Sample records for myelopathy laminectomy laminectomy

  1. Influence of laminectomy on the course of cervical myelopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gorter

    1976-01-01

    Summary The pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy resulting from cervical spondylarthrosis seems to be the result of intermittent compression of the cervical cord and its feeding arteries. In the literature proof is given that both factors play an important role. By laminectomy or ventral fusion a regression of the neurological disability can be obtained. In our series of 75 patients there

  2. Dorsal laminectomy for treatment of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Barker, W H J; Witte, T H; Driver, C J; Jull, P; Whitehead, C E; Volk, H A

    2015-05-15

    Case Description-An 11-year-old male breeding alpaca was evaluated for a 2-day history of lowered head carriage and lethargy. Clinical Findings-On initial examination, the alpaca had signs of lethargy and lowered carriage of the head and neck, but no specific neurologic deficits. Medical management improved the clinical signs, but 8 months later, the alpaca developed acute, progressive general proprioceptive ataxia affecting all 4 limbs and was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT identified disruption of the normal osseous architecture of C7 and T1. Medical management was attempted, but because of a lack of improvement, the patient underwent surgery 14 months after initial examination. Treatment and Outcome-A dorsal laminectomy of C7 and T1 via a dorsal midline approach was performed, and the spinous processes of both vertebrae were removed prior to removal of the overlying lamina. Free dorsal expansion of the spinal cord was ensured by resection of the ligamentum flavum. Six months after surgery, the alpaca had returned to successful breeding with 7 hembra bred in the first year after surgery, producing 6 crias, and 4 crias in the second year. The patient was eventually euthanized 28 months after surgery because of neurologic deterioration but was still ambulatory at that time. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-A good outcome with adequate alleviation of clinical signs and breeding soundness for > 2 years following dorsal laminectomy was achieved in this camelid patient. The surgical approach was similar to that in other species and was associated with mild postoperative morbidity. Veterinarians treating camelids should be aware of the initial clinical signs and treatment options for cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. In acute cases, the signs of reduced cervical mobility and pain on manipulation should prompt investigation including appropriate diagnostic imaging. Timely surgical intervention should be considered in patients that respond poorly to medical treatment to avoid irreversible spinal cord injury and optimize outcome. PMID:25932939

  3. Laminoplasty versus laminectomy and fusion for multilevel cervical myelopathy: a meta-analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Jaebong; Kang, James D; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Posterior cervical surgery, expansive laminoplasty (EL) or laminectomy followed by fusion (LF), is usually performed in patients with multilevel (? 3) cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the superiority of either of these techniques is still open to debate. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and postoperative kyphosis in patients undergoing EL versus LF by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS Included in the meta-analysis were all studies of EL versus LF in adults with multilevel CSM in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane library. A random-effects model was applied to pool data using the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, such as the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) grade, the cervical curvature index (CCI), and the visual analog scale (VAS) score for neck pain. RESULTS Seven studies comprising 302 and 290 patients treated with EL and LF, respectively, were included in the final analyses. Both treatment groups showed slight cervical lordosis and moderate neck pain in the baseline state. Both groups were similarly improved in JOA grade (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.54, p = 0.07) and neck pain VAS score (MD -0.33, 95% CI -1.50 to 0.84, p = 0.58). Both groups evenly lost cervical lordosis. In the LF group lordosis seemed to be preserved in long-term follow-up studies, although the difference between the 2 treatment groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Both EL and LF lead to clinical improvement and loss of lordosis evenly. There is no evidence to support EL over LF in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Any superiority between EL and LF remains in question, although the LF group shows favorable long-term results. PMID:25815808

  4. Arachnoiditis from myelography and laminectomy in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J G; Barthelemy, C R; Haughton, V M; Lipman, B T; Ho, K C

    1984-01-01

    Clinical reports have suggested that myelography and laminectomy may produce more arachnoiditis than myelography alone. The effect of experimental lumbar myelography and laminectomy on arachnoiditis in monkeys was studied. Arachnoiditis was as severe after myelography alone as after myelography and laminectomy. Minimal arachnoiditis was found myelographically and histologically after myelography with metrizamide 300 mg l/ml, and severe arachnoiditis was found after myelography with iophendylate whether or not laminectomy was performed. Laminectomy alone produced insignificant arachnoid changes. Experimental myelography preceding laminectomy did not increase the risk of arachnoiditis. PMID:6421130

  5. Influence of graded facetectomy and laminectomy on spinal biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Zander, T; Rohlmann, A; Klöckner, C; Bergmann, G

