expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Methods BMMNCs were isolated from tibia and femur by a density gradient centrifugation. After establishment of acute transection SCI, rats were divided into experiment (BMMNCs), experiment control (0.1 M PBS infused) and sham surgery groups (laminectomy without any SCI). Locomotor function was assessed weekly for 5 weeks post-injury using BBB locomotor score and urinary bladder function daily for 4 weeks post-injury. Activity of NF-?B in spinal cord was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results At each time point post-injury, sham surgery group had significantly higher Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan locomotor and urinary bladder function scores than experiment and experiment control group (p<0.05). At subsequent time interval there were gradual improvement in both experiment and experiment control group, but experiment group had higher score in comparison to experiment control group (p<0.05). Comparisons were also made for expression of activated NF-?B positive cells and level of NF-?B messenger RNA in spinal cord at various time points between the groups. Activated NF-?B immunoreactivity and level of NF-?B mRNA expression were significantly higher in control group in comparison to experiment and sham surgery group (p<0.05). Conclusion BMMNCs transplantation attenuates the expression of NF-?B in injured spinal cord tissue and thus helps in recovery of neurological function in rat models with SCI. PMID:25535513

  19. Lewis, Fischer 344, and Sprague-Dawley Rats Display Differences in Lipid Peroxidation, Motor Recovery, and Rubrospinal Tract Preservation after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Humberto; Ramirez, Manuel; Garcia, Elisa; Martiñón, Susana; Cruz, Yolanda; Campos, Maria G.; Ibarra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The rat is the most common animal model for the preclinical validation of neuroprotective therapies in spinal cord injury (SCI). Lipid peroxidation (LP) is a hallmark of the damage triggered after SCI. Free radicals react with fatty acids causing cellular and membrane disruption. LP accounts for a considerable amount of neuronal cell death after SCI. To better understand the implications of inbred and outbred rat strain selection on preclinical SCI research, we evaluated LP after laminectomy sham surgery and a severe contusion of the T9 spinal cord in female Sprague-Dawley (SPD), Lewis (LEW), and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Further analysis included locomotor recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and retrograde rubrospinal tract tracing. LEW had the highest levels of LP products 72?h after sham surgery and SCI, significantly different from both F344 and SPD. SPD rats had the fastest functional recovery and highest BBB scores; these were not significantly different to F344. However, LEW rats achieved the lowest BBB scores throughout the 2-month follow-up, yielding significant differences when compared to SPD and F344. To see if the improvement in locomotion was secondary to an increase in axon survival, we evaluated rubrospinal neurons (RSNs) via retrograde labeling of the rubrospinal tract and quantified cells at the red nuclei. The highest numbers of RSNs were observed in SPD rats then F344; the lowest counts were seen in LEW rats. The BBB scores significantly correlated with the amount of positively stained RSN in the red nuclei. It is critical to identify interstrain variations as a potential confound in preclinical research. Multi-strain validation of neuroprotective therapies may increase chances of successful translation. PMID:26029162

  20. Role of Toll like receptor 4 signaling pathway in the secondary damage induced by experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Ahmad, Akbar; Di Paola, Rosanna; Campolo, Michela; Navarra, Michele; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling receptors in the innate immune system that is specific immunologic response to systemic bacterial infection and injury. TLRs contribute to the initial induction of neuroinflammation in the CNS. In spinal cord injury (SCI) intricate immune cell interactions are triggered, typically consisting of a staggered multiphasic immune cell response, which can become deregulated. The present study aims to evaluate the role of TLR4 signaling pathway in the development of secondary damage in a mouse model of SCI using TLR4-deficient (TLR4-KO) mice such as C57BL/10ScNJ and C3H/HeJ mice. We evaluated behavioral changes, histological, immunohistochemistry and molecular assessment in TLR4-KO after SCI. SCI was performed on TLR4-KO and wild-type (WT) mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24g) to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Mice were sacrificed at 24h after SCI to evaluate the various parameters. SCI TLR4 KO mice developed severer hind limb motor dysfunction and neuronal death by histological evaluation, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (Myd88) expression as well as an increase in nuclear factor NF-?B activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? levels, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microglia marker (CD11?), inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and nitrotyrosine expression compared to WT mice. Moreover, the absence of TLR4 also caused a decrease in phosphorylated interferon regulatory transcription factor (p-IRF3) and interferon (IFN-?) release. In addition, SCI TLR4 KO mice showed in spinal cord tissues a more pronounced up-regulation of Bax and a down-regulation of Bcl-2 compared to SCI WT mice. Finally, we clearly demonstrated that TLR4 is important for coordinating post-injury sequel and in regulating inflammation after SCI. PMID:25990044

  1. What you need to know about ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament to optimize cervical spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    What are the risks, benefits, alternatives, and pitfalls for operating on cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)? To successfully diagnose OPLL, it is important to obtain Magnetic Resonance Images (MR). These studies, particularly the T2 weighted images, provide the best soft-tissue documentation of cord/root compression and intrinsic cord abnormalities (e.g. edema vs. myelomalacia) on sagittal, axial, and coronal views. Obtaining Computed Tomographic (CT) scans is also critical as they best demonstrate early OPLL, or hypertrophied posterior longitudinal ligament (HPLL: hypo-isodense with punctate ossification) or classic (frankly ossified) OPLL (hyperdense). Furthermore, CT scans reveal the “single layer” and “double layer” signs indicative of OPLL penetrating the dura. Documenting the full extent of OPLL with both MR and CT dictates whether anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery is warranted. An adequate cervical lordosis allows for posterior cervical approaches (e.g. lamionplasty, laminectomy/fusion), which may facilitate addressing multiple levels while avoiding the risks of anterior procedures. However, without lordosis and with significant kyphosis, anterior surgery may be indicated. Rarely, this requires single/multilevel anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF), as this approach typically fails to address retrovertebral OPLL; single or multilevel corpectomies are usually warranted. In short, successful OPLL surgery relies on careful patient selection (e.g. assess comorbidities), accurate MR/CT documentation of OPLL, and limiting the pros, cons, and complications of these complex procedures by choosing the optimal surgical approach. Performing OPLL surgery requires stringent anesthetic (awake intubation/positioning) and also the following intraoperative monitoring protocols: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electromyography (EMG). PMID:24843819

  2. Necroptosis, a novel type of programmed cell death, contributes to early neural cells damage after spinal cord injury in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Wu, Wei; Li, Hua; Li, Song; Huang, Li-Tian; Yang, Yi-Qing; Sun, Qing; Wang, Chun-Xi; Yu, Zhuang; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Background Necroptosis is an emerging programmed necrosis other than traditional necrosis and apoptosis. Until recently, there have not been studies that have investigated a relationship between necroptosis and pathogenesis of cell death after spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective To investigate whether necroptosis takes part in the early pathophysiological processes of traumatic SCI in mice. Methods Female ICR mice were randomized equally into three groups: the sham, the vehicle-treated + SCI group, and the Nec-1-treated + SCI group. To induce SCI, the mice were subjected to a laminectomy at T9 and compression with a vascular clip. After mice were sacrificed 24 hours post-SCI, propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells were detected using in vivo PI labeling. Morphological analyses were performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Nissl staining. The samples were evaluated for apoptosis by the in situ TUNEL assay. The expression of caspase-3 was assessed by western blot. Locomotor behavior of hindlimb was evaluated by BMS (Basso mouse scale) score at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days post-injury. Results Compared with dimethyl sulfoxide -treated mice, necrostatin-1-treated mice showed decreased PI-positive cells (P < 0.05), alleviated tissue damage, more surviving neuron at 24 hours after SCI (P < 0.05), and improved functional recovery from days 7 to 14 (P < 0.05). Necrostatin-1 did not reduce the expression of caspase-3 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells at 24 hours after SCI (P > 0.05). Conclusions Necroptosis contributes to necroptotic cell death and influences functional outcome after SCI in adult mice. The inhibition of necroptosis by necrostatin-1 may have therapeutic potential for patients with SCI. PMID:24970278

  3. Idiopathic Spinal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin M; Jithoo, Rondhir; Hwang, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SSAH) makes up less than 1.5% of all the cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most cases of spontaneous SSAH occur in association with coagulopathy, lumbar punctures, or minor trauma. Idiopathic SSAH is extremely rare with only 17 cases published. Idiopathic SSAH presents a diagnostic dilemma, and the appropriate investigations and treatment remain a matter of controversy. We report a case of idiopathic SSAH and a review of the literature regarding its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods?A 73-year-old woman presented to the emergency department after spontaneously developing severe right leg and lower back pain while bending over to vomit. After a review of the patient's history and examination, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracolumbar spine revealed T1 hyperintensity and T2 hypointensity, a diffusion-restricted collection at the T11-T12 level, and a posterior collection from L3 to S1 producing a mild displacement of the thecal sac. Results?The patient was taken for an L5 laminectomy. Intraoperatively, rust-colored, xanthochromic fluid was drained from the subarachnoid space, confirming SSAH. The thecal sac was decompressed. The cultures and Gram stains were negative. Computer tomography (CT) and CT angiography of the brain were normal. She recovered postoperatively with resolution of the pain and no further episodes of hemorrhage after 2 years of follow-up. Repeat thoracolumbar MRI, selective spinal angiogram, and six-vessel cerebral angiogram did not reveal pathology. Conclusion?We suggest a clinical algorithm to aid in the diagnosis and management of such patients. PMID:26430603

  4. Implanting Glass Spinal Cord Windows in Adult Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Fenrich, Keith K.; Weber, Pascal; Rougon, Genevieve; Debarbieux, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in adult rodents is the standard experimental model for studying autonomic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we present a low-cost and reproducible glass window implantation protocol that is suitable for intravital microscopy and studying the dynamics of spinal cord cytoarchitecture with subcellular resolution in live adult mice with EAE. Briefly, we surgically expose the vertebrae T12-L2 and construct a chamber around the exposed vertebrae using a combination of cyanoacrylate and dental cement. A laminectomy is performed from T13 to L1, and a thin layer of transparent silicone elastomer is applied to the dorsal surface of the exposed spinal cord. A modified glass cover slip is implanted over the exposed spinal cord taking care that the glass does not directly contact the spinal cord. To reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells between the window and spinal cord, anti-inflammatory treatment is administered every 2 days (as recommended by ethics committee) for the first 10 days after implantation. EAE is induced only 2-3 weeks after the cessation of anti-inflammatory treatment. Using this approach we successfully induced EAE in 87% of animals with implanted windows and, using Thy1-CFP-23 mice (blue axons in dorsal spinal cord), quantified axonal loss throughout EAE progression. Taken together, this protocol may be useful for studying the recruitment of various cell populations as well as their interaction dynamics, with subcellular resolution and for extended periods of time. This intravital imaging modality represents a valuable tool for developing therapeutic strategies to treat autoimmune demyelinating diseases such as EAE. PMID:24378439

  5. Incidence of microbiological contamination of local bone autograft used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion and its association with postoperative spinal infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong-Suh; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Chung, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ki-Tack; Shin, Seong-Kee

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to examine the results of microbiological cultures from local bone autografts used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to identify their association with postoperative spinal infection. METHODS The authors retrospectively evaluated cases involving 328 patients who had no previous spinal surgeries and underwent PLIF for degenerative diseases with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Local bone was obtained during laminectomy, and microbiological culture was performed immediately prior to bone grafting. The associations between culture results from local bone autografts and postoperative spinal infections were evaluated. RESULTS The contamination rate of local bone was 4.3% (14 of 328 cases). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29%) was the most common contaminant isolated, followed by Streptococcus species and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Of 14 patients with positive culture results, 5 (35.7%) had postoperative spinal infections and were treated with intravenous antibiotics for a minimum of 4 weeks. One of these 5 patients also underwent reoperation for debridement during this 4-week period. Regardless of the microbiological culture results, the infection rate after PLIF with local bone autograft was 2.4% (8 of 328 cases), with 5 (62.5%) of 8 patients showing positive results on autograft culture. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of contamination of local bone autograft during PLIF was considerable, and positive culture results were significantly associated with postoperative spinal infection. Special attention focused on the preparation of local bone for autograft and its microbiological culture will be helpful for the control of postoperative spinal infection. PMID:26360142

  6. Spinal deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, J.K.; Riseborough, E.J.; Jaffe, N.; Nehme, M.E.

    1981-02-01

    Of seventy-four children who were treated at a mean age of seventeen months for neuroblastoma and survived more than five years, fifty-six had spinal deformity due either to the disease or to the treatment after a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Of these fifty-six, 50 per cent had post-radiation scoliosis, and 16 per cent had post-radiation kyphosis, most frequently at the thoracolumbar junction, at the time of follow-up. Two kyphotic thoracolumbar curve patterns were identified: an angular kyphosis with a short radius of curvature and its apex at the twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae, and a thoracic kyphosis with a long radius of curvature that extended into the lumbar spine. The post-radiation deformity - both the scoliosis and the kyphosis - progressed with growth, the scoliosis at a rate of 1 degree per year and the kyphosis at a rate of 3 degrees per year. Epidural spread of the neuroblastoma was associated with most of the cases of severe scoliosis and kyphosis. The deformity was due either to the laminectomy or to the paraplegia acting in conjunction with the radiation. Eighteen per cent of 419 children with this malignant disease survived more than five years, and of the survivors, 20 per cent had spinal deformity severe enough to warrant treatment. The factors associated with the development of spinal deformity in patient treated for neuroblastoma were: orthovoltage radiation exceeding 3000 rads, asymmetrical radiation of the spine, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and epidural spread of the tumor.

  7. Bone marrow stem cells delivered into the subarachnoid space via cisterna magna improve repair of injured rat spinal cord white matter

    PubMed Central

    Marcol, Wies?aw; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Siero?, Aleksander L; Koryciak-Komarska, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The influence of bone marrow stem cells on regeneration of spinal cord in rats was investigated. Young adult male Wistar rats were used (n=22). Focal injury of spinal cord white matter at Th10 level was produced using our original non-laminectomy method by means of high-pressured air stream. Cells from tibial and femoral bone marrow of 1-month old rats (n=3) were cultured, labeled with BrdU/Hoechst and injected into cisterna magna (experimental group) three times: immediately after spinal cord injury and 3 as well as 7 days later. Neurons in brain stem and motor cortex were labeled with FluoroGold (FG) delivered caudally from the injury site a week before the end of experiment. Functional outcome and morphological features of regeneration were analyzed during 12-week follow-up. The lesions were characterized by means of MRI. Maximal distance of expansion of implanted cells in the spinal cord was measured and the number of FG-positive neurons in the brain was counted. Rats treated with stem cells presented significant improvement of locomotor performance and spinal cord morphology when compared to the control group. Distance covered by stem cells was 7 mm from the epicenter of the injury. Number of brain stem and motor cortex FG-positive neurons in experimental group was significantly higher than in control. Obtained data showed that bone marrow stem cells are able to induce the repair of injured spinal cord white matter. The route of cells application via cisterna magna appeared to be useful for their delivery in spinal cord injury therapy. PMID:26628950

  8. Outcomes after suboccipital decompression without dural opening in children with Chiari malformation Type I

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Benjamin C.; Kelly, Kathleen M.; Phan, Michelle Q.; Bruce, Samuel S.; McDowell, Michael M.; Anderson, Richard C. E.; Feldstein, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Object Symptomatic pediatric Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is most often treated with posterior fossa decompression (PFD), but controversy exists over whether the dura needs to be opened during PFD. While dural opening as a part of PFD has been suggested to result in a higher rate of resolution of CM symptoms, it has also been shown to lead to more frequent complications. In this paper, the authors present the largest reported series of outcomes after PFD without dural opening surgery, as well as identify risk factors for recurrence. Methods The authors performed a retrospective review of 156 consecutive pediatric patients in whom the senior authors performed PFD without dural opening from 2003 to 2013. Patient demographics, clinical symptoms and signs, radiographic findings, intraoperative ultrasound results, and neuromonitoring findings were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors for recurrence of symptoms and the need for reoperation. Results Over 90% of patients had a good clinical outcome, with improvement or resolution of their symptoms at last follow-up (mean 32 months). There were no major complications. The mean length of hospital stay was 2.0 days. In a multivariate regression model, partial C-2 laminectomy was an independent risk factor associated with reoperation (p = 0.037). Motor weakness on presentation was also associated with reoperation but only with trend-level significance (p = 0.075). No patient with < 8 mm of tonsillar herniation required reoperation. Conclusions The vast majority (> 90%) of children with symptomatic CM-I will have improvement or resolution of symptoms after a PFD without dural opening. A non–dural opening approach avoids major complications. While no patient with tonsillar herniation < 8 mm required reoperation, children with tonsillar herniation at or below C-2 have a higher risk for failure when this approach is used. PMID:25932779

  9. Effects of hypodynamia-hypokinesia on the muscle spindle discharges of rat soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    De-Doncker, Laurent; Picquet, Florence; Petit, Julien; Falempin, Maurice

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Ia and II fiber discharges of soleus muscle spindles were modified after a 14-day period of hypodynamia (absence of weight bearing) and hypokinesia (reduction of motor activity). Fifty-one and 38 afferent fibers were studied, respectively, in control and hypodynamia-hypokinesia (HH) groups. Under deep anesthesia (pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg), a L3-L6 laminectomy was performed. Unitary potentials from the L5 dorsal root were recorded in response to ramp-and-hold stretches applied at two stretch amplitudes (3 and 4 mm) and four stretch velocities (6, 10, 15, and 30 mm/s) and to sinusoidal stretches applied at four stretch amplitudes (0.12, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm) and six stretch frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 Hz). In both animal groups, the Ia fibers showed higher dynamic index values, smaller linear range, and higher vibration sensitivity than the II fibers. They also exhibited a pause in their discharges during the stretch release contrary to II fibers, which displayed no pause in their responses. After HH, our results showed that for both fiber types all parameters measured under ramp-and-hold stretches (except the static sensitivity) were significantly increased and under sinusoidal stretches, the vibration sensitivity increased, and the response amplitude only increased at 0.12-mm stretch amplitude. The linear range of Ia afferents was limited to 0.12 mm, whereas it was unchanged for the II fibers. After HH, the stretches could be better transmitted to the muscle spindles, probably resulting from changes in passive mechanical properties of the soleus. PMID:12612027

  10. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    PubMed

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury. PMID:25705346

  11. Unusual cervical spine epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jr-Han; Su, Yu-Jang

    2015-10-01

    A 48-year-old man presented to the emergency department with complain of severe neck pain and anterior chest pain. Intermittent fever in the recent 2 days was also noted. There is a track maker over his left side of neck. The laboratory examination showed leukocytosis and high C-reactive protein level. Urine drug screen was positive for opiate. Empirical antibiotic administration was given. Blood culture grew gram-positive cocci in chain, and there was no vegetation found by heart echocardiogram. However, progressive weakness of four limbs was noted, and patient even cannot stand up and walk. The patient also complained of numbness sensation over bilateral hands and legs, and lower abdomen. Acute urine retention occurred. We arranged magnetic resonance imaging survey, which showed evidence of inflammatory process involving the retropharyngeal spaces and epidural spaces from the skull base to the bony level of T5. Epidural inflammatory process resulted in compression of the spinal cord and bilateral neural foramen narrowing. Neurosurgeon was consulted. Operation with laminectomy and posterior fusion with bone graft and internal fixation was done. Culture of epidural abscess and 2 sets of blood culture all yielded methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. For epidural abscess, the most common involved spine is lumbar followed by thoracic and cervical spine. Diagnosis and treatment in the drug abusers are still challenging because they lack typical presentation, drug compliance, and adequate follow-up and because it is hard to stop drug abuser habit. Significant improvement of neurological deficit can be expected in most spinal abscess in drug abusers after treatment. PMID:26298050

  12. Contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging for assessment of spinal cord blood flow in experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dubory, Arnaud; Laemmel, Elisabeth; Badner, Anna; Duranteau, Jacques; Vicaut, Eric; Court, Charles; Soubeyrand, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Reduced spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) (i.e., ischemia) plays a key role in traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) pathophysiology and is accordingly an important target for neuroprotective therapies. Although several techniques have been described to assess SCBF, they all have significant limitations. To overcome the latter, we propose the use of real-time contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEU). Here we describe the application of this technique in a rat contusion model of SCI. A jugular catheter is first implanted for the repeated injection of contrast agent, a sodium chloride solution of sulphur hexafluoride encapsulated microbubbles. The spine is then stabilized with a custom-made 3D-frame and the spinal cord dura mater is exposed by a laminectomy at ThIX-ThXII. The ultrasound probe is then positioned at the posterior aspect of the dura mater (coated with ultrasound gel). To assess baseline SCBF, a single intravenous injection (400 µl) of contrast agent is applied to record its passage through the intact spinal cord microvasculature. A weight-drop device is subsequently used to generate a reproducible experimental contusion model of SCI. Contrast agent is re-injected 15 min following the injury to assess post-SCI SCBF changes. CEU allows for real time and in-vivo assessment of SCBF changes following SCI. In the uninjured animal, ultrasound imaging showed uneven blood flow along the intact spinal cord. Furthermore, 15 min post-SCI, there was critical ischemia at the level of the epicenter while SCBF remained preserved in the more remote intact areas. In the regions adjacent to the epicenter (both rostral and caudal), SCBF was significantly reduced. This corresponds to the previously described "ischemic penumbra zone". This tool is of major interest for assessing the effects of therapies aimed at limiting ischemia and the resulting tissue necrosis subsequent to SCI. PMID:25993259

  13. Surgical versus Non-Operative Treatment for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna; Blood, Emily; Herkowitz, Harry; Cammisa, Frank; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Hilibrand, Alan; Goldberg, Harley; Berven, Sigurd; An, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Randomized trial and concurrent observational cohort study Objective To compare 4 year outcomes of surgery to non-operative care for spinal stenosis. Summary of Background Data Surgery for spinal stenosis has been shown to be more effective compared to non-operative treatment over two years, but longer-term data have not been analyzed. Methods Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 U.S. states with at least 12 weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging were enrolled in a randomized cohort (RC) or observational cohort (OC). Treatment was standard decompressive laminectomy or standard non-operative care. Primary outcomes were SF-36 bodily pain (BP) and physical function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability index (ODI) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and yearly up to 4 years. Results 289 patients enrolled in the RC and 365 patients enrolled in the OC. An as-treated analysis combining the RC and OC and adjusting for potential confounders found that the clinically significant advantages for surgery previously reported were maintained through 4 years, with treatment effects (defined as mean change in surgery group minus mean change in non-op group) for BP 12.6 (95% CI, 8.5 to 16.7); PF 8.6 (95% CI, 4.6 to 12.6); and ODI ?9.4 (95% CI, ?12.6, to ?6.2). Early advantages for surgical treatment for secondary measures such as bothersomeness, satisfaction with symptoms and self-rated progress also were maintained. Conclusions Patients with symptomatic spinal stenosis treated surgically compared to those treated non-operatively maintain substantially greater improvement in pain and function through four years. PMID:20453723

  14. Surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis in SPORT: Does incidental durotomy affect outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Atman; Ball, Perry A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Lurie, Jon; Mirza, Sohail K.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Weinstein, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of a prospectively collected multi-institutional database. Objective In the present analysis we investigate the impact of incidental durotomy on outcome in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Summary of Background Data Surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis has several potential complications, one of the most common of which is incidental durotomy. The effect of incidental durotomy on outcome, however, remains uncertain. Methods Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial cohort participants with a confirmed diagnosis of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) undergoing standard first-time open decompressive laminectomy, with or without fusion, were followed from baseline at 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 months and yearly thereafter, at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Patient data from this prospectively gathered database was reviewed. As of May 2009, the mean (Standard Deviation) follow-up among all analyzed DS patients was 46.6 (13.1) months (No durotomy: 46.7 vs. Had durotomy: 45.2, p-value=0.49). The median (range) follow-up time among all analyzed DS patients was 47.6 (2.5, 84) months. Results A 10.5% incidence of durotomy was detected among the 389 patients undergoing surgery. No significant differences were observed with or without durotomy in age, race, the prevalence of smoking, diabetes and hypertension, decompression level, number of levels, or whether a fusion was performed. There were no differences in incidence of nerve root injury, post-op mortality, additional surgeries, SF-36 scores of body pain or physical function, or Oswestry disability index at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Conclusions Incidental durotomy during first time surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis does not appear to impact outcome in affected patients. PMID:21971123

  15. An efficient device to experimentally model compression injury of mammalian spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ropper, Alexander E; Zeng, Xiang; Anderson, Jamie E; Yu, Dou; Han, InBo; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Teng, Yang D

    2015-09-01

    We report an efficient and effective device to reproducibly model clinically relevant spinal cord injury (SCI) via controlled mechanical compression. In the present study, following skin incision, dorsal laminectomy was performed to expose T10 spinal cord of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250g). The vertebral column was suspended and stabilized by Allis clamps at T8 and 12 spinous processes. A metal impounder was then gently loaded onto T10 dura (20, 35 or 50g×5min; n=7/group), resulting in acute mild, moderate, or severe standing weight compression, respectively. Neurobehavioral outcomes were evaluated using the BBB locomotor scale and inclined plane test for coordinated hindlimb function, and a battery of spinal reflex tests for sensorimotor functions, at 1day following SCI and weekly thereafter for 7weeks. Quantitative histopathology was used to assess injury-triggered loss of white matter, gray matter and ventral horn motor neurons. Immunocytochemical levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) at the cervical and lumbar regions were measured to determine the distal segment impact of T10 compression. The data demonstrates that the standardized protocol generates weight-dependent hindlimb motosensory deficits and neurodegeneration primarily at and near the lesion epicenter. Importantly, there are significantly increased GFAP and APP expressions in spinal cord segments involved in eliciting post-SCI allodynia. Therefore, the described system reliably produces compression trauma in manners partially emulating clinical quasi-static insults to the spinal cord, providing a pragmatic model to investigate pathophysiological events and potential therapeutics for compression SCI. PMID:26210871

  16. Depressing effect of electroacupuncture on the spinal non-painful sensory input of the rat.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-González, Salvador; Segura-Alegría, Bertha; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) applied in the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) points on the N1 component of the cord dorsum potential (CDP) evoked by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve (SU) in the rat. The experiments were performed in 44 Wistar rats (250-300 g) anesthetized with ketamine (100 mg/kg) and xylazine (2 mg/kg). A bilateral laminectomy was performed to expose the L3 to S2 segments of the spinal cord. The SU nerve was exposed and placed on pairs of hook electrodes for electrical stimulation. The N1-CDPs were recorded with three silver-ball electrodes located on the dorsal surface of the L5 to S1 segments. Ipsilateral high and low EA stimulation (100, 2 Hz, 6 mA, 30 min) induced a considerable reduction in the amplitude (45 ± 5.6, 41 ± 6.2%) of the N1-CDP recorded at the L6 segmental level. Recovery of the N1-CDP amplitude occurred approximately 1-3 s after EA. Sectioning of the saphenous and superficial peroneal nerves reduced the depressing effect provoked by the EA stimulation (18.7 ± 1.3, 27 ± 3.8%). Similarly, sectioning of the posterior and anterior tibial, deep peroneal and gastrocnemius nerves partially reduced the effect provoked by EA (11 ± 1.5, 9.8 ± 1.1, 12.6 ± 1.9%). Intravenous picrotoxin (1 mg/kg) also reduced the action of low and high EA (23 ± 4.8, 27 ± 5.2%). It is suggested that EA stimulation depresses non-painful sensory pathways through the activation of specific inhibitory pathways that receive modulatory actions from other sensory and muscle afferent inputs in the rat spinal cord. PMID:24770863

  17. Ventral spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak as the cause of persistent post-dural puncture headache in children.

    PubMed

    Schievink, Wouter I; Maya, M Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Headache occurs after dural puncture in about 1%-25% of children who undergo the procedure-a rate similar to that seen in adults. Persistence of post-dural puncture headache in spite of bed rest, increased fluid intake, and epidural blood patch treatment, however, is rare. The authors reviewed the medical records and imaging studies of all patients 19 years of age or younger who they evaluated between 2001 and 2010 for intracranial hypotension, and they identified 8 children who had persistent post-dural puncture headache despite maximal medical treatment and placement of epidural blood patches. A CSF leak could be demonstrated radiologically and treated surgically in 3 of these patients, and the authors report these 3 cases. The patients were 2 girls (ages 14 and 16 years) who had undergone lumbar puncture for evaluation of headache and fever and 1 boy (age 13 years) who had undergone placement of a lumboperitoneal shunt using a Tuohy needle for treatment of pseudotumor cerebri. The boy also had undergone a laminectomy and exploration of the posterior dural sac, but no CSF leak could be identified. All 3 patients presented with new-onset orthostatic headaches, and in all 3 cases MRI demonstrated a large ventral lumbar or thoracolumbar CSF collection. Conventional myelography or digital subtraction myelography revealed a ventral dural defect at L2-3 requiring surgical repair. Through a posterior transdural approach, the dural defect was repaired using 6-0 Prolene sutures and a dural substitute. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with complete resolution of orthostatic headache and of the ventral cerebrospinal fluid leak on MRI. The authors conclude that persistent postdural puncture headache requiring surgical repair is rare in children. They note that the CSF leak may be located ventrally and may require conventional or digital subtraction myelography for exact localization and that transdural repair is safe and effective in eliminating the headaches. PMID:23140214

  18. Conus Medullaris Teratoma with Utilization of Fiber Tractography: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alkherayf, Fahad; Arab, Abdullah Faisal; Tsai, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Objective?Conus medullaris teratomas are very rare tumors. Traditional preoperative diagnosis depended on the findings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tractography is a novel technique that has recently been utilized to diagnose spinal cord lesions. This case report shows that fiber tractography has great potential in preoperative diagnosis and postoperative follow-up of teratomas of the conus medullaris. Methods?A 50-year-old man with a conus medullaris teratoma underwent tractography with the aim of visualizing the tumor in relation to the white matter tracts. The patient underwent a T12–L2 laminectomy, and the lesion was resected. The histopathology diagnosis was of a mature teratoma. Study Design?Case report. Results?Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography provide more details about the white matter tracts in relation to space-occupying lesions that may be more sensitive than conventional MRI and have recently been utilized in spinal cord lesions. Fiber tracking has the ability to visualize the integrity of the white matter tracts at the level of the conus medullaris in relation to the lesion. The tracts appeared to be displaced by the lesion at the conus medullaris. Tractography also showed no white matter tracts within the lesion. Such findings are consistent with the characteristics of a benign lesion. Exploiting tractography in this case was helpful in predicting the nature of the lesion preoperatively and in planning the surgical intervention. Conclusions?Conus medullaris teratomas mostly affect adults. Patients generally present with a long history of clinical symptoms prior to diagnosis. Surgery is required for diagnosis, and the goal should be complete tumor excision without sacrificing any neurologic functions. The use of DTI and tractography, in addition to conventional MRI, has the potential to be very valuable for the diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up of patients with conus medullaris teratomas. PMID:26251802

  19. Characteristics of Lumbar Disc Herniation With Exacerbation of Presentation Due to Spinal Manipulative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Li; Liu, Yan-Xi; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article was to delineate the characteristics of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in patients with exacerbation of symptoms caused by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). The main emphasis should be on the prevention of this condition by identifying relevant risk factors. Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of a total number of 10 LDH patients with exacerbation of presentation after SMT were reviewed. All the patients underwent neurological and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Laminectomy and discectomy were performed, and follow-up was carried out in all patients. The duration of symptoms in the patients before SMT was 4–15 years. After the therapy, an acute exacerbation of back and radicular pain was observed within 24?h. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that L4–L5 was the most frequently affected level observed (7 patients), and each patient had a large disc fragment in the spinal canal. The disc fragments were classified into 3 types according to their localizations. The time internal between the exacerbation of presentation and surgery was 23.1 days. No perioperative complications were noted. All the patients were relieved of radicular pain a few days after surgery. During postoperative follow-up, all patients regained the ability to walk; one patient received catheterization for 1 month and another for 6 months. Eight patients reported a complete resolution of presentation and the rest 2 patients were significantly improved. SMT should be prohibited in some LDH patients to prevent neurological damages, in whom there are 5 possible risk factors. Surgical results for these patients are encouraging. PMID:25816037

  20. A Novel Vertebral Stabilization Method for Producing Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y. Ping; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Shields, Christopher B.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Clinically-relevant animal cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) models are essential for developing and testing potential therapies; however, producing reliable cervical SCI is difficult due to lack of satisfactory methods of vertebral stabilization. The conventional method to stabilize the spine is to suspend the rostral and caudal cervical spine via clamps attached to cervical spinous processes.  However, this method of stabilization fails to prevent tissue yielding during the contusion as the cervical spinal processes are too short to be effectively secured by the clamps (Figure 1).  Here we introduce a new method to completely stabilize the cervical vertebra at the same level of the impact injury.  This method effectively minimizes movement of the spinal column at the site of impact, which greatly improves the production of consistent SCIs.  We provide visual description of the equipment (Figure 2-4), methods, and a step-by-step protocol for the stabilization of the cervical 5 vertebra (C5) of adult rats, to perform laminectomy (Figure 5) and produce a contusive SCI thereafter.  Although we only demonstrate a cervical hemi-contusion using the NYU/MASCIS impactor device, this vertebral stabilization technique can be applied to other regions of the spinal cord, or be adapted to other SCI devices.  Improving spinal cord exposure and fixation through vertebral stabilization may be valuable for producing consistent and reliable injuries to the spinal cord.  This vertebral stabilization method can also be used for stereotactic injections of cells and tracers, and for imaging using two-photon microscopy in various neurobiological studies. PMID:25590284

  1. Protective effects of LM22A-4 on injured spinal cord nerves

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guangzhe; Wang, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to elucidate the protection by and potential mechanisms of LM22A-4, a specific agonist of tyrosine kinase receptor B, against spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Spinal cord trauma was induced by the application of vascular clips to the dura of mice via a four-level T7-T11 laminectomy. Thirty minutes after the injury, an abdominal injection of LM22A-4 (at dosages of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg) or an equal volume of solvent was provided. Twenty-four hours after SCI, a Western blot was performed to examine the expression of p-TrkB, p-Akt, p-ERK, cleaved-caspase-3, and Bcl-2; a TUNEL assay and Nissl staining were performed to study apoptosis and the survival of neurons. In addition, another batch of mice was allowed to live for 14 days after the SCI treatment, during which the LM22A-4 was provided at the same time each day and the neurological function was assessed. Results: Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by tissue damage and apoptosis. Treatment of the mice with LM22A-4 (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the degree of tissue injury (histological score) and apoptosis (TUNEL staining and caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expression) compared with vehicle treated group (P < 0.05). In a separate set of experiments, chronic treatment with LM22A-4 also significantly ameliorated the recovery of limb function (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study provides an experimental evidence that LM22A-4 reduces the development of tissue injury associated with spinal cord trauma, and activation of the activity of TrkB may represent a novel approach for the therapy of spinal cord trauma. PMID:26261531

  2. Surgery Followed by Radiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression From Unfavorable Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bajrovic, Amira; Karstens, Johann H.; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Kazic, Nadja; Rudat, Volker; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Despite a previously published randomized trial, controversy exists regarding the benefit of adding surgery to radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). It is thought that patients with MSCC from relatively radioresistant tumors or tumors associated with poor functional outcome after radiotherapy alone may benefit from surgery. This study focuses on these tumors. Methods and Materials: Data from 67 patients receiving surgery plus radiotherapy (S+RT) were matched to 134 patients (1:2) receiving radiotherapy alone (RT). Groups were matched for 10 factors and compared for motor function, ambulatory status, local control, and survival. Additional separate matched-pair analyses were performed for patients receiving direct decompressive surgery plus stabilization of involved vertebrae (DDSS) and patients receiving laminectomy (LE). Results: Improvement of motor function occurred in 22% of patients after S+RT and 16% after RT (p = 0.25). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 67% and 61%, respectively (p = 0.68). Of nonambulatory patients, 29% and 19% (p = 0.53) regained ambulatory status. One-year local control rates were 85% and 89% (p = 0.87). One-year survival rates were 38% and 24% (p = 0.20). The matched-pair analysis of patients receiving LE showed no significant differences between both therapies. In the matched-pair analysis of patients receiving DDSS, improvement of motor function occurred more often after DDSS+RT than RT (28% vs. 19%, p = 0.024). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 86% and 67% (p = 0.30); 45% and 18% of patients regained ambulatory status (p = 0.29). Conclusions: Patients with MSCC from an unfavorable primary tumor appeared to benefit from DDSS but not LE when added to radiotherapy in terms of improved functional outcome.

