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Background Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is increasingly prevalent in the elderly and is the leading cause of spinal cord dysfunction\\u000a in this population. Laminectomy with fusion and laminoplasty halt progression of myelopathy in these patients; however, both\\u000a procedures have well-documented complications and associated morbidity and it is unclear which might be most advantageous.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes We therefore compared the pain, function and alignment of
Barrett I. Woods; Justin Hohl; Joon Lee; William Donaldson III; James Kang
BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is frequently encountered in neurosurgical practice. The posterior surgical approach includes laminectomy and laminoplasty. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of posterior laminectomy compared with posterior laminoplasty for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. METHODS: An extensive search of the literature in Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library was performed by an experienced librarian. Risk of bias was assessed by two authors independently. The quality of the studies was graded, and the following outcome measures were retrieved: pre- and postoperative (m)JOA, pre- and postoperative ROM, postoperative VAS neck pain, and Ishira cervical curvature index. If possible data were pooled, otherwise a weighted mean was calculated for each study and a range mentioned. RESULTS: All studies were of very low quality. Due to inadequate description of the data in most articles, pooling of the data was not possible. Qualitative interpretation of the data learned that there were no clinically important differences, except for the higher rate of procedure-related complications with laminoplasty. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, a claim of superiority for laminoplasty or laminectomy was not justified. The higher number of procedure-related complications should be considered when laminoplasty is offered to a patient as a treatment option. A study of robust methodological design is warranted to provide objective data on the clinical effectiveness of both procedures. PMID:23575659
Bartels, Ronald H M A; van Tulder, Maurits W; Moojen, Wouter A; Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C
Background: Spinal cord compression in flourosis is a common complication. These complications are mainly due to compression of the spinal cord by thickening and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum. Surgical decompression is the treatment of choice for fluorotic spinal cord compression. The recurrence of spinal cord compression after surgical decompression in flourosis is a rare event. Case Description: We are presenting a case of a 63-year-old man who belonged to Kanpur, an endemic fluorosis region in India, with symptoms of cervical cord compression cranial to the operative site, 20 years after laminectomy for cervical fluorotic myelopathy. Urinary and serum fluoride levels were elevated. The patient underwent a skeletal survey: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed a postoperative defect of laminectomy, osteosclerosis, osteophyte formation, calcification of the intraosseus membrane in the forearm, thickening and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament at C1, thickening and ossification of the residual ligamentum flavum at C1/C2, and dural calcification at the C2 vertebral level and compressive myelopathy. The patient refused surgical decompression and was managed with tizanidine HCl (an antispasticity medicine), a sublingual single night dose, 8 mg for symptomatic relief. Conclusion: The recurrence of spinal cord compression in the fluorotic spine 20 years after laminectomy is a very unusual event and hence the patient should be kept under observation for a long duration. This case report contributes to the literature associated with the management of fluorotic spine.
A retrospective study to investigate the relationship between the surgical levels and decompression effects was performed in patients with cervical myelopathy who had undergone Tension-band laminoplasty (TBL) with\\/without simultaneous C1 laminectomy. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (115 males, 53 females; age: 31–80 years, average 58.9 years; follow-up period: 12–120 months, average 20 months) were divided into three groups according to the range of the
BACKGROUND:: Controversy exists as to the best posterior operative procedure to treat multi-level compressive cervical spondylotic myelopathy. OBJECTIVE:: To determine clinical, radiological and patient satisfaction outcomes between these two surgical procedures. METHODS:: We performed a prospective, randomized study of Expansile Cervical Laminoplasty (ECL) vs. Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion (CLF) in patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy. End-points included the SF-36, the NDI, VAS, modified JOA score, Nurick score and radiographic measures. RESULTS:: A survey of academic North American spine surgeons (n=30) demonstrated that CLF is the most commonly used (70%) posterior procedure to treat multi-level spondylotic cervical myelopathy. A total of 16 patients were randomized: CLF (n=7) / ECL (n=9). Both groups showed improvements in their Nurick grade and JOA score postoperatively, but only the improvement in the Nurick grade for the ECL group was statistically significant (p<0.05). The cervical ROM between C2 and C7 was reduced by 75% in the CLF group and by only 20% in the ECL group when comparing pre- and post-op range of motion. The overall increase in canal area was significantly (p<0.001) greater in the CLF, but there was a suggestion that the adjacent level was more narrowed in the CLF group in as little as 1 year post-operative. CONCLUSION:: ECL compares favorably in many respects to CLF. While patient numbers are small, there were significant improvements in pain measures in the ECL group while still maintaining range of motion. Restoration of spinal canal area was superior in the CLF group. PMID:21817931
Manzano, Glen R; Casella, Gizelda; Wang, Michael Y; D O D C, Steven Vanni; Levi, Allan D
The objective of the article is to verify the hypothesis that the dorsal multilevel laminectomy and rod-screw-instrumented\\u000a fusion (DLF) for multilevel spondylotic cervical myelopathy (MSCM) is less strenuous for patients, and less prone to perioperative\\u000a complications, than ventral multilevel corpectomy and plate-screw-instrumented fusion (VCF), while clinical outcome is comparable.\\u000a One hundred and three successive patients were treated for at least
Rudolf Andreas Kristof; Thomas Kiefer; Marcus Thudium; Florian Ringel; Michael Stoffel; Attlila Kovacs; Christian-Andreas Mueller
Objective: Cervical laminectomies with transpedicular insertion technique is known to be a biomechanically stronger method in cervical pathologies. However, its frequency of use is low in the routine practice, as the pedicle is thin and risk of neurovascular damage is high. In this study, we emphasize the results of cervical laminectomies with transpedicular fixation using fluoroscopy in degenerative cervical spine disorder. Materials and Methods: Postoperative malposition of the transpedicular screws of the 70 pedicles of the 10 patients we operated due to degenerative stenosis in the cervical region, were investigated. Fixation was performed between C3 and C7, and we used resected lamina bone chips for fusion. Clinical indicators included age, gender, neurologic status, surgical indication, and number of levels stabilized. Dominant vertebral artery of all the patients was evaluated with Doppler ultrasonography. Preoperative and postoperative Nurick grade of each patient was documented. Results: No patients experienced neurovascular injury as a result of pedicle screw placement. Two patients had screw malposition, which did not require reoperation due to minor breaking. Most patients had 32-mm screws placed. Postoperative computed tomography scanning showed no compromise of the foramen transversarium. A total of 70 pedicle screws were placed. Good bony fusion was observed in all patients. At follow-up, 9/10 (90%) patients had improved in their Nurick grades. The cases were followed-up for an average of 35.7 months (30–37 months). Conclusions: Use of the cervical pedicular fixation (CPF) provides a very strong three-column stabilization but also carries vascular injury without nerve damage. Laminectomies technique may reduce the risk of malposition due to visualization of the spinal canal. CPF can be performed in a one-stage posterior procedure. This technique yielded good fusion rate without complications and can be considered as a good alternative compared other techniques.
Background: Cervical decompressive laminectomy is a common procedure for addressing multilevel cervical spine pathology. The most common reasons for performing simultaneous posterior cervical fusion include the prevention of progressive postlaminectomy kyphotic deformity or other types of instability which can contribute to late neurological deterioration. Methods: The medical literature (Pub Med with MeSH) concerning cervical laminectomy, posterior cervical fusion, and complications of laminectomy/fusion was reviewed. Additionally, references from the articles were queried to find additional literature. Results: Multiple studies concluded that cervical laminectomy versus laminectomy and fusion produced similar short-term postoperative outcomes. Careful patient selection was warranted to minimize the complications associated with cervical laminectomy alone; these included postoperative kyphosis (6–46%) and late deterioration (10–37%). The addition of a posterior cervical fusion was associated with relatively low complication rates, and avoided the evolution of late deformity or delayed neurological deterioration. Conclusion: Although the short-term results of cervical laminectomy versus laminectomy and fusion are similar, there appear to be more complications associated with performing laminectomy alone over the long term. Here, we reviewed the pros and cons of posterior cervical decompression alone versus decompression with fusion/instrumentation to treat cervical pathology, highlighting the complications associated with each surgical alternative.
McAllister, Beck D.; Rebholz, Brandon J.; Wang, Jeffery C.
Thoracic columns (T1-L1 levels) from 15 fresh human cadavers were used to quantify alterations in the biomechanical response after laminectomy. Eight specimens were tested intact (Group I); the remaining seven preparations were tested after two-level laminectomy (Group II) at the midheight of the column. All specimens were fixed at the proximal and distal ends and loaded until failure. Force and deformation were collected by use of a data acquisition system. Failure of the Group I specimens included compressive fractures with or without posterior element distractions, generally at the midheight of the column. Group II preparations failed at the superior aspect of laminectomy or at a level above laminectomy, suggesting an increased load sharing. Biomechanical responses of the Group II preparations were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of the Group I specimens at deformations from the physiological to the failure range. In addition, failure forces for Group II preparations were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than for Group I specimens. The stiffness and energy-absorbing capacities of the laminectomized specimens were also significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of the intact columns. In contrast, the deflections at failure for the two groups were not statistically different, suggesting that the human thoracic spine is deformation sensitive. Our data demonstrate that a two-level laminectomy decreases the strength and stability of the thoracic spine throughout the loading range. Although this is not a practical concern with an otherwise intact vertebral column, laminectomy, when other abnormalities such as vertebral fracture, tumor, or infection exist, may require stabilization by fusion and instrumentation. PMID:8474650
Yoganandan, N; Maiman, D J; Pintar, F A; Bennett, G J; Larson, S J
The present report details the successful development of a model for spinal cord injury (SCI). This model is simple, reproducible, and requires no laminectomy. Development of the model was carried out using fourteen dogs. A balloon catheter was inserted into the extradural space via the intervertebral foramen of each dog, then the balloon was inflated at the L1 level by
Summary Lancinating pain, as described in tabes dorsalis, was noted in four patients with chronic sciatica after several months of laminectomy. The pain responded well to carbamezapine therapy. Abnormal or ephaptic neural transmission of impulses in the roots was considered to be the cause of such pain.
BACKGROUND:: Cervical laminectomy and fusion (CLF) is a treatment option for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Postoperative C5 nerve palsy is a possible complication of CLF. It has been suggested that C5 nerve palsy may be due to posterior drift of the spinal cord related to a wide laminectomy trough. PURPOSE:: To test the hypothesis that excessive spinal cord drift into a wide laminectomy trough is associated with C5 palsy. STUDY DESIGN:: Retrospective case-control study. PATIENT SAMPLE:: Seventeen patients with C5 palsy, 8 patients as control group. OUTCOME MEASURES:: Spinal cord positional measurements on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:: All patients who underwent elective CLF for cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossified posterior longitudinal ligament using posterior instrumentation between 2004 and 2008 were included. Patients who underwent CLF for trauma, infection, or tumors were excluded. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed by chart review (minimum of 1 y follow-up). Patients who developed a new postoperative C5 nerve palsy underwent repeat MRI. The control group also underwent CLF, did not develop a neurological deficit, and received a postoperative MRI for evaluation of possible infection. MRI measurements included the width of the laminectomy trough, the distance from the posterior vertebral body or disk to the anterior spinal cord, the width of the spinal cord herniated into the laminectomy defect, and C2-7 sagittal alignment. Preoperative radiographic measurements included preoperative vertebral body diameter, spinal canal diameter, and sagittal vertical offset. RESULTS:: There were seventeen patients with C5 nerve root palsy and 8 patients without C5 nerve root palsy. There were no baseline differences in fusion levels, instrumentation used, patient age, or sex. MRI measurements revealed an increase in mean postoperative cord drift in patients with C5 palsy at C3 (4.2 vs. 2.2 mm, P=0.002), C4 (4.6 vs. 2.8 mm, P=0.056), C5 (5.1 vs. 2.4 mm, P=0.011), and C6 (5.2 vs. 2.4 mm, P=0.003). There was a significant increase in C5 laminectomy trough width among patients with postoperative C5 palsy (17.9 vs. 15.2 mm, P=0.032), but there was no difference in sagittal alignment. CONCLUSIONS:: A wider laminectomy at C5 was associated with an increased risk of postoperative C5 palsy. Increased preoperative spinal canal diameter is also associated with increased risk of C5 palsy. In addition, patients who experienced C5 nerve palsy had a significantly greater posterior spinal cord drift. Strategies to reduce postoperative laminectomy trough width and spinal cord drift may reduce the risk of postoperative C5 palsy. PMID:22425890
Radcliff, Kris E; Limthongkul, Worawat; Kepler, Chris K; Sidhu, Gursukhman D S; Anderson, D Greg; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Albert, Todd J
Bone scans using Tc-99m diphosphonate were found to become abnormal within 2 weeks after laminectomy in less than half of patients regardless of the extent of the operation. The degree of new uptake equaled that of the sacroiliac joints in only one of 19 patients with a normal preoperative scan. However, the Ga-67 citrate scan usually became abnormal (89%) postoperatively. Thus the Tc-99m bone scan may be helpful in detecting postoperative infection.
Study design:Case report.Objectives:To report a case with thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF), in which postoperative paralysis occurred after laminectomy and was reversed after an additional posterior instrumented fusion.Setting:A University Hospital in Japan.Case report:A 71-year-old woman, with a spastic palsy of both lower extremities, had OPLL and OLF
Although recent data suggests that lumbar fusion with decompression contributes to some marginal acceleration of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD), few studies have evaluated whether it is safe to perform a laminectomy above a fused segment. This study investigates the hypothesis that laminectomy above a fused lumbar segment does not increase the incidence of ASD, and assesses the benefits and risks of performing a laminectomy above a lumbar fusion. A retrospective review of 171 patients who underwent decompression and instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine was performed to analyze the association between ASD and laminectomy above the fused lumbar segment. Patients were divided into two groups - one group with instrumented fusion alone and the other group with instrumented fusion plus laminectomy above the fused segment. Of the 171 patients, 34 underwent additional decompressive laminectomy above the fused segment. There was a significant increase in ASD incidence as well as progression of ASD grade in both groups. There was no significant increase in ASD in patients with decompressive laminectomy above the fused lumbar segment compared to patients with laminectomy limited to the fused segment. This retrospective review of 171 patients who underwent decompression and instrumented fusion with follow-up radiographs demonstrates that laminectomy decompression above a fused segment does not significantly increase radiographic ASD. There is, however, a significant increase in ASD over time, which was observed throughout the entire cohort likely representing a natural progression of lumbar spondylosis above the fusion segment. PMID:23891120
Gard, Andrew P; Klopper, Hendrik B; Doran, Stephen E; Hellbusch, Leslie C
Despite progress in surgical techniques, some patients still face postoperative recurrence of pain. Recently, more attention has been focused on peridural fibrosis (PF), which may be responsible for recurrent pain after laminectomy or discectomy. Honey has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on exposed tissues besides its well-known antibacterial properties. The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of honey on the prevention of postlaminectomy fibrosis formation in a rat model. A controlled blinded study was performed in 45 male adult white Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent laminectomy at the L5-L6 levels. They were divided into 3 groups (A, B, and C) of 15 rats each. Group A (sham) underwent laminectomy and group B was treated with normal saline at the laminectomy site. Rats in group C received 0.1?mL honey at the laminectomy site. All rats were killed 4 weeks after laminectomy. PF was found in 5 rats (33%) of control groups A and B, and in 2 rats (10%) in honey-treated laminectomy group C. The difference was not statistically significant. Wound healing was not affected, and there was no cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Although honey appears to be safe, it cannot cause a significant reduction of PF formation after lumbar laminectomy in rats.
Background contextA controversy exists about the mechanism of causation of the post-laminectomy pain syndrome. Some believe that epidural scarring, and attendant spinal nerve and nerve root scarring and tethering to the disc or pedicle at the site of surgery contributes to post-laminectomy pain in such patients. However, clinical outcome studies on this question are inconclusive and the assertion remains controversial.
Jennifer B. Massie; Aimee L. Schimizzi; Bill Huang; Choll W. Kim; Steven R. Garfin; Wayne H. Akeson
Objective: Case report of a patient, having persistent low back and leg pain following a L4-L5 surgical laminectomy, who underwent Clinical Biomechanics of Posture? (CBP?) protocol designed to correct postural distortions. Clinical features: A thirty-five year-old male suffered from low back\\/leg pain following a work injury despite having a lumbar spine laminectomy 6 months prior to chiropractic care. Radiographic analysis
Summary Twenty-six patients with cervical spondylosis and radiculomyelopathy were treated surgically. Eight patients had cervical laminectomy C1-C7, and 16 patients had complete cervical laminectomy C1-C7 with excision of the posterior rim of the foramen magnum. Follow-up of patients was from two months to eight years.
H. Alsharif; Sh. Ezzat; A. Hay; N. A. Motty; S. A. Malek
Introduction This is a prospective, non-randomized, hospital-based, case-controlled, clinical trial to assess the efficacy of perineural\\u000a infiltration with bupivacaine at the related neural root for acute pain relief after lumbar laminectomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Fifty-one patients undergoing unilateral one spinal level (lumbar 4) hemi-partial laminectomy were included in the study.\\u000a In 22 of the patients (Group 2), bupivacaine was infiltrated onto the neural root
Cengiz Mordeniz; Fuat Torun; Ahmet Faruk Soran; Orhan Beyazoglu; Hamza Karabag; Ahmet Cakir; Seyho Cem Yucetas
Osteoplastic laminectomy has been used to treat lumbar canal stenosis and to prevent postoperative lumbar spinal instability by reconstructing the posterior element of the lumbar spine, which has been documented in many clinical studies. However, the biological sequence of repairing the posterior lumbar element, which is replaced at the time of surgery, has not yet been made clear. An in
Many data are available concerning spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) and metabolism on various models and timing after spinal cord injury, however, detailed information on their exact relationship in the same injury model is lacking. This relationship is a crucial factor in the understanding of the pathophysiology of spinal cord trauma. Rats were subjected to lumbar laminectomy or lumbar spinal
Angelika E. M. Mautes; Helmut Schröck; Amadeo C. Nacimiento; Wulf Paschen
This study investigates the probable causes of nerve root palsy through the retrospective study of pre- and postoperative cervical curvature change for patients with cervical spondylosis and incidences of nerve root palsy. A consecutive series of 91 patients with cervical compressive myelopathy treated by laminectomy and internal fixation were reviewed. Nerve root palsy developed in 21 of 91 patients (23%) (group A). The other 70 patients, 41 men and 29 women, were chosen as controls (group B). A neutral lateral cervical spine radiograph was taken of all patients. The overall curvature of the cervical spine, the cervical curvature index, and the change rate were measured and compared.The pre- and postoperative change rate of cervical curvatures in groups A and B was 19.17+/-7.62 and 18.03+/-7.62, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P>.05). The pre- and postoperative cervical curvature index change rate in groups A and B was 17.52+/-3.46 and 12.43+/-4.12, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between the 2 groups (P<. 05). This indicated the cervical alignment of patients in group A was changed greatly by traction during operation.In this study, we found that tethering the nerve root caused C5 palsy, but excessive intraoperative traction and the use of internal fixation may be one of the most important reasons for this. The cervical curvature index change rate reflected both a change in cervical height and a change in the overall cervical curvature. It is more sensitive in reflecting the degree of cervical traction and the change of the cervical alignment. PMID:20704111
The possibility of vascular injury should always be kept in mind during lumbar laminectomy. Patients with pre-existing vascular disease are predisposed to injury. Unexplained hypotension is highly suggestive of a vascular catastrophe and is an indication for more detailed examination, sometimes laparotomy. If the patient's clinical condition is stable, consider arteriography. The development of high-output cardiac failure in a patient who has recently undergone lumbar laminectomy is almost diagnostic of traumatic arteriovenous fistula. The best prognosis for recovery of acute vascular interruption occurs with immediate treatment within 24-48 hours. Continued awareness of the possible occurrence of these injuries and familiarity with their various manifestations will facilitate early diagnosis, prompt operative repair, and improved mortality. PMID:2028321
Objective The aim of this study is to implement a critical pathway (CP) for patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy or microdiscectomy and describe the results before and after the CP in terms of length of hospital stay and cost. Methods From March 2008 to February 2009, 61 patients underwent lumbar laminectomy or microdiscectomy due to stenosis or one- or two-level disc herniation in our department and were included in the prepathway group. After development and implementation of the CP in March 2009, 58 patients were applicable for the CP, and these were classified as the postpathway group. Results The CP, which established a 6-day hospital stay (5 bed-days), was fulfilled by 42 patients (72.4%) in the postpathway group. The mean length of stay was 5.4 days in the postpathway group compared to 6.9 days in the prepathway group, demonstrating a 20% reduction, which was a statistically significant difference (p?0.000). There was a statistically significant reduction in charges for bed and nursing care (p=0.002). Conclusion Implementation of a CP for lumbar laminectomy or microdiscectomy produced significant decreases in length of hospitalization and charges for bed and nursing care. We believe that this CP reduces the unnecessary use of hospital resources without increasing risk of adverse events.
The histologic effects of posterior lumbar surgery and retained extradural foreign bodies on the cauda equina were investigated in rats over time. The following four groups of rats were provided: Group 1, sham operation (laminar exposure alone); Group 2, laminectomy alone; Group 3, laminectomy with retained extradural silk thread; Group 4, laminectomy with extradural kaolin; and the control. Histological study was performed on the transverse sections of laminectomized (L5) and nonlaminectomized (L4) areas. In Group 1, adhesive changes involving the cauda equina, consisting of dilatation of nutrient vessels, and eosinophilic exudative changes between the adhering cauda rootlets were seen the day after surgery, but the fibrinous adhesion was resolved spontaneously in all rats after 1 week without permanent sequelae. In Groups 2 and 3, postoperative adhesion of the cauda equina roots was conspicuous, but it resolved by 6 weeks. In Group 4, obvious adhesion persisted through the 12th week after surgery. Destruction of the myelin sheath and axonal loss of the cauda equina occurred in the first week after surgery in all the experimental groups except in the sham group. The severity and extent of the neural degeneration were mostly parallel to the severity of inflammatory changes in the epidural areas. At the nonlaminectomized area (L4) in each group, the arachnoid and cauda equina tended to congregate the day after surgery, but these changes were all transitory. The severity and persistency of the arachnoiditis and neural degeneration directly corresponded to the magnitude of the inflammation and wound healing processes. This seems to imply that careful surgical intervention with no use of foreign bodies is necessary to reduce postoperative adhesive arachnoiditis. PMID:8235860
Yamagami, T; Matsui, H; Tsuji, H; Ichimura, K; Sano, A
Background This study evaluates the outcome and complications of decompressive cervical Laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation in\\u000a 110 cases treated for variable cervical spine pathologies that included; degenerative disease, trauma, neoplasms, metabolic-inflammatory\\u000a disorders and congenital anomalies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A retrospective review of total 785 lateral mass screws were placed in patients ages 16-68 years (40 females and 70 males).\\u000a All cases were
Moh’d M Al Barbarawi; Ziad A Audat; Moutasem M Obeidat; Tareq M Qudsieh; Waleed F Dabbas; Mouness H Obaidat; Anas A Malkawi
Background This study evaluates the outcome and complications of decompressive cervical Laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation in 110 cases treated for variable cervical spine pathologies that included; degenerative disease, trauma, neoplasms, metabolic-inflammatory disorders and congenital anomalies. Methods A retrospective review of total 785 lateral mass screws were placed in patients ages 16-68 years (40 females and 70 males). All cases were performed with a polyaxial screw-rod construct and screws were placed by using Anderson-Sekhon trajectory. Most patients had 12-14-mm length and 3.5 mm diameter screws placed for subaxial and 28-30 for C1 lateral mass. Screw location was assessed by post operative plain x-ray and computed tomography can (CT), besides that; the facet joint, nerve root foramen and foramen transversarium violation were also appraised. Results No patients experienced neural or vascular injury as a result of screw position. Only one patient needed screw repositioning. Six patients experienced superficial wound infection. Fifteen patients had pain around the shoulder of C5 distribution that subsided over the time. No patients developed screw pullouts or symptomatic adjacent segment disease within the period of follow up. Conclusion decompressive cervical spine laminectomy and Lateral mass screw stabilization is a technique that can be used for a variety of cervical spine pathologies with safety and efficiency.
Problems, probably caused by the adhesion of scar tissue to the dural sac or nerve roots, may appear after a laminectomy in which resection was required. In our department, free auto-fatty tissue transplantation has been clinically performed since 1979 in an effort to prevent this phenomenon, and favorable therapeutic results have been obtained. In the present study, the possible influence of extradural tissue on the dura mater over certain periods was investigated in post-laminectomized adult rabbits. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of transplanted fatty tissue on adhesion was examined. In the laminectomy-only subject group, a remarkable development of granulating tissue was observed. This tissue subsequently adhered to the dura mater, often resulting in a delayed repair of the dura mater and its surrounding tissue. In the fatty tissue transplanted group, on the other hand, the transplanted fat preserved its composition morphologically and rapid degeneration was deterred even in free grafts, so scar formation was inhibited at the site of the laminectomy. In comparison with the laminectomy-only group, furthermore, the repair of the tissue surrounding the dura mater was accelerated by the transplanted fatty tissue, beginning in the early postoperative stage. PMID:2614168
Spinal deformity is an important clinical manifestation after surgery for spinal cord tumors. One-third of patients who receive laminectomies and irradiation of the spinal column develop scoliosis, kyphosis, or kyphoscoliosis. Recent reports indicate good results after scoliosis surgery using segmental pedicle screws and a navigation system, but these reported studies have not included surgery for post-laminectomy kyphosis. Hooks and wires are ineffective in such patients who undergo laminectomy, and there are also high perioperative risks with insertion of pedicle screws because landmarks have been lost. Here, we report on the 5-year follow-up of a 13-year-old male patient with post-laminectomy and post-irradiation thoracic kyphoscoliosis after surgical treatment of spinal astrocytoma. Posterior segmental pedicle screw fixation was performed safely using a computer-assisted technique. The authors present the first case report for treatment of this condition using a navigation system. PMID:22918210
Laminectomy is the accepted treatment for spinal canal stenosis in cases where conservative treatment has failed. Opinions\\u000a diverge on the resulting clinical instability and the necessity of instrumented stabilization. The present biomechanical study\\u000a was performed to determine the functional impairment following laminectomy and the stabilizing effect of flexible and rigid\\u000a devices. This was the first time that the effects of
With laminectomy being widely accepted as the treatment for lumbar disorders, epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication for both the patients and the surgeons alike. Currently, EF is thought to cause recurrent postoperative pain after laminectomy or after discectomy. Angelica sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine which has shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproliferative properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of Angelica sinensis on the prevention of post-laminectomy EF formation in a rat model. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in sixty healthy adult Wistar rats that underwent laminectomy at the L1-L2 levels. They were divided randomly into 3 groups according to the treatment method, with 20 in each group: (1) Angelica sinensis treatment group, (2) saline treatment group, and (3) sham group (laminectomy without treatment). All rats were euthanized humanely 4 weeks after laminectomy. The hydroxyproline content, Rydell score, vimentin cells density, fibroblasts density, inflammatory cells density, and inflammatory factors expressions all suggested better results in Angelica sinensis group than the other two groups. Topical application of Angelica sinensis could inhibit fibroblasts proliferation and TGF-?1 and IL-6 expressions and prevent epidural scar adhesion in postlaminectomy rat model.
Kong, Xiaohong; Zhao, Xuechao; Zhou, Xianhu; Su, Yanhua; Sharma, Hari S.; Feng, Shiqing
A 3.5-year-old female spayed Beagle cross was presented to our emergency and referral facility for the complaint of acute onset paralysis of the tail. A full physical and neurological examination was performed which confirmed the absence of motor function in the tail. Signs of superficial and deep pain sensation to the tail remained intact. Orthogonal view survey radiographs identified mineralization superimposed over the intervertebral foramen of the first and second caudal vertebrae. A dorsal laminectomy was performed for surgical decompression of the caudal nerve roots. On the fourth postoperative day, the patient exhibited good motor function of the tail. Neurological improvement continued and 11 days postoperatively the patient demonstrated normal neurological function, free range-of-motion of the tail, and it did not exhibit any signs of pain. Follow-up examination was performed 76 days after surgery, at which time the patient exhibited normal neurological function and signs of a pain-free range-of-motion on manipulation of its tail. PMID:21976157
In a previous experiment using TNF inhibition in the rat it was accidentally found that adhesion and scar formation was reduced compared to previous experience. Wound and bone healing also seemed enhanced. The present study was conducted to assess if this observation could be verified in a controlled setting using a standardized laminectomy in the rat. Five rats received doxycycline and five other rats received saline and served as control. Macroscopic blinded evaluation 1 week after the laminectomy revealed that adhesion and scar formation was less in doxycycline-treated animals than in control animals. Wound and bone healing was found to be better in doxycycline-treated animals. The mechanisms for the observed effects cannot be fully understood but the data indicate that further research may lead to opportunities to design pharmacological modalities to reduce adhesion and scar formation, maybe in combination with suitable barriers.
Background: Current inpatient management of postoperative pain in lumbar surgery includes the use of intramuscular opioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflam- matory drugs, or patient-controlled analgesia; however, all types of medica- tions are associated with side effects that can limit their usefulness in the inpatient setting. Methods: In a well-conducted non-randomized prospective trial, 80 consecutive patients who underwent elective multilevel lumbar laminectomy
A considerable number of patients complain about pain after lumbar surgery. The spinal dura mater has been debated as a possible source of this pain. However, there is no information if laminectomy influences the nociceptive sensory innervation of the dura. Therefore, we quantitatively evaluated the density of SP- and CGRP-immunopositive nerve fibers in the dura mater lumbalis in an animal model of laminectomy. Twelve adult Lewis rats underwent laminectomy, in six of them the exposed dura was covered by an autologous fat graft. Further six animals without surgical treatment served as controls. Six weeks after surgery, the animals were perfused and the lumbar dura was processed immunohistochemically for the detection of CGRP- and SP-containing nerve fibers. In controls, the peptidergic nerve fibers were found predominantly in the ventral but rarely in the dorsal dura mater lumbalis. After laminectomy, the density of SP- and CGRP-immunopositive neurons significantly increased in ventral as well as in dorsal parts of the dura. Axonal spines could be observed in some cases at the site of laminectomy. The application of autologous fat grafts failed to inhibit the significant increase in the density of peptidergic afferents. Thus, we have provided the first evidence that laminectomies induce an increase in the density of putative nociceptive SP- and CGRP-immunopositive neurons in the lumbar dura mater ascribable to an axonal sprouting of fine nerve fibers. This effect was not prevented by using autologous fat grafts. It is conceivable that the neuronal outgrowth of nociceptive afferents is a cause of low back pain observed after lumbar surgery.
Study design Prospective.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To assess the results of laminectomy in patients suffering from multilevel multidirectional compressive cervical myelopathy\\u000a with co-morbid conditions and to compare results of anterior and laminectomy clinically, radiologically and functionally.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of background data Cervical myelopathy or myeloradiculopathy is a progressive degenerative disorder that usually starts in the middle age. It\\u000a leads to circumferential cord compression leading to a
\\u000a Methods of discectomy and lumbar decompression continue to evolve in efforts to perform a surgical decompression. A direct\\u000a decompression simply requires an operative corridor in which to access the spinal canal. We can study the same approach as\\u000a some of the latest fusion techniques, including approaches from the anterior, posterior, lateral, and posterolateral. The\\u000a transforaminal interbody lumbar fusion (TLIF) method
Prevention and treatment of postoperative pain continues to be a major challenge in postoperative care. Opioid analgesics, with their well-known side effects, continue to represent a cornerstone in postoperative pain control. Anticonvulsant medications are established treatments for neuropathic pain. Pregabalin (S-[+]-3-isobutylgaba), a structural analog of gamma-Aminobutyric acid, has been used for the treatment of various neuropathic pain and also as an adjunctive therapy for adults with partial onset seizures. This study was thus taken up to primarily assess and compare the analgesic and anxiolytic effects of administering pregabalin and tramadol preoperatively for patients undergoing elective decompressive lumbar laminectomy. The study group included 75 patients between the ages of 20-60 years belonging to American Society of Anesthesiology-1 (ASA) and ASA-2 patients. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups of 25 patients each. The placebo group received a placebo capsule, the tramadol group received a 100 mg capsule, while the pregabalin group received a 150 mg capsule orally 1 hour before anesthetic induction. Pregabalin showed statistically significant analgesic effects compared to placebo, but the effect was found to be less prevalent compared to tramadol. The need for rescue analgesia was the least prevalent in tramadol patients followed by pregabalin patients, and reached a maximum in the control group. Pregabalin showed statistically significant anxiolytic effects compared to placebo, and this was associated with less sedation in comparison to tramadol. Pregabalin had fewer numbers of postoperative complications of nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness in comparison to tramadol. The results of this study support the clinical use of pregabalin in the postsurgical setting for pain relief, as it is well tolerated, and usually presents with transient adverse effects. PMID:23837006
Spinal arteriovenous fistulas are rare entities. They often present with congestive myelopathy but are infrequently diagnosed as the cause of the patients’ symptoms. Only one such case has been described previously in Indian literature. We describe one such case who presented to us after a gap of 3 years since symptom onset and following a failed laminectomy where the cause was later diagnosed to be an intradural fistula in the filum terminale fed by the anterior spinal artery and review the available literature.
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a progressive disease and a common cause of acquired disability in the elderly. A variety of surgical interventions are available to halt or improve progression of the disease. Surgical options include anterior or posterior approaches with and without fusion. These include anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, cervical disc replacement, laminoplasty, laminectomy with and without fusion, and combined approaches. Recent investigation into the ideal approach has not found a clearly superior choice, but individual patient characteristics can guide treatment.
Yalamanchili, Praveen K.; Vives, Michael J.; Chaudhary, Saad B.
Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is serious consequence of cervical intervertebral disk degeneration. Morbidity ranges from chronic neck pain, radicular pain, headache, myelopathy leading to weakness, and impaired fine motor coordination to quadriparesis and/or sphincter dysfunction. Surgical treatment remains the mainstay of treatment once myelopathy develops. Compared to more conventional surgical techniques for spinal cord decompression, such as anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, laminectomy, and laminoplasty, patients treated with corpectomy have better neurological recovery, less axial neck pain, and lower incidences of postoperative loss of sagittal plane alignment. The objective of this study was to analyze the outcome of corpectomy in cervical spondylotic myelopathy, to assess their improvement of symptoms, and to highlight complications of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients underwent cervical corpectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy during June 1999 to July 2005.The anterior approach was used. Each patient was graded according to the Nuricks Grade (1972) and the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) Scale (1991), and the recovery rate was calculated. Results: Preoperative patients had a mean Nurick's grade of 3.83, which was 1.67 postoperatively. Preoperative patients had a mean mJOA score of 9.67, whereas postoperatively it was 14.50. The mean recovery rate of patients postoperatively was 62.35% at a mean follow-up of 1 year (range, 8 months to 5 years).The complications included one case (4.17%) of radiculopathy, two cases (8.33%) of graft displacement, and two cases (8.33%) of screw back out/failure. Conclusions: Cervical corpectomy is a reliable and rewarding procedure for CSM, with functional improvement in most patients.
Introduction: The surgical procedure by the anterior, posterior and combined antero-posterior approaches had applied for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Methods: During the treatment process, all patients were pre-operatively as well post-operatively graded according to Japanese Orthopaedics Association. Several surgical methods such as anterior approach, posterior approach, and combined antero-posterior approach have been addressed for CSM patients, with the choice based on the pathogenesis of the myelopathy. The main indications for surgery were evidence of myelopathy on physical examinations, a JOA score below 13 points help with spinal cord compression observed on plain X-ray, CT scan, MRI studies. Results: The pre-operative JOA scores were 7.60±1.23 in laminoplasty, 8.30±1.03 in diskectomy and corpectomy and 7.10±1.20 in combined antero-posterior approach patients. At the follow-up after three months the JOA scores were laminoplasty 13.30±1.30, diskectomy and corpectomy 13.55±1.15 and combined antero-posterior 13.50±1.08. The JOA recovery rate averaged, 61.08±11.25% in laminoplasty, 60.67±10.60% in diskectomy and corpectomy and 64.67±10.72% in combined antero-posterior approach. The high- signal intensity changed to normal in 18 out of 28 and no any kyphotic change and instability were found in cervical spine at the follow up. Conclusions: Patients with OPLL (continuous, segmental and mixed type), stenosis of cervical spinal canal, multilevel cervical spondylosis, large and high ossification of IVDP with stenosis were improved with laminoplasty. Patients with PIVD, CSM with kyphosis, post laminectomy , OPLL herniated type, unstable vertebral alignment, stenosis by osteophytes, were improved with anterior approach . Ossified or deformed OPLL, unstable vertebral with stenosis ,OPLL or OYL with cervical meandearing (swan-neck) were improved with Combined anterior and posterior approach. Keywords: Cervical spondylotic mylopathy, anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion, corpectomy. PMID:23591248
The early onset of degenerative cervical lesions has been well described in patients suffering from athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. Myelopathy can occur and aggravate of their unstable neurological status. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed and disrupted by the abnormal movements. This retrospective study was implemented to evaluate the symptoms, the anatomical findings, and the surgical management of seven patients from 20 to 56 years old suffering from cervical myelopathy and athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. The mean delay in diagnosis was 15 months and the mean follow-up was 33 months. The initial symptoms were spasticity, limbs weakness, paresthesias and vesico-sphinteric dysfunction. In addition to abnormal movements, imaging demonstrated disc herniation, spinal stenosis and instability. All patients were managed surgically by performing simultaneous spinal cord decompression and fusion. Two patients benefited from preoperative botulinum toxin injections, which facilitated postoperative care and immobilization. Strict postoperative immobilization was achieved for 3 months by a Philadelphia collar or a cervico-thoracic orthosis. All patients improved functionally with a mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score gain of 1.5 points, in spite of the permanent disabilities of the myelopathy. Complications occurred with wound infection, metal failure and relapse of cervical myelopathy at an adjacent level in one case each. All the previous authors advised against isolated laminectomy but no consensus emerged from the literature analysis. Spinal fusion is usually recommended but can be complicated by degenerative adjacent deterioration. Surgical management provides good outcomes but requires a long-term follow-up.
The authors report two cases of thoracic spinal canal stenosis (SCS) and myelopathy. One is extremely unusual because of degenerative changes occurred in the upper thoracic spine. The other because of its multiple etiology among which calcification and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) in a Caucasian man. Both patients presented with an history of slowly progressive spastic paraparesis. In the first case computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed hypertrophy of the legamentum flavum and laminae causing compression of the spinal cord at T2-T3. In the second case diagnostic imaging showed three levels of stenosis in the lower thoracic spine due to degenerative changes, calcification and OLF with cord damage at T9-T10. A decompressive laminectomy and medial facetectomy was performed in both patients. The ligamentum flavum, hypertrophied and infolded in the first case and calcified and ossified in the second, was removed with careful dissection of the dural adhesions. Both patients showed a rapid post-operative recovery and regained autonomous walking within 1 month of surgery. Thoracic spinal cord stenosis is a rare and complex disorder because of differential diagnosis, neuroimaging features and treatment options. Regardless of its cause, prompt surgical decompression plays a key role in improving the functional outcome of myelopathy. PMID:23111299
The authors present a rare case of cervical myelopathy caused by dropped head syndrome. This 68-year-old woman presented with her head hanging forward. After 1 month, she was admitted to the medical service because of head drop progression. Examination of biopsy specimens from her cervical paraspinal muscles showed nonspecific myopathic features without inflammation, and isolated neck extensor myopathy was diagnosed. The patient's condition did not respond to the administration of corticosteroids. During follow up as an outpatient, the patient's head drop continued to gradually progress. At 1 year after onset, she developed bilateral weakness of the upper and lower extremities, clumsiness of the hands, and gait disturbance. A radiograph of the cervical spine obtained in a standing position showed a pronounced kyphotic deformity and instability at the level of C4-5. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated spinal cord compression at C-3 and C-4. The patient underwent a C3-4 laminectomy and occipitocervicothoracic fixation. Gait and hand coordination gradually improved, and she was able to walk with no support 1 month postoperatively. Surgical fixation was beneficial in this patient with dropped head syndrome, myelopathy, and cervical instability. PMID:17330586
Objectives: Surgical treatment of complex cervical dystonia and of cervical dyskinesias associated with cervical myelopathy is challenging. In this prospective study, the long term effect of chronic pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia and on combining the technique with spinal surgery in patients with severe cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy is described. Methods: Eight patients with a history of chronic dystonia who did not achieve adequate benefit from medical treatment or botulinum toxin injection participated in the study. Five patients had complex cervical dystonia with tonic postures and phasic movements. Three patients had rapidly progressive cervical myelopathy secondary to severe cervical dyskinesias and dystonia in the context of a generalised movement disorder. Quadripolar electrodes were implanted in the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus with stereotactic CT and microelectrode guidance. In the three patients with secondary cervical myelopathy, spinal surgery was performed within a few weeks and included multilevel laminectomies and a four level cervical corporectomy with spinal stabilisation. Results: Improvement of the movement disorder was noted early after pallidal surgery, but the full benefit could be appreciated only with a delay of several months during chronic stimulation. Three months after surgery, patients with cervical dystonia had improved by 38% in the severity score, by 54% in the disability score, and by 38% in the pain score of a modified version of the Toronto western spasmodic torticollis rating scale. At a mean follow up of 20 months, the severity score had improved by 63%, the disability score by 69%, and the pain score by 50% compared with preoperatively. There was also sustained amelioration of cervical dyskinesias in the three patients who underwent spinal surgery. Lead fractures occurred in two patients. The mean amplitude needed for chronic deep brain stimulation was 3.8 V at a mean pulse width of 210 µs, which is higher than that used for pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Conclusions: Chronic pallidal stimualtion is effective for complex cervical dystonia and it is a useful adjunct in patients with cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy who undergo spinal surgery.