    2003-08-01

    Facetectomy and laminectomy are techniques for decompressing lumbosacral spinal stenosis. Resections of posterior bony or ligamentous parts normally lead to a decrease in stability. The degree of instability depends on the extent of resection, the loading situation and the condition of the intervertebral discs. The correlation between these parameters is not well understood. In order to investigate how these parameters relate to one another, a three-dimensional, non-linear finite element model of the lumbosacral spine was created. Intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressures, stresses, strains and forces in the facet joints were calculated while simulating an intact spine as well as different extents of resection (left and bilateral hemifacetectomy, hemilaminectomy and bilateral laminectomy, two-level laminectomy), disc conditions (intact and degenerated) and loading situations (pure moment loads, standing and forward bending). The results of the modelling showed that a unilateral hemifacetectomy increases intersegmental rotation for the loading situation of axial rotation. Expanding the resection to bilateral hemifacetectomy increases intersegmental rotation even more, while further resection up to a bilateral laminectomy has only a minor additional effect. Hemilaminectomy and laminectomy only differ in their effect for ventriflexion and muscle-supported forward bending. Two-level laminectomy increases the intersegmental rotation only for standing. Degenerated discs result in smaller intersegmental rotations and higher disc stresses at the respective levels. Decompression procedures affect the examined biomechanical parameters less markedly in degenerated than in intact discs. Resection of posterior bony or ligamentous elements has a stronger influence on the amount than on the distribution of stresses and deformations in a disc. It has only a minor effect on the biomechanical behaviour of the adjacent region. Spinal stability is decreased after a laminectomy for forward bending, and after a two-level laminectomy for standing. For axial rotation, spinal stability is decreased even after a hemifacetectomy. Patients should therefore avoid excessive axial rotation after such a treatment. PMID:12720068

  6. Dynamic Compression of the Spinal Cord by Paraspinal Muscles following Cervical Laminectomy: Diagnosis Using Flexion-Extension MRI

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Linton T.; Lollis, S. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Flexion-extension, or kinematic, MRI has been used to identify dynamic spondylotic spinal cord compression not seen with traditional static MRI. The use of kinematic MRI to diagnose postoperative complications, specifically dynamic compression, is not as well documented. The authors describe a case of dynamic spinal cord compression by the paraspinal muscles causing worsening myelopathy following cervical laminectomy. This was only diagnosed with flexion-extension MRI. Methods. The patient was a 90-year-old male presenting to the neurosurgery clinic with functional decline and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Results. A multilevel laminectomy was performed. Following surgery the patient had progressive weakness and worsening myelopathy. No active cord compression was seen on multiple MRIs obtained in a neutral position, and flexion-extension X-rays did not show instability. A kinematic MRI demonstrated dynamic compression of the spinal cord only during neck extension, by the paraspinal muscles. To relieve the compression, the patient underwent an instrumented fusion, with cross-links used to buttress the paraspinal muscles away from the cord. This resulted in neurologic improvement. Conclusions. We describe a novel case of spinal cord compression by paraspinal muscles following cervical laminectomy. In individuals with persistent myelopathy or delayed neurologic decline following posterior decompression, flexion-extension MRI may prove useful in diagnosing this potential complication. PMID:25984378

  7. Analysis of the cervical spine alignment following laminoplasty and laminectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunji Matsunaga; Takashi Sakou; Kenji Nakanisi

    1999-01-01

    Very little detailed biomechanical examination of the alignment of the cervical spine following laminoplasty has been reported. We performed a comparative study regarding the buckling-type alignment that follows laminoplasty and laminectomy to know the mechanical changes in the alignment of the cervical spine. Lateral images of plain roentgenograms of the cervical spine were put into a computer and examined using

  8. Influence of graded facetectomy and laminectomy on spinal biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Zander; A. Rohlmann; C. Klöckner; G. Bergmann

    2003-01-01

    Facetectomy and laminectomy are techniques for decompressing lumbosacral spinal stenosis. Resections of posterior bony or ligamentous parts normally lead to a decrease in stability. The degree of instability depends on the extent of resection, the loading situation and the condition of the intervertebral discs. The correlation between these parameters is not well understood. In order to investigate how these parameters

  9. Incidence of spinal deformity in children after multiple level laminectomy for selective posterior rhizotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan C. Peter; Edward B. Hoffman; Leila J. Arens; Warwick J. Peacock

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-five children with cerebral palsy had multiple-level laminectomies for selective posterior rhizotomies for the relief of spasticity. They were followed up clinically and radiologically to assess their spinal stability and the possible development of post-laminectomy deformity of the spine. The majority of the deformities found were related to cerebral palsy and did not appear to be due to the laminectomy:

  10. Laminectomy: effects on postoperative technetium and gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, E.B.; Schneider, H.J.; Khodadad, G.; De Vries, D.; Rauf, G.C.; Noll, R.