  3. Novel surgical technique for ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament in the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satoshi; Murakami, Hideki; Demura, Satoru; Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    Several surgical procedures have been developed to treat thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). However, favorable surgical results are not always achieved, and consistent protocols and procedures for surgical treatment of thoracic OPLL have not been established. This technical note describes a novel technique to achieve anterior decompression via a single posterior approach. Three patients with a beak-type thoracic OPLL underwent surgery in which the authors' technique was used. Complete removal of the ossified PLL was achieved in all cases. With the patient in the prone position, the authors performed total resection of the posterior elements at the anterior decompression levels. This maneuver included not only laminectomies but also removal of the transverse processes and pedicles, which allowed space to be created bilaterally at the sides of the dural sac for the subsequent anterior decompression. The thoracic nerves at the levels of anterior decompression were ligated bilaterally and lifted up to manipulate the ossified ligament and the dural sac. An anterior decompression was then performed posteriorly. The PLL was floated without any difficulty. After exfoliation of the adhesions between the ossified ligament and the ventral aspect of the dural sac, the ossified PLL was removed. In every step of the anterior decompression, the space created in the bilateral sides of the dural sac allowed the surgeons to see the OPLL and anterolateral aspect of the dural sac directly and easily. After removal of the ossified PLL, posterior instrumented fusion was performed. This surgical procedure allows the surgeon to perform, safely and effectively, anterior decompression via a posterior approach for thoracic OPLL. PMID:23039177

  4. Does intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring matter in noncomplex spine surgeries?

    PubMed Central

    van der Goes, David N.; Nuwer, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine associations between intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IOM) for spinal decompressions and simple fusions with neurologic complications, length of stay, and hospitalization charges. Methods: Adult discharges in the Nationwide/National Inpatient Sample (NIS) (2007–2012) with spinal decompressions and simple spinal fusions were included. Revision surgeries, instrumentations, complicated approaches, and tumor- and trauma-related surgeries were excluded. Extracted data included patient demographics, medical comorbidities, primary spinal surgery type, and hospital characteristics. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses using NIS survey design variables correlated IOM use with neurologic complications, hospital charges, and length of stay. Results: IOM was reported in 4.9% of an estimated 1.1 million discharges in the weighted sample. Discharges reporting IOM were more often privately insured (61% vs 57%, p < 0.001) and had slightly more comorbidities (25% vs 24% with 3+ comorbidities, p = 0.01). Spinal fusions more often reported IOM than decompressions. The IOM group had fewer neurologic complications (0.8% vs 1.4% of controls) with no difference in length of stay (3.0 days for each group), but increased hospital charges (39% greater). Multiple regression adjustment showed significant associations of IOM with fewer neurologic complications (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47, 0.76, p < 0.001), while the estimated percentage of hospital charges was sizably diminished from the unadjusted analysis (IOM effect +9%, 95% CI +4%, +13%, p < 0.001), and length of stay was reduced (IOM effect ?0.26 days, 95% CI ?0.42, ?0.11, p < 0.001). Conclusions: IOM was associated with better clinical outcomes and some increased hospital charges among discharges of simple spinal fusions and laminectomies in a large, multiyear, nationally representative dataset. PMID:26446062

  5. Combat-Related Intradural Gunshot Wound to the Thoracic Spine: Significant Improvement and Neurologic Recovery Following Bullet Removal

    PubMed Central

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury. PMID:25705346

  6. Preemptive analgesia with lidocaine prevents Failed Back Surgery Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rooney, B A; Crown, E D; Hulsebosch, C E; McAdoo, D J

    2007-04-01

    Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) is commonly encountered in pain-treatment settings in the United States. We tested whether potential key factors in this syndrome, such as extracellular concentrations of excitatory amino acids (EAAs), are increased in the dorsal horn by synaptic release due to unintentional stretch and/or deformation/compression/transection of dorsal spinal structures during surgery. We hypothesized that pharmacological nerve block as a form of preemptive analgesia prior to any insult to dorsal root neurons will prevent an abnormally high increase in extracellular concentrations of EAAs in the dorsal horn and ultimately the establishment of central sensitization during back surgery. The L4 and L5 dorsal roots were cut bilaterally near the spinal cord to provide an adequate model to test for preemptive analgesia. Amino acid concentrations were measured by dorsal horn microdialysis sampling; EAAs aspartate and glutamate were significantly increased by 80% and 65% respectively, as were other amino acids compared to sham control values. Topical application of 1% Lidocaine, a voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker, for 10 min prior to L4 and L5 bilateral dorsal rhizotomy (BDR) significantly attenuated the increase in EAA concentrations such that their values were not different from sham controls. Behavioral tests demonstrated significant hindlimb mechanical allodynia after BDRs that was significantly attenuated by Lidocaine pretreatment. Thus, Lidocaine pretreatment could offer a safe measure for prevention of chronic pain for back surgical procedures if given by intramuscular injection, topical administration onto spinal nerves and/or the dorsal spinal surface during surgical procedures that include nerve entrapment release, intervertebral disc modification and laminectomies. PMID:17261281

  7. Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Clifford G.; Prayson, Richard A.; Hahn, Joseph F.; Kalfas, Iain H.; Whitfield, Melvin D.; Lee, S.-Y.; Suh, John H. . E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

  8. Alteration of Regional Homogeneity within the Sensorimotor Network after Spinal Cord Decompression in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongming; Zhou, Fuqing; Wu, Lin; Liu, Zhili; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan; He, Laichang

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of longitudinal research to evaluate the function of neurons' adaptive changes within the sensorimotor network (SMN) following recovery after cervical cord decompression. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) may provide information that is critical to fully understand CSM-related functional neural synchrony alterations. The purpose of this study was to assess the ReHo alterations of resting state-functional MRI (rs-fMRI) within pre- and postdecompression CSM and healthy controls (HC) and its correlations with clinical indices. Predecompression CSM demonstrated a significantly lower ReHo in the left primary sensory cortex and primary motor cortex (PostG/PreG) but enhanced ReHo in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) compared with HC. In comparison with predecompression CSM, the postdecompression CSM showed increased ReHo in the left PostG/PreG but significantly lower ReHo in the right SPL compared with HC patients. Abnormal ReHo regions in pre- or postdecompression CSM showed no significant correlation with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, and disease duration (P > 0.05). This result demonstrated disrupted regional homogeneity within SMN in CSM. This adaptive change in the brain may favor the preservation of sensorimotor networks before and after cervical cord decompression and clinical symptoms independent of ReHo within SMN. PMID:26605335

  9. Comparison of rhBMP-2 versus Autogenous Iliac Crest Bone Graft for 2-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bingyi; Wang, Haiyan; Dong, Jun; Yuan, Zenong; Wang, Dachuan; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies have examined the efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes in a series of patients with CSM treated with 2-level ACDF with or without rhBMP-2. MATERIAL AND METHODS The retrospective study included a total of 146 patients with CSM. The rhBMP-2 group consisted of 73 patients who underwent 2-level ACDF with rhBMP-2. A total of 73 patients who also received 2-level ACDF with autogenous ICBG alone were included in the matched-pair ICBG group with a ratio of 1:1, based on age, sex, and BMI. All data, including fusion rate and time, VAS, JOA score, operative date, and complications, were assessed. RESULTS With respect to the length of hospital stay, operative times, and blood loss, there were no significant difference between the 2 groups. However, the rhBMP-2 group presented a shorter fusion time (P<0.013) and higher fusion rate (P<0.036) than the ICBG group. In the rhBMP-2 group, 22% required additional treatment for complications compared to 18% of patients in the ICBG group, which showed no significant difference (P=0.543). CONCLUSIONS The application of rhBMP-2 in 2-level ACDF showed higher fusion rates, shorter fusion time, and similar function outcomes compared to those who received ACDF with ICBG alone. PMID:26479708

  10. Correlation between degree of subvoxel spinal cord compression measured with super-resolution tract density imaging and neurological impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Salamon, Noriko; Woodworth, Davis C; Holly, Langston T

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the use of super-resolution tract density images derived from probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography of the spinal cord as an imaging surrogate for microstructural integrity and functional impairment in patients with cervical spondylosis. METHODS Structural MRI and DTI images were collected for 27 patients with cervical spondylosis with (n= 21) and without (n= 6) functional impairment as defined by the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale (mJOA). DTI was performed axially through the site of compression in a total of 20 directions with 10 averages. Probabilistic tractography was performed at 0.5-mm isotropic spatial resolution using the streamline technique combined with constrained spherical deconvolution. The following measurements were calculated for each patient: maximum tract density at the site of compression, average tract density in rostral normal-appearing spinal cord, and the ratio of maximum density to normal density. RESULTS Compared with normal tissue, the site of compression exhibited elevated fiber tract density in all patients, and a higher fiber tract density was also noted in focal areas at the site of compression in patients with functional impairment. There was a strong negative correlation between maximum tract density and mJOA score (R(2)= 0.6324, p < 0.0001) and the ratio of maximum tract density to normal tract density (R(2)= 0.6647, p < 0.0001). When grouped according to severity of neurological impairment (asymptomatic, mJOA score of 18; mild, mJOA score of 15-17; moderate, mJOA score of 11-14; and severe, mJOA score < 11), the results showed a significant difference in the ratio between severe and both no impairment (p= 0.0009) and any impairment (p= 0.036). A ratio of maximum fiber tract density at the site of compression to fiber tract density at C-2 greater than 1.45 had 82% sensitivity and 70% specificity for identifying patients with moderate to severe impairment (ROC AUC= 0.8882, p= 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS These results support the use of DTI as a surrogate for determining spinal cord integrity in patients with cervical spondylosis. Probabilistic tractography provides spinal cord microstructural information that can help discern clinical status in cervical spondylosis patients with varying degrees of neurological impairment. PMID:25746116

  11. IL28B Gene Polymorphism SNP rs8099917 Genotype GG Is Associated with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malta, Fernanda; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gonçalves, Fernanda de Toledo; Duarte, Alberto Jose da Silva; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva

    2014-01-01

    Background The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) are associated with HAM/TSP. Methods The study included 229 subjects, classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (136 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers) and Group II (93 HAM/TSP patients). The proviral loads were quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System. Results A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphisms were independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome in rs12979860 genotype CT (OR?=?2.03; IC95%?=?0.96–4.27) and in rs8099917 genotype GG (OR?=?7.61; IC95%?=?1.82–31.72). Conclusion Subjects with SNP rs8099917 genotype GG and rs12979618 genotype CT may present a distinct immune response against HTLV-1 infection. So, it seems reasonable to suggest that a search for IL28B polymorphisms should be performed for all HTLV-1-infected subjects in order to monitor their risk for disease development; however, since this is the first description of such finding in the literature, we should first replicate this study with more HTLV-1-infected persons to strengthen the evidence already provided by our results. PMID:25233462

  12. [Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine. Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

    2015-04-01

    A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

  13. Alteration of Regional Homogeneity within the Sensorimotor Network after Spinal Cord Decompression in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yongming; Zhou, Fuqing; Wu, Lin; Liu, Zhili; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan; He, Laichang

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of longitudinal research to evaluate the function of neurons' adaptive changes within the sensorimotor network (SMN) following recovery after cervical cord decompression. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) may provide information that is critical to fully understand CSM-related functional neural synchrony alterations. The purpose of this study was to assess the ReHo alterations of resting state-functional MRI (rs-fMRI) within pre- and postdecompression CSM and healthy controls (HC) and its correlations with clinical indices. Predecompression CSM demonstrated a significantly lower ReHo in the left primary sensory cortex and primary motor cortex (PostG/PreG) but enhanced ReHo in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) compared with HC. In comparison with predecompression CSM, the postdecompression CSM showed increased ReHo in the left PostG/PreG but significantly lower ReHo in the right SPL compared with HC patients. Abnormal ReHo regions in pre- or postdecompression CSM showed no significant correlation with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, and disease duration (P > 0.05). This result demonstrated disrupted regional homogeneity within SMN in CSM. This adaptive change in the brain may favor the preservation of sensorimotor networks before and after cervical cord decompression and clinical symptoms independent of ReHo within SMN. PMID:26605335

  14. Comparison of rhBMP-2 versus Autogenous Iliac Crest Bone Graft for 2-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bingyi; Wang, Haiyan; Dong, Jun; Yuan, Zenong; Wang, Dachuan; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes in a series of patients with CSM treated with 2-level ACDF with or without rhBMP-2. Material/Methods The retrospective study included a total of 146 patients with CSM. The rhBMP-2 group consisted of 73 patients who underwent 2-level ACDF with rhBMP-2. A total of 73 patients who also received 2-level ACDF with autogenous ICBG alone were included in the matched-pair ICBG group with a ratio of 1:1, based on age, sex, and BMI. All data, including fusion rate and time, VAS, JOA score, operative date, and complications, were assessed. Results With respect to the length of hospital stay, operative times, and blood loss, there were no significant difference between the 2 groups. However, the rhBMP-2 group presented a shorter fusion time (P<0.013) and higher fusion rate (P<0.036) than the ICBG group. In the rhBMP-2 group, 22% required additional treatment for complications compared to 18% of patients in the ICBG group, which showed no significant difference (P=0.543). Conclusions The application of rhBMP-2 in 2-level ACDF showed higher fusion rates, shorter fusion time, and similar function outcomes compared to those who received ACDF with ICBG alone. PMID:26479708

  15. Clostridium Sacroiliitis (Gas Gangrene) Following Sacroiliac Joint Injection--Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kurnutala, Lakshmi N; Ghatol, Dipti; Upadhyay, Aman

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with chronic lumbosacral pain since her laminectomy and instrumentation 10 years ago. Examination was consistent with left sacroiliitis, and the patient underwent an elective left sacroiliac joint injection. Two days following her procedure she fell and landed on her left hip and on the next day, she presented to the emergency room with acutely worsening left gluteal pain. On evaluation in the emergency department, she was found to be suffering from a fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and dysuria. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and this showed extensive foci of gas throughout the posterior aspect of the left iliopsoas muscle, sacrum, and ileum surrounding the left sacroiliac joint. The patient underwent emergent surgical debridement. The microbiology report of blood culture revealed clostridium perfringens, while her pathology showed necrosis and acute inflammation of fibroadipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and fat. The patient's hospital course resulted in multi-organ failure and the family elected for comfort care measures only. Unfortunately, she passed away 36 hours later. Septic arthritis is a potential catastrophic complication following intra-articular steroid therapy. The cause of the septic joint can be multifactorial but is likely caused by one of the following processes: direct inoculation of bacteria by the injection, hematogenous seeding of the percutaneous injection tract, or due to activation of a quiescent infection by the injected steroid. Clostridial spores are very resistant to standard aseptic skin preparations, including chlorhexidine and betadine solutions. The only effective methods to eliminate the spores is to heat them at a temperature greater than 100 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes or with use of a 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. We hypothesize that clostridium spores were present on the patient's skin from previous stool soiling, and that these were introduced directly into the soft tissue by needle trauma. Rare complications such as this one are scarcely reported in the literature and thus it becomes difficult to adequately identify risk factors or to formulate strategies to improve practice management. PMID:26218953

  16. A Guidance Channel Seeded With Autologous Schwann Cells for Repair of Cauda Equina Injury in a Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Calancie, Blair; Madsen, Parley W; Wood, Patrick; Marcillo, Alexander E; Levi, Allan D; Bunge, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: To evaluate an implantable guidance channel (GC) seeded with autologous Schwann cells to promote regeneration of transected spinal nerve root axons in a primate model. Methods: Schwann cells were obtained from sural nerve segments of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; cynomolgus). Cells were cultured, purified, and seeded into a PAN/PVC GC. Approximately 3 weeks later, monkeys underwent laminectomy and dural opening. Nerve roots of the L4 through L7 segments were identified visually. The threshold voltage needed to elicit hindlimb muscle electromyography (EMG) after stimulation of intact nerve roots was determined. Segments of 2 or 3 nerve roots (each ?8–15 mm in length) were excised. The GC containing Schwann cells was implanted between the proximal and distal stumps of these nerve roots and attached to the stumps with suture. Follow-up evaluation was conducted on 3 animals, with survival times of 9 to 14 months. Results: Upon reexposure of the implant site, subdural nerve root adhesions were noted in all 3 animals. Several of the implanted GC had collapsed and were characterized by thin strands of connective tissue attached to either end. In contrast, 3 of the 8 implanted GC were intact and had white, glossy cables entering and exiting the conduits. Electrical stimulation of the tissue cable in each of these 3 cases led to low-threshold evoked EMG responses, suggesting that muscles had been reinnervated by axons regenerating through the repair site and into the distal nerve stump. During harvesting of the GC implant, sharp transection led to spontaneous EMG in the same 3 roots showing a low threshold to electrical stimulation, whereas no EMG was seen when harvesting nerve roots with high thresholds to elicit EMG. Histology confirmed large numbers of myelinated axons at the midpoint of 2 GC judged to have reinnervated target muscles. Conclusions: We found a modest rate of successful regeneration and muscle reinnervation after treatment of nerve root transection with a Schwann cell–seeded, implanted synthetic GC. Newer treatments, which include the use of absorbable polymers, neurotrophins, and antiscar agents, may further improve spinal nerve regeneration for repair of cauda equina injury. PMID:19777858

  17. The potential contributing effect of ketorolac and fluoxetine to a spinal epidural hematoma following a cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection: a case report and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Chien, George C Chang; McCormick, Zack; Araujo, Marco; Candido, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are commonly performed as one part of a multi-modal analgesic regimen in the management of upper extremity radicular pain. Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare complication with a reported incidence ranging from 1.38 in 10,000 to 1 in 190,000 epidurals. Current American Society of Regional Anesthesia (ASRA), American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), and the International Spine Intervention Society (ISIS) recommendations are that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) do not need to be withheld prior to epidural anesthesia. We report a case wherein intramuscular ketorolac and oral fluoxetine contributed to a SEH and tetraplegia following a cervical interlaminar (ESI). A 66 year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency and neck pain radiating into her right upper extremity presented for evaluation and was deemed an appropriate CESI candidate. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multi-level neuroforaminal stenosis and degenerative intervertebral discs. Utilizing a loss of resistance to saline technique, an 18-gauge Tuohy-type needle entered the epidural space at C6-7. After negative aspiration, 4 mL of saline with 80 mg of methyl-prednisolone was injected. Immediately thereafter, the patient reported significant spasmodic-type localized neck pain with no neurologic status changes. A decision was made to administer 30 mg intramuscular ketorolac as treatment for the spasmodic-type pain. En route home, she developed a sudden onset of acute tetraplegia. She was brought to the emergency department for evaluation including platelet and coagulation studies which were normal. MRI demonstrated an epidural hematoma extending from C5 to T7. She underwent a bilateral C5-T6 laminectomy with epidural hematoma evacuation and was discharged to an acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Chronic renal insufficiency, spinal stenosis, female gender, and increasing age have been identified as risk factors for SEH following epidural anesthesia. In the present case, it is postulated that after the spinal vascular system was penetrated, hemostasis was compromised by the combined antiplatelet effects of ketorolac, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E. Although generally well tolerated, the role of ketorolac, a potent anti-platelet medication used for pain relief in the peri-neuraxial intervention period, should be seriously scrutinized when other analgesic options are readily available. Although the increased risk of bleeding for the alternative medications are minimal, they are nevertheless well documented. Additionally, their additive impairment on hemostasis has not been well characterized. Withholding NSAIDs, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E in the peri-procedural period is relatively low risk and should be considered for all patients with multiple risk factors for SEH. PMID:24850120

  18. 4(?-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate, a bioactive phytochemical that attenuates secondary damage in an experimental model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4(?-l-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (glucomoringin isothiocyanate; GMG-ITC) is released from the precursor 4(?-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin; GMG) by myrosinase (?-thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147) catalyzed hydrolysis. GMG is an uncommon member of the glucosinolate group as it presents a unique characteristic consisting in a second glycosidic residue within the side chain. It is a typical glucosinolate found in large amounts in the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam., the most widely distributed plant of the Moringaceae family. GMG was purified from seed-cake of M. oleifera and was hydrolyzed by myrosinase at neutral pH in order to form the corresponding GMG-ITC. This bioactive phytochemical can play a key role in counteracting the inflammatory response connected to the oxidative-related mechanisms as well as in the control of the neuronal cell death process, preserving spinal cord tissues after injury in mice. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24g) for 1 min., via four-level T5-T8 after laminectomy. In particular, the purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes occurring in the spinal cord after ip treatment with bioactive GMG-ITC produced 15 min before use from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of GMG (10mg/kg body weight+5 ?l Myr mouse/day). The following parameters, such as histological damage, distribution of reticular fibers in connective tissue, nuclear factor (NF)-?B translocation and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (I?B-?) degradation, expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthases (iNOS), as well as apoptosis, were evaluated. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of bioactive GMG-ITC on the secondary damage, following spinal cord injury, through an antioxidant mechanism of neuroprotection. Therefore, the bioactive phytochemical GMG-ITC freshly produced before use by myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG, could prove to be useful in the treatment of spinal cord trauma. PMID:25497964

  19. Les myélopathies cervicarthrosiques: résultat clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie sur une série de 135 patients opérés au service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne

    PubMed Central

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Nabil, Moussé; Karekezi, Claire; Diawara, Seylan; El Fatemi, Nizar; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    La myélopathie cervicarthrosique est un syndrome clinique en relation avec la diminution des dimensions du canal rachidien, la cervicarthrose est l’étiologie principale après 50 ans. L'objectif du traitement est de rétablir les dimensions du canal rachidien cervical. Le choix de la technique chirurgicale sera guidé par l'analyse des signes cliniques, imageries, pré opératoire en fonction de laquelle sera pratiquée soit la voie antérieure, postérieure, ou exceptionnellement la voie combinée. Notre étude a pour but dans un premier temps d’évaluer à long terme les résultats cliniques et radiologiques de la chirurgie ensuite répondre à cette préoccupation: La lordose cervicale pré opératoire et postopératoire sont t-elles des facteurs de bon pronostic? Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective entre 2000 et 2013 portant sur 135 patients opérés dans notre formation et remplissant les critères inclusions. La collecte des données s'est faite en s'aidant du dossier médical des patients (échelle d'Association des orthopédistes Japonais), Imagerie (Radio, TDM, IRM), mesure de l'angle de courbure rachidienne en pré et postopératoire, ceci dans le but d’évaluer à long terme les résultats clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie. Ont été inclus dans notre étude 135 patients, 82 Hommes (60%), 53 femmes (40%) avec un âge moyen de 52 ans, ayant consulté pour des motifs divers (Névralgies cervicobrachiales, lourdeur des membres, troubles génito-sphinctériens). Soixante cinq patients (48%) ont bénéficié d'un abord antérieur (dissectomie, cloward, somatotomie médiane), 64 patients (47%) ont été opérés par voie postérieure (laminectomie de 1 à 3 niveaux) et 6 patients (5%) ont bénéficié d'un abord combiné dans un délai moyen de 3 mois devant la persistance des symptômes. Le niveau cervical le plus touché était C5C6 suivie de C4C5. L’évolution globale de nos patients était favorable dans 58% des cas, stationnaire dans 41% des cas et 1% d'aggravation. Soixante patients ayant présentés une amélioration en postopératoire avaient une courbure rachidienne en lordose, contre 17 patients en raideur et aucun patient en cyphose (p < 0.05). En définitive, la myélopathie est une pathologie fréquente dans la pratique neurochirurgicale, le diagnostic s'est beaucoup amélioré grâce à l'avènement de IRM, plusieurs voies d'abords sont utilisées en fonction des données cliniques et d'imageries, l’évolution reste favorable si la prise en charge est précoce avant l'apparition des déformations importantes de l'alignement sagittal du rachis. PMID:25667691

  20. A Consistent, Quantifiable, and Graded Rat Lumbosacral Spinal Cord Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Junxiang; Sun, Dongming; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop a rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury (SCI) model that causes consistent motoneuronal loss and behavior deficits. Most SCI models focus on the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. Lumbosacral SCI accounts for about one third of human SCI but no standardized lumbosacral model is available for evaluating therapies. Twenty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: sham (n=9), 25?mm (n=8), and 50?mm (n=9). Sham rats had laminectomy only, while 25?mm and 50?mm rats were injured by dropping a 10?g rod from a height of 25?mm or 50?mm, respectively, onto the L4-5 spinal cord at the T13/L1 vertebral junction. We measured footprint length (FL), toe spreading (TS), intermediate toe spreading (ITS), and sciatic function index (SFI) from walking footprints, and static toe spreading (STS), static intermediate toe spreading (SITS), and static sciatic index (SSI) from standing footprints. At six weeks, we assessed neuronal and white matter loss, quantified axons, diameter, and myelin thickness in the peroneal and tibial nerves, and measured cross-sectional areas of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71?mm and 5.01?mm columns in the spinal cord. Dropping a 10-g weight from 25?mm or 50?mm caused 1.5?mm or 3.75?mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss. Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25?mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25?mm contusions. This model of lumbosacral SCI produces consistent and graded loss of white matter, motoneuronal loss, peripheral nerve axonal changes, and anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles atrophy in rats. PMID:25313633

  1. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Does Fusion Method Influence Outcome? Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Abdu, William A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Zhao, Wenyan; Tosteson, Tor D.; Herkowitz, Harry; Longely, Michael; Boden, Scott D.; Emery, Sanford; Weinstein, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Clinical trial sub-group analysis Objective To compare outcomes of different fusion techniques treating degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Summary of Background Data Surgery has been shown to be more effective than non-operative treatment out to four years.1,2 Questions remain regarding the differential effect of fusion technique. METHODS Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 states with at least 12 weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging showing stenosis and DS were studied. In addition to standard decompressive laminectomy, one of three fusion techniques was employed at the surgeon’s discretion: posterolateral in situ fusion (PLF); posterolateral instrumented fusion with pedicle screws (PPS); or PPS plus interbody fusion (360°). Main outcome measures were the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly to 4 years. The as-treated analysis combined the randomized and observational cohorts using mixed longitudinal models adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS Of 380 surgical patients, 21% (N= 80) received a PLF; 56% (N=213) received a PPS; 17% (N=63) received a 360°; and 6% (N=23) had decompression only without fusion. Early outcomes varied, favoring PLF compared to PPS at 6 weeks (PF: 12.73 vs. 6.22, p<0.020) and 3 months (PF: 25.24 vs.18.95, p<0.025) and PPS compared to 360° at 6 weeks (ODI: ?14.46 vs. ?9.30, p<0.03) and 3 months (ODI: ?22.30 vs. ?16.78, p<0.02). At two years, 360° had better outcomes: BP: 39.08 vs. 29.17 PLF, p<0.011; and vs. 29.13 PPS, p<0.002; PF; 31.93 vs. 23.27 PLF, p<0.021; and vs. 25.29 PPS, p<0.036. However, these differences were not maintained at 3- and 4-year follow-up, when there were no statistically significant differences between the three fusion groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and associated spinal stenosis, no consistent differences in clinical outcomes were seen among fusion groups over four years. PMID:19755935

  2. Surgical versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Hanscom, Brett; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Blood, Emily A.; Birkmeyer, Nancy J.O.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Herkowitz, Harry; Cammisa, Frank P.; Albert, Todd J.; Emery, Sanford E.; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Abdu, William A.; Longley, Michael; Errico, Thomas J.; Hu, Serena S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Management of degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis is controversial. Surgery is widely used, but its effectiveness in comparison with that of nonsurgical treatment has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. METHODS Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 U.S. states who had at least 12 weeks of symptoms and image-confirmed degenerative spondylolisthesis were offered enrollment in a randomized cohort or an observational cohort. Treatment was standard decompressive laminectomy (with or without fusion) or usual nonsurgical care. The primary outcome measures were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36) bodily pain and physical function scores (100-point scales, with higher scores indicating less severe symptoms) and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (100-point scale, with lower scores indicating less severe symptoms) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. RESULTS We enrolled 304 patients in the randomized cohort and 303 in the observational cohort. The baseline characteristics of the two cohorts were similar. The one-year crossover rates were high in the randomized cohort (approximately 40% in each direction) but moderate in the observational cohort (17% crossover to surgery and 3% crossover to nonsurgical care). The intention-to-treat analysis for the randomized cohort showed no statistically significant effects for the primary outcomes. The as-treated analysis for both cohorts combined showed a significant advantage for surgery at 3 months that increased at 1 year and diminished only slightly at 2 years. The treatment effects at 2 years were 18.1 for bodily pain (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.5 to 21.7), 18.3 for physical function (95% CI, 14.6 to 21.9), and ?16.7 for the Oswestry Disability Index (95% CI, ?19.5 to ?13.9). There was little evidence of harm from either treatment. CONCLUSIONS In nonrandomized as-treated comparisons with careful control for potentially confounding baseline factors, patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis treated surgically showed substantially greater improvement in pain and function during a period of 2 years than patients treated nonsurgically. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000409.) PMID:17538085

  3. Nerve growth factor improves functional recovery by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal apoptosis in rats with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis plays a major role in various diseases, including spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve growth factor (NGF) show neuroprotective effect and improve the recovery of SCI, but the relations of ER stress-induced apoptosis and the NGF therapeutic effect in SCI still unclear. Methods Young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats’s vertebral column was exposed and a laminectomy was done at T9 vertebrae and moderate contusion injuries were performed using a vascular clip. NGF stock solution was diluted with 0.9% NaCl and administered intravenously at a dose of 20 ?g/kg/day after SCI and then once per day until they were executed. Subsequently, the rats were executed at 1d, 3 d, 7d and 14d. The locomotor activities of SCI model rats were tested by the 21-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale, inclined plane test and footprint analysis. In addition, Western blot analysis was performed to identify the expression of ER-stress related proteins including CHOP, GRP78 and caspase-12 both in vivo and in vitro. The level of cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL in vivo and Flow cytometry in vitro. Relative downstream signals Akt/GSK-3? and ERK1/2were also analyzed with or without inhibitors in vitro. Results Our results demonstrated that ER stress-induced apoptosis was involved in the injury of SCI model rats. NGF administration improved the motor function recovery and increased the neurons survival in the spinal cord lesions of the model rats. NGF decreases neuron apoptosis which measured by TUNEL and inhibits the activation of caspase-3 cascade. The ER stress-induced apoptosis response proteins CHOP, GRP78 and caspase-12 are inhibited by NGF treatment. Meanwhile, NGF administration also increased expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43). The administration of NGF activated downstream signals Akt/GSK-3? and ERK1/2 in ER stress cell model in vitro. Conclusion The neuroprotective role of NGF in the recovery of SCI is related to the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell death via the activation of downstream signals, also suggested a new trend of NGF translational drug development in the central neural system injuries which involved in the regulation of chronic ER stress. PMID:24884850

  4. [Is posterior lumbar epidural space partitioned?].