Synovial cysts are uncommon pathological entities in patients with cervical degenerative spinal disease, and there are only a few reports in the literature. Treatment typically involves decompression; however, biomechanical data indicate that laminectomies in the cervical spine also result in cervical instability, specifically within the cervicothoracic junction, supporting the use of fusion as well. The authors describe the use of fusion with decompression in the treatment of 3 patients with cervicothoracic synovial cysts that presented in an acute fashion with associated myelopathy and neurological decline, and they review the diagnostic elements, histopathology, and treatment of these cysts. All 3 of the patients did well with decompression via a posterior approach with a single-level instrumented fusion from C-7 to T-1. Each patient regained complete neurological function and had no residual neurological deficits. These results are promising, although the sample size of 3 cases is too small to make any conclusive evaluations. Future studies incorporating Class I and Class II data are imperative to make firm conclusions regarding general management of this rare entity. PMID:23815248
Bisson, Erica F; Sauri-Barraza, José-Carlos; Niazi, Toba; Schmidt, Meic H
Despite good posterior decompression of thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF), recovery varies widely from 25 to 100%. Neurological status on presentation also varies widely in different patients. We, therefore retrospectively studied relation of various clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters with preoperative neurological status and postoperative recovery in 25 patients who underwent decompressive laminectomy for thoracic myelopathy due to OLF. Patients were assessed using leg-trunk-bladder scores of JOA scale and recovery rate (RR) was calculated as RR = postoperative score ? preoperative score/11 ? preoperative score × 100. With Pearson’s correlation, postoperative recovery rate (RR) significantly correlated with preoperative duration of symptoms, JOA score, sensory JOA score, canal grade, dural canal-body ratio (DCBR), intramedullary signal size (ISS), and intramedullary signal type (IST) on MRI. On MRI, two types of signal changes were identified: normal in T1/hyperintense in T2 representing cord edema and hypointense in T1/hyperintense in T2 representing cystic changes indicating lesser and higher grades, respectively. Presence or absence of signal changes did not correlate with postoperative recovery; but whenever present, ISS greater than 15 mm significantly compromised recovery. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) identified preoperative duration of symptoms and preoperative ISS as significant predictors of postoperative outcome. Based on MRA, we formulated a multiple regression equation to predict RR as Predicted RR = 83.4 + (0.1 × age in years) ? (0.7 × preoperative duration of symptoms in months) + (1.5 × preoperative JOA score) + (0.2 × preoperative canal grade in percentage) ? (2.5 × ISS in mm) ? (1.5 × IST in grade). Though age, preoperative anal sensations, spasticity, canal grade, DCBR, ISS, and IST significantly correlated with preoperative neurological status, MRA identified ISS as most important factor determining preoperative neurological status. Preoperative duration of symptoms and developmentally narrow canal had no influence on preoperative neurological status. Patients with developmentally narrow canal showed significant correlation with younger age at onset of myelopathy. To conclude, only independent factor determining preoperative neurological status is ISS. Predictors of postoperative recovery are preoperative duration of symptoms and ISS. Postoperative recovery can be predicted by formulated equation.
The formation of scar tissue always follows lumbar disc surgery and usually causes no difficulty. Reoperation may be necessary because of disc reherniation or because of the scar tissue itself. Reoperation is tedious and dangerous because of the presence of scar formation. Beginning in February 1975, the authors performed laminotomies in 107 dogs in an attempt to study the possibility of prevention of scar tissue formation about the dural sac and nerve roots. Gelfoam and Gelfilm were found to increase scar formation. Micropore tape and plastics such as polyethylene, mylar, and woven and smooth silastic were tried without complete success. Free fat grafts gave better protection than other substances, but it was found that pedicle grafts of fat gave more complete prevention of scar. The living pedicle fat grafts also prevented the usual closure of the laminotomy. The technique of pedicle fat grafts has also been used with success in 36 human patients to date. PMID:264034
The properties of the omentum and its effect on spinal neurologic disease was investigated. Omental pedicle grafts were transferred to the laminectomized lumbar spines of nine neurologically normal dogs. Grafts were placed on either the dura or the spinal cord. Interruption of the graft's circulation was examined. To study the effect, the artery of the graft was injected with contrast and the graft-dura interface studied histologically. All injected specimens demonstrated vascular connections from the graft to the neural elements. The graft was found to decrease postoperative perineural scarring. The omentum appears to possess properties that could be applied to improve outcomes in spinal surgery. PMID:2011772
Acquired copper deficiency has been recognised as a rare cause of anaemia and neutropenia for over half a century. Copper\\u000a deficiency myelopathy (CDM) was only described within the last decade, and represents a treatable cause of non-compressive\\u000a myelopathy which closely mimics subacute combined degeneration due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Here, 55 case reports from the\\u000a literature are reviewed regarding their
We present the case of a patient, aged 4 years and 10 months, with metatropic dysplasia. The baby had repeated apnoeic episodes, bradycardia and cardiac arrests and was diagnosed with foramen magnum stenosis and atlantodental dislocation. The episodes were markedly associated with neck movements. Considering this clinical presentation, we performed laminectomy of the atlas, foramen magnum enlargement and decompression followed by dorsal C0-C2 stabilisa - tion with allogeneic bone chips. After the operation, apnoeic episodes did not recur. PMID:22538111
The myelopathies discussed in this article have an underlying metabolic or toxic etiology. They have many clinical, electrophysiologic, and neuropathologic similarities. Preferential involvement of the dorsal columns and/or corticospinal tracts is commonly seen. Variable degrees of peripheral nerve and/or optic nerve involvement may be present. In the presence of clinical or electrophysiologic evidence of peripheral nerve involvement, the term myeloneuropathy is commonly used. The metabolic and toxic myelopathies discussed here are divided into three categories: disorders due to an identified nutrient deficiency such as the subacute combined degeneration of cobalamin/vitamin B12 or copper deficiency, disorders that have a geographical predilection and are due to a suspected toxin such as lathyrism, and disorders due to a possible toxin but without a geographical predilection such as hepatic myelopathy (Table 1). PMID:22961187
A patient with Marfan's syndrome and a myelopathy is reported, and the association of multiple spinal arachnoid cysts noted. It is proposed that the basic connective tissue defect in Marfan's syndrome may predispose to the formation of arachnoid diverticuli and that in this case spinal cord damage was the sequel. Images
Background contextCervical spondylotic myelopathy is a degenerative condition of the cervical spine. Surgical decompression is considered the gold standard of treatment, yet multiple published studies failed to yield consistent clinical results. Properly designed clinical outcomes studies using physiological, functional, and self-reported measures have the ability to define the best intervention for this disease entity. Many validated outcomes measures for cervical
Autonomic dysfunctions cause significant morbidity and mortality among patients with spinal cord disorders. Sympathetic skin response (SSR), a simple, noninvasive electrophysiological technique, may be useful for assessing sympathetic functions in patients with myelopathies. Our aim was to study SSR in patients with myelopathy and correlate it with clinical features, severity of the impairment, somatosensory evoked potentials. and outcome. Thirty patients
K. P. S. Nair; A. B. Taly; G. R. Arunodaya; Shivaji Rao; T. Murali
Purpose of Study: This study presents a clinical and radiological evaluation of 50 consecutive patients with symptomatic spondylotic cervical myelopathy and circumferential spinal cord compression who were managed with a single stage wide posterior laminectomy and lateral mass instrumented fusion. Methods Used: 50 consecutive patients (33 male, 17 female) over a 4 year period presenting with symptomatic cervical myelopathy due
BACKGROUND: Patients with signs and/or symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy are frequently encountered in spinal practice. Exact numbers of prevalence or incidence are not known. METHODS: A literature search was performed by an experienced librarian in Pubmed, Embase, and Scopus. After selection of articles based on titles and abstracts, a full text review was performed. The prevalence of people needing surgical treatment was also estimated in a neurosurgical practice with a population adherence of 1.7 million people and a known referral pattern of the neurologists; all patients operated upon because of cervical spondylotic myelopathy between July 2009 and July 2012 were collected and prevalence calculated. RESULTS: The search of the literature did not reveal any article reporting an incidence or prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Eighty of 5,992 patients were operated upon because of a cervical spondylotic myelopathy: 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSION: Surprisingly, an extensive search of the literature did not reveal exact data about the incidence or prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The prevalence of surgically treated cervical spondylotic myelopathy was estimated as 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. Although the population adherence to the surgical practice is reasonably fixed and referral patterns are known, this estimate will still be too low for various reasons. At best, this estimate is the minimal prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy that has been operated upon. To address the exact incidence or prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in general or needing surgical treatment, other investigations are warranted. PMID:23616201
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a rare, transient cardiomyopathy, with symptoms mimicking myocardial infarction. It has been reported to typically occur in postmenopausal women and is often triggered by an intense physical or emotional event with stimulation of the sympathetic response; the exact etiology, however, is uncertain. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) is widely used in spinal fusions and has been associated with numerous perioperative complications. BMP is known to stimulate sympathetic pathways. In this paper, we present the case of a patient with a 7-hour episode of TC after a spinal fusion with bone morphogenic protein. The patient's symptoms resolved and long-term followup has been uneventful. This is the first paper to describe TC in the setting of spine or other major orthopaedic surgery and it suggests another possible area for further investigation in peri-operative events potentially associated with the use of bone morphogenic protein.
Extramedullary hemopoiesis (EMH) is a common compensatory phenomenon associated with chronic hemolytic anemia. Abnormal hemopoietic tissue usually develops in sites responsible for fetal hemopoiesis, such as spleen, liver and kidney; however, other regions such as the spine may also become involved. In this study, a patient presenting with spastic paraparesis due to EMH in the dorsal spine is described. A 62-year-old man presented with paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large lesion involving the T2-L2 vertebral levels with a large extradural component causing thecal sac compression. Laminectomy with excision of mass was carried out. The histopathology revealed EMH. The patient had no known cause for EMH at the time of diagnosis but, subsequently, a bone marrow examination revealed early myelofibrosis. This case represents the rare occurrence of a large extradural extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with no known predisposing factor for hemopoiesis at the time of presentation.
Background/Objective: Ischemic nontraumatic spinal cord injury associated with surfing is a novel diagnosis believed to be related to prolonged spine hyperextension while lying prone on the surfboard. Only 9 cases have been documented. This report features possible risk factors, etiology, diagnostic imaging, and outcomes of surfer's myelopathy. Design: Case report. Results: A 37-year-old man developed T11 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A paraplegia shortly after surfing. The clinical history and magnetic resonance imaging findings were compatible with an ischemic insult to the distal thoracic spinal cord. Our patient did not have any of the proposed risk factors associated with this condition, and, contrary to most reports, he sustained a complete spinal cord lesion without neurological recovery by 8 weeks post injury. Conclusions: Surfer's myelopathy, because of its proposed mechanism of injury, is amenable to medical intervention. Increased awareness of this condition may lead to early recognition and treatment, which should contribute to improved neurological outcomes.
Aviles-Hernandez, Israel; Garcia-Zozaya, Inigo; DeVillasante, Jorge M
A 17-year-old girl presented with rapidly progressive quadriparesis and ventilatory failure. The clinical findings indicated a spinal level, but the diagnosis of myelopathy was not supported by her initial spinal imaging and cerebrospinal fluid studies. She had completed treatment for Guillain-Barré syndrome before a follow-up spinal imaging study showed interval expansion and enhancement of the cervical cord. PMID:22752484
This review article identifies and describes the clinical manifestations of various metabolic, nutritional, and toxic conditions that result in symptoms of myelopathy and, in some cases, myeloneuropathy. It includes discussions of the clinical pictures that occur secondary to these causes. Familiarity with the clinical symptoms may lead to accurate diagnosis through laboratory and imaging studies and to treatment with successful identification of the underlying causes. PMID:23186901
For most patients presenting with a spinal cord syndrome MR scanning has become the key investigation in establishing the diagnosis. However, myelopathy with normal spinal imaging remains a common clinical conundrum. In this review we discuss the diagnoses to consider for the neurologist presented with a patient with “MR normal myelopathy”. We will illustrate this scenario with a series of
Reznik M, Fried GW. Myelopathy associated with melorheostosis: a case report.A man in his mid thirties presented with lower-extremity weakness and spasticity because of a myelopathy caused by a rare disorder of bone known as melorheostosis. The primary pathology involved was compression of the cord at the cervicothoracic levels by dystrophic osseous formation within the vertebral bodies. Based on a
Cervical spondylosis is a common degenerative condition that is a significant cause of morbidity. This review discusses the pathophysiology and natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and focuses on the current literature evaluating the clinical management of these patients.
Hsu, Wesley; Dorsi, Michael J.; Witham, Timothy F.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether either of two mechanical theories predicts the topographic pattern of neuropathology in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The compression theory states that the spinal cord is compressed between a spondylotic bar anteriorly and the ligamenta flava posteriorly. The dentate tension theory states that the spinal cord is pulled laterally by the dentate ligaments, which are tensed by an anterior spondylotic bar. METHODS: The spinal cord cross section, at the level of a spondylotic bar, is modelled as a circular disc subject to forces applied at its circumference. These forces differ for the two theories. From the pattern of forces at the circumference the distribution of shear stresses in the interior of the disc-that is, over the transverse section of the spinal cord-is calculated. With the assumption that highly stressed areas are most subject to damage, the stress pattern predicted by each theory can be compared to the topographic neuropathology of CSM. RESULTS: The predicted stress pattern of the dentate tension theory corresponds to the reported neuropathology, whereas the predicted stress pattern of the compression theory does not. CONCLUSIONS: The results strongly favour the theory that CSM is caused by tensile stresses transmitted to the spinal cord from the dura via the dentate ligaments. A spondylotic bar can increase dentate tension by displacing the spinal cord dorsally, while the dural attachments of the dentate, anchored by the dural root sleeves and dural ligaments, are displaced less. The spondylotic bar may also increase dentate tension by interfering locally with dural stretch during neck flexion, the resultant increase in dural stress being transmitted to the spinal cord via the dentate ligaments. Flexion of the neck increases dural tension and should be avoided in the conservative treatment of CSM. Both anterior and posterior extradural surgical operations can diminish dentate tension, which may explain their usefulness in CSM. The generality of these results must be tempered by the simplifying assumptions required for the mathematical model. Images
Previous studies have suggested that spinal cord compression by the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs during neck flexion cause cervical flexion myelopathy (CFM). However, the exact pathophysiology of CFM is still unknown, and surgical treatment for CFM remains controversial. We examined retrospectively patients with CFM based on studies of the clinical features, neuroradiological findings, and neurophysiological assessments. The objectives of
Background: Little is known about vitamin B 12 deficiency myelopathy's magnetic reso- nance imaging (MRI) manifestations and their relationship to the onset, evolution, and resolution of neuro - logic signs and symptoms. Methods: We present a case and review eleven additional reported cases of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord detected by MRI. Results: Our patient had increased T2-weighted
Eduardo R. Locatelli; Robert Laureno; Pamela Ballard; Alexander S. Mark
A 44 year old female presented with a subacute myelopathy in association with pelvic venous thrombosis. It is inferred from the temporal relationship of these events that the patient suffered a subacute spinal venous infarction. This is discussed along with the aetiology, anatomical distribution and management of the condition. Images Figure 1
Reiter's syndrome belongs to the family of spondyloarthropathies that usually present with a triad of arthritis, urethritis, and uveitis. The diagnostic criteria include clinical, radiological, and genetic findings, and the response to treatment. Nervous system involvement in Reiter's syndrome is extremely rare. We report here on a 36-year-old man who initially presented with progressive cervical myelopathy and was diagnosed as Reiter's syndrome 2 years later. The myelopathy was stable after treatment with methotrexate and sulfasalazine. This case suggests that Reiter's syndrome can present as progressive myelopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of treatable myelopathies.
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications.
Galbraith, J. G.; Butler, J. S.; Dolan, A. M.; O'Byrne, J. M.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), a disorder of the phagocytic system, is a rare condition. Moreover, spinal involvement causing myelopathy is even rare and unusual. Here, we report a case of atypical LCH causing myelopathy, which was subsequently treated by corporectomy and fusion. An 8-year-old boy presented with 3 weeks of severe neck pain and limited neck movement accompanying upper and lower limbs motor weakness. CT scans revealed destruction of C5 body and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumoral process at C5 with cord compression. Interbody fusion using anterior cervical plate packed by autologus iliac bone was performed. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. After the surgery, the boy recovered from radiating pain and motor weakness of limbs. Despite the rarity of the LCH in the cervical spine, it is necessary to maintain our awareness of this condition. When neurologic deficits are present, operative treatment should be considered. PMID:22552159
Doléagbénou, A K; Mukengeshay Ntalaja, J; Derraz, S; El Ouahabi, A; El Khamlichi, A
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a degenerative process which may result in clinical signs and symptoms which require surgical intervention. Many treatment options have been proposed with various degrees of technical difficulty and technique sensitive benefits. We review laminoplasty as a motion-sparing posterior decompressive method. Current literature supports the use of laminoplasty for indicated decompression. We also decribe our surgical technique for an open-door, or “hinged”, laminoplasty.
Braly, Brett A.; Lunardini, David; Cornett, Chris; Donaldson, William F.
Objective To investigate clinical-radiological features of cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis (DSL). Methods A total of 448 patients were operated for cervical myelopathy at Nishitaga National Hospital between 2000 and 2003. Of these patients, DSL at the symptomatic disc level was observed in 22 (4.9%) patients. Clinical features were investigated by medical records, and radiological features were investigated by radiographs. Results Disc levels of DSL were C3/4 in 6 cases and C4/5 in 16 cases. Distance of anterior slippage was 2 to 5 mm (average 2.9 mm) in flexion position. Space available for the spinal cord (SAC) was 11 to 15 mm (average 12.8 mm) in flexion position and 11 to 18 mm (average14.6 mm) in extension position; 11 cases were reducible and 11 cases were irreducible in extension position. Myelograms demonstrated compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position. Compression of spinal cord was not demonstrated in flexion position. C5-7 lordosis angle was lower than control. C5-7 range of motion (ROM) was reduced compared to controls. These alterations were statistically significant. Conclusions DSL occurs in the mid-cervical spine. Lower cervical spine demonstrated restricted ROM and lower lordosis angle. Pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy due to DSL is compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position and not by reduced SAC in flexion position.
Cervical spondylosis is a spectrum of pathology presenting as neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy or all in combination. Diagnostic imaging is essential to diagnosis and preoperative planning. We discuss the modalities of imaging in common practice. We examine the use of imaging to differentiate among central, subarticular, and lateral stenosis and in the assessment of myelopathy.
Green, C.; Butler, J.; Eustace, S.; Poynton, A.; O'Byrne, J. M.
A retrospective study was performed to determine the sensitivities of the pyramidal signs in patients with cervical myelopathy, focusing on those with increased signal intensity (ISI) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship between prevalence of the pyramidal signs and the severity of myelopathy was investigated. We reviewed the records of 275 patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent surgery. Of these, 143 patients were excluded from this study due to comorbidities that might complicate neurological findings. The MR images of the remaining 132 patients were evaluated in a blinded fashion. The neurological findings of 120 patients with ISI (90 men and 30 women; mean age 61 years) were reviewed for hyperreflexia (patellar tendon reflex), ankle clonus, Hoffmann reflex, and Babinski sign. To assess the severity of myelopathy, the motor function scores of the upper and lower extremities for cervical myelopathy set by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (m-JOA score) were used. The most prevalent signs were hyperreflexia (94%), Hoffmann reflex (81%), Babinski sign (53%), and ankle clonus (35%). Babinski sign (P < 0.001), ankle clonus, and Hoffmann reflex showed significant association with the lower m-JOA score. Conversely, no association was found with the upper m-JOA score. In patients with cervical myelopathy, hyperreflexia showed the highest sensitivity followed by Hoffmann reflex, Babinski sign, and ankle clonus. The prevalence of the pyramidal signs correlated with increasing severity of myelopathy. Considering their low sensitivity in patients with mild disability, the pyramidal signs may have limited utility in early diagnosis of cervical myelopathy.
Neuropathologic examination revealed axonal swelling and breakdown leading to Wallerian degeneration of affected myelinated nerve fibers in the spinal cord white matter of four young horses with equine cervical compressive myelopathy. Immunohistochemical reactions for the cell stress protein ubiquitin revealed an enhanced presence in the swollen axons, which may reflect a role for ubiquitin in the neuronal catabolic process of axonal compression and degeneration in this myelopathy. PMID:8740714
Jortner, B S; Scarratt, W K; Modransky, P D; Walton, A; Perkins, S K
Retrospective study on the results of microendoscopic decompression surgery for the treatment of cervical myelopathy. The\\u000a purpose of this study was to describe the microendoscopic laminoplasty (MEL) technique as the surgical method in the treatment\\u000a of cervical myelopathy, and to document the clinical outcomes for MEL surgery. Endoscopic surgery poses several challenges\\u000a for the aspiring endoscopic surgeons, the most critical
We examined the urinary disturbances in 56 consecutive patients with cervical compressive myelopathy using the latest International Continence Society classification. Of the 56 patients with cervical compressive myelopathy, 29 (52%) had some urinary subjective complaints, whereas the remaining 27 (48%) had none. Urologic examination indicated that 8 of these 29 (28%) patients with urinary complaints had urologic disorders other than neurogenic bladder. Of the remaining 21 patients, only 6 (25%) were judged to have neurogenic bladder on urodynamic study. Urodynamic study may be of limited value in diagnosing urinary disturbance in cervical myelopathy. Further, four cases (83%) showed underactive bladder activity in voiding phase, and only one case (17%) showed overactive bladder activity in filling phase. These results were contrary to those of previous studies indicating that cervical compressive myelopathy is associated with overactive bladder activity in filling phase. There were no significant differences in motor or sensory Japanese Orthopedic Association scores between the patients with and without urinary complaints. However, the patients with urinary complaints had significantly longer durations of myelopathy and delayed motor evoked potential latencies than those without urinary complaints. After surgery, 19 of the 21 (90%) patients with urinary complaints showed recovery from urinary disturbance. Operations in patients with cervical myelopathy were also effective against urinary disturbance. Urinary complaints may be an indication for surgical treatment despite the results of urodynamic study. PMID:16021011
A 52-yr-old male developed progressive thoracic myelopathy after a fall. At laminectomy using the standard posterior approach, he was found to have a herniated thoracic disc compressing the spinal cord. Postoperatively, he was paraplegic. We had a series of three such patients. This paper discusses the problems associated with discectomy using the standard posterior approach and reviews the literature about the alternative approaches for surgical treatment available today. PMID:3179014
Pregnancy related compressive myelopathy secondary to vertebral hemangioma is a rare occurrence and its treatment antepartum\\u000a is rare. We report a 22-year-old lady in her 26th-week of pregnancy who was treated in two stages––antepartum with a laminectomy\\u000a and posterior stabilization. This resulted in complete recovery of the neurological deficits. She delivered a normal baby\\u000a after 3 months, following which a corpectomy
Background An outcome measure to evaluate the neurological function of cervical myelopathy was proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association\\u000a in 1975 (JOA score), and has been widely used in Japan. However, the JOA score does not include patients’ satisfaction, disability,\\u000a handicaps, or general health, which can be affected by cervical myelopathy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new
Surgical management of degenerative cervical myelopathy requires careful pathoanatomic consideration to select between various surgical options from both anterior and posterior approach. Hitherto, unexplored is the relevance of cervical deformity to the pathophysiology of such neurological disability, and whether correction of that deformity should be a surgical objective when planning for reconstruction after spinal cord decompression. Such correction could address both the static cord compression and the dynamic repetitive cord injury, while also restoring more normal biomechanics to the cervical spine. The articles in this focus issue's section on cervical spinal deformity reveal that cervical sagittal alignment is geometrically related to thoracolumbar spinal pelvic alignment and to T1 slope, and that it is further clinically correlated to regional disability and general health scores and to myelopathy severity. These conclusions are based on narrative reviews and a selection of primary research data, reflecting the nascency of this field. They further recommend for preoperative assessment of spinal alignment when significant deformity is suspected, and that correction of cervical kyphosis should be an objective when surgery is planned. PMID:23963013
Shamji, Mohammed F; Ames, Christopher P; Smith, Justin S; Rhee, John M; Chapman, Jens R; Fehlings, Michael G
Background: Venous congestive myelopathy is a progressive myelopathy that is generally caused by a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. Case Description: We report a patient with histologically confirmed venous congestive myelopathy without concurrent vascular malformations in radiological and intraoperative findings. Conclusions: The definitive underlying etiology of this congestive myelopathy was unclear. However, this case report highlights the possibility of venous congestive myelopathy with etiology other than a dural arteriovenous fistula. Further, a systematic and elaborate examination should be undertaken to explore the underlying pathology whenever this type of spinal parenchymal lesion is detected.
Laminoplasty is one surgical option for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. It was developed to avoid the significant risk of complications associated with alternative surgical options such as anterior decompression and fusion and laminectomy with or without posterior fusion. Various laminoplasty techniques have been described. All of these variations are designed to reposition the laminae and expand the spinal canal while retaining the dorsal elements to protect the dura from scar formation and to preserve postoperative cervical stability and alignment. With the right surgical indications, reliable results can be expected with laminoplasty in treating patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy.
Mitsunaga, Lance K.; Klineberg, Eric O.; Gupta, Munish C.
Degenerative chronic spinal cord compression induced cervical myelopathy is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. The disease generally leads to impairment of the sensory and motor function of the cord progressively and insidiously. However, the underlying pathophysiology and the precise mechanism of the disease are still uncertain and remain to be investigated. The establishment of an animal model which
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of cervical arthroplasty for the treatment of degenerative cervical pathology. In its relative infancy, the applications for this technique are still being explored. In this report, we present the use of cervical arthroplasty in the treatment of progressive cervical myelopathy due to adjacent segment disease related to previous multisegmental
BackgroundCervical spondylotic myelopathy is a potentially serious neurologic disorder that commonly presents with gait difficulty and hand dysfunction. Because the development of CSM is in large part related to advanced spondylosis and degenerative disk disease, elderly patients appear to be at an increased risk to develop this condition. The surgical outcomes of this patient population have been understudied; the authors
Langston T. Holly; Parham Moftakhar; Larry T. Khoo; A. Nick Shamie; Jeffrey C. Wang
Adult-onset copper deficiency with neurological manifestations is a newly recognised syndrome. Long-term oral copper replacement therapy has been the mainstay of treatment in the literature. A case of relapsing hypocupraemic myelopathy responsive to increased doses of copper replacement is reported. Standard doses of copper may not be sufficient for all patients.
Adult?onset copper deficiency with neurological manifestations is a newly recognised syndrome. Long?term oral copper replacement therapy has been the mainstay of treatment in the literature. A case of relapsing hypocupraemic myelopathy responsive to increased doses of copper replacement is reported. Standard doses of copper may not be sufficient for all patients.
Prodan, C I; Bottomley, S S; Holland, N R; Lind, S E
In a prospective series of 34 incident patients with primary cervical dystonia (CD), 6 showed clinical or radiological signs of cervical radiculopathy (RP) or myelopathy (MP) during the course of their movement disorder. Age at onset in these patients was in the range reported for pure spondylotic cervical RP without an accompanying movement disorder. Radiologically, spondylosis was mild in 1
Johann M. Hagenah; Alexandra Vieregge; Peter Vieregge
Summary One hundred and fourteen patients were admitted to our department for evaluation of their cervical spondylogenetic symptoms, including local cervical pain, radiculopathy and myelopathy. This retrospective study gives the results, expressed as improved, unchanged or worse, of anterior surgery, posterior surgery and conservative treatment. Local cervical pain improved in about half of the patients, without any difference between the
Some patients with fibromyalgia also exhibit the neurological signs of cervical myelopathy. We sought to determine if treatment\\u000a of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia and the patients’ quality of life.\\u000a A non-randomized, prospective, case control study comparing the outcome of surgical (n = 40) versus non-surgical (n = 31) treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia was
Dan S. Heffez; Ruth E. Ross; Yvonne Shade-Zeldow; Konstantinos Kostas; Mary Morrissey; Dean A. Elias; Alan Shepard
Indications and timing ¶of surgical treatment for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy, and the long-term results for the\\u000a conditions, were reviewed. Advances in spinal imaging and accumulation of clinical experience have provided some clues as\\u000a to indications and timing of surgery for cervical myelopathy. Duration of myelopathy prior to surgery and the transverse area\\u000a of the spinal cord at the maximum
This article discusses recent advances in basic research that alter the view of the pathogenesis of radiation myelopathy and summarizes the available data from developmental neurobiology and preclinical studies on demyelinating diseases. These studies have produced interesting insights into oligodendrocyte development, intercellular signaling pathways, and myelination processes. Current findings suggest that administration of cytokines as platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor could increase proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors, enhance their differentiation, up-regulate synthesis of myelin constituents, and promote myelin regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Other compounds might also be able to modulate the progression of pathogenic processes that lead to myelopathy. In addition, several possible biological prevention or treatment strategies, for example stimulation of endogenous cellular regeneration and glial cell transplantation, are discussed. Rationally designed animal experiments pursuing such strategies could further elucidate the pathogenesis of radiation-induced CNS damage. PMID:10492160
One hundred and two patients with suspected cervical spondylotic myelopathy were prospectively investigated using MRI as the initial imaging technique. The aim was to discover if clinicians could manage patients with MRI alone, or if they would find a second investigation necessary. Eighty two patients were managed using MRI alone, 34 of whom were treated surgically. Twenty patients had a second investigation: a myelogram in 18 and a CT myelogram in two. This was performed in nine patients to exclude structural pathology in the thoracic or lumbar region (which was not examined with MRI), and in 11 to obtain more specific information about the cervical region. Only five of these 20 patients had surgical treatment. The diagnosis changed after the second investigation in four patients, but management was not influenced in any of these. MRI is a satisfactory alternative to myelography for most patients with suspected cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Images
Statham, P F; Hadley, D M; Macpherson, P; Johnston, R A; Bone, I; Teasdale, G M
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a degenerative spinal disease which may lead to significant clinical morbidity. The onset of symptoms is usually insidious, with long periods of fixed disability and episodic worsening events. Regarding the pathophysiology of CSM, the repeated injuries to the spinal cord are caused by both static and dynamic mechanical factors. The combination of these factors affects the spinal cord basically through both direct trauma and ischemia. Regarding the diagnosis, both static and dynamics X-rays, as well as magnetic resonance imaging are important for preoperative evaluation as well as individualizing surgical planning. The choice of the most appropriate technique is affected by patient's clinical condition radiologic findings, as well as surgeon's experience. In opposition to the old belief that patients presenting mild myelopathy should be treated conservatively, there has progressively been amount of evidence indicating that the clinical course of this disease is progressive deterioration and that early surgical intervention improves long-term functional recovery and neurological prognosis.
Mattei, Tobias A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Milano, Jeronimo B.; Dutra, Luis Paulo F.; Fasset, Daniel R.
The incidence of spinal injuries is increased in people with epilepsy although compressive thoracic myelopathy has not been reported. We describe a 15-year-old girl with SCN1A mutation (Dravet syndrome), refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and prior posterior instrumentation and fusion for scoliosis, who presented with progressive lower extremity weakness. Junctional kyphosis with disc herniation and spinal cord compression directly rostral to the instrumentation was apparent on imaging. On history, the patient had suffered a particularly severe convulsive seizure just before developing symptoms. Surgical decompression and stabilization led to a complete neurologic recovery. This unusual presentation of myelopathy illustrates the need to consider this complication in patients with epilepsy and spinal instrumentation. PMID:22140129
Myers, Kenneth A; Payne, Eric T; Esser, Michael J; Kirton, Adam; Howard, Jason J
We aimed to evaluate the long-term (>2 years) outcome of acute and subacute myelopathies (ASM). We systematically followed-up\\u000a consecutive patients presenting with a first episode of ASM, defined by spinal cord symptoms with an onset <3 weeks and duration\\u000a ?48 h. Patients with compressive or traumatic spinal cord lesions are excluded from this report. Our cohort consisted of 170\\u000a patients (median age 39.0 years,
S. Debette; J. de Sèze; J.-P. Pruvo; H. Zephir; F. Pasquier; D. Leys; P. Vermersch
Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dystonia, rigidity, and dementia. In these patients, chronic repeated dystonic movements, especially of the head and neck, can lead to excessive stress on the cervical spine, resulting in early degenerative changes and myelopathy. This report focuses on a young patient with Hallervorden-Spatz disease who presented with C4 to C5 cervical
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is uncommon at the C3-4 level. Fourteen patients with C3-4 CSM were treated over a period of 3 years. The radiological factors contribut- ing to CSM at the C3-4 level were studied. These factors included the assessment of static and dynamic canal diam- eters, retrolisthesis, posterior osteophytes and degenera- tive spinal segmental fusion on plain X-rays;
K. H. Vyas; Deepu Banerji; S. Behari; S. Jain; V. K. Jain; D. K. Chhabra
Age-related changes in the spinal column result in a degenerative cascade known as spondylosis. Genetic, environmental, and\\u000a occupational influences may play a role. These spondylotic changes may result in direct compressive and ischemic dysfunction\\u000a of the spinal cord known as cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Both static and dynamic factors contribute to the pathogenesis.\\u000a CSM may present as subclinical stenosis or
Darren R. Lebl; Alex Hughes; Frank P. Cammisa; Patrick F. O’Leary
Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women) with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women) with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, ?-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 67.3%. Conclusions We successfully developed a simple self-administered questionnaire to screen for cervical myelopathy.
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a debilitating condition associated with spinal cord dysfunction. It frequently occurs in the elderly and accounts for the majority of non-traumatic spastic paraparesis and quadriparesis. Cervical myelopathy refers to the clinical syndrome of long-tract aberrations in both upper and lower extremities arising from cervical spinal cord compression. It is most commonly caused by degenerative spondylosis
This section of the cervical spondylotic myelopathy Spine focus issue collates the existing evidence related to natural history and nonoperative management. In the case of patients with symptomatic cervical spondylotic myelopathy treated nonoperatively, while 20% to 62% will deteriorate at 3 to 6 years of follow-up, no specific patient or disease characteristics have been shown to predict this change reliably. For patients without myelopathy with spondylotic cord compression, the rate of myelopathy development is approximately 8% at 1 year and approximately 23% at 4 years of follow-up. Clinical and/or electrophysiological evidence of cervical radiculopathy has been shown to predict such progression and should prompt strong consideration of surgical decompression. With respect to nonoperative care, in the case of mild myelopathy, there is low evidence that such treatment may have a role; for moderate and severe myelopathy, this treatment results in outcomes inferior to those of surgery and is not recommended. Given the unpredictably progressive nature of cervical myelopathy, the indications for nonoperative management are ostensibly limited. Finally, the preclinical rationale and clinical translation of a putative neuroprotective drug, which may one day serve to augment the effects of surgery in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, is presented and discussed. PMID:23963011
Fehlings, Michael G; Wilson, Jefferson R; Yoon, S Tim; Rhee, John M; Shamji, Mohammed F; Lawrence, Brandon D
Spondylotic cervical cord compression detected by imaging methods is a prerequisite for the clinical diagnosis of spondylotic cervical myelopathy (SCM). Little is known about the spontaneous course and prognosis of clinically “silent” presymptomatic spondylotic cervical cord compression (P-SCCC). The aim of the present study was to update a previously published model predictive for the development of clinically symptomatic SCM, and to assess the early and late risks of this event in a larger cohort of P-SCCC subjects. A group of 199 patients (94 women, 105 men, median age 51 years) with magnetic resonance signs of spondylotic cervical cord compression, but without clear clinical signs of myelopathy, was followed prospectively for at least 2 years (range 2–12 years). Various demographic, clinical, imaging, and electrophysiological parameters were correlated with the time for the development of symptomatic SCM. Clinical evidence of the first signs and symptoms of SCM within the follow-up period was found in 45 patients (22.6%). The 25th percentile time to clinically manifested myelopathy was 48.4 months, and symptomatic SCM developed within 12 months in 16 patients (35.5%). The presence of symptomatic cervical radiculopathy and electrophysiological abnormalities of cervical cord dysfunction detected by somatosensory or motor-evoked potentials were associated with time-to-SCM development and early development (?12 months) of SCM, while MRI hyperintensity predicted later (>12 months) progression to symptomatic SCM. The multivariate predictive model based on these variables correctly predicted early progression into SCM in 81.4% of the cases. In conclusion, electrophysiological abnormalities of cervical cord dysfunction together with clinical signs of cervical radiculopathy and MRI hyperintensity are useful predictors of early progression into symptomatic SCM in patients with P-SCCC. Electrophysiological evaluation of cervical cord dysfunction in patients with cervical radiculopathy or back pain is valuable. Meticulous follow-up is justified in high-risk P-SCCC cases.
Since 1986, the authors have used anterior decompression and fusion to treat patients with one- or two-level lesions without spinal canal stenosis (Group A) and laminoplasty for patients with more than three-level lesions or spinal canal stenosis (Group P). The aim of this study was to compare surgical outcomes of anterior and posterior approaches for patients with cervical myelopathy because of spondylosis and disc herniation and to determine the cause of poor neurologic recovery after surgery. One hundred thirty-six patients were followed up for an average of 5.6 years. There were no significant differences in gender, preoperative neurologic deficits, axial symptoms, or duration of symptoms before surgery between the two groups. Mean recovery rates for disc herniations were 71.1% and 71.9% in Groups A and P, respectively. For spondylosis, mean recovery rates were 49.0% and 58.6% in Groups A and P, respectively. There were no differences in recovery rate for patients with either spinal disorder between Groups A and P. The neurologic recovery of patients with kyphotic spinal cord was inferior to that of patients with lordotic or straight spinal cord. It is possible that acquisition and maintenance of lordosis result in improvement of clinical outcomes after surgery for patients with myelopathy. PMID:11127649
Kawakami, M; Tamaki, T; Iwasaki, H; Yoshida, M; Ando, M; Yamada, H
Cervical spine myelopathy (CSM) is a clinical diagnosis made with imaging confirmation. At present, most clinical tests used to identify CSM are specific and no clusters of tests have proven more beneficial than stand alone tests in guiding treatment decision making. This study endeavored to produce a cluster of predictive clinical findings for a sample of patients using a clinical diagnosis/imaging confirmation as the reference standard for cervical spine myelopathy. Data from 249 patients with various conditions associated with cervical spine dysfunction were analyzed to determine which clinical tests and measures, when clustered together, were most diagnostic for CSM. Using multivariate regression analyses and calculations for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios, a definitive cluster was identified. Thirteen clinical findings were investigated for capacity to diagnosis CSM. Five clinical: (1) gait deviation; (2) +Hoffmann’s test; (3) inverted supinator sign; (4) +Babinski test; and (5) age >45 years, were demonstrated the capacity when clustered into one of five positive tests to rule out CSM (negative likelihood ratio?=?0.18; 95% CI?=?0.12–0.42), and when clustered into three of five positive findings to rule in CSM (positive likelihood ratio?=?30.9; 95% CI?=?5.5–181.8). This study found clustered combinations of clinical findings that could rule in and rule out CSM. These clusters may be useful in identifying patients with this complex diagnosis in similar patient populations.
Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), including cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, presents a heterogenous set of variables reflecting its complex nature. Multiple studies in the past have attempted to elucidate an ideal surgical algorithm that surgeons may use when treating these patients, unfortunately all studies to date, including the rigorous systematic review used in this focus issue, have fallen short in identifying a superior approach when addressing DCM. Likely because of a superior approach being nonexistent because there are multiple pathoanatomical considerations. In addition to the multitude of variables that spine surgeons face when deciding the treatment options for patients with DCM, the previous studies that have been published, unfortunately, lack in consistent outcome and complication reporting. Therefore, synthesizing a treatment algorithm remains difficult, however, the articles in this focus issue use the GRADE system to assess the overall quality (strength) of available evidence and, where appropriate, formulate evidence-based recommendations. Factors that should be included in surgical decision making are the sagittal alignment, anatomical location of the compressive pathology, number of levels of compression, presence of absence or instability or subluxation, the type compressive pathology (e.g., spondylosis vs. ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament), neck anatomy, bone quality, and surgeon experience or preference. Fortunately, as reviewed in the accompanying articles, a number of excellent surgical options exist that can be selected on the basis of the aforementioned pathoanatomical considerations. PMID:23963012
Lawrence, Brandon D; Shamji, Mohammed F; Traynelis, Vincent C; Yoon, S Tim; Rhee, John M; Chapman, Jens R; Brodke, Darrel S; Fehlings, Michael G
Myelopathy is a rare but serious complication of radiation therapy (RT). Radiation myelopathy is white matter damage to the spinal cord developed after a certain period of application of ionizing radiation. Factors such as radiation dose and time between applications affect the occurrence as well as the severity of myelopathy. In those patients, positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination has a very important role both in the diagnosis and in the differential diagnosis of lesions. In this case report, the case of progressive paraparesis, developed in a 52-year-old female patient operated with pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma diagnosis and who received chemotherapy and RT following surgery, has been reported. PMID:23559989
Myelopathy is a rare but serious complication of radiation therapy (RT). Radiation myelopathy is white matter damage to the spinal cord developed after a certain period of application of ionizing radiation. Factors such as radiation dose and time between applications affect the occurrence as well as the severity of myelopathy. In those patients, positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination has a very important role both in the diagnosis and in the differential diagnosis of lesions. In this case report, the case of progressive paraparesis, developed in a 52-year-old female patient operated with pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma diagnosis and who received chemotherapy and RT following surgery, has been reported.