    1984-06-01

    Bone scans using Tc-99m diphosphonate were found to become abnormal within 2 weeks after laminectomy in less than half of patients regardless of the extent of the operation. The degree of new uptake equaled that of the sacroiliac joints in only one of 19 patients with a normal preoperative scan. However, the Ga-67 citrate scan usually became abnormal (89%) postoperatively. Thus the Tc-99m bone scan may be helpful in detecting postoperative infection.

  11. Spinous process-plasty following lumbar laminectomy as a contributing factor to spine stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vrankovi?; B. Splavski; I. He?imovi?; K. Glavina

    1996-01-01

    A 10-year retrospective study of 41 consecutive patients who underwent “spinous process-plasty” is presented. We carried out laminectomy of the lumbar spine in cases of spinal stenosis, dorsomedial herniated disc and recurrent disc herniation with firm scars (traumatic and tumour cases are not included). To forestall the development of laminectomy's negative effects on spine stability, we initiated the spinous processes'

  12. Limited Laminectomy and Restorative Spinoplasty in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Garg, Rakesh; Kundu, Zile Singh; Gupta, Vinay; Kamboj, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose Evaluation of the clinico-radiological outcome and complications of limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty in spinal canal stenosis. Overview of Literature It is critical to achieve adequate spinal decompression, while maintaining spinal stability. Methods Forty-four patients with degenerative lumbar canal stenosis underwent limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty at our centre from July 2008 to December 2010. Four patients were lost to follow-up leaving a total of 40 patients at an average final follow-up of 32 months (range, 24-41 months). There were 26 females and 14 males. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of the age was 64.7±7.6 years (range, 55-88 years). The final outcome was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Results At the time of the final follow-up, all patients recorded marked improvement in their symptoms, with only 2 patients complaining of occasional mild back pain and 1 patient complaining of occasional mild leg pain. The mean±SD for the preoperative claudication distance was 95.2±62.5 m, which improved to 582±147.7 m after the operation, and the preoperative anterio-posterior canal diameter as measured on the computed tomography scan was 8.3±2.1 mm, which improved to 13.2±1.8 mm postoperatively. The JOA score improved from a mean±SD of 13.3±4.1 to 22.9±4.1 at the time of the final follow-up. As for complications, dural tears occurred in 2 patients, for which repair was performed with no additional treatment needed. Conclusions Limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty is an efficient surgical procedure which relieves neurogenic claudication by achieving sufficient decompression of the cord with maintenance of spinal stability. PMID:25187863

  13. Case report: Anesthetic management for sequential Cesarean delivery and laminectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arif Al-areibi; Lynn Coveney; Sudha Singh; Sandra Katsiris

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  To describe the anesthetic considerations for a nearterm parturient with progressive cauda equina syndrome who required Cesarean\\u000a delivery followed immediately by decompression lumbar discectomy and laminectomy in the prone position.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  A 33-yr-old woman presented at 35 weeks gestation with severe L5-S1 disc herniation causing motor and sensory neuronal dysfunction\\u000a in the lower limbs accompanied by bowel and bladder dysfunction.

  14. A Structural Approach to Post-Surgical Laminectomy: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Oakley; Robert H. Berry; Deed E. Harrison

    Objective: Case report of a patient, having persistent low back and leg pain following a L4-L5 surgical laminectomy, who underwent Clinical Biomechanics of Posture? (CBP?) protocol designed to correct postural distortions. Clinical features: A thirty-five year-old male suffered from low back\\/leg pain following a work injury despite having a lumbar spine laminectomy 6 months prior to chiropractic care. Radiographic analysis