    PubMed

    Morisot, P

    1992-01-01

    The anatomy of the posterior lumbar epidural space (PLES) has been extensively studied. Besides the anatomists, surgeons, radiologists and anaesthetists have taken an interest in this. However, because each one has considered the PLES from his own specialist field, descriptions are not always concordant. In particular, the reality of a medial partition in the PLES has been suggested by epidurography and intraoperative observations. Lewit and Sereghy and Luyendijk opened the debate by reporting, on antero-posterior epidurographic films, a clear-cut, medial, vertical and narrow picture which partitioned the PLES. However, this was not constant. Savolaine et al. also recognized this partition on epidurographic CT scans. During laminectomies, Luyendijk has taken photographs of a medial fold of the dura mater which appeared to hold it to the posterior vertebral arch, being collapsed on either side of the midline. He named it "plica mediana dorsalis durae matris" (PMD). Several anaesthetists considered that this could explain why epidural analgesia sometimes acted on one side only. Husemeyer and White, and Harrison et al., have tried to confirm this experimentally by making casts with polymerizing resins in cadavers. They did not get very convincing results. Blomberg also tried to see this space by epiduroscopy in the cadaver. Unfortunately, for technical reasons, his photographs were of poor quality. He, however, reported having seen each time the PMD and a band of connective tissue fixing it to the vertebral arch in the midline. However, all these anatomical studies used methods which alter the natural structures. Their results are therefore questionable. The PLES is a virtual space. Histological studies have shown that it is filled with fatty tissue between the dura and the vertebral arch. It is therefore conceivable that any liquid injected into the PLES, such as contrast medium or local anaesthetic, must push back the dura, the only tissue which can move to give it any room. The fatty tissue could therefore be compressed and take any of the shapes which have been described on epidurography. On the other hand, should it be torn, it seems this fatty tissue could make up these haphazard fibrous tracts tensed between the dura and the vertebral arch, such as described in classical anatomy, as Bonica recalled. These can be clearly seen during surgical and anatomical dissections, and during endoscopies carried out on cadavers with sufficient optical means, as opposed to the medial fibrous band fixing the dura to the vertebral arch.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1443817

  5. Benefits of the Paraspinal Muscle-Sparing Approach Versus the Conventional Midline Approach for Posterior Nonfusion Stabilization: Comparative Analysis of Clinical and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Eli M.; Bray, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of approach on outcomes of posterior nonfusion stabilization has not been described. This paper analyzes the influence of surgical approach on functional outcome with nonfusion stabilization. Methods We performed a prospective consecutive cohort outcome analysis of 88 patients who had undergone posterior nonfusion stabilization of the lumbar spine at 178 levels using the Dynesys system (Zimmer Spine, Inc, Warsaw, Indiana). Patients needing decompression (n = 42) were operated through a midline approach using microscopic laminotomy/foraminotomy with or without discectomy, followed by posterior nonfusion stabilization with Dynesys. None of the patients had a complete laminectomy. Patients not needing decompression (n = 46) underwent the procedure via the bilateral paraspinal muscle-sparing approach and were subsequently stabilized. Clinical and functional outcomes data were collected using the visual analog scale (VAS), Treatment Intensity Score (TIS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36. Average follow-up was 18 months (range, 12–36 mo). Results All outcome measures in both groups showed significant improvement at last follow-up. Between the groups a significant difference was apparent in the reduction of the TIS when measured at 1 week and 6 weeks. The preoperative, 1-week, and 6-week values were 66, 48, and 40, respectively (P < 0.05), for the midline group and 80, 32, and 28 (P < 0.05) for the paraspinal group. This trend continued through 3 to 6 months after the procedure but did not reach statistical significance. In the paraspinal group, pain scores showed a nonsignificant trend toward lower values in the first month, compared with values in the midline group. Patients reported excellent to fair results, with the exception of three patients in the midline group and two in the paraspinal group, who rated the procedure as fair. Conclusions Significantly fewer patients required postoperative narcotics in the paraspinal group than in the midline group. This improvement in early outcomes suggests a significant early benefit to the less tissue-destructive muscle-sparing approach in posterior nonfusion stabilization procedures. PMID:25802585

  6. What is the risk of a shunt malfunction after elective intradural surgery?

    PubMed

    Venable, Garrett T; Green, Cain S; Smalley, Zachary S; Bedford, E Cydnie; Modica, Joseph S; Klimo, Paul

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Surgery for CSF diversion is the most common procedure performed by pediatric neurosurgeons. The failure rates for shunts remain frustratingly high, resulting in a burden to patients, families, providers, and healthcare systems. The goal of this study was to quantify the risk of a shunt malfunction in patients with an existing shunt who undergo an elective intradural operation. METHODS All elective intradural surgeries (cranial and spinal) at Le Bonheur Children's Hospital from January 2010 through June 2014 were reviewed to identify those patients who had a functional ventricular shunt at the time of surgery. Patient records were reviewed to collect demographic, surgical, clinical, radiological, and pathologic data, including all details related to any subsequent shunt revision surgery. The primary outcome was all-cause shunt revision (i.e., malfunction or infection) within 90 days of elective intradural surgery. RESULTS One hundred and fifty elective intradural surgeries were identified in 109 patients during the study period. There were 14 patients (12.8%, 13 male) who experienced 16 shunt malfunctions (10.7%) within 90 days of elective intradural surgery. These 14 patients underwent 13 craniotomies, 2 endoscopic fenestrations for loculated hydrocephalus, and 1 laminectomy for dorsal rhizotomy. Median time to failure was 9 days, with the shunts in half of our patients failing within 5 postoperative days. Those patients with failed shunts were younger (median 4.2 years [range 0.33-26 years] vs median 10 years [range 0.58-34 years]), had a shorter time interval from their previous shunt surgery (median 11 months [range 0-81 months] vs median 20 months [range 0-238 months]), and were more likely to have had intraventricular surgery (80.0% vs 60.3%). CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to quantify the risk of a shunt malfunction after elective intradural surgery. The 90-day all-cause shunt failure rate (per procedure) was 10.7%, with half of the failures occurring within the first 5 postoperative days. Possible risk factors for shunt malfunction after elective intradural surgeries are intraventricular surgical approach, shorter time since last shunt-related surgery, and young age. PMID:26359674

  7. Risk for Adjacent Segment and Same Segment Reoperation After Surgery for Lumbar Stenosis: A subgroup analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Radcliff, Kris; Curry, Patrick; Hilibrand, Alan; Kepler, Chris; Lurie, Jon; Zhao, Wenyan; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Subgroup analysis of prospective, randomized database. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare surgical or patient characteristics, such as fusion, instrumentation, or obesity, to identify whether these factors were associated with increased risk of reoperation for spinal stenosis. This prognostic information would be valuable to patients, healthcare professionals, and society as strategies to reduce reoperation, such as motion preservation, are developed. Summary of Background Data Reoperation due to recurrence of index level pathology or adjacent segment disease is a common clinical problem. Despite multiple studies on the incidence of reoperation, there have been few comparative studies establishing risk factors of reoperation after spinal stenosis surgery. The hypothesis of this subgroup analysis was that lumbar fusion or particular patient characteristics, such as obesity, would render patients with lumbar stenosis more susceptible to reoperation at the index or adjacent levels. Methods The study population combined the randomized and observational cohorts enrolled in SPORT for treatment of spinal stenosis. The surgically treated patients were stratified according to those who had reoperation (n=54) or no-reoperation (n= 359). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years. The difference in improvement between those who had reoperation and those who did not was determined at each follow-period. Results Of the 413 patients who underwent surgical treatment for spinal stenosis, 54 patients had a reoperation within four years. At baseline, there were no significant differences in demographic characteristics or clinical outcome scores between reoperation and non-reoperation groups. Furthermore, between groups there were no differences in the severity of symptoms, obesity, physical examination signs, levels of stenosis, location of stenosis, stenosis severity, levels of fusion, levels of laminectomy, levels decompressed, operation time, intraoperative or postoperative complications. There was an increased percentage of patients with duration of symptoms greater than 12 months in the reoperation group (56% reoperation vs 36% no-reoperation, p<0.008). At final follow-up, there was significantly less improvement in the outcome of the reoperation group in SF36 PF (14.4 vs 22.6, p < 0.05), ODI (?12.4 vs. ?21.1, p < 0.01), and Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (?5 vs ?8.1, p < 0.006). Conclusion Lumbar fusion and instrumentation were not associated with increased rate of reoperation at index or adjacent levels compared to nonfusion techniques. The only specific risk factor for reoperation after treatment of spinal stenosis was duration of pretreatment symptoms > 12 months. The overall incidence of reoperations for spinal stenosis surgery was 13% and reoperations were equally distributed between index and adjacent lumbar levels. Reoperation may be related to the natural history of spinal degenerative disease. PMID:23154835

  8. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a clinico-radiological study of 74 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Nose, T; Egashira, T; Enomoto, T; Maki, Y

    1987-01-01

    A clinico-radiological analysis of 74 cases of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament is reported. Eighteen cases (24%) were asymptomatic or only had neck or shoulder pain; 16 cases (22%) showed signs of radiculopathy, and the remaining 40 cases (54%) had myelopathy. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament developed most frequently at C5, and was rare in thoracic and lumbar regions. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament led to stenosis of the spinal canal; more marked stenosis caused clinical myelopathy. The data showed that 30% of stenosis caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was critical for the production of myelopathy. Images PMID:3104541

  9. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (161). Cervical OPLL with cord compression

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wen Qi; Wong, Bak Siew Steven

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old man presented with acute cervical myelopathy following a fall. Cervical radiography and computed tomography showed ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) from C2 to C6 level, with severe cervical canal stenosis and cord compression. Magnetic resonance imaging further showed increased T2-weighted signal in the spinal cord at the level of greatest central spinal canal stenosis. OPLL is a significant cause of myelopathy in Asian populations and is found in up to 25% of patients presenting with cervical compression myelopathy. The clinical presentation, radiological evaluation and management of OPLL are discussed. PMID:26243973

  10. 75 FR 54345 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BRYAN CERVICAL DISC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ...marketing the medical device BRYAN CERVICAL DISC SYSTEM. BRYAN CERVICAL DISC SYSTEM is indicated in...intractable radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Subsequent to this approval...restoration application for BRYAN CERVICAL DISC SYSTEM (U.S....

  11. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES AND MYELOGRAPHY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE

    E-print Network

    Yandell, Brian S.

    CANINE MYELOPATHY SOPHIE E. DENNISON, RANDI DREES, HELENA RYLANDER, BRIAN S. YANDELL, MILAN MILOVANCEV & Ultrasound Key words: angiography, diagnostic imaging, dog, intervertebral disc herniation, spinal neoplasia studies comparing multiple signalments, etiol- ogies, and imaging modalities of acute canine myelopat

  12. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scissors) gait: Brain abscess Brain or head trauma Brain tumor Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) Cerebral palsy Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy (a problem with the vertebrae in the neck) Liver failure Multiple sclerosis Pernicious anemia Spinal cord ...

  13. LETTER/REPLIES Copper Deficiency Clinical Case Conference: In

    E-print Network

    Kornfeld, S. Kerry

    . He cites a Google search of myeloneuropathy and malnutrition as help- ing in suggesting the diagnosis such as "myelopathy" and "malnutrition" yields a checklist of 12 and 9 differential diagnostic consider- ations

  14. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P.; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2010-03-01

    Dose-volume data for myelopathy in humans treated with radiotherapy (RT) to the spine is reviewed, along with pertinent preclinical data. Using conventional fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy/fraction to the full-thickness cord, the estimated risk of myelopathy is <1% and <10% at 54 Gy and 61 Gy, respectively, with a calculated strong dependence on dose/fraction (alpha/beta = 0.87 Gy.) Reirradiation data in animals and humans suggest partial repair of RT-induced subclinical damage becoming evident about 6 months post-RT and increasing over the next 2 years. Reports of myelopathy from stereotactic radiosurgery to spinal lesions appear rare (<1%) when the maximum spinal cord dose is limited to the equivalent of 13 Gy in a single fraction or 20 Gy in three fractions. However, long-term data are insufficient to calculate a dose-volume relationship for myelopathy when the partial cord is treated with a hypofractionated regimen.

  15. Thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformation as a rare cause of isolated intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Evan S; Entwistle, John J; Arnold, Michael A; Pierson, Christopher R; Governale, Lance S

    2014-07-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare vascular lesions that most frequently present with back pain, radiculopathy, and/or myelopathy. Neurological decline is typically secondary to progressive radiculopathy, myelopathy, venous thrombosis, and stroke. Few case reports have described thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations that present with both subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. This is the first reported case of a thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformation presenting with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage on initial imaging followed by acute and fatal rehemorrhage. PMID:24784978

  16. Symptomatic Thoracic Spinal Cord Herniation: Case Series and Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Wright, Neill M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is an uncommon condition located predominantly in the thoracic spine and often associated with a remote history of a major traumatic injury. ISCH has an incompletely described presentation and unknown etiology. There is no consensus on treatment algorithm and surgical technique, and there is little data on clinical outcomes. Clinical Presentation In this case series and technical report, we describe the atypical myelopathy presentation, remote history of traumatic injury, radiographic progression, treatment, and outcomes of 5 patients treated at Washington University for symptomatic ISCH. A video showing surgical repair is presented. In contrast to classic compressive myelopathy symptomology, ISCH patients presented with an atypical myelopathy, characterized by asymmetric motor and sensory deficits and early-onset urinary incontinence. Clinical deterioration correlated with progressive spinal cord displacement and herniation observed on yearly spinal imaging in a patient imaged serially due to multiple sclerosis. Finally compared to compressive myelopathy in the thoracic spine, surgical treatment of ISH led to rapid improvement despite long duration of symptoms. Conclusion Symptomatic ISCH presents with atypical myelopathy and slow temporal progression and can be successfully managed with surgical repair. PMID:24871148

  17. [Thoracic spinal cord compression at two levels due to ligamentum flavum calcification. Case report].

    PubMed

    Gondim, J; Ramos Júnior, F

    1998-06-01

    Calcification and/or ossification of the ligamenta flava is a well reported clinicopathologic entity causing narrowing of the spinal canal cord compression. It has been described almost exclusively in Japanese people. The authors present the case of a non Japanese patient with thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum. PMID:9698747

  18. Spinal Cord Tolerance for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun; Ma Lijun; Gibbs, Iris; Gerszten, Peter C.; Ryu, Sam; Soltys, Scott; Weinberg, Vivian; Wong Shun; Chang, Eric; Fowler, Jack; Larson, David A.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric data are reported for five cases of radiation-induced myelopathy after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to spinal tumors. Analysis per the biologically effective dose (BED) model was performed. Methods and Materials: Five patients with radiation myelopathy were compared to a subset of 19 patients with no radiation myelopathy post-SBRT. In all patients, the thecal sac was contoured to represent the spinal cord, and doses to the maximum point, 0.1-, 1-, 2-, and 5-cc volumes, were analyzed. The mean normalized 2-Gy-equivalent BEDs (nBEDs), calculated using an alpha/beta value of 2 for late toxicity with units Gy 2/2, were compared using the t test and analysis of variance test. Results: Radiation myelopathy was observed at the maximum point with doses of 25.6 Gy in two fractions, 30.9 Gy in three fractions, and 14.8, 13.1, and 10.6 Gy in one fraction. Overall, there was a significant interaction between patient subsets and volume based on the nBED (p = 0.0003). Given individual volumes, a significant difference was observed for the mean maximum point nBED (p = 0.01). Conclusions: The maximum point dose should be respected for spine SBRT. For single-fraction SBRT 10 Gy to a maximum point is safe, and up to five fractions an nBED of 30 to 35 Gy 2/2 to the thecal sac also poses a low risk of radiation myelopathy.

  19. A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew L.; Goupil, Brad A.; Valentine, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted. PMID:23204583

  20. Echols’ Procedure for Treating Syringomyelia: Case Report and Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew M.; Cracium, Liviu; Heiss, John D.

    2009-01-01

    A 9 year-old girl with syringomyelia and scoliosis was treated with Echols’ procedure, a surgical technique that employs a metal stent to maintain drainage of fluid from the syrinx into the subarachnoid space. The patient presented to our institution 34 years later with a history of progressive myelopathy and surgically-treated deformities of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and right foot. Computer-assisted myelography indicated that the metal wire remained in place and that the syrinx had collapsed. Neurological examination and neurophysiological testing confirmed the presence of thoracic myelopathy, which may be due to the wire tethering the thoracic spinal cord to the dorsal dura. This is believed to be the sole long-term report of the effects of Echols’ procedure. The history of direct treatment of syringomyelia is reviewed and is contrasted with indirect treatment of syringomyelia, which relieves the condition by opening obstructed CSF pathways within the foramen magnum or spine. PMID:19119937

  1. Anterior lumbosacral polyradiculopathy after intrathecal administration of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Ana M; Coret, Francisco; Casanova, Bonaventura; Láinez, Miguel J A

    2008-04-15

    Transient paraparesis has been reported with intrathecal chemotherapy agents and the most common cause is an incomplete inflammatory myelopathy. We report a case of a 30-year-old man diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed subacute anterior lumbosacral polyradiculopathy following intrathecal methotrexate, an unusual complication of intrathecal chemotherapy in adults. Spinal magnetic resonance discarded myelopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid exam showed elevation of protein, mononuclear pleocytosis and immunoglobulin synthesis. Electrodiagnostic study showed alterations of sensory and motor conductions only in lower limbs, consistent with multilevel radiculopathy. Differential diagnosis included toxic and neoplastic polyradiculopathy, and axonal variant of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. The authors review possible pathogenic mechanisms and propose several therapeutic and preventive options. PMID:17949753

  2. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan; Poll-The, Bwee-Tien

    2014-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a puzzling inborn error of metabolism with a strikingly heterogeneous clinical spectrum. All patients have mutations in the ABCD1 gene and accumulate very long chain fatty acids in all tissues. Virtually all male X-ALD patients develop adrenocortical insufficiency in childhood and progressive myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy in adulthood. A subset of male patients, however, develops a fatal cerebral demyelinating disease, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Female patients also develop progressive myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy, but generally at a later age than males. They only very rarely develop adrenocortical insufficiency or cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. This review proposes to simplify the classification of the clinical spectrum of X-ALD and reviews the largely unresolved pathophysiological mechanisms and the current treatment options. PMID:25115486

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression in the central nervous system correlates directly with extent of disease

    SciTech Connect

    Weiser, B.; La Neve, D.; Eilbott, D.J.; Burger, H.; Seidman, R. ); Peress, N. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Northport, NY )

    1990-05-01

    To investigate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis in infected individuals and examine the correlation of HIV-1 expression with extent of clinical and pathologic disease, the authors studied spinal cords from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with a wide range of spinal cord pathology. By performing in situ hybridization with HIV-1-specific riboprobes, they detected HIV-1 RNA in all 10 cords from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with a common, characteristic pathologic entity called vacuolar myelopathy but not in 10 control cords from HIV-1-infected and uninfected patients. In the cords from individuals with vacuolar myelopathy, the level of HIV-1 RNA expression correlated directly with extent of spinal cord pathology and clinical findings. These data support a role for HIV-1 int he pathogenesis of tissue damage and related clinical disease in infected individuals.

  4. [Imaging diagnosis of cervical spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Song, Z Q

    1989-04-01

    Myodil-myelographic manifestations of 60 cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy were analyzed. For better understanding the biomechanical disturbances of cervical spondylosis, CT scans of 26 cases of this disease were also investigated. Myelography and/or CT were considered necessary if surgical procedure was to be undertaken with anterior approach. Myodil myelography or CT could fulfill the diagnostic requirements for surgery if Non-ionic water-soluble contrast media or other new techniques were not available. PMID:2758936

  5. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N.; Wisner, Erik R.; Prutton, Jamie W.; Madigan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  6. The Radiation Dose-Response of the Human Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To characterize the radiation dose-response of the human spinal cord. Methods and Materials: Because no single institution has sufficient data to establish a dose-response function for the human spinal cord, published reports were combined. Requisite data were dose and fractionation, number of patients at risk, number of myelopathy cases, and survival experience of the population. Eight data points for cervical myelopathy were obtained from five reports. Using maximum likelihood estimation correcting for the survival experience of the population, estimates were obtained for the median tolerance dose, slope parameter, and {alpha}/{beta} ratio in a logistic dose-response function. An adequate fit to thoracic data was not possible. Hyperbaric oxygen treatments involving the cervical cord were also analyzed. Results: The estimate of the median tolerance dose (cervical cord) was 69.4 Gy (95% confidence interval, 66.4-72.6). The {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy. At 45 Gy, the (extrapolated) probability of myelopathy is 0.03%; and at 50 Gy, 0.2%. The dose for a 5% myelopathy rate is 59.3 Gy. Graphical analysis indicates that the sensitivity of the thoracic cord is less than that of the cervical cord. There appears to be a sensitizing effect from hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusions: The estimate of {alpha}/{beta} is smaller than usually quoted, but values this small were found in some studies. Using {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy, one would expect a considerable advantage by decreasing the dose/fraction to less than 2 Gy. These results were obtained from only single fractions/day and should not be applied uncritically to hyperfractionation.

  7. Brain necrosis after fractionated radiation therapy: Is the halftime for repair longer than we thought?

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Edward T.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To derive a radiobiological model that enables the estimation of brain necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy rates for a variety of fractionation schemes, and to compare repair effects between brain and spinal cord. Methods: Sigmoidal dose response relationships for brain radiation necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy are derived from clinical data using nonlinear regression. Three different repair models are considered and the repair halftimes are included as regression parameters. Results: For radiation necrosis, a repair halftime of 38.1 (range 6.9-76) h is found with monoexponential repair, while for spinal cord myelopathy, a repair halftime of 4.1 (range 0-8) h is found. The best-fit alpha beta ratio is 0.96 (range 0.24-1.73)Conclusions: A radiobiological model that includes repair corrections can describe the clinical data for a variety of fraction sizes, fractionation schedules, and total doses. Modeling suggests a relatively long repair halftime for brain necrosis. This study suggests that the repair halftime for late radiation effects in the brain may be longer than is currently thought. If confirmed in future studies, this may lead to a re-evaluation of radiation fractionation schedules for some CNS diseases, particularly for those diseases where fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is used.

  8. Adjacent level spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Saumyajit; Sreeramalingam, Rathinavelu

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is rare, but the same occurring at adjacent levels without disturbing the operated level is very rare. We report a case, with 5 year followup, who underwent ACDF from C5 to C7 for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. He showed neurological improvement after surgery but developed discharging sinus after 2 weeks, which healed with antibiotics. He improved on his preoperative symptoms well for the first 2 months. He started developing progressive neck pain and myelopathy after 3 months and investigations revealed spondylodiscitis at C3 and C4 with erosion, collapse, and kyphosis, without any evidence of implant failure or graft rejection at the operated level. He underwent reexploration and implant removal at the operated level (there was good fusion from C5 to C7) followed by debridement/decompression at C3, C4 along with iliac crest bone grafting and stabilization with plate and screws after maximum correction of kyphosis. The biopsy specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and appropriate sensitive antibiotics (gentamycin and ciprofloxacin) were given for 6 weeks. He was under regular followup for 5 years his myelopathy resolved completely and he is back to work. Complete decompression of the cord and fusion from C2 to C7 was demonstrable on postoperative imaging studies without any evidence of implant loosening or C1/C2 instability at the last followup. PMID:22719127

  9. Adjacent level spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.

    PubMed

    Basu, Saumyajit; Sreeramalingam, Rathinavelu

    2012-05-01

    Postoperative spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is rare, but the same occurring at adjacent levels without disturbing the operated level is very rare. We report a case, with 5 year followup, who underwent ACDF from C5 to C7 for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. He showed neurological improvement after surgery but developed discharging sinus after 2 weeks, which healed with antibiotics. He improved on his preoperative symptoms well for the first 2 months. He started developing progressive neck pain and myelopathy after 3 months and investigations revealed spondylodiscitis at C3 and C4 with erosion, collapse, and kyphosis, without any evidence of implant failure or graft rejection at the operated level. He underwent reexploration and implant removal at the operated level (there was good fusion from C5 to C7) followed by debridement/decompression at C3, C4 along with iliac crest bone grafting and stabilization with plate and screws after maximum correction of kyphosis. The biopsy specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and appropriate sensitive antibiotics (gentamycin and ciprofloxacin) were given for 6 weeks. He was under regular followup for 5 years his myelopathy resolved completely and he is back to work. Complete decompression of the cord and fusion from C2 to C7 was demonstrable on postoperative imaging studies without any evidence of implant loosening or C1/C2 instability at the last followup. PMID:22719127

  10. Bilateral C1–C2 Transarticular Screw and C1 Laminar Hook Fixation and Bone Graft Fusion for Reducible Atlantoaxial Dislocation: A Seven-Year Analysis of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiang; Ni, Bin; Xie, Ning; Lu, Xuhua; Guo, Qunfeng; Lu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw and C1 laminar hook fixation was developed on the basis of transarticular screws fixation. The modified technique has showed a better biomechanical stability than established techniques in previous study. However, long-term (minimum follow-up 7 years) outcomes of patients with reducible atlantoaxial dislocation who underwent this modified fixation technique have not still been reported. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of 36 patients who underwent this modified technique. Myelopathy was assessed using the Ranawat myelopathy score and Myelopathy Disability Index. Pain scores were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale. Radiological imaging was assessed and the following data were extracted: the atlantodental intervals, the space available for cord, presence of spinal cord signal change on T2 weighted image, C1–C2 angle, C2–C7 angle and fusion rates. Findings All patients achieved a minimum seven-year follow up. 95% patients with neck and suboccipital pain improved after surgery; in their Visual Analogue pain scores, there was a greater than 50% improvement in their VAS scores with a drop of 5 points on the VAS (P<0.05). 92% of patients improved in the Ranawat myelopathy grade; the Myelopathy Disability Index assessment showed a preoperative mean score of 35.62 with postoperative mean 12.75(P<0.05). There was not any significant atlantoaxial instability at each follow-up time. The space available for cord increased in all patients. Postoperative sagittal kyphosis of the subaxial spine was not observed. After six months after surgery, bone grafts of all patients were fused. No complications related to surgery were found in the period of follow-up. Conclusions The long-term outcomes of this case series demonstrate that under the condition of thorough preoperative preparations, bilateral C1–C2 transarticular screw and C1 laminar hook fixation and bone graft fusion is a reliable posterior atlantoaxial fusion technique for reducible atlantoaxial dislocation. PMID:24498163

  11. Normal Values of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters in the Cervical Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Shunka; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Imajo, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We evaluated the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in diagnosing patients with cervical myelopathy by determining the accuracy of normal DTI parameter values. Overview of Literature DTI can visualize white matter tracts in vivo and quantify anisotropy. DTI is known to be more sensitive than conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting subtle pathological changes of the spinal cord. Methods A total of 31 normal subjects (13 men and 18 women; age, 23-87 years; mean age, 46.0 years) were included in this study. The patients had no symptoms of myelopathy or radiculopathy. A Philips Achieva 3-Tesla MRI with SE-type Single Shot EPI was used to obtain diffusion tensor images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured as DTI parameters on axial sections of several cervical levels. Subjects were divided into two groups: >40 years (n=16) and ?40 years (n=15). A paired t-test was used to compare significant differences between the groups. ADC and FA values were most stable on axial sections. Results For all subjects, mean ADC and FA values were 1.06±0.09×10-3 mm2/sec and 0.68±0.05, respectively. ADC was significantly higher in subjects >40 years of age than in those ?40 years. There was no significant difference in FA values between the two groups. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in normal subjects >40 years of age than in those ?40 years. Conclusions It is important to consider age when evaluating cervical myelopathy by DTI. PMID:26240712

  12. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E. ); Stephens, L.C.; Price, R.E.; Ang, K.K.; Peters, L.J. )

    1994-04-30

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D[sub 50] = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Acute neurological presentation due to copper deficiency in a hemodialysis patient following gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Rounis, E; Laing, C M; Davenport, A

    2010-11-01

    Acquired copper deficiency has been recently recognized as a cause of myelopathy, and has been reported to occur many years after gastric bypass surgery performed to aid weight reduction in morbidly obese patients. We report a case of a young woman treated by hemodialysis who presented with acute neurological symptoms 5 months after gastric bypass surgery for severe obesity. She had symptoms and signs of cerebellar, spinal cord and peripheral nerve disease, which improved following parenteral copper supplementation. Now that gastric bypass surgery is being offered to morbidly obese hemodialysis patients, this case highlights the importance of monitoring copper levels in hemodialysis patients following gastric bypass surgery. PMID:20979948

  14. Nonoperative Modalities to Treat Symptomatic Cervical Spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirpara, Kieran Michael; Butler, Joseph S.; Dolan, Roisin T.; O'Byrne, John M.; Poynton, Ashley R.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a common and disabling condition. It is generally felt that the initial management should be nonoperative, and these modalities include physiotherapy, analgesia and selective nerve root injections. Surgery should be reserved for moderate to severe myelopathy patients who have failed a period of conservative treatment and patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by nonoperative means. A review of the literature supporting various modalities of conservative management is presented, and it is concluded that although effective, nonoperative treatment is labour intensive, requiring regular review and careful selection of medications and physical therapy on a case by case basis. PMID:21991426

  15. An unusual cause of progressive quadriparesis

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Vimal; Sridhar, M. S.; Dhull, Pawan; Sen, Arijit

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of compressive myelopathy. Quadriparesis as the presenting manifestation of follicular carcinoma of thyroid without any preceding features of malignancy is quite uncommon. We describe a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with progressive quadriparesis of 2 months duration, on evaluation was found to have a large tumor destroying C1, C2 vertebrae and occupying craniovertebral junction. Histopathological examination of excised tumor was follicular thyroid carcinoma. She was successfully managed with surgical excision, stabilization of spine followed by radiotherapy. PMID:24251141

  16. Spinal cord herniation with characteristic bone change: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Tasuku; Nakane, Yukimi; Tachibana, Eiji; Ogura, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal cord herniation (SCH) is a rare disease characterized by herniation of the thoracic spinal cord through an anterior dural defect, presenting with progressive myelopathy. A case of a 69-year-old woman who presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome and a bone defect, in which an osteophyte created a hemisphere-like cavity with spinal cord herniation, is presented. The strangled spinal cord was released, and the defect was closed microsurgically using an artificial dural patch to prevent re-herniation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced gradual improvement in neurologic function. The SCH mechanism and surgical strategy are discussed. PMID:26412899

  17. Histoplasmosis of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, V; Wilkins, P; Badve, S; Coppen, M; Lucas, S; Hay, R; Schon, F

    1992-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum infection of the central nervous system is extremely rare in the United Kingdom partly because the organism is not endemic. However, because the organism can remain quiescent in the lungs or the adrenal glands for over 40 years before dissemination, it increasingly needs to be considered in unexplained neurological disease particularly in people who lived in endemic areas as children. In this paper a rapidly progressive fatal myelopathy in an English man brought up in India was shown at necropsy to be due to histoplasmosis. The neurological features of this infection are reviewed. Images PMID:1640242

  18. [A case of female urethral diverticulum calculus associated with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Oida, T; Araki, I

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of urethral diverticulum with a calculus in a 52-year-old female. She had suffered from transverse myelopathy (flaccid paralysis) as a result of multiple sclerosis. She presented with total incontinence and urinary tract infection that did not respond to antibiotic therapy. We found a urethral diverticulum calculus by X-ray imaging and urethroscopy. Transvaginal urethral diverticulectomy with removal of stone was carried out without any complications. The removed stone was 35 x 31 x 19 mm in size and was composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphate. PMID:11235224

  19. Interpretation of high levels of HIV-1 RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using amplicor HIV-1 monitor test.