Background A new self-administered questionnaire as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy was drawn up in Part 1 (Japanese\\u000a Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, JOACMEQ). Because a question with regard to driving\\u000a a car (C-41) was not suitable for this patient group, the authors composed an alternative question related to neck motion\\u000a (C-41-2). The purposes of the present
Calcification of the ligamentum flavum secondary to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition may be a rare cause\\u000a of cervical myelopathy. We present a 56-year-old man with spinal stenosis secondary to CPPD disease and subacute cervical\\u000a myelopathy following minor trauma. The patient had no history of CPPD disease. Posterior C4-C6 decompression and instrumented\\u000a fusion were performed. Intraoperative findings were densely thickened
Andreas F. Mavrogenis; Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos; Demetrios S. Korres; Spyridon Pneumaticos
Retrospective study on the results of anterior corpectomy for the treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients over 70 years\\u000a old. To evaluate the surgical results of anterior corpectomy in aged patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy and to investigate\\u000a the probable pathomechanism by radiographic study. There are few data focused on the surgical results and post-operative complications\\u000a of anterior corpectomy in aged
Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) study using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may give a functional assessment of corticospinal conduction. But there are no large studies on MEPs using TMS in myelopathy patients. The purpose of this study is to confirm the usefulness of MEPs for the assessment of the myelopathy and to investigate the use of MEPs using TMS as a screening tool for myelopathy. We measured the MEPs of 831 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of myelopathy using TMS. The MEPs from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and abductor hallucis (AH) muscles were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) is calculated by subtracting the peripheral conduction time from the MEP latency. Later, 349 patients had surgery for myelopathy (operative group) and 482 patients were treated conservatively (nonoperative group). CMCTs in the operative group and nonoperative group were assessed. MEPs were prolonged in 711 patients (86%) and CMCTs were prolonged in 493 patients (59%) compared with the control patients. CMCTs from the ADM and AH in the operative group were significantly more prolonged than that in the nonoperative group. All patients in the operative group showed prolongation of MEPs or CMCTs or multiphase of the MEP wave. MEP abnormalities are useful for an electrophysiological evaluation of myelopathy patients. Moreover, MEPs may be effective parameters in spinal pathology for deciding the operative treatment.
This article describes a retrospective study on myelopathy, induced by monosegmental prolapsed disc and spondylosis. To assess\\u000a pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological findings related to myelopathy, and factors influencing the outcome, 20 disc\\u000a herniation (group A) and 11 spondylosis patients (group B) were studied. Average duration of myelopathy in groups A and B\\u000a were 3 and 8.7 months, respectively. Anterior
Jong-Seon Ryu; Jong-Woo Chae; Woo-Jin Cho; Han Chang; Myung-Sang Moon; Sung-Soo Kim
Study design:A cross-sectional analysis.Objective:To examine whether intramedullary stress is related to the appearance of symptoms in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).Setting:Japan.Methods:Thirty-three consecutive patients with CSM and 30 consecutive patients without CSM were enrolled. A total of 99 disc levels from C3 to C6 in 33 patients with CSM were divided into two groups: 33 disc levels with high signal intensity (HSI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (HSI group) and 66 disc levels without HSI (Non-HSI group). Ninety disc levels from C3 to C6 in patients without CSM were set up in a control group. Intramedullary stress value at each level was analyzed using the finite element method. Stress was compared among the three groups. A cutoff value of stress to present HSI was investigated from receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve.Results:In all the patients with CSM, the disc level with HSI presented the highest stress among the three disc levels evaluated. The stress was 3.16±0.86?kPa (mean±s.d.) in the HSI group, 1.81±0.72?kPa in the Non-HSI group and 1.01±0.37?kPa in the control group. The stress differed significantly among the three groups (P<0.0001). The qualified cutoff value derived from the ROC curve was 2.30?kPa (sensitivity 78.8%, specificity 91.9%). None of the disc levels in the control group exceeded 2.30?kPa.Conclusion:HSI was strongly associated with intramedullary stress. Threshold of intramedullary stress to present HSI that related closely to the symptoms of myelopathy was revealed. PMID:23999109
Takahashi, K; Ozawa, H; Sakamoto, N; Minegishi, Y; Sato, M; Itoi, E
Development process and pathology of myelopathy due to chronic spinal cord compression have not been fully elucidated. This study was conducted in order to establish an experimental model which can efficiently produce myelopathy and be useful in the studies on myelopathy due to chronic spinal cord compression. Under electrophysiological monitoring of the spinal cord, anterior compression was produced on C5 using a plastic screw. Two weeks later, a plastic plate was inserted under the C5 arch. For the subsequent 10 months on average, walking pattern and MR images were periodically monitored. Before the sacrifice, electrophysiological test was performed and then histopathological examination was done. Palsy appeared at 5 months on average after the addition of posterior compression. Mean compression ratio of the spinal cord calculated on MR images was 34%. All animals with compression showed a high intramedullary signal intensity, and the mean contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the compressed area was 49%. Electrophysiological test showed a significant decrease in the amplitude of spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEPs) at the given compression level. Histology showed flattening of the anterior horn, disappearance and necrosis of anterior horn cells in the gray matter; and demyelination and axonal degeneration in the white matter. The antero-posterior compression produces the condition of spinal canal stenosis. Repeated antero-posterior compression to the spinal cord is important in establishing myelopathy. The present animal model was evaluated to be useful in the studies on myelopathy. PMID:11518269
PurposeIntervertebral cervical disc herniation (CDH) is a relatively common disorder that can coexist with degenerative changes to worsen cervicogenic myelopathy. Despite the frequent disc abnormalities found in asymptomatic populations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered excellent at detecting cervical spine myelopathy (CSM) associated with disc abnormality. The objective of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-observer reliability of
The neuropathologic features of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) are reviewed by supplementing those few previously published cases with 5 additional cases collected over the years. The endocrine involvement in AMN is briefly presented to serve as a pathogenetic backdrop and to emphasize that most of the lesions in AMN, as in adreno-leukodystrophy (ALD), are noninflammatory in the traditional sense of the word. The myeloneuropathy is emphasized, but the dysmyelinative/inflammatory demyelinative lesions also are presented. The preponderance of available data indicates that the myeloneuropathy of AMN is a central-peripheral distal (dying-back) axonopathy, as was originally proposed. The severity of the myeloneuropathy does not appear to correlate with the duration or severity of endocrine dysfunction. Microglia are the dominant participating cells in the noninflammatory myelopathy. Abnormalities in the ALD gene, which encodes a peroxisomal ABC half-transporter, do not correlate with clinical phenotypes. The relationship of the gene product, ALDP, to the peroxisomal very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) synthetase, the activity of which is deficient in ALD/AMN, is unclear. An ALD-knockout mouse model has developed axonal degeneration, particularly in spinal cord, and is therefore more reminiscent of AMN than ALD. We continue to postulate that the fundamental defect in the myeloneuropathy of AMN is an axonal or neuronal membrane abnormality perhaps due to the incorporation of VLCFA-gangliosides, which perturbs the membrane's microenvironment and leads to dysfunction and atrophy. PMID:10749098
Powers, J M; DeCiero, D P; Ito, M; Moser, A B; Moser, H W
The authors describe a case of an 80-year-old man with a gradual weakness of the lower extremities not linked to any known traumatic episode over the 2 weeks before admission. CT scan and MRI of the spine revealed a cystic formation, measuring about 1 cm in diameter, at C7-T1 at the left posterolateral site at the level of the articular facet. During surgery, the mass appeared to be in the ligamentum flavum at the level of the articular facet and was in contact with the dura mater. After the removal of the mass, there was an immediate and significant improvement of the patient's symptoms. Histopathologic examination showed the cyst to be composed of nonspecific degenerative fibrous tissue with mild inflammatory change and confirmed the cyst as a synovial cyst. Synovial cyst in the cervical region is a very rare lesion causing myelopathy. Surgical removal of the cyst and decompression of the spinal cord results in good neurological recovery. PMID:15227744
Conventional myelography, metrizamide computed tomographic (CT) myelography, and surgical findings were correlated in 30 patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. In 60% of patients, metrizamide CT myelography provided significant additional information including better characterization of the abnormality, lateralization if the conventional myelogram was indeterminate, more definitive demonstration of cord atrophy, foraminal narrowing not appreciated on myelography, and demonstration of abnormalities distal to a myelographic block. In no case was a myelographic abnormality not detected on metrizamide CT meyelography. In patients with cervical myelopathy, a cross-sectional diameter of the cord equaling less than 50% of the subarachnoid space is predictive of poor patient response to surgical intervention.
Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP) is a rare inflammatory disease characterized by hypertrophic inflammation of the dura mater and various clinical courses that are from myelopathy. Although many associated diseases have been suggested, the etiology of IHSP is not well understood. The ideal treatment is controversial. In the first case, a 55-year-old woman presented back pain, progressive paraparesis, both leg numbness, and voiding difficulty. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an anterior epidural mass lesion involving from C6 to mid-thoracic spine area with low signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images. We performed decompressive laminectomy and lesional biopsy. After operation, she was subsequently treated with steroid and could walk unaided. In the second case, a 45-year-old woman presented with fever and quadriplegia after a spine fusion operation due to lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative herniated lumbar disc. Initial MRI showed anterior and posterior epidural mass lesion from foramen magnum to C4 level. She underwent decompressive laminectomy and durotomy followed by steroid therapy. However, her conditions deteriorated gradually and medical complications occurred. In our cases, etiology was not found despite through investigations. Initial MRI showed dural thickening with mixed signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Pathologic examination revealed chronic nonspecific inflammation in both patients. Although one patient developed several complications, the other showed slow improvement of neurological symptoms with decompressive surgery and steroid therapy. In case of chronic compressive myelopathy due to the dural hypertrophic change, decompressive surgery such as laminectomy or laminoplasty may be helpful as well as postoperative steroid therapy.
The outcomes of surgical treatment in 80 patients with cervical compressive myelopathy were retrospectively reviewed to examined the correlations between surgical outcomes and the following seven predictive factors: age at surgery, duration of symptoms, severity of myelopathy, number of compressed segments, intramedullary high intensity segments on T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, surgical method, and the type of disease. The recovery rates were evaluated at 3 months after the surgery. Significant correlations were observed between recovery rate and duration of symptoms, severity of myelopathy, and high intensity segments on T(2)-weighted MR imaging. No statistical correlation was observed with the other factors. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlations between recovery rate and duration of symptoms and number of high intensity segments on T(2)-weighted MR imaging. The multiple regression equation was expressed as follows: recovery rate = 82.981 + 0.101 x (age) - 0.675 x (duration) - 1.452 x (number of compressed segments) - 1.451 x (preoperative Neurosurgical Cervical Spine Scale) - 13.826 x (number of high intensity segments). Based on this predicted formula, we compared the predicted and actual recovery rates for 17 patients treated recently. The two values were similar except in two patients with long duration of symptoms. We conclude that the surgical outcome can be predicted to a certain extent and this information could be provided to patients considering surgery for cervical compressive myelopathy. PMID:16723815
To assess neurological status and to evaluate the effect of surgical decompression in patients with cervical myelopathy, we performed computerized gait analysis in 24 patients with cervical compressive myelopathy who showed spastic walking. Gait analysis was repeated during neurological follow-up that averaged 32.4 months. The gait pattern in patients with severe myelopathy was characterized by hyperextension of the knee in the stance phase without plantar flexion of the ankle in the swing phase, significantly reduced walking speed and step length, prolonged stance phase duration and decreased single-stance phase duration, and increased step width. The angle of flexion of the knee joint in the stance phase was significantly correlated with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Postoperative neurological improvement was associated with increased walking speed and decreased extension angle of the knee joint (single-stance phase and swing phase). Postoperatively, 12 patients had normalized extension of the knee in stance phase and their walking speed, cadence, stance phase duration, and single-stance phase duration, as well as step length and width, showed nonsignificant differences from these parameters in healthy controls. Our results show that kinesiological gait analysis is clinically useful for the functional assessment of the severity of spastic walking in cervical myelopathy. PMID:11845345
BackgroundResults showed good clinical outcomes of anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) during a short term follow-up; however, studies assessing long term results are relatively scarce. In this study we intended to assess the long term clinical and radiographic outcomes, find out the factors that may affect the long term clinical outcome and evaluate
Rui Gao; Lili Yang; Huajiang Chen; Yang Liu; Lei Liang; Wen Yuan
Eighteen patients (6 female, 12 male; average age 51 years, range 37–79) with clinical and radiological evidence (MRI) of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were examined. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on whether radiology indicated single level (9 patients) or multilevel (9 patients) compression of the cervical cord. All of the patients underwent surgical decompression. Seriate exam with
M. De Mattei; B. Paschero; D. Cassano; A. Campanella; L. Rizzo; E. Morgando
Cervical myelopathy is caused by degenerative processes of the spine including intervertebral disc herniation and posterior spur usually developing at C3/4 to C5/6. C7/T1 single level myelopathy is very rare because of the anatomical characteristics. Facet joint arthrosis can be a cause of cervical myelopathy but only a few cases have been reported. The authors report an extremely rare case of C7/T1 myelopathy caused by facet joint arthrosis. A 58-year-old male presented with hand and gait clumsiness. The radiological examinations revealed severe C7/T1 facet joint arthrosis with bony spur extending into the spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord laterally. The T1 spinous process indicated nonunion of a “clay-shoveler's” fracture, which suggested that his cervico-thoracic spine had been frequently moved, and thus severe arthrosis had occurred in the facet joints. A right hemilaminectomy of C7 and C7/T1 facetectomy with single level spinal fusion led to complete neurological improvement.
A fatal case of occult foramen magnum meningioma is described which presented with features of cervical myelopathy confirmed by cervical myelogram. Surgical decompression led to initial improvement followed by progressive deterioration and death. Postmortem examination revealed a 4 cm diameter foramen magnum meningioma. The dangers of using only standard radiographic investigations of the cervical cord are discussed.
Background: Diagnosing patients with cervical cord compressive myelopathy in a timely manner can be challenging due to varying clinical presentations, the absence of pathognomonic findings, and symptoms that are usually insidious in nature. Objective: To describe the clinical course of a patient with primary complaint of left medial knee pain that was nonresponsive to surgical and conservative measures; the patient was subsequently diagnosed with cervical cord compressive myelopathy. Design: Case report. Subject: A 63-year-old man with a primary complaint of left medial knee pain. Findings: Physical examination of the left knee was normal except for slight palpable tenderness over the medial joint line. During treatment, he noted loss of balance during activities of daily living. Reassessment revealed bilateral upper extremity hyperreflexia, bilateral Babinski reflex, and positive bilateral Hoffman reflex. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated moderately severe spinal stenosis at the C3-C4, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels. After C3-C7 laminoplasty for cervical cord compressive myelopathy, he reported substantial improvement of his left medial knee. Three years later, he had no complaint of knee pain. Conclusion: Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of cervical cord compressive myelopathy may avoid unnecessary diagnostic imaging, medical evaluations, invasive procedures, and potential neurologic complications.
The concept of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the anterior treatment of cervical pathology has existed for approximately half a decade. In this time, multiple devices have been developed for this purpose, with the ultimate aim to provide an alternative to fusion. Fifty-five patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy underwent CDA over a 5year period. Data was collected on 46 patients, which included Visual Analogue Scale scores for neck pain and arm pain, Neck Disability Index scores, Short Form-36 v2 (SF-36) and Nurick grades for myelopathy patients. Preoperative data and data obtained at the latest clinical follow-up (median 48months, range, 10-76months) were analysed to assess the intermediate term efficacy of the procedure. In patients with radiculopathy, arm pain improved by 88% (p<0.001). In those presenting with myelopathy, the Nurick grades improved from a median of 1 to 0 (p<0.001). In both groups of patients, improvements in pain and neurologic deficit were accompanied by significant improvements in multiple domains of the SF-36. Using a composite system which considered neck pain, arm pain, function and myelopathy, we arrived at an overall success rate of 73%. We concluded that CDA is an effective intervention for improving neurologic deficit, arm pain and local neck symptoms that translated into improvements in physical and social functioning in the intermediate term. PMID:23871454
Khong, Peter; Bogduk, Nikolai; Ghahreman, Ali; Davies, Mark
Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM), covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P < 0.0001; EDSS: r = -0.83, P < 0.0001; Barthel: r = 0.56, P < 0.002; Osame: r = -0.94, P < 0.0001) and reliability (intra-rater: r = 0.83, P < 0.0001; inter-rater: r = 0.94, P < 0.0001) were demonstrated. The metric properties of JOA were similar to those found in SSPROM. Several clinimetric requirements were met for both SSPROM and JOA scales. Since SSPROM has a wider range, it should be useful for follow-up studies on IEM myelopathies. PMID:22570090
Castilhos, R M; Blank, D; Netto, C B O; Souza, C F M; Fernandes, L N T; Schwartz, I V D; Giugliani, R; Jardim, L B
Study design:Case report and literature review.Objective:To illustrate that ossification of the proximal thoracic ligamenta flava can be a rare cause of acute myelopathy in a Caucasian patient and that timely surgery can lead to a good outcome.Setting:Nottingham, UK.Methods:Proximal multiple contiguous ossified thoracic ligamenta flava from T3\\/T4 to T5\\/T6 causing acute myelopathy was diagnosed in a Caucasian man based on history
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is caused by narrowing of the cervical spinal canal, although surgical decompression is an obvious indication for spinal cord stenosis, there are not enough data to determine that surgery is the most indicated intervention for milder forms. The purpose of the present case report was to describe the outcomes results of the physical therapy treatment with emphasis on manual therapy and therapeutic exercise for a patient with CSM. A 58-year-old male patient attended the physical therapy clinic due to pain and paresthesia in the upper and lower limbs. The magnetic resonance imaging was compatible with spondylotic myelopathy. Following physical therapy treatment, the patient exhibited an improvement in functional capacity (triangle step test and timed 10-m walk), pain, paresthesia, mJOA scale and Neck Disability Index. Based on the lack of rapid evolution of neurological impairment, physical therapy treatment was indicated, which achieved satisfactory results. PMID:24139010
We report the first known patient with human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy (HAM) and myasthenia gravis (MG). A 50-year-old woman developed fluctuating muscle weakness with easy fatigability, transient bilateral blepharoptosis and double vision. Spastic paraparesis complicated these symptoms. Neurological assessments and specific laboratory findings revealed that the patient had definite HAM and MG. By inference from
T. Fukui; K. Sugita; H. Ichikawa; A. Negishi; H. Kasai; H. Tsukagoshi
We retrospectively examined the prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic lumbar canal stenosis in patients treated surgically for cervical compressive myelopathy in order to assess the influence of latent lumbar canal stenosis on the recovery after surgery. Of 214 patients who had undergone cervical laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy, we identified 69 (32%) with myelographically documented lumbar canal stenosis. Of these, 28 (13%) patients with symptomatic lumbar canal stenosis underwent simultaneous cervical and lumbar decompression. Of the remaining 41 (19%) patients with asymptomatic lumbar canal stenosis who underwent only cervical surgery, 39 were followed up for ? 1 year (mean 4.9 years (1 to 12)) and were included in the analysis (study group). Patients without myelographic evidence of lumbar canal stenosis, who had been followed up for ? 1 year after the cervical surgery, served as controls (135 patients; mean follow-up period 6.5 years (1 to 17)). Among the 39 patients with asymptomatic lumbar canal stenosis, seven had lumbar-related leg symptoms after the cervical surgery. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 89.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 75.3 to 96.0) and 76.7% (95% CI 53.7 to 90.3) of the patients with asymptomatic lumbar canal stenosis were free from leg symptoms for three and five years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the study and control groups in the recovery rate measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score or improvement in the Nurick score at one year after surgery or at the final follow-up. These results suggest that latent lumbar canal stenosis does not influence recovery following surgery for cervical myelopathy; moreover, prophylactic lumbar decompression does not appear to be warranted as a routine procedure for coexistent asymptomatic lumbar canal stenosis in patients with cervical myelopathy, when planning cervical surgery. PMID:22371547
Tsutsumimoto, T; Shimogata, M; Yui, M; Ohta, H; Misawa, H
The objective of the study is to perform a systematic review to compare the clinical outcomes and complications of anterior\\u000a surgery with posterior surgery for multilevel cervical myelopathy (MCM). MEDLINE, EMBASE databases and other databases were\\u000a searched for all the relevant original articles published from January 1991 to November 2009 comparing anterior with posterior\\u000a surgery for MCM. Subgroup analysis was
The early onset of degenerative cervical lesions has been well described in patients suffering from athetoid or dystonic cerebral\\u000a palsy. Myelopathy can occur and aggravate of their unstable neurological status. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed and disrupted\\u000a by the abnormal movements. This retrospective study was implemented to evaluate the symptoms, the anatomical findings, and\\u000a the surgical management of seven patients
Raphael Jameson; Celia Rech; Christian Garreau de Loubresse
Circumferential cervical decompression and fusion (CCDF) is an important technique for treating patients with severe cervical\\u000a myelopathy. While circumferential cervical decompression and fusion may provide improved spinal cord decompression and stability\\u000a compared to unilateral techniques, it is commonly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We performed a retrospective\\u000a analysis of patients undergoing CCDF at the University of California, San Francisco
Henry E. Aryan; Rene O. Sanchez-Mejia; Sharona Ben-Haim; Christopher P. Ames
BackgroundThe relative frequency of compressive and non-compressive myelopathies and their aetiologies have not been evaluated extensively in most sub-Saharan African countries. The case of Cameroon is studied.MethodsAdmission registers and case records of patients in the neurology and neurosurgery departments of the study hospital were reviewed from January 1999 to December 2006.Results224 (9.7% of all admissions) cases were non-traumatic paraplegia\\/paraparesis or
Alain Zingraff Lekoubou Looti; André Pascal Kengne; Vincent de Paul Djientcheu; Callixte T Kuate; Alfred K Njamnshi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate clinical effects and manual operational point of Bryan cervical disc prosthesis in Chinese, to observe the stability and range of movement (ROM) post-operatively. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2003,12 to 2005,12, Bryan disc prosthesis replacement applied in 83 cases (102 levels) of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) after anterior decompression in our hospital. Clinical (JOA grade and Odom's scale)
Yan Wang; Xuesong Zhang; Songhua Xiao; Ning Lu; Zheng Wang; Mi Zhou
The objective of the study was to investigate the comorbidity of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), in elderly cervical\\u000a spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients in our hospital, and the correlation between surgical results and preoperative DS. There\\u000a are few studies on the outcome of laminoplasty for CSM with DS. A total of 49 elderly patients (>65 years old) who eventually\\u000a had surgical treatment for
Cervical laminoplasty has become a popular technique for the treatment of cervical myelopathy resulting from multilevel canal\\u000a stenosis. The goal of this technique is to increase the spinal canal space and to reconstruct the posterior bony arch at the\\u000a same time. The most common reason for laminoplasty failure is restenosis because of hinge closure. In the present report,\\u000a the authors
M. Orabi; S. Chibbaro; O. Makiese; J. F. Cornelius; B. George
Circumferential cervical decompression and fusion (CCDF) is an important technique for treating patients with severe cervical myelopathy. While circumferential cervical decompression and fusion may provide improved spinal cord decompression and stability compared to unilateral techniques, it is commonly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing CCDF at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) between January 2003 and December 2004. We identified 53 patients and reviewed their medical records to determine the effectiveness of CCDF for improving myelopathy, pain, and neurological function. Degree of fusion, functional anatomic alignment, and stability were also assessed. Operative morbidity and mortality were measured. The most common causes of cervical myelopathy, instability, or deformity were degenerative disease (57%) and traumatic injury (34%). Approximately one-fifth of patients had a prior fusion performed elsewhere and presented with fusion failure or adjacent-level degeneration. Postoperatively, all patients had stable (22.6%) or improved (77.4%) Nurick grades. The average preoperative and postoperative Nurick grades were 2.1 ± 1.9 and 0.4 ± 0.9, respectively. Pain improved in 85% of patients. All patients had radiographic evidence of fusion at last follow-up. The most common complication was transient dysphagia. Our average clinical follow-up was 27.5 ± 9.5 months. We present an extensive series of patients and demonstrate that cervical myelopathy can successfully be treated with CCDF with minimal operative morbidity. CCDF may provide more extensive decompression of the spinal cord and may be more structurally stable. Concerns regarding operation-associated morbidity should not strongly influence whether CCDF is performed.
Sanchez-Mejia, Rene O.; Ben-Haim, Sharona; Ames, Christopher P.
We evaluated the clinical results of posterior decompression with instrumented fusion (PDF) for thoracic myelopathy due to\\u000a ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A total of 24 patients underwent PDF, and their surgical outcomes\\u000a were evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores (0–11 points) and by recovery rates calculated at 3, 6,\\u000a 9 and 12 months after surgery and
Certain aspects of the clinical syndrome of dementia, cerebral atrophy, predominantly sensory neuropathy, and vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS resemble those seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. Pathologically, there are similarities not only in the changes in the spinal cord, but also in the brain and peripheral nerves. The pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy may be secondary to a combination of immune mediated myelin and oligodendrocyte injury, and simultaneous impairment of repair mechanisms due to a deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Products derived from macrophages may interfere directly with the methyl transfer cycle through the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and reactions involving nitric oxide and peroxynitrite which may limit the supply of methionine for conversion to SAM, both by direct interaction as well as through inhibition of methionine synthase. Macrophage activation with secretion of cytokines and other biologically reactive substances within the nervous system is sustained in the late stages of HIV infection by the general effects of immune depletion, including loss of T cells (with concomitant reduction of macrophage regulatory molecules) and recurrent opportunistic infections, and may be further augmented by the local presence of the virus itself (or its surface glycoprotein gp120). This would account for the common, but not exclusive, occurrence of vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS. The ability of the virus and its products to stimulate macrophage and microglial activation may also explain the association between severity ofvacuolar myelopathy and the presence of HIV encephalitis. A similar mechanism may underlie the pathogenesis of dementia, cerebral atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy. Local factors or differential susceptibility between the central and peripheral nervous system may determine whether myelinotoxic or neurotoxic processes predominate; the prominence of myelin involvement in the spinal cord, and axonal involvement peripherally may reflect both ends of this range, with the brain manifesting a more equal balance of both processes. ??
We report epidemiologic and clinical features of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis in a Brazilian cohort of 86 patients from a university hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were correlated with neurologic signs and symptoms. The patients’ mean age at disease onset was 43.2 years and the female to
Antonio C. P. Milagres; Maria Lúcia S. G. Jorge; Paulo E. Marchiori; Aluisio A. C. Segurado
A case of Down's syndrome in association with rheumatoid arthritis is described. The patient has spastic diplegia and atlanto-axial dislocation, probably the result of ligamentous laxity which is common in both Down's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. This laxity may have been enhanced by tonsillar or deep cervical infection. The myelopathy was thought to be due to the atlanto-axial dislocation. Spinal fusion may reverse the neurological abnormality in some cases. PMID:6454603
An autopsy case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM) of 29 years’ duration is reported. The patient had no history of surgery or blood transfusion and likely contracted HTLV-I sexually while traveling in an endemic area. At age 45, the patient began to experience gait disturbance; he later developed spastic tetraparesis. Autopsy revealed marked gross spinal cord atrophy,
Yasushi Iwasaki; Koichi Sawada; Ikuko Aiba; Eiichiro Mukai; Mari Yoshida; Yoshio Hashizume; Gen Sobue
Study design:Case series.Objective:To present spinal cord atrophy in pediatric patients who had spinal cord injury developed after trauma or acute transverse myelitis, and had no motor recovery later.Setting:Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tertiary National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.Methods:Case series.Results:Two pediatric patients with paraplegia due to acute transverse myelitis and one pediatric patient with paraplegia due to traumatic myelopathy were included
OBJECTIVETo give a comprehensive review of transverse myelopathy (TM), a rare but serious condition reported in 1–2% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).METHODS14 patients with SLE and TM were evaluated and 91 additional cases published in the English and German literature reviewed.RESULTSTM presented either as the initial manifestation or within five years of the diagnosis of SLE. Most patients
Birgit Kovacs; Thomas L Lafferty; Lawrence H Brent; Raphael J DeHoratius
Magnetic resonance image findings of 26 children (16 males, average age 9,4y) with schistosomal myelopathy are described. All children lived in Pernambuco state, Brazil - an endemic area of mansoni schistosomiasis. Imaging abnormalities were identified in 92.3% children. The most frequent findings were: (1) enlargement of the spinal cord at thoracic level, usually below T8, in 23\\/24 (96%) of patients;
Adelia Maria de Miranda Henriques-Souza; Marcelo Moraes Valença
Introduction The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical presentation, examination findings, and management decisions of a patient with thoracic myelopathy who presented to a chiropractic clinic. Case Report/Methods After receiving a diagnosis of a diffuse arthritic condition and kidney stones based on lumbar radiograph interpretation at a local urgent care facility, a 45-year-old woman presented to an outpatient chiropractic clinic with primary complaints of generalized low back pain, bilateral lower extremity paresthesias, and difficulty walking. An abnormal neurological examination result led to an initial working diagnosis of myelopathy of unknown cause. The patient was referred for a neurological consult. Results Computed tomography revealed severe multilevel degenerative spondylosis with diffuse ligamentous calcification, facet joint hypertrophy, and disk protrusion at T9-10 resulting in midthoracic cord compression. The patient underwent multilevel spinal decompressive surgery. Following surgical intervention, the patient reported symptom improvement. Conclusion It is important to include a neurologic examination on all patients presenting with musculoskeletal complaints, regardless of prior medical attention. The ability to recognize myelopathy and localize the lesion to a specific spinal region by clinical examination may help prioritize diagnostic imaging decisions as well as facilitate diagnosis and treatment.
Gay, Charles W.; Bishop, Mark D.; Beres, Jacqueline L.
The acute onset of symptoms of severe cervical radiculo-myelopathy in four patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy is reported. Neurological and radiological examination showed that the spondylotic changes of the cervical spine were responsible for new neurological deficits leading to the patients being bedridden. Dystonic-athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of the spine. These repetitive exaggerated movements may result in early degenerative changes of the vertebrae which may enhance the radiculo-myelopathy. The four patients were treated with an anterior discectomy with interbody fusion. They were bedridden pre-operatively but all have since been able to walk with or without a cane. It is concluded that early anterior decompression with interbody fusion is a treatment of choice for cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in association with athetoid cerebral palsy. Images
The acute onset of symptoms of severe cervical radiculo-myelopathy in four patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy is reported. Neurological and radiological examination showed that the spondylotic changes of the cervical spine were responsible for new neurological deficits leading to the patients being bedridden. Dystonic-athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of the spine. These repetitive exaggerated movements may result in early degenerative changes of the vertebrae which may enhance the radiculo-myelopathy. The four patients were treated with an anterior discectomy with interbody fusion. They were bedridden pre-operatively but all have since been able to walk with or without a cane. It is concluded that early anterior decompression with interbody fusion is a treatment of choice for cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in association with athetoid cerebral palsy. PMID:6470718
The myelopathy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency is known as subacute combined degeneration. It is rare, but a well known cause of demyelination of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord. The magnetic resonance imaging is characterized by an increased signal on T2-weighted images involving the posterior columns of cervical and thoracic cord. There have been few cases in literature with extensive lesions (more than seven levels) of the thoracic spinal cord. The clinical and radiological improvements are possible if the replacement of vitamin B12 is initiated precocious. We present two rare cases of extensive thoracic myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency. The first is a young woman with complete clinical recovery and important radiologic improvement after early treatment. In addition, the second case is an older man with partial response to the treatment. Those cases illustrate the importance of considering vitamin B12 deficiency in any patient, who presents with myelopathy. PMID:23468407
de Medeiros, Frederico Carvalho; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne Freitas; de Souza, Renata Brant; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Christo, Paulo Pereira
Objective The aim of this preliminary report was to assess glucose metabolism in the cervical spine of patients with chronic compressive\\u000a myelopathy by using FDG PET.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Ten patients with monosegmental chronic degenerative stenosis and local cord compression of the upper\\/middle cervical spine\\u000a with signs of myelopathy on MRI and 10 control patients without known cervical abnormalities were investigated by FDG PET.
Frank Willi Floeth; Gabriele Stoffels; Jörg Herdmann; Paul Jansen; Wolfgang Meyer; Hans-Jakob Steiger; Karl-Josef Langen
The distribution and morphology of fibrous astrocytes in the cervical spinal cord of normal horses and horses with chronic compressive myelopathy were demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein. In the spinal cord from normal horses, astrocytes with stellate cell bodies and short processes were irregularly distributed in grey matter. In the white matter, their cell bodies were small and angular in areas adjacent to grey matter and larger and more stellate-shaped in the subpial area. Astrocyte processes were fine, and evenly distributed in a predominantly radial pattern in transverse sections of cord. Gliosis was marked in the spinal cords of horses with cervical compressive myelopathy. In the grey matter at the level of compression astrocytes were often enlarged and rounded, with short, blunt processes, but the gliosis was generally mild. In the white matter, gliosis was obvious in areas of nerve fibre swelling and degeneration at the level of compression and in areas of ascending and descending Wallerian degeneration. The fine radial pattern of astrocyte fibres was replaced by a dense, irregular arrangement. Gliosis persisted in the cords of chronically affected horses after active nerve fibre degeneration had subsided. The areas of gliosis coincided with the areas of Marchi staining for degenerating myelin and with areas of myelin loss in osmium tetroxide post-fixed tissue. Histological observations were consistent with astrocytes replacing areas of extracellular space that remained after nerve fibre degeneration. it is concluded that astrocytic gliosis is a prominent and persistent alteration of the spinal cord of horses with chronic cervical compressive myelopathy. PMID:1755785
The optimal management approach for patients with mild forms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) has not been well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcome of conservative treatment, identify prognostic factors and provide evidence for the timing of surgical intervention. A total of 90 patients with MCSM attending hospital between February 2007 and January 2009 were prospectively enrolled. Initially, all patients received conservative treatment and were followed up periodically. When a deterioration in myelopathy was clearly identified, surgical treatment was conducted. Clinical and radiological factors correlating with the deterioration were examined, and final clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. At the end of January 2012, follow-ups of >3 years were completed. Seventy-eight patients were available for data analysis. Only 21 patients (26.9%) deteriorated and underwent surgery thereafter (group A), while the remaining 57 patients (73.1%) were treated conservatively throughout (group B). Statistical analysis revealed that segmental instability and cervical spinal stenosis were adverse factors for the prognosis of conservative treatment. Although the JOA scores of the patients in group A declined initially, following surgical intervention, no significant differences were identified in JOA scores between the two groups at the time of the final follow-up (P=0.46). In summary, conservative treatment is effective in MCSM patients. Patients with segmental instability and cervical spinal stenosis have a tendency to deteriorate, but conservative treatment remains the recommendation for the first action. If the myelopathy deteriorates during conservative treatment, timely surgical intervention is effective.
Myelopathy at the level of the atlas is rarely encountered by the practicing spine surgeon. Due to the region's unique anatomy, compression of the cord at this level is either caused by a large compressing lesion or an abnormally stenotic canal. We describe a rare instance of a congenitally stenotic canal due to a hypoplastic intact posterior arch of atlas, coexisting with an extremely rare ossified transverse ligament of the atlas. The coexistence of these two lesions has only been documented thrice before. We describe the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and favorable response to surgery.
Spinal stenosis in either the cervical or lumbar spinal segments is one of the most common indications for spine imaging and intervention, particularly among the elderly. This article examines the pathophysiology and imaging of the corresponding clinical syndromes, cervical spondylotic myelopathy or neurogenic intermittent claudication. The specificity fault of spine imaging is readily evident in evaluation of spinal stenosis, as many patients with anatomic cervical or lumbar central canal narrowing are asymptomatic. Imaging also may be insensitive to dynamic lesions. Those imaging features that identify symptomatic patients, or predict response to interventions, are emphasized. PMID:22643390
Background Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar\\u000a spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis\\u000a and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)\\u000a in the elderly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A total of 79 patients aged 65 or
Background The optimal surgical approach for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) has not been defined, and the relative\\u000a merits of multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy (2-level or skip 1-level\\u000a corpectomy) and fusion (ACCF) remain controversial. However, few comparative studies have been conducted on these two surgical\\u000a approaches.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods This study retrospectively reviewed the case histories of
We report a patient who developed acute myelopathy after intranasal insufflation of amphetamines and heroin. The functional prognosis was very poor; after 4 months, she remained paraplegic. MRI imaging showed selective T2 hyperintensity and intense enhancement confined to the spinal anterior horns and lumbar nerve roots and plexus. This unique MRI pattern, together with neurophysiological data, suggests that the pathological process at the first primary affected spinal anterior horns (SAH), conditioning motoneuron cell death, and then nerve roots and lumbar plexus as a consequence of wallerian degeneration
Vitamin B12 deficiency has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation with a variety of neurological symptoms and signs. As a result, many patients lack classic features of advanced severe deficiency. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in order to prevent the irreversible damage to the nervous system. We describe a 25-year-old man, who presented with predominant sensory symptoms without any signs on clinical evaluation. His serum vitamin B12 levels were low and neuroimaging revealed myelopathy. The patient was treated promptly with cyanocobalamin injections, which lead to a rapid resolution of symptoms and radiological abnormalities. PMID:23715834
There have been paucity of reports on atlas hypoplasia, and as a result this condition is not clearly defined, nor well understood. The authors reported three cases of atlas hypoplasia that were found in adults who presented with myelopathic symptoms. On radiographic examination, it was found that the anterior-posterior diameter of the atlas was remarkably narrower in all three cases in comparison with normal persons. The MRI in all three cases also revealed intramedullary high signal lesions at the levels where severe spinal cord compression was present. This led to our diagnosis of atlas hypoplasia causing myelopathy.
Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate patients with multisegmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCM) surgically treated\\u000a via a dorsal approach. Two different laminoplasty techniques were compared by assessment of enlargement of the spinal canal\\u000a and the neurological outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Thirteen patients (mean age 49 years, 11 males) underwent decompressive laminoplasty over a 7-year period. The average duration\\u000a of symptoms was 21 months.
Siamak Asgari; Hischam Bassiouni; Nagi Massoud; Marc Schlamann; Dietmar Stolke; I. Erol Sandalcioglu
The aim of this study was clinical evaluation of en bloc laminoplasty for compressive myelopathy. Subjects were 55 patients with severe myelopathy due to ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament or spinal canal stenosis in the cervical spine. The average age at surgery was 58 years old and average follow-up period 25 months. Stable expansion of the spinal canal was shown and the average extent of the canal enlargement in sagittal diameter was 4.8 +/- 1.8 mm roentgenologically. Symmetrical expansion of the canal, good bony fusion and remodelling of the posterior elements of the spine were observed in CT. No marked malalignment or instability of the cervical spine were found, but limitation of flexion-extension movement was noticed. Neurological recovery was remarkable; 44 patients were rated as excellent or good by Robinson's criteria. The average recovery rate was 76.4 +/- 20.1% according to the evaluation system of Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA). En-bloc laminoplasty can accomplish a stable expansion of the canal with adequate decompression of the spinal cord. PMID:3819538
Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease prevalent in several dog breeds. Typically, the initial progressive upper motor neuron spastic and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs occurs at 8 years of age or older. If euthanasia is delayed, the clinical signs will ascend, causing flaccid tetraparesis and other lower motor neuron signs. DNA samples from 38
Tomoyuki Awano; Gary S. Johnson; Claire M. Wade; Martin L. Katz; Gayle C. Johnson; Jeremy F. Taylor; Michele Perloski; Tara Biagi; Izabella Baranowska; Sam Long; Philip A. March; Natasha J. Olby; G. Diane Shelton; Shahnawaz Khan; Dennis P. O'Brien; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Joan R. Coates
The purposes of the study reported here were to evaluate the signalment and clinical presentation in 50 dogs with degenerative myelopathy, to evaluate whether mean survival time was significantly affected by various means of physiotherapy performed in 22 dogs, and to determine whether neurologic status, anatomic localization, or age at onset had an influence on survival time in dogs that
I. Kathmann; S. Cizinauskas; M. G. Doherr; F. Steffen; A. Jaggy
We studied 27 patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) but no clinical symptoms of myelopathy. We investigated the occupation ratio of the spinal canal by OPLL with cervical radiographs, assessed the morphological types of OPLL, and measured the segmental range of motion (ROM) at the level of maximum cord compression on flexion and extension radiographs. Patients
We examined the utility of anterior decompression and bony fusion via the extrapleural approach in the treatment of thoracic myelopathy secondary to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). Patient outcome and complications were analyzed in 48 patients treated with this procedure, with a follow-up of at least 2 years. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was used to evaluate the
Y Fujimura; Y Nishi; M Nakamura; M Watanabe; M Matsumoto
Summary Between 1976 and 1983, 251 patients underwent surgery for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Anterior microsurgical discectomy at one or more cervical segments without interbody fusion was performed in each case. 109 patients with radiculopathy and 55 patients with myelopathy were followed up clinically 1 to 8 years postoperatively. A soft disc lesion was found in 72,
Sixty-nine patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), radiculopathy (CSR), or both (CSMR) were studied with computed tomography (CT). Computer-assisted myelography (CAM) accurately determines the site and nature of spondylotic protrusions and provides good visualisation of the subarachnoid space and cord deformities even in areas with dilute metrizamide. However, excessive vertebral movement and bulging ligamenta flava with their effects on cord
Y. L. Yu; G. H. Boulay; J. M. Stevens; B. E. Kendall
Posterior operative approach has been the standard treatment for cervical compressive myelopathy, and axial pain after laminoplasty or laminectomy as a postoperative complication is now gradually receiving more and more attention. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of the current understanding of axial pain after cervical laminoplasty and laminectomy, and summarize clinical features, influence factors and preventive measures of axial pain after posterior decompressive surgery based on a review of literature published in the English language. Axial pain distributes over nuchal, periscapular and shoulder regions. Posterior surgery is not the major cause of axial pain, but axial pain can be worsened by the procedure. There are many clinical factors that influence postoperative axial pain such as age, preoperative axial pain, different surgical technique and postoperative management, but most of them are still controversial. Several surgical modifications have been innovated to reduce axial pain. Less invasive surgery, reconstruction of the extensor musculature, avoiding detachment of the semispinalis cervicis muscle and early removal of external immobilization have proved to be effective. Axial pain is under the influence of multiple factors, so comprehensive methods are required to reduce and avoid the postoperative axial pain. Because of methodological shortcomings in publications included in this systematic review, different results from different studies may be produced due to differences in study design, evaluation criteria, sample size, and incidence or severity of axial pain. More high-quality studies are necessary for drawing more reliable and convincing conclusions.