  15. Clinical and surgical outcomes after lumbar laminectomy: An analysis of 500 patients

    PubMed Central

    Bydon, Mohamad; Macki, Mohamed; Abt, Nicholas B.; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to determine the clinical and surgical outcomes following lumbar laminectomy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of neurosurgical patients who underwent first-time, bilateral, 1-3 level laminectomies for degenerative lumbar disease. Patients with discectomy, complete facetectomy, and fusion were excluded. Results: Five hundred patients were followed for an average of 46.79 months. Following lumbar laminectomy, patients experienced statistically significant improvement in back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, weakness, and sensory deficits. The rate of intraoperative durotomy was 10.00%; however, 1.60% experienced a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak. The risk of experiencing at least one postoperative complication with a lumbar laminectomy was 5.60%. Seventy-two patients (14.40%) required reoperations for progression of degenerative disease over a mean of 3.40 years. The most common symptoms prior to reoperation included back pain (54.17%), radiculopathy (47.22%), weakness (18.06%), sensory deficit (15.28%), and neurogenic claudication (19.44%). The relative risk of reoperation for patients with postoperative back pain was 6.14 times higher than those without postoperative back pain (P < 0.001). Of the 72 patients undergoing reoperations, 55.56% underwent decompression alone, while 44.44% underwent decompression and posterolateral fusions. When considering all-time reoperations, the lifetime risk of requiring a fusion after a lumbar laminectomy based on this study (average follow-up of 46.79 months) was 8.0%. Conclusion: Patients experienced statistically significant improvements in back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, motor weakness, and sensory deficit following lumbar laminectomy. Incidental durotomy rate was 10.00%. Following a first-time laminectomy, the reoperation rate was 14.4% over a mean of 3.40 years. PMID:26005583

  16. The effects of single-level instrumented lumbar laminectomy on adjacent spinal biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Bisschop, Arno; Holewijn, Roderick M; Kingma, Idsart; Stadhouder, Agnita; Vergroesen, Pieter-Paul A; van der Veen, Albert J; van Dieën, Jaap H; van Royen, Barend J

    2015-02-01

    Study Design?Biomechanical study. Objective?Posterior instrumentation is used to stabilize the spine after a lumbar laminectomy. However, the effects on the adjacent segmental stability are unknown. Therefore, we studied the range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of treated lumbar spinal segments and cranial segments after a laminectomy and after posterior instrumentation in flexion and extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). These outcomes might help to better understand adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is reported cranial to the level on which posterior instrumentation is applied. Methods?We obtained 12 cadaveric human lumbar spines. Spines were axially loaded with 250?N for 1 hour. Thereafter, 10 consecutive load cycles (4 Nm) were applied in FE, LB, and AR. Subsequently, a laminectomy was performed either at L2 or at L4. Thereafter, load-deformation tests were repeated, after similar preloading. Finally, posterior instrumentation was added to the level treated with a laminectomy before testing was repeated. The ROM and stiffness of the treated, the cranial adjacent, and the control segments were calculated from the load-displacement data. Repeated-measures analyses of variance used the spinal level as the between-subject factor and a laminectomy or instrumentation as the within-subject factors. Results?After the laminectomy, the ROM increased (+19.4%) and the stiffness decreased (-18.0%) in AR. The ROM in AR of the adjacent segments also increased (+11.0%). The ROM of treated segments after instrumentation decreased in FE (-74.3%), LB (-71.6%), and AR (-59.8%). In the adjacent segments after instrumentation, only the ROM in LB was changed (-12.9%). Conclusions?The present findings do not substantiate a biomechanical pathway toward or explanation for ASD. PMID:25649753

  17. Lumbar spinous process-splitting laminectomy for lumbar canal stenosis. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kota; Hosoya, Toshihiko; Shiraishi, Tateru; Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2005-11-01

    In conventional laminectomy for lumbar canal stenosis (LCS), intraoperative damage of posterior supporting structures can lead to irreversible atrophy of paraspinal muscles. In 2001, the authors developed a new procedure for lumbar laminectomy, the lumbar spinous process-splitting laminectomy (LSPSL). In this new procedure, the spinous process is split longitudinally in the middle and then divided at its base from the posterior arch, leaving the bilateral paraspinal muscles attached to the lateral aspects. Ample working space for laminectomy is obtained by retracting the split spinous process laterally together with its attached paraspinal muscles. After successfully decompressing nerve tissues, each half of the split spinous process is reapproximated using a strong suture. Thus, the supra- and interspinous ligaments are preserved, as is the spinous process, and damage to the paraspinal muscles is minimal. Eighteen patients with LCS underwent surgery in which this new technique was used. Twenty patients in whom conventional laminectomy was undertaken were chosen as controls. At 2 years, the clinical outcomes (as determined using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association [JOA] scores and recovery rate) and the rate of measured magnetic resonance imaging-documented paravertebral muscle atrophy were evaluated and compared between the two groups. The mean JOA score recovery rates were 67.6 and 59.2%, respectively, for patients treated with LSPSL and conventional laminectomy; the mean rates of paravertebral muscle atrophy were 5.3 and 23.9%, respectively (p = 0.0005). Preservation of posterior supporting structures and satisfactory recovery rate after 2 years indicated that this technique can be a useful alternative to conventional decompression surgery for lumbar canal stenosis. PMID:16302638