    PubMed

    Honderlick, P; Zucman, D; Couderc, L J

    1999-05-01

    A retrospective study of 19 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 14 HIV-positive subjects with subacute encephalopathy, neuropathy, or unexplained peripheral myelopathy was done comparatively with plasma specimens collected on the same day and tested in the same run as the corresponding CSF specimen. A single patient had a high HIV RNA level in CSF as compared to plasma (CSF/plasma ratio > 10), which seemed correlated with the clinical course. Further studies are needed to confirm that a high CSF/plasma HIV RNA ratio is associated with greater symptom severity. PMID:10418040

  20. Pediatric Acute Longitudinal Extensive Transverse Myelitis Secondary to Neuroborreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sana; Singh, Neeraj; Dow, Amanda; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Lyme neuroborreliosis has several different clinical manifestations in children, of which facial nerve palsies, meningitis and radiculopathies are the most common. Transverse myelitis (TM) secondary to Lyme disease has been reported in rare occasions, typically presenting with severe weakness, sensory abnormalities and autonomic dysfunction. We present the case of a 16-year-old male who developed acute left peripheral facial palsy and longitudinal extensive TM secondary to Lyme disease. Remarkably, the patient reported only mild symptoms with severe back pain in the absence of profound signs of myelopathy. We reviewed the medical literature and analyzed the clinical features of pediatric patients with Borrelia burgdorferi-related TM. PMID:26351447

  1. Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L P

    1998-10-01

    This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:9851643

  2. Intradural Extramedullary Sarcoidosis case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kaushik; Tripathy, P.; Senapati, A.; Saha, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal sarcoidosis represents a rare subgroup of neurosarcoidosis. Most spinal sarcoid lesions are intramedullary, and only a few cases of Intradural Extramedullary (IDEM) sarcoidosis have been reported till date. A thirty years-old female patient with intradural extramedullary sarcoid lesion in the cervico-dorsal spinal canal (C7-D1) without any systemic involvement of sarcoidosis is described. The patient presented with rapidly progressive compressive myelopathy with bladder involvement. She was treated with surgical removal of the lesion coupled with the administration of steroid and showed marked improvement. PMID:22028749

  3. Neurological presentations of AIDS--when to test for HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, G N; Guiloff, R J; Gazzard, B; Harcourt-Webster, J N; Scarvilli, F

    1989-01-01

    Nine of 122 patients dead from AIDS in central London presented with neurological disease, confirmed pathologically in seven. Seven had no other major systemic manifestations. AIDS needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningitis, dementia, diffuse and focal encephalopathies, brainstem syndromes, myelopathy, visual failure and peripheral nerve syndromes. As AIDS becomes more widespread there will be an increasing need for diagnostic HIV testing in many neurological syndromes. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D PMID:2614762

  4. Neurological complications of coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Pengiran, T; Wills, A; Holmes, G

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neurological disorders have been reported in association with coeliac disease including epilepsy, ataxia, neuropathy, and myelopathy. The nature of this association is unclear and whether a specific neurological complication occurs in coeliac disease remains unproved. Malabsorption may lead to vitamin and trace element deficiencies. Therefore, patients who develop neurological dysfunction should be carefully screened for these. However, malabsorption does not satisfactorily explain the pathophysiology and clinical course of many of the associated neurological disorders. Other mechanisms proposed include altered autoimmunity, heredity, and gluten toxicity. This review attempts to summarise the literature and suggests directions for future research. PMID:12151653

  5. Abortive segmental perineal hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Tlougan, Brook E; Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Orlow, Seth J

    2011-01-01

    A six-week-old girl presented with a segmental, focally atrophic, vascular patch in the diaper area, present since birth. It had undergone minimal proliferation, but had ulcerated. Evaluation to rule out LUMBAR (Lower body hemangioma/Lipoma or other cutaneous anomalies, Urogenital anomalies, Myelopathy, Bony deformities, Anorectal/Arterial anomalies, and Renal anomalies) syndrome, which included ultrasound and Doppler examination of the abdomen, spine, and pelvis, was negative. We report a unique case of an ulcerated, segmental abortive hemangioma of the anogenital area with excellent clinical response to topical timolol gel. PMID:22031634

  6. Treatment of superficial siderosis with iron chelation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Gemma; Crundwell, Gemma; Baguley, David; Lennox, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Superficial siderosis is caused by recurrent haemorrhage in the subarachnoid space leading to haemosiderin deposition. It typically causes the triad of ataxia, deafness and myelopathy. We report a patient who developed superficial siderosis following neurosurgery for syringomyelia and who had an improvement in his hearing and mobility following treatment with a new iron chelation therapy that can penetrate the blood–brain barrier. It provides an intriguing insight into a therapy that could potentially modify the course of this rare neurodegenerative disorder. Further studies are required to assess the clinical efficacy of deferiprone in superficial siderosis. PMID:23843408

  7. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in women: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Marc; Barbier, Mathieu; Dijkstra, Inge M E; Schür, Remmelt; de Bie, Rob M A; Verhamme, Camiel; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Aubourg, Patrick A; Wanders, Ronald J A; van Geel, Bjorn M; de Visser, Marianne; Poll-The, Bwee T; Kemp, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal transporter of very long-chain fatty acids. A defect in the ABCD1 protein results in elevated levels of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. The clinical spectrum in males with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy has been well described and ranges from isolated adrenocortical insufficiency and slowly progressive myelopathy to devastating cerebral demyelination. As in many X-linked diseases, it was assumed that female carriers remain asymptomatic and only a few studies addressed the phenotype of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers. These studies, however, provided no information on the prevalence of neurological symptoms in the entire population of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers, since data were acquired in small groups and may be biased towards women with symptoms. Our primary goal was to investigate the symptoms and their frequency in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers. The secondary goal was to determine if the X-inactivation pattern of the ABCD1 gene was associated with symptomatic status. We included 46 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers in a prospective cross-sectional cohort study. Our data show that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers develop signs and symptoms of myelopathy (29/46, 63%) and/or peripheral neuropathy (26/46, 57%). Especially striking was the occurrence of faecal incontinence (13/46, 28%). The frequency of symptomatic women increased sharply with age (from 18% in women <40 years to 88% in women >60 years of age). Virtually all (44/45, 98%) X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers had increased very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and/or fibroblasts, and/or decreased very long-chain fatty acids beta-oxidation in fibroblasts. We did not find an association between the X-inactivation pattern and symptomatic status. We conclude that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers develop an adrenomyeloneuropathy-like phenotype and there is a strong association between symptomatic status and age. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy should be considered in the differential diagnosis in women with chronic myelopathy and/or peripheral neuropathy (especially with early faecal incontinence). ABCD1 mutation analysis deserves a place in diagnostic protocols for chronic non-compressive myelopathy. PMID:24480483

  8. MRI demyelination pattern and clinical course in a child with cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD)

    PubMed Central

    Löbel, Ulrike; Wölfl, Matthias; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Warmuth-Metz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The clinical spectrum in boys with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) ranges from isolated adrenocortical insufficiency and slowly progressive myelopathy to devastating cerebral demyelination. In the individual case, the disease course still remains unpredictable. Research findings suggest an important role of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion patterns as prognostic markers for X-ALD. Hence, familiarity with imaging features of childhood X-ALD in combination with clinical manifestation is required in order to stratify affected patients for therapy. We report on MRI findings and clinical course of cerebral X-ALD in a young boy with a rare subtype of white matter demyelination. PMID:25848550

  9. MRI demyelination pattern and clinical course in a child with cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD).

    PubMed

    Nowak, Johannes; Löbel, Ulrike; Wölfl, Matthias; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Warmuth-Metz, Monika

    2015-04-01

    The clinical spectrum in boys with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) ranges from isolated adrenocortical insufficiency and slowly progressive myelopathy to devastating cerebral demyelination. In the individual case, the disease course still remains unpredictable. Research findings suggest an important role of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion patterns as prognostic markers for X-ALD. Hence, familiarity with imaging features of childhood X-ALD in combination with clinical manifestation is required in order to stratify affected patients for therapy. We report on MRI findings and clinical course of cerebral X-ALD in a young boy with a rare subtype of white matter demyelination. PMID:25848550

  10. Spinal intraosseous epidural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary drainage obliterated with Onyx embolization: case report.

    PubMed

    Ou, Chang-Hsien; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Yang, Tzu-Hsien; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Wong, Ho-Fai

    2015-08-01

    The authors report an extremely rare case of spinal intraosseous epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with perimedullary vein reflux causing symptoms of myelopathy. The intraosseous fistula tracts were completely obliterated with Onyx embolic agent, resulting in a total resolution of symptoms. The unique features of this case include the rare location of the fistula in the vertebral body and the association of the fistula with a compressive fracture. Imaging studies confirmed these hemodynamic findings and provided clarity and direct evidence regarding the association of epidural AVF formation with the vertebral compressive fracture. The authors also propose a possible disease evolution based on the previously adduced reflux-impending mechanism. PMID:26052621

  11. Osseous metaplasia of the spinal dura mater in a Great Dane.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Greene, H J; Leipold, H W

    1975-07-01

    A 4-year-old male Great Dane with a history of progressive ataxia and associated bilateral atrophy of the muscles of the shoulder was found to have severe osseous metaplasia of the spinal dura mater. These dural ossifications were directly associated with underlying spinal cord degeneration. No other condition could be identified that would account for the pathologic changes in the spinal cord. The lower motor neuron (LMN) type weakness was in contrast to the upper motor neuron (UMN) type weakness said to occur with this disease and recently reported to be due to primary degenerative myelopathy. PMID:807543

  12. Spinal Cord Injury Incurred by Neck Massage

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hyun Suk; Ko, Yeong-A; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Joon Sung

    2012-01-01

    Massage is generally accepted as a safe and a widely used modality for various conditions, such as pain, lymphedema, and facial palsy. However, several complications, some with devastating results, have been reported. We introduce a case of a 43-year-old man who suffered from tetraplegia after a neck massage. Imaging studies revealed compressive myelopathy at the C6 level, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and a herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) at the C5-6 level. After 3 years of rehabilitation, his motor power improved, and he is able to walk and drive with adaptation. OPLL is a well-known predisposing factor for myelopathy in minor trauma, and it increases the risk of HNP, when it is associated with the degenerative disc. Our case emphasizes the need for additional caution in applying manipulation, including massage, in patients with OPLL; patients who are relatively young (i.e., in the fifth decade of life) are not immune to minor trauma. PMID:23185737

  13. Foramen magnum dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pop, Raoul; Manisor, Monica; Aloraini, Ziad; Chibarro, Salvatore; Proust, Francois; Quenardelle, Véronique; Wolff, Valérie; Beaujeux, Rémy

    2015-12-01

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) with perimedullary drainage represent a rare subtype of intracranial dAVF. Patients usually experience slowly progressive ascending myelopathy and/or lower brainstem signs. We present a case of foramen magnum dural arteriovenous fistula with an atypical clinical presentation. The patient initially presented with a generalised tonic-clonic seizure and no signs of myelopathy, followed one month later by rapidly progressive tetraplegia and respiratory insufficiency. The venous drainage of the fistula was directed both to the left temporal lobe and to the perimedullary veins (type III?+?V), causing venous congestion and oedema in these areas and explaining this unusual combination of symptoms. Rotational angiography and overlays with magnetic resonance imaging volumes were helpful in delineating the complex anatomy of the fistula. After endovascular embolisation, there was complete remission of venous congestion on imaging and significant clinical improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a craniocervical junction fistula presenting with epilepsy. PMID:26472637

  14. [Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary venous drainage: Anatomical, clinical and therapeutic considerations about one case, and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Mathon, B; Gallas, S; Tuillier, T; Bekaert, O; Decq, P; Brugieres, P; Nouet, A; Gaston, A

    2013-06-01

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae with perimedullary venous drainage are unusual type of vascular brain malformations. Patients may present with a rapidly progressive ascending myelopathy associated with autonomic dysfunction, which can cause a misdiagnosis and delay the therapeutic management. These clinical signs must be quickly recognized to avoid a poor outcome. The authors report the case of a 60-year-old woman presenting with a progressive myelopathy due to a dural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary venous drainage. The diagnosis was suspected on brain-spinal MRI and confirmed by brain arteriography visualizing the arteriovenous shunt in the middle segment of the superior petrous sinus. MRI showed edema in the medulla oblongata. The treatment was performed early by endovascular glue embolization of the arteriovenous shunt and of the origin of the vein. Brain arteriography and clinical follow-up, one month later, showed complete disappearance of the dural fistula and regression of clinical symptoms. MRI control showed the reduction of the brain stem edema. Because of the early pejorative prognosis of these kinds of fistulae, early diagnosis and treatment are needed. PMID:23806764

  15. Portosystemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Portosystemic or type C hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication and an indicator of a worsening prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by alterations in cognition, consciousness, and motor function. Usually type C HE occurs episodically. However, a few patients also present with chronic progressive symptoms of central nervous system dysfunction. In these cases motor symptoms most often exceed cognitive dysfunction and alterations of consciousness. The most frequent features of these chronic progressive forms of HE are acquired hepatocerebral degeneration and hepatic myelopathy. Current hypotheses about the pathophysiology of type C HE are based on the finding that symptoms occur in the presence of hyperammonemia, especially, but are amplified by accompanying factors such as inflammation, hyponatremia, or the application of benzodiazepines, for example. Accordingly, therapy aims at the reduction of ammonia production and absorption, and, since most of the HE episodes are provoked by nutritional protein overload, gastrointestinal bleeds, infection, medication (especially sedatives or diuretics) or constipation, by treatment of the provoking factor. Of note, this approach does not work in acquired hepatocerebral degeneration and hepatic myelopathy. Here liver transplantation should be considered early in the course of the disease. PMID:24365345

  16. Tophaceous Gout of the Lumbar Spine: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Andrey; Rhoiney, David L; Claybrooks, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Tophaceous gout has classically been described as an affliction of the extremities. It has however been reported as early as 1947 to involve the spinal column. We report a 63-year-old male, previously scheduled for Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion to correct an existing cervical myelopathy at the C3-C4 spinal level, who presented to the emergency room with progressive weakness of the lower extremities and inability to ambulate for three days. Physical examination suggested a possible worsening of his cervical myelopathy but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings remained unchanged from comparison studies. On the day of surgery, he became febrile and complained of excruciating back pain and we therefore initiated an infectious etiology workup and obtained a lumbar spine MRI. Results of imaging suggested a lumbar epidural abscess with effacement of the thecal sac. Emergent L4-L5 decompression led to an evacuation of a "chalky" substance, which was sent for pathology evaluation. This patient was diagnosed with tophaceous gout of the lumbar spine upon final pathological review. We aim to present the management of this case and review the literature associated with this diagnosis with the goal of improving the approach taken to diagnose and treat this pathology. PMID:26617149

  17. Varicella Zoster Complications

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Maria A.; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), after which virus becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. With advancing age or immunosuppression, cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines and virus reactivates to cause zoster (shingles), which can occur anywhere on the body. Skin lesions resolve within 1-2 weeks, while complete cessation of pain usually takes 4-6 weeks. Zoster can be followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia), cranial nerve palsies, zoster paresis, meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, myelopathy, multiple ocular disorders and vasculopathy that can mimic giant cell arteritis. All of the neurological and ocular disorders listed above may also develop without rash. Diagnosis of VZV-induced neurological disease may require examination of CSF, serum and/ or ocular fluids. In the absence of rash in a patient with neurological disease potentially due to VZV, CSF should be examined for VZV DNA by PCR and for anti-VZV IgG and IGM. Detection of VZV IgG antibody in CSF is superior to detection of VZV DNA in CSF to diagnose vasculopathy, recurrent myelopathy, and brainstem encephalitis. Oral antiviral drugs speed healing of rash and shorten acute pain. Immunocompromised patients require intravenous acyclovir. First-line treatments for post-herpetic neuralgia include tricyclic antidepressants gabapentin, pregabalin, and topical lidocaine patches. VZV vasculopathy, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis are all treated with intravenous acyclovir. PMID:23794213

  18. Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome in a Girl With Down Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Aman Singh; Sundaram, Manu; Mallewa, Mac; Tawil, Mohamed; Kneen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Anterior spinal artery syndrome is an extremely rare cause of acute ischemic cord infarction in children. It is caused by hypoperfusion of the anterior spinal artery, leading to ischemia in the anterior two thirds of the spinal cord. The presentation is usually with an acute and painful myelopathy with impaired bladder and bowel control. Pain and temperature sensation below the lesion are lost, whereas vibration and position sense is intact because of the preservation of the posterior columns. Methods: Case report. Results: A 16-year-old girl with Down syndrome presented with urinary retention and acute complete flaccid paralysis of the legs with absent deep tendon and abdominal reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a signal abnormality in the anterior half of the thoracic cord from T5 to T12, consistent with anterior spinal artery infarction. Conclusions: Pediatricians should consider anterior spinal artery syndrome in the child who presents with acute, painful myelopathy. We summarize the etiology, neurological findings and outcomes of 19 children found in the literature with anterior spinal artery syndrome. PMID:19810637

  19. Late effects of radiation on the lumbar spinal cord of guinea pigs: Re-treatment tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, K.A. ); Withers, H.R.; Chiang, Chi-Shiun )

    1993-07-15

    Using a guinea pig model of lumbar myelopathy, various factors affecting the tolerance of spinal cord to irradiation were assessed: (a) extent of initial injury; (b) time interval between priming and test doses; and (c) animal age at the time of initial radiation treatment. A 3 cm section of lumbar spinal cord of guinea pigs was irradiated with fractionated doses of 4.5 Gy gamma rays given as 9 fractions per week. Guinea pigs were primed with 9 x 4.5 Gy in 7 days which is 60% of the ED[sub 50] for a continuous course of treatment. After 28 or 40 weeks, animal were retreated with 6-14 fractions of 4.5 Gy. Animals were observed for 2 years following the priming dose and both the incidence and latency of myelopathy recorded. Young adult guinea pigs (8 wk old) showed both a decreased radiation tolerance and latency compared to old individuals (40 wk old). At 28 or 40 wk after 9 x 4.5 Gy, only about 8% of the initial injury was remembered in young adult guinea pigs. The amount of residual injury was dependent on the initial damage as a proportion of the tolerance dose. The spinal cord shows a greater capacity for long-term recovery than generally appreciated and re-treatment doses clinically prescribed may be lower than necessary. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Bilateral Abducent Palsy in Leptospirosis- An Eye Opener to a Rare Neuro Ocular Manifestation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Mahadevaiah; Shivanagappa, Mamatha; Venkatesh, Chilkunda Raviprakash

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis, a disease of great significance in tropical countries, presents commonly as a biphasic illness with acute febrile episode in the first phase followed by a brief afebrile period and then by the second phase of fever with or without jaundice and renal failure. However, it has varied manifestations and unusual clinical features ascribed to immunological phenomena can occur due to the additional involvement of pulmonary, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Among the various neurological features, aseptic meningitis is the most common myeloradiculopathy, myelopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, optic neuritis, peripheral neuropathy hare also described. Cranial neuropathy involving facial nerve is a rare, but known neurological manifestation. Sixth nerve palsy in neuroleptospirosis has so far not been reported. We hereby present the occurrence of bilateral abducent nerve palsy in a patient with leptospirosis. PMID:26538786

  1. Thoracic Vertebral Actinomycosis Secondary to a Pulmonary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Thango, Nqobile S; Ben Husein, Mohamed; Welsh, David

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by a gram-positive anaerobic bacteria from the species Actinomycesand causes a chronic colliquative inflammatory reaction known as actinomycotic granuloma, which is characterized macroscopically by suppuration, sinus tract formation, and purulent discharge containing yellowish sulfur granules. It can invade any part of the human body. This is a case report of a 40-year-old male patient known to the cardiothoracic team due to a sarcoma of the left lung. He presented with progressive thoracic myelopathy. Initially, the diagnosis was thought to be a spinal metastasis from the lung lesion. Further investigation revealed a thoracic actinomycosis with epidural granuloma tissue causing a spinal compression. PMID:26719834

  2. Management of delayed posttraumatic cervical kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley; Smith, Zachary A; Hitchon, Patrick W; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2016-01-01

    We describe three patients with misdiagnosed unstable fractures of the cervical spine, who were treated conservatively and developed kyphotic deformity, myelopathy, and radiculopathy. All three patients were then managed with closed reductions by crown halo traction, followed by instrumented fusions. Their neurologic function was regained without permanent disability in any patient. Unstable fractures of the cervical spine will progress to catastrophic neurologic injuries without surgical fixation. Posttraumatic kyphosis and the delayed reduction of partially healed fracture dislocations by preoperative traction are not well characterized in the subaxial cervical spine. The complete evaluation of any subaxial cervical spine fracture requires CT scanning to assess for bony fractures, and MRI to assess for ligamentous injury. This allows for assessment of the degree of instability and appropriate management. In patients with delayed posttraumatic cervical kyphosis, preoperative closed reduction provided adequate realignment, facilitating subsequent operative stabilization. PMID:26321304

  3. Modes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Barez, Pierre-Yves; Hamaidia, Malik; Gazon, Hélène; de Brogniez, Alix; Perike, Srikanth; Gillet, Nicolas; Willems, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. PMID:26198240

  4. HTLV-1 and apoptosis: role in cellular transformation and recent advances in therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John M; Nicot, Christophe

    2008-06-01

    A universal cellular defense mechanism against viral invasion is the elimination of infected cells through apoptotic cell death. To counteract host defenses many viruses have evolved complex apoptosis evasion strategies. The oncogenic human retrovirus HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult-T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and the neurodegenerative disease known as HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The poor prognosis in HTLV-1-induced ATLL is linked to the resistance of neoplastic T cells against conventional therapies and the immuno-compromised state of patients. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that the apoptotic pathway is largely intact and can be reactivated in ATLL tumor cells to induce specific killing. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms employed by HTLV-1 to counteract cellular death pathways remains an important challenge for future therapies and the treatment of HTLV-1-associated diseases. PMID:18421579

  5. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Spinal Cord Compression.

    PubMed

    O'Phalen, Kristine H; Bunney, E Bradshaw; Kuluz, John W

    2015-12-01

    There are many causes of acute myelopathy including multiple sclerosis, systemic disease (SD), and acute spinal cord compression (SCC). SCC should be among the first potential causes considered given the significant permanent loss of neurologic function commonly associated with SCC. This impairment can occur over a short period of time, and may be avoided through rapid and acute surgical intervention. Patients with SCC typically present with a combination of motor and sensory dysfunction that has a distribution referable to a spinal level. Bowel and bladder dysfunction and neck or back pain may also be part of the clinical presentation, but are not uniformly present. Because interventions are critically time-sensitive, the recognition and treatment of SCC was chosen as an ENLS protocol. PMID:26438458

  6. The challenging patient with varicella-zoster virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation from latently infected ganglia causes multiple neurologic diseases. The most common is herpes zoster, which is frequently complicated by postherpetic neuralgia, meningoencephalitis, and vasculopathy, including VZV temporal arteritis, myelopathy, and retinal necrosis. All of these disorders can develop without rash. Importantly, VZV vasculopathy is emerging as a significant cause of TIAs and stroke. In particular, a subset of patients who present with symptoms and signs of giant cell arteritis (GCA), but whose temporal artery biopsies are GCA-negative, have multifocal VZV vasculopathy with temporal artery infection. Herein we focus on the specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges that clinical neurologists encounter in diseases caused by VZV, discuss guidelines for zoster vaccine, and highlight molecular features of VZV latency with a focus on preventing the serious neurologic and ocular complications of VZV reactivation. PMID:23914320

  7. [Anesthetic Management Using Frontal Nerve, Greater Occipital Nerve, and Superficial Cervical Plexus Block for Posterior Cervical Spinal Fusion in a Patient with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, Sayuri; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Fujitate, Yasutaka; Soen, Masako; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report successful anesthetic management of posterior cervical spinal fusion utilizing block of the frontal nerve, the greater occipital nerve, and the superficial cervical plexus in a patient with athetoid cerebral palsy. A 69-year-old woman (height 157 cm; weight 33 kg) with athetoid cerebral palsy was scheduled to undergo posterior cervical spinal fusion for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. After induction of general anesthesia, we performed tracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with a thin Intlock. After tracheal intubation, we used ropivacaine for the frontal nerve, greater occipital nerve, and superficial cervical plexus block. Anesthetic maintenance was performed with total intravenous anesthesia utilizing propofol and remifentanil. Continuous administration of dexmedetomidine was started during operation. Following surgery, smooth spontaneous ventilation was observed following uneventful extubation. No significant pain and no athetoid movement were observed under continuous administration of dexmedetomidine. PMID:26422967

  8. Cyclosporine for the Treatment of HTLV-1-Induced HAM/TSP

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Salvador, Fernando; Caballero, Estrella; Molina, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) remains a challenging disease. Treatment options are scarce, and their safety and efficacy are currently a matter of concern. We present a case report describing our experience using cyclosporine in a patient with early HAM/TSP who started with a gait disturbance at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona) from August 2012 to October 2013. After 62 weeks of treatment, clinical improvement was observed and proviral load diminished. No safety concerns were observed. Cyclosporine seems to be effective in new-onset HAM/TSP or in chronic HAM/TSP that develops a relapse. However, the duration and safety profile of this steroid-sparing therapy remain unknown and should be further investigated. PMID:25569667

  9. Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality (SCIWORA) – Clinical and Radiological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Szwedowski, Dawid; Walecki, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Summary The acronym SCIWORA (Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality) was first developed and introduced by Pang and Wilberger who used it to define “clinical symptoms of traumatic myelopathy with no radiographic or computed tomographic features of spinal fracture or instability”. SCIWORA is a clinical-radiological condition that mostly affects children. SCIWORA lesions are found mainly in the cervical spine but can also be seen, although much less frequently, in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Based on reports from different authors, SCIWORA is responsible for 6 to 19% and 9% to 14% of spinal injuries in children and adults, respectively. Underlying degenerative changes, including spondylosis or spinal canal stenosis, are typically present in adult patients. The level of spinal cord injury corresponds to the location of these changes. With recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, especially in magnetic resonance imaging, and with increasing availability of MRI as a diagnostic tool, the overall detection rate of SCIWORA has significantly improved. PMID:25505497

  10. Gluten sensitivity and neuromyelitis optica: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Jacob, S; Zarei, M; Kenton, A; Allroggen, H

    2005-07-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is a clinical syndrome characterised by acute transverse myelitis plus an acute or subacute optic neuritis with or without recovery. Although once believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis, diagnostic criteria have recently been proposed for neuromyelitis optica, making it a clinically distinct syndrome. The term gluten sensitivity refers to a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals, as indicated by circulating antibodies to gliadin. Several neurological complications have been described associated with gluten sensitivity ranging from peripheral neuropathy and cerebellar ataxia to an increased risk of epilepsy. Although myelopathy has been described in some case reports of coeliac disease, neuromyelitis optica has never been described in association with gluten sensitivity. We describe two cases of gluten sensitivity presenting as neuromyelitis optica with no previous history of significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Gluten sensitivity was confirmed by immunological and histological studies. PMID:15965221

  11. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome: a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Sumant; Jha, Sneh Kumar; Pandey, Suchit; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral useless hand syndrome, a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A 38-year-old man, a strict vegetarian and a teacher by occupation, presented with acute onset clumsiness of both hands while performing fine movements. Detailed history-taking, examination of the patient and relevant investigations (complete blood count, serum vitamin B12 and MRI of the cervical spinal cord) were carried out. Laboratory analysis was suggestive of vitamin B12 deficiency and MRI demonstrated a lesion involving the posterior columns of the cervical cord. The patient was diagnosed as a case of non-compressive cervical myelopathy predominantly involving the posterior column due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome can be a rare presenting feature of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26475874

  12. Acute Aortic Occlusion Presenting as Flaccid Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kilany, Ayman; Al-Hashel, Jasem Y.; Rady, Azza

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old male known to be hypertensive and diabetic had a sudden onset of severe low back pain and flaccid paraplegia with no sensory level or bladder affection and the distal pulsations were felt. Acute compressive myelopathy was excluded by MRI of the dorsal and lumbar spines. The nerve conduction study and CSF analysis was suggestive of acute demyelinating polyneuropathy. The patient developed ischemic changes of the lower limb and CT angiography revealed severe stenosis of the abdominal aorta and both common iliac arteries. We emphasize the importance of including acute aortic occlusion in the differential diagnosis of acute flaccid paraplegia especially in the presence of severe back pain even if the distal pulsations were felt. PMID:25866688

  13. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord following recreational nitrous oxide use

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui Mei; Park, Jae Hong; Hernstadt, David

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of a young woman who developed myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy following 1?year of recreational nitrous oxide (N2O) use. She presented with uncomfortable tingling sensation in her feet and poor balance. Physical examination revealed mild weakness and hyper-reflexia in the lower limbs. Proprioception and vibration were absent in the lower limbs. Pinprick and light touch sensations were reduced below the sixth thoracic dermatome. A broad-based gait and a positive Romberg sign were noted. The level of vitamin B12 was low (76?pmol/l). T2-weighted MRI scans showed hyperintensity changes at the posterior column from the second to the fifth cervical vertebrae. She made a full recovery following injections of vitamin B12 and physiotherapy. This case discusses subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord on a background of N2O abuse. PMID:23476009

  14. Neurological Complications of Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jerry Clay

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has attained pandemic proportions, and bariatric surgery is increasingly being employed resulting in turn to more neurological complications which must be recognized and managed. Neurological complications may result from mechanical or inflammatory mechanisms but primarily result from micro-nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin B12, thiamine, and copper constitute the most frequent deficiencies. Neurological complications may occur at reasonably predictable times after bariatric surgery and are associated with the type of surgery used. During the early post-operative period, compressive or stretch peripheral nerve injury, rhabdomyolysis, Wernicke's encephalopathy, and inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy may occur. Late complications ensue after months to years and include combined system degeneration (vitamin B12 deficiency) and hypocupric myelopathy. Bariatric surgery patients require careful nutritional follow-up with routine monitoring of micronutrients at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively and then annually after surgery and multivitamin supplementation for life. Sustained vigilance for common and rare neurological complications is essential. PMID:26493558

  15. Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

  16. Whippits, nitrous oxide and the dangers of legal highs

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alexander G; Leite, M Isabel; Lunn, Michael P; Bennett, David L H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is increasingly being used as a recreational drug. Prolonged use of nitrous oxide can have disabling neurological sequelae due to functional inactivation of vitamin B12. We present three cases illustrating the neurological complications of using nitrous oxide. Two of these patients received nitrous oxide as a consequence of repeated hospital attendance and the third via ‘Whippit’ canisters used in cream dispensers, which are now widely available. Two patients developed sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy with demyelinating features with no clinical or imaging evidence of myelopathy, emphasising that not all patients develop subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (the typical presentation of functional vitamin B12 deficiency). The diagnosis was based upon the history of nitrous oxide use and raised levels of homocysteine and/or methylmalonic acid. All patients were treated with parenteral vitamin B12 with partial recovery, though two were left significantly disabled. PMID:25977272

  17. Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) in two sisters.

    PubMed

    Ch'ien, L T; Medeiros, M O; Belluomini, J J; Lemmi, H; Whitaker, J N

    1982-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) typically occurs in a sporadic pattern. We studied the disorder in two sisters, ages 6 and 10 years, who presented with sudden loss of vision at age 3 years, followed 5 months later by a transverse myelopathy. The older girl had only light perception in either eye, persistent paraparesis and progressive scoliosis; her sister had a visual acuity of 20/200 in both eyes and mild spinal cord dysfunction. Results of electrodiagnostic tests correlated well with the severity of clinical neurologic deficits and provided objective estimates of the extent of tissue damage in both the optic nerves and the spinal cord. The presence of Devic's syndrome in these two sisters could be coincidental; however, the possibility of a shared genetic factor(s) should be considered. PMID:7067151

  18. Crystal Structures of Inhibitir Complexes of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-1) Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  19. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-28

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  20. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. PMID:24365350

  1. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis suspected for isolated Neuro-Behçet: A diagnostic conundrum.