Posterior operative approach has been the standard treatment for cervical compressive myelopathy, and axial pain after laminoplasty or laminectomy as a postoperative complication is now gradually receiving more and more attention. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of the current understanding of axial pain after cervical laminoplasty and laminectomy, and summarize clinical features, influence factors and preventive measures of axial pain after posterior decompressive surgery based on a review of literature published in the English language. Axial pain distributes over nuchal, periscapular and shoulder regions. Posterior surgery is not the major cause of axial pain, but axial pain can be worsened by the procedure. There are many clinical factors that influence postoperative axial pain such as age, preoperative axial pain, different surgical technique and postoperative management, but most of them are still controversial. Several surgical modifications have been innovated to reduce axial pain. Less invasive surgery, reconstruction of the extensor musculature, avoiding detachment of the semispinalis cervicis muscle and early removal of external immobilization have proved to be effective. Axial pain is under the influence of multiple factors, so comprehensive methods are required to reduce and avoid the postoperative axial pain. Because of methodological shortcomings in publications included in this systematic review, different results from different studies may be produced due to differences in study design, evaluation criteria, sample size, and incidence or severity of axial pain. More high-quality studies are necessary for drawing more reliable and convincing conclusions. PMID:20941514
Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP) is a comparatively rare disease characterized by hypertrophic inflammation of the dura mater and clinical symptoms that progress from local pain to myelopathy. We report a case of IHSP followed up for 20 years in a 46-year-old man. Expansive laminoplasty was performed in 1991, and this case has been previously reported by a co-author. After 17 years, the patient's gait disturbance returned. Physical examination and imaging confirmed IHSP that had developed into syringomyelia at the T2-L1 conus level. This case was diagnosed as adhesive spinal arachnoiditis due to pachymeningitis caused by syringomyelia. T1-T4 laminectomy, a syringo-subarachnoid shunt (S-S shunt), and L2-L3 laminectomy were performed. The patient again developed dysesthesia and gait disturbance 3 years after the second operation. Most reports of IHSP have limited their focus to short-term follow-up after initial treatment with no long-term results. At present, there are only five reports referring to long-term results of greater than 5 years. All but one case needed additional surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in which syringomyelia occurred in a patient with IHSP. It is important to note that syringomyelia may be a cause of symptom recrudescence during long-term follow-up in IHSP patients. PMID:21594749
Tsutsui, Mio; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Kanamori, Masahiko; Hori, Takeshi; Kimura, Tomoatsu
Objective Epidural fibrosis and adhesion are the main reasons for post-laminectomy sustained pain and functional disability. In this study, the authors investigate the effect of irradiated freeze-dried human amniotic membrane on reducing epidural adhesion after laminectomy on a rat model. Methods A total of 20 rats were divided into two groups. The group A did not receive human amniotic membrane implantation after laminectomy and group B underwent human amniotic membrane implantation after laminectomy. Gross and microscopic findings were evaluated and compared at postoperative 1, 3 and 8 weeks. Results The amount of scar tissue and tenacity were reduced grossly in group of rats with human amniotic membrane implantation (group B). On a microscopic evaluation, there were less inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroblast proliferation in group B. Conclusion This experimental study shows that implantation of irradiated freeze-dried human amniotic membrane reduce epidural fibrosis and adhesion after spinal laminectomy in a rat model.
A 19-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of back pain radiating to the lower extremities and paresthesis of the toes during the last year. Plain X-ray revealed a large cauliflower shaped exophytic mass at the level of T8, T9 and T10 vertebrae. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an abnormal bony mass arising from the posterior arch of T9 with protrusion to the spinal canal and marked cord compression. The cortex and medulla of the lesion had continuity with those of the T9 vertebra. Surgical en bloc resection was performed and the patient's symptoms resolved. The histopathologic diagnosis was osteochondroma. In patients with symptoms of myelopathy, in addition to more common etiologies, one should also be aware of rare entities such as osteochondroma. PMID:24046783
Paraneoplastic myeloneuropathy has rarely been reported with breast cancer. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with a peripheral neuropathy and cranial involvement and later developed a myelopathy. The neuropathy was found to be electrophysiologically and histologically demyelinating in nature. Magnetic resonance imaging studies failed to identify any structural brain or spinal cord abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with breast carcinoma 4 months after initial presentation and underwent resective surgery, radiotherapy, and hormonotherapy. Paraneoplastic antibodies (anti-Hu, anti-Yo, anti-Ri, anti-CV2, anti-Ma, and anti-amphiphysin) were all negative. Her condition did not progress further after cancer treatment. Partial neurologic improvement occurred with oral steroid therapy, with subsequent deterioration on treatment withdrawal. PMID:19169093
Rajabally, Yusuf A; Qaddoura, Bassel; Abbott, Richard J
The results of surveys carried out between 1976 and 1985 in the fluorosis-endemic area of the Ethiopian Rift Valley is summarised, with emphasis on the neurological complications resulting from the crippling osteofluorosis. The neurological manifestations in the forms of myelopathy with and without radiculopathy (respectively 72% and 28%) occurred after exposure to high fluoride (greater than 4 ppm) for longer than 10 years. These deficits were clearly found to be a consequence of fluoride deposition in bones, resulting in generalised sclerosis and osteophytosis, with reduction in the diameter of the intervertebral foramina and of the spinal conal. Advanced osteosclerosis commonly causes severe spastic quadriparesis in flexion, accompanied by distressing spasms and urinary incontinence. The dilemma of these medical problems in relation to the agro-industrial economic developments of the Ethiopian Rift Valley is discussed. PMID:2172892
Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess whether oxidative stress and/or denatured proteins play roles in the pathogenesis of canine degenerative myelopathy (DM). Two Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs with a homozygous mutation (c.118G>A) in the canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene were examined. The pathological features of the dogs were consistent with those of previous cases of DM in PWC. In the spinal lesions, diffuse SOD1 expression was observed in the neurons while no inclusion-like aggregates had formed, which disagreed with the findings of a previous study. A unique inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) staining pattern in reactive astrocytes and a significant increase in ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the spinal lesions were also observed. These findings indicate the involvement of oxidative stress and the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in the pathogenesis of canine DM, whereas the role of SOD1 remains unclear. PMID:21628865
The objective of the study was to investigate the comorbidity of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), in elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients in our hospital, and the correlation between surgical results and preoperative DS. There are few studies on the outcome of laminoplasty for CSM with DS. A total of 49 elderly patients (>65 years old) who eventually had surgical treatment for CSM were evaluated. A slippage displacement of more than 2.5 mm at least at one level was classified to have a positive DS on flexion/extension radiographs (DS group). A slippage displacement less than 1.0 mm was considered a negative DS (non-DS group). Seventeen patients who had slippage of 1.0–2.5 mm were excluded from the study. The DS group (n = 15) included cases with DS at preoperation, while the remaining cases (n = 17) belonged to the non-DS group. The flexion/extension radiographs of the two groups were compared for range of motion and clinical results at 3 years after the operation. Of all elderly patients, 30.6% had DS. There was no significant difference between the two groups based on the clinical results. The range of motion of all cervical spines (DS group and non-DS group) was significantly limited. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. New postoperative DS appeared in four patients, of which two were from the DS group and two from the non-DS group. These data suggest that degenerative spondylolisthesis does not influence surgical results in elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients.
This article describes a retrospective study on myelopathy, induced by monosegmental prolapsed disc and spondylosis. To assess pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological findings related to myelopathy, and factors influencing the outcome, 20 disc herniation (group A) and 11 spondylosis patients (group B) were studied. Average duration of myelopathy in groups A and B were 3 and 8.7 months, respectively. Anterior decompression and fusion were performed. Pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological findings and outcomes were assessed. Average preoperative disc heights were 85.9% of normal in group A and 72.7% in group B. Average anteroposterior canal diameter and Pavlov ratio at diseased level were 13.9 mm and 0.81 in group A, respectively, and 12.1 mm and 0.78 in group B. Five group A (25.0%) and four group B cases (36.4%) had radiculopathy. Cord compressions among 20 group A patients were median in seven and paramedian in 13. In the 11 group B patients, nine were median and two were paramedian. High signal intensity was observed in 19 group A and ten group B patients. Postoperative regression of T2-weighted high signal intensity in 14 group A (73.7%) and two group B patients (20.0%) was observed. Preoperative JOA scores in groups A and B were 10.3 and 12.8, respectively, which became 66.2 and 22.5 postoperatively. Neurological recovery was poorer in group B than in group A. Outcome was influenced by chronicity of myelopathy.
Ryu, Jong-Seon; Chae, Jong-Woo; Cho, Woo-Jin; Chang, Han; Kim, Sung-Soo
An autopsy case of human T lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy (HAM) of a duration of 28 years in a 61-year-old man with serological confirmation of HTLV-I infection was reported. The spinal cord was grossly atrophic. There was severe symmetrical degeneration of the lateral funiculi, particularly of the bilateral pyramidal tracts, involving all levels of the spinal cord, but anterior horn
S. Sasaki; T. Komori; S. Maruyama; M. Takeishi; Y Iwasaki
Hirayama’s disease is a benign juvenile form of focal amyotrophy affecting the upper limbs. Previous studies have suggested\\u000a that the disorder is a neck flexion induced cervical myelopathy. We report clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings\\u000a in nine patients with Hirayama’s disease. Cervical imaging of seven patients revealed spinal cord changes consisting of focal\\u000a atrophy and foci of signal alterations.
Rolf Schröder; Ewald Keller; Sebastian Flacke; Stephan Schmidt; Christoph Pohl; Thomas Klockgether; Uwe Schlegel
There have been few reports describing cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with spinal degenerative disorders.\\u000a This study investigated whether interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) could be\\u000a detected in CSF of patients with cervical myelopathy or lumbar radiculopathy and whether the concentrations of those cytokines\\u000a correlated with the severity of disease conditions. CSF samples
Hideki Nagashima; Yasuo Morio; Koji Yamane; Yoshiro Nanjo; Ryota Teshima
This is a prospective analysis of 129 patients operated for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Paucity of prospective\\u000a data on surgical management of CSM, especially multilevel CSM (MCM), makes surgical decision making difficult. The objectives\\u000a of the study were (1) to identify radiological patterns of cord compression (POC), and (2) to propose a surgical protocol\\u000a based on POC and determine its
Mihir R. Bapat; Kshitij Chaudhary; Amit Sharma; Vinod Laheri
The recent studies have greatly improved our understanding of the pathological mechanisms of human T cell lymphotropic virus\\u000a type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP). The pathological mechanisms of HAM\\/TSP based\\u000a on the histopathological, immunological, and molecular analysis with emphasis on the longitudinal alterations of the disease\\u000a will be discussed. Immunohistological examination revealed the existence and the activation both of
Objective: Human T lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) activates the immune system leading to a persistent and exacerbated T-cell response with increased production of IFN-? and TNF-?. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines is correlated with the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP), although some HTLV-1 carriers also show high levels of these cytokines. In this study, the ability of regulatory cytokines
Silvane B. Santos; Aurélia F. Porto; André Luiz Muniz; Tania Luna; Márcia C. Nascimento; Jaqueline B. Guerreiro; Jamary Oliveira-Filho; Daniel J. Morgan; Edgar M. Carvalho
Epigenetic modifications of chromatin may play a role in maintaining viral latency and thus persistence of the hu- man T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV- 1), which is responsible for HTLV-asso- ciated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP).Amajor determi- nant of disease progression is increased peripheral blood proviral load (PVL), possibly via the accumulation of in- fected cells in the central nervous sys-
Agnes Lezin; Nicolas Gillet; Stephane Olindo; Nathalie Grandvaux; Olivier Verlaeten; Gildas Belrose; Marcelo de Carvalho Bittencourt; John Hiscott; Becca Asquith; Arsene Burny; Didier Smadja; Raymond Cesaire; Luc Willems; Hôpital St Luc
Background: Myelopathy from ectatic vertebral artery compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction is a rare condition. Case Description: A 63-year-old female was originally diagnosed with occult hydrocephalus syndrome after presenting with symptoms of ataxia and urinary incontinence. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting induced an acute worsening of the patient?s symptoms as she immediately developed a sensory myelopathy. An MR scan demonstrated multiple congenital abnormalities including cervicomedullary stenosis with anomalous vertebral artery compression of the dorsal spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. The patient was taken to surgery for a suboccipital craniectomy, C1-2 laminectomy, vertebral artery decompression, duraplasty, and shunt ligation. Intraoperative findings confirmed preoperative radiography with ectactic vertebral arteries deforming the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord. There were no procedural complications and at a 6-month follow-up appointment, the patient had experienced a marked improvement in her preoperative signs and symptoms. Conclusion: Myelopathy from ectatic vertebral artery compression at the cervicomedullary junction is a rare disorder amenable to operative neurovascular decompression.
Ball, Bret Gene; Krueger, Bruce R; Piepgras, David G
This study investigated 63 patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) by somatosensitive evoked potentials (SEPs) and 42 of them by motor evoked potentials (MEP). All the patients had typical clinical history of HAM, serum samples tested positive for antibodies to HTLV-I screened for Particle Agglutination, ELISA and complemented by Western blot test. In patients studied by SEPs of lower limbs 51/63 (81 %) were abnormal and 11 of them (17.5%) were abnormal in upper limbs also. In patients studied by MEP 37/42 were abnormal, 34/42 (81%) in lower limbs and 25/42 (59.5%) in upper limbs. A high percent of the population studied had abnormalities of the corticospinal tracts on the four limbs at the PEM, without abnormalities in upper limbs by SEPs, showing the correlation between central motor conduction time in upper limbs and the clinical severity of HAM/TSP (p < 0.01). It was not found correlation between time of disease and the results of the SEPs and MEP (p = 0.69). PMID:16172717
Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients show high immune responses to HTLV-I. However, it is unclear whether the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to other chronic viruses also increase. We investigated the responses in the peripheral blood by using HLA-A*0201/peptide pentamers. The frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CTL tended to be higher in HAM/TSP patients than in healthy controls (HCs). The frequency of CMV-specific CTL positively correlated with that of HTLV-I Tax-specific CTL. The frequency of Foxp3+ cells in CD4+ lymphocytes tended to be higher in HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs. The expression level of Foxp3 was lower in HAM/TSP patients than in HCs and was inversely correlated with the CMV-specific CTL frequency. A percentage of Foxp3+ cells showed a positive correlation with the HTLV-I proviral load. These results suggest that a decrease in the Foxp3 expression may contribute to the high immune response to CMV and that the Foxp3+ regulatory T cells may play a role in the immune surveillance of HTLV-I. PMID:18639344
Blau syndrome is a rare autoinflammatory disorder within the group of pediatric granulomatous diseases. Mutations in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2/CARD15) are responsible for this condition, which has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and variable expressivity. The clinical picture includes arthritis, uveitis, skin rash, and granulomatous inflammation. Central nervous system involvement is seldom reported, although some isolated cases of seizures, neurosensorial hearing loss, and transient cranial nerve palsy have been described. Treatment consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive agents, among which anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-?) biologic agents, such as etanercept, play an important role. Among the major adverse effects of TNF-? inhibitors, demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis, and acute transverse myelitis have been reported in adults. We describe a case of pediatric Blau syndrome affected by etanercept-induced myelopathy, manifesting as a clinical syndrome of transverse myelitis. The patient experienced rapid recovery after etanercept was discontinued. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in the literature and, possibly, the one with the latest onset, following 8?years of treatment. We discuss the etiopathogenic mechanisms of this reaction and possible explanations for the imaging findings.
Although it has been observed that a vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency may lead to defects in the nervous system, there is a lack of studies elucidating whether VB12 has a role in the pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The present study describes two cases of CSM observed in the clinic, where the patients presented with common characteristics of the typical clinical symptoms; however, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging examinations revealed that although the degree of spinal cord compression was not serious, the spinal cord exhibited significant high signal changes. At the same time, the serum VB12 levels of the two patients were lower compared with those of normal controls. The symptoms of the patients improved following anterior cervical decompression surgery and VB12 replacement therapy. The incidence of CSM in the two patients may have been correlated with a lack of VB12. Therefore, it is recommended that the serum VB12 levels are checked in cases of CSM where the standard imaging and clinical manifestations do not fully match.
The epidemiology of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) is frequently inconsistent and suggests environmental factors in the etiology of these syndromes. The neuropathology corresponds to a toxometabolic or autoimmune process and possibly not to a viral disease. Some logical hypotheses about the etiology and physiopathology of TSP and HAM are proposed. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, central distal axonopathies, cassava, lathyrism and cycad toxicity may explain most cases of TSP. The damage caused to astrocytes and to the blood-brain barrier by HTLV-I plus xenobiotics may explain most cases of HAM. Analysis of the HTLV-I/xenobiotic ratio clarifies most of the paradoxical epidemiology of TSP and HAM. Modern neurotoxicology, neuroimmunology and molecular biology may explain the neuropathology of TSP and HAM. It is quite possible that there are other xenobiotics implicated in the etiology of some TSP/HAMs. The prevention of these syndromes appears to be possible today. PMID:14689037
Study design:?Systematic review. Study rationale:?Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction that may be asymptomatic or may present with severe symptoms. Since CSM has an insidious manifestation, identification of risk factors associated with this condition may aid clinicians in monitoring high-risk patients and implementing appropriate management strategies. Objective:?To assess sociodemographic, clinical, radiographic, and genetic risk factors associated with presence of CSM in patients 18 years or older. Methods:?A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases, and bibliographies of key articles to assess risk factors associated with CSM. Articles were reviewed by two independent reviewers based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Each article was evaluated using a predefined quality-rating scheme. Results:?From 486 citations, eight articles met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Larger vertebral body and smaller spinal canal and Torg/Pavlov ratio were associated with CSM diagnosis, while gender was not associated with a CSM diagnosis across multiple studies. There were inconsistent reports with respect to increased age as a risk factor for CSM diagnosis. Conclusion:?The limited data available suggests that inherent anatomical features that may contribute to congenital cervical stenosis may be associated with CSM. This systematic review is limited by the small number of high-quality studies evaluating prognostic factors for CSM. The overall strength of evidence for all risk factors evaluated is low.
Singh, Anoushka; Tetreault, Lindsay; Fehlings, Michael G.; Fischer, Dena J.; Skelly, Andrea C.
Objective This retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between osteoporosis and dynamic cervical plates in screw–plate\\u000a or screw–bone interface of elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Retrospective study was conducted on elderly CSM patients, treated by anterior corpectomy and reconstruction with titanium\\u000a mesh cages (TMC) and dynamic cervical plate between July 2004 and June 2007. All patients underwent bone mineral
Denglu Yan; Zhaojie Wang; Shaojie Deng; Jian Li; Chenglong Soo
Study design:Cross-sectional.Objectives:To describe characteristics of low-back pain in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP) patients and to identify its neuropathic and\\/or non-neuropathic pain components.Setting:A reference center for the care of patients with HAM\\/TSP in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Methods:A total of 90 patients with HAM\\/TSP referred by tertiary care centers were consecutively assessed. The patients were
Objective: To observe the urodynamic profile of the patients following non-traumatic myelopathies (NTMs) with neurogenic bladder. Setting: Neurological rehabilitation department of university tertiary research hospital. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients (44 men) with monophasic NTM, with the age range 8-65 years (31.0 ± 16.0 years), were admitted for inpatients’ rehabilitation. Length of stay in rehabilitation ranged from 6 to 120 days (32.0 ± 24.8 days). Fifty-six patients (70.9%) had spinal lesion above D10, 17 had lesion between D10 and L2 (21.5%), and 6 (7.6%) had cauda equina syndrome. All patients had neurogenic bladder with urinary complaints. Urodynamic study (UDS) was performed in all patients. Results: UDS showed 71.4% patients (40/56) had neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) with or without sphincter dyssynergy (DSD) with lesion above D10; only 52.9% patients (9/17) had NDO with or without DSD detrusor with lesion between D10 and L2; and majority (5/6 patients) had underactive detrusor in the cauda equina group. Bladder management was based on the UDS findings. No significant correlation was found (P > 0.05) between detrusor behavior and the level, severity (ASIA Impairment Scale) of spinal injury, or gender using chi-square test. Conclusions: Neurogenic bladder following NTM was observed in all patients. UDS suggested predominantly NDO in lesions above D10 and mixed pattern in between D10 and L2 lesions. No significant correlation was found between detrusor behavior and the level or severity of NTM in the study.
Histological examination was performed on the cervical spinal cord from 13 horses with chronic cervical compressive myelopathy of 4 to 29 months duration. Structural alterations were correlated with clinical features. At the level of compression, the spinal cord was grossly deformed. Histological alterations included nerve fibre swelling and degeneration, occasional spheroids, astrocytic gliosis, increased macrophage activity and increased perivascular collagen. Myelin degeneration or loss at the level of the compressive lesion was greatest in the ventral and lateral funiculi and less consistently present in the dorsal funiculi. Asymmetry of lesions in the dorsal funiculi was associated with asymmetry of clinical signs in 5 horses. Histological alterations in areas of Wallerian degeneration were similar to that at the level of spinal cord compression, except that perivascular collagen was not increased. Wallerian degeneration was present cranial to the compressed site in the superficial portions of the lateral funiculi and in the middle of the dorsal funiculi. Caudal to the compressed site it was present in the ventral funiculi adjacent to the ventral median fissure and in the middle of the lateral funiculi. Deformation of the spinal cord did not correlate with the severity or duration of clinical signs but was positively correlated with the amount of perivascular collagen increase. The amount of nerve fibre swelling was not correlated with the severity of clinical signs but was negatively correlated with their duration. A rapid loss of nerve fibres apparently occurred early in the course of compression, since there was a marked decrease in the amount of nerve fibre swelling and Marchi stained degenerating myelin with increasing clinical duration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1755784
Background Results showed good clinical outcomes of anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) during a short term follow-up; however, studies assessing long term results are relatively scarce. In this study we intended to assess the long term clinical and radiographic outcomes, find out the factors that may affect the long term clinical outcome and evaluate the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Methods This is a retrospective study of 145 consecutive CSM patients on ACCF treatment with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Clinical data were collected from medical and operative records. Patients were evaluated by using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system preoperatively and during the follow-up. X-rays results of cervical spine were obtained from all patients. Correlations between the long term clinical outcome and various factors were also analyzed. Findings Ninety-three males and fifty-two females completed the follow-up. The mean age at operation was 51.0 years, and the mean follow-up period was 102.1 months. Both postoperative sagittal segmental alignment (SSA) and the sagittal alignment of the whole cervical spine (SACS) increased significantly in terms of cervical lordosis. The mean increase of JOA was 3.8±1.3 postoperatively, and the overall recovery rate was 62.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative duration of symptoms >12 months, high-intensity signal in spinal cord and preoperative JOA score ?9 were important predictors of the fair recovery rate (?50%). Repeated surgery due to ASD was performed in 7 (4.8%) cases. Conclusions ACCF with anterior plate fixation is a reliable and effective method for treating CSM in terms of JOA score and the recovery rate. The correction of cervical alignment and the repeated surgery rate for ASD are also considered to be satisfactory.
We report a 47-year-old woman with relapsed delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM), occurring 5 years and 10 years after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma at 37 years old. Sensations of pain and temperature had been disturbed in the right leg since 42 years old. MRI showed Gadolinium-enhanced lesion as a ring-like-enhancement of the spinal cord at C1-2 on T1-weighted image (T1WI), with high signal area and swelling of the spinal cord at the upper C1 to C6 areas on T2-weighted image. We diagnosed her as having DRM after considering the differential diagnosis, e.g., multiple sclerosis, spinal tumor and other neurological diseases. Her sensory symptoms quickly improved following therapy with prednisolone and warfarin. Although she remained healthy for a few years, dysesthesia of the neck on the right side appeared 5 years later after the first clinical occurrence. At this time, MRI demonstrated Gadolinium-enhanced lesion as a ring-like enhancement of the spinal cord at C2 on T1WI. but the area also differed from that of previous lesion; a high signal area and swelling of the spinal cord was also seen on FLAIR image of the medulla and upper C1 to C6. For recurrence of DRM, we administered prednisolone and warfarin. Thereafter, the patient recovered and the spinal cord lesion on MRI decreased markedly. The clinical course demonstrated that administration of prednisolone and warfarin might be effective for relapsed DRM. PMID:20593664
Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the surgical results of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) fixation combined with laminoplasty for treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with instability. Overview of Literature Cervical fixation and spinal cord decompression are required for CSM patients with instability. However, only a few studies have reported on CPS fixation combined with posterior decompression for unstable CSM patients. Methods Thirteen patients that underwent CPS fixation combined with laminoplasty for CSM with instability were evaluated in this study. We assessed the clinical and radiological results of the surgical procedures. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system was used to evaluate the clinical results. The percentages of sli p, difference in sli p angle between maximum flexion and maximum extension of unstable intervertebrae, and perforation rate of CPS were evaluated. Results The mean JOA scores before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow-up were 9.1, 13.3, and 12.6, respectively. The mean percentages of sli p before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow-up were 9.1%, 3.2%, and 3.5%, respectively; there were significant improvements immediately after surgery and at final follow-up. The difference in sli p angle between the maximum flexion and maximum extension of the unstable intervertebrae changed from 9.0° before surgery to 1.6° at the final follow-up. The perforation rate of CPS was 10.9%. Conclusions The results suggest that CPS fixation combined with laminoplasty is an effective surgical procedure for treating CSM with instability.
Objectives To investigate clinical effects and manual operational point of Bryan cervical disc prosthesis in Chinese, to observe the stability and range of movement (ROM) post-operatively. Methods and materials From 2003,12 to 2005,12, Bryan disc prosthesis replacement applied in 83 cases (102 levels) of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) after anterior decompression in our hospital. Clinical (JOA grade and Odom's scale) and radiological (X-ray of flexion, extension; left and right bending position) follow-up was performed. Systemic radiographic study about stability and ROM of replaced level post operationally were measured. CT or MRI scans were applied in all cases to evaluate the signs of the prosthesis deflexion and hetero-ossification in the replaced levels. Results At least 12 months follow-up were done in 65/83 of these paients. All of 83 patients were improved according to Odsm's scale. JOA score increased from average 8.7 to 15.5. There was no prosthesis subsidence. Replaced segment achieved stability and restored partial of normal ROM 4.73°(3.7°–5.9°) early postoperation and 8.12°(5.8°–13.6°) more than 12 months postoperation in flex and extension position. No obvious loss of lordosis was found. CT or MRI follow-up shows position deflexion of the prosthesis metal endplates (<1.5 mm) in 14/77 levels and (1.5~3 mm) in 4/77. heter-ossification was found in the replaced levels only in 2 cases. Conclusion Byran cervical disc prosthesis restored motion to the level of the intact segment in flexion-extension and lateral bending in post-operative images. At the same time, it can achieve good anterior decompression treatment effect and immediate stability in replaced 1 or 2 levels, and which is a new choice for the treatment of CSM.
Cervical compressive myelopathy patients sometimes show localized girdle sensation in the mid trunk (so-called false localizing sign). This symptom often confuses physicians, but the clinical features and mechanism of this symptom are still unclear. We investigated the clinical features and possible mechanism. In each of five cases of cervical compressive myelopathy disease with and without mid-truncal girdle sensation, the clinical features, degree and shape of cord compression were analysed. The girdle sensation was expressed as a vague or burning sensation, and was localized with a width of 3 or 4 dermatomes from the T3 to T11 level. There was no correlation between the appearance of the girdle sensation and etiology and level of cervical cord compression. Pyramidal tract signs and disturbance of superficial sensation were observed in all cases. Furthermore, on axial MRI, the midline ventral surface of the cervical cord was remarkably compressed in cases with girdle sensation, as if the compressive lesion entered the anterior medial fissure of the cervical cord. From these findings, this false localizing sign may be caused by severe compression of midline ventral structure of the cervical cord. Ischemia of the thoracic watershed zone of the anterior spinal artery from the compression of the anterior spinal artery at the cervical level might also be considered to be a possible cause. PMID:12021944
BackgroundA large solitary amyloidoma in the cervical epidural space without bony connection and with minimal spinal cord compression and no myelopathy, as a first manifestation of disseminated amyloidosis in a multiple myeloma patient, has not been reported previously; this case is thereby distinct from the seven prior reports in the world literature, of a solitary amyloidoma of the cervical spine.
Introduction The seroprevalence of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is very high among Brazilians (?1?200). HTLV-1 associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is the most common neurological complication of HTLV-1 infection. HAM/TSP can present with an acute/subacute form of longitudinally extensive myelitis, which can be confused with lesions seen in aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) on MRI. Moreover, clinical attacks in patients with NMOSD have been shown to be preceded by viral infections in around 30% of cases. Objective To evaluate the frequency of AQP4-Ab in patients with HAM/TSP. To evaluate the frequency of HTLV-1 infection in patients with NMOSD. Patients and Methods 23 Brazilian patients with HAM/TSP, 20 asymptomatic HTLV-1+ serostatus patients, and 34 with NMOSD were tested for AQP4-Ab using a standardized recombinant cell based assay. In addition, all patients were tested for HTLV-1 by ELISA and Western blotting. Results 20/34 NMOSD patients were positive for AQP4-Ab but none of the HAM/TSP patients and none of the asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected individuals. Conversely, all AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD patients were negative for HTLV-1 antibodies. One patient with HAM/TSP developed optic neuritis in addition to subacute LETM; this patient was AQP4-Ab negative as well. Patients were found to be predominantly female and of African descent both in the NMOSD and in the HAM/TSP group; Osame scale and expanded disability status scale scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Our results argue both against a role of antibodies to AQP4 in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP and against an association between HTLV-1 infection and the development of AQP4-Ab. Moreover, the absence of HTLV-1 in all patients with NMOSD suggests that HTLV-1 is not a common trigger of acute attacks in patients with AQP4-Ab positive NMOSD in populations with high HTLV-1 seroprevalence.
von Glehn, Felipe; Jarius, Sven; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C.; Brandao, Carlos Otavio; Farias, Alessandro S.; Damasceno, Alfredo; Casseb, Jorge; Moraes, Adriel S.; Longhini, Ana Leda F.; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Damasceno, Benito P.; Wildemann, Brigitte; Santos, Leonilda M. B.
Background contextPosterior decompressions in the form of laminectomies for vertebral body tumors have poor outcomes. Surgical management typically requires anterior decompression and reconstruction; however, these procedures can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
Francis H. Shen; Ian Marks; Christopher Shaffrey; Jean Ouellet; Vincent Arlet
A 3-year-old girl with osteogenesis imperfecta developed symptomatic basilar impression. Her neurological symptoms were treated\\u000a by foramen magnum decompression and laminectomy. This is an unusually young patient to have this condition.
The effects of surgical exposure (laminectomy) and compression trauma on various aspects of membrane lipid metabolism in the\\u000a feline spinal cord were determined in this study. Tissue samples were frozenin situ and grossly dissected into gray and white portions prior to lipid analyses. Laminectomy alone resulted in measurable changes\\u000a in spinal cord lipid metabolism, including increases in gray matter free
Paul Demediuk; Royal D. Saunders; Douglas K. Anderson; Eugene D. Means; Lloyd A. Horrocks
Summary Pseudomeningocele is a rare but well recognised complication of lumbar surgery (microdiscectomy and laminectomy). Most of\\u000a the patients tolerate the presence of the cyst well, however some present with back pain and spinal claudication, presumably\\u000a due to neural compression. We report a case who presented following three operations (microdiscectomy, laminectomy and excision\\u000a of a pseudomeningocele) with symptoms of spinal claudication
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infections are associated with varying degrees of HTLV-1 viral load and spasticity. Increased viral load is associated with higher risk of developing HTLV-1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The authors performed a cross-sectional study of 24 people with HAM/TSP in Lima, Perú, to determine if higher HTLV-1 viral load was correlated with increased muscle tone, measured with a device providing quantitative spasticity assessment (QSA). Median HTLV-1 viral load was 17.0 copies/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells and QSA value was 39.9 Newton-meters/radian. HTLV-1 viral load was significantly correlated with QSA value (Spearman rho = .48, P = .02), suggesting viral load may play a role in expression of symptomatic neurologic disease. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if treatments that reduce viral load will reduce muscle tone.
A study was made of the clinical and radiological characteristics and the results of microsurgical discectomy without interbody fusion, of 26 young adults, who presented with cervical myelopathy due to nuclear herniations. Neck trauma was not a significant aetiological factor. The disease produced moderate to very severe functional disability in most patients (73%), in a relatively short period (mean symptom duration 6.3 months). Radiological assessment revealed the presence of canal stenosis, significant disc protrusions with paucity of spondylotic changes in most patients. At operation, soft disc lesions were found in 85% and sequestrated discs in 31%. Microsurgical discectomy without fusion produced gratifying recovery of functional disability without significant deleterious effects on the cervical spine. Images
Study design:?Systematic review Study rationale:?Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a proven, effective treatment for relieving neck pain due to degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. Since most patients also present with radiculopathy or myelopathy, little is known as to the effectiveness of ACDF to relieve pain and improve function in patients without radicular or myelopathic symptoms. Objective:?To examine the clinical outcome in patients undergoing (ACDF) for axial neck pain without radicular or myelopathic symptoms. Methods:?A systematic review was undertaken for articles published up to March 2010. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating ACDF for the treatment of axial neck pain only. Radiculopathy and myelopathy, patients who suffered severe trauma, or with tumor/metastatic disease or infection were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results:?No comparative studies were identified. Three case series met our inclusion criteria and were evaluated. All studies showed a mean improvement of pain of at least 50% approximately 4-years following surgery. Functional outcomes improved between 32% and 52% from baseline. Most patients reported satisfaction with surgery, 56% in one study and 79% in another. Complications varied among studies ranging from 1% to 10% and included pseudoarthrosis (9%), nonunion and revision (3%) and screw removal (1%). Conclusion:?There is low evidence suggesting that patients with axial neck pain without radicular or myelopathic symptoms may receive some improvement in pain and function following ACDF. However, whether this benefit is greater than nontreatment or other treatments cannot be determined with the present literature.
Hurler-Scheie syndrome is caused by alpha-l-iduronidase deficiency. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) can improve physical capacity and reduces organomegaly. However, the effect on bradytrophic connective tissue is limited. As intravenously administered enzyme cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, the therapy of choice for the more severe Hurler syndrome is haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). In the more attenuated Scheie syndrome, neurological impairment is less severe; therefore, ERT may be appropriate to treat these patients. Information on long-term outcome in Scheie patients undergoing ERT is scarce. We report a 38-year-old female Scheie patient who has been on ERT for 8 years. While non-neurological symptoms improved, she developed paresthesias in her hands and feet and progressive pain in her legs. Somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal, suggesting dysfunction of the dorsal funiculus and lemniscus medialis. After 6 years of ERT, a spinal MRI showed dural thickening at the upper cervical spine. These soft-tissue deposits are presumably due to the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. Intramedullary hyperintensities at the level of C1/2 revealed cervical myelopathy. An MRI before the start of ERT had shown milder spinal lesions. Cystic lesions in the white matter of the centrum semiovale due to dilated Virchow-Robin spaces were essentially unchanged compared with the MRI scan before ERT. Decompression of the spinal cord resulted in clinical improvement. In an adult patient with Scheie syndrome, ERT failed to prevent progression of cervical myelopathy. Clinical significance of cerebral changes is unclear. Whether early HCT or intrathecal ERT could have prevented these lesions remains speculative. PMID:19894140
Illsinger, S; Lücke, T; Hartmann, H; Mengel, E; Müller-Forell, W; Donnerstag, F; Das, A M
Study design. Retrospective case series.Objective. To evaluate the outcomes following laminoplasty and posterior spinal fusion utilizing pedicle screws for cervical myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy.Summary of Background data. A variety of surgical procedures have been reported including decompression without fusion, spinal fusion by anterior, posterior or circumferential approach in this population. However, involuntary neck movements bring risk of postoperative neurological deterioration due to progression of kyphosis, pseudoarthrosis or adjacent segmental degeneration.Methods. A consecutive series of 17 patients who underwent midline T-saw laminoplasty and posterior spinal fusion using pedicle screws were retrospectively reviewed. There were 8 female and 9 male with a mean age at the time of surgery of 52 years. The mean follow-up was 71 months. Radiographic measures were made in change of Cobb angle of sagittal plane from C2 to C7 and accuracy of pedicle screws. Barthel index (BI) which shows independence in activities of daily life and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score were also evaluated.Results. Preoperative Cobb angle of sagittal plane from C2 to C7 measured 11.0 ± 14.5 degrees of kyphosis which improved to 1.5 ± 12.7 degrees postoperatively (p<0.05). Solid posterior bony fusion was achieved in all cases without rigid orthosis such as Halo vest. There were two cases of adjacent segmental instability, which required additional surgery. Nineteen (13%) out of the 138 screws showed deviation from the pedicle with postoperative computed tomography. However, there were no neurovascular complications during or after the surgery in any cases. Postoperative JOA score and BI significantly improved in 32 ± 16%, and 48 ± 26% respectively.Conclusions. laminoplasty and pedicle screw fixation provided strong internal fixation and improved neurological function and activities of daily living for cervical myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy. PMID:24042720
The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of thoracic ossified ligamentum flavum (OLF) and to elucidate prognostic factors as well as effective surgical treatment modality. The authors analyzed 106 thoracic OLF cases retrospectively from January 1999 to December 2008. The operative (n = 40) and the non-operative group (n = 66) were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computed tomography (CT) imaging. We excluded cases exhibiting ventral compressive lesions causing subarachnoid space effacement in thoracic vertebrae as well as those with a coexisting cervical compressive myelopathy. Those in the operative group were treated with decompressive laminectomy as well as resection of OLF. The preoperative neurologic status and postoperative outcomes of patients, as indicated by their modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores and recovery rate (RR), Modic changes, the axial (fused or non-fused) and sagittal (omega or beak) configurations of OLF, and the ratios of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the most compressed level were studied. The most commonly affected segment was the T10-11 vertebral body level (n = 49, 27.1%) and the least affected segment was the T7-8 level (n = 1, 0.6%). The ratios of the CSA in non-fused and fused types were 77.3 and 59.3% (p < 0.001). When Modic changes were present with OLF, initial mJOA score was found to be significantly lower than those without Modic change (7.62 vs. 9.09, p = 0.033). Neurological status improved after decompressive laminectomy without fusion (preoperative vs. last mJOA; 7.1 ± 2.01 vs. 8.57 ± 1.91, p < 0.001). However, one patient exhibited transient deterioration of her neurological status after surgery. In the axial configuration, fused-type OLF revealed a significant risk for a decreased postoperative mJOA score (0-7, severe and moderate) (Odds ratio: 5.54, ? (2) = 4.41, p = 0.036, 95% CI: 1.014-30.256). The results indicated that the new categorization of axial-type of OLF is a helpful predictor of postoperative patient outcome and fused type was related with poor prognosis. In OLF cases free from ventral lesions compressing the spinal cord, decompressive laminectomy is enough for successful surgical outcome. Therefore, early surgical treatment will be considered in cases with fused-type OLF compressing spinal cord even though they do not have myelopathic symptoms. PMID:20628768
Yoon, Sang Hoon; Kim, Wook Ha; Chung, Sang-Bong; Jin, Yong Jun; Park, Kun Woo; Lee, Joon Woo; Chung, Sang-Ki; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Yeom, Jin S; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Chung, Chun Kee; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Hyun-Jib
The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of thoracic ossified ligamentum flavum (OLF) and to elucidate prognostic factors as well as effective surgical treatment modality. The authors analyzed 106 thoracic OLF cases retrospectively from January 1999 to December 2008. The operative (n = 40) and the non-operative group (n = 66) were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computed tomography (CT) imaging. We excluded cases exhibiting ventral compressive lesions causing subarachnoid space effacement in thoracic vertebrae as well as those with a coexisting cervical compressive myelopathy. Those in the operative group were treated with decompressive laminectomy as well as resection of OLF. The preoperative neurologic status and postoperative outcomes of patients, as indicated by their modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores and recovery rate (RR), Modic changes, the axial (fused or non-fused) and sagittal (omega or beak) configurations of OLF, and the ratios of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the most compressed level were studied. The most commonly affected segment was the T10–11 vertebral body level (n = 49, 27.1%) and the least affected segment was the T7–8 level (n = 1, 0.6%). The ratios of the CSA in non-fused and fused types were 77.3 and 59.3% (p < 0.001). When Modic changes were present with OLF, initial mJOA score was found to be significantly lower than those without Modic change (7.62 vs. 9.09, p = 0.033). Neurological status improved after decompressive laminectomy without fusion (preoperative vs. last mJOA; 7.1 ± 2.01 vs. 8.57 ± 1.91, p < 0.001). However, one patient exhibited transient deterioration of her neurological status after surgery. In the axial configuration, fused-type OLF revealed a significant risk for a decreased postoperative mJOA score (0–7, severe and moderate) (Odds ratio: 5.54, ?2 = 4.41, p = 0.036, 95% CI: 1.014–30.256). The results indicated that the new categorization of axial-type of OLF is a helpful predictor of postoperative patient outcome and fused type was related with poor prognosis. In OLF cases free from ventral lesions compressing the spinal cord, decompressive laminectomy is enough for successful surgical outcome. Therefore, early surgical treatment will be considered in cases with fused-type OLF compressing spinal cord even though they do not have myelopathic symptoms.