  18. Do silver-impregnated dressings limit infections after lumbar laminectomy with instrumented fusion?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy E. Epstein

    Background: Silver has been used to reduce infection for centuries. This study retrospectively analyzed whether the introduction of silver-impregnated dressing (SD; Silverlon, Argentum Medical, LLC, Lakefront, GA) rather than RD (iodine- or alcohol-based swab and dry 4 × 4 gauze) would reduce the risk of superficial or deep infection after lumbar laminectomy with instrumented fusion. Methods: The first 128 patients

  19. Late-onset spinal deformities in children treated by laminectomy and radiation therapy for malignant tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamas de Jonge; Hernan Slullitel; Jean Dubousset; Lotfi Miladi; Philip Wicart; Tamás Illés

    2005-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 76 children who had had malignant tumours treated with laminectomy or laminoplasty and\\/or radiation therapy affecting the spine. Spinal tumours in children are extremely rare. However, their treatment can result in progressive spinal deformity. Radiation therapy affecting the growing spine can lead to asymmetric vertebral growth, causing kyphosis and\\/or scoliosis. These spinal deformities pose

  20. THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CENTRAL LUMBAR STENOSIS MULTIPLE LAMINOTOMY COMPARED WITH TOTAL LAMINECTOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. POSTACCHINI; G. CINOTTI; D. PERUGIA; S. GUMINA

    We assigned 67 patients with central lumbar stenosis alternately to either multiple laminotomy or total laminec- tomy. The protocol, however, allowed multiple laminotomy to be changed to total laminectomy if it was thought that the former procedure might not give adequate neural decompression. There were therefore three treatment groups: group I consisting of 26 patients submitted to multiple laminotomy; group

  1. Surgical outcomes of modified lumbar spinous process-splitting laminectomy for lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kanbara, Shunsuke; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Machino, Masaaki; Kato, Fumihiko

    2015-04-01

    The lumbar spinous process-splitting laminectomy (LSPSL) procedure was developed as an alternative to lumbar laminectomy. In the LSPSL procedure, the spinous process is evenly split longitudinally and then divided at its base from the posterior arch, leaving the bilateral paravertebral muscle attached to the lateral aspects. This procedure allows for better exposure of intraspinal nerve tissues, comparable to that achieved by conventional laminectomy while minimizing damage to posterior supporting structures. In this study, the authors make some modifications to the original LSPSL procedure (modified LSPSL), in which laminoplasty is performed instead of laminectomy. The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes in modified LSPSL with those in conventional laminectomy (CL) and to evaluate bone unions between the split spinous process and residual laminae following modified LSPSL. Forty-seven patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were enrolled in this study. Twenty-six patients underwent modified LSPSL and 21 patients underwent CL. Intraoperative blood loss and surgical duration were evaluated. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale scores were used to assess parameters before surgery and 12 months after surgery. The recovery rates were also evaluated. Postoperative paravertebral muscle atrophy was assessed using MRI. Bone union rates between the split spinous process and residual laminae were also examined. The mean surgical time and intraoperative blood loss were 25.7 minutes and 42.4 ml per 1 level in modified LSPSL, respectively, and 22.7 minutes and 29.5 ml in CL, respectively. The recovery rate of the JOA score was 64.2% in modified LSPSL and 68.7% in CL. The degree of paravertebral muscle atrophy was 7.8% in modified LSPSL and 22.2% in CL at 12 months after surgery (p < 0.05). The fusion rates of the spinous process with the arcus vertebrae at 6 and 12 months in modified LSPSL were 56.3% and 81.3%, respectively. The modified LSPSL procedure was less invasive to the paravertebral muscles and could be a laminoplasty; therefore, the modified LSPSL procedure presents an effective alternative to lumbar laminectomy. PMID:25594729

  2. Symptomatic Extensive Thoracolumbar Epidural Hematoma Following Lumbar Disc Surgery Treated by Single Level Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Youssef; Roux, François-Xavier; Meder, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematomas (SEHs) are rare complications following spine surgery, especially for single level lumbar discectomies. The appropriate surgical management for such cases remains to be investigated. We report a case of an extensive spinal epidural hematoma from T11-L5 following a L3-L4 discectomy. The patient underwent a single level L4. A complete evacuation of the SEH resulted in the patient's full recovery. When presenting symptoms limited to the initial surgical site reveal an extensive postoperative SEH, we propose: to tailor the surgical exposure individually based on preoperative findings of the SEH; and to begin the surgical exposure with a limited laminectomy focused on the symptomatic levels that may allow an efficient evacuation of the SEH instead of a systematic extensive laminectomy based on imaging. PMID:22708022