    PubMed

    Al Sawaf, Abdullah; Berger, Joseph R

    2015-09-01

    Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing autoimmune disease. Involvement of the nervous system occurs in 5-50% and is referred to as Neuro-Behçet's (NBD). The clinical diagnosis of NBD can be challenging, particularly when the history is atypical and the systemic manifestations of the disorder are absent or scant. We report a young Caucasian man who presented with a non-specific systemic illness evolving rapidly to a basilar meningitis with a neutrophilic pleocytosis. Shortly afterwards, he developed a cervical myelopathy and ultimately a longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and brainstem involvement with an active uveitis. There was no history of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers or genital ulcers, other skin lesions, or thrombophlebitis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical, radiographic and laboratory findings including heterozygosity for the HLA-B51 allele on genetic testing. NBD must be included in the differential diagnosis of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, especially when it is associated with uveitis. PMID:26346785

  2. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-08-27

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease. PMID:20600105

  3. Vaccination against ??Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodríguez, Sabrina M.; de Brogniez, Alix; Gillet, Nicolas; Golime, Ramarao; Burny, Arsène; Jaworski, Juan-Pablo; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are closely related ?-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia). Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of ?-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy. PMID:24956179

  4. Blood-brain barrier and retroviral infections

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Florence; Afonso, Philippe V.; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) is maintained by active interfaces between the bloodstream and the brain parenchyma. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes a selective filter for exchange of water, solutes, nutrients, and controls toxic compounds or pathogens entry. Some parasites, bacteria, and viruses have however developed various CNS invasion strategies, and can bypass the brain barriers. Concerning viruses, these strategies include transport along neural pathways, transcytosis, infection of the brain endothelial cells, breaching of the BBB, and passage of infected-leukocytes. Moreover, neurotropic viruses can alter BBB functions, thus compromising CNS homeostasis. Retroviruses have been associated to human neurological diseases: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus 1) can induce HIV-associated dementia, and HTLV-1 (human T lymphotropic virus 1) is the etiological factor of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The present review focuses on how the different retroviruses interact with this structure, bypass it and alter its functions. PMID:22460635

  5. Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus antibodies among patients with lymphoid malignancies at a tertiary center in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Akinsegun; Durojaiye, Idris; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; John-Olabode, Sarah; Adediran, Adewumi; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Uche, Ebele; Dada, Akinola; Odesanya, Mojeed; Okunoye, Olaitan

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a significant association of human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) with lymphoid malignancies. HTLV causes a lymphoproliferative malignancy of CD4-activated cells called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a chronic myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). This study aims to determine the prevalence of HTLV among patients with lymphoid malignancies at a tertiary center in Lagos. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at the hematology clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. After obtaining consent, approximately 5 mL of venous blood was collected from each subject. The serum was separated and stored at ?20°C. Sera were assayed for HTLV by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to HTLV-1 and -2. Western blot confirmatory testing was done on reactive samples. All patients were also screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) by rapid kits. Results A total of 39 patients with lymphoid malignancies were enrolled, consisting of 24 (61.5%) with solid malignancies, while 15 (38.5%) had leukemia. Only two patients (5.1%) with lymphoid malignancies were reactive on the ELISA test. On confirmatory testing with Western blot, two patients (5.1%) with lymphoid malignancies were also positive for HTLV. All patients were HIV negative, but four were positive to HBsAg and HCV. There was no association between history of previous blood transfusion and positivity to HTLV (P=0.544). Conclusion A prevalence of 5.1% of HTLV among patients with lymphoid malignancies was found in this study, and previous history of blood transfusion was not found to be a significant cause of HTLV infection. PMID:25228827

  6. Modulation of rodent spinal cord radiation tolerance by administration of platelet-derived growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Andratschke, Nicolaus H.; Nieder, Carsten M.D. . E-mail: cnied@hotmail.com; Price, Roger E.; Rivera, Belinda; Tucker, Susan L.; Ang, K.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To examine the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) for ameliorating radiation myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord in a rodent model. Methods and materials: After developing the technique for cannulation of the basal cistern, initial animal experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of intrathecal continuous infusion of PDGF in a model of cervical spinal cord irradiation in adult Fisher F-344 rats and to determine the most effective dose level of PDGF. Subsequently, the dose-modification factor was determined in a larger group of rats. Irradiation was given in 2 fractions (16 Gy followed by 14-24 Gy) and animals were examined for the development of paresis. Results: The initial dose-finding experiment revealed significant differences in the incidence of radiation myelopathy (100% in saline-treated control rats, 25% with the most effective dose of PDGF, up to 100% with less effective doses). The most effective dose of PDGF was 0.014 {mu}g per day. Subsequent experiments revealed a median effective dose (ED{sub 50}) of 35.6 Gy (95% confidence interval, 34.7-36.5 Gy) for animals receiving this dose of PDGF in contrast to 33.8 Gy (33.4-34.3 Gy) for the control group (p = 0.003). The dose-modification factor obtained with this dose of PDGF was 1.05. Conclusions: Intrathecal administration of PDGF concomitant to irradiation of the cervical spinal cord in rats was feasible. Treatment with PDGF significantly increased the tolerance of the spinal cord. The PDGF experiments should be viewed as a proof of principle that brief therapeutic intervention in the earliest phase of damage induction can reduce late effects in the spinal cord. They form the basis for further studies of growth factor administration in this particular model.

  7. Spinal reirradiation after short-course RT for metastatic spinal cord compression

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Veninga, Theo; Hoskin, Peter J.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of reirradiation (re-RT) for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression after primary RT with 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy. Methods and Materials: A total of 62 patients, treated with 1 x 8 Gy (n = 34) or 5 x 4 Gy (n = 28) between January 1995 and August 2003, received re-RT for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression. The median time to recurrence was 6 months (range, 2-40 months). Re-RT was performed with 1 x 8 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy, n = 34), 5 x 3 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy, n = 15), or 5 x 4 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy, n = 13). The cumulative biologically effective dose (primary RT plus re-RT) was 80-100 Gy{sub 2}. The median follow-up after re-RT was 8 months (range, 2-42 months). Motor function was evaluated up to 6 months after re-RT. Results: After re-RT, 25 patients (40%) showed improvement of motor function, 28 (45%) had no change, and 9 (15%) had deterioration. Of the 16 previously nonambulatory patients, 6 (38%) regained the ability to walk. No second in-field recurrence in the same spinal region was observed after re-RT. The outcome was not significantly influenced by the radiation schedule. Radiation myelopathy was not observed. Conclusions: Spinal re-RT with 1 x 8 Gy, 5 x 3 Gy, or 5 x 4 Gy for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression appears safe and effective. Myelopathy seems unlikely, if the cumulative biologically effective dose is {<=}100 Gy{sub 2}.

  8. Impact of Dose on Local Failure Rates After Image-Guided Reirradiation of Recurrent Paraspinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Damast, Shari; Wright, Jean; Bilsky, Mark; Hsu, Meier; Zhang Zhigang; Lovelock, Michael; Cox, Brett; Zatcky, Joan; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of dose on local failure (LF) rates in the re-treatment of recurrent paraspinal metastases with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT). Methods and Materials: The records of patients with in-field recurrence after previous spine radiation (median dose, 30 Gy) who received salvage IG-IMRT with either five 4-Gy (20-Gy group, n = 42) or five 6-Gy (30-Gy group, n = 55) daily fractions between January 2003 and August 2008 were reviewed. Institutional practice was 20 Gy before April 2006, when it changed to 30 Gy. A total of 47 cases (48%) were treated adjuvantly, after surgery to decompress epidural disease. LF after IG-IMRT was defined radiographically. Results: The median follow-up was 12.1 months (range, 0.2-63.6 months). The 1-year cumulative incidences of LF after 20 Gy and 30 Gy IG-IMRT were 45% and 26%, respectively (p = 0.04). Of all treatment characteristics examined (20-Gy vs. 30-Gy dose group, dose to 95% of the planned and gross target volume, tumor size, histology, receipt of surgery, and interval between first and second radiation), only dose group had a significant impact on actuarial LF incidence (p = 0.04; unadjusted HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.96). There was no incidence of myelopathy. Conclusions: A significant decrease in LF after IG-IMRT with five 6-Gy fractions compared with five 4-Gy fractions was observed without increased risk of myelopathy. Until prospective data comparing stereotactic hypofractionated and single-fraction regimens become available, when reirradiating recurrent paraspinal metastases with IG-IMRT, administration of five 6-Gy daily fractions is reasonable.

  9. Exacerbated inflammatory cellular immune response characteristics of HAM/TSP is observed in a large proportion of HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Silvane Braga; Porto, Aurélia Fonseca; Muniz, André Luiz; de Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro; Magalhães, Elza; Melo, Ailton; Dutra, Walderez O; Gollob, Kenneth J; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2004-01-01

    Background A small fraction of Human T cell Leukemia Virus type-1 (HTLV-I) infected subjects develop a severe form of myelopathy. It has been established that patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) show an exaggerated immune response when compared with the immunological response observed in HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers. In this study the immunological responses in HAM/TSP patients and in HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers were compared using several immunological assays to identify immunological markers associated with progression from infection to disease. Methods Immunoproliferation assays, cytokine levels of unstimulated cultures, and flow cytometry analysis were used to evaluate the studied groups. Nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks) were used to compare the difference between the groups. Results Although both groups showed great variability, HAM/TSP patients had higher spontaneous lymphoproliferation as well as higher IFN-? levels in unstimulated supernatants when compared with asymptomatic carriers. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated a high frequency of inflammatory cytokine (IFN-? and TNF-?) producing lymphocytes in HAM/TSP as compared to the asymptomatic group. This difference was accounted for mainly by an increase in CD8 cell production of these cytokines. Moreover, the HAM/TSP patients also expressed an increased frequency of CD28-/CD8+ T cells. Since forty percent of the asymptomatic carriers had spontaneous lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production similar to HAM/TSP patients, IFN-? levels were measured eight months after the first evaluation in some of these patients to observe if this was a transient or a persistent situation. No significant difference was observed between the means of IFN-? levels in the first and second evaluation. Conclusions The finding that a large proportion of HTLV-I carriers present similar immunological responses to those observed in HAM/TSP, strongly argues for further studies to evaluate these parameters as markers of HAM/TSP progression. PMID:15070424

  10. Assessing the Uncertainty in QUANTEC's Dose–Response Relation of Lung and Spinal Cord With a Bootstrap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wedenberg, Minna

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To apply a statistical bootstrap analysis to assess the uncertainty in the dose–response relation for the endpoints pneumonitis and myelopathy reported in the QUANTEC review. Methods and Materials: The bootstrap method assesses the uncertainty of the estimated population-based dose-response relation due to sample variability, which reflects the uncertainty due to limited numbers of patients in the studies. A large number of bootstrap replicates of the original incidence data were produced by random sampling with replacement. The analysis requires only the dose, the number of patients, and the number of occurrences of the studied endpoint, for each study. Two dose–response models, a Poisson-based model and the Lyman model, were fitted to each bootstrap replicate using maximum likelihood. Results: The bootstrap analysis generates a family of curves representing the range of plausible dose–response relations, and the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals give an estimated upper and lower toxicity risk. The curve families for the 2 dose–response models overlap for doses included in the studies at hand but diverge beyond that, with the Lyman model suggesting a steeper slope. The resulting distributions of the model parameters indicate correlation and non-Gaussian distribution. For both data sets, the likelihood of the observed data was higher for the Lyman model in >90% of the bootstrap replicates. Conclusions: The bootstrap method provides a statistical analysis of the uncertainty in the estimated dose–response relation for myelopathy and pneumonitis. It suggests likely values of model parameter values, their confidence intervals, and how they interrelate for each model. Finally, it can be used to evaluate to what extent data supports one model over another. For both data sets considered here, the Lyman model was preferred over the Poisson-based model.

  11. Modified Open-door Laminoplasty Using Hydroxyapatite Spacers and Miniplates

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Bum-Joon; Choi, Jong-Il; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Lim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cervical laminoplasty has been widely accepted as one of the major treatments for cervical myelopathy and various modifications and supplementary procedures have been devised to achieve both proper decompression and stability of the cervical spine. We present the retrospectively analyzed results of a modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers and malleable titanium miniplates. Methods From June 2008 to May 2012, among patients diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, the patients who received laminoplasty were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed using Frankel grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. The radiologic parameters were obtained from plain films, 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Results A total of 125 cervical laminae were operated in 38 patients. 11 patients received 4-level laminoplasty and 27 patients received 3-level laminoplasty. Postoperatively, the mean Frankel grade and JOA score were significantly improved from 3.97 to 4.55 and from 12.76 to 14.63, respectively (p<0.001). Radiologically, cervical curvature was worsened from 19.09 to 15.60 (p=0.025). The percentage of range of motion preservation was 73.32±22.39%. The axial dimension of the operated spinal canal was increased from 1.75 to 2.70 cm2 (p<0.001). Conclusion In the presenting study, unilateral open-door laminoplasty using HA spacers and miniplates appears to be a safe, rapid and easy procedure to obtain an immediate and rigid stabilization of the posterior elements of the cervical spine. This modified laminoplasty method showed effective expansion of the spinal canal and favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:25346767

  12. The neurologic significance of celiac disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Vanda A.; Pittock, Sean J.; Kryzer, Thomas J.; Murray, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To report neurologic phenotypes and their etiologies determined among 68 patients with either (1) celiac disease (CD) or (2) no CD, but gliadin antibody positivity (2002–2012). Methods: Neurologic patients included both those with the CD-prerequisite major histocompatibility complex class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2/DQ8 haplotype, and those without. The 3 groups were as follows: group 1 (n = 44), CD or transglutaminase (Tg)-2/deamidated gliadin immunoglobulin (Ig)A/IgG detected; group 2 (n = 15), HLA-DQ2/DQ8 noncarriers, and gliadin IgA/IgG detected; and group 3 (n = 9), HLA-DQ2/DQ8 carriers, and gliadin IgA/IgG detected. Neurologic patients and 21 nonneurologic CD patients were evaluated for neural and Tg6 antibodies. Results: In group 1, 42 of 44 patients had CD. Neurologic phenotypes (cerebellar ataxia, 13; neuropathy, 11; dementia, 8; myeloneuropathy, 5; other, 7) and causes (autoimmune, 9; deficiencies of vitamin E, folate, or copper, 6; genetic, 6; toxic or metabolic, 4; unknown, 19) were diverse. In groups 2 and 3, 21 of 24 patients had cerebellar ataxia; none had CD. Causes of neurologic disorders in groups 2 and 3 were diverse (autoimmune, 4; degenerative, 4; toxic, 3; nutritional deficiency, 1; other, 2; unknown, 10). One or more neural-reactive autoantibodies were detected in 10 of 68 patients, all with autoimmune neurologic diagnoses (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 IgG, 4; voltage-gated potassium channel complex IgG, 3; others, 5). Tg6-IgA/IgG was detected in 7 of 68 patients (cerebellar ataxia, 3; myelopathy, 2; ataxia and parkinsonism, 1; neuropathy, 1); the 2 patients with myelopathy had neurologic disorders explained by malabsorption of copper, vitamin E, and folate rather than by neurologic autoimmunity. Conclusions: Our data support causes alternative to gluten exposure for neurologic dysfunction among most gliadin antibody–positive patients without CD. Nutritional deficiency and coexisting autoimmunity may cause neurologic dysfunction in CD. PMID:25261501

  13. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Estimation by the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman Method Does Not Accurately Predict Spinal Cord Tolerance to Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Megan E.; Luxton, Gary; Choi, Clara Y.H.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Chang, Steven D.; Adler, John R.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) analyses of the human spinal cord by use of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model, supplemented by linear-quadratic modeling to account for the effect of fractionation, predict the risk of myelopathy from stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: From November 2001 to July 2008, 24 spinal hemangioblastomas in 17 patients were treated with SRS. Of the tumors, 17 received 1 fraction with a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy) and 7 received 20 to 25 Gy in 2 or 3 sessions, with cord maximum doses of 22.7 Gy (range, 17.8-30.9 Gy) and 22.0 Gy (range, 20.2-26.6 Gy), respectively. By use of conventional values for {alpha}/{beta}, volume parameter n, 50% complication probability dose TD{sub 50}, and inverse slope parameter m, a computationally simplified implementation of the LKB model was used to calculate the biologically equivalent uniform dose and NTCP for each treatment. Exploratory calculations were performed with alternate values of {alpha}/{beta} and n. Results: In this study 1 case (4%) of myelopathy occurred. The LKB model using radiobiological parameters from Emami and the logistic model with parameters from Schultheiss overestimated complication rates, predicting 13 complications (54%) and 18 complications (75%), respectively. An increase in the volume parameter (n), to assume greater parallel organization, improved the predictive value of the models. Maximum-likelihood LKB fitting of {alpha}/{beta} and n yielded better predictions (0.7 complications), with n = 0.023 and {alpha}/{beta} = 17.8 Gy. Conclusions: The spinal cord tolerance to the dosimetry of SRS is higher than predicted by the LKB model using any set of accepted parameters. Only a high {alpha}/{beta} value in the LKB model and only a large volume effect in the logistic model with Schultheiss data could explain the low number of complications observed. This finding emphasizes that radiobiological models traditionally used to estimate spinal cord NTCP may not apply to the dosimetry of SRS. Further research with additional NTCP models is needed.

  14. Low-dose prophylactic craniospinal radiotherapy for intracranial germinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Gordon O.; Amdur, Robert J. . E-mail: amdurrj@ufl.edu; Schmalfuss, Ilona M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Keole, Sameer R.; Mendenhall, William M.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of patients with localized intracranial germinoma treated with low-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI) followed by a boost to the ventricular system and primary site. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one patients had pathologically confirmed intracranial germinoma and no spine metastases. Low-dose CSI was administered in 29 patients: usually 21 Gy of CSI, 9.0 Gy of ventricular boost, and a 19.5-Gy tumor boost, all at 1.5 Gy per fraction. Our neuroradiologist recorded three-dimensional tumor size on magnetic resonance images before, during, and after radiotherapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 29 of 31 patients (94%) are disease free. One failure had nongerminomatous histology; the initial diagnosis was a sampling error. Of 3 patients who did not receive CSI, 1 died. No patient developed myelopathy, visual deficits, dementia, or skeletal growth problems. In locally controlled patients, tumor response according to magnetic resonance scan was nearly complete within 6 months after radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone with low-dose prophylactic CSI cures almost all patients with localized intracranial germinoma. Complications are rare when the daily dose of radiotherapy is limited to 1.5 Gy and the total CSI dose to 21 Gy. Patients without a near-complete response to radiotherapy should undergo resection to rule out a nongerminomatous element.

  15. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-1 Associated with Adult T-Cell Lymphoma/ Leukemia and Generalized Expansion of Palatal and Jaw Bones: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dalirsani, Zohreh; Javadzade Bolouri, Abbas; Delavarian, Zahra; Bidad, Salma; Sanatkhani, Majid; Amirchaghmaghi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) can cause adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma (ATL/L), which is a rare and aggressive type of blood cancer. Herein, we report a case of ATL/L in a middle-aged man with unusual jaw presentations. The patient presented with mandibular, maxillary and palatal bony hard expansion, accompanied by generalized tooth mobility six months prior to admission to the Department of Oral Medicine. The panoramic radiograph showed generalized rarefaction of jaw bones. After laboratory examinations and bone marrow aspiration, ATL/L was diagnosed in association with HTLV-1. The patient underwent chemotherapy. Although the majority of infections associated with HTLV-1 are asymptomatic, some patients may develop blood diseases such as ATL/L and neurological disorders, mainly HTLV-1 associated myelopathy and tropical spastic paraparesis. ATL/L is a rare hematological malignancy in oral cavity that should be included in the differential diagnosis of cases with jaw swelling or generalized demineralization. Serum levels of anti-HTLV-1 antibodies should be examined in suspicious patients, particularly in endemic regions. PMID:26331152

  16. Snare-assisted Trans-brachial Stenting for the Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis of Patient with Aorto-Iliac Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Oowaki, H.; Matsuura, N; Ishikawa, M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of endo-luminal stent placement with Snare-assist for a cervical internal carotid artery stenosis in which percutaneous access was obtained via the brachial artery. A 68-year-old man with known disease of the carotid, peripheral, and coronary arteries, with Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Associated Myelopathy (HAM) presented for endoluminal revascularization of a severe, progressive right internal carotid artery stenosis, but with aorto-iliac occlusion. Transfemoral access was complicated by an aorto-iliac occlusion. A trans-brachial approach was successfully attempted, and a SMARTer stent (Cordis Endovascular, Miami Lakes, FL) was successfully placed through a 7-French Shuttle-SL guide sheath (Cook, Bloomington) under Snare-assist. The trans-brachial approach is becoming an increasingly viable alternative route for stent placement in patients with contra-indicated or complicated femoral access routes. As devices become increasingly more pliable and smaller, the trans-brachial route will be used with increasing frequency in the select patient population for stenting of both the cervical and intracranial circulation. PMID:20569637

  17. Health evaluation and reported symptoms in workers with past occupational exposure to elemental mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Kallenbach, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive health evaluation was conducted on 502 workers at the Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee of which approximately half (247) had past exposure to elemental mercury vapor between 1953 and 1966. Extensive urinalysis records were available and a number of exposure indices were generated from these in an attempt to model different aspects of exposure. Selection into the study group was based on an index of cumulative exposure that consisted of the sum of average quarterly mercury urinalyses. Cumulative and peak exposure indices based on workers' average exposure from company work histories were more strongly associated with adverse health effects than corresponding indices based on individual urinary records. Substantial evidence suggested that higher exposed workers were at elevated risk for the development of a mild peripheral neuropathy and sustention tremor. In addition, a small increase in the frequency of mild myelopathies was noted in the mercury-exposed group which was not clearly related to exposure. Reported symptoms of lightheadedness, confused, trouble remembering steps, bothered by clumsiness, and trouble grasping objects were significantly associated with increasing level of elemental mercury. A preliminary evaluation tends to validate the use of symptoms data in epidemiologic surveys. Symptom reports were related to poorer performance on objective tests of psychomotor and other behavioral attributes.

  18. Leukotrienes Are Upregulated and Associated with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1)-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Bruno Caetano; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Nicolete, Larissa Deadame de Figueiredo; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Filho, Olindo Assis Martins; Kashima, Simone; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2012-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators involved in several inflammatory disorders. We investigated the LT pathway in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection by evaluating LT levels in HTLV-1-infected patients classified according to the clinical status as asymptomatic carriers (HACs) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients. Bioactive LTB4 and CysLTs were both increased in the plasma and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of HTLV-1-infected when compared to non-infected. Interestingly, CysLT concentrations were increased in HAM/TSP patients. Also, the concentration of plasma LTB4 and LTC4 positively correlated with the HTLV-1 proviral load in HTLV-1-infected individuals. The gene expression levels of LT receptors were differentially modulated in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of HTLV-1-infected patients. Analysis of the overall plasma signature of immune mediators demonstrated that LT and chemokine amounts were elevated during HTLV-1 infection. Importantly, in addition to CysLTs, IP-10 was also identified as a biomarker for HAM/TSP activity. These data suggest that LTs are likely to be associated with HTLV-1 infection and HAM/TSP development, suggesting their putative use for clinical monitoring. PMID:23284797

  19. Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia is not caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    PubMed

    Storch, Alexander; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Tumani, Hayrettin; Wellinghausen, Nele; Haas, Alois; Krivoshapkin, Vadim G; Ludolph, Albert Christian

    2008-02-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE) is an endemic neurological disease in Northeastern Siberia and generally believed to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin. We investigated 17 patients with a clinical diagnosis of VE within the Viliuiski region of Sakha (Yakutian) Republic to explore the core clinical syndrome of chronic VE and subsequently whether VE is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection. We found a chronic myelopathy as the core of the syndrome, often following an acute phase with a meningo-radiculo-neuropathy, suggestive of chronic neuroborreliosis. A search for inflammatory parameters in a larger cohort in blood (39 VE patients and 41 controls) and CSF samples (10 VE patients and 7 controls) excluded an ongoing chronic infection, but revealed evidence for an immunological scar or a chronic inflammatory ("autoimmune") response in the CSF. In addition, we detected signs of a previous exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in a subset of chronic VE patients with positive serological results using ELISA/immunoblot in 54/10% and 22/0% of VE patients and controls, respectively (p values of 0.003/0.034; Fisher's exact test). However, CSF analyses did not show a link between exposure or at least immunological reaction against Borrelia and the risk of suffering from VE. Our data provide the first evidence of the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi or similar pathogens in Northeastern Siberia, but do not support a causative role of these pathogens in the aetiopathogenesis of VE. PMID:18379734

  20. A Unique Case of Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cervical Spine in a 53-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Marshall T.; Flouty, Oliver E.; Close, Liesl N.; Reddy, Chandan G.; Howard, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare presentation, representing only 15% of all primary Ewing's sarcoma cases. Even more uncommon is EES presenting as a primary focus in the spinal canal. These rapidly growing tumors often present with focal neurological symptoms of myelopathy or radiculopathy. There are no classic characteristic imaging findings and thus the physician must keep a high index of clinical suspicion. Diagnosis can only be definitively made by histopathological studies. In this report, we discuss a primary cervical spine EES in a 53-year-old man who presented with a two-month history of left upper extremity pain and acute onset of weakness. Imaging revealed a cervical spinal canal mass. After undergoing cervical decompression, histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. A literature search revealed fewer than 25 reported cases of primary cervical spine EES published in the past 15 years and only one report demonstrating this pathology in a patient older than 30 years of age (age = 38). Given the low incidence of this pathology presenting in this age group and the lack of treatment guidelines, each patient's plan should be considered on a case-by-case basis until further studies are performed to determine optimal evidence based treatment. PMID:25802527

  1. Surgical Outcome for Hemodialysis-Related Upper Cervical Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yasuaki; Kato, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To investigate the surgical outcome for hemodialysis-related upper cervical lesions. Overview of Literature Surgical outcome of lower cervical lesions in patients undergoing hemodialysis has been reported. However, surgical outcome for upper cervical lesions in hemodialysis patients is unclear. Methods Upper cervical lesions in nine patients undergoing hemodialysis were surgically treated. Mean age at surgery was 61.6 years (range, 52-68 years), and the mean follow-up period was 45.4 months (range, 2-98 months). Patients had undergone hemodialysis for an average of 25.3 years (range, 16-40 years) at surgery. Seven patients with destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) of the upper cervical spine were treated with atlantoaxial or occipitocervical fixation. Two patients with retro-odontoid pseudotumors were treated with C1 posterior arch resection alone. Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores for cervical myelopathy, postoperative complications, postoperative radiography, and preoperative and postoperative occipital pain were evaluated. Results Mean preoperative and postoperative JOA score was 3.7 and 8.1, respectively. The seven patients with DSA had severe preoperative occipital pain that disappeared postoperatively. Postoperative radiography showed solid bone union in DSA cases and no instability in pseudotumor cases. Conclusions Satisfactory surgical outcome was observed for hemodialysis-related upper cervical lesions. PMID:26435787

  2. A 3-year review of neurologic admissions in University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Talabi, O A

    2003-06-01

    A 3 year review of neurologic admissions into the adult medical wards at the UCH, Ibadan, Nigeria between January 1998 and December 2000 is presented. The study design involved the scrutiny of the records of all the neurological admissions, male and female to the medical ward. The identified cases were then classified and only cases confirmed as neurological were further analysed. Stroke, predominantly non-hemorrhagic accounted for 50.4% of cases for the period of study. Stroke is therefore the most common cause of adult neurologic admissions on medical wards of UCH. Central nervous system infections, comprising mainly of tetanus and meningitis accounted for 14.2% (111) and 12.4% (97) of case respectively. The myelopathies were the cause of neurologic admissions in 8.1% (63) of cases followed by seizure disorders. Headache was the reason for admission in 0.9% (7) of cases. Parkinsons disease, hypertensive encephalopathy, Guillian Barne syndrome, seasonal ataxic neuropathy, cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus were rarely the cause of admission. Similarly, dystonia, and cerebral malaria recorded 0.13% (1) of cases each. A case is made for the establishment of regional stroke units in Nigeria. PMID:14529226

  3. The Aging of the Global Population: The Changing Epidemiology of Disease and Spinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fehlings, Michael G; Tetreault, Lindsay; Nater, Anick; Choma, Ted; Harrop, James; Mroz, Tom; Santaguida, Carlo; Smith, Justin S

    2015-10-01

    The global population is currently undergoing an upward shift in its age structure due to decreasing fertility rates and increasing life expectancy. As a result, clinicians worldwide will be required to manage an increasing number of spinal disorders specific to the elderly and the aging of the spine. Elderly individuals pose unique challenges to health care systems and to spinal physicians as these patients typically have an increased number of medical comorbidities, reduced bone density mass, more severe spinal degeneration and a greater propensity to falls. In anticipation of the aging of the population, we undertook this project to heighten physicians' awareness of age-related spinal disorders, including geriatric odontoid fractures, central cord syndrome, osteoporotic compression fractures, degenerative cervical myelopathy, lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative spinal deformity. This introductory article provides an overview of the changing demographics of the global population; discusses the age-related alterations that may occur to the spine; and summarizes the purpose and contents of this focus issue. PMID:26378347

  4. Diagnosis of Severe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Using Nerve Conduction Study and Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kazuhiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Kido, Kenji; Imajo, Yasuaki; Funaba, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the correlation between nerve conduction study and ultrasonographic findings for assessment of the usefulness of ultrasonography in determining carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Hands of adults with carpal tunnel syndrome were assessed using ultrasound and nerve conduction studies and grouped according to median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA). There were significant differences (p < 0.01) in mean median nerve CSA between controls, patients with median sensory nerve conduction velocity ?40 m/s and patients with absent sensory nerve action potential and between controls, patients with median nerve distal motor latency ?4.5 ms and patients with absent compound muscle action potentials of the abductor pollicis brevis. This is the first report to define median nerve CSA cutoff values (18 mm(2)) for determining carpal tunnel syndrome severity in patients with absent compound muscle action potentials of the abductor pollicis brevis. Median nerve CSA values below the cutoff values should prompt clinicians to consider other disorders, such as cervical compressive myelopathy. PMID:26111913

  5. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    PubMed Central

    Opalak, Charles F.; Opalak, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare disorder that was differentiated from leptomeningeal calcification by Kaufman and Dunsmore in 1971. It generally presents with progressive lower extremity myelopathy. Though the underlying etiology has yet to be fully described, it has been associated with various predisposing factors including vascular malformations, previous intradural surgery, myelograms, and adhesive arachnoiditis. Associated conditions include syringomyelia and arachnoid cyst. The preferred diagnostic method is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Surgical intervention is still controversial and can include decompression and duroplasty or durotomy. Case Description: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old male with a history of paraplegia who presented with a urinary tract infection and dysautonomia. His past surgical history was notable for a C4–C6 anterior fusion and an intrathecal phenol injection for spasticity. A magnetic resonance image (MR) also demonstrated a T6-conus syringx. At surgery, there was significant ossification of the arachnoid/dura, which was removed. After a drain was placed in the syrinx, there was a significant neurologic improvement. Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions. PMID:26693389

  6. Corpectomy with Adjacent-Level Kyphoplasty to Treat Metastatic Lung Cancer in Three Contiguous Cervical Vertebrae Causing Focal Neurologic Compromise

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Antony H.; Way, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objectives?Decompression of metastatic spinal cord compression has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong ambulation in patients undergoing palliative treatment. We report a case of metastatic cervical myelopathy treated with a combined approach using corpectomy and stabilization together with balloon kyphoplasty to allow adequate decompression and immediate stability in a patient with significant destruction of adjacent vertebral bodies. Methods?The cervical spine was approached anteriorly and decompressed with a C7 corpectomy. Subsequent stability was achieved with insertion of a trabecular metal cage. Balloon kyphoplasty was used to treat lytic lesions within the posterior body of the adjacent vertebrae for pain relief and increased stability. Additional stability was achieved through the application of an anterior plate. Results?Full limited decompression and stabilization were successfully achieved. The patient had no further neurologic deterioration and made modest improvements that allowed a return to independent ambulation. Conclusion?This limited approach may be an option for patients with metastatic spinal cord compression, lytic destruction of adjacent vertebral bodies, and limited life expectancy. PMID:25844288

  7. The prevalence of nine genetic disorders in a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Bart J G; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E C; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H; Soetaert, Sandra S A; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n = 476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n = 8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

  8. The Prevalence of Nine Genetic Disorders in a Dog Population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E. C.; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Soetaert, Sandra S. A.; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n?=?476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n?=?8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

  9. Epigenetic modification of the FoxP3 TSDR in HAM/TSP decreases the functional suppression of Tregs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique R; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Massoud, Raya; Ngouth, Nyater; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Oh, Unsong; Jacobson, Steven

    2014-09-01

    HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus that is associated with the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In these patients, HTLV-1 is primarily found in the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell subset (Regulatory T cells:Tregs), which is responsible for peripheral immune tolerance and is known to be dysfunctional in HAM/TSP. Recent evidence suggests that FoxP3 expression and function is determined epigenetically through DNA demethylation in the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR). We analyzed the methylation of the TSDR in PBMCs, CD4(+) T cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from normal healthy donors (NDs) and HAM/TSP patients. We demonstrated that there is decreased demethylation in analyzed PBMCs and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from HAM/TSP patients as compared to NDs. Furthermore, decreased TSDR demethylation was associated with decreased functional suppression by Tregs. Additionally, increased HTLV-1 Tax expression in HAM/TSP PBMC culture correlated with a concomitant decline in FoxP3 TSDR demethylation. Overall, we suggest that HTLV-1 infection decreases Treg functional suppressive capacity in HAM/TSP through modification of FoxP3 TSDR demethylation and that dysregulated Treg function may contribute to HAM/TSP disease pathogenesis. PMID:24845974

  10. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the precise quantification of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 proviral loads in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid of HAM/TSP patients and identification of viral mutations.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Giovanna S; Massoud, Raya; Leibovitch, Emily C; Caruso, Breanna; Johnson, Kory; Ohayon, Joan; Fenton, Kaylan; Cortese, Irene; Jacobson, Steven

    2014-08-01

    An elevated human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV)-1 proviral load (PVL) is the main risk factor for developing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 infected subjects, and a high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) PVL ratio may be diagnostic of the condition. However, the standard method for quantification of HTLV-1 PVL-real-time PCR-has multiple limitations, including increased inter-assay variability in compartments with low cell numbers, such as CSF. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated a novel technique for HTVL-1 PVL quantification, digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). In ddPCR, PCR samples are partitioned into thousands of nanoliter-sized droplets, amplified on a thermocycler, and queried for fluorescent signal. Due to the high number of independent events (droplets), Poisson algorithms are used to determine absolute copy numbers independently of a standard curve, which enables highly precise quantitation. This assay has low intra-assay variability allowing for reliable PVL measurement in PBMC and CSF compartments of both asymptomatic carriers (AC) and HAM/TSP patients. It is also useful for HTLV-1-related clinical applications, such as longitudinal monitoring of PVL and identification of viral mutations within the region targeted by the primers and probe. PMID:24781526

  11. [Difficult airway management using the air-Q in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome].