Yoon, Sang Hoon; Kim, Wook Ha; Chung, Sang-Bong; Jin, Yong Jun; Park, Kun Woo; Lee, Joon Woo; Chung, Sang-Ki; Yeom, Jin S.; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Chung, Chun Kee; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Hyun-Jib
The objective of the study is to perform a systematic review to compare the clinical outcomes and complications of anterior surgery with posterior surgery for multilevel cervical myelopathy (MCM). MEDLINE, EMBASE databases and other databases were searched for all the relevant original articles published from January 1991 to November 2009 comparing anterior with posterior surgery for MCM. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the follow-up years. The following end points were mainly evaluated: final follow-up JOA (Japanese Orthopaedic Association) scale, recovery rate and complication outcomes. Ten articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria. For multilevel CSM patients, the final follow-up JOA score for the anterior group was significantly higher than the posterior group (p < 0.05, WMD 0.83 [0.24, 1.43]) in the ‘follow-up time ?5 years’ subgroup, but had no significant differences in the ‘follow-up time >5 years’ subgroup (p > 0.05). The recovery rate for the anterior group was significantly higher than the posterior group (p < 0.05, WMD 10.08 [1.39, 18.78]) in the ‘follow-up time ?5 years’ subgroup. No study reported the recovery rate for the follow-up time >5 years. For multilevel OPLL patients, the final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate for the anterior group were both significantly higher than the posterior group in the ‘follow-up time ?5 years’ subgroup (p < 0.05, WMD 2.50 [0.16, 4.85]; p < 0.05, WMD 29.48 [29.09, 29.87], respectively). One study  which mean follow-up time was 6 years was enrolled in the ‘follow-up time >5 years’ subgroup. The results showed there was no significant difference in final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate between anterior and posterior group for patients with occupying ratio of OPLL <60% (p > 0.05), while in patients with occupying ratio ?60%, the final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate of anterior surgery were both superior to that of posterior surgery (p < 0.05). For both multilevel CSM and OPLL patients, the complications for the anterior group were significantly more than the posterior group in the ‘follow-up time ?5 years’ subgroup (p < 0.05, OR 7.33 [2.96, 18.20] for CSM patients; p < 0.05, OR 4.44 [1.80, 10.98] for OPLL patients), but were similar to the posterior group in the ‘follow-up time >5 years’ subgroup (p > 0.05). In conclusion, anterior surgery had better clinical outcomes and more complications at the early stage after operation for both multilevel CSM and OPLL patients. At the late stage, posterior surgery had similar clinical outcomes and complications to anterior surgery for CSM patients, and OPLL patients with occupying ratio of OPLL <60%. While for OPLL patients with occupying ratio ?60%, anterior surgery had superior clinical outcome to posterior surgery.
The proinflammatory mediator (PIM) levels were assessed in surgically removed samples of herniated cervical intervertebral\\u000a discs. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the levels of PIMs in disc material\\u000a and myelopathy associated with cervical intervertebral disc herniation and spondylosis. The role of proinflammatory mediators\\u000a in the degeneration of intervertebral disc and the
Mehmet Nusret Demircan; Alparslan Asir; Ahmet Cetinkal; Nursal Gedik; Ahmet Murat Kutlay; Ahmet Çolak; Sedat Kurtar; Hakan Simsek
Some controversy still exists over the optimal treatment time and the surgical approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification\\u000a of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The aim of the current study was first to analyze the effect of intramedullary\\u000a spinal cord changes in signal intensity (hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging and hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging) on\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on
Fifteen families with clustering of infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) and/or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were observed among 28 families of IDH index cases, 93% of them occurring in two generations. With the exception of two mothers of children with IDH, all the mothers with HAM/TSP had at least one child with HAM/TSP. This is the first report of such clustering involving many families. PMID:23932323
Silva, José Lucas Sena da; Primo, Janeusa Rita L; de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima S P; Batista, Everton da Silva; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Farré, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achiléa L
We investigated lordotic alignment and posterior migration of the spinal cord following en bloc open-door laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy. Fifty-five patients (32 men and 23 women) were studied, with an average follow-up of 2.4 years. Radiological examination included evaluation of lordosis of the cervical spine and spinal cord, degree of enlargement of bony spinal canal, and the magnitude of posterior
Background: Although the usage of combined motor and sensory intraoperative monitoring has been shown to improve the surgical outcome of patients with cervical myelopathy, the role of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (tceMEP) used in conjunction with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in patients presenting with radiculopathy but without myelopathy has been less clear. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients (n = 57) with radiculopathy but without myelopathy, undergoing anterior cervical decompression and fusion at a single institution over the past 3 years, who had intraoperative monitoring with both tceMEPs and SSEPs. Results: Fifty-seven (100%) patients presented with radiculopathy, 53 (93.0%) with mechanical neck pain, 35 (61.4%) with motor dysfunction, and 29 (50.9%) with sensory deficits. Intraoperatively, 3 (5.3%) patients experienced decreases in SSEP signal amplitudes and 4 (6.9%) had tceMEP signal changes. There were three instances where a change in neuromonitoring signal required intraoperative alteration of the surgical procedure: these were deemed clinically significant events/true positives. SSEP monitoring showed two false positives and two false negatives, whereas tceMEP monitoring only had one false positive and no false negatives. Thus, tceMEP monitoring exhibited higher sensitivity (33.3% vs. 100%), specificity (95.6% vs. 98.1%), positive predictive value (33.3% vs. 75.0%), negative predictive value (97.7% vs. 100%), and efficiency (91.7% vs. 98.2%) compared to SSEP monitoring alone. Conclusions: Here, we present a retrospective series of 57 patients where tceMEP/SSEP monitoring likely prevented irreversible neurologic damage. Though further prospective studies are needed, there may be a role for combined tceMEP/SSEP monitoring for patients undergoing anterior cervical decompression without myelopathy.
Xu, Risheng; Ritzl, Eva K.; Sait, Mohammed; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Ali
The present study aimed to evaluate the value of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with electromyography (EMG) for predicting clinical outcome following surgical management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). A total of 94 patients with cervical compressive myelopathy were prospectively enrolled and treated with anterior, posterior and posterior-anterior united decompression between October 2007 and February 2009. Prior to surgery 1.5-T MRI and EMG were performed in all patients. The patients were classified into four types based on the presence (+) or absence (-) of an increased signal intensity (ISI) on the T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and also based on the positive (+)/negative (-) results of the EMG. The four types were as follows: Type I, MRI/EMG (-/-); Type II, MRI/EMG (+/-); Type III, MRI/EMG (-/+); and Type IV, MRI/EMG (+/+). The clinical outcome was also graded according to a modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system. Furthermore, pre- and post-operative clinical data were statistically analyzed to explore the correlation between the factors. There were 36 cases (38%) of Type I, 16 (17%) of Type II, 13 (14%) of Type III and 29 (31%) of Type IV. According to the analysis of the clinical data between the four types, there were significant differences in the disability classifications, pre-operative JOA scores and disease duration (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences in gender, age or cord compression ratios (P>0.05). Until the final follow-up, there was a significant difference in the recovery ratio between the four study groups (Hc=27.46, P<0.05). Further comparison showed that the surgical outcome was best in Type I patients and worst in Type IV patients. In conclusion, there was a distinct correlation between classification and the rate of clinical improvement. Patients who had a negative EMG and those without an ISI on T2-weight images tended to suffer only mild symptoms, a short disease duration and, most significantly, experience a good surgical outcome. PMID:23596492
Background No therapies have been proven to persistently improve the outcome of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Clinical benefit has been reported with zidovudine and with lamivudine in observational studies. We therefore conducted a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of six months combination therapy with these nucleoside analogues in sixteen patients. Results Primary outcomes were change in HTLV-I proviral load in PBMCs and clinical measures. Secondary endpoints were changes in T-cell subsets and markers of activation and proliferation. Six patients discontinued zidovudine. No significant changes in pain, bladder function, disability score, gait, proviral load or markers of T-cell activation or proliferation were seen between the two arms. Active therapy was associated with an unexplained decrease in CD8 and non-T lymphocyte counts. Conclusion Failure to detect clinical improvement may have been due irreversible nerve damage in these patients with a long clinical history and future studies should target patients presenting earlier. The lack of virological effect but may reflect a lack of activity of these nucleoside analogues against HTLV-I RT in vivo, inadequate intracellular concentrations of the active moiety or the contribution of new cell infection to maintaining proviral load at this stage of infection may be relatively small masking the effects of RT inhibition.
Taylor, Graham P; Goon, Peter; Furukawa, Yoshitaka; Green, Hannah; Barfield, Anna; Mosley, Angelina; Nose, Hirohisa; Babiker, Abdel; Rudge, Peter; Usuku, Koichiro; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Bangham, Charles RM; Weber, Jonathan N
Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease prevalent in several dog breeds. Typically, the initial progressive upper motor neuron spastic and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs occurs at 8 years of age or older. If euthanasia is delayed, the clinical signs will ascend, causing flaccid tetraparesis and other lower motor neuron signs. DNA samples from 38 DM-affected Pembroke Welsh corgi cases and 17 related clinically normal controls were used for genome-wide association mapping, which produced the strongest associations with markers on CFA31 in a region containing the canine SOD1 gene. SOD1 was considered a regional candidate gene because mutations in human SOD1 can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset fatal paralytic neurodegenerative disease with both upper and lower motor neuron involvement. The resequencing of SOD1 in normal and affected dogs revealed a G to A transition, resulting in an E40K missense mutation. Homozygosity for the A allele was associated with DM in 5 dog breeds: Pembroke Welsh corgi, Boxer, Rhodesian ridgeback, German Shepherd dog, and Chesapeake Bay retriever. Microscopic examination of spinal cords from affected dogs revealed myelin and axon loss affecting the lateral white matter and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions that bind anti-superoxide dismutase 1 antibodies. These inclusions are similar to those seen in spinal cord sections from ALS patients with SOD1 mutations. Our findings identify canine DM to be the first recognized spontaneously occurring animal model for ALS.
Awano, Tomoyuki; Johnson, Gary S.; Wade, Claire M.; Katz, Martin L.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Perloski, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Baranowska, Izabella; Long, Sam; March, Philip A.; Olby, Natasha J.; Shelton, G. Diane; Khan, Shahnawaz; O'Brien, Dennis P.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Coates, Joan R.
Tandem spinal stenosis is a clinical phenomenon which may cause a functional loss related to neurologic compression in numerous areas of the spinal cord. In this phenomenon, the second area of symptomatic neurologic insult is not revealed until the primary symptomatic area has been treated. This case describes a 71-year-old male referred to physical therapy 4 weeks following a combined anterior/posterior C3/4 decompression and fusion for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Approximately 8 weeks post-operatively (4 weeks after initiation of physical therapy), the patient began to complain of bilateral lower extremity weakness, primarily with climbing stairs. At 12 weeks post-operatively, the patient developed bowel incontinence and saddle paresthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple levels of critical stenosis of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine, which resulted in referral for surgical intervention. Following surgical decompression there was complete recovery of lower extremity strength, saddle area sensation and bowel function. This case highlights the need for the clinician to remain vigilant for concomitant pathology despite successful surgical intervention. A thorough knowledge of the presentation of various spinal disorders, as well as a thorough neurologic examination, is required to accurately recognize both candid and subtle red flags requiring immediate referral for surgical intervention.
Tandem spinal stenosis is a clinical phenomenon which may cause a functional loss related to neurologic compression in numerous areas of the spinal cord. In this phenomenon, the second area of symptomatic neurologic insult is not revealed until the primary symptomatic area has been treated. This case describes a 71-year-old male referred to physical therapy 4 weeks following a combined anterior/posterior C3/4 decompression and fusion for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Approximately 8 weeks post-operatively (4 weeks after initiation of physical therapy), the patient began to complain of bilateral lower extremity weakness, primarily with climbing stairs. At 12 weeks post-operatively, the patient developed bowel incontinence and saddle paresthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple levels of critical stenosis of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine, which resulted in referral for surgical intervention. Following surgical decompression there was complete recovery of lower extremity strength, saddle area sensation and bowel function. This case highlights the need for the clinician to remain vigilant for concomitant pathology despite successful surgical intervention. A thorough knowledge of the presentation of various spinal disorders, as well as a thorough neurologic examination, is required to accurately recognize both candid and subtle red flags requiring immediate referral for surgical intervention. PMID:23372394
Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease prevalent in several dog breeds. Typically, the initial progressive upper motor neuron spastic and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs occurs at 8 years of age or older. If euthanasia is delayed, the clinical signs will ascend, causing flaccid tetraparesis and other lower motor neuron signs. DNA samples from 38 DM-affected Pembroke Welsh corgi cases and 17 related clinically normal controls were used for genome-wide association mapping, which produced the strongest associations with markers on CFA31 in a region containing the canine SOD1 gene. SOD1 was considered a regional candidate gene because mutations in human SOD1 can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset fatal paralytic neurodegenerative disease with both upper and lower motor neuron involvement. The resequencing of SOD1 in normal and affected dogs revealed a G to A transition, resulting in an E40K missense mutation. Homozygosity for the A allele was associated with DM in 5 dog breeds: Pembroke Welsh corgi, Boxer, Rhodesian ridgeback, German Shepherd dog, and Chesapeake Bay retriever. Microscopic examination of spinal cords from affected dogs revealed myelin and axon loss affecting the lateral white matter and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions that bind anti-superoxide dismutase 1 antibodies. These inclusions are similar to those seen in spinal cord sections from ALS patients with SOD1 mutations. Our findings identify canine DM to be the first recognized spontaneously occurring animal model for ALS. PMID:19188595
Awano, Tomoyuki; Johnson, Gary S; Wade, Claire M; Katz, Martin L; Johnson, Gayle C; Taylor, Jeremy F; Perloski, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Baranowska, Izabella; Long, Sam; March, Philip A; Olby, Natasha J; Shelton, G Diane; Khan, Shahnawaz; O'Brien, Dennis P; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Coates, Joan R
To study the epidemiology of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Brazil, we conducted a nationwide survey between March 1994 and April 1995. Five centers from three regions of the country participated, enrolling 163 patients. Most patients came from the northeastern and southeastern regions (93.2%). Most enrollees were white women, 42.9% and 64.4%, respectively. The most common risk factors for infection included a history of venereal diseases (30.6%) and blood transfusion (21.6%). The median age at the beginning of the disease was 42 years. The main neurologic findings were spastic paraparesis, widespread brisk tendon jerks, bilateral Babinski's sign, and bladder dysfunction. Some interregional differences reached statistical significance. The ratio of females over males increased from south to north. In addition, in both southern and southeastern regions, whites prevailed, whereas in the northeast, mulattos predominated. This follows the normal distribution of the population in these regions. A significantly higher rate of venereal diseases was found in the southeast compared with the other regions studied. A history of intravenous drug use was more frequent among patients as the sample moves south. Finally, a fluctuating course of the disease was proportionally more frequent in the southern region. PMID:9859969
Araújo, A Q; Andrade-Filho, A S; Castro-Costa, C M; Menna-Barreto, M; Almeida, S M
Introduction In contrast to spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine, non-traumatic cervico-thoracic spondylolisthesis is a very rare lesion. Even minor changes in the displacement of the vertebrae or the cord can lead to cervical myelopathy and paralysis. Since only a few cases have been well-documented, there is currently no clear preference between operative techniques. Case presentation We describe the case of a 63-year-old Caucasian man with a 13?mm spondylolisthesis between C7 and T1. Within a few months, a progressive cervical myelopathy developed as he began to suffer pain and loss of function of his digits and was no longer able to walk unassisted. In an interdisciplinary collaboration between neurological and orthopedic surgeons, a ventral-dorsal-ventral approach was performed on one vertebral section. The ventral removal of the intervertebral disc was followed by laminectomy and dorsal instrumentation. A new application technique was established by inserting bicortical screws into the transverse processes of T2 and T3. The structure was subsequently stabilized by the ventral insertion of a Harms basket. The procedure was successful as it halted progression of the myelopathy. The patient demonstrated improved sensitivity and recovered the ability to walk unassisted. He has now been able to walk unassisted for two years postoperatively. Conclusion This paper describes a successful treatment for a very rare case of cervico-thoracic spondylolisthesis. The technique of inserting bicortical screws into the transverse processes is a fast, safe and successful method that does not require the use of intraoperative radiographs for placement of the bicortical screws into the transverse processes.
Human T lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I) can be transmitted into several inbred strains of newborn and adult rats by inoculating newly established HTLV-I-immortalized rat T cell lines or the human T cell line MT-2. The transmission efficiency exceeds 80%, regardless of strain differences or the age at transmission. The production of anti- HTLV-I antibodies significantly differs among the strains and depends on the age at the time of transmission. Rats neonatally inoculated with HTLV-I-positive rat or human cells generally become seronegative HTLV-I carriers throughout their lives, whereas adult rats inoculated with HTLV-I-positive cells at 16 wk of age become seropositive HTLV-I carriers. The HTLV-I provirus genome is present in almost all organs, regardless of whether the carriers are seronegative or seropositive. According to antibody titers to HTLV-I, there are three groups of inbred rat strains: ACI, F344, and SDJ (high responders); WKA, BUF, and LEJ (intermediate responders); and LEW (low responder). Three of three 16-mo-old seronegative HTLV-I carrier rats of the WKA strain developed spastic paraparesis of the hind legs. Neuropathological examinations revealed that the lesions were confined primarily to the lateral and anterior funiculi of the spinal cord. Both myelin and axons were extensively damaged in a symmetrical fashion, and infiltration with massive foamy macrophages was evident. The most severe lesions were at levels of the thoracic cord and continued from the cervical to the lumbar area. These histopathological features as well as clinical symptoms largely parallel findings in humans with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). These HTLV-I carrier rats, in particular the WKA rats described above, can serve as a useful animal model for investigating virus-host interactions in the etiopathogenesis of HTLV-I-related immunological diseases, particularly HAM/TSP.
Purpose We prospectively investigated whether high intramedullary SI and contrast [gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid\\u000a (Gd-DTPA)] enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with postoperative prognosis in cervical compressive\\u000a myelopathy (CCM) patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Seventy-four patients with ventral cord compression at one or two levels underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion\\u000a (ACDF) for CCM between March 2006 and June 2009. The mean follow-up period was
Yong Eun Cho; Jun Jae Shin; Keun Su Kim; Dong Kyu Chin; Sung Uk Kuh; Ji Hae Lee; Woo Ho Cho
Molecular variants of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) have been isolated recently from lifelong residents\\u000a of remote Melanesian populations, including a Solomon Islander with tropical spastic paraparesis\\/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy\\u000a (TSP\\/HAM) or HTLV-I myeloneuropathy. To clarify the genetic heterogeneity and molecular epidemiology of disease-associated\\u000a strains of HTLV-I, we enzymatically amplified, then directly sequenced representative regions of thegag, pol, env, andpX
Vivek R. Nerurkar; Ki-Joon Song; Rebecca R. Melland; Richard Yanagihara
PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine important clinical predictors of surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Selected articles were evaluated using a 14-point modified SIGN scale and classified as either poor (<7), good (7-9) or excellent (10-14) quality of evidence. For each study, the association between various clinical factors and surgical outcome, evaluated by the (modified) Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (mJOA/JOA), Nurick score or other measures, was defined. The results from the EXCELLENT studies were compared to the combined results from the EXCELLENT and GOOD studies which were compared to the results from all the studies. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 1,677 citations. Ninety-one of these articles, including three translated from Japanese, met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were graded. Of these, 16 were excellent, 38 were good and 37 were poor quality. Based on the excellent studies alone, a longer duration of symptoms was associated with a poorer outcome evaluated on both the mJOA/JOA scale and Nurick score. A more severe baseline score was related with a worse outcome only on the mJOA/JOA scale. Based on the GOOD and EXCELLENT studies, duration of symptoms and baseline severity score were consistent predictors of mJOA/JOA, but not Nurick. Age was an insignificant predictor of outcome on any of the functional outcomes considered. CONCLUSION: The most important predictors of outcome were preoperative severity and duration of symptoms. This review also identified many other valuable predictors including signs, symptoms, comorbidities and smoking status. PMID:23386279
Tetreault, Lindsay A; Karpova, Alina; Fehlings, Michael G
Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare chronic neuroinflammatory disease. Since the disease course of HAM/TSP varies among patients, there is a dire need for biomarkers capable of predicting the rate of disease progression. However, there have been no studies to date that have compared the prognostic values of multiple potential biomarkers for HAM/TSP. Methodology/Principal Findings Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1-infected control subjects were obtained and tested retrospectively for several potential biomarkers, including chemokines and other cytokines, and nine optimal candidates were selected based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Next, we evaluated the relationship between these candidates and the rate of disease progression in HAM/TSP patients, beginning with a first cohort of 30 patients (Training Set) and proceeding to a second cohort of 23 patients (Test Set). We defined “deteriorating HAM/TSP” as distinctly worsening function (?3 grades on Osame's Motor Disability Score (OMDS)) over four years and “stable HAM/TSP” as unchanged or only slightly worsened function (1 grade on OMDS) over four years, and we compared the levels of the candidate biomarkers in patients divided into these two groups. The CSF levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, and neopterin were well-correlated with disease progression, better even than HTLV-1 proviral load in PBMCs. Importantly, these results were validated using the Test Set. Conclusions/Significance As the CSF levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin were the most strongly correlated with rate of disease progression, they represent the most viable candidates for HAM/TSP prognostic biomarkers. The identification of effective prognostic biomarkers could lead to earlier detection of high-risk patients, more patient-specific treatment options, and more productive clinical trials.
This study investigated the role of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I HTLV-I infection in 11 patients who developed slowly progressive myelopathy with abnormal spinal cord lesions. The authors performed clinical and neuroradiological examinations and calculated the odds that an HTLV-I-infected individual of a specific genotype, age, and provirus load has HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Anti-HTLV-I antibodies were present in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid in all of the patients. Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions were classified as cervical to thoracic type (CT type), cervical type (C type), and thoracic type (T type). In each type, there was swelling of the spinal cords with high-intensity lesions, which were located mainly in bilateral posterior columns, posterior horns, or lateral columns. Virological and immunological analyses revealed that all patients showed a high risk of developing HAM/TSP. These 11 patients may have developed HAM/TSP, as manifested by spinal cord abnormalities shown on MRI. These MRIs implicate clinical variability of HAM/TSP, which may indicate active-early stages of HAM/TSP lesions. PMID:17613716
Tropical spastic paraparesis or human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy is a degenerative encephalomyelopathy with pyramidal tract dysfunction affecting the lower extremities. It is associated with HTLV-I infection and found primarily in the Caribbean region and in southwestern Japan. Five cases of tropical spastic paraparesis (or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy) in Hawaii are reported. All five patients were born in Hawaii; four are women. Each of the patients has parents who were from HTLV-I-endemic areas of Japan. Two of these patients had serum antibodies to HTLV-I. Five of six of the spouses and children of the seropositive patients were also seropositive. Viral cultures of lymphocytes from both seropositive patients and two of the three seropositive children were positive for HTLV-I. None of the five patients had a history of antecedent blood transfusion, multiple sexual partners, or intravenous drug use. There is no evidence of adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma in any of the patients or their families. Given the increasing seroprevalence of HTLV-I in the United States, clinicians need to be alert to new cases of this disorder. Images
Dixon, P. S.; Bodner, A. J.; Okihiro, M.; Milbourne, A.; Diwan, A.; Nakamura, J. M.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of not only adult T-cell leukemia but also HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Among the rat strains infected with HTLV-1, chronic progressive myelopathy, named HAM rat disease, occurs exclusively in WKAH rats. In the present study, we found that HTLV-1 infection induces interferon (IFN)-? production in the spinal cords of HAM-resistant strains but not in those of WKAH rats. Neurons were the major cells that produced IFN-? in HTLV-1-infected, HAM-resistant strains. Administration of IFN-? suppressed expression of pX, the gene critically involved in the onset of HAM rat disease, in an HTLV-1-immortalized rat T-cell line, indicating that IFN-? protects against the development of HAM rat disease. The inability of WKAH spinal cord neurons to produce IFN-? after infection appeared to stem from defects in signaling through the interleukin (IL)-12 receptor. Specifically, WKAH-derived spinal cord cells were unable to up-regulate the IL-12 receptor ?2 gene in response to IL-12 stimulation. We suggest that the failure of spinal cord neurons to produce IFN-? through the IL-12 pathway is involved in the development of HAM rat disease.
Surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) aims to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. Many patients are diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, presenting severe functional disability and extensive radiologic changes, which suggests clinical irreversibility. There are doubts about the real benefit of surgery in patients who are seriously ill, bedridden or in a wheelchair. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of surgical treatment in the clinical outcomes of patients severely affected by CSM. We analyzed patients with CSM who received an operation at a single institution between 1996 and 2008. Cases with a preoperative Nurick score equal to 5 were studied. We describe postoperative clinical improvement and compare the demographics and clinical data between the patients who improved and those who had no improvement. Radiological findings were also analyzed. We evaluated 55 patients operated on. Nine presented with preoperative Nurick score of 5 (16.3%). The mean age was 69.77 ± 6.6 years (95% CI 64.65–79.90). The mean follow-up was 53.44 ± 35.09 months (CI 26.46–80.42). Six patients (66.6%) achieved functional improvement when assessed by the Nurick scale, regaining the ability to walk. All patients improved on the JOAm scale, except one. The mean preoperative Nurick score was 5, while the mean postoperative Nurick score was 4.11 ± 0.92 (95% CI 3.39–4.82) (Wilcoxon p = 0.027). The mean preoperative JOAm score was 6.4, and postoperative was 9.88 ± 2.31 (CI 95% 8.10–11.66) (Wilcoxon p = 0.011). All spinal cords presented high-intensity signal on T2-weighted images. There was no correlation between the number of spinal cord high-intensity signal levels and clinical improvement. Three out of seven patients (whose image was adequate for analysis) had evident spinal cord atrophy, and two of them did not improve clinically. In the whole sample of patients, the mean length of disease for those who improved was 9.25 ± 7.31 months (95% CI 1.56–16.93), and for those who did not improve was 38.00 ± 19.28 months (95% CI 9.91–85.91) (Mann–Whitney p = 0.02). In conclusion, two-thirds of patients with CSM Nurick scores of 5 who were either bedridden or in wheelchairs at the time of diagnosis improved at least one degree on the Nurick scale after surgical treatment, thus returning to walking. The JOAm scale was more sensitive to clinical changes than the Nurick scale. Patients with longer lengths of disease had worse outcomes.
Object The concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) has been used to measure the threshold by which the effect of a specific treatment can be considered clinically meaningful. MCID has previously been studied in surgical patients, however few studies have assessed its role in spinal surgery. The goal of this study was to assess the role of MCID in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Data was collected on 30 patients who underwent ACDF for CSM between 2007 and 2012. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual-Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Component Summary PRO scores were collected. Five distribution- and anchor-based approaches were used to calculate MCID threshold values average change, change difference, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The Health Transition Item of the SF-36 (HTI) was used as an external anchor. Results Patients had a significant improvement in all mean physical PRO scores postoperatively (p<0.01) NDI (29.24 to 14.82), VAS (5.06 to 1.72), and PCS (36.98 to 44.22). The five MCID approaches yielded a range of values for each PRO: 2.00–8.78 for PCS, 2.06–5.73 for MCS, 4.83–13.39 for NDI, and 0.36–3.11 for VAS. PCS was the most representative PRO measure, presenting the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.94). MDC values were not affected by the choice of anchor and their threshold of improvement was statistically greater than the chance of error from unimproved patients. Conclusion SF-36 PCS was the most representative PRO measure. MDC appears to be the most appropriate MCID method. When MDC was applied together with HTI anchor, the MCID thresholds were: 13.39 for NDI, 3.11 for VAS, 5.56 for PCS and 5.73 for MCS.
Auffinger, Brenda M.; Lall, Rishi R.; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Wong, Albert P.; Lam, Sandi K.; Koski, Tyler; Fessler, Richard G.; Smith, Zachary A.
Metallothionein (MT) is a small molecular weight protein possessing metal binding and free radical scavenging properties. We hypothesized that MT-1/MT-2 null (MT?/?) mice would display exacerbated soleus muscle atrophy, oxidative injury, and contractile dysfunction compared with the response of wild-type (WT) mice following acute spinal cord transection (SCT). Four groups of mice were studied: WT laminectomy, WT transection, MT?/? laminectomy (MT?/? lami), and MT?/? transection (MT?/? trans). Laminectomy animals served as surgical controls. Mice in SCT groups experienced similar percent body mass (BM) losses at 7 days postinjury. Soleus muscle mass (MM) and MM-to-BM ratio were lower at 7 days postinjury in SCT vs. laminectomy mice, with no differences observed between strains. However, soleus muscles from MT?/? trans mice showed reduced maximal specific tension compared with MT?/? lami animals. Mean cross-sectional area (?m2) of type I and type IIa fibers decreased similarly in SCT groups compared with laminectomy controls, and no difference in fiber distribution was observed. Lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynoneal) was greater in MT?/? trans vs. MT?/? lami mice, but protein oxidation (protein carbonyls) was not altered by MT deficiency or SCT. Expression of key antioxidant proteins (catalase, manganese, and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase) was similar between the groups. In summary, MT deficiency did not impact soleus MM loss, but resulted in contractile dysfunction and increased lipid peroxidation following acute SCT. These findings suggest a role of MT in mediating protective adaptations in skeletal muscle following disuse mediated by spinal cord injury.
DeRuisseau, Lara R.; Recca, Daniel M.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Zoccolillo, Michelle
Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). We report a patient with transverse myelitis, who exhibited acute onset and rapid progression of the disease and whose symptoms resembled those observed in multiple sclerosis with spinal cord presentation. During neurological exacerbation of the condition, the HTLV-I proviral load in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased to 10 times that in the peripheral blood. This suggests that the accumulation of HTLV-I-infected cells in the CNS contributes to neurological exacerbation. Based on the increased proviral load in the CSF, we diagnosed the disease as acute progressive HAM/TSP. The measurement of the HTLV-I proviral load in the CSF is useful for the diagnosis of HAM/TSP and for monitoring its progression. PMID:18989817
Although extravasations of polymethylmetharylate during percutaneous vertebroplasty are usually of little clinical consequence, surgical decompression is occasionally required if resultant neurologic deficits are severe. Surgical removal of epidural polymethylmetharylate is usually necessary to achieve good neurologic recovery. Because mobilizing the squeezed spinal cord in a compromised canal can cause further deterioration, attempts to remove epidural polymethylmetharylate in the thoracic region need special consideration. A 66-year-old man had incomplete paraparesis and radicular pain on the chest wall after percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic compression fracture of T7. Radiological studies revealed polymethylmetharylate extravasations into the right lateral aspect of spinal canal that caused marked encroachment of the thecal sac and right neuroforamina. Progressive neurologic deficit and poor responses to medical managements were observed; therefore, surgical decompression was performed 4 months later. After laminectomy and removal of facet joints and T7 pedicle on the affected side, extravasated polymethylmetharylate posterior and anterior to the thecal sac was completely removed without retracting the dura mater. Spinal stability was reconstructed by supplemental spinal instrumentation and intertransverse arthrodesis with banked cancellous allografts. Myelopathy and radicular pain gradually resolved after decompression surgery. The patient was free of sensory abnormality and regained satisfactory ambulation two years after surgical decompression.
Background: Uncommonly, Klippel–Feil syndrome (KFS) has been associated with intracranial or spinal tumors, most frequently dermoid or epidermoid cysts. Although the associated dermoid cyst (DC) is usually located in the posterior fossa, isolated upper cervical DC has been reported. Extension from the posterior fossa to the upper cervical spine (C2) has been reported once. We report a rare case of KFS in association with a posterior fossa DC that extended down to the upper thoracic spine and review the current literature. Case Description: A 47-year-old female with presented cervical myelopathy related to a cranio-cervico-thoracic DC in association with KPS-related cervicothoracic fusion (C2-T6) and thoracic kyphosis. The patient underwent complete tumor resection following sub-occipital craniectomy and C1-C4 cervical laminectomy. The patient exhibited complete resolution of symptoms with no tumor recurrence and no deformity at 6-year follow-up. Conclusion: DC should be added to the list of congenital central nervous system abnormalities, which should be sought in patients with KFS. Therefore, the presence of a cystic lesion in the posterior fossa, the craniocervical junction or the anterior cervical spine should suggest the possibility of a DC in patients with KFS. In cases of cranio-cervical DC, the tumor may extend quite far down the spinal column (reaching the thoracic spine), as demonstrated in the present case.
McLaughlin, Nancy; Weil, Alexander G.; Demers, Jacques; Shedid, Daniel
Summary Identification of the localization of human T lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral DNA in the central nervous system (CNS) is crucial to the understanding of the pathogenesis of HTLV- I-associated myelopathy (HAM)\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) pathogenesis. We have developed a sensitive detection method, called two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in situ hybridization, which enabled us to detect the
A state of T-cell activation, reflected by a marked degree of spontaneous proliferation in vitro, exists among patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP) but not in those with retroviral-induced adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). We wished to define the mechanism by which the immune activation of circulating cell from HAM\\/TSP is driven, thus gaining
Craig L. Tendler; Steven J. Greenberg; William A. Blattner; Angela Manns; Edward Murphy; Thomas Fleisher; Barrie Hanchard; Owen Morgan; Jack D. Burton; David L. Nelson; Thomas A. Waldmann
To evaluate the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral DNA load among asymptomatic HTLV-I-infected carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP), real time PCR using TaqMan probes for the pol gene was performed in two million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The albumin gene was the internal genomic control and MT2 cells were used as positive
P. A. Montanheiro; A. C. Penalva de Oliveira; M. P. Posada-Vergara; A. C. Milagres; C. Tauil; P. E. Marchiori; A. J. S. Duarte; J. Casseb
A postmarketing surveillance study was undertaken to investigate the safety and efficacy of interferon-alpha for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy (HAM) under routine treatment conditions. A total of 273 cases from 91 medical institutions were registered into the survey. So far, 167 cases had been evaluated for safety and 152 for efficacy. The efficacy evaluation was rated based on clinical symptoms of HAM. Efficacy ratio (rate of patients assessed as "modest to markedly improved" and "mildly improved") at 4 weeks was 66.2%. Factors that significantly affected efficacy ratio at 4 weeks was initial Osame's motor disability score (OMDS) before interferon-alpha therapy and duration and stage of illness. Sustained improvement of OMDS for at least 5 months after stopping interferon-alpha was observed in 11 of 30 patients (36.7%). A total of 536 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred in 146 patients, 46 of which were serious. Because some of these ADRs occurred late, it is necessary to watch out for them during long-term treatment. PMID:17849320
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the aetiological agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The objective of this study is to identify which ex vivo and in vivo markers are associated independently with HAM/TSP in a Peruvian population. Eighty-one subjects (33 men/48 women) were enrolled: 35 presented with HAM/TSP, 33 were asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 13 were HTLV-1-seronegative controls (SCs). Ex vivo markers included T cell proliferation and Th1 [interferon (IFN)-?], Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5], proinflammatory [tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?] and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine production in non-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. In vivo CD4+ T cell count, markers of Th1 [interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10] and Th2 (sCD30) activity in plasma and HTLV-1 proviral load in PBMCs were also evaluated. In univariate analysis, several markers, including T cell proliferation, IFN-?, IP-10, sCD30 and proviral load were associated with HAM/TSP, but in a multiple logistic regression analysis only the proviral load remained associated significantly with disease manifestation [adjusted OR 9·10 (1·24–66·91)]. Our findings suggest that HAM/TSP is associated primarily with proviral load, whereas the observed association with some immune markers seems secondary.
Best, I; Adaui, V; Verdonck, K; Gonzalez, E; Tipismana, M; Clark, D; Gotuzzo, E; Vanham, G
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is one outcome of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. It remains unknown why the majority of infected people remain healthy, whereas only approximately 2-3% of infected individuals develop the disease. The active form of vitamin D has immunomodulatory effects, and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) appear to be associated with differential susceptibility to several infectious diseases. To investigate whether VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with the development of HAM/TSP, we studied four VDR SNPs in a group of 207 HAM/TSP patients and 224 asymptomatic HTLV-1 seropositive carriers (HCs) in Kagoshima, Japan, by using PCR-RFLP analysis. We found that ApaI polymorphism of VDR is associated with the risk of HAM/TSP, although this polymorphism did not affect the provirus load of HTLV-1 in either HAM/TSP patients or HCs. PMID:15850579
There have been few reports describing substances related to oxidative and intermediary metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with spinal degenerative disorders. This study investigated whether the concentrations of metabolites in the CSF differed between patients with spinal degenerative disorders and controls, and whether the concentrations of these metabolites correlated with the severity of symptoms. CSF samples were obtained from 30 patients with cervical myelopathy (Group M), 30 patients with lumbar radiculopathy (Group R), and 10 volunteers (control). Metabolites in these CSF samples were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There were no differences in the concentrations of lactate, alanine, acetate, glutamate, pyruvate, or citrate between Groups M and R, between Group M and the control, or between Group R and the control. In Group M, neither symptom duration nor the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score correlated with the concentration of any metabolite. In Group R, the symptom duration positively correlated with the concentration of lactate, glutamate, and citrate in CSF. The duration of nerve root block showed a negative correlation with the concentrations of acetate in CSF of the patients in Group R. In patients with lumbar radiculopathy, there is a possibility of increased aerobic metabolic activity or decreased gluconeogenic activity in patients with shorter symptom duration, and increased aerobic metabolic activity in patients with severe inflammation around a nerve root.
Canine degenerative myelopathy is an adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in multiple dog breeds, particularly Pembroke Welsh Corgis. Recently, a degenerative myelopathy-associated mutation of the canine SOD1 gene was identified as c.118G>A (p.E40K). In the present study, genotyping assays using conventional and real-time PCR methods were developed, and a preliminary genotyping survey was performed on 122 randomly selected Pembroke Welsh Corgis without any degenerative myelopathy-related clinical signs to determine the current allele frequency in Japan. Both of the assays provided clear-cut genotyping. The survey demonstrated the frequencies of the G/G wild-type, G/A heterozygote and A/A homozygote to be 9.0, 42.6 and 48.4%, respectively, indicating that the prevalence of the mutant A allele (69.7%) in Pembroke Welsh Corgis is extremely high in Japan. PMID:23328634
The utility of texture analysis regarding the provision of quantitative prognostic factors, potentially valuable to the prediction of the post-operative outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients, is investigated. The clinical sample of the study comprised six subjects, who had undergone surgical therapeutic intervention for CSM. Following a specific imaging protocol, a pair of MR images of the cervical spine, corresponding to pre- and post-operative MR scans, was obtained for each of the patients. Accordingly, 12 sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were studied. Employing custom developed software, a Region Of Interest (ROI) within the spinal cord, corresponding to the region of the high-intensity CSM MR signal, was segmented on each image, according to the region growing method. Utilizing custom developed algorithms, the following sets of textural features were generated from the segmented ROIs: (i) gradient features, (ii) mean values of features from co-occurrence matrices (co-occurrence features) and (iii) range values of co-occurrence features. Utilizing each one of these sets of features, as well as the least-squares minimum distance and the quadratic classification algorithms, pattern recognition classification schemes were implemented for the discrimination between pre-operative and post-operative MR signals. Statistical analysis revealed the existence of statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between textural features generated from pre-operative and post-operative high-intensity MR signals. The classification accuracies accomplished ranged from 75% to 100%. Textural features, descriptive of relevant properties of the high-intensity MR signal in CSM, may be considered as quantitative information of potential value for the prediction of the post-operative outcome of CSM patients.
Boniatis, Ioannis; Klironomos, George; Gatzounis, George; Panayiotakis, George
Background HTLV-I is the causal agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATLL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Biomarkers are needed to diagnose and/or predict patients who are at risk for HAM/TSP or ATLL. Therefore, we investigated using luciferase immunoprecipitation technology (LIPS) antibody responses to seven HTLV-I proteins in non-infected controls, asymptomatic HTLV-I-carriers, ATLL and HAM/TSP sera samples. Antibody profiles were correlated with viral load and examined in longitudinal samples. Results Anti-GAG antibody titers detected by LIPS differentiated HTLV-infected subjects from uninfected controls with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, but did not differ between HTLV-I infected subgroups. However, anti-Env antibody titers were over 4-fold higher in HAM/TSP compared to both asymptomatic HTLV-I (P < 0.0001) and ATLL patients (P < 0.0005). Anti-Env antibody titers above 100,000 LU had 75% positive predictive value and 79% negative predictive value for identifying the HAM/TSP sub-type. Anti-Tax antibody titers were also higher (P < 0.0005) in the HAM/TSP compared to the asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Proviral load correlated with anti-Env antibodies in asymptomatic carriers (R = 0.76), but not in HAM/TSP. Conclusion These studies indicate that anti-HTLV-I antibody responses detected by LIPS are useful for diagnosis and suggest that elevated anti-Env antibodies are a common feature found in HAM/TSP patients.