  3. Anterior shear strength of the porcine lumbar spine after laminectomy and partial facetectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido B. van Solinge; Albert J. van der Veen; Jaap H. van Dieën; Idsart Kingma; Barend J. van Royen

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common reason for lumbar surgery in patients in the age of 65 years and older.\\u000a The standard surgical management is decompression of the spinal canal by laminectomy and partial facetectomy. The effect of\\u000a this procedure on the shear strength of the spine has not yet been investigated in vitro. In the present study we

  4. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis after five-level lumbosacral laminectomy for selective posterior rhizotomy in cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan C. Peter; Edward B. Hoffman; Leila J. Arens

    1993-01-01

    Of 163 children who have undergone five-level lumbosacral laminectomies for selective posterior rhizotomy, 20% of those re-X-rayed post-operatively (19\\/99) have developed incidental isthmic spondylolysis or grade I spondylolisthesis. The majority of patients were ambulatory, active, spastic diplegics. There were five children with isthmic defects at L3-4, three at L4-5 and 11 at L5-S1. Six of the 19 children had grade

  5. Postoperative Analgesia After Lumbar Laminectomy: Epidural Fentanyl Infusion Versus Patient-Controlled Intravenous Morphine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girish P. Joshi; S. M. McCarroll; Kieran O'Rourke

    We compared the efficacy and safety of continuous epi- dural fentanyl infusion with intravenous morphine via a patient-controlled analgesia system (IV-PCA) in the management of postoperative pain after lumbar lami- nectomy. Twenty patients undergoing elective lumbar laminectomy were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The epidural group (n = 10) received an epi- dural fentanyl infusion (2 pg\\/mL at

  6. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  7. Novel biomechanical quantification methodology for lumbar intraforaminal spinal nerve adhesion in a laminectomy and disc injury rat model.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vedant A; Massie, Jennifer B; Zauner, Florian; Murphy, Mark; Akeson, Wayne H

    2007-10-15

    Spinal nerve fibrosis following injury or surgical intervention may play an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic back pain. In this current study, we demonstrate the role of biomechanical quantification of lumbar intraforaminal spinal nerve adhesion and tethering in the analysis of the post-laminectomy condition and describe a direct methodology to make this measurement. Twenty age-matched Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into operative and non-operative (control) groups. Operative animals underwent a bilateral L5-L6 laminectomy with right-side L5-6 disc injury, a post-laminectomy pain model previously published by this lab. At eight weeks, animals were sacrificed and the strength of adhesion of the L5 intraforaminal spinal nerve to surrounding structures was quantified using a novel biomechanical methodology. Operative animals were found to have a significantly greater load to displace the intact right L5 spinal nerve through the intervertebral foramen when compared to control animals. The findings show that the post-laminectomy condition creates quantifiable fibrosis of the spinal nerve to surrounding structures and supports the conclusion that this fibrosis may play a role in the post-laminectomy pain syndrome. PMID:17689664

  8. Minimally Invasive Removal of an Intradural Cervical Tumor : Assessment of a Combined Split-Spinous Laminectomy and Quadrant Tube Retractor System Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Young-Seok; Cho, Dae-Chul; Kim, Young-Baeg

    2012-01-01

    Conventional laminectomy is the most popular technique for the complete removal of intradural spinal tumors. In particular, the central portion intramedullary tumor and large intradural extramedullary tumor often require a total laminectomy for the midline myelotomy, sufficient decompression, and adequate visualization. However, this technique has the disadvantages of a wide incision, extensive periosteal muscle dissection, and bony structural injury. Recently, split-spinous laminectomy and tubular retractor systems were found to decrease postoperative muscle injuries, skin incision size and discomfort. The combined technique of split-spinous laminectomy, using a quadrant tube retractor system allows for an excellent exposure of the tumor with minimal trauma of the surrounding tissue. We propose that this technique offers possible advantages over the traditional open tumor removal of the intradural spinal cord tumors, which covers one or two cervical levels and requires a total laminectomy. PMID:23133739

  9. En Bloc Partial Laminectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Foraminal Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Tae