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Soen, Masako; Kusunoki, Tomohiro; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    Patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) frequently encounter difficult airway management due to skeletal abnormalities, including fusion of two or more vertebrae and short neck. We report successful tracheal intubation using the air-Q supraglottic airway device (air-Q). A 46-year-old woman (height, 149 cm; weight, 62 kg) with KFS was scheduled to undergo vertebral arch plasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. She could open her mouth sufficiently but could not tilt her head due to C1-3 fusion. Following administration of fentanyl 100 microg and propofol 120 mg, mask ventilation was achieved with jaw thrust maneuver. We then administered rocuronium 50 mg for immobilization and attempted tracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with a thin pediatric Intlock. However, we could not target the glottis, and ventilation via a size 3 i-gel or size 3.5 air-Q was unsuccessful. Using a size 2.5 air-Q, sufficient ventilation was finally achieved. We performed fiberoptic tracheal intubation through the air-Q using a tube with an internal diameter of 6.0-mm. We then exchanged the 6.0-mm tracheal tube with a 7.0-mm spiral tube using a 10 Fr tracheal tube introducer. PMID:24979859

  12. Monomelic amyotrophy (hirayama disease) with upper motor neuron signs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Lee, Seung Ah; Lee, Sung Yong; Han, Yoo Jin

    2015-02-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA), also known as Hirayama disease, is a sporadic juvenile muscular atrophy in the distal upper extremities. This disorder rarely involves proximal upper extremities and presents minimal sensory symptoms with no upper motor neuron (UMN) signs. It is caused by anterior displacement of the posterior dural sac and compression of the cervical cord during neck flexion. An 18-year-old boy visited our clinic with a 5-year history of left upper extremity pain and slowly progressive weakness affecting the left shoulder. Atrophy was present in the left supraspinatus and infraspinatus. On neurological examination, positive UMN signs were evident in both upper and lower extremities. Electrodiagnostic study showed root lesion involving the fifth to seventh cervical segment of the cord with chronic and ongoing denervation in the fifth and sixth cervical segment innervated muscles. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed asymmetric cord atrophy apparent in the left side and intramedullary high signal intensity along the fourth to sixth cervical vertebral levels. With neck flexion, cervical MRI revealed anterior displacement of posterior dural sac, which results in the cord compression of those segments. The mechanisms of myelopathy in our patient seem to be same as that of MMA. We report a MMA patient involving proximal limb with UMN signs in biomechanical concerns and discuss clinical importance of cervical MRI with neck flexion. The case highlights that clinical variation might cause misdiagnosis. PMID:25750881

  13. Atopic myelitis in a European woman residing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Jeremy D; Bodini, Benedetta; Ciccarelli, Olga; Scadding, Glenis K; Thompson, Alan J

    2011-09-01

    Nearly 100 cases of atopic myelitis have been reported in Japan. However, it has only been described in two non-Japanese patients, both from Western Europe. We report a European individual who developed cervical myelitis while resident in Japan. This showed a partial response to corticosteroids. There was no clinical or radiological dissemination for over 5 years, at which time she had a brainstem relapse caused by a new lesion in the medulla oblongata. The patient had high serum total IgE with evidence of allergy to several antigens, including house dust mite and soya. It is possible that the incidence of atopic myelitis may be underestimated where it is not standard practice to measure serum IgE levels in patients with myelopathy. Such cases will instead be subsumed into the diagnostic category of clinically isolated syndrome. However, it remains uncertain whether atopic myelitis is a distinct disease or falls within the spectrum of demyelinating diseases. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the relationship between atopy and the incidence and severity of CNS inflammatory disorders. PMID:20710010

  14. Myelitis in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus: review.

    PubMed

    ?ukjanowicz, Ma?gorzata; Brzosko, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Myelopathy manifested clinically as acute longitudinal or transverse myelitis constitutes one of the most severe and rare neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (1-3% of patients). Myelitis has been observed less commonly in other connective tissue diseases, mostly in antiphospholipid syndrome, and rarely in Sjögren's syndrome, Behçet's disease and mixed connective tissue disease. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) may also be present in diseases of various etiology, including multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, infectious diseases and malignancies. Myelitis in SLE is manifested as a dramatic spinal cord injury leading to paralysis or muscular paresis, sensory deficits, and smooth muscle dysfunction usually in the form of sphincter dysfunction. The imaging technique of choice in case of suspected ATM is magnetic resonance imaging with intravenous contrast agent (gadolinium diethylenetriamine-pentaacid). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination in patients with ATM in the course of SLE indicate usually pleocytosis with prevalence of granulocytes, increased protein levels, low glucose levels, significantly hindering differential diagnosis in the early stage of the disease. Observations made by the authors (2 female patients with SLE) show that antibodies specific to SLE can be found in the CSF collected in the acute phase of myelitis. These observations have not yet been confirmed by other researchers. Early introduction of intravenous immunosuppression with large doses of cyclophosphamide and glucocorticosteroids improves the long-term prognosis. Other therapeutic approaches have been also used in more severe cases. Even with appropriate therapy, prognosis in this disease is uncertain. PMID:19341181

  15. Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery for Spinal Metastatic Disease: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William A.; Stapleford, Liza J.; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Curran, Walter J.; Crocker, Ian; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal metastasis is a problem that afflicts many cancer patients. Traditionally, conventional fractionated radiation therapy and/or surgery have been the most common approaches for managing such patients. Through technical advances in radiotherapy, high dose radiation with extremely steep drop off can now be delivered to a limited target volume along the spine under image-guidance with very high precision. This procedure, known as stereotactic body radiosurgery, provides a technique to rapidly treat selected spinal metastasis patients with single- or limited-fraction treatments that have similar to superior efficacies compared with more established approaches. This review describes current treatment systems in use to deliver stereotactic body radiosurgery as well as results of some of the larger case series from a number of institutions that report outcomes of patients treated for spinal metastatic disease. These series include nearly 1400 patients and report a cumulative local control rate of 90% with myelopathy risk that is significantly less than 1%. Based on this comprehensive review of the literature, we believe that stereotactic body radiosurgery is an established treatment modality for patients with spinal metastatic disease that is both safe and highly effective. PMID:22312536

  16. Review of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intramedullary Spinal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae-Chil

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SR) represents an increasingly utilized modality in the treatment of intracranial and extracranial pathologies. Stereotactic spine radiosurgery (SSR) uses an alternative strategy to increase the probability of local control by delivering large cumulative doses of radiation therapy (RT) in only a few fractions. SSR in the treatment of intramedullary lesions remains in its infancy-this review summarizes the current literature regarding the use of SSR for treating intramedullary spinal lesions. Several studies have suggested that SSR should be guided by the principles of intracranial radiosurgery with radiation doses placed no further than 1-2mm apart, thereby minimizing exposure to the surrounding spinal cord and allowing for delivery of higher radiation doses to target areas. Maximum dose-volume relationships and single-point doses with SSR for the spinal cord are currently under debate. Prior reports of SR for intramedullary metastases, arteriovenous malformations, ependymomas, and hemangioblastomas demonstrated favorable outcomes. In the management of intrame-dullary spinal lesions, SSR appears to provide an effective and safe treatment compared to conventional RT. SSR should likely be utilized for select patient-scenarios given the potential for radiation-induced myelopathy, though high-quality literature on SSR for intramedullary lesions remains limited. PMID:24757449

  17. Human T-lymphotropic virus proteins and post-translational modification pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bidoia, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Cell life from the cell cycle to the signaling transduction and response to stimuli is finely tuned by protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). PTMs alter the conformation, the stability, the localization, and hence the pattern of interactions of the targeted protein. Cell pathways involve the activation of enzymes, like kinases, ligases and transferases, that, once activated, act on many proteins simultaneously, altering the state of the cell and triggering the processes they are involved in. Viruses enter a balanced system and hijack the cell, exploiting the potential of PTMs either to activate viral encoded proteins or to alter cellular pathways, with the ultimate consequence to perpetuate through their replication. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is known to be highly oncogenic and associates with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and other inflammatory pathological conditions. HTLV-1 protein activity is controlled by PTMs and, in turn, viral activity is associated with the modulation of cellular pathways based on PTMs. More knowledge is acquired about the PTMs involved in the activation of its proteins, like Tax, Rex, p12, p13, p30, HTLV-I basic leucine zipper factor and Gag. However, more has to be understood at the biochemical level in order to counteract the associated fatal outcomes. This review will focus on known PTMs that directly modify HTLV-1 components and on enzymes whose activity is modulated by viral proteins. PMID:24175216

  18. Subclinical reactivation of varicella zoster virus in all stages of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Birlea, Marius; Arendt, Gabriele; Orhan, Eser; Schmid, D Scott; Bellini, William J; Schmidt, Christian; Gilden, Don; Cohrs, Randall J

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of 200 paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 180 HIV-positive individuals, 136 of whom had AIDS, revealed intrathecal synthesis of antibodies specific for varicella zoster virus (VZV) in 28 (16%) individuals, measles virus in 15 (8%), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) in 1 (0.6%), and HSV-2 in none. Of the 28 subjects with a positive VZV antibody specificity index, only 1 had zoster rash at the time of serum and CSF sampling; of the total 180 HIV-positive subjects, 146 (81%) had no history of zoster. Based on an estimated 33.4 million HIV-positive individuals worldwide, subclinical reactivation of VZV in even less than 16% of HIV-positive people suggests the possibility that millions of people have active VZV infection of the central nervous system. In cases of VZV vasculopathy, myelopathy and even zoster sine herpete, the CSF is often positive for anti-VZV antibody, but negative for VZV DNA. To rule out VZV infection of the nervous system, CSF must be tested for VZV DNA and anti-VZV IgG and IgM antibody. PMID:21419427

  19. A 46-year-old female presenting with worsening headache, nuchal rigidity and a skin rash in varicella zoster virus meningitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kushawaha, Anurag; Mobarakai, Neville; Tolia, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus causes two distinct clinical diseases. Varicella is the primary infection and results from exposure of a person susceptible to the virus. The virus remains latent in cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Years later, in association with a decline in cell-mediated immunity in the elderly and immuno-compromised, varicella zoster virus reactivates and can cause a wide range of neurologic disease, including herpes zoster ('shingles'), postherpetic neuralgia, vasculopathy, myelopathy, retinal necrosis, cerebellitis, and zoster sine herpete. Herpes zoster is associated with numerous neurologic complications and varied presentations. Patients who have a dermatomal distribution of varicella zoster virus and who have headaches should be considered to have VZV meningitis. Virologic confirmation requires testing the cerebrospinal fluid for varicella zoster virus deoxyribonucleic acid via polymerase chain reaction. The application of polymerase chain reaction to the cerebrospinal fluid can be used to detect varicella zoster virus deoxyribonucleic acid and, therefore, infections of the central nervous system. We present a case report of a 46-year-old female who initially presented with worsening headache, nuchal rigidity, fever, and a skin rash, who was subsequently found to have varicella zoster meningitis. PMID:19918571

  20. Subclinical reactivation of varicella zoster virus in all stages of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Birlea, Marius; Arendt, Gabriele; Orhan, Eser; Schmid, D. Scott; Bellini, William J.; Schmidt, Christian; Gilden, Don; Cohrs, Randall J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of 200 paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 180 HIV-positive individuals, 136 of whom had AIDS, revealed intrathecal synthesis of antibodies specific for varicella zoster virus (VZV) in 28 (16%) individuals, measles virus in 15 (8%), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) in 1 (0.6%), and HSV-2 in none. Of the 28 subjects with a positive VZV antibody specificity index, only 1 had zoster rash at the time of serum and CSF sampling; of the total 180 HIV-positive subjects, 146 (81%) had no history of zoster. Based on an estimated 33.4 million HIV-positive individuals worldwide, subclinical reactivation of VZV in even less than 16% of HIV-positive people suggests the possibility that millions of people have active VZV infection of the central nervous system. In cases of VZV vasculopathy, myelopathy and even zoster sine herpete, the CSF is often positive for anti-VZV antibody, but negative for VZV DNA. To rule out VZV infection of the nervous system, CSF must be tested for VZV DNA and anti-VZV IgG and IgM antibody. PMID:21419427

  1. A 46-year-old female presenting with worsening headache, nuchal rigidity and a skin rash in varicella zoster virus meningitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mobarakai, Neville; Tolia, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus causes two distinct clinical diseases. Varicella is the primary infection and results from exposure of a person susceptible to the virus. The virus remains latent in cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Years later, in association with a decline in cell-mediated immunity in the elderly and immuno-compromised, varicella zoster virus reactivates and can cause a wide range of neurologic disease, including herpes zoster (‘shingles’), postherpetic neuralgia, vasculopathy, myelopathy, retinal necrosis, cerebellitis, and zoster sine herpete. Herpes zoster is associated with numerous neurologic complications and varied presentations. Patients who have a dermatomal distribution of varicella zoster virus and who have headaches should be considered to have VZV meningitis. Virologic confirmation requires testing the cerebrospinal fluid for varicella zoster virus deoxyribonucleic acid via polymerase chain reaction. The application of polymerase chain reaction to the cerebrospinal fluid can be used to detect varicella zoster virus deoxyribonucleic acid and, therefore, infections of the central nervous system. We present a case report of a 46-year-old female who initially presented with worsening headache, nuchal rigidity, fever, and a skin rash, who was subsequently found to have varicella zoster meningitis. PMID:19918571

  2. Clinical and molecular aspects of varicella zoster virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gilden, Don; Nagel, Maria A; Mahalingam, Ravi; Mueller, Niklaus H; Brazeau, Elizabeth A; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Cohrs, Randall J

    2009-01-01

    A declining cell-mediated immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV) with advancing age or immunosuppression results in virus reactivation from latently infected human ganglia anywhere along the neuraxis. Virus reactivation produces zoster, often followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia or PHN) as well as vasculopathy, myelopathy, retinal necrosis and cerebellitis. VZV reactivation also produces pain without rash (zoster sine herpete). Vaccination after age 60 reduces the incidence of shingles by 51%, PHN by 66% and the burden of illness by 61%. However, even if every healthy adult over age 60 years is vaccinated, there would still be about 500,000 zoster cases annually in the United States alone, about 200,000 of whom will experience PHN. Analyses of viral nucleic acid and gene expression in latently infected human ganglia and in an animal model of varicella latency in primates are serving to determine the mechanism(s) of VZV reactivation with the aim of preventing reactivation and the clinical sequelae. PMID:19946620

  3. Neurological disease produced by varicella zoster virus reactivation without rash.

    PubMed

    Gilden, Don; Cohrs, Randall J; Mahalingam, Ravi; Nagel, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) from latently infected human ganglia usually produces herpes zoster (shingles), characterized by dermatomal distribution pain and rash. Zoster is often followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia or PHN) as well as meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, isolated cranial nerve palsies that produce ophthalmoplegia or the Ramsay Hunt syndrome, multiple cranial nerve palsies (polyneuritis cranialis), vasculopathy, myelopathy, and various inflammatory disorders of the eye. Importantly, VZV reactivation can produce chronic radicular pain without rash (zoster sine herpete), as well as all the neurological disorders listed above without rash. The protean neurological and ocular disorders produced by VZV in the absence of rash are a challenge to the practicing clinician. The presentation of these conditions varies from acute to subacute to chronic. Virological confirmation requires the demonstration of amplifiable VZV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or in blood mononuclear cells, or the presence of anti-VZV IgG antibody in CSF or of anti-VZV IgM antibody in CSF or serum. PMID:20186614

  4. Rapid and sensitive detection of varicella zoster virus in saliva of patients with herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lechler, Kayla J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2013-01-01

    VZV reactivation produces zoster (shingles) which may be further complicated by meningoencephalitis, myelopathy, vasculopathy and multiple ocular disorders. Importantly, these neurological and ocular complications of VZV reactivation can occur without rash. In such instances, virological verification relies on detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or less often, the presence of VZV DNA in blood mononuclear cells or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue samples (e.g., saliva or tears) in patients with neurological disease in the absence of rash and shown to correlate with the standard tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. In patients with acute herpes zoster, the yield of cell DNA was greater in saliva collected by passive drool or synthetic swab than by cotton swab. The time to process saliva from collection to obtaining DNA was one hour. VZV DNA was present exclusively in the pelleted fraction of saliva and was found in 100% of patients before antiviral treatment. This rapid sensitive method can be applied readily to saliva from humans with neurologic and other disease that might be caused by VZV in the absence of rash. PMID:23747545

  5. Extracellular matrix-remodeling metalloproteinases and infection of the central nervous system with retrovirus human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I).

    PubMed

    Giraudon, P; Buart, S; Bernard, A; Thomasset, N; Belin, M F

    1996-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in physiological processes and contribute to the phenotype of several pathological conditions associated with uncontrolled tissue degradation. In the central nervous system (CNS), MMPs are thought to play a role in cell migration and synaptic plasticity. We have investigated the expression, regulation and possible role of MMPs and TIMPs during infection of glial cells with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), the causative agent of a progressive chronic myelopathy, TSP/HAM. The major alteration consists in a high increase in MMP-9 secretion and TIMP-2 mRNA expression. Cytokines TNF alpha and IL1 alpha, induced in glial cells during HTLV-I infection, promote the upregulation of MMP-9. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid from TSP/HAM patients contain high MMP-9 level. The exact role of dysregulated MMPs/TIMPs in the pathogenesis of TSP/HAM is not known; however, functions of these proteases in physiological processes should provide valuable clues. MMPs can affect the blood-brain barrier and the intercellular connectivity by degrading the extracellular matrix of endothelial and neural cells. They can be involved in autoimmunity by generating preformed specific peptides from myelin components. Finally, they can direct and prolong TNF activity in the CNS by converting its inactive precursor into active molecules. PMID:8844825

  6. Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, A; Zaffaroni, M

    2001-11-01

    Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders are described, with particular reference to those resembling multiple sclerosis (MS) on clinical or MRI grounds. Patients with celiac disease can present cerebellar ataxia, progressive myoclonic ataxia, myelopathy, or cerebral, brainstem and peripheral nerve involvement. Antigliadin antibodies can be found in subjects with neurological dysfunction of unknown cause, particularly in sporadic cerebellar ataxia ("gluten ataxia"). Patients with Whipple's disease can develop mental and psychiatric changes, supranuclear gaze palsy, upper motoneuron signs, hypothalamic dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, seizures, ataxia, myorhythmia and sensory deficits. Neurological manifestations can complicate inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) due to vascular or vasculitic mechanisms. Cases with both Crohn's disease and MS or cerebral vasculitis are described. Epilepsy, chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy, muscle involvement and myasthenia gravis are also reported. The central nervous system can be affected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection because of vasculitis associated with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) is a disease caused by multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, deafness, leukoencephalopathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms due to visceral neuropathy. Neurological manifestations can be the consequence of vitamin B1, nicotinamide, vitamin B12, vitamin D, or vitamin E deficiency and from nutritional deficiency states following gastric surgery. PMID:11794474

  7. Cobalamin deficiency: clinical picture and radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Briani, Chiara; Dalla Torre, Chiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo; Pompanin, Sara; Binotto, Gianni; Adami, Fausto

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes a wide range of hematological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hematological presentation of cobalamin deficiency ranges from the incidental increase of mean corpuscular volume and neutrophil hypersegmentation to symptoms due to severe anemia, such as angor, dyspnea on exertion, fatigue or symptoms related to congestive heart failure, such as ankle edema, orthopnea and nocturia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may precede hematologic signs and are represented by myelopathy, neuropathy, dementia and, less often, optic nerve atrophy. The spinal cord manifestation, subacute combined degeneration (SCD), is characterized by symmetric dysesthesia, disturbance of position sense and spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis. The most consistent MRI finding is a symmetrical abnormally increased T2 signal intensity confined to posterior or posterior and lateral columns in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Isolated peripheral neuropathy is less frequent, but likely overlooked. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated negatively with cognitive functioning in healthy elderly subjects. Symptoms include slow mentation, memory impairment, attention deficits and dementia. Optic neuropathy occurs occasionally in adult patient. It is characterized by symmetric, painless and progressive visual loss. Parenteral replacement therapy should be started soon after the vitamin deficiency has been established. PMID:24248213

  8. Monomelic Amyotrophy (Hirayama Disease) With Upper Motor Neuron Signs: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Lee, Seung Ah; Han, Yoo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA), also known as Hirayama disease, is a sporadic juvenile muscular atrophy in the distal upper extremities. This disorder rarely involves proximal upper extremities and presents minimal sensory symptoms with no upper motor neuron (UMN) signs. It is caused by anterior displacement of the posterior dural sac and compression of the cervical cord during neck flexion. An 18-year-old boy visited our clinic with a 5-year history of left upper extremity pain and slowly progressive weakness affecting the left shoulder. Atrophy was present in the left supraspinatus and infraspinatus. On neurological examination, positive UMN signs were evident in both upper and lower extremities. Electrodiagnostic study showed root lesion involving the fifth to seventh cervical segment of the cord with chronic and ongoing denervation in the fifth and sixth cervical segment innervated muscles. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed asymmetric cord atrophy apparent in the left side and intramedullary high signal intensity along the fourth to sixth cervical vertebral levels. With neck flexion, cervical MRI revealed anterior displacement of posterior dural sac, which results in the cord compression of those segments. The mechanisms of myelopathy in our patient seem to be same as that of MMA. We report a MMA patient involving proximal limb with UMN signs in biomechanical concerns and discuss clinical importance of cervical MRI with neck flexion. The case highlights that clinical variation might cause misdiagnosis. PMID:25750881

  9. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Ribas, João Gabriel Ramos; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Guedes, Antônio Carlos; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus to be discovered, is present in diverse regions of the world, where its infection is usually neglected in health care settings and by public health authorities. Since it is usually asymptomatic in the beginning of the infection and disease typically manifests later in life, silent transmission occurs, which is associated with sexual relations, breastfeeding, and blood transfusions. There are no prospects of vaccines, and screening of blood banks and in prenatal care settings is not universal. Therefore, its transmission is active in many areas such as parts of Africa, South and Central America, the Caribbean region, Asia, and Melanesia. It causes serious diseases in humans, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and an incapacitating neurological disease (HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP]) besides other afflictions such as uveitis, rheumatic syndromes, and predisposition to helminthic and bacterial infections, among others. These diseases are not curable as yet, and current treatments as well as new perspectives are discussed in the present review. PMID:20610824

  10. Mouse Models of Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type-1–Associated Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, B.; Niewiesk, S.; Lairmore, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus discovered, is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a number of lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory conditions including HTLV-1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Development of animal models to study the pathogenesis of HTLV-1–associated diseases has been problematic. Mechanisms of early infection and cell-to-cell transmission can be studied in rabbits and nonhuman primates, but lesion development and reagents are limited in these species. The mouse provides a cost-effective, highly reproducible model in which to study factors related to lymphoma development and the preclinical efficacy of potential therapies against ATL. The ability to manipulate transgenic mice has provided important insight into viral genes responsible for lymphocyte transformation. Expansion of various strains of immunodeficient mice has accelerated the testing of drugs and targeted therapy against ATL. This review compares various mouse models to illustrate recent advances in the understanding of HTLV-1–associated ATL development and how improvements in these models are critical to the future development of targeted therapies against this aggressive T-cell lymphoma. PMID:20442421

  11. Neurologic Manifestations of Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    The normal functioning of brain is intimately as well as intricately interrelated with normal functioning of the liver. Liver plays a critical role of not only providing vital nutrients to the brain but also of detoxifying the splanchnic blood. Compromised liver function leads to insufficient detoxification thus allowing neurotoxins (such as ammonia, manganese, and other chemicals) to enter the cerebral circulation. In addition, portosystemic shunts, which are common accompaniments of advanced liver disease, facilitate free passage of neurotoxins into the cerebral circulation. The problem is compounded further by additional variables such as gastrointestinal tract bleeding, malnutrition, and concurrent renal failure, which are often associated with liver cirrhosis. Neurologic damage in chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis seems to be multifactorial primarily attributable to the following: brain accumulation of ammonia, manganese, and lactate; altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier; recruitment of monocytes after microglial activation; and neuroinflammation, that is, direct effects of circulating systemic proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, IL-1?, and IL-6. Radiologist should be aware of the conundrum of neurologic complications that can be encountered in liver disease, which include hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocerebral degeneration, hepatic myelopathy, cirrhosis-related parkinsonism, cerebral infections, hemorrhage, and osmotic demyelination. In addition, neurologic complications can be exclusive to certain disorders, for example, Wilson disease, alcoholism (Wernicke encephalopathy, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease, etc). Radiologist should be aware of their varied clinical presentation and radiological appearances as the diagnosis is not always straightforward. PMID:25908229

  12. Alkaptonuria, more than just a mere disease

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Saeed, Usman; Abdullah, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is considered a rare autosomal recessive condition that results in an accumulation of homogentisic acid in body tissues and causes long-term clinical, neurological and psychological complications. We present a comprehensive evaluation of an atypical 46-year-old Caucasian male who developed all clinical diagnostic symptoms of AKU (ochronotic pigmentations, dark urine and clinical arthritis of major joints including spine) by 25 years of age, well before the typical age mentioned in many reviews. First signs of ochronotic ear pigmentations unexpectedly started appearing as early as 12 years of age. A long “disease-free” period typical in classical AKU patient was also absent. This case report highlights the importance of considering psychological issues in AKU patients. The patient showed symptoms of dysthymia reporting social isolation, diminished interest in pleasurable activities, feeling of worthlessness and irritability as major psychological issues. Early ochronotic pigmentation, advanced spinal myelopathy and arthropathy of major joints suggests aggressive course of the disease. Our patient underwent bilateral shoulder replacement due to AKU-induced arthropathy resulting in restoration of some range of motions. AKU is not fully understood and we recommend treating it as a multidimensional disease with simultaneous physiological, neurological and psychological effects. Early diagnosis, understanding of disease prognosis and emphasis on psychological health is needed to improve the quality of life of AKU patients. PMID:25883496

  13. The neuropathology of AIDS. UCLA experience and review.

    PubMed Central

    Anders, K. H.; Guerra, W. F.; Tomiyasu, U.; Verity, M. A.; Vinters, H. V.

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has been examined at autopsy in 89 patients who died of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including 14 patients who died primarily of neurologic complications of the disease. A total of 66 brains (74%) showed significant pathologic abnormalities, with opportunistic infections including cytomegalovirus (14) and cryptococcal (11) infections, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (6), toxoplasmosis (6), and histoplasma microabscesses (1). Incidental Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection was found in 4 cases. Simultaneous CNS infection by more than one microorganism was encountered in 5 patients. Subacute (microglial nodule) encephalitis-related to cytomegalovirus infection or possibly brain infection by the causative agent of AIDS was present in 56 cases. Primary CNS lymphoma was noted in 3 patients. Secondary CNS deposits of lymphoma were found in 1 patient, and another patient had lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Vascular complications were not infrequently seen, and included infarcts secondary to vessel occlusion and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 patients and intracranial hemorrhage of variable severity in 13. White matter changes included vacuolar myelopathy (3 cases), central pontine myelinolysis (1 case), and foci of calcified, necrotizing leukoencephalopathy in pontocerebellar fibers of the basis pontis (2 cases). These findings highlight the variety of CNS complications in AIDS, some of which are not associated with clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, characterization of all lesions may be important in understanding the neurologic sequelae of AIDS. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 p540-a Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2876640

  14. Molecular cloning of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I-like proviral genome from the peripheral lymphocyte DNA of a patient with chronic neurologic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, E.P.; Mettus, R.V.; DeFreitas, E.; Wroblewska, Z.; Cisco, M.; Koprowski, H. )

    1988-05-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), the etiologic agent of human T-cell leukemia, has recently been shown to be associated with neurologic disorders such as tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-associated myelopathy, and possibly with multiple sclerosis. In this communication, the authors have examined one specific case of neurologic disorder that can be classified as multiple sclerosis or tropical spastic paraparesis. The patient suffering from chronic neurologic disorder was found to contain antibodies to HTLV-I envelope and gag proteins in his serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Lymphocytes from peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the patient were shown to express viral RNA sequences by in situ hybridization. Southern blot analysis of the patient lymphocyte DNA revealed the presence of HTLV-I-related sequences. Blot-hybridization analysis of the RNA from fresh peripheral lymphocytes stimulated with interleukin 2 revealed the presence of abundant amounts of genomic viral RNA with little or no subgenomic RNA. They have clones the proviral genome from the DNA of the peripheral lymphocytes and determined its restriction map. This analysis shows that this proviral genome is very similar if not identical to that of the prototype HTLV-I genome.

  15. Effects of Bee Venom Injections at Acupoints on Neurologic Dysfunction Induced by Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Disorders in Canines: A Randomized, Controlled Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Li-Chuan; Lin, Yi-Wen; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is a major spine disorder in canines that causes neurological dysfunction, particularly in the thoracolumbar area. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are typically used to reduce nociceptive signals to decrease canine suffering. Bee venom (BV) has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Injection of BV at acupoints has been widely used to treat clinical disorders including inflammation, pain, and arthritis. The current study was intended to determine whether BV injections at acupoints can enhance treatment of canine neurological dysfunction caused by IVDD. A single-blind controlled trial involving 40 adult canines with neurological dysfunction induced by IVDD subdivided into 2 groups was designed, and 36 canines finished the study. The myelopathy scoring system (MSS) grade and functional numeric scale (FNS) scores improved further after BV treatment than after control treatment. BV injection exerted a particularly strong effect on canines with moderate to severe IVDD and dramatically reduced clinical rehabilitation time. The results indicate that BV injections at acupoints are more effective at protecting canines from IVDD-induced neurological dysfunction and pain than is treatment alone. PMID:26693480

  16. Brown Tumor of the Thoracic Spine: First Manifestation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tezcaner, Tugan; Coven, Ilker; Terzi, Aysen

    2015-01-01

    Brown tumors also called as osteoclastomas, are rare nonneoplastic lesions that arise in the setting of primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia constitute the major Brown tumor source in primary hyperparathyroidism while chronic renal failure is the leading cause in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Most of the patients with the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism present with kidney stones or isolated hypercalcemia. However, nearly one third of patients are asymptomatic and hypercalcemia is found incidentally. Skeletal involvement such as generalized osteopenia, bone resorption, bone cysts and Brown tumors are seen on the late phase of hyperparathyroidism. The symptoms include axial pain, radiculopathy, myelopathy and myeloradiculopathy according to their locations. Plasmocytoma, lymphoma, giant cell tumors and metastates should be ruled out in the differential diagnosis of Brown tumors. Treatment of Brown tumors involve both the management of hyperparathyroidism and neural decompression. The authors report a very rare spinal Brown tumor case, arisen as the initial manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism that leads to acute paraparesis. PMID:26587196

  17. Neurological Disease Produced by Varicella Zoster Virus Reactivation Without Rash

    PubMed Central

    Gilden, Don; Cohrs, Randall J.; Mahalingam, Ravi; Nagel, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) from latently infected human ganglia usually produces herpes zoster (shingles), characterized by dermatomal distribution pain and rash. Zoster is often followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia or PHN) as well as meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cerebellitts, isolated cranial nerve palsies that produce ophthalmoplegia or the Ramsay Hunt syndrome, multiple cranial nerve palsies (polyneuritis cranialis), vasculopathy. myelopathy, and various inflammatory disorders of the eye. Importantly, VZV reactivation can produce chronic radicular pain without rash (zoster sine herpete), as well as all the neurological disorders listed above without rash. The protean neurological and ocular disorders produced by VZV in the absence of rash are a challenge to the practicing clinician. The presentation of these conditions vanes from acute to subacute to chronic. Virological confirmation requires the demonstration of amplifiable VZV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or in blood mononuclear cells, or the presence of anti-VZV IgG antibody in CSF or of anti-VZV IgM antibody in CSF or serum. PMID:20186614

  18. Involuntary movements due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Moloi, M W

    2014-12-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces protean effects on the nervous system, most commonly neuropathy, myelopathy, cognitive and behavioural symptoms, and optic atrophy. Involuntary movements comprise a relatively rare manifestation of this readily treatable disorder. Both adults and infants deficient in vitamin B12 may present with chorea, tremor, myoclonus, Parkinsonism, dystonia, or a combination of these, which may precede diagnosis or become apparent only a few days after parenteral replacement therapy has begun. The pathogenesis of these movement disorders shows interesting parallels to certain neurodegenerative conditions. The clinical syndrome responds well to vitamin B12 supplementation in most cases, and an early diagnosis is essential to reverse the haematological and neurological dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. In this article, we elucidate the association of vitamin B12 deficiency with movement disorders in adults and in infants, discuss the pathogenesis of this association, review previously reported cases, and present a young adult male with severe generalized chorea that showed a salutary response to vitamin B12 supplementation. PMID:24852503

  19. Brown Tumor of the Thoracic Spine: First Manifestation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Erkin; Tezcaner, Tugan; Coven, Ilker; Terzi, Aysen

    2015-10-01

    Brown tumors also called as osteoclastomas, are rare nonneoplastic lesions that arise in the setting of primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia constitute the major Brown tumor source in primary hyperparathyroidism while chronic renal failure is the leading cause in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Most of the patients with the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism present with kidney stones or isolated hypercalcemia. However, nearly one third of patients are asymptomatic and hypercalcemia is found incidentally. Skeletal involvement such as generalized osteopenia, bone resorption, bone cysts and Brown tumors are seen on the late phase of hyperparathyroidism. The symptoms include axial pain, radiculopathy, myelopathy and myeloradiculopathy according to their locations. Plasmocytoma, lymphoma, giant cell tumors and metastates should be ruled out in the differential diagnosis of Brown tumors. Treatment of Brown tumors involve both the management of hyperparathyroidism and neural decompression. The authors report a very rare spinal Brown tumor case, arisen as the initial manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism that leads to acute paraparesis. PMID:26587196

  20. A novel AARS mutation in a family with dominant myeloneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Motley, William W.; Griffin, Laurie B.; Mademan, Inès; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; De Jonghe, Peter; Antonellis, Anthony; Jordanova, Albena