Burbelo, Peter D; Meoli, Elise; Leahy, Hannah P; Graham, Jhanelle; Yao, Karen; Oh, Unsong; Janik, John E; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah; Iadarola, Michael J; Jacobson, Steven
This study compared the proviral load and the plasma cytokine profiles (interleukin-IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-?) in 87 HTLV-1-infected individuals, including 28 with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), 32 with possible pHAM/TSP and 27 asymptomatic carriers (AC). The control group was composed by 21 HTLV-1-seronegative individuals. Our finding demonstrated that HAM/TSP group presented higher proviral load as compared to all other HTLV-1 groups (p<0.0001). The HAM/TSP group showed higher serum concentration of IL-6 (p=0.0009) as compared to all other groups. Moreover, higher serum concentration of IFN-? (p=0.0118) and IL-4 (p=0.0166) were observed in HAM/TSP group as compared to the healthy controls. Additionally, the HAM/TSP group also showed higher serum concentration of TNF-? (p=0.0239) and IFN-? (p=0.0118) as compared to AC. No differences in the serum concentration of IL-2 and IL-10 were observed among the groups. The analysis of cytokine balance demonstrated that HAM/TSP presented higher pro-inflammatory profile with enhanced IFN-?/IL-10 and IFN-?/IL-4 ratio as compared to AC and pHAM/TSP. Further analysis pointed out to a positive correlation between the IFN-? response and the proviral load in AC. Conversely, a negative association between TNF-? and IL-2 with the proviral load was the hallmark of HAM/TSP group. These findings suggested that the proviral load and the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile may be independent events in the peripheral blood of HAM/TSP individuals. The knowledge about the existence of individual virological/immunological behavior upon HTLV-1 infection, may guide to the establishment of more effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:23022356
Starling, Ana Lúcia Borges; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Labanca, Ludimila; de Souza Pereira, Silvio Roberto; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins, Marina Lobato; Ribas, João Gabriel; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara F; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch
Our objective was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and feasibility of posterior decompression with transforaminal thoracic interbody fusion (PTTIF) for thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) at the same level. Between March 2004 and December 2008, 13 patients (five men and eight women, average age: 56years, range: 39-72years) who underwent PTTIF for concurrent OLF and OPLL were studied retrospectively. The clinical efficacy, operative time, blood loss, sagittal alignment and complications were investigated. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in three patients, all of whom healed well after repair. One patient developed a urinary tract infection and one developed a wound infection, but both were cured with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Neurological symptom deterioration occurred in one patient, but she returned to her preoperative baseline after completing methylprednisolone therapy. After an average 36.8months follow up, the mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score significantly increased from 4.3±1.3 preoperatively to 7.2±1.8 at 3months after the operation and 8.5±1.7 at the final follow-up (P<0.01), with an overall recovery rate of 63.2±21.8%. Postoperative imaging demonstrated an improvement in the local kyphosis (P<0.01), and as of the final follow up no cases of spinal instability or instrument loosening had occurred. We conclude that PTTIF provides satisfactory neurological recovery and stabilises the thoracic fusion through a single posterior approach. However, this procedure is not complication free and demands advanced technical expertise on the part of practitioners, particularly to avoid catastrophic spinal cord injuries. PMID:23313526
Summary: A 38-year-old man with Marfan syndrome pre- sented with headache and neck pain. MR imaging revealed a large enhancing mass in the cervical anterior epidural space. Cervical laminectomy with biopsy of the lesion revealed a large engorged anterior epidural venous plexus (AEVP). Marfan syndrome may predispose the patient to enlargement of AEVP secondary to a vessel wall abnormality. Marfan
studies show that postoperative wound infection after spinal implant surgery and the increase in antibiotic-re- sistant bacteria are a concern. Anti-infection strategies must be tested in relevant animal models that will lead to appropriate clinical studies. Methods. Eight anesthetized New Zealand White rab- bits underwent completely isolated partial laminectomy and subsequent stainless steel Kirschner wire implanta- tion directly into the
K. A. Poelstra; N. A. Barekzi; D. W. Grainger; A. G. Gristina; T. C. Schuler
Summary Decompressive laminectomy associated with the placement of Harringthn's rods was used in the treatment of eleven patients presenting with compression of the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord by metastatic tumour. Both the neurological and mechanical advantages of this approach are discussed.
F. Lesoin; K. Kabbaj; J. Debout; M. Jomin; M. Lacheretz
Summary Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a well-defined clinical syndrome attributed to certain exotoxins produced byStaphylococcus aureus. The acute episode is often characterized by a toxic encephalopathy, possibly caused by direct neurotoxicity of these exotoxins, although this mechanism has never been proven. We describe a patient who developed TSS, meningitis and cauda equina syndrome simultaneously several days after lumbar laminectomy.
Sandra M. Arend; A. V. Steenmeyer; P. C. M. Mosmans; H. A. Bijlmer; J. W. van't Wout
Aims: To determine the surgical approach in patients with multisegmental (four or more segments) OPLL of the cervi- cal spine. Methods and Materials: Data of 27 patients who had undergone either an anterior (corpectomy with excision of OPLL and interbody fusion=14 patients) or posterior ap- proach (laminectomy=12, laminoplasty=1 patient) for the multisegmental cervical OPLL was analyzed retrospectively. The patients in
To determine the efficacy of operative treatment for children with Chiari I malformation, the medical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 68 consecutive patients cared for at The Children’s Hospital, Boston, Mass., USA, from December, 1988 to November, 1996 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent suboccipital craniectomy, Cl laminectomy, and dural grafting. Bipolar coagulation to shrink and reduce
John K. Park; P. Langham Gleason; Joseph R. Madsen; Liliana C. Goumnerova; Michael Scott
A wave propagation study was completed to determine the in vivo dynamic material properties of the dura mater in mongrel dogs. A portion of the thoracic spinal cord was exposed by laminectomy. The dog was artificially respired after its muscles were paral...
We report a patient who developed Corynebacterium xerosis vertebral osteomyelitis 6 months following a decompressive laminectomy. Prolonged parenteral and subsequent oral therapy for 11 months resulted in apparent cure. This is the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by C. xerosis. PMID:2592549
Magnetic resonance imaging of a 7.5-year-old neutered male Yorkshire terrier with mild generalized ataxia and intermittent neck scratching led to a diagnosis of caudal occipital malformation and syringohydromyelia. Surgical exploration led to a diagnosis of occipital dysplasia with concurrent occipital hypoplasia. Following a dorsal laminectomy of the first cervical vertebra there was no progression or improvement a month later.
BACKGROUNDSpinal cord injuries due to penetrating wounds are not uncommon. The management of these injuries remains controversial especially with regard to the effect of laminectomy on the neurological outcome.METHODSBetween 1980 and 1989, 64 patients injured by bullets and shell fragments to the spinal cord were reviewed. There were 58 males and 6 females: 24 injuries (37.5%) involved the cervical spine,
Maarouf A Hammoud; Fuad S Haddad; Nazih A Moufarrij
Free fatty acid (FFA), diacylglycerol (acyl2Gro), icosanoid, phospholipid, and cholesterol levels were measured in samples of cat spinal cord (L2) that were frozen in situ with vertebrae intact, at various times after laminectomy, and at various times after laminectomy with compression trauma to the spinal cord. Tissue samples either were grossly dissected into gray and white portions prior to FFA and acyl2Gro analysis or were used whole for the other lipid types. Gray matter total FFA and acyl2Gro values were abnormally high in samples frozen with vertebrae intact and in those frozen 10 min after laminectomy. This indicates that the surgical procedures resulted in some perturbation of spinal cord lipid metabolism. If the experimental animals were allowed to recover for 90 min after laminectomy, the gray matter FFA and acyl2Gro levels were greatly reduced. Compression of the spinal cord with a 170-g weight for 1, 3, or 5 min (following 90 min of recovery after laminectomy) caused significant elevations of total FFA, acyl2Gro, icosanoids, and phosphatidic acid and significant decreases in ethanolamine plasmalogens and cholesterol. Among the total FFA, arachidonic acid was found to have the largest relative increase. Comparisons of gray and white matter demonstrate that, in general, changes in white matter FFA and acyl2Gro were similar to those seen in gray matter. However, the increases in white matter levels of FFA and acyl2Gro were delayed, occurring after the elevations in gray matter. For some FFA (e.g., arachidonate), the rise in white matter occurred as gray matter levels were decreasing. This suggests that the initial alteration in spinal cord lipid metabolism after trauma was in gray matter but, with time, spread radially into white matter.
Demediuk, P; Saunders, R D; Anderson, D K; Means, E D; Horrocks, L A
Background Postlaminectomy peridural fibrosis is inevitable. Some studies have compared and identified the effects of high molecular weight hyaluronic acids (HMWHA) and low molecular weight hyaluronic acids (LMWHA) on peridural fibrosis in postlaminectomy animal models. However, no studies have been found that compare pain behaviors between hyaluronic acids or among hyaluronic acids and other solid materials. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pain-related behaviors and histopathologic changes in laminectomized rats using various peridurally administered materials. Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, laminectomized at the L5 and L6 levels, were divided into four groups: group C, laminectomy only; group L, laminectomy and LMWHA application; group H, laminectomy and HMWHA application; group F, laminectomy and fat interposition. Pain behaviors were checked before, 3 days, 1 week, and 3 weeks after surgery. Histopathological changes were checked at the L5 level 3 weeks after the surgery. Results The 50% withdrawal thresholds in groups L and H were higher than that in groups C and F three days after laminectomy (P < 0.05). The paw withdrawal time did not change among the groups and in each group during the study period. Peridural fibrosis in group F was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions Hyaluronic acids significantly reduced mechanical allodynia but not thermal hyperalgesia. Peridural fibrosis did not show any correlation with pain behaviors. There have been limited studies on the correlation between peridural fibrosis and pain behavioral change, which should be verified by further studies.
Lee, Jun Geol; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Yong Chul; Lim, Young Jin; Shin, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Jae Hun; Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yun Ra
Free fatty acid (FFA), diacylglycerol (acyl2Gro), icosanoid, phospholipid, and cholesterol levels were measured in samples of cat spinal cord (L2) that were frozen in situ with vertebrae intact, at various times after laminectomy, and at various times after laminectomy with compression trauma to the spinal cord. Tissue samples either were grossly dissected into gray and white portions prior to FFA and acyl2Gro analysis or were used whole for the other lipid types. Gray matter total FFA and acyl2Gro values were abnormally high in samples frozen with vertebrae intact and in those frozen 10 min after laminectomy. This indicates that the surgical procedures resulted in some perturbation of spinal cord lipid metabolism. If the experimental animals were allowed to recover for 90 min after laminectomy, the gray matter FFA and acyl2Gro levels were greatly reduced. Compression of the spinal cord with a 170-g weight for 1, 3, or 5 min (following 90 min of recovery after laminectomy) caused significant elevations of total FFA, acyl2Gro, icosanoids, and phosphatidic acid and significant decreases in ethanolamine plasmalogens and cholesterol. Among the total FFA, arachidonic acid was found to have the largest relative increase. Comparisons of gray and white matter demonstrate that, in general, changes in white matter FFA and acyl2Gro were similar to those seen in gray matter. However, the increases in white matter levels of FFA and acyl2Gro were delayed, occurring after the elevations in gray matter. For some FFA (e.g., arachidonate), the rise in white matter occurred as gray matter levels were decreasing. This suggests that the initial alteration in spinal cord lipid metabolism after trauma was in gray matter but, with time, spread radially into white matter. PMID:3863139
Demediuk, P; Saunders, R D; Anderson, D K; Means, E D; Horrocks, L A
To investigate whether fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 polymorphisms that have been associated with rapid progression to AIDS among HIV-1 positive individuals also affects the risk of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), we compared the allele frequencies of V249I and T280M between 233 HAM/TSP patients and 213 HTLV-1 seropositive asymptomatic carriers (HCs). Although the frequency and absolute number of peripheral blood CX3CR1+CD4+T cells were significantly increased in HAM/TSP patients compared to HCs and uninfected controls independent of HTLV-1 trans-activator protein Tax, we could not observe any association between the two polymorphisms and the risk of HAM/TSP in our cohort. PMID:17884099
The clinical and radiological features in seven patients who had asymmetric muscular atrophy of the hand and forearm when young are reported and a new hypothesis for its aetiology is proposed. Investigation of body growth curves (a surrogate for velocity of arm growth) showed close relation between (a) the age when the body height increased most rapidly and the onset age of this disorder, and (b) the age when the rapid body growth period ended and the age when symptom progression ceased. Cervical radiological evidence is provided showing asymmetric anterior cord atrophy, disappearance of slackness of dorsal roots in neck extension, and anterior and lateral displacement of the lower cervical cord against the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies during neck flexion. These results suggest that disproportionate shortening of the dorsal roots is further accentuated during the juvenile growth spurt, which determines the onset and self limited course of the condition, and that repeated neck flexion causes micro-trauma and relative ischaemia of anterior horn cells, which finally results in atrophy of the muscles innervated by motoneurons with long axons. Predisposing anatomical factors are a straight neck due to lack of physiological cervical lordosis and the presence of foreshortened dorsal roots. Images
It has been reported that antibodies (Abs) against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these studies were done under nonmasked conditions. In order to determine whether Abs against hnRNPs associate with HAM/TSP and MS, the authors assayed Abs against two major hnRNPs, hnRNP A1 and A2/B1, in 105 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples under fully masked conditions. Samples included 40 cases of HAM/TSP, 28 of MS, and 37 of other neurological diseases. Anti-hnRNP A1 Abs, and especially anti-hnRNP A2/B1 Abs, were found significantly more often in the CSF of MS patients than in other groups. However, there was no difference in the incidence of anti-hnRNP A1 Abs between HAM/TSP and other disease groups. PMID:18444084
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neurological disease observed only in 1-2 % of infected individuals. HTLV-1 provirus load, certain HLA alleles and HTLV-1 tax subgroups are reported to be associated with different levels of risk for HAM/TSP in Kagoshima, Japan. Here, it was determined whether these risk factors were also valid for HTLV-1-infected individuals in Mashhad in northeastern Iran, another region of endemic HTLV-1 infection. In Iranian HTLV-1-infected individuals (n=132, 58 HAM/TSP patients and 74 seropositive asymptomatic carriers), although HLA-DRB1*0101 was associated with disease susceptibility in the absence of HLA-A*02 (P=0.038; odds ratio=2.71) as observed in Kagoshima, HLA-A*02 and HLA-Cw*08 had no effect on either the risk of developing HAM/TSP or HTLV-1 provirus load. All Iranian subjects possessed tax subgroup A sequences, and the protective effects of HLA-A*02 were observed only in Kagoshima subjects with tax subgroup B but not in those with tax subgroup A. Both the prevalence of HTLV-1 subgroups and the host genetic background may explain the different risks levels for HAM/TSP development in these two populations. PMID:15722539
The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes and to determine indicators of the necessity of surgical intervention. Twelve consecutive patients harboring symptomatic sacral perineural cysts were treated between 1995 and 2003. All patients were assessed for neurological deficits and pain by neurological examination. Magnetic resonance of imaging, computerized tomography, and myelography were performed to detect signs of delayed filling of the cysts. We performed a release of the valve and imbrication of the sacral cysts with laminectomies in 8 cases or recapping laminectomies in 4 cases. After surgery, symptoms improved in 10 (83%) of 12 patients, with an average follow-up of 27 months. Ten patients had sacral perineural cysts with signs of positive filling defect. Two (17%) of 12 patients experienced no significant improvement. In one of these patients, the filling defect was negative. In conclusion, a positive filling defect may become an indicator of good treatment outcomes. PMID:16508691
Reliable outcome measurement is needed for spinal cord injury research to critically evaluate the severity of injury and recovery thereafter. However, such measurements can sometimes be affected by minor, injury to the spinal cord during surgical procedures, including laminectomy. The open-field Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) behavior motor scores are subjective and prone to human error. We investigated somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) as an electrophysiological measure to assess the integrity of the spinal cord after injury. In our experiment, control rats with a minor unintentional spinal cord insult during laminectomy showed a decrease in SEP amplitude by 16% to 18%, which recovered in around 7 days. However, there was no change in the BBB scores for the same animals over the same period. This highlights the sensitivity of SEP to minor insult as compared to BBB. These differences may be beneficial in accurate evaluation of the severity and progression of spinal cord injury, and subsequent recovery. PMID:19419872
The effects of surgical exposure (laminectomy) and compression trauma on various aspects of membrane lipid metabolism in the feline spinal cord were determined in this study. Tissue samples were frozen in situ and grossly dissected into gray and white portions prior to lipid analyses. Laminectomy alone resulted in measurable changes in spinal cord lipid metabolism, including increases in gray matter free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, and eicosanoids. A 90-min recovery period greatly reduced the levels of these compounds. Compression of the spinal cord with a 170-g weight (following a 90-min recovery period) caused very large increases in gray matter free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, and eicosanoids, and decreases in cholesterol and ethanolamine plasmalogens. Similar, but time delayed changes in these compounds were also observed in white matter. PMID:3328837
Demediuk, P; Saunders, R D; Anderson, D K; Means, E D; Horrocks, L A
Ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) is not infrequent in the cervical and lumbar regions but is very rare in the thoracic spine, with no more than 40 cases reported in the literature. We describe a 50-year-old male with progressive paraparesis and sensory dysfunction, secondary to OYL at T10-T11, studied by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Decompressive laminectomy and removal of the ligament resulted in marked clinical improvement. Patients with OYL may initially develop sensory dysfunction associated with leg weakness. This pathological entity can be well defined by CT and MRI, and surgery by decompressive laminectomy is advised for all cases. The OYL should be removed both posteriorly and laterally to the dural sac to obtain sufficient decompression of the spinal canal. PMID:10853911
A spina-bifida-like condition was induced in 8 Macaca mulatta fetuses by intra-uterine lumbar laminectomy (L3-L5) followed by displacement of the spinal cord from the central canal. This condition was repaired in utero in 5 animals. A key feature of the repaired in utero in 5 animals. A key feature of the repair method was the use of allogeneic bone paste made from fetal bone particles suspended in an agar-thickened modified Dulbecco's medium. The bone paste was used to correct the bone deficit produced by the laminectomy. All of the monkey babies were delivered by cesarean section at near term (160-164 days of gestation). Neurological test on the neonates and subsequent morphological studies indicated that the in utero treated animals developed normally. In contrast, 3 control animals, which had the induced spinal dysraphism but were left untreated, showed severe spina-bifida-like abnormalities, including paraplegia, incontinence and somatosensory loss. PMID:6388186
Spinal epidural hematoma is a well known complication of spinal surgery. Clinically insignificant small epidural hematomas develop in most spinal surgeries following laminectomy. However, the incidence of clinically significant postoperative spinal epidural hematomas that result in neurological deficits is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 33-year-old female patient whose spinal surgery resulted in postoperative spinal epidural hematoma. She was diagnosed with lumbar disc disease and underwent hemipartial lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. After twelve hours postoperation, her neurologic status deteriorated and cauda equina syndrome with acute spinal epidural hematoma was identified. She was immediately treated with surgical decompression and evacuation of the hematoma. The incidence of epidural hematoma after spinal surgery is rare, but very serious complication. Spinal epidural hematomas can cause significant spinal cord and cauda equina compression, requiring surgical intervention. Once diagnosed, the patient should immediately undergo emergency surgical exploration and evacuation of the hematoma.
Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Cirak, Bayram; Ozer, Ali Fahir
Background Recently, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), encoded from a minus strand mRNA was discovered and was suggested to play an important role in adult T cell leukemia (ATL) development. However, there have been no reports on the role of HBZ in patients with HTLV-1 associated inflammatory diseases. Results We quantified the HBZ and tax mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood from 56 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients, 10 ATL patients, 38 healthy asymptomatic carriers (HCs) and 20 normal uninfected controls, as well as human leukemic T-cell lines and HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, and the data were correlated with clinical parameters. The spliced HBZ gene was transcribed in all HTLV-1-infected individuals examined, whereas tax mRNA was not transcribed in significant numbers of subjects in the same groups. Although the amount of HBZ mRNA expression was highest in ATL, medium in HAM/TSP, and lowest in HCs, with statistical significance, neither tax nor the HBZ mRNA expression per HTLV-1-infected cell differed significantly between each clinical group. The HTLV-1 HBZ, but not tax mRNA load, positively correlated with disease severity and with neopterin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of HAM/TSP patients. Furthermore, HBZ mRNA expression per HTLV-1-infected cell was decreased after successful immunomodulatory treatment for HAM/TSP. Conclusion These findings suggest that in vivo expression of HBZ plays a role in HAM/TSP pathogenesis.
Approximately 5% of people infected with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) develop clinical myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) that is associated with high-levels of Th1 cytokines, interferon (IFN)-? and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Chemokines are known to induce cytokine secretion and direct the trafficking of immune cells to sites of disease. The present study measured serum chemokines correlated with autonomously released IFN-? in cell cultures. HTLV-1 infection was defined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by Western blot. Subjects included HTLV-1 carriers (n = 56), patients with HAM/TSP (n = 31) and healthy HTLV-1 seronegative volunteer controls (n = 20). Serum chemokines and IFN-? autonomously released by mononuclear cells in culture were quantified by ELISA. Compared to HTLV-1 carriers, serum chemokines in HAM/TSP patients showed significantly increased levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10, significantly diminished levels of CCL2 and similar amounts of CCL11 and CCL24. In contrast, CCL11 and CCL24 were significantly lower in serum of HAM/TSP patients than either control. IFN-? was positively correlated with CXCL9 and CXCL10 when HAM/TSP and HTLV-1 carriers were used as a combined group. However, despite a large proportion of HTLV-1 carriers having high IFN-? levels, these chemokines were not increased in carriers. This study showed that high levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in the systemic circulation and low serum CCL2 levels are features of HAM/TSP. HTLV-1 infection and Tax and/or additional viral encoded factor-mediated pathological processes triggering T cell activation with autogenous IFN-? release are probably involved in regulating chemokine release.
Guerreiro, J B; Santos, S B; Morgan, D J; Porto, A F; Muniz, A L; Ho, J L; Teixeira, A L; Teixeira, M M; Carvalho, E M
Identification of the localization of human T lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral DNA in the central nervous system (CNS) is crucial to the understanding of the pathogenesis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) pathogenesis. We have developed a sensitive detection method, called two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in situ hybridization, which enabled us to detect the HTLV-I proviral DNA in paraffin-embedded spinal cord tissue sections from HAM/TSP patients. HTLV-I proviral DNA was detected only in the nucleus of lymphocytes that had infiltrated into the spinal cord. However, no proviral DNA was amplified in any neuronal cells, including neurons and glial cells. This indicates that the demyelination of the spinal cord by HTLV-I as a result of viral infection of oligodendrocytes or neuronal cells is unlikely. The T cell receptor V beta gene sequence from lymphocytes in the spinal cord lesions taken from the same HAM/TSP autopsy cases revealed unique and restricted CDR3 motifs, CASSLXG(G) (one-letter amino acid. X is any amino acid), CASSPT(G), and CASSGRL which are similar to those described in T cells from brain lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in a rat T cell clone derived from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesions. The present results suggest that T cells containing restricted V beta CDR3 motifs, which are also found in MS and EAE, become activated upon HTLV-I infection and infiltrate into the spinal cord lesions of HAM/TSP patients.
Peridural fibrosis developing after laminectomy may cause pain that can necessitate reoperation. Many materials have been\\u000a used as a barrier to invasion of fibrous tissue into the vertebral canal, but the ideal material has not been found. Various\\u000a studies in animals have achieved favourable results with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane. In a prospective,\\u000a randomized study, we compared postoperative results
Posterior craniocervical decompression is the procedure most currently used for treating Chiari I malformation (alone or in\\u000a association with syringomyelia in the absence of hydrocephalus). We reviewed the various technical modalities reported in\\u000a the literature. We present a personal series of 44 patients harboring Chiari type I malformation (CM-I) operated with a suboccipital\\u000a craniectomy and a C1 (or C1\\/C2) laminectomy,
Contusion spinal injury of different severity was induced by the weight drop method in male rats by dropping standard weight\\u000a from the heights of 6.5, 12.5, 25, and 50 mm on the spine after laminectomy at the Th9 level. The dynamics of recovery of\\u000a voluntary movements was evaluated over 8 weeks after the operation by comparing the traditional semiquantitative BBB score\\u000a with
S. V. Lebedev; S. V. Timofeyev; A. V. Zharkov; V. G. Schipilov; J. A. Chelyshev; G. A. Masgutova; V. P. Chekhonin
The authors have tried transcutaneous electrical stimulation for the treatment of chronic lumbosacral pain in 27 patients already treated by laminectomy without benefit. Six patients experienced a 55% mean reduction of pain; another six had a 35% reduction; and the remaining 15 a 16% reduction of pain severity. From these results and a review of published data the authors conclude that the method is of limited value in alleviating chronic lumbosacral pain in laminectomized patients. PMID:162276
Metastatic tumors to the spine account for significant morbidity in cancer patients. With treatment, one seeks to restore\\u000a quality of life, reduce pain, and preserve or maintain neurological function. The roles for chemotherapy, radiation therapy\\u000a (RT), and surgery continue to evolve, but clearly all play significant roles in treating metastatic spinal tumors. Initial\\u000a attempts to treat tumors using a laminectomy
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of neurosurgical procedures but must be considered in early deterioration\\u000a of the postoperative patient. This is the first report of HSE following spinal cord tumor resection. A 65-year-old woman had\\u000a C2–C5 laminectomy for subtotal resection of intramedullary ependymoma. Six days postoperatively she developed fever, vomiting\\u000a and rapid decline in mental status. Brain
Daniel M. S. RaperAlvin; Alvin Wong; Paul C. McCormick; Linda D. Lewis
We present two patients with a Chiari 1 malformation and holocord syringomyelia who presented with abrupt onset unilateral foot drop. Neurophysiologic testing was consistent with a proximal nerve root lesion. This assisted with localization and directed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to lumbosacral spine and nerve roots. Each child underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and laminectomy with duroplasty to decompress the foramen magnum. Each child also showed rapid and complete clinical recovery despite the significant electromyographic and MRI abnormalities on initial study. PMID:20811896
McMillan, Hugh J; Sell, Erick; Nzau, Munyao; Ventureyra, Enrique C G
Background: The aim of the present case report is to describe an unusual complication of foramen magnum decompression (FMD) for the Chiari 1 hindbrain malformation and its successful management with non-operative measures. Methods: A 2-year-old girl with the Chiari 1 malformation underwent FMD, including suboccipital craniotomy, C1 laminectomy and durotomy without opening the arachnoid. Results: After initial postoperative improvement, the
Four hours following a motor vehicle accident, a 5-year-old girl developed a complete motor and sensory paraplegia below the sixth thoracic level (T6). The plain X-rays and MRI scan identified nondisplaced compression fractures of the T3–T6 vertebrae, associated with an anterior T3–T5 epidural hematoma. Following an emergency T3–T6 laminectomy, the sensory findings disappeared, while the motor deficit took 2 weeks
Summary During the period from October 1, 1989 to October 1, 1995 a total of 26 cases of Chiari type I malformation not associated\\u000a with syringomyelia were attended in our Hospital. All patients underwent cranio-cervical decompression, with occipital craniectomy\\u000a and removal of the posterior arch of C1. In 3\\/26 (11.5%) cases an additional C2 laminectomy had to be performed and in
Spinal shortening is performed for a wide spectrum of diseases. This study was designed to investigate the morphologic effects\\u000a of shortening on the spinal cord, to enlighten the amount and direction of the sliding of the cord, the alteration of the\\u000a angles of the roots, and to identify the appropriate laminectomy length. Total vertebrectomy of T12 was applied to ten
A 7-month-old male neutered cat was referred for paraparesis and painful sensation at the level of T13 vertebra where a dermal cyst was observed. Spine radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-encapsulated cyst communicating with the meninges and spinal cord, suggestive of hydromyelia and myelodysplasia. Dorsal laminectomy was performed and the cyst was completely removed. The day after
Emanuele Ricci; Giunio B. Cherubini; Samuel Jakovljevic; Francesco Aprea; Carlo Cantile
Thirty-seven patients with unstable thoracolumbar fractures and paraplegia were studied: 11 patients were given exclusively conservative treatment, 14 patients were treated conservatively after laminectomy with or without fusion, and 12 patients were treated with Harrington instrumentation. None of the 12 cases with complete paraparesis at admission to the hospital improved their neurological status. In patients with moderate and severe but not complete paraparesis one month after injury, the neurological improvement continued for several years and in many the neurological restitution was complete. There was no difference between the three treatment groups regarding the neurological improvement. A new Rehabilitation Index was constructed with special reference to paraplegic patients. One month after the injury the Rehabilitation Score in the Harrington group was considerably higher than in the other groups. After three months the score was equalized in the conservatively treated group and the Harrington group whereas the score of the laminectomy-fusion group remained lower as long as two years after injury. Thirty-two patients were followed-up two years after the injury. Irrespective of the treatment, 30 of 32 patients had reached their maximal ADL scores at the follow-up. In 19 patients the bladder function was satisfactory. Eleven patients could walk independently. Twelve patients used wheel-chairs. Twenty-eight patients managed outdoor transportation without help. Twenty-four patients (75 per cent) had returned to work. Complaints about back deformity, skin problems and pain at direct pressure over the fracture site were significantly more frequent in the conservative and laminectomy-fusion groups. The treatment with open reduction, fusion and stabilization with Harrington rods considerably reduced the immobilization and hospitalization time. The complications were few. - The Harrington operation resulted in an early rehabilitation, which is of great psychological importance for the patient. - Our study confirms the disadvantages of laminectomy followed by conservative treatment reported by other authors. PMID:6585941
Background. We report a rare case of severe delayed cerebral vasospasm with cerebral infarctions after spinal subdural hemorrhage. Case report. A 56-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of paraplegia. MR-imaging revealed an extensive intraspinal hemorrhage reaching from T1 to L1. The hematoma was evacuated via a T8-laminectomy. At the 7 th postoperative day the patient developed visual disturbances. MR-scanning
M. Setzer; S. Weidauer; M. Zimmermann; J. Berkefeld; V. Seifert; A. Raabe
Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared. PMID:24066221
In this paper, we report a case of vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy in a 21-year-old woman presenting with paraparesis\\u000a of rapid onset. An emergency MRI scan of the dorsal spine showed a lesion of the ninth thoracic vertebra with extradural extension\\u000a and marked spinal cord compression. A cesarean section was done, and this was followed by emergent laminectomy. Her symptoms
Murvet Yuksel; K. Zafer Yuksel; Deniz Tuncel; Beyazit Zencirci; Sevgi Bakaris
We report the updated results for a previously evaluated surgical treatment for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. In 12 patients a decompressive laminectomy was performed followed by a circumferential fusion using posterior pedicle screw instrumented reduction and staged anterior cage-assisted interbody fusion. Average time to follow-up was 5.6 (range 4.9–6.6) years. The average Oswestry Disability Index at last follow-up was 14
A 6-month-old female Border Collie was examined because of a 1-month history of progressive curvature of the cervical portion of the vertebral column. Radiography revealed severe cervical and thoracic scoliosis. Cervical syringomyelia and hydrocephalus were observed by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Suboccipital craniotomy and laminectomy of the first cervical vertebra were performed, and substantial improvement in the scoliosis and syringomyelia was observed 3 months after surgery. No recurrences were seen during the first year after surgery. PMID:15844429
Lifting restrictions postoperatively are quite common but there appears to be little scientific basis for them. Lifting restricitions\\u000a are inhibitory in terms of return to work and may be a factor in chronicity. The mean changes in functional spinal motion\\u000a unit (FSU) stiffness with in vitro or computer-simulated discectomies, facetectomies and laminectomies were reviewed from\\u000a the literature. We modified the
Malcolm H. Pope; Marianne L. Magnusson; David G. Wilder; Vijay K. Goel; Kevin Spratt
Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared.
Study Design A retrospective study of intradural extramedullary schwannoma. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare treatment results in the differential surgery of intradural extramedullary schwannoma. Background A reference guide to the surgical procedures available to treat intradural extramedullary schwannoma has not yet been established. Methods The study retrospectively reviewed 110 patients: Group A: laminectomy+microscopic excision; Group B: hemilaminectomy+microscopic excision; Group C: laminectomy+microscopic excision+pedicle screw fixation. Researchers selected patients for this retrospective review by applying the following criteria: 1) back pain spread out from the tumor level, sensory and motor loss; 2) treatment by surgery; 3) clinical diagnosis made by physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and pathology; 4) a minimum clinical and radiologic follow-up of 12 months. The clinical outcomes were assessed by comparing the Visual Analogue Pain Scores (VAS) and the Japanese Orthopedic Association Scores (JOA score). The study also performed a cost-effectiveness analysis. Results Cervical vertebrae: The estimated blood loss in Group B was significantly less than in Group C (P<0.05) (Table 1). Thoracic vertebrae: The duration of hospital stay and estimated blood loss in Group A was significantly less than in Group C (P<0.05) (Table 2, 3). Lumbar vertebrae: The resection rate in Group C was significantly higher than in Group A and Group B (P<0.05) (Table 4). Treatment in Group B was the least expensive, and therefore, the most cost-effective. Conclusion In the case of appropriate surgical indications, the study suggests that hemilaminectomy+microscopic excision is advantageous in the removal of cervical schwannoma, and that laminectomy+microscopic excision is advantageous in the removal of thoracic schwannoma; lumbar intradural extramedullary schwannoma can be managed by laminectomy+microscopic excision+pedicle screw fixation.
The authors report a case of oncocytic paraganglioma of the cauda equina in a 12-year-old girl who presented with lower back and leg pain on the right side of 6 months’ duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ellipsoidal, intradural, extramedullary mass causing cord compression at the level of L1. Total laminectomy was performed on T12 and L1, and the tumor
A 68-year-old male presented with rapidly progressive paraplegia. MR images of the thoracic spine were interpreted as being consistent with an abscess within an epidural lipomatosis compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed, and a large amount of pus was drained from the epidural lipomatosis, from which Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. This is the first reported case of an abscess involving an epidural lipomatosis.
Pipitone, Nicolo; De Carli, Nicola; Vecchia, Luigi; Bartoletti, Stefano C.
Traumatic spinal cord injury results in direct physical damage to structures and the generation of local factors contributing to secondary pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated changes in polyamine metabolism after spinal cord compression injury in the rat. This is a stress induced metabolic pathway, of which an activation may indicate both, secondary pathogenesis or induction of neuroprotective response. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, the rate limiting step of polyamine synthesis, and levels of the diamine putrescine, the product of ornithine decarboxylase reaction, were analyzed in control (non-laminectomized) animals and at 2 and 4 h after laminectomy or compression injury at the L4 segmental level. ODC activity was significantly increased 4 h after laminectomy in L4 and in adjacent L3 and L5 segments and compression to L4 produced a further increase 4 h after injury as compared with the intact control group. Putrescine levels were likewise significantly elevated to the same extend in the laminectomized and injured cord as compared with the intact control group. These findings demonstrate increased ODC and putrescine levels in the laminectomized and traumatized spinal cord and suggest that laminectomy may be an important 'priming event' that contributes to secondary injury after spinal cord compression injury. PMID:10320037
The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Royal jelly (RJ) on traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-one New Zealand male rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.0 kg were divided into three groups: Sham (no drug or operation, n = 7), Control (laminectomy+single dose of 1 ml/kg saline orally, after trauma; n = 7) and RJ (laminectomy+100mg/kg RJ, orally, after trauma, n = 7). Laminectomy was perfor med at T10 and balloon catheter was applied extradurally for traumatic SCI. Four and 24h after surgery, rabbits were evaluated according to the Tarlov scoring system. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid and tissue sample from spinal cord were taken for measurements of antioxidant status or detection of apoptosis. Four hours after SCI, all animals in control or RJ treated groups became paraparesic. Significant improvement was observed in RJ treated group, 24h after SCI, with respect to control. Traumatic SCI led to increase in the lipid peroxidation and decrease enzymic or non-enzymic endogenous antioxidative defense systems, and increase in apoptotic cell numbers. RJ treatment mostly prevented lipid peroxidation and also augmented endogenous enzymic or non-enzymic antioxidative defense systems. Again, RJ treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell number induced by SCI. PMID:22538080
Aslan, Adem; Cemek, Mustafa; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Altunbas, Korhan; Bas, Orhan; Yurumez, Yusuf
Most animal models of contused, compressed or transected spinal cord injury (SCI) require a laminectomy to be performed. However, despite advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these models, the laminectomy itself is generally associated with significant problems including longer surgery and anaesthesia (related post-operative complications), neuropathic pain, spinal instabilities, deformities, lordosis, and biomechanical problems, etc. This review provides an overview of findings obtained mainly from our laboratory that are associated with the development and characterization of a novel murine model of spinal cord transection that does not require a laminectomy. A number of studies successfully conducted with this model provided strong evidence that it constitutes a simple, reliable and reproducible transection model of complete paraplegia which is particularly useful for studies on large cohorts of wild-type or mutant animals - e.g., drug screening studies in vivo or studies aimed at characterizing neuronal and non-neuronal adaptive changes post-trauma. It is highly suitable also for studies aimed at identifying and developing new pharmacological treatments against aging associated comorbid problems and specific SCI-related dysfunctions (e.g., stereotyped motor behaviours such as locomotion, sexual response, defecation and micturition) largely related with 'command centers' located in lumbosacral areas of the spinal cord. PMID:23360275
Postlaminectomy epidural adhesion is implicated as a main cause of “failed back surgery syndrome” and associated with increased risk of complications during revision surgery. Various materials acting as mechanical barriers to reduce fibroblasts infiltration into epidural space have met with limited success. In present research, amniotic membrane (AM) was studied to investigate its effects on reducing epidural scar adhesion after laminectomy in a canine model. Laminectomy sites were created at L-1, L-3, L-5, and L-7 levels in 24 adult mongrel dogs. Freeze dried AM (FAM), cross-linked AM (CAM), and autologous free fat (AFF) were implanted, respectively, at a randomly assigned site in each dog with the remaining untreated site serving as internal control. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Then, gross pathologic observation including scar amount and adhesion tenacity, qualitative histology evaluation, and quantitative histology analysis were compared. Gross observation demonstrated that scar amount and adhesion tenacity of CAM group were significantly lower in comparison with those of FAM and non-treatment groups. A white, slightly vascularized CAM layer covered the dura mater without tenacious scar adhesion. The histology analysis also indicated reduced fibroblasts infiltration and consequent epidural fibrosis, which were similar to the results of AFF group. In conclusion, the CAM is effective in reducing epidural fibrosis and scar adhesion after laminectomy in canine model. It is a promising biomaterial for future clinical applications.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effects of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation on patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, following laminectomy. Thirteen patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors underwent total lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation and repair of the supraspinous ligaments, following laminectomy and tumor enucleation. To investigate the clinical effect of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation, pre- and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were determined, and pre- and postoperative X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were conducted. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were also included in the follow-up. No complications were observed pre- or postoperatively. The VAS and ODI results 2 weeks following surgery and at the final follow-up examination demonstrated a significant improvement compared with the corresponding preoperative results. The X-ray examination results indicated a satisfactory internal fixation location, without any characteristics of a fracture, lumbar scoliosis, kyphosis or instability. Following the surgery, the CT and MRI examination results demonstrated that healing of the lamina bone and repair of the supraspinous ligament had occurred without tumor recurrence or spinal epidural scar recompression. Two of the 13 cases were lost to follow-up. The results indicated that in patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation following total laminectomy is effective and provides thoracolumbar stability. Furthermore, this has been identified to be an effective technique for preventing intraspinal scar proliferation.
We describe a case of myeloneuropathy resulting from nitrous oxide abuse. MR imaging of the spine revealed symmetric abnormal signal in the posterior columns of the cervical cord. Myeloneuropathy is caused by inactivation of vitamin B12 by nitrous oxide. This syndrome can also be seen in patients with borderline vitamin B12 deficiency who have recently been anesthetized with nitrous oxide. PMID:9613506
Summary: We describe a case of myeloneuropathy result- ing from nitrous oxide abuse. MR imaging of the spine revealed symmetric abnormal signal in the posterior col- umns of the cervical cord. Myeloneuropathy is caused by inactivation of vitamin B12 by nitrous oxide. This syndrome can also be seen in patients with borderline vitamin B12 deficiency who have recently been anesthetized
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord characterized by perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and parenchymal lymphocytic infiltration. In this study using flow cytometry, we have investigated the T-cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta repertoire of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in 8 HAM/TSP patients, 10 HTLV-1 infected healthy carriers, and 11 uninfected healthy controls to determine if there is a biased usage of TCR Vbeta. We found that TCR Vbeta7.2 was under-utilized and Vbeta12 was over-utilized in CD4+ T cells of HTLV-1 infected individuals compared with healthy uninfected controls, whereas there were no such differences in CD8+ T cells. Comparison of Vbeta repertoire changes before and after interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment for HAM/TSP revealed that one out of five patients showed dramatic decrease of specific Vbeta in CD8+ T cells. Our results suggest that dominant Vbeta subpopulations in CD4+ T cells evolved associated with chronic HTLV-1 infection, and IFN-alpha treatment for HAM/TSP does not induce a specific pattern of TCR Vbeta changes. PMID:16545396
Background/Objective: Spinal cord injury influences many hormones that are known to be involved in the modulation of neurotrophic, neurogenic, and neuroprotective events. Recent studies showed that leptin could be neuroprotective, enhancing neuronal survival in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of the serum leptin levels in rats during acute traumatic SCI. Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups. In the control group, neither laminectomy nor SCI was performed; only laminectomy was performed without SCI in the sham group. In the cervical and thoracic spinal trauma groups, laminectomies were performed following the same trauma procedure. Blood samples were drawn 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours after the procedures and assayed immediately. Results: In the first 2 hours, levels of leptin were similar in control and sham-operated groups and higher in neurotrauma groups (P < 0.05). At the sixth hour, leptin levels increased in the sham-operated group, decreased in the neurotrauma groups (P < 0.05), and did not change in the control group (P > 0.05). At the 12th hour, the levels of leptin increased in all groups (P > 0.05). At the 24th hour, they decreased in the control, sham-operated, and cervical groups (P < 0.05); levels did not change in the thoracic group (P > 0.05). The decrease was higher in the control group than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Activation of endogenous leptin secretion started immediately after the SCI. The level of neurologic lesion (either cervical or thoracic regions) affected the levels of serum leptin differently, but with the exception of the first 12-hour period, this difference did not reach a statistically significant level.