    2009-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose An en bloc partial laminectomy and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in spinal stenosis patients with severe foraminal narrowing has a shorter operation time, less neural manipulation and allows indirect decompression by restoring the interforaminal height compared to other procedures. This study investigated the efficacy of the procedure. Overview of Literature PLIF is one of the most popular surgery for degenerative spine such as foraminal spinal stenosis, instability spondylolisthesis and discogenic pain. Various techniques for PLIF have their own advantages and disadvantages. But in some severe cases, we need an efficient method of PLIF for decompression and fusion. Methods This study examined 61 patients, who had 85 levels treated with PLIF using an en bloc partial laminectomy and facetectomy, and could be followed up for more than 2 years. The mean age of the patients and mean follow up period was 66 years and 39 months, respectively. The clinical results were evaluated using the MacNab's criteria, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, and Korea Version Oswestry Disability Index (KODI). The union of the intervertebral space was evaluated using Lenke's criteria. The intervertebral angle and height of the posterior intervertebral disc were also measured. Results Excellent and good results were obtained in 54 cases (89%) according to MacNab's criteria. The VAS and KODI scores were 8.1 and 34.6, preoperatively, and 3.4, and 14.1, postoperatively. Bone union was A and B grades according to Lenke's criteria in 57 cases. The mean segmental angle and mean height of the posterior disc were respectively, 7.4° and 6.5 mm preoperatively, 9.1° and 10.6 mm postoperatively, and 8.0° and 9.7 mm in the last follow-up. There were 5 cases of postoperative infection, 4 cases of junctional problems and 1 case of screw malposition. Conclusions En bloc partial laminectomy and PLIF is an effective method for treating severe spinal stenosis with foraminal narrowing. PMID:20404950

  10. Comparative study of epidural application of morphine versus gelfoam soaked in morphine for lumbar laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Sandeep; Gupta, Vishnu; Bansal, Hanish; Grewal, Anju; Katyal, Sunil; Choudhary, Ashwini Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidural application of morphine has been used for postoperative analgesia following spine surgery but short duration of action of single application limits its widespread use. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy were randomly allocated to two groups of 75 patients each. Anesthetic technique was standardized in both the groups. In Group I, at the completion of laminectomy, a 5 × 1-cm strip of gelfoam soaked in 5 mg morphine (1 mg/ml) was contoured to be placed in the epidural space whereas, in group II, gelfoam soaked in saline was placed in the epidural space and 5 mg morphine (1mg/ml) was instilled over the intact epidural space. Analgesic consumption for 48 hours, time-of first analgesic request, time of ambulation, time of discharge from post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and hospital and adverse effects were recorded. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Mean analgesic consumption in 48 hours was significantly less in group I (8.47 ± 3.674 mg) as compared to group II (24.80 ± 6.009 mg). Supplemental analgesia was requested at 30.03 ± 6.796 hours in Group I, vs 10.25 ± 2.243 in group II (P < 0.001). Group I patients were discharged earlier from PACU as compared to group II (P < 0.001) though time of discharge from hospital was similar in both the groups. There were no major adverse effects except pruritis, which was observed in 30.6% patients in group I and 37.3% in group II (statistically insignificant (P > 0.01)). Conclusion: Epidural application of morphine soaked in gelfoam is an effective method for prolonging the postoperative analgesia after spine surgery. PMID:24574593

  11. Superficial siderosis: bleeding from the bone marrow after laminectomy for spinal tumor removal.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Junichi; Takai, Keisuke; Komori, Takashi; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Superficial siderosis of the CNS is a rare disease characterized by the deposition of hemosiderin in the subpial layers of the CNS as the result of chronic subarachnoid bleeding. The arrest of bleeding is important for preventing the progression of this disease; however, the exact source of bleeding remains unknown in most cases because of a lack of objective surgical data. The authors of this report have described a unique case of superficial siderosis following cervical laminectomy and autograft fusion for the removal of a spinal schwannoma; the bleeding source was verified by intraoperative and histopathological findings. The patient exhibited no obvious neurological deficits, such as hearing loss or cerebellar ataxia, when the superficial siderosis was diagnosed, although there were the social impairments associated with schizophrenia. During repair surgery, the bleeding source was revealed as the bone marrow vasculature of the remaining vertebral arch, and not the fragile vessels at the dural defect or the residual tumor. Chronic bleeding was stopped before the onset of irreversible neurological deficits in this case. Bone marrow exposed to the intrathecal space may represent a chronic bleeding source in patients with superficial siderosis following CNS surgery including laminectomy or craniotomy. The following recommendations have been proposed for superficial siderosis of the CNS from both a preventative and a therapeutic perspective: 1) During CNS surgery, neurosurgeons should make every effort to prevent exposing bone marrow to the intrathecal space to avoid the risk of chronic subarachnoid bleeding. 2) In the case of a large dural defect and pseudomeningocele following CNS surgery, bone marrow around the dural defect should be considered as the bleeding source of superficial siderosis, and such cases should undergo revision surgery before the progression of this disease. PMID:25237845