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic cause of neurodegeneration in a family with myeloneuropathy. Methods: We studied 5 siblings in a family with a mild, dominantly inherited neuropathy by clinical examination and electrophysiology. One patient had a sural nerve biopsy. After ruling out common genetic causes of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, we sequenced 3 tRNA synthetase genes associated with neuropathy. Results: All affected family members had a mild axonal neuropathy, and 3 of 4 had lower extremity hyperreflexia, evidence of a superimposed myelopathy. A nerve biopsy showed evidence of chronic axonal loss. All affected family members had a heterozygous missense mutation c.304G>C (p.Gly102Arg) in the alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) gene; this allele was not identified in unaffected individuals or control samples. The equivalent change in the yeast ortholog failed to complement a strain of yeast lacking AARS function, suggesting that the mutation is damaging. Conclusion: A novel mutation in AARS causes a mild myeloneuropathy, a novel phenotype for patients with mutations in one of the tRNA synthetase genes. PMID:25904691

  1. Clinical experience using polyetheretherketone (PEEK) intervertebral structural cage for anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Manish K; O'Toole, John E

    2014-02-01

    Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) is commonly performed for various pathologies involving the cervical spine. Although polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), clinical literature demonstrating its efficacy following ACCF is sparse. A retrospective review of patients enrolled in a prospective database who underwent single/multi-level ACCF was performed. Fifty-nine patients were identified who underwent corpectomy reconstruction with PEEK cages for symptomatic degenerative, neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic pathologies of the cervical spine. Thirty-five patients having at least 6 months follow-up (FU) were included in the final analysis. The mean age of patients was 51 years (range, 18-81 years) with FU ranging from 6 to 33 months (mean, 6.6 months). None of the patients had dysphagia at last FU. There was no implant failure with fusion occurring in all patients. While 57% of patients (20/35) remained stable with no progression of myelopathy, 43% (15/35) improved one (11 patients) or two (four patients) Nurick grades after surgery. The use of PEEK cages packed with autograft or allograft is safe and effective following anterior cervical corpectomy, demonstrating high fusion rates and good clinical results. This synthetic material obviates the morbidity associated with autograft harvest and possible infectious risks of allograft. The wide array of cage dimensions facilitates ease of use in patients of all sizes and appears safe for use in the typical pathologic conditions encountered in the cervical spine. PMID:24018256

  2. Symptomatic Large Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2015-09-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEACs) are relatively rare cause of compressive myelopathy. SEACs can be either congenital or acquired, but the etiology and the mechanism for their development are still unclear. A number of cases have been reported in the literature, and the one-way valve mechanism is the most widely accepted theory which explains the expansion of cysts and spinal cord compression. We report two cases of SEAC in this article. Patients had intermittent, progressive cord compressing symptoms. MRI image showed large SEAC which caused compression of the spinal cord. Pre-operative cystography and CT myelography were performed to identify the communicating tract. Pre-operative epidural cystography showed a fistulous tract. The patients underwent primary closure of the dural defect which was a communicating tract. The operative finding (nerve root herniation through the tract) suggested that the SEAC developed through a checkvalve mechanism. Postoperatively, the patients had no surgical complications and symptoms were relieved. Based on our experience, preoperative identification of the communicating tract is important in surgical planning. Although surgical excision is the standard surgical treatment, primary closure of the dural defect which was a communicating tract can be an acceptable surgical strategy. PMID:26512289

  3. Symptomatic Large Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEACs) are relatively rare cause of compressive myelopathy. SEACs can be either congenital or acquired, but the etiology and the mechanism for their development are still unclear. A number of cases have been reported in the literature, and the one-way valve mechanism is the most widely accepted theory which explains the expansion of cysts and spinal cord compression. We report two cases of SEAC in this article. Patients had intermittent, progressive cord compressing symptoms. MRI image showed large SEAC which caused compression of the spinal cord. Pre-operative cystography and CT myelography were performed to identify the communicating tract. Pre-operative epidural cystography showed a fistulous tract. The patients underwent primary closure of the dural defect which was a communicating tract. The operative finding (nerve root herniation through the tract) suggested that the SEAC developed through a checkvalve mechanism. Postoperatively, the patients had no surgical complications and symptoms were relieved. Based on our experience, preoperative identification of the communicating tract is important in surgical planning. Although surgical excision is the standard surgical treatment, primary closure of the dural defect which was a communicating tract can be an acceptable surgical strategy. PMID:26512289

  4. Enzymatic characterization of ELOVL1, a key enzyme in very long-chain fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schackmann, Martin J A; Ofman, Rob; Dijkstra, Inge M E; Wanders, Ronald J A; Kemp, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a neurometabolic disease that is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. ABCD1 protein deficiency impairs peroxisomal very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) degradation resulting in increased cytosolic VLCFA-CoA levels, which are further elongated by the VLCFA-specific elongase, ELOVL1. In adulthood, X-ALD most commonly manifests as a gradually progressive myelopathy (adrenomyeloneuropathy; AMN) without any curative or disease modifying treatments. We recently showed that bezafibrate reduces VLCFA accumulation in X-ALD fibroblasts by inhibiting ELOVL1. Although, in a clinical trial, bezafibrate was unable to lower VLCFA levels in plasma or lymphocytes in X-ALD patients, inhibition of ELOVL1 remains an attractive therapeutic option. In this study, we investigated the kinetic characteristics of ELOVL1 using X-ALD fibroblasts and microsomal fractions from ELOVL1 over-expressing HEK293 cell lines and analyzed the inhibition kinetics of a series of fibrates. Our data show that the CoA esters of bezafibrate and gemfibrozil reduce chain elongation by specifically inhibiting ELOVL1. These fibrates can therefore serve as lead compounds for the development of more potent and more specific inhibitors for ELOVL1. PMID:25499606

  5. In vitro interactions between amphotericin B and hydrocortisone: potential implications for intrathecal therapy.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Greg; Cohen, Stuart H; Thompson, George R

    2015-09-01

    Fungal meningitis remains a severe and often lethal infection requiring aggressive antifungal therapy and in refractory cases the use of intrathecal amphotericin B (AmB). Administration of amphotericin B by this method may result in clinically apparent adverse reactions such as paresthesias, radiculitis, or myelopathy. Coadministration of hydrocortisone is therefore often given in an attempt to avoid these effects; however, the potential consequences of this approach on fungal growth or on drug synergy/antagonism had not previously been assessed. We used the checkerboard titration broth microdilution method to analyze interactions by fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs). The combination of amphotericin B and hydrocortisone resulted in synergy or indifference against all isolates (Candida, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides) during in vitro testing at low concentrations. Antagonism was observed using higher hydrocortisone concentrations (those not observed in vivo) suggesting possible steric hindrance or binding to AmB may occur at doses unlikely to be present during clinical care. Concurrent hydrocortisone and AmB administration should not be avoided due to in vitro antagonism concerns. PMID:26162473

  6. Schistosomiasis of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Currently 200 million people worldwide are infected. Neurological manifestations are a result of the inflammatory response of the host to egg deposition in the brain and spinal cord and is usually seen in patients with recent infection with no evidence of systemic illness. Cerebral and cerebellar disease can result in headache, seizure, and increased intracranial pressure. Cerebral schistosomiasis is more common in Schistosoma japonicum, but increasing cases due to Schistosoma mansoni are being reported in the literature. Other complications of cerebral schistosomiasis include delirium, loss of consciousness, visual field impairment, focal motor deficits, and ataxia. Myelopathy is the most common neurological manifestation of Schistosoma mansoni and the conus medullaris and cauda equine are the most common sites of involvement. Severe disease can result in flaccid paraplegia with areflexia, sphincter dysfunction, and sensory disturbance. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential when physicians are faced with schistosomiasis involving the central nervous system. Schistosomicidal drugs, such as praziquantel, steroids and surgery, are the mainstay of therapy for this severe form of schistosomiasis. PMID:23829918

  7. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the spine treated with RapidArc volumetric-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Chargari, Cyrus; Falk, Alexander Tuan; Khodri, Mustapha; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy for epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) using volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT). A 48-year-old woman was referred for curative irradiation of a vertebral EHE after failure of surgery. A comparison between VMAT and conventional conformal tridimensional (3D) dosimetry was performed and potential advantage of VMAT for sparing critical organs from irradiation's side effects was discussed. The total delivered dose on the planning target volume was 54 Gy in 27 fractions. The patient was finally treated with VMAT. The tolerance was excellent. There was no acute toxicity, including no increase in pain. With a follow-up of 18 months, no delayed toxicity was reported. The clinical response consisted of a decrease in the dorsal pain. The D{sub max} for the spinal cord was reduced from 55 Gy (3D-radiotherapy [RT]) (which would be an unacceptable dose to the spine because of the risk of myelopathy) to 42.8 Gy (VMAT), which remains below the recommended dose threshold (45 Gy). The dose delivered to 20% of organ volume (D{sub 20}) was reduced from 47 Gy (3D-RT) to 3 Gy (VMAT) for the spinal cord. The study shows that VMAT allows the delivery of curative treatment for vertebral EHEs because of critical organ sparing.

  8. Computed Tomography Perfusion Assessment of Radiation Therapy Effects on Spinal Cord Hemodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Bisdas, Sotirios; Sharma, Anand K.; McDonald, Daniel; Strojan, Primoz; Rumboldt, Zoran

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: We used computed tomography (CT) perfusion to evaluate the acute and late effect of radiation therapy (RT) on spinal cord (SC) hemodynamics in patients without symptoms of myelopathy. We hypothesized that SC perfusion could be acutely altered during RT. Methods and Materials: We analyzed neck CT perfusion studies of 36 head-and-neck cancer patients (N1), 16 of whom had previously undergone RT. In a separate group of 6 patients (N2), CT perfusion studies were obtained before RT, after 40 Gy, and after treatment completion. Results: In the N1 group, SC blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and capillary permeability (CP) maps were not significantly different between RT-treated and RT-naive patients. In the N2 group, BF and CP were significantly increased during treatment compared with the baseline and post-RT studies. Conclusions: Radiation therapy of the head and neck may cause transient perturbations of SC perfusion that seem to reverse after treatment. There are no definite chronic effects of RT on SC perfusion observeable at the typical doses administered during treatment of head and neck malignancies.

  9. Clinical Outcome of Dose-Escalated Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Spinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Goebel, Joachim; Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Bratengeier, Klaus; Flentje, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes after dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT) for spinal metastases and paraspinal tumors. Methods and Materials: A total of 14 patients, 12 with spinal metastases and a long life expectancy and 2 with paraspinal tumors, were treated for 16 lesions with intensity-modulated, image-guided RT. A median biologic effective dose of 74 Gy{sub 10} (range, 55-86) in a median of 20 fractions (range, 3-34) was prescribed to the target volume. The spinal canal was treated to 40 Gy in 20 fractions using a second intensity-modulated RT dose level in the case of epidural involvement. Results: After median follow-up of 17 months, one local recurrence was observed, for an actuarial local control rate of 88% after 2 years. Local control was associated with rapid and long-term pain relief. Of 11 patients treated for a solitary spinal metastasis, 6 developed systemic disease progression. The actuarial overall survival rate for metastatic patients was 85% and 63% after 1 and 2 years, respectively. Acute Grade 2-3 skin toxicity was seen in 2 patients with no late toxicity greater than Grade 2. No radiation-induced myelopathy was observed. Conclusion: Dose-escalated irradiation of spinal metastases was safe and resulted in excellent local control. Oligometastatic patients with a long life expectancy and epidural involvement are considered to benefit the most from fractionated RT.

  10. Clinical and molecular aspects of varicella zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gilden, Don; Nagel, Maria A.; Mahalingam, Ravi; Mueller, Niklaus H.; Brazeau, Elizabeth A.; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Cohrs, Randall J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A declining cell-mediated immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV) with advancing age or immunosuppression results in virus reactivation from latently infected human ganglia anywhere along the neuraxis. Virus reactivation produces zoster, often followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia or PHN) as well as vasculopathy, myelopathy, retinal necrosis and cerebellitis. VZV reactivation also produces pain without rash (zoster sine herpete). Vaccination after age 60 reduces the incidence of shingles by 51%, PHN by 66% and the burden of illness by 61%. However, even if every healthy adult over age 60 years is vaccinated, there would still be about 500,000 zoster cases annually in the United States alone, about 200,000 of whom will experience PHN. Analyses of viral nucleic acid and gene expression in latently infected human ganglia and in an animal model of varicella latency in primates are serving to determine the mechanism(s) of VZV reactivation with the aim of preventing reactivation and the clinical sequelae. PMID:19946620

  11. Evidence for the Chronic in Vivo Production of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type I Rof and Tof Proteins from Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Directed against Viral Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Pique, Claudine; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Gessain, Antoine; Chancerel, Bruno; Gout, Olivier; Tamouza, Riad; Agis, Frantz; Dokhélar, Marie-Christine

    2000-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is a persistent virus that causes adult T cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I–associated myelopathy. Studies on rabbits have shown that viral proteins encoded by the open reading frames pX-I and pX-II are required for the establishment of the persistent infection. To examine the in vivo production of these proteins in humans, we have investigated whether cytotoxic T lymphocytes isolated from HTLV-I–infected individuals recognized pX-I and pX-II peptides. CD8+ T lymphocytes to pX-I and pX-II peptides were detected in HTLV-I–infected individuals, whatever their clinical status, and even in the absence of any antigenic restimulation. These findings indicate that the HTLV-I pX-I and pX-II proteins are chronically synthesized in vivo, and are targets of the natural immune response to the virus. PMID:10662802

  12. Spinal cord involvement in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    A severe spinal cord involvement may rarely occur in patients with cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases; this complication is usually associated with overt liver failure and surgical or spontaneous porto-systemic shunt. Hepatic myelopathy (HM) is characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower extremities, while sensory and sphincter disturbances have rarely been described and are usually less important. The diagnosis is assigned in the appropriate clinical setting on clinical grounds after the exclusion of other clinical entities leading to spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging is often unremarkable; however, also intracerebral corticospinal tract abnormalities have been reported recently. The study of motor evoked potentials may disclose central conduction abnormalities even before HM is clinically manifest. HM responds poorly to blood ammonia-lowering and other conservative medical therapy. Liver transplantation represents a potentially definitive treatment for HM in patients with decompensated cirrhosis of Child-Pugh B and C grades. Other surgical treatment options in HM include surgical ligation, shunt reduction, or occlusion by interventional procedures. PMID:24627593

  13. Two Case Reports and an Updated Review of Spinal Intraosseous Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Jianyuan; Wang, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    We report two rare cases of spinal intraosseous schwannoma (SIS) with sustained myelopathy symptoms and provide an updated review regarding SIS in the literature. A 71-year-old man experienced right lumbocrural pain and gait disturbance accompanied with paresthesia and right leg weakness. Imaging examinations revealed a mass with lesions in L4 vertebral body causing bone destruction and spinal cord compression. Complete resection of the well-demarcated tumor and posterior fusion were performed. A 54-year-old female reported bilateral gait disturbance, paresthesia, and numbness without weakness, and imaging revealed a posterior mass from T9 causing spinal cord compression and bone erosion. The tumor was completely separated from the spinal nerve root. The tumors from both patients were confirmed as schwannomas. Tumor recurrence was not observed at the 2-4 year follow-up. Although rare, SIS should be considered during differential diagnosis and can affect treatment planning. SIS symptoms vary depending on tumor location, and fusion is frequently necessary for spinal reconstruction after complete tumor resection. PMID:26180620

  14. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.

    PubMed

    Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

    2013-01-01

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats. PMID:23777582

  15. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat’s locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats. PMID:23777582

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging of the spinal cord: insights from animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Vedantam, Aditya; Jirjis, Michael B; Schmit, Brian D; Wang, Marjorie C; Ulmer, John L; Kurpad, Shekar N

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides a measure of the directional diffusion of water molecules in tissues. The measurement of DTI indexes within the spinal cord provides a quantitative assessment of neural damage in various spinal cord pathologies. DTI studies in animal models of spinal cord injury indicate that DTI is a reliable imaging technique with important histological and functional correlates. These studies demonstrate that DTI is a noninvasive marker of microstructural change within the spinal cord. In human studies, spinal cord DTI shows definite changes in subjects with acute and chronic spinal cord injury, as well as cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Interestingly, changes in DTI indexes are visualized in regions of the cord, which appear normal on conventional magnetic resonance imaging and are remote from the site of cord compression. Spinal cord DTI provides data that can help us understand underlying microstructural changes within the cord and assist in prognostication and planning of therapies. In this article, we review the use of DTI to investigate spinal cord pathology in animals and humans and describe advances in this technique that establish DTI as a promising biomarker for spinal cord disorders. PMID:24064483

  17. HTLV-1 viral RNA is detected rarely in plasma of HTLV-1 infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Demontis, Maria Antonietta; Sadiq, Maaz Tahir; Golz, Simon; Taylor, Graham P

    2015-12-01

    Plasma of patients infected with HTLV-1 is considered non-infectious but detection of HTLV-1 genomic RNA in plasma has been recently reported. The aim of this project was to detect and quantify HTLV-1 RNA in plasma and assess its potential value in diagnosis and prognosis. RNA from 1?ml of plasma from 65 subjects infected with HTLV-1 (27 asymptomatic carriers [AC]), 17 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP), 14 with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), two co-infected with HIV, and five with other HTLV-1-associated disease, was extracted and reverse transcribed. HTLV-1 specific nested PCR was performed using primers to amplify the conserved Tax region. All samples were run in quadruplicate, nested PCR products were detected by gel electrophoresis. HTLV-1 RNA was detected in plasma from 18 (28%) patients, always at a very low copy number (3-13 copies viral cDNA per milliliter of plasma). Mean values of HTLV-1 proviral load did not differ between patients in whom HTLV-1 RNA was detected and patients in whom it was not possible to detect HTLV-1 RNA in plasma. HTLV-1 genomic RNA can be detected in the plasma of a minority of patients but not at a level or frequency to be useful clinically or diagnostically. Lack of transmission of HTLV-1 by plasma is due to the rare presence of HTLV-1 virions, regardless of any other factor. PMID:25982784

  18. Reliability assessment of a novel cervical spine deformity classification system.

    PubMed

    Ames, Christopher P; Smith, Justin S; Eastlack, Robert; Blaskiewicz, Donald J; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Bess, Shay; Kim, Han Jo; Mundis, Gregory M; Klineberg, Eric; Gupta, Munish; O'Brien, Michael; Hostin, Richard; Scheer, Justin K; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fu, Kai-Ming G; Hart, Robert; Albert, Todd J; Riew, K Daniel; Fehlings, Michael G; Deviren, Vedat; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Despite the complexity of cervical spine deformity (CSD) and its significant impact on patient quality of life, there exists no comprehensive classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a novel classification system based on a modified Delphi approach and to characterize the intra- and interobserver reliability of this classification. METHODS Based on an extensive literature review and a modified Delphi approach with an expert panel, a CSD classification system was generated. The classification system included a deformity descriptor and 5 modifiers that incorporated sagittal, regional, and global spinopelvic alignment and neurological status. The descriptors included: "C," "CT," and "T" for primary cervical kyphotic deformities with an apex in the cervical spine, cervicothoracic junction, or thoracic spine, respectively; "S" for primary coronal deformity with a coronal Cobb angle ? 15°; and "CVJ" for primary craniovertebral junction deformity. The modifiers included C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), horizontal gaze (chin-brow to vertical angle [CBVA]), T1 slope (TS) minus C2-7 lordosis (TS-CL), myelopathy (modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association [mJOA] scale score), and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab classification for thoracolumbar deformity. Application of the classification system requires the following: 1) full-length standing posteroanterior (PA) and lateral spine radiographs that include the cervical spine and femoral heads; 2) standing PA and lateral cervical spine radiographs; 3) completed and scored mJOA questionnaire; and 4) a clinical photograph or radiograph that includes the skull for measurement of the CBVA. A series of 10 CSD cases, broadly representative of the classification system, were selected and sufficient radiographic and clinical history to enable classification were assembled. A panel of spinal deformity surgeons was queried to classify each case twice, with a minimum of 1 intervening week. Inter- and intrarater reliability measures were based on calculations of Fleiss k coefficient values. RESULTS Twenty spinal deformity surgeons participated in this study. Interrater reliability (Fleiss k coefficients) for the deformity descriptor rounds 1 and 2 were 0.489 and 0.280, respectively, and mean intrarater reliability was 0.584. For the modifiers, including the SRS-Schwab components, the interrater (round 1/round 2) and intrarater reliabilities (Fleiss k coefficients) were: C2-7 SVA (0.338/0.412, 0.584), horizontal gaze (0.779/0.430, 0.768), TS-CL (0.721/0.567, 0.720), myelopathy (0.602/0.477, 0.746), SRS-Schwab curve type (0.590/0.433, 0.564), pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (0.554/0.386, 0.826), pelvic tilt (0.714/0.627, 0.633), and C7-S1 SVA (0.071/0.064, 0.233), respectively. The parameter with the poorest reliability was the C7-S1 SVA, which may have resulted from differences in interpretation of positive and negative measurements. CONCLUSIONS The proposed classification provides a mechanism to assess CSD within the framework of global spinopelvic malalignment and clinically relevant parameters. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities suggest moderate agreement and serve as the basis for subsequent improvement and study of the proposed classification. PMID:26273762

  19. Animal models on HTLV-1 and related viruses: what did we learn?

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Hiba El; Nasr, Rihab; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; Nasser, Roudaina; Kchour, Ghada; Hermine, Olivier; de Thé, Hugues; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses are associated with a wide variety of diseases, including immunological, neurological disorders, and different forms of cancer. Among retroviruses, Oncovirinae regroup according to their genetic structure and sequence, several related viruses such as human T-cell lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2), simian T cell lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (STLV-1 and STLV-2), and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). As in many diseases, animal models provide a useful tool for the studies of pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. In the current review, an overview on different animal models used in the study of these viruses will be provided. A specific attention will be given to the HTLV-1 virus which is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) but also of a number of inflammatory diseases regrouping the HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), infective dermatitis and some lung inflammatory diseases. Among these models, rabbits, monkeys but also rats provide an excellent in vivo tool for early HTLV-1 viral infection and transmission as well as the induced host immune response against the virus. But ideally, mice remain the most efficient method of studying human afflictions. Genetically altered mice including both transgenic and knockout mice, offer important models to test the role of specific viral and host genes in the development of HTLV-1-associated leukemia. The development of different strains of immunodeficient mice strains (SCID, NOD, and NOG SCID mice) provide a useful and rapid tool of humanized and xenografted mice models, to test new drugs and targeted therapy against HTLV-1-associated leukemia, to identify leukemia stem cells candidates but also to study the innate immunity mediated by the virus. All together, these animal models have revolutionized the biology of retroviruses, their manipulation of host genes and more importantly the potential ways to either prevent their infection or to treat their associated diseases. PMID:23049525

  20. Tax and Semaphorin 4D Released from Lymphocytes Infected with Human Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Their Effect on Neurite Growth.

    PubMed

    Quintremil, Sebastián; Alberti, Carolina; Rivera, Matías; Medina, Fernando; Puente, Javier; Cartier, Luis; Ramírez, Eugenio; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, M Antonieta

    2016-01-01

    Human lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus causing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a neurodegenerative central nervous system (CNS) axonopathy. This virus mainly infects CD4(+) T lymphocytes without evidence of neuronal infection. Viral Tax, secreted from infected lymphocytes infiltrated in the CNS, is proposed to alter intracellular pathways related to axonal cytoskeleton dynamics, producing neurological damage. Previous reports showed a higher proteolytic release of soluble Semaphorin 4D (sSEMA-4D) from CD4(+) T cells infected with HTLV-1. Soluble SEMA-4D binds to its receptor Plexin-B1, activating axonal growth collapse pathways in the CNS. In the current study, an increase was found in both SEMA-4D in CD4(+) T cells and sSEMA-4D released to the culture medium of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HAM/TSP patients compared to asymptomatic carriers and healthy donors. After a 16-h culture, infected PBMCs showed significantly higher levels of CRMP-2 phosphorylated at Ser(522). The effect was blocked either with anti-Tax or anti-SEMA-4D antibodies. The interaction of Tax and sSEMA-4D was found in secreted medium of PBMCs in patients, which might be associated with a leading role of Tax with the SEMA-4D-Plexin-B1 signaling pathway. In infected PBMCs, the migratory response after transwell assay showed that sSEMA-4D responding cells were CD4(+)Tax(+) T cells with a high CRMP-2 pSer(522) content. In the present study, the participation of Tax-sSEMA-4D in the reduction in neurite growth in PC12 cells produced by MT2 (HTLV-1-infected cell line) culture medium was observed. These results lead to the participation of plexins in the reported effects of infected lymphocytes on neuronal cells. PMID:26389656

  1. Neuropsychological assessment in HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study among TSP/HAM, asymptomatic carriers, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Silva, M; Mattos, P; Alfano, A; Araujo, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can cause tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. More recently other diseases such as isolated peripheral polyneuropathy, myopathy, artropathy, and uveitis have been associated with this retrovirus. Only a few uncontrolled studies, without necessary exclusion criteria, have described mild cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients. To further clarify this the authors evaluated, through neuropsychological testing patients with TSP/HAM and asymptomatic infected carriers, comparing both groups with healthy controls. Objectives: To verify the presence of cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers. In addition, the authors aimed to investigate if these deficits correlated with the degree of motor impairment in TSP/HAM patients. Methods: From a cohort of 501 HTLV-1 infected people the authors selected, according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and 37 TSP/HAM patients. Neuropsychological testing was blindly performed in both groups and their scores were compared with those obtained from controls. Results: Both the HTLV-1 carrier group and the group of patients with TSP/HAM exhibited a lower performance in neuropsychological tests when compared with controls. Asymptomatic infected carriers and TSP/HAM patients did not differ in their cognitive results. Also, there was no relation between the degree of motor disability and cognitive deficits in the TSP/HAM group. Psychomotor slowing and deficits in the some domains characterised the neuropsychological impairment in HTLV-1 infection: verbal and visual memory, attention and visuomotor abilities. Conclusions: TSP/HAM as well as asymptomatic infection can be associated with mild cognitive deficits. This finding, if confirmed by further studies, will permit the inclusion of cognitive impairment among the neurological manifestations of HTLV-1. PMID:12876239

  2. Prognostic Factors for Postsurgical Recovery of Deltoid Palsy due to Cervical Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae-Yoon; Chang, Han; Song, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Hong, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Jung Sub; Lee, Sang-Hun; Song, Kwang-Sup; Yang, Jae Jun; Uh, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Tae; Lee, Jae Min

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective multicenter study. Purpose We aimed to investigate prognostic factors affecting postsurgical recovery of deltoid palsy due to cervical disc herniation (CDH). Overview of Literature Little information is available about prognostic factors affecting postsurgical recovery of deltoid palsy due to CDH. Methods Sixty-one patients with CDH causing deltoid palsy (less than grade 3) were included in this study: 35 soft discs and 26 hard discs. Average duration of preoperative deltoid palsy was 11.9 weeks. Thirty-two patients underwent single-level surgery, 22 two-level, four three-level, and three four-level. Patients with accompanying myelopathy, shoulder diseases, or peripheral neuropathy were excluded from the study. Results Deltoid palsy (2.4 grades vs. 4.5 grades, p<0.001) and radiculopathy (6.4 points vs. 2.1 points, p<0.001) significantly improved after surgery. Thirty-six of 61 patients (59%) achieved full recovery (grade 5) of deltoid palsy, with an average time of 8.4 weeks. Longer duration of preoperative deltoid palsy and more severe radiculopathy negatively affected the degree of improvement in deltoid palsy. Age, gender, number of surgery level, and disc type did not affect the degree of improvement of deltoid palsy. Contrary to our expectations, severity of preoperative deltoid palsy did not affect the degree of improvement. Due to the shorter duration of preoperative deltoid palsy, in the context of rapid referral, early surgical decompression resulted in significant recovery of more severe grades (grade 0 or 1) of deltoid palsy compared to grade 2 or 3 deltoid palsy. Conclusions Early surgical decompression significantly improved deltoid palsy caused by CDH, irrespective of age, gender, number of surgery level, and disc type. However, longer duration of deltoid palsy and more severe intensity of preoperative radiating pain were associated with less improvement of deltoid palsy postoperatively. PMID:26435786

  3. HTLV Tax: A Fascinating Multifunctional Co-Regulator of Viral and Cellular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Currer, Robert; Van Duyne, Rachel; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Guendel, Irene; Sampey, Gavin; Das, Ravi; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been identified as the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The virus infects between 15 and 20 million people worldwide of which approximately 2–5% develop ATL. The past 35?years of research have yielded significant insight into the pathogenesis of HTLV-1, including the molecular characterization of Tax, the viral transactivator, and oncoprotein. In spite of these efforts, the mechanisms of oncogenesis of this pleiotropic protein remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we illustrate the multiple oncogenic roles of Tax by summarizing a recent body of literature that refines our understanding of cellular transformation. A focused range of topics are discussed in this review including Tax-mediated regulation of the viral promoter and other cellular pathways, particularly the connection of the NF-?B pathway to both post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Tax and subcellular localization. Specifically, recent research on polyubiquitination of Tax as it relates to the activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is highlighted. Regulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage responses due to Tax are also discussed, including Tax interaction with minichromosome maintenance proteins and the role of Tax in chromatin remodeling. The recent identification of HTLV-3 has amplified the importance of the characterization of emerging viral pathogens. The challenge of the molecular determination of pathogenicity and malignant disease of this virus lies in the comparison of the viral transactivators of HTLV-1, -2, and -3 in terms of transformation and immortalization. Consequently, differences between the three proteins are currently being studied to determine what factors are required for the differences in tumorogenesis. PMID:23226145

  4. Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-infected Cells Secrete Exosomes That Contain Tax Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V.; Sampey, Gavin C.; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-?B in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. PMID:24939845

  5. Humoral immune response to HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) in HTLV-1-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection can lead to development of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) or HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in a subset of infected subjects. HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) gene has a critical role in HTLV-1 infectivity and the development of ATL and HAM/TSP. However, little is known about the immune response against HBZ in HTLV-1-infected individuals. In this study, we examined antibody responses against HBZ in serum/plasma samples from 436 subjects including HTLV-1 seronegative donors, asymptomatic carriers (AC), ATL, and HAM/TSP patients using the luciferase immunoprecipitation system. Results Immunoreactivity against HBZ was detected in subsets of all HTLV-1-infected individuals but the test did not discriminate between AC, ATL and HAM/TSP. However, the frequency of detection of HBZ-specific antibodies in the serum of ATL patients with the chronic subtype was higher than in ATL patients with the lymphomatous subtype. Antibody responses against HBZ were also detected in cerebrospinal fluid of HAM/TSP patients with anti-HBZ in serum. Antibody responses against HBZ did not correlate with proviral load and HBZ mRNA expression in HAM/TSP patients, but the presence of an HBZ-specific response was associated with reduced CD4+ T cell activation in HAM/TSP patients. Moreover, HBZ-specific antibody inhibited lymphoproliferation in the PBMC of HAM/TSP patients. Conclusions This is the first report demonstrating humoral immune response against HBZ associated with HTLV-I infection. Thus, a humoral immune response against HBZ might play a role in HTLV-1 infection. PMID:23405908

  6. Hydatid disease of spine: Multiple meticulous surgeries and a long term followup.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akshay; Prasad, Gautam; Rustagi, Tarush; Bhojraj, Shekhar Y

    2014-09-01

    We present a long term followup (13 years) of spinal hydatid disease with multiple recurrences and intradural dissemination of the disease at the last followup. Intradural extension of the disease in our case was supposedly through the dural rent which has not been reported in English literature. An early followup of the same case has been reported previously by the authors. A 53 year-old female came with progressive left leg pain and difficulty in walking since 2 months. On examination, she had grade four power of ankle and digit dorsiflexors (L4 and L5 myotomes) on the left side (Medical Research Council grade). There was no sensory loss, no myelopathy and sphincters were intact. Plain radiographs showed consolidation at D10-D11 (old operated levels) with stable anterior column and there were no implant related problems. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic lesion at L3-L4, signal intensity same as of cerebrospinal fluid in T2 and T1, displacing the cauda equina roots. The proximal extent of the lesion could not be identified because of artifacts from previous stainless steel instrumentation. Computed tomography myelogram showed complete block at L3-L4 junction with "meniscus sign". This is the longest followup of hydatid disease of the spine that has ever been reported. Hydatid disease should always be included in the differential diagnosis of destructive or infectious lesions of the spine. Aggressive radical resection whenever possible and chemotherapy is the key to good results. Recurrence is known to occur even after that. Disease can have long remission periods. Possibility of intradural dissemination through dural injury is highly likely. Hence, it should always be repaired whenever possible. PMID:25298565

  7. HTLV-1 Evades Type I Interferon Antiviral Signaling by Inducing the Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1)

    PubMed Central

    Olière, Stéphanie; Hernandez, Eduardo; Lézin, Agnès; Arguello, Meztli; Douville, Renée; Nguyen, Thi Lien-Anh; Olindo, Stéphane; Panelatti, Gérard; Kazanji, Mirdad; Wilkinson, Peter; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre; Césaire, Raymond; Hiscott, John

    2010-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of Adult T cell Leukemia (ATL) and the neurological disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the majority of HTLV-1–infected individuals remain asymptomatic carriers (AC) during their lifetime, 2–5% will develop either ATL or HAM/TSP, but never both. To better understand the gene expression changes in HTLV-1-associated diseases, we examined the mRNA profiles of CD4+ T cells isolated from 7 ATL, 12 HAM/TSP, 11 AC and 8 non-infected controls. Using genomic approaches followed by bioinformatic analysis, we identified gene expression pattern characteristic of HTLV-1 infected individuals and particular disease states. Of particular interest, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1—SOCS1—was upregulated in HAM/TSP and AC patients but not in ATL. Moreover, SOCS1 was positively correlated with the expression of HTLV-1 mRNA in HAM/TSP patient samples. In primary PBMCs transfected with a HTLV-1 proviral clone and in HTLV-1-transformed MT-2 cells, HTLV-1 replication correlated with induction of SOCS1 and inhibition of IFN-?/? and IFN-stimulated gene expression. Targeting SOCS1 with siRNA restored type I IFN production and reduced HTLV-1 replication in MT-2 cells. Conversely, exogenous expression of SOCS1 resulted in enhanced HTLV-1 mRNA synthesis. In addition to inhibiting signaling downstream of the IFN receptor, SOCS1 inhibited IFN-? production by targeting IRF3 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. These observations identify a novel SOCS1 driven mechanism of evasion of the type I IFN antiviral response against HTLV-1. PMID:21079688

  8. Nucleotide sequence analysis of HTLV-I isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with TSP/HAM: comparison to other HTLV-I isolates.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, R; Sadaie, M R

    1993-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and the chronic neurologic disorder tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). To study the genetic structure of the virus associated with TSP/HAM, we have obtained and sequenced a partial genomic clone from an HTLV-I-positive cell line established from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a Jamaican patient with TSP/HAM. This clone consisted of a 4.3-kb viral sequence containing the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, and N-terminal portion of the pol gene, with an overall 1.3% sequence variation resulting from mostly nucleotide substitutions, as compared to the prototype HTLV-I ATK-1. The gag and pol regions showed only 1.4% and 1.2% nucleotide variations, respectively. However, the U3 region of the LTR showed the highest sequence variation (3.6%), where several changes appear to be common among certain TSP/HAM isolates. Several of these changes reside within the 21-bp boundaries and the Tax-responsive element. It would be important to determine if the observed changes are sufficient to cause neurologic disorders similar to the murine leukemia virus system or simply reflect the divergent pool of HTLV-I from different geographic locations. At this time, we cannot rule out the possibility that the observed changes have either direct or indirect significance for the HTLV-I pathogenesis in TSP/HAM. PMID:8457377

  9. Conformational Melding Permits a Conserved Binding Geometry in TCR Recognition of Foreign and Self Molecular Mimics

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Baker, Brian M.