Gezici, Ali Riza; Ergun, Ruchan; Karakas, Alper; Gunduz, Bulent
Background: Several cervical laminectomies and instrumented posterior cervical fusions utilize iliac autograft supplemented with demineralized bone matrix, or bone morphogenetic protein, but few utilize artificial bone graft expanders. Here we analyzed whether posterior cervical fusions could effectively utilize iliac autograft supplemented with an artificial bone graft expander, Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [B-TCP] Materials and Methods: Fifty-three severely myelopathic patients [average Nurick Score 4.1], averaging 65.3 years of age, underwent posterior cervical laminectomies [average 2.3 levels] and multilevel instrumented fusions [average 7.5 levels] utilizing iliac crest autograft and B-TCP. Pathology addressed included multilevel spondylosis accompanied by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament [24 patients], ossification of the yellow ligament [27 patients], and instability [53 patients]. Fusion rates [dynamic X-ray, two-dimensional computerized axial tomography (2D-CT) and outcomes [Nurick Grades, Odom's Criteria, SF-36] were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Results: Fusion was confirmed by two independent neuroradiologists utilizing dynamic X-ray studies [100% of patients] and 2D-CT studies [86.8% of patients] an average of 5.4 months postoperatively. Although there were no symptomatic pseudarthroses, three smokers exhibited delayed fusions [8 postoperative months]. Within 1 postoperative year, patients improved an average of 2.7 Nurick Grades [Nurick Score 1.4], Odom's criteria revealed 48 good/excellent, and 5 fair/poor outcomes, and improvement on all 8 SF-36 Health Scales [maximal on Bodily Pain [+21.96]. Conclusions: High fusion rates and improved neurological outcomes were achieved within one year for 53 patients undergoing multilevel level cervical laminectomies with posterior instrumented fusions utilizing iliac autograft supplemented with B-TCP.
Injury to the spinal cord results in disruption of neurons, cell membranes, axons, myelin, and endothelial cells. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the protective effect of magnesium sulfate on the blood-spinal cord barrier after acute spinal cord injury (SCI). This experiment was conducted in two parts. In the first, rats were injected intravenously with Evans blue 2 h after SCI. The laminectomy-only group had no trauma. Contusion injury (50 g-cm) was applied to the trauma and treatment groups. Magnesium sulfate (600 mg/kg) was given to the treatment group immediately after injury. For the second part, clinical evaluations were performed 24 h post surgery. Then, following Evans blue injection, spinal cord samples were obtained from the laminectomy-only, trauma, and treatment groups. For the control group, nontraumatized spinal cord samples were taken after Evans blue injection following clinical examination. Laminectomy did not affect the spinal cord Evans blue content in 2-h and 24-h groups. The trauma increased tissue Evans blue content, and 24-h samples showed more remarkable tissue Evans blue content, suggesting secondary injury. Application of 600 mg/kg of magnesium resulted in lower Evans blue content in the spinal cord than with injury. Remarkable clinical neuroprotection was observed in the treatment groups. Magnesium sulfate showed vaso- and neuroprotective properties after contusion injury to the rat spinal cord. The authors also demonstrated secondary injury of the blood-spinal cord barrier with the Evans blue clearance technique for the first time. PMID:12783273
Previous studies have demonstrated that pharmacokinetic behavior of several drugs such as paracetamol, theophylline, and aminoglycosides are significantly altered in spinal cord injured patients. No pharmacokinetic study of amitriptyline has been performed in patients and experimental models of spinal cord injury. Pharmacokinetic parameters of amitriptyline in orally treated rabbits subjected to laminectomy and spinal cord injury compared with those underwent laminectomy alone. Among twenty four male rabbits were included in this study, nine of them subjected to spinal cord injury at the 8th thoracic level by knife severance method and six rabbits underwent laminectomy alone (sham group) and nine rabbits treated as control. All received a single oral dose of amitriptyline (20 mg/kg) 24 h after injury. Blood sampling were done at predetermined times to 36 h after drug administration. Amitriptyline concentration in serum samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters including maximum concentration (Cmax), time to reach maximum concentration (Tmax), half life, and the area under the curve to last detectable concentration time point (AUC0-t) were directly determined from the concentration-time curve. Maximum concentration was observed at 6.5 h after administration in sham group with a concentration of 439.6 ng/ml, whereas in SCI group Tmax was at 2.7 h with a concentration of 2763.9 ng/ml. In control group it was 3.3 h and 396 ng/ml, respectively. In SCI group, AUC was 9465.6 ng.h/ml and half life was 6 h and for control group it was 2817.4 ng.h/ml and 6.4 h, respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed that SCI didn't induce significant changes in amitriptyline pharmacokinetic parameters.
Reihanikermani, H.; Ansari, M.; Soltani, A.; Meymandi, M. S.
A 52-year-old patient presented with large symptomatic transudative pleural effusion 4 months following T8 to T9 transthoracic diskectomy. Anterior approach diskectomy has replaced the traditional laminectomy for treating symptomatic centrally herniated and calcified thoracic disks. We describe in this report the first case of a large cerebrospinal fluid collection in the pleural cavity caused by persistent postoperative duropleural fistula. The possibility of a duropleural fistula should be entertained in patients who present with a pleural effusion following transthoracic diskectomy. PMID:9872224
Monla-Hassan, J; Eichenhorn, M; Spickler, E; Talati, S; Nockels, R; Hyzy, R
The vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap has been successfully utilized for reconstruction in 13 patients with complex posterior skull and neck defects. This flap based on its vascular pedicle, the descending branch of the transverse cervical artery, provides well-vascularized tissue for coverage of defects related to chronic osteomyelitis, tumor extirpation, osteoradionecrosis, and dehisced cervical laminectomy wounds. Emphasis on flap design, including the location of the skin island, allows adequate wound coverage, direct donor site closure, and muscle function preservation. With its large size and wide arc of rotation, the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap provides reliable coverage for posterior trunk, cervical, and skull defects.
A 4-year-old neutered Rhodesian ridgeback/dalmatian crossbred bitch was presented with a cervical, dorsal midline cutaneous swelling after 2 unsuccessful attempts at surgical resection of a dermoid sinus. Radiographs of the cervical spine indicated a C2 transosseous communication with the vertebral canal. Ultrasonographic evaluation demonstrated 2 interlinking cavities terminating close to C2. Complete resection of the sinus tract necessitated a partial dorsal laminectomy. Histology confirmed the diagnosis. This case is compared to similar cases in the literature. PMID:9120862
Echocardiography revealed a left atrial tumor in a 59-year-old man with back pain that concurrently worsened with left foot drop and loss of the left ankle reflex soon after admission to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an epidural tumor extending from Th5 with spinal cord compression. The patient was immediately treated by emergency Th4-5 laminectomy and epidural decompression. One month later, a cardiac tumor excised via the left atrial approach was histopathologically diagnosed as myxosarcoma, and the Th5 tumor was consistent with this finding. This is the first report to describe spinal metastasis of cardiac myxosarcoma. PMID:23677508
In 2000, Nachemson and coll. published a book about modern treatment of spine related pathologies. They concluded that evidence regarding efficiency of surgical and non surgical treatments of lumbar spinal stenosis was poor. Despite this and the fact that the precise mechanism of pain is still unknown, surgical treatment of spinal stenosis, mainly consisting in a laminectomy, has made it through the years. More recently, higher quality scientific publications have brought significant evidence that surgery yields better short and long term functional results, than non surgical conservative treatment. This advantage might also compensate for possible internistic complications in a usually older and fragile population. PMID:19405274
We report 2 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis and contiguous epidural abscess due to Bacteroides fragilis with no concomitant or past intra-abdominal infection. Decompressive surgery with laminectomy was required for both patients due to the occurrence of neurologic deficits. Clinical recovery was achieved after 8 weeks of antibiotic therapy. It included 3 weeks of intravenous therapy with clindamycin followed by an oral regimen of clindamycin for 1 patient and oral metronidazole for the other. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be essential for diagnostic. The primary source of infection remained unknown despite careful investigations. PMID:18714851
de Goeij, S; Nisolle, J-F; Glupczynski, Y; Delgrange, E; Delaere, B
Timely recognition and surgical decompression are crucial to minimize risk of permanent neurologic deficit from epidural hematoma. We present the case of a patient who developed acute back pain, sensory deficit, and ascending weakness 9 days after removal of a labor epidural catheter. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneous fluid collection extending from C6-7 through the lumbar region, with cord deformity at T9-11. Decompression laminectomy was performed within 4 hours of symptom onset. Twelve hours later, her motor function had fully recovered. Subsequent anatomic and hematologic workup was inconclusive. This presentation is atypical given the delayed presentation of symptoms after epidural placement. PMID:20675412
Guffey, Patrick J; McKay, Warren R; McKay, Rachel Eshima
Complete resection with conservation of cranial nerves is the primary goal of contemporary surgery for lower cranial nerve tumors. We describe the case of a patient with a schwannoma of the left glossopharyngeal nerve, operated on in our Neurosurgical Unit. The far lateral approach combined with laminectomy of the posterior arch of C1 was done in two steps. The procedure allowed total tumor resection and was found to be better than classic unilateral suboccipital or combined supra- and infratentorial approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of the far lateral transcondylar approach, compared to the other more common approaches, are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2
Puzzilli, F.; Mastronardi, L.; Agrillo, U.; Nardi, P.
Purpose: A score predicting post-radiotherapy (RT) ambulatory status was developed based on 2,096 retrospectively evaluated metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients. This study aimed to validate the score in a prospective series. Methods and Materials: The score included five factors associated with post-RT ambulatory status: tumor type, interval tumor diagnosis to MSCC, visceral metastases, pre-RT motor function, time developing motor deficits. Patients were divided into five groups: 21-28, 29-31, 32-34, 35-37, 38-44 points. In this study, 653 prospectively followed patients were divided into the same groups. Furthermore, the number of prognostic groups was reduced from five to three (21-28, 29-37, 38-44 points). Post-RT ambulatory rates from this series were compared with the retrospective series. Additionally, this series was compared with 104 patients receiving decompressive surgery plus RT (41 laminectomy, 63 laminectomy plus stabilization of vertebrae). Results: In this study, post-RT ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 43.5% (29-31 points), 71.0% (32-34 points), 89.5% (35-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points). Ambulatory rates from the retrospective study were 6.2%, 43.5%, 70.0%, 86.1%, and 98.7%. After regrouping, ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 70.9% (29-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points) in this series, and 6.2%, 68.4%, and 98.7% in the retrospective series. Ambulatory rates were 0%, 62.5%, and 90.9% in the laminectomy plus RT group, and 14.3%, 83.9%, and 100% in the laminectomy + stabilization plus RT group. Conclusions: Ambulatory rates in the different groups in this study were similar to those in the retrospective study demonstrating the validity of the score. Using only three groups is simplier for clinical routine.
Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Douglas, Sarah; Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Basic, Hiba [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Karstens, Johann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Hoskin, Peter J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Mount Vernon Cancer Center, Northwood (United Kingdom); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)
We studied the cases of 218 patients who had had trauma to the upper region of the thoracic spine (first to tenth thoracic vertebra) that resulted in paralysis. Of these, 184 patients had a complete and thirty-four had an incomplete lesion of the spinal cord. Of the 184 patients who had a complete lesion of the spinal cord, none of the 149 patients who were followed for two to fifteen years recovered any significant neurological function, regardless of the type of operative or non-operative treatment. Thirty of the patients with an incomplete lesion of the spinal cord were followed for two to twenty years. Three others were lost to follow-up, and one died with ascending necrosis of the spinal cord and pulmonary failure three months after the laminectomy. Of the remaining thirty patients, twenty-three had an anterior cord syndrome, four had a central cord syndrome, and three had a Brown-Séquard syndrome. Five patients with an incomplete lesion were treated without surgery. Three of these patients recovered the ability to walk while two recovered some function but were still not able to walk. Seventeen patients with an incomplete lesion of the spinal cord were treated by laminectomy. Of these patients, two also had cord-cooling, two had a posterior fusion, and one had cord-cooling, spine fusion, and posterior instrumentation with Harrington rods. Five patients recovered partial ability to walk with braces, four did not, and eight lost neurological function or became completely paraplegic after surgery and did not recover. Eight patients with an incomplete lesion of the spinal cord were treated with anterior transthoracic decompression and fusion, three of whom had had a previous laminectomy that had not improved their status. Five patients recovered the ability to walk without aids, two walked with braces, and one recovered some motor function but was not able to walk. From this study, we concluded that laminectomy is contraindicated for incomplete lesions of the upper region of the thoracic spinal cord and that anterior transthoracic decompression and fusion offers the best chance of recovery of neurological function. PMID:3972862
Very few reports have described giant pseudomeningoceles ? 8 cm in diameter. We report this case of the biggest giant pseudomeningocele at the unusual cervicothoracic level. A 59 year old man who underwent cervicothoracic laminectomy had a giant pseudomeningocele detected and the lesion gradually grew to about 15 cm in diameter by 2 years postoperatively. Cerebrospinal fluid leak closure was performed and the postoperative course was favorable. We present this case, review the literature and discuss the size and portion, mechanism of formation, symptoms and treatments of giant pseudomeningocele.
Clinical records of 47 patients in whom spinal-cord compression was the presenting feature of plasma-cell myeloma were analysed retrospectively. Patients were referred during 1954-78. Median survival was 30 months and prognosis was best for those in whom the site of cord compression was the thoracic region. Early laminectomy and decompression followed by adequate radiotherapy resulted in complete or good partial response in over a third of patients who presented with complete paraplegia. Improvements in supportive care and more effective chemotherapy allow spinal-cord compression in myeloma to be treated promptly and vigorously, thus improving duration and quality of survival in a substantial proportion of patients.
Benson, W J; Scarffe, J H; Todd, I D; Palmer, M; Crowther, D
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientÃ¢ÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.
Smith, Sharyn; Lownie, Steven P.; Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.
Osteochondromas of the vertebral column are rare tumors and constitute about 3-4% of all primary vertebral column tumors. We report a case of osteochondroma arising from C3 lamina presenting with acute quadriplegia following a trivial fall. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) showed bony lesion arising from C3 laminar arch compressing the cord with underlying spinal cord contusion. Emergency C3 laminectomy and complete enbloc excision of the lesion was performed, following which patient showed gradual recovery in neurological status. This acute presentation in this rare, slow growing, tumor has never been reported in literature till date.
The authors have previously developed a logistic regression equation to predict the odds that a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individual of specified genotype, age, and provirus load has HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in southern Japan. This study evaluated whether this equation is useful predictor for monitoring asymptomatic HTLV-1-seropositive carriers (HCs) in the same population. The authors genotyped 181 HCs for each HAM/TSP-associated gene (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha-863A/C, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) +801G/A, human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-A*02, HLA-Cw*08, HTLV-1 tax subgroup) and measured HTLV-1 provirus load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the odds of HAM/TSP for each subject were calculated by using the equation and compared the results with clinical symptoms and laboratory findings. Although no clear difference was seen between the odds of HAM/TSP and either sex, family history of HAM/TSP or adult T-cell lenkemia (ATL), history of blood transfusion, it was found that brisk patellar deep tendon reflexes, which suggest latent central nervous system compromise, and flower cell-like abnormal lymphocytes, which is the morphological characteristic of ATL cells, were associated with a higher odds of HAM/TSP. The best-fit logistic regression equation may be useful for detecting subclinical abnormalities in HCs in southern Japan. PMID:16877298
Central nervous system hemorrhages are an uncommon but severe complication of hemophilia, occurring in only 2-8% of children with hemophilia. Less than 10% of these CNS hemorrhages are intraspinal. The authors report on their care of an infant with hemophilia A who presented with irritability, meningismus, and decreased spontaneous movement. These symptoms prompted imaging studies, which revealed a spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) extending from C-1 through the cauda equina. The boy was treated with factor replacement and close monitoring. Repeat radiographic imaging 14 days later demonstrated complete resolution, and the patient had returned to his normal baseline status. A literature review in the modern treatment era revealed 24 cases of SEH in children with hemophilia. Of these 24 cases, 11 underwent laminectomy and 13 received conservative treatment. All conservatively treated patients, 5 of whom had presented with weakness, experienced a full recovery. Of the 11 laminectomy patients, 10 presented with weakness and all but 3 experienced full neurological improvement. These 3 patients were notable for having previously undiagnosed hemophilia. An increased index of suspicion facilitates the essential management features of prompt diagnosis and correction of coagulopathies in children who present with SEHs. The authors apply a multidisciplinary approach involving a pediatric hematologist, neurosurgeon, and pediatric intensive care unit to ensure timely correction of the coagulation disorder, maintenance of adequate factor levels, and close hemodynamic and neurological monitoring. Observation with aggressive correction of coagulopathy is a reasonable treatment choice for hemophilic patients presenting with SEH and a stable neurological examination. PMID:20593987
Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability.
Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability. PMID:21772931
Systemic hypothermia has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental ischemic CNS models caused by vascular occlusions. The present study addresses the question as to whether systemic hypothermia has similar neuroprotective qualities following severe spinal cord compression trauma using microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunohistochemistry combined with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method as marker to identify neuronal and dendritic lesions. Fifteen rats were randomized into three equally sized groups. One group sustained thoracic laminectomy, the others severe spinal cord compression trauma of the T8-9 segment. The control group contained laminectomized animals submitted to a hypothermic procedure in which the esophageal temperature was reduced from 38 degrees C to 30 degrees C. The two trauma groups were either submitted to the same hypothermic procedure or kept normothermic during the corresponding time. All animals were sacrificed 24 h following the surgical procedure. The MAP2 immunostaining in the normothermic trauma group indicated marked reductions in MAP2 antigen in the cranial and caudal peri-injury zones (T7 and T10, respectively). This reduction was much less pronounced in the hypothermic trauma group. In fact, the MAP2 antigen was present in almost equally sized areas in both the hypothermic groups independent of previous laminectomy alone or the addition of trauma. Our study thus indicates that hypothermia has a neuroprotective effect on dendrites of rat spinal cords subjected to compression trauma. PMID:11045677
Yu, W R; Westergren, H; Farooque, M; Holtz, A; Olsson, Y
This study aimed to compare three most widely used surgeries for experimental lumbar spinal drug delivery in rats. The comparison consisted of assessing the effects of the surgeries and evaluating the deficits produced by these three methods. Sprague Dawley rats underwent acute needle puncture, chronic catheterization via laminectomy or nonlaminectomized catheterization. Body weight changes were measured, animals' general and neurological conditions were observed after surgeries, and motor function was examined by Rota Rod test both prior to and post surgery. Furthermore, nociceptive tests were performed to assess the animals' nociception; hematoxylin, and eosin staining of lumbar spinal cord tissue was performed to evaluate local inflammation caused by surgeries; and both lidocaine paralysis detection; and toluidine blue dye assay were used to confirm the exact location of the catheter. Both needle puncture and catheterization via laminectomy had relatively low success rate of surgery and induced various neurological signs; more severe motor dysfunction, hyperalgesia, allodynia, and local inflammation. Nonlaminectomized catheterization had a higher success rate of surgery, and induced only mild agitation, slight cerebral spinal fluid leakage, mild sensory and motor abnormalities, and minimum pathology in the lumbar spinal cord. The nonlaminectomized catheterization used in this study induces a phenotype of less detectable effects on the animal's behavior and is well-tolerated compared to the acute needle puncture and laminectomized catheterization that are widely used in the literature. Nonlaminectomized catheterization is a safe, accurate and effective way for lumbar drug delivery in rats. PMID:22674909
A photochemical technique was used to create central nervous system ischaemia in rats. Changes in blood flow in the spinal cord were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. The Th11 spinal cord segment was irradiated by an argon ion laser after intravenous injection of an organic dye, erythrosin B, to rats with or without a laminectomy. In the group of laminectomized rats, laser irradiation for 5 s did not influence cord blood flow, but 10 s irradiation caused a 25% decrease of blood flow, which normalized within 20 min. Decreases of 50 and 80% in spinal cord blood flow were noted after 20 s and after 1 min of laser irradiation, respectively, with no recovery observed after 20 min. In the group of rats without a laminectomy, 1 min of laser irradiation caused approximately a 25% decrease of spinal cord blood flow, which gradually recovered within 12 min, whereas 5 min of laser irradiation caused a more severe reduction of spinal cord blood flow (45%) with some recovery was observed 30 min later. We could thus confirm that the interaction between a photosensitizing dye and laser irradiation reduced the regional spinal cord blood flow and the extent of this effect could be modified by varying the duration of laser irradiation. The present results therefore provide further support for using this photochemical technique to create animal models of central nervous system ischaemia. PMID:7942056
Dantrolene has been shown to be neuroprotective by reducing neuronal apoptosis after brain injury in several animal models of neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of dantrolene on experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Forty-six male Wistar rats were laminectomized at T13 and divided in six groups: GI (n = 7) underwent SCI with placebo and was euthanized after 32 h; GII (n = 7) underwent laminectomy alone with placebo and was euthanized after 32 h; GIII (n = 8) underwent SCI with dantrolene and was euthanized after 32 h; GIV (n = 8) underwent SCI with placebo and was euthanized after 8 days; GV (n = 8) underwent laminectomy alone with placebo and was euthanized after 8 days; and GVI (n = 8) underwent SCI with dantrolene and was euthanized after 8 days. A compressive trauma was performed to induce SCI. After euthanasia, the spinal cord was evaluated using light microscopy, TUNEL staining and immunochemistry with anti-Caspase-3 and anti-NeuN. Animals treated with dantrolene showed a smaller number of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells and a larger number of NeuN-positive neurons, both at 32 h and 8 days (P ? 0.05). These results showed that dantrolene protects spinal cord tissue after traumatic SCI by decreasing apoptotic cell death. PMID:21039984
Torres, Bruno Benetti Junta; Caldeira, Fátima Maria Caetano; Gomes, Mardelene Geísa; Serakides, Rogéria; de Marco Viott, Aline; Bertagnolli, Angélica Cavalheiro; Fukushima, Fabíola Bono; de Oliveira, Karen Maciel; Gomes, Marcus Vinícius; de Melo, Eliane Gonçalves
Dantrolene has been shown to be neuroprotective by reducing neuronal apoptosis after brain injury in several animal models of neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of dantrolene on experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Forty-six male Wistar rats were laminectomized at T13 and divided in six groups: GI (n = 7) underwent SCI with placebo and was euthanized after 32 h; GII (n = 7) underwent laminectomy alone with placebo and was euthanized after 32 h; GIII (n = 8) underwent SCI with dantrolene and was euthanized after 32 h; GIV (n = 8) underwent SCI with placebo and was euthanized after 8 days; GV (n = 8) underwent laminectomy alone with placebo and was euthanized after 8 days; and GVI (n = 8) underwent SCI with dantrolene and was euthanized after 8 days. A compressive trauma was performed to induce SCI. After euthanasia, the spinal cord was evaluated using light microscopy, TUNEL staining and immunochemistry with anti-Caspase-3 and anti-NeuN. Animals treated with dantrolene showed a smaller number of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells and a larger number of NeuN-positive neurons, both at 32 h and 8 days (P ? 0.05). These results showed that dantrolene protects spinal cord tissue after traumatic SCI by decreasing apoptotic cell death.
Torres, Bruno Benetti Junta; Caldeira, Fatima Maria Caetano; Gomes, Mardelene Geisa; Serakides, Rogeria; de Marco Viott, Aline; Bertagnolli, Angelica Cavalheiro; Fukushima, Fabiola Bono; de Oliveira, Karen Maciel; Gomes, Marcus Vinicius; de Melo, Eliane Goncalves
More than 70 transverse lesion of the cord syndromes in chondrodystrophic dwarfs have been described in the literature. 43 of these were adequately described and/or accessible for the authors. In 22 cases, a mechanical cause (including 14 lesions of the intervertebral disk) was directly responsible and, in 14 cases, no direct spinal cord suppression was found. In the latter group, 10 had a negative myelography, 3 positive and 1 case myelography was not performed. Of the 12 laminectomized cases, only 3 made a good recovery, 4 showed severe deterioration and 2 conservatively treated cases (including the case described here) were clearly improved. Of the 16 laminectomized cases with limited mechanical impediment, 8 showed good results, 3 indifferent and 5 unknown. The cause of the vascular myleopathy was assumed to be a combination of the narrowness of the bony vertebral canal and an increasing kyphotic process. The authors suggest that laminectomy for tranverse lesion of the cord syndrome in dwarfs should be made only after several controls and an established stop correlating with the location of the neurological lesions. We reject decompression laminectomy for vascular myleopathy because of the already endangered vascular situation and the poor results. We prefer orthopedic measures. PMID:997744
Background: C1 fracture accounts for 2% of all spinal column injuries and 10% of cervical spine fractures, and is most frequently caused by motor vehicle accidents and falls. We present a rare case of C1 anterior arch fracture following standard foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation type 1. Case Description: A 63-year-old man underwent standard foramen magnum decompression (suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy) under a diagnosis of Chiari malformation type 1 with syringomyelia in June 2009. The postoperative course was uneventful until the patient noticed progressive posterior cervical pain 5 months after the operation. Computed tomography of the upper cervical spine obtained 7 months after the operation revealed left C1 anterior arch fracture. The patient was referred to our hospital at the end of January 2010 and C1–C2 posterior fusion with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 laminar screws was carried out in March 2010. Complete pain relief was achieved immediately after the second operation, and the patient resumed his daily activities. Conclusion: Anterior atlas fracture following foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation type 1 is very rare, but C1 laminectomy carries the risk of anterior arch fracture. Neurosurgeons should recognize that fracture of the atlas, which commonly results from an axial loading force, can occur in the postoperative period in patients with Chiari malformation.
Objective To characterize perioperative biomechanical changes after thoracic spine surgery. Methods Fifty-eight patients underwent spinal instrumented fusions and simple laminectomies on the thoracolumbar spine from April 2003 to October 2008. Patients were allocated to three groups; namely, the laminectomy without fusion group (group I, n = 17), the thoracolumbar fusion group (group II, n = 27), and the thoracic spine fusion group (group III, n = 14). Sagittal (ADS) and coronal (ADC) angles for adjacent segments were measured from two disc spaces above lesions at the upper margins, to two disc spaces below lesions at the lower margins. Sagittal (TLS) and coronal (TLC) angles of the thoracolumbar junction were measured from the lower margin of the 11th thoracic vertebra body to the upper margin of the 2nd lumbar vertebra body on plane radiographs. Adjacent segment disc heights and disc signal changes were determined using simple spinal examinations and by magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical outcome indices were determined using a visual analog scale. Results The three groups demonstrated statistically significant differences in terms of angle changes by ANOVA (p < 0.05). All angles in group I showed significantly smaller angles changes than in groups II and III by Turkey's multiple comparison analysis. Coronal Cobb's angles of the thoracolumbar spine (TLC) were not significantly different in the three groups. Conclusion Postoperative sagittal balance is expected to change in the adjacent and thoracolumbar areas after thoracic spine fusion. However, its prevalence seems to be higher when the thoracolumbar spine is included in instrumented fusion.
Kim, Kang San; Jeong, Je Hoon; Moon, Seung Myung; Choi, Sun Kil; Kim, Sung Min
Spinal arachnoiditis describes inflammation of the meninges, subarachnoid space and, in most cases, also involve the pial layer. The vast majority of cases described are secondary and are preceded by a known event, for example,. trauma, infections or irritative substances. Here, we present the case of primary spinal arachnoiditis. A 35-year-old lady was referred to the neurosurgical services in Dublin, Ireland with a 15-month history of progressive, right lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cystic distortion of the lumbar spinal canal extending up to the conus. Initially, an L2-L4 laminectomy was performed revealing thickened and adherent arachnoid with a large cyst in the spinal canal. Four months after initial operation, the patient represented with bilateral lower limb weakness and loss of detrusor function. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed the development of a syrinx in the patient's thoracic spine. We then performed a T9-T10 laminectomy, midline myelotomy and insertion of a syringe-arachnoid shunt. Post-operative imaging showed resolution of the syrinx and a vast improvement in lower limb power. The patient also regained bladder control. In conclusion, spinal arachnoiditis is a clearly defined pathological and radiological entity with a highly variable clinical presentation. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as there is no recognised treatment currently, with most interventions aimed at symptomatic relief. PMID:22369357
Abstract To study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), we used the LISA-Vibraknife to generate a precise and reproducible dorsal laceration SCI in the mouse. The surgical procedure involved a T9 laminectomy, dural resection, and a spinal cord laceration to a precisely controlled depth. Four dorsal hemisection injuries with lesion depths of 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.4?mm, as well as normal, sham (laminectomy and dural removal only), and transection controls were examined. Assessments including the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), footprint analysis, beam walk, toe spread reflex, Hargreaves' test, and transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) analysis were performed to assess motor, sensorimotor, and sensory function. These outcome measures demonstrated significant increases in functional deficits as the depth of the lesion increased, and significant behavioral recovery was observed in the groups over time. Quantitative histological examination showed significant differences between the injury groups and insignificant lesion depth variance within each of the groups. Statistically significant differences were additionally found in the amount of ventral spared tissue at the lesion site between the injury groups. This novel, graded, reproducible laceration SCI model can be used in future studies to look more closely at underlying mechanisms that lead to functional deficits following SCI, as well as to determine the efficacy of therapeutic intervention strategies in the injury and recovery processes following SCI.
Hill, Rachel L.; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A.; DeVries, William H.; Zhang, Yongjie; Magnuson, David S.K.; Whittemore, Scott R.
To study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), we used the LISA-Vibraknife to generate a precise and reproducible dorsal laceration SCI in the mouse. The surgical procedure involved a T9 laminectomy, dural resection, and a spinal cord laceration to a precisely controlled depth. Four dorsal hemisection injuries with lesion depths of 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.4 mm, as well as normal, sham (laminectomy and dural removal only), and transection controls were examined. Assessments including the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), footprint analysis, beam walk, toe spread reflex, Hargreaves' test, and transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) analysis were performed to assess motor, sensorimotor, and sensory function. These outcome measures demonstrated significant increases in functional deficits as the depth of the lesion increased, and significant behavioral recovery was observed in the groups over time. Quantitative histological examination showed significant differences between the injury groups and insignificant lesion depth variance within each of the groups. Statistically significant differences were additionally found in the amount of ventral spared tissue at the lesion site between the injury groups. This novel, graded, reproducible laceration SCI model can be used in future studies to look more closely at underlying mechanisms that lead to functional deficits following SCI, as well as to determine the efficacy of therapeutic intervention strategies in the injury and recovery processes following SCI. PMID:19196178
Hill, Rachel L; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A; Devries, William H; Zhang, Yongjie; Magnuson, David S K; Whittemore, Scott R; Shields, Christopher B
Hypothermia has been shown to be an effective treatment for spinal cord injury. Local hypothermia is advantageous because it avoids inducing systemic side effects of general hypothermia while providing the opportunity for greater temperature reduction at the site of injury, which may contribute to increased neuroprotection. We report a new semi-invasive method for inducing local hypothermia in rats' spinal cords. Our method does not require laminectomy or penetration of the dura and is more effective at cooling the cord than transcutaneous approaches. We show that we were successfully able to cool the spinal cord to 30.2±0.3°C for 2 hours with rectal temperature maintained at 37.3±0.3°C after a spinal cord contusion injury. We also validated our method in control rats that received only a laminectomy. Furthermore, this method was able to reliably cool and rewarm the cord at a steady rate (?5.5°C in 30 min, or 0.2°C/min). Future work will include validating long-term functional improvements of injured rats after treatment and to apply local cooling to other spinal cord injury models, such as compression injuries. PMID:24111186
Bazley, Faith A; Pashai, Nikta; Kerr, Candace; Thakor, Nitish; All, Angelo H
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using dual expandable cages plus short segment posterior fixation for reconstruction of vertebral bodies following a mini-open transpedicular approach. Methods: A single posterior incision was used to perform a laminectomy of L2, a partial laminectomy of L1 and bilateral transpedicular approaches for a piecemeal vertebrectomy in a patient with spinal compression secondary to metastatic cancer. Subsequently, bilateral cages were placed through the transpedicular corridors and percutaneous pedicle screws were inserted a single level above and below the level of the vertebral column resection. Results: The bilateral transpedicular approach facilitated the use of a mini-open incision (6.0 cm) compared with the extensive dissection normally employed for a lateral extracavitary type approach in the lumbar region. The bilateral transpedicular approach at L2 allowed for a vertebrectomy and complete decompression of neurological elements. The use of expandable cages allowed the nerve roots to be preserved. Placement of the cages in the lateral position was straightforward despite minimal exposure. The reconstruction with double expandable cages appeared robust. Conclusions: In select patients requiring circumferential decompression of the lumbar spine, dual cage reconstruction decreases the technical difficulty of the operation and facilitates a mini-open approach. The durability of this construct will need biomechanical assessment and long-term clinical follow-up.
BackgroundPatient perception of outcome after decompressive surgery for CSM is infrequently reported. We evaluated a simple, quantitative patient-reported assessment of outcome after CC for CSM by comparing it with the NGRR.
Common bony spinal pathologies that could present with progressive spasticity include vertebral body tumors or chronic infections of the spine. Cysticercosis of the spine commonly has an intramedullary occurrence. The authors discuss the presentation and management of a rare case of solitary vertebral cysticercosis that presented with lower-limb spasticity and sphincter involvement. PMID:23414003
Furtado, Sunil V; Dadlani, Ravi; Ghosal, Nandita; Rao, Arun S
Neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 is characterized by several skin, endocrine, central nervous system and musculoskeletal manifestations, spine deformities being the most common, affecting up to 64% of patients. Thoracic kyphoscoliosis is the most common deformity observed; however, high-grade spondylolisthesis and dural defects such as dural ectasia can also be found. The aim of this study is to describe a case of high-grade spondyloretrolisthesis in an NF-1 patient, associated with dural ectasia and extensive lumbar laminectomies, and to discuss our management and review the current literature on this controversial topic. A 12-year-old girl with NF-1 who had undergone extensive lumbar laminectomies in an outside facility presented to our emergency department complaining of back pain and lower limbs upper motor neuron symptoms. Image studies showed a high-grade lumbar spondyloretrolisthesis associated with dural ectasia. The first step of treatment was spine immobilization using a Boston brace. An anterior approach was used, and an L2 corporectomy was performed, using a Moss type cage between L1 and L3 with an instrumented arthrodesis and autologous bone graft for stabilization purposes. The second step planned was a posterior approach for arthrodesis and instrumentation, but after an extensive discussion with the parents and the patient, the parents did not agree to the procedure planned for the patient. A brace was used for 1 year while rehabilitation was performed. At the 1-year follow-up, there was a 70° kyphosis at the thoracolumbar junction but it was clinically stable, with an acceptable sagittal balance. Dural ectasia is not a common finding in children with NF-1; however, it should be identified as its presence may predispose to spine instability and as a consequence the development of a high-grade spondyloretrolisthesis. Even though a few cases have been reported, we believe that it is important to consider the option of a double approach to achieve a better correction in both planes and a good outcome. If an extensive laminectomy is involved, it is mandatory to perform a posterior fusion and instrumentation. PMID:22863687
Martín-Fuentes, Ana María; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Curto de la Mano, Angel; Viña-Fernández, Rafael
Seventy-five surgically treated patients with thoracolumbar fractures and fracture dislocations, operated on between 1978 and 1982 at the Orthopedic Department of the University of Basel, were analyzed. The follow-up ranged from 18 months to 6 years. There were 45 men and 21 women, and 60% of the patients were not more than 30 years old. Additional injuries were common: 30% of the patients had craniocerebral injuries and 20% were polytraumatized. Ninety-six percent of all patients reached a hospital within 6 h, but only 23% initially presented at a center for spinal surgery. Sixteen patients had anterior surgery (fusion alone or with plating), and two of these had laminectomy as a second operation. Fifty-seven patients had posterior surgery, in 34 cases combined with a laminectomy. The Harrington instrumentation was used 45 times (29 distraction, 14 compression, and two combinations of distraction and compression rods). Luque rods with segmental sublaminar wiring was used seven times, the locking-hook distraction-rod system of Jacobs twice, and miscellaneous procedures five times. A total of 24 patients (greater than 30%) presenting neurological deficits improved postoperatively. None of the 18 patients with normal neurological findings deteriorated during the operation. Neurological improvement was seen more frequently after early than after delayed surgery, but the difference was not statistically significant. Laminectomy had no statistically significant effect on postoperative neurological status. Twenty-two patients required reoperation because of insufficient or failed instrumentation. Luque instrumentation had the highest rate of reoperations. Anterior surgery did not prove superior to posterior procedures. Hospitalization and immobilization time was significantly reduced with surgery for the neurologically normal or minimally damaged patients, but not for completely or incompletely paraplegic patients. Postoperative back pain occurred in 22 patients, of whom 14 had nonanatomic postoperative reductions. Complications directly due to the surgery were rare. It is our conclusion that the instrumentation used in this series was not good enough to be proposed for standardized use. These technically unsatisfactory results induced the development of the internal fixator system in the senior author's (E.M.) department. PMID:3521536
Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441
Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images
We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints. PMID:21139800
We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints.
Spinal ependymomas are a common type of primary spinal cord neoplasm that frequently occurs in the lumbar spine. The authors report on two patients who presented with acute neurological decline after hemorrhage into ependymomas of the filum terminale. Both were transferred to the authors' institution because of diagnostic uncertainty and a concern about possible intradural vascular abnormalities. Both patients underwent lumbar laminectomies for tumor resection. The pathological finding in each case was myxopapillary ependymoma. Both patients made a significant recovery and were ambulatory and continent at follow-up review. These cases illustrate the rare but clinically significant incidence of acute neurological decline caused by hemorrhagic cauda equina ependymomas, including the potential for delayed diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18074691
Heuer, Gregory G; Stiefel, Michael F; Bailey, Robert L; Schuster, James M
Exostosis of the rib with neural foraminal extension as a cause of spinal cord compression and scoliosis has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We describe a young male with hereditary multiple exostosis who presented with a spastic gait, lower limb weakness and a deformity of the upper back. Radiographic imaging revealed a lesion arising from the left second rib which was encroaching the spinal canal and a scoliotic deformity of the upper thoracic spine. Through a single T shaped posterior approach he underwent a decompressive laminectomy of T1 and T2 vertebra and excision of the lesion. The diagnosis of osteochondroma was confirmed by histopathological studies. He was followed up at one year when his neurological condition had returned to normal however the scoliosis had increased.
Modern diagnostic imaging techniques and new methods for anterior and posterior decompression and reconstruction of the bony spinal column have dramatically improved the surgeon's ability to treat malignant tumors of the adult bony spine. The day of the laminectomy and Harrington rod reconstruction has passed, and an aggressive surgical approach is now justified for many primary and secondary malignant lesions of the spine. This article addresses the diagnosis and therapy of malignant tumors of the bony spine, emphasizing the common primary tumors of the spine and even more common metastatic lesions. Specific tumor types and therapeutic approaches at different levels of the spine are addressed, and newer techniques available to the treating clinician are reviewed. Current specific approaches to myeloma/plasmacytoma, breast carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and chordoma and primary rectal carcinoma of the sacrum are reviewed in detail. PMID:8685749
The authors report a case in which L5 radiculopathy developed acutely after surgery for placement of Harrington rod instrumentation for an L1 body fracture. Computed tomographic myelography demonstrated a large L4-L5 herniated disc that had not been present in preoperative studies. An emergency laminectomy was performed, and a large, free, subligamentous disc fragment was removed. The patient subsequently regained L5 sensorimotor function. The postoperative development of lumbar radiculopathy is an uncommon complication of Harrington rod instrumentation that may result from several biomechanical features of the instrumentation. These injuries may not be detected by intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials, and therefore, the postoperative neurological examination assumes a crucial role in the early diagnosis of these lesions. As our case demonstrates, these radicular deficits may be reversible if their cause is promptly recognized and treated. PMID:1870676
Cerebellar hemorrhage following a spinal surgery is extremely rare; however, considering the localization, it can cause major clinical manifestations. While it is considered that these types of bleedings occur secondary to a venous infarct, the pathogenesis is still unclear. A 57-year-old male patient who underwent a laminectomy by exposing T12-L5 and had pedicle screws placed for ankylosing spondylitis developed a CSF leak due to a 2?mm dural tear. A hemorrhage with parallel streaks on the left cerebellar hemisphere was seen in CT scan, and a thin subdural hematoma at right frontotemporal region was seen on cranial MRI, performed after the patient developed intense headache, nausea, vomiting, and stiff neck in the early postoperative period. In this paper, a case of cerebellar and subdural hematomas following a spinal surgery is discussed with its clinical and radiologic findings. PMID:23956894
Lumbar stenosis is a well-defined pathologic condition with excellent surgical outcomes. Empiric evidence as well as randomized, prospective trials has demonstrated the superior efficacy of surgery compared to medical management for lumbar stenosis. Traditionally, lumbar stenosis is decompressed with open laminectomies. This involves removal of the spinous process, lamina, and the posterior musculoligamentous complex (posterior tension band). This approach provides excellent improvement in symptoms, but is also associated with potential postoperative spinal instability. This may result in subsequent need for spinal fusion. Advances in technology have enabled the application of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) as an acceptable alternative to open lumbar decompression. Recent studies have shown similar to improved perioperative outcomes when comparing MISS to open decompression for lumbar stenosis. A literature review of MISS for decompression of lumbar stenosis with tubular retractors was performed to evaluate the outcomes of this modern surgical technique. In addition, a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this technique is provided.
Wong, Albert P.; Smith, Zachary A.; Lall, Rohan R.; Bresnahan, Lacey E.; Fessler, Richard G.