    2012-03-16

    Molecular mimicry between foreign and self Ags is a mechanism of TCR cross-reactivity and is thought to contribute to the development of autoimmunity. The {alpha}{beta} TCR A6 recognizes the foreign Ag Tax from the human T cell leukemia virus-1 when presented by the class I MHC HLA-A2. In a possible link with the autoimmune disease human T cell leukemia virus-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, A6 also recognizes a self peptide from the neuronal protein HuD in the context of HLA-A2. We found in our study that the complexes of the HuD and Tax epitopes with HLA-A2 are close but imperfect structural mimics and that in contrast with other recent structures of TCRs with self Ags, A6 engages the HuD Ag with the same traditional binding mode used to engage Tax. Although peptide and MHC conformational changes are needed for recognition of HuD but not Tax and the difference of a single hydroxyl triggers an altered TCR loop conformation, TCR affinity toward HuD is still within the range believed to result in negative selection. Probing further, we found that the HuD-HLA-A2 complex is only weakly stable. Overall, these findings help clarify how molecular mimicry can drive self/nonself cross-reactivity and illustrate how low peptide-MHC stability can permit the survival of T cells expressing self-reactive TCRs that nonetheless bind with a traditional binding mode.

  10. Dural arteriovenous fistulas of the hypoglossal canal: systematic review on imaging anatomy, clinical findings, and endovascular management.

    PubMed

    Spittau, Björn; Millán, Diego San; El-Sherifi, Saad; Hader, Claudia; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Motschall, Edith; Vach, Werner; Urbach, Horst; Meckel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the hypoglossal canal (HCDAVFs) are rare and display a complex angiographic anatomy. Hitherto, they have been referred to as various entities (for example, "marginal sinus DAVFs") solely described in case reports or small series. In this in-depth review of HCDAVF, the authors describe clinical and imaging findings, as well as treatment strategies and subsequent outcomes, based on a systematic literature review supplemented by their own cases (120 cases total). Further, the involved craniocervical venous anatomy with variable venous anastomoses is summarized. Hypoglossal canal DAVFs consist of a fistulous pouch involving the anterior condylar confluence and/or anterior condylar vein with a variable intraosseous component. Three major types of venous drainage are associated with distinct clinical patterns: Type 1, with anterograde drainage (62.5%), mostly presents with pulsatile tinnitus; Type 2, with retrograde drainage to the cavernous sinus and/or orbital veins (23.3%), is associated with ocular symptoms and may mimic cavernous sinus DAVF; and Type 3, with cortical and/or perimedullary drainage (14.2%), presents with either hemorrhage or cervical myelopathy. For Types 1 and 2 HCDAVF, transvenous embolization demonstrates high safety and efficacy (2.9% morbidity, 92.7% total occlusion). Understanding the complex venous anatomy is crucial for planning alternative approaches if standard transjugular access is impossible. Transarterial embolization or surgical disconnection (morbidity 13.3%-16.7%) should be reserved for Type 3 HCDAVFs or lesions with poor venous access. A conservative strategy could be appropriate in Type 1 HCDAVF for which spontaneous regression (5.8%) may be observed. PMID:25415064

  11. [Polymyalgia rheumatica and myelitis associated with anti-cardiolipin antibody].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, A; Nomura, K; Ohno, R; Kurihara, K; Yoshida, H; Ohnuki, M; Tomioka, R; Hosokawa, T; Hamaguchi, K; Shimazu, K

    1998-12-01

    A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital on September 14, 1992, because of systemic myalgia and stiffness, joint pain, and gait disturbance. She had begun to feel headache and pain in the neck and shoulder in the middle of August, 1992. The pain became systemic, and was accompanied by a low-grade fever, which was unresponsive to NSAIDs. On admission, she had no joint swelling or deformities in the extremities. Neurological examination revealed weakness in the right leg, hypoalgesia below the left C4 level, hyperreflexia in the right extremities, and right Babinski's sign. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was very high (100 mm/h). Levels of other acute phase reactants were also high. Tests for antinuclear antibody and anti-cardiolipin antibody were positive, but a test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Creatine kinase activity was within normal limits. A T1-weighted magnetic resonance image of the cervical spine at 0.5 T showed an intramedullary low signal. A T2-weighted image showed a borderless spindle-like high signal. Four nodules enhanced by Gd DTPA were seen at C1-C4. The age at onset, myalgia, stiffness, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were considered to be consistent with a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica. Glucocorticoid treatment was therefore started, and a dramatic clinical improvement was evident within a few days. The patient was discharged from hospital on November 30, 1992. To our knowledge, myelopathy complicated by polymyalgia rheumatica has never been reported previously. Recently, some patients with polymyalgia rheumatica have been reported to have anti-cardiolipin antibody in serum. In the present case anti-cardiolipin antibody may have played a role in the formation of microemboli or in angitis of the cervical spine. PMID:10214070

  12. Interaction of HTLV-1 Tax protein with calreticulin: implications for Tax nuclear export and secretion.

    PubMed

    Alefantis, Timothy; Flaig, Katherine E; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja

    2007-05-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The HTLV-1 transcriptional transactivator protein Tax plays an integral role in virus replication and disease progression. Traditionally, Tax is described as a nuclear protein where it performs its primary role as a transcriptional transactivator. However, recent studies have clearly shown that Tax can also be localized to the cytoplasm where it has been shown to interact with a number of host transcription factors most notably NF-kappaB, constitutive expression of which is directly related to the T cell transforming properties of Tax in ATL patients. The presence of a functional nuclear export signal (NES) within Tax and the secretion of full-length Tax have also been demonstrated previously. Additionally, release of Tax from HTLV-1-infected cells and the presence of cell-free Tax was demonstrated in the CSF of HAM/TSP patients suggesting that the progression to HAM/TSP might be mediated by the ability of Tax to function as an extracellular cytokine. Therefore, in both ATL and HAM/TSP Tax nuclear export and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling may play a critical role, the mechanism of which remains unknown. In this study, we have demonstrated that the calcium binding protein calreticulin interacts with Tax by co-immunoprecipitation. This interaction was found to localize to a region at or near the nuclear membrane. In addition, differential expression of calreticulin was demonstrated in various cell types that correlated with their ability to retain cytoplasmic Tax, particularly in astrocytes. Finally, a comparison of a number of HTLV-1-infected T cell lines to non-infected T cells revealed higher expression of calreticulin in infected cells implicating a direct role for this protein in HTLV-1 infection. PMID:17395420

  13. Use of human antigen presenting cell gene array profiling to examine the effect of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax on primary human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Jaya; Kampani, Karan; Datta, Suman; Wigdahl, Brian; Flaig, Katherine E; Jain, Pooja

    2006-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is etiologically linked to adult T-cell leukemia and a progressive demyelinating disorder termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). One of the most striking features of the immune response in HAM/TSP centers on the expansion of HTLV-1-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) compartment in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid. More than 90% of the HTLV-1-specific CTLs are directed against the viral Tax (11-19) peptide implying that Tax is available for immune recognition by antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). DCs obtained from HAM/TSP patients have been shown to be infected with HTLV-1 and exhibit rapid maturation. Therefore, we hypothesized that presentation of Tax peptides by activated DCs to naIve CD8(+) T cells may play an important role in the induction of a Tax-specific CTL response and neurologic dysfunction. In this study, a pathway-specific antigen presenting cell gene array was used to study transcriptional changes induced by exposure of monocyte-derived DCs to extracellular HTLV-1 Tax protein. Approximately 100 genes were differentially expressed including genes encoding toll-like receptors, cell surface receptors, proteins involved in antigen uptake and presentation and adhesion molecules. The differential regulation of chemokines and cytokines characteristic of functional DC activation was also observed by the gene array analyses. Furthermore, the expression pattern of signal transduction genes was also significantly altered. These results have suggested that Tax-mediated DC gene regulation might play a critical role in cellular activation and the mechanisms resulting in HTLV-1-induced disease. PMID:16595374

  14. Comparison of in vivo and simulator-retrieved metal-on-metal cervical disc replacements

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Ciccarelli, Lauren; Harper, Megan L.; Siskey, Ryan; Shorez, Jacob; Chan, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical disc arthroplasty is regarded as a promising treatment for myelopathy and radiculopathy as an alternative to cervical spine fusion. On the basis of 2-year clinical data for the PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc (Medtronic, Memphis, Tennessee), the Food and Drug Administration recommended conditional approval in September 2006 and final approval in July 2007; however, relatively little is known about its wear and damage modes in vivo. The main objective was to analyze the tribological findings of the PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc. This study characterized the in vivo wear patterns of retrieved cervical discs and tested the hypothesis that the total disc replacements exhibited similar surface morphology and wear patterns in vitro as in vivo. Methods Ten explanted total disc replacements (PRESTIGE®, PRESTIGE® I, and PRESTIGE® II) from 10 patients retrieved after a mean of 1.8 years (range, 0.3–4.1 years) were analyzed. Wear testing included coupled lateral bending ( ±4.7°) and axial rotation ( ±3.8°) with a 49 N axial load for 5 million cycles followed by 10 million cycles of flexion-extension ( ±9.7°) with 148 N. Implant surfaces were characterized by the use of white-light interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results The explants generally exhibited a slightly discolored, elliptic wear region of varying dimension centered in the bearing center, with the long axis oriented in the medial-lateral direction. Abrasive wear was the dominant in vivo wear mechanism, with microscopic scratches generally oriented in the medial-lateral direction. Wear testing resulted in severe abrasive wear in a curvilinear fashion oriented primarily in the medial-lateral direction. All retrievals showed evidence of an abrasive wear mechanism. Conclusions This study documented important similarity between the wear mechanisms of components tested in vitro and explanted PRESTIGE® Cervical Discs; however, the severity of wear was much greater during the in vitro test compared with the retrievals. PMID:25694884

  15. Cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR): global perspectives on use and trends

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, John; Van Alstyne, Ellen M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design:?Cross-sectional survey. Objectives:?To obtain information from the global community regarding cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) use and trends before and after US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of devices in 2007 and summarize available information on utilization and government approval for devices. Methods:?Data on utilization and approval were sought from PubMed, Google, FDA, and manufacturers’ websites. The 6195 members of AOSpine International were invited to participate in a survey to assess global C-ADR use and trends. Results:?Publically available data on utilization, trends, and approval outside of the US and Europe is limited. No studies of utilization were found. Of 1479 professionals responding to the survey, 50% had C-ADR specific training and reported ever performing C-ADR. Most respondents believed that C-ADR was safe and effective, but approximately one quarter responded that they did not know. Of those who had done C-ADR, 49% reported performing ? 1 before December compared with 92% after January 2008 and 51.3% indicated that all their C-ADRs were placed in a single level; 27% reported ? 1 failures that required revision. The majority foresee that C-ADR use will increase in the next 5 years. Most respondents believed that the best indication is radiculopathy from soft-disc pathology rather than myelopathy or disorders arising from spondylotic (hard-disc) pathology. Conclusion:?More C-ADR has been performed after January 2008. Most respondents expect the number to increase. There may be differences in failure rates when performed inside or outside of a sponsored research trial. PMID:23236314

  16. Characterization of immunodominant epitopes of gag and pol gene-encoded proteins of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, R B; Rudolph, D L; Griffis, K P; Kitamura, K; Honda, M; Coligan, J E; Folks, T M

    1991-01-01

    A series of synthetic peptides derived from the corresponding regions of the gag, pol, and env proteins of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) were used in an enzyme immunoassay to map the immunodominant epitopes of HTLV. Serum specimens from 79 of 87 (91%) HTLV-I-infected patients reacted with the synthetic peptide Gag-1a (amino acids [a.a.] 102 to 117) derived from the C terminus of the p19gag protein of HTLV-I. Minimal cross-reactivity (11%) was observed with serum specimens from HTLV-II-infected patients. Peptide Pol-3, encoded by the pol region of HTLV-I (a.a. 487 to 502), reacted with serum specimens from both HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected patients (94 and 86%, respectively). The antibody levels to Pol-3 were significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis than in either adult T-cell leukemia patients or HTLV-I-positive asymptomatic carriers. None of the other peptides studied demonstrated significant binding to serum specimens obtained from HTLV-I- or HTLV-II-infected individuals. While Gag-1a did not react with serum specimens from normal controls, Pol-3 demonstrated some reaction with specimens from seronegative individuals (11.4%). The antibodies to Gag-1a and Pol-3 in serum specimens from HTLV-I-infected patients could be specifically inhibited by the corresponding synthetic peptides and by a crude HTLV-I antigen preparation, indicating that these peptides mimic native epitopes present in HTLV-I proteins that are recognized by serum antibodies from HTLV-I- and -II-infected individuals. PMID:2002547

  17. Multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord: Magnetic resonance appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Thielen, K.R.; Miller, G.M.

    1996-05-01

    To determine the MR appearance of spinal cord multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques in patients presenting with myclopathy by using a high-field (1.5 T) imager. We studied 119 patients who underwent high-field (1.5 T) MR studies of the spinal cord for evaluation of myelopathy. All 119 patients were thought to have possible findings of spinal cord MS at the time of the MRI interpretation. Sixty-four plaques were studied in 47 patients with clinically definite MS and adequate quality MRI. Of these patients 68% had a single spinal cord plaque, 19% had two plaques, and 13% had three or more plaques. Sixty-two percent of the plaques occurred in the cervical spinal cord and most frequently involved the posterior (41%) and lateral (25%) aspects of the spinal cord. None of the 64 lesions involved the entire thickness of the spinal cord. The lesion length varied from 2 to 60 mm, with 84% of the lesions <15 mm in length. The spinal cord diameter was unchanged in 84% of plaques, enlarged at the level of the lesion in 14%, and atrophic in 2%. Just over half (55%) of the plaques enhanced with intravenously administered gadolinium. Of the patients who received synchronous head and spinal cord examinations on the same day, 24% had normal findings on the MR study of the head. Follow-up spinal cord studies were available in nine patients. New lesions developed in two patients, while previously described lesions resolved. In three patients only new lesions developed. In four patients no change occurred in the existing number of cord plaques. Spinal cord demyelinating plaques present as well-circumscribed foci of increased T2 signal that asymmetrically involve the spinal cord parenchyma. Knowledge of their usual appearance may prevent unnecessary biopsy. An MR examination of the head may confirm the imaging suggestion of spinal cord demyelinating disease, because up to 76% of patients have abnormal intracranial findings. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Symptomatic Triple-Region Spinal Stenosis Treated with Simultaneous Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Joseph C.; Raudenbush, Brandon L.; Molinari, Christine; Molinari, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objectives?Symptomatic triple-region spinal stenosis (TRSS), defined as spinal stenosis in three different regions of the spine, is extremely rare. To our knowledge, treatment with simultaneous decompressive surgery is not described in the literature. We report a case of a patient with TRSS who was treated successfully with simultaneous decompressive surgery in three separate regions of the spine. Methods?A 50-year-old man presented with combined progressive cervical and thoracic myelopathy along with severe lumbar spinal claudication and radiculopathy. He underwent simultaneous decompressive surgery in all three regions of his spine and concomitant instrumented fusion in the cervical and thoracic regions. Results?Estimated blood loss for the procedure was 600 mL total (250 mL cervical, 250 mL thoracic, 100 mL lumbar) and operative time was ?3.5 hours. No changes were noted on intraoperative monitoring. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. The patient was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation on postoperative day (POD) 7 and discharged home on POD 11. At 6-month follow-up, his gait and motor function was improved and returned to normal in all extremities. He remains partially disabled due to chronic back pain. Conclusions?This report is the first of symptomatic TRSS treated with simultaneous surgery in three different regions of the spine. Simultaneous triple region stenosis surgery appears to be an effective treatment option for this rare condition, but may be associated with prolonged hospital stay after surgery. PMID:26682102

  19. CP-690,550, a therapeutic agent, inhibits cytokine-mediated Jak3 activation and proliferation of T cells from patients with ATL and HAM/TSP.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wei; Zhang, Meili; Jiang, Jian-kang; Thomas, Craig J; Oh, Unsong; Bryant, Bonita R; Chen, Jing; Sato, Noriko; Tagaya, Yutaka; Morris, John C; Janik, John E; Jacobson, Steven; Waldmann, Thomas A

    2011-02-10

    The retrovirus, human T-cell-lymphotrophic virus-1 (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and the neurological disorder HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The HTLV-I-encoded protein tax constitutively activates interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-9, and IL-15 autocrine/paracrine systems that in turn activate the Jak3 (Janus kinase 3)/STAT5 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 5) pathway, suggesting a therapeutic strategy that involves targeting Jak3. We evaluated the action of the Jak3 inhibitor CP-690,550 on cytokine dependent ex vivo proliferation that is characteristic of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from select patients with smoldering or chronic subtypes of ATL, or from those with HAM/TSP whose PBMCs are associated with autocrine/paracrine pathways that involve the production of IL-2, IL-9, IL-15, and their receptors. CP-690,550 at 50 nM inhibited the 6-day ex vivo spontaneous proliferation of PBMCs from ATL and HAM/TSP patients by 67.1% and 86.4%, respectively. Furthermore, CP-690,550 inhibited STAT5 phosphorylation in isolated ATL T cells ex vivo. Finally, in an in vivo test of biological activity, CP-690,550 treatment of mice with a CD8 T-cell IL-15-transgenic leukemia that manifests an autocrine IL-15/IL-15R? pathway prolonged the survival duration of these tumor-bearing mice. These studies support further evaluation of the Jak3 inhibitor CP-690,550 in the treatment of select patients with HTLV-I-associated ATL and HAM/TSP. PMID:21106989

  20. Osteogenic lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells from patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yoshifumi; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Asari, Toru; Chin, Shunfu; Ono, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Mizukami, Hiroki; Murakami, Manabu; Yagihashi, Soroku; Motomura, Shigeru; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-17

    Ectopic bone formation is thought to be responsible for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from spinal ligaments and shown to play a key role in the process of ectopic ossification. The purpose of this study was to explore the capacity of these MSCs to undergo lineage commitment and to assess the gene expression changes between these committed and uncommitted MSCs between OPLL and non-OPLL patients. Spinal ligament-derived cells were obtained from OPLL patients or patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (non-ossified) for comparison (n=8 in each group). MSCs from the two patient cohorts were evaluated for changes in colony forming ability; osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential; and changes in gene expression following induction with lineage-specific conditions. We show that the osteogenic differentiation potential was significantly higher in MSCs from OPLL patients than in those from non-OPLL patients. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity and several osteogenic-related genes expressions (bone morphogenetic protein 2, runt-related transcription factor 2 and alkaline phosphatase) were significantly higher in the OPLL group than in the non-OPLL group. However, single cell cloning efficiency, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, and the expression of adipogenic and chondrogenic-related genes were equivalent between MSCs harvested from OPLL and non-OPLL patient samples. These findings suggest an increase in the osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs from OPLL patients and that this propensity toward the osteogenic lineage may be a causal factor in the ossification in these ligaments. PMID:24361881

  1. Phase II Study of High-Dose Photon/Proton Radiotherapy in the Management of Spine Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaney, Thomas F. Liebsch, Norbert J.; Pedlow, Francis X.; Adams, Judith; Dean, Susan; Yeap, Beow Y.; McManus, Patricia; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Harmon, David C.; Spiro, Ira J.; Raskin, Kevin A.; Suit, Herman D.; Yoon, Sam S.; Hornicek, Francis J.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (XRT) for spine sarcomas is constrained by spinal cord, nerve, and viscera tolerance. Negative surgical margins are uncommon; hence, doses of {>=}66 Gy are recommended. A Phase II clinical trial evaluated high-dose photon/proton XRT for spine sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had nonmetastatic, thoracic, lumbar, and/or sacral spine/paraspinal sarcomas. Treatment included pre- and/or postoperative photon/proton XRT with or without radical resection; patients with osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma received chemotherapy. Shrinking fields delivered 50.4 cobalt Gray equivalent (Gy RBE) to subclinical disease, 70.2 Gy RBE to microscopic disease in the tumor bed, and 77.4 Gy RBE to gross disease at 1.8 Gy RBE qd. Doses were reduced for radiosensitive histologies, concurrent chemoradiation, or when diabetes or autoimmune disease present. Spinal cord dose was limited to 63/54 Gy RBE to surface/center. Intraoperative boost doses of 7.5 to 10 Gy could be given by dural plaque. Results: A total of 50 patients (29 chordoma, 14 chondrosarcoma, 7 other) underwent gross total (n = 25) or subtotal (n = 12) resection or biopsy (n = 13). With 48 month median follow-up, 5-year actuarial local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival are: 78%, 63%, and 87% respectively. Two of 36 (5.6%) patients treated for primary versus 7/14 (50%) for recurrent tumor developed local recurrence (p < 0.001). Five patients developed late radiation-associated complications; no myelopathy developed but three sacral neuropathies appeared after 77.12 to 77.4 Gy RBE. Conclusions: Local control with this treatment is high in patients radiated at the time of primary presentation. Spinal cord dose constraints appear to be safe. Sacral nerves receiving 77.12-77.4 Gy RBE are at risk for late toxicity.

  2. Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Photon Radiotherapy Using Multifractionated Regimen to Paraspinal Chordomas and Rare Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Terezakis, Stephanie A. Lovelock, D. Michael; Bilsky, Mark H.; Hunt, Margaret A.; Zatcky, Joan N.P.; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy enables delivery of high-dose radiation to tumors close to the spinal cord. We report our experience with multifractionated regimens using image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy to treat gross paraspinal disease to doses beyond cord tolerance. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 27 consecutive patients with partially resected or unresectable paraspinal tumors irradiated to >5,300 cGy in standard fractionation. Results: The median follow-up was 17.4 months (range, 2.1-47.3). Eighteen sarcomas, seven chordomas, and two ependymomas were treated. The median dose to the planning target volume was 6,600 cGy (range, 5,396-7,080) in 180- or 200-cGy fractions. The median planning target volume was 164 cm{sup 3} (range, 29-1,116). Seven patients developed recurrence at the treatment site (26%), and 6 of these patients had high-grade tumors. Three patients with recurrence had metastatic disease at the time of radiotherapy. The 2-year local control rate was 65%, and the 2-year overall survival rate was 79%. Of the 5 patients who died, 4 had metastatic disease at death. Twenty-three patients (84%) reported either no pain or improved pain at the last follow-up visit. Sixteen patients discontinued narcotic use after treatment (62.5%). Twenty-three patients (89%) had a stable or improved American Spine Injury Association score at the last follow-up visit. No patient experienced radiation-induced myelopathy. Conclusions: The dose to paraspinal tumors has traditionally been limited to respect cord tolerance. With image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy, greater doses of radiation delivered in multiple fractions can be prescribed with excellent target coverage, effective palliation, and acceptable toxicity and local control.

  3. Standardization of Quantitative PCR for Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 in Japan: a Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Madoka; Okuma, Kazu; Yamochi, Tadanori; Sato, Tomoo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Umeki, Kazumi; Kubota, Ryuji; Sobata, Rieko; Matsumoto, Chieko; Kaneko, Noriaki; Naruse, Isao; Yamagishi, Makoto; Nakashima, Makoto; Momose, Haruka; Araki, Kumiko; Mizukami, Takuo; Mizusawa, Saeko; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ochiai, Masaki; Utsunomiya, Atae; Koh, Ki-Ryang; Ogata, Masao; Nosaka, Kisato; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Iwanaga, Masako; Sagara, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Satake, Masahiro; Okayama, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Manabu; Izumo, Shuji; Saito, Shigeru; Itabashi, Kazuo; Kamihira, Shimeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshiki; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was used to assess the amount of HTLV-1 provirus DNA integrated into the genomic DNA of host blood cells. Accumulating evidence indicates that a high proviral load is one of the risk factors for the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. However, interlaboratory variability in qPCR results makes it difficult to assess the differences in reported proviral loads between laboratories. To remedy this situation, we attempted to minimize discrepancies between laboratories through standardization of HTLV-1 qPCR in a collaborative study. TL-Om1 cells that harbor the HTLV-1 provirus were serially diluted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells to prepare a candidate standard. By statistically evaluating the proviral loads of the standard and those determined using in-house qPCR methods at each laboratory, we determined the relative ratios of the measured values in the laboratories to the theoretical values of the TL-Om1 standard. The relative ratios of the laboratories ranged from 0.84 to 4.45. Next, we corrected the proviral loads of the clinical samples from HTLV-1 carriers using the relative ratio. As expected, the overall differences between the laboratories were reduced by half, from 7.4-fold to 3.8-fold on average, after applying the correction. HTLV-1 qPCR can be standardized using TL-Om1 cells as a standard and by determining the relative ratio of the measured to the theoretical standard values in each laboratory. PMID:26292315

  4. Natural history and treatment of craniocervical junction dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joanna Y; Molenda, Joseph; Bydon, Ali; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

    2015-11-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) located at the craniocervical junction are rare vascular malformations with distinctive features, and their natural history and the optimal treatment strategy remains unclear. We retrospectively reviewed eight patients with craniocervical junction DAVF who were evaluated at our institution between 2009 and 2012. We also conducted a MEDLINE search for all reports of craniocervical junction DAVF between 1970 and 2013, and reviewed 119 patients from 56 studies. From a total of 127 patients, 46 (37.1%) presented with myelopathy, 53 (43.1%) with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and four (3.3%) with brainstem dysfunction. SAH was typically mild, most often Hunt and Hess Grade I or II (83.3%), and associated with ascending venous drainage via the intracranial veins (p<0.001). Higher rates of obliteration were observed after microsurgery compared to embolization. Overall, younger age (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.12; p=0.011), hemorrhagic presentation (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.06-0.50; p=0.001), and microsurgery (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.08-0.6; p=0.004) were independently predictive of good outcome at the last follow-up. Microsurgery was the only independent predictor of overall improvement at the last follow-up (OR 4.35; 95% CI 1.44-13.2; p=0.009). Prompt diagnosis and microsurgical management, offering a greater chance of immediate obliteration, may optimize the outcomes for patients with craniocervical junction DAVF. Endovascular treatment is often not feasible due to lesion angioarchitecture, and is associated with a higher risk of lesion recanalization or recurrence. However, long term studies with newer embolic agents such as Onyx (ev3 Endovascular, Plymouth, MN, USA) are yet to be performed. PMID:26195333

  5. Amelioration of radiation nephropathy in rats by postirradiation treatment with dexamethasone and/or captopril

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Sun, M.C.; Mariano, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) and captopril are effective drugs in the treatment of radiation nephropathy in experimental animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative effectiveness of the two drugs and to see if their combination is more effective than either drug alone. For this purpose both kidneys of 143 rats were exposed surgically and irradiated with 13-20 Gy {gamma} rays. The surrounding tissues, with the exception of a segment of lumbar cord, were shielded. Each group had free access to acidified drinking water containing either DEX (94 {mu}g/l), captopril (500 mg/l), DEX (94{mu}g/l) + captopril (500 mg/l) or drug-free water. Dexamethasone treatment was stopped after 90 days, but animals continued to receive captopril until death. At approximately monthly intervals the animals were weighed and renal function (PUN, hematocrit, {sup 51}Cr-EDTA retention) was measured. A side effect of treatment with DEX and DEX + captopril was a reduced increase in body weight. Paralysis of the hind limbs developed in nine animals that received captopril and/or DEX treatment. The classical histological lesions associated with radiation myelopathy were not evident in these paretic rats. It is therefore suggested that paralysis may be attributed in part to drug-induced neurotoxicity in animals with impaired renal clearance. Macroscopically and histologically, nearly all the animals that survived more than 400 days had evidence of renal tumor development. dexamethasone and/or captopril appear to selectively ameliorate glomerular compared to tubular damage, based on histological findings. All three experimental treatments delayed but did not stop the progression of lethal renal injury as measured by kidney function tests and survival time. Median survival times for nontreated and captopril-DEX- and DEX + captopril-treated animals exposed to 14.5 to 19.0 Gy kidney irradiation were 175,242,261 and 395 days, respectively. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Preliminary Experiences of the Combined Midline-Splitting French Door Laminoplasty with Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) Plate for Cervical Spondylosis and OPLL

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Hur, Junseok W.; Choi, Won-Seok; Shin, Dong Ah

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cervical midline-splitting French-door laminoplasty with a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) plate. The authors retrospectively analyzed the results of patients with cervical laminoplasty miniplate (MAXPACER®) without bone grafts in multilevel cervical stenosis. Methods Fifteen patients (13 males and 2 females, mean age 50.0 years (range 35-72)) with multilevel cervical stenosis (ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and cervical spondylotic myelopathy) underwent a combined surgery of midline-splitting French-door laminoplasty with or without mini plate. All 15 patients were followed for at least 12 months (mean follow-up 13.3 months) after surgery, and a retrospective review of the clinical, radiological and surgical data was conducted. Results The radiographic results showed a significant increase over the postoperative period in anterior-posterior diameter (9.4±2.2 cm to 16.2±1.1 cm), open angles in cervical lamina (46.5±16.0° to 77.2±13.1°), and sectional volume of cervical central canal (100.5±0.7 cm2 to 146.5±4.9 cm2) (p<0.001). The sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was well preserved (31.7±10.0° to 31.2±7.6°, p=0.877) during the follow-up period. The clinical results were successful, and there were no significant intraoperative complications except for screw displacement in two cases. The mini plate constructs did not fail during the 12 month follow-up period, and the decompression was maintained. Conclusion Despite the small cohort and short follow-up duration, the present study demonstrated that combined cervical expansive laminoplasty using the mini plate is an effective treatment for multilevel cervical stenosis. PMID:26217382

  7. Does Intramedullary Signal Intensity on MRI Affect the Surgical Outcomes of Patients with Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Tae Hong; Shin, Hyung Shik; Hwang, Yong Soon; Park, Sang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients with cervical ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) are susceptible to cord injury, which often develops into myelopathic symptoms. However, little is known regarding the prognostic factors that are involved in minor trauma. We evaluated the relationship between minor trauma and neurological outcome of OPLL and investigated the prognostic factors with a focus on compressive factors and intramedullary signal intensity (SI). Methods A total of 74 patients with cervical myelopathy caused by OPLL at more than three-levels were treated with posterior decompression surgeries. We surveyed the space available for spinal cord (SAC), the severity of SI change on T2-weighted image, and diabetes mellitus (DM). The neurological outcome using Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scale was assessed at admission and at 12-month follow-up. Results Among the variables tested, preoperative JOA score, severity of intramedullary SI, SAC, and DM were significantly related to neurological outcome. The mean preoperative JOA were 11.3±1.9 for the 41 patients who did not have histories of trauma and 8.0±3.1 for the 33 patients who had suffered minor traumas (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the recovery ratios between those two groups. Conclusions Initial neurological status and high intramedullary SI in the preoperative phase were related to poorer postoperative outcomes. Moreover, the patients with no histories of DM and larger SACs exhibited better improvement than did the patients with DM and smaller SACs. Although the initial JOA scores were worse for the minor trauma patients than did those who had no trauma prior to surgery, minor trauma exerted no direct effects on the surgical outcomes. PMID:25328649