An 81-year-old man was treated with intravenous antibiotics for a soft tissue infection in a finger. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, he developed signs of spinal cord injury caused by a cervical spinal epidural abscess. An emergency laminectomy was performed. The neurological impairment appeared to be irreversible, and the patient died. Spinal epidural abscess is a rare and serious complication ofa bacteraemia. It is often caused by an infection of the skin or soft tissue with Staphylococcus aureus. Given the risk of rapidly progressive and irreversible neurological damage, this complication must be treated as soon as possible. The treatment of choice is surgery. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics is an option only under strict conditions. PMID:18624007
Ridderikhof, M L; van den Brink, W A; van Dalsen, A D; Kieft, H
Pyogenic spinal epidural abscess Is an uncommon Infectious occurrence. Clinical prospects of pyogenic spinal epidural abscess are graver if not promptly diagnosed and treated appropriately. A case of spinal epidural abscess has been presented with sinus tract formation at L4-L5 level, of pyogenic aetiology that progressed to paraplegia over the course of the disease. MRI pointed towards an epidural abscess extending from T12 vertebral level to S1 vertebral level. Surgical decompression in the form of laminectomy and evacuation of pus was done and antibiotics were given according to culture and sensitivity. Histopathological analysis revealed the acute suppurative nature of the abscess. Citrobacter kasori was isolated on pus culture. Pyogenic epidural abscess with causative organism being Citrobacter kasori has least been documented. PMID:24000517
Kumar, Ashok; Jain, Pramod; Singh, Pritish; Divthane, Rupam; Badole, C M
Intradural disc herniation is a serious and rare complication of intervertebral disc rupture. The preoperative diagnosis of intradural disc herniation is still difficult despite new neuroradiologic investigation possibilities including computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and it is usually diagnosed by during surgery. Here we present an intradural disc herniation case at the level of L1-L2 with accompanying significant myelopathic neurologic deficits. A 50-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital with pain and weakness in both legs. Her neurological examination revealed paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extruded disc hernia of central localization at the L1-L2 level. She underwent total laminectomy at the level of L1-L2 and her intradural disc fragment was extirpated by microsurgical methods. PMID:17935031
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is the most common vascular malformation of the spinal cord. Traditionally it is treated by the standard muscle-splitting midline approach with bilateral laminectomies extending from one level above to one level below the dAVF. We present a minimally invasive approach for ligation of dAVF with concurrent use of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. Minimally invasive watertight dural closure technique is also demonstrated and discussed. The minimally invasive approach with intraoperative ICG results in quicker recovery, early mobilization and shorter hospital stay compared to traditional open approach. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/mNUeJKLxL3Q. PMID:23829854
Hydatidosis, also known as echinococcosis, is a rare but serious parasitic disease in endemic areas. Primary spinal location is extremely rare. This case report describes a rare instance of hydatid cyst that caused severe and progressive low-back pain and neurologic dysfunction. Spine MRI showed a unique vertebral collapse of Th12 body with multicystic lesions filling the spinal canal. In addition, hydatidosis serodiagnostic test was positive at 1/725. Treatment depended on the actual surgical removal of the cysts. Surgery consisted in excision and extirpation of the cysts, associated with decompressive laminectomy. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of histological results. No coincidental hydatid visceral involvement was found. Antihelminthic drugs (Albendazole) were promptly given before surgery for a long period. The outcome was satisfactorily marked by total regression of the motor deficit and sphincter disorders.
Thoracolumbar injuries represent an unique neurologic injury. In light of the potential for recovery in the roots of the cauda equina, an aggressive plan of management should be undertaken, to absolutely ensure an adequate decompression of the spinal canal and neural elements, but in addition to accomplish a simultaneous bony reduction and fusion of the injury site. Traditional laminectomy alone has minimal benefit in most of these cases, since compression is usually anterior and decompression is best achieved through a posterolateral or anterior transthoracic approach. The best avenue of decompression is dictated by a careful and complete preoperative radiographic evaluation, including polytomography and CT scanning. Utilization of this aggressive plan of management can then offer an optimum milieu for neurologic recovery and at the same time produce solid, pain-free bony healing with a minimum of spinal deformity. PMID:6667592
Previous reports of a solitary metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma have been rare. Because this tumor has a different treatment modality and prognosis, an accurate differential diagnosis is essential. Here we report a rare case of a solitary chest wall metastasis from unknown primary site of hepatocellular carcinoma. It involves a 51-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital because of a palpable left upper chest wall mass. The mass was resected and pathologic examination confirmed a diagnosis of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite our investigation, no evidence was found that indicated the primary origin of the hepatocellular carcinoma. Four months later, the patient was admitted again because of spinal cord compression at the third and fourth thoracic vertebrae. Emergent decompressive laminectomy was performed and microscopic features revealed the same pathology as the initial chest wall mass resected 4 months earlier. After one year, a follow-up abdominal computed tomography (CT) still revealed no evidence of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:16610073
Introduction Posterior epidural migration of thoracic disc herniation is extremely rare but may occur in the same manner as in the lumbar spine. Case presentation A 53-year-old Japanese man experienced sudden onset of incomplete paraplegia after lifting a heavy object. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterior epidural mass compressing the spinal cord at the T9-T10 level. The patient underwent emergency surgery consisting of laminectomy at T9-T10 with right medial facetectomy, removal of the mass lesion, and posterior instrumented fusion. Histological examination of the mass lesion yielded findings consistent with sequestered disc material. His symptoms resolved, and he was able to resume walking without a cane 4 weeks after surgery. Conclusions Pre-operative diagnosis of posterior epidural migration of herniated thoracic disc based on magnetic resonance imaging alone may be overlooked, given the rarity of this pathology. However, this entity should be considered among the differential diagnoses for an enhancing posterior thoracic extradural mass.
We present a case of an athetoid cerebral palsy with quadriparesis caused by kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, severe spinal stenosis at the cervicomedullary junction, and atlantoaxial instability. The patient improved after the first surgery, which included a C1 total laminectomy and C-arm guided righ side unilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. C1-2 fixation was not performed on the other side because of an aberrant and dominant vertebral artery (VA). Eight months after the first operation, the patient required revision surgery for persistent neck pain and screw malposition. We used intraoperative VA angiography with simultaneous fluoroscopy for precise image guidance during bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. Intraoperative VA angiography allowed the accurate insertion of screws, and can therefore be used to avoid VA injury during C1-2 transarticular screw fixation in comorbid patients with atlantoaxial deformities.
Two cases of primary extraosseous intradural spinal Ewing's sarcoma are reported with a review of the current literature. This rare neoplasm shares features with cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumors, complicating a correct diagnosis. Gross total resection seems to be the main treatment, although adjuvant therapies could improve the prognosis. In case 1, a 56-year-old man presented with cauda equina syndrome. MRI showed an intradural tumor from L4 to S2. An emergency laminectomy was performed with gross total resection of a hemorrhagic tumor, followed by adjuvant treatment. In the second case, a 25-year-old female developed leg and lumbar pain. MRI study identified a homogeneously enhancing intradural mass at the L2-L3 level. A laminoplasty was performed, followed by tumor resection; no adjuvant treatment was administered afterwards. Immunohistochemical workup confirmed the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma in both cases. PMID:23686630
Pancucci, Giovanni; Simal-Julian, Juan Antonio; Plaza-Ramirez, Estela; García-Marcos, Raul; Mayordomo-Aranda, Empar; Botella-Asunción, Carlos
Mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) develop pathological and clinical outcomes similar to patients with the demyelinating disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We have shown that transplantation of NSCs into the spinal cords of sick mice results in a significant improvement in both remyelination and in clinical outcome. Cell replacement therapies for the treatment of chronic neurologic diseases are now a reality and in vivo models are vital in understanding the interactions between the engrafted cells and host tissue microenvironment. This presentation provides an adapted method for transplanting cells into the spinal cord of JHMV-infected mice. In brief, we provide a procedure for i) preparation of NSCs prior to transplant, ii) pre-operative care of mice, iii) exposure of the spinal cord via laminectomy, iv) stereotactic injection of NSCs, and iv) post-operative care.
Carbajal, Kevin S.; Weinger, Jason G.; Whitman, Lucia M.; Schaumburg, Chris S.; Lane, Thomas E.
This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome.
This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome. PMID:23741550
A case of giant cell tumor involving the Th4 vertebral body is reported. A 27-year-old man, who had a 2 month history of back pain and paraparesis, was admitted to our department in August, 1986. On the first admission, he manifested severe paraparesis and sensory disturbance below the Th5 dermatome level. Neuroradiological examination demonstrated an epidural tumor involving the Th4 vertebral body and compressing the spinal cord. Emergency laminectomy for decompression and biopsy was performed. The surgical specimen was a giant-cell tumor. 6 weeks after the first operation, total removal of the tumor and anterior fusion of the Th 3-5 with iliac bone graft was performed through the anterolateral transthoracic approach. Postoperative course was uneventful. A curative resection and immediate stabilization was thus able to be undertaken through the anterolateral transthoracic approach, when the epidural tumor was confined to the thoracic vertebral body. PMID:2234298
Ootuki, H; Isu, T; Iwasaki, Y; Koyanagi, I; Akino, M; Abe, H; Okayasu, K; Kaneda, K
A 12-year-old boy presented with backache and bilateral progressive lower extremity weakness. Radiological examination revealed a mass on the epidural space at level L(1)-L(3). The patient had laminectomy and posterior decompression. Histopathology examination revealed lymphocyte dominant type Hodgkin's disease. All other investigations (including computed tomography of the chest and abdomen, bone scan, gallium scan, bone marrow aspiration, and cerebrospinal fluid study) were negative for occult disease. The patient received combined therapy with irradiation and chemotherapy after surgery. At 7 years after the diagnosis, he had remained disease free and with normal functional status. This patient represents a rare case of primary epidural Hodgkin's disease in the lumbar region, rare also for onset in childhood. PMID:19433288
In this report, the authors describe the first known case of inducible hemifacial weakness in a patient with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I). The patient was a 14-year-old girl with a 1-year history of right facial paresis induced by sustained leftward head rotation. These episodes were characterized by weak activation of her right facial muscles with preserved eye opening and closure. Additionally, she had hypernasal speech, persistent headaches, and intermittent left arm twitching. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a CM-I. A suboccipital craniectomy and C-1 laminectomy were performed for decompression of the CM-I, with duraplasty and coagulation of the pial surface of the cerebellar tonsils. At the 9-month follow-up, the patient's inducible hemifacial weakness had completely resolved. Her symptoms were thought to have resulted from the CM-I, perhaps due to traction on the right facial nerve by the ectopic tonsils with head rotation. PMID:22132921
Witt, Cordelie E; Wang, Anthony C; Maher, Cormac O; Than, Khoi D; Garton, Hugh J L; Muraszko, Karin M
Cerebellar hemorrhage following a spinal surgery is extremely rare; however, considering the localization, it can cause major clinical manifestations. While it is considered that these types of bleedings occur secondary to a venous infarct, the pathogenesis is still unclear. A 57-year-old male patient who underwent a laminectomy by exposing T12-L5 and had pedicle screws placed for ankylosing spondylitis developed a CSF leak due to a 2?mm dural tear. A hemorrhage with parallel streaks on the left cerebellar hemisphere was seen in CT scan, and a thin subdural hematoma at right frontotemporal region was seen on cranial MRI, performed after the patient developed intense headache, nausea, vomiting, and stiff neck in the early postoperative period. In this paper, a case of cerebellar and subdural hematomas following a spinal surgery is discussed with its clinical and radiologic findings.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells occurring as an isolated lesion or as part of a systemic proliferation. It is commoner in children younger than 10 years of age with sparing of the posterior elements in more than 95% of cases. We describe a case of LCH in an adult female presenting with paraplegia. MRI revealed a well-defined extradural contrast enhancing mass at D2-D4 vertebral level involving the posterior elements of spine. D2-5 laminectomy with excision of lesion was performed which lead to marked improvement of patients neurological status. Histopathology was suggestive of eosinophilic granuloma. We describe the case, discuss its uniqueness and review the literature on this rare tumor presentation. PMID:23125497
Tyagi, Devendra K; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Savant, Hemant V
Presence of an arachnoid cyst at craniospinal junction is not very common. This is a very rare anatomic site, with only seven other cases reported in the literature. We report a case of large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and cranial nerve palsy. A 39-year-old male presented with 8-month history of neck pain, headache, vomiting, visual disturbances, diminished taste sensation, and numbness of face. He had bilateral papilledema on ophthalmoscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst extending down to the lower border of C5 vertebra. Posterior decompression was done through C5 laminectomy. He made a full recovery and was asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up examination. The clinical features, diagnosis, and management of these rare craniospinal arachnoid cysts are discussed.
Context: Synovial sarcomas, which represent 5% to 10% of all adult soft-tissue sarcomas, usually metastasize to the lungs. Metastasis to the spine is rare. Spinal cord compression due to spinal metastasis occurs in approximately 3% of patients with extraspinal soft-tissue sarcomas. Method: Case report. Findings: A 26-year-old woman presented with neck pain, arm weakness, and a history of metastatic synovial sarcoma originating at the right knee. Computed tomography revealed destruction of the odontoid and C2 body. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed tumor in the posterior elements of C2 and in the ventral epidural space from C2–C5. She was treated with C2–C3 laminectomy, posterior C2 corpectomy with occipital-C7 fixation, and fusion. Postoperatively, her neck pain resolved and left upper extremity strength returned to normal. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Metastatic spinal cord compression from synovial sarcoma is rare. Surgical resection can lead to neurologic improvement.
Arnold, Paul M; Roh, Simon; Ha, Tung M; Anderson, Karen K
We present the case of a 46-year-old female with a lumbar spine paraganglioma. The patient complained of a right-sided lumboischialgia. Preoperative MRI revealed an intradural tumour at the vertebra L3 level, located in the midline, 7 mm in diameter. The tumour was totally removed by laminectomy. Histopathological examination showed nests of chief cells (zellballen), surrounded by reticulin fibres. Immunohistochemistry showed a positive reaction for chromogranin A, neuronal specific protein, synaptophysin and cytokeratin in the chief cells. The sustentacular cells displayed immunopositivity for S-100 protein, single cells were also positive for GFAP. We found no proliferative activity in the tumour cells (Ki-67 index = 0%). In the two years follow-up the patient remains without clinical or radiological signs of recurrence. Spinal paraganglioma is a rare, surgically curable tumour with low proliferative potential. This entity should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of extramedullary spinal lesions. PMID:16012915
S?owi?ski, Jerzy; Stomal, Monika; Bierzy?ska-Macyszyn, Grazyna; Swider, Kazimierz
A case of neurinoma of the cauda equina which showed spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage was reported. A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of left lumboischialgia, on August 7, 1987. Myelography disclosed a round mass at L2, and cerebrospinal fluid was slightly xanthochromic. MRI demonstrated a round isointensity mass by T1 weighted image, and slightly high intensity by T2 weighted image. On August 26, 1987, the patient developed sudden onset of headache, but his headache disappeared under medication. On August 27, 1987, laminectomy L1-3 and total removal of the tumor were carried out. At operation, marked subarachnoid hemorrhage was discovered. He was discharged with slight hypesthesia of the dermatome of left S2. PMID:2674761
Spinal extradural meningeal cyst has been rarely reported, whose etiologies are assumed to be the communication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between intradural subarchnoid space and cyst due to the congenital defect in dura mater. Although the CSF communication due to this defect can be found, in most case, few cases in which there is a lack of the communication have also been reported. We report a case of the huge extradural meningeal cyst occurring in the thoracolumbar spine (from T10 to L2) where there was a lack of the communication between the intradural subarachnoid space and cyst in a 46-year-old man who presented with symptoms that were indicative of progressive paraparesis and leg pain. The patient underwent laminectomy and cyst excision. On intraoperative findings, the dura was intact and there was a lack of the communication with intradural subarachnoid space. Immediately after the surgery, weakness and leg pain disappeared shortly.
In vivo imaging of white matter is important for the mechanistic understanding of demyelination and evaluation of remyelination therapies. Although white matter can be visualized by a strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal from axonal myelin, in vivo repetitive CARS imaging of the spinal cord remains a challenge due to complexities induced by the laminectomy surgery. We present a careful experimental design that enabled longitudinal CARS imaging of de- and remyelination at single axon level in live rats. In vivo CARS imaging of secretory phospholipase A2 induced myelin vesiculation, macrophage uptake of myelin debris, and spontaneous remyelination by Schwann cells are sequentially monitored over a 3 week period. Longitudinal visualization of de- and remyelination at a single axon level provides a novel platform for rational design of therapies aimed at promoting myelin plasticity and repair.
Till date, 85 cases of melanotic schwannoma and 11 cases of spinal root melanoma have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with primary low back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbo-sacral spine showed at left L5-S1 foraminal lesion extending to the para-spinal compartment. Hemi-laminectomy, facetectomy, and excision of the lesion were done. It was primarily a cystic lesion with attachment to the exiting spinal nerve root. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed a fibro-collagenous stroma with no specific cell lining containing melanin pigment suggestive of a melanotic cyst. The patient was completely relieved of the back pain, and had no recurrence over a follow-up period of one and half years. This case is probably the first reported predominantly cystic, pigmented lesion, affecting the spinal root. PMID:23559992
This case report presents the use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in a patient with urinary incontinence who had previously undergone trial and implantation of InterStim therapy (Medtronic Neurological, Minneapolis, MN). The patient also experienced bilateral lower extremity pain and low back pain related to post-laminectomy syndrome. Having failed all conservative treatment, the patient underwent SCS trial and subsequent implantation. In the postoperative period using SCS therapy, the patient had excellent relief of urinary incontinence symptoms, along with relief of low back pain and bilateral lower extremity pain and was able to discontinue use of InterStim therapy. For this patient, SCS was effective in controlling the urinary voiding dysfunction symptoms, bilateral lower extremity pain and back pain. The use of SCS to treat urinary incontinence problems deserves further study to explore its therapeutic potentials.
This case report presents the use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in a patient with urinary incontinence who had previously undergone trial and implantation of InterStim therapy (Medtronic Neurological, Minneapolis, MN). The patient also experienced bilateral lower extremity pain and low back pain related to post-laminectomy syndrome. Having failed all conservative treatment, the patient underwent SCS trial and subsequent implantation. In the postoperative period using SCS therapy, the patient had excellent relief of urinary incontinence symptoms, along with relief of low back pain and bilateral lower extremity pain and was able to discontinue use of InterStim therapy. For this patient, SCS was effective in controlling the urinary voiding dysfunction symptoms, bilateral lower extremity pain and back pain. The use of SCS to treat urinary incontinence problems deserves further study to explore its therapeutic potentials. PMID:20305146
Thirteen patients with thoracic disc herniation have been operated on between 1960 and 1984. Nine presented with a progressive cord compression syndrome affecting sensory function more than motor. Four patients presented with acute cord compression. During this period, the authors have abandoned medullary angiography and myelography. The diagnosis is now based on computerised myelotomography. Three cases were treated by laminectomy with two postoperative deteriorations. Two cases were treated by a transthoracic approach which seemed to be too risky. Eight cases were treated through a postero-lateral approach, six being through a transverse arthropediculectomy using a microscope for better dissection of the vessels and Harrington rods to avoid secondary kyphosis. Seven of 9 cord syndromes were improved. Four cases with predominantly radicular syndromes were all improved. PMID:3797727
Lesoin, F; Rousseaux, M; Autricque, A; Villette, L; Clarisse, J; Jomin, M
A patient is presented with a cervical spinal cord transection which occurred after a motor vehicle accident in which the air bag deployed and the seat belt was not in use. The patient had complete quadriplegia below the C5 level and his imaging study showed cervical cord transection at the level of the C5/6 disc space with C5, C6 vertebral bodies and laminar fractures. He underwent a C5 laminectomy and a C4-7 posterior fusion with lateral mass screw fixation. Previous reports have described central cord syndromes occurring in hyperextension injuries, but in adults, acute spinal cord transections have only developed after fracture-dislocations of the spine. A case involving a post-traumatic spinal cord transection without any evidence of radiologic facet dislocations is reported. Also, we propose a combined hyperflexion-hyperextension mechanism to explain this type of injury.
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common parasitic diseases affecting the central nervous system. Typically spinal NCC involvement has a concomitant cranial involvement. Spinal involvement by NCC, either intramedullary or extramedullary is very uncommon. The authors report a case of D12-L1 intradural extramedullary lesion in a 38-year-old female patient who presented with complaints of back pain and weakness of lower limbs. She underwent laminectomy and excision of the lesion. Histopathology revealed extramedullary cysticercal abscess. Post-operatively she was treated with albendazole. She had a successful recovery post-operatively and at 8 months follow up had no neurological deficits. This current case presents a very rare case of cysticercal abscess of dorsolumbar spine, without any evidence of cranial involvement. This report is to reemphasize the importance of including NCC as a differential diagnosis in intradural extramedullary lesion at the conus level in endemic areas like India.
The authors describe a rare case of a Chiari I malformation presenting with acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) in a 5-year-old boy. A posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty and a C1-2 laminectomy were performed. There was an immediate postoperative improvement in the esotropia, which completely resolved by 7 months following surgery. The pertinent literature is discussed and reasons are presented for recommending posterior fossa decompression in certain patients, rather than strabismus surgery, as the initial treatment for esotropia. The authors suggest that in patients with AACE, even subtle symptoms and signs of Chiari I malformation should prompt imaging of the posterior fossa. Strong consideration should be given to performing posterior fossa decompression in patients with Chiari I malformation and AACE before strabismus surgery because the esotropia may completely resolve with decompression. PMID:15926393
Hentschel, Stephen J; Yen, Kimberly G; Lang, Frederick F
Intradural extramedullary epidermoid (EC) cysts are uncommon (0,2–1%). Acquired tumors appear more frequently as a late complication of lumbar punctures (40%). The authors present three cases of epidermoid cysts of the cauda equina which were surgically treated in their department during the past five years. All three had suffered lumbar punctures for rachianesthesia 6–9 years prior to their presentation. The patients' ages ranged between 19 and 31. Surgical treatment was deemed necessary because of the space–occupying nature of this slow–growing lesion, and this indication was supported by the MRI findings. Two–level laminectomy and microsurgical total tumor ablation were performed in all three cases. There were no postoperative complications.
Strambu, VED; Rosca, T; Cioti, D; Copaciu, R; Stroi, M; Ciurea, AV; Popa, F
We describe the case of a spinal epidural haematoma in an infant with severe haemophilia A. Initial signs and symptoms were non-specific resulting in delay of the diagnosis and more definitive therapy. The patient eventually developed torticollis, acute flaccid paralysis of the upper extremities, and respiratory distress, prompting radiological examination of the spinal cord. The patient was treated with recombinant FactorVIII and laminectomy. Neurological recovery was complete 3 months following the event. We hypothesize that infants with haemophilia may be at higher risk for this rare complication because of their increasing mobility, frequent falls while cruising furniture, and lack of prophylactic factor replacement. Non-specific signs such as irritability without a focus should alert the clinician to this diagnostic possibility. Torticollis should prompt rapid radiological evaluation of the cervical spine with magnetic resonance imaging to avoid delay in diagnosis. PMID:17083523
A 56-year-old Japanese man with hypertension presented with a 10 days history of high fever, right and left upper quadrant tenderness. An abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomographic scan revealed a large collection in the right lobe of the liver that was consistent with an abscess. A drainage catheter was placed and purulent fluid was drained. Cultures of the fluid and blood were positive for a strain of ampicillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Six days after admission, paraplegia and urinary retention were found. On the neurological examination, deep tendon reflexes of the lower extremities were absent bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging scan detected thoracic spinal epidural abscess and paraspinal abscess. He received the emergent decompressive laminectomy. Culture of surgical specimen grew ampicillin-resistant K. pneumoniae. The patient was treated with biapenem intravenously. Thereafter, clinical symptoms improved gradually and he was removed to the professional hospital to continue rehabilitation for gait disturbance on hospital day 147. PMID:15652471
A surgical sponge or cotton swab that is inadvertently left behind in a surgical wound eventually becomes a "textiloma". Such foreign material (also called "gossypiboma") can cause a foreign-body reaction in the surrounding tissue. Textiloma is mostly asymptomatic in chronic cases, but can be confused with other soft-tissue masses. Therefore, it is important to be aware of patients who present with a paraspinal soft-tissue mass and unusual or atypical symptoms. Imaging is helpful for arriving at the correct diagnosis. Here, we describe a case of textiloma in which the patient presented with low-back pain 6 years after laminectomy and lumbar discectomy. Spinal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass lesion in the posterior paravertebral region. PMID:19560822
Naama, O; Quamous, O; Elasri, C A; Boulahroud, O; Belfkih, H; Akhaddar, A; Elmostarchid, B; Elbouzidi, A; Boucetta, M
Gossypiboma is a mass formed by a retained surgical sponge and reactive tissue. The cases with gossypiboma are usually asymptomatic or with nonspecific symptoms, which delay diagnosis for months or years after surgery. We describe imaging findings in a 43-year-old woman with a symptomatic retained surgical sponge in a lumbar laminectomy site. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion-weighted MRI were performed. Gossypiboma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mass in a patient with a history of prior surgery. Diffusion-weighted MRI may provide important data for differential diagnosis of gossypiboma. With diffusion-weighted MRI, gossypiboma may be distinguished from an abscess by its low signal intensity and increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as compared to high signal intensity with low ADC in cases of abscess. PMID:19813177
206 patients scheduled for spinal surgery (lumbar discopathy) were randomly premedicated with diclofenac, pethidine, diazepam or hydroxizine. The frequency of persisted postoperative pain was evaluated from the 3-ed. postoperative day to the end of hospitalisation--as the need for additional concomitant treatment with dexamethasone and intravenous analgesics. The frequency of persisted pain was significantly decreased in patients premedicated with diclofenac (together with diazepam) before spinal surgery (limited to fenestration) in comparison to patients premedicated with pethidine. The pre-emptive analgesic effect of diclofenac was even more evident in patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) before surgery, but was not observed in patients after more traumatic surgery (laminectomy) premedicated with diazepam. The results are supporting the important role of NSAID given before surgery to decrease the frequency of persisted pain after spinal surgery (limited to fenestration), in patients treated with NSAID. PMID:9631379
A 23-year-old man developed slowly progressive muscle weakness from the age of 10, followed by paresthesia and urinary disturbance. The physical examination showed bilateral muscular atrophy in the lower limbs and dissociated sensory disturbance below Th8. Although there was normal appearance of spinal X-P, MRI revealed conus medullaris at S2 involved thoraco-lumbar syringomyelia with extramedullary lipoma. After the operation for laminectomy of L5-S2 and untethering without direct surgery for syringomyelia, post-operated MRI exhibited definite shrinkage of the syrinx. It suggested that thoraco-lumbar syringomyelia in the present case was not congenital anomaly, but secondary outcome to tethered cord syndrome. PMID:7820969
Fujimura, Y; Kimura, F; Ishida, S; Shinoda, K; Ohsawa, N
Mice were used to record the spinal reflex potentials and to examine the effects of some drugs upon them. In anesthetized mice, laminectomy was performed in the lumbo-sacral region, and monosynaptic reflex potential (MSR) and polysynaptic reflex potential were recorded from the L5 ventral root after stimulation of the L5 dorsal root. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) produced transient and long-lasting increases in the MSR amplitude, respectively. Tolperisone hydrochloride and baclofen produced transient and long-lasting MSR depressions, respectively. These results show that mice can be used to record spinal reflex potentials, and that it may be possible to study the spinal cord function of mutant and knockout mice using this method. PMID:11430467
In vivo imaging of white matter is important for the mechanistic understanding of demyelination and evaluation of remyelination therapies. Although white matter can be visualized by a strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal from axonal myelin, in vivo repetitive CARS imaging of the spinal cord remains a challenge due to complexities induced by the laminectomy surgery. We present a careful experimental design that enabled longitudinal CARS imaging of de- and remyelination at single axon level in live rats. In vivo CARS imaging of secretory phospholipase A(2) induced myelin vesiculation, macrophage uptake of myelin debris, and spontaneous remyelination by Schwann cells are sequentially monitored over a 3 week period. Longitudinal visualization of de- and remyelination at a single axon level provides a novel platform for rational design of therapies aimed at promoting myelin plasticity and repair. PMID:22029359
Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) often requires prompt surgical decompression to prevent potential devastating neurological deficits. Dorsally located SEA usually can be evacuated via simple laminectomies. Ventral SEA often requires an anterior approach such as thoracotomy to achieve adequate exposure and decompression. We report a case of ventral thoracic SEA associated with discitis and osteomyelitis that was successfully treated via minimally invasive transpedicular approach. The patient had immediate and dramatic symptomatic improvement and was ambulatory on post-operative Day 1. The minimally invasive transpedicular approach avoids the surgical morbidity associated with anterior approach and is effective surgical alternative to treat ventral SEA. The video can be found The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/do-K1VWYhi4. PMID:23829855
A 14-year-old girl presented with progressive paraparesis and paresthesia of one-year duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a T6 vertebral hemangioma with epidural compression on the spinal cord. Following angiography and embolization, she underwent dorsal laminectomy and excision of the soft tissue component compressing the cord. In the postoperative period she had rapid worsening of lower limb power and imaging demonstrated an epidural haematoma at the operative site. The patient was taken up for urgent re-exploration and evacuation of haematoma. Postoperatively the patient complained of visual failure, headache and had multiple episodes of seizures. An magnetic resonance imaging brain showed characteristic features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and the patient improved gradually after control of hypertension. This is the first documented case of PRES following spinal cord compression in a patient without any known risk factors. We postulate the possible mechanism involved in its pathogenesis. PMID:21386948
Four perineurial cysts cases (Tarlov's cysts) are reported. The purpose of this study is to describe and to compare them with data from a literature review. The evaluation was performed among 88 adult patients with symptoms of radiculopathy, sacral pain, low back pain. Four patients revealed Tarlov's cysts (4.5%). The diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. Four cases underwent sacral laminectomy. Following surgery, the claudication pain resolved with no motor or sensory deficits. Tarlov's cysts should be considered as a differential diagnosis of sacral radiculopathy, sacral or lumbar pain syndromes and mainly to the lumbar disc prolapse. The goal of the surgical treatment is to relieve the neural compression and stop bone erosion. PMID:15334232
Sá, Márcia Cristina da Paixão Rodrigues Miranda de; Sá, Renato Carlos Ferreira Leite Miranda de
We evaluated the effect of controlled hypotension induced by PGE1 on evoked spinal cord potential (ESCP) and spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) in 14 patients undergoing laminectomy or laminoplasty. They were divided into two groups: hypotensive group (group H), non-hypotensive group (group N). Controlled hypotension was induced with PGE1 to maintain mean arterial blood pressure at 55-60 mmHg for 45 min. The amplitude and latency of the N 1 potential were analyzed, and the SCBF was estimated by laser doppler flowmeter. There were no significant differences in ESCP and SCBF. These results suggest that controlled hypotension by PGE1 maintained normal local spinal cord blood flow autoregulation. PMID:9369049
Ide, R; Fukusaki, M; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, M; Ogata, K; Sumikawa, K
In the period 1971-1981 operations were carried out in 1114 cases of discopathy or lumbar spondylosis. Three patients in this group had pains of the type of intermittent claudication as the main symptoms. In all these cases narrowing of the vertebral canal was found in the lumbar part caused in two cases by degenerative changes and herniation of the intervertebral discs, and in a third case it was due to an extensive connective tissue scar at the site of previously done laminectomy. The nerve roots of the cauda were relieved from pressure surgically and in all cases pains disappeared. The authors discuss factors contributing to the development of neurogenic intermittent claudication. PMID:6527729
Introduction Giant cell tumor of the synovium is a common benign lesion that frequently occurs at the tendon sheaths in the hand; it is usually found in adults over 30 years old. It is related to pigmented villonodular synovitis. Giant cell tumor of the synovium or pigmented villonodular synovitis has been described rarely in the axial skeleton especially in the thoracic vertebrae of a child. Case presentation A previously healthy 7-year-old Thai girl presented with back pain and progressive paraparesis and was unable to walk for 1 month. She had weakness and hyperreflexia of both lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined homogeneously and intensely enhanced extradural mass with cord compression at T4 to T7 levels. The patient underwent laminectomy at T4 through to T7 and total tumor removal. Permanent histopathologic sections and immunostains revealed a giant cell tumor of the synovium. Postoperative neurological status recovered to grade V. Magnetic resonance imaging at the 1-year follow-up showed no recurrence and there was no clinical recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion We report an extremely rare case of giant cell tumor in the epidural space that extended from a thoracic facet joint. The tumor was removed successfully through laminectomies. Although giant cell tumor of a facet joint of the thoracic spine is very rare, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis for masses occurring in the epidural space in a child. Total tumor removal is the best treatment. Careful monitoring of recurrence can achieve a good clinical outcome.
The amplitude of the H-reflex increases chronically after incomplete SCI and is associated with the development of exaggerated hindlimb reflexes. Although the mechanism for this increased H-reflex is not clear, previous studies have shown that pharmacological activation of the 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2R) can potentiate the monosynaptic reflex. This study tested the hypothesis that increased expression of 5-HT2R on motoneurons is involved in increased H-reflex amplitude after a standardized clinically-relevant contusive SCI. Adult female rats were subjected to contusion, complete surgical transection, or a T8 laminectomy only. At 4wks after surgery, H-reflex recordings from the hindpaw plantar muscles of contused rats showed twice the amplitude of that in laminectomy controls or transected rats. To probe the role of 5-HT2R in this increased amplitude, dose response studies were done with the selective antagonists, mianserin or LY53857, and the 5-HT2R agonist, (±)-1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI). The drugs were intrathecally infused into the lumbar cord while recording the H-reflex. Mianserin did not have any significant effects on the H-reflex after transection, consistent with the loss of distal serotonergic innervation. After contusion, both 5-HT2R antagonists reduced the H-reflex reflex amplitude with a significantly higher ID50 compared to the uninjured controls. The 5-HT2R agonist, DOI, significantly increased reflex amplitude in contused but not control rats. Furthermore, while 5-HT immunoreactivity was similar, contused rats displayed increased 5-HT2AR immunoreactivity in plantar muscle motoneurons compared to uninjured controls. We conclude that increased expression of 5-HT2R is likely to be involved in the enhanced H-reflex that develops after contusive SCI.
Lee, Jae K.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Wrathall, Jean R.
Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To comparatively investigated the rate of the adjacent segment degeneration and the clinical outcomes in patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis or degenerative spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature There have been few studies reported on the adjacent segment degeneration following posterior lumbar interbody fusion(PLIF). Many risk factors for the adjacent segment degeneration following PLIF have been proposed. The range of decompression has been presented as one of the risk factors, yet controversial. Methods This study enrolled sixty-three patients who had been treated with single-level PLIF and who were followed up for more than two years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the preoperative diagnosis. We analyzed the difference between the preoperative and postoperative intervertebral disc heights of the superior adjacent segments. The incidence rates of instability and the clinical outcomes were comparatively analyzed between each group. Results The average age of the patients was 55.8 years in the spondylolytic spondylolisthesis group, 65.9 years in the degenerative spondylolisthesis group and 60.4 years in the spinal stenosis group. The average follow-up period was 44 months, 43 months and 42 months, respectively. At the last follow-up, compared to the preoperative period, the intervertebral disc height decreased in all three groups. A statistically significant decrease (p < 0.01) was observed only in the spondylolytic spondylolisthesis group and no significant difference was observed between each group (p = 0.41). The incidence rate of instability and the clinical outcome were not significantly different between each group. Conclusions Spondylolytic spondylolisthesis with total laminectomy and single-level PLIF showed no significant difference in the superior adjacent segment degeneration and instability, and the clinical outcome as compared to that of partial laminectomy with single-level PLIF for treating degenerative spondylolisthesis or spinal stenosis.
Study Design. A prospective clinical study of modified unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression (M-ULBD) of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).Objective. In this paper, the authors describe the technique of modified unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis, and reported 2 years follow-up results.Summary of Background Data. Recent researches showed that atrophy of multifidus muscles and chronic low back pain after conventional laminectomy may relate to disturbance of the arterial supply caused by long duration of muscle retraction, extensive muscle stripping, and damage to the dorsal rami of the posterior branches.Methods. A total of 56 patients with LSS were randomly divided into group A and B. The 27 patients in Group A (15 males and 12 females) underwent M-ULBD. The other 29 patients in group B (18 males and 11 females) received conventional laminectomy. JOA score of low back pain, 10cm-VAS, CPK three days after operation, pre- and post-operative cross-sectional areas of multifidus were used to evaluate the clinical results.Results. There was no significant difference in preoperative data between both groups. A total of 54 patients (27 in each group A and B) completed 2 years of follow-up. The postoperative JOA and VAS scores in both groups were improved significantly compared with the corresponding preoperative ones (P<0.05). The postoperative CPK, VAS of low back pain, and atrophy rate of multifidus CSA in group A are lower than those in group B (P<0.05). Dural tear at the contralateral side occurred in 3 cases (11.1%) in group A and 1 case in group B (3.4%).Conclusions. Our two years follow-up shows that this method is efficient for lumbar spinal stenosis treatment, however, it still need long term follow-up and to compare with other modified methods. PMID:23466507
Objective This study investigates the effect of valproic acid (VPA) on expression of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model. Methods Adult male rats (n=24) were randomly and blindly allocated into three groups. Laminectomy at T9 was performed in all three groups. In group 1 (sham), only laminectomy was performed. In group 2 (SCI-VPA), the animals received a dose of 200 mg/kg of VPA. In group 3 (SCI-saline), animals received 1.0 mL of the saline vehicle solution. A modified aneurysm clip with a closing force of 30 grams was applied extradurally around the spinal cord at T9, and then rapidly released with cord compression persisting for 2 minutes. The rats were sacrificed and the spinal cord were collected one week after SCI. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting sample were obtained from 5 mm rostral region to the lesion and prepared. We analyzed the nestin immunoreactivity from the white matter of ventral cord and the ependyma of central canal. Nestin and SOX2 were used for markers for NSPCs and analyzed by IHC and western blotting, respectively. Results Nestin and SOX2 were expressed significantly in the SCI groups but not in the sham group. Comparing SCI groups, nestin and SOX2 expression were much stronger in SCI-VPA group than in SCI-saline group. Conclusion Nestin and SOX2 as markers for NSPCs showed increased expression in SCI-VPA group in comparison with SCI-saline group. This result suggests VPA increases expression of spinal NSPCs in SCI.
Bang, Woo-Seok; Cho, Dae-Chul; Kim, Hye-Jeong; Sung, Joo-Kyung
Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is a disabling autoimmune CNS disorder characterized by progressive muscle rigidity and gait impairment with superimposed painful spasms that involve axial and limb musculature, triggered by heightened sensitivity to external stimuli. Impaired synaptic GABAergic inhibition resulting from intrathecal B-cell-mediated clonal synthesis of autoantibodies against various presynaptic and synaptic proteins in the inhibitory neurons of the brain and spinal cord is believed to be an underlying pathogenic mechanism. SPS is most often idiopathic, but it can occur as a paraneoplastic condition. Despite evidence that anti-GAD and related autoantibodies impair GABA synthesis, the exact pathogenic mechanism of SPS is not fully elucidated. The strong association with several MHC-II alleles and improvement of symptoms with immune-modulating therapies support an autoimmune etiology of SPS. In this review, we discuss the clinical spectrum, neurophysiological mechanisms, and therapeutic options, including a rationale for agents that modulate B cell function in SPS.
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare and enigmatic disease entity. The clinical features and structural changes have been recognized since 1926, and the pathophysiology and the essentials of treatment since 1974, but up to the present day it is unknown why these fistulas develop. The fistula between a radicular artery and the corresponding radicular vein within the dural
BackgroundThe association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms to the lumbar degenerative disc disease has been previously studied; however, the role of VDR gene polymorphisms in cervical spondylosis remains unknown.
Zhan Chao Wang; Xiong Sheng Chen; Da Wei Wang; Jian Gang Shi; Lian Shun Jia; Guang Hui Xu; Jian Hou Huang; Lei Fan
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) are allelic X-chromosomal disorders of peroxisomal lipid metabolism\\u000a due to mutations of the ABCD1-gene, leading, respectively, to leukoencephalopathy or myeloneuropathy in male patients. We report a family with two symptomatic\\u000a carriers in subsequent generations who both suffer from symptoms of an AMN. In both patients, molecular genetic testing revealed\\u000a a heterozygous c.1552C>T-transition (p.Arg518Trp) in exon
Anne-Katrin Guettsches; Alma Kuechler; Andreas Gal; Werner Schmitz; Martin Tegenthoff; Matthias Vorgerd
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) are allelic X-chromosomal disorders of peroxisomal lipid metabolism due to mutations of the ABCD1-gene, leading, respectively, to leukoencephalopathy or myeloneuropathy in male patients. We report a family with two symptomatic carriers in subsequent generations who both suffer from symptoms of an AMN. In both patients, molecular genetic testing revealed a heterozygous c.1552C>T-transition (p.Arg518Trp) in exon 6 of ABCD1. Our observations underline the importance of identifying such symptomatic ALD carriers. PMID:20195870
Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a disabling autoimmune central nervous system disorder characterized by progressive muscle rigidity and gait impairment with superimposed painful spasms that involve axial and limb musculature, triggered by heightened sensitivity to external stimuli. Impaired synaptic GABAergic inhibition resulting from intrathecal B-cell-mediated clonal synthesis of autoantibodies against various presynaptic and synaptic proteins in the inhibitory neurons of the brain and spinal cord is believed to be an underlying pathogenic mechanism. SPS is most often idiopathic, but it can occur as a paraneoplastic condition. Despite evidence that anti-GAD and related autoantibodies impair GABA synthesis, the exact pathogenic mechanism of SPS is not fully elucidated. The strong association with several MHC-II alleles and improvement of symptoms with immune-modulating therapies support an autoimmune etiology of SPS. In this review, we discuss the clinical spectrum, neurophysiological mechanisms, and therapeutic options, including a rationale for agents that modulate B-cell function in SPS. PMID:22499087