  12. An Experimental Novel Study: Angelica sinensis Prevents Epidural Fibrosis in Laminectomy Rats via Downregulation of Hydroxyproline, IL-6, and TGF-?1

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaohong; Zhao, Xuechao; Zhou, Xianhu; Su, Yanhua; Sharma, Hari S.; Feng, Shiqing

    2013-01-01

    With laminectomy being widely accepted as the treatment for lumbar disorders, epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication for both the patients and the surgeons alike. Currently, EF is thought to cause recurrent postoperative pain after laminectomy or after discectomy. Angelica sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine which has shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproliferative properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of Angelica sinensis on the prevention of post-laminectomy EF formation in a rat model. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in sixty healthy adult Wistar rats that underwent laminectomy at the L1-L2 levels. They were divided randomly into 3 groups according to the treatment method, with 20 in each group: (1) Angelica sinensis treatment group, (2) saline treatment group, and (3) sham group (laminectomy without treatment). All rats were euthanized humanely 4 weeks after laminectomy. The hydroxyproline content, Rydell score, vimentin cells density, fibroblasts density, inflammatory cells density, and inflammatory factors expressions all suggested better results in Angelica sinensis group than the other two groups. Topical application of Angelica sinensis could inhibit fibroblasts proliferation and TGF-?1 and IL-6 expressions and prevent epidural scar adhesion in postlaminectomy rat model. PMID:24069047

  13. Surgical decompression of a caudal vertebral disc extrusion by dorsal laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Potanas, C P; Grange, A; Casale, S A

    2012-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old female spayed Beagle cross was presented to our emergency and referral facility for the complaint of acute onset paralysis of the tail. A full physical and neurological examination was performed which confirmed the absence of motor function in the tail. Signs of superficial and deep pain sensation to the tail remained intact. Orthogonal view survey radiographs identified mineralization superimposed over the intervertebral foramen of the first and second caudal vertebrae. A dorsal laminectomy was performed for surgical decompression of the caudal nerve roots. On the fourth postoperative day, the patient exhibited good motor function of the tail. Neurological improvement continued and 11 days postoperatively the patient demonstrated normal neurological function, free range-of-motion of the tail, and it did not exhibit any signs of pain. Follow-up examination was performed 76 days after surgery, at which time the patient exhibited normal neurological function and signs of a pain-free range-of-motion on manipulation of its tail. PMID:21976157

  14. Radicular Pain due to Subsidence of the Nitinol Shape Memory Loop for Stabilization after Lumbar Decompressive Laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Deog-Ryeong

    2015-01-01

    A number of dynamic stabilization systems have been used to overcome the problems associated with spinal fusion with rigid fixation recently and the demand for an ideal dynamic stabilization system is greater for younger patients with multisegment disc degeneration. Nitinol, a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium, is flexible at low temperatures and regains its original shape when heated, and the Nitinol shape memory loop (SML) implant has been used as a posterior tension band mostly in decompressive laminectomy cases because the Nitinol implant has various characteristics such as high elasticity and a tensile force, flexibility, and biological compatibility. The reported short-term outcomes of the application of SMLs as posterior column supporters in cervical and lumbar decompressive laminectomies seem to be positive, and complications are minimal except for the rare occurrence of pullout and fracture of the SML. However, there was no report of neurological complications related to neural compression in spite of the use of the loop of SML in the epidural space. The authors report a case of delayed development of radiating pain caused by subsidence of the SML resulting epidural compression. PMID:25674347

  15. Radicular Pain due to Subsidence of the Nitinol Shape Memory Loop for Stabilization after Lumbar Decompressive Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog-ryeong

    2015-01-01

    A number of dynamic stabilization systems have been used to overcome the problems associated with spinal fusion with rigid fixation recently and the demand for an ideal dynamic stabilization system is greater for younger patients with multisegment disc degeneration. Nitinol, a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium, is flexible at low temperatures and regains its original shape when heated, and the Nitinol shape memory loop (SML) implant has been used as a posterior tension band mostly in decompressive laminectomy cases because the Nitinol implant has various characteristics such as high elasticity and a tensile force, flexibility, and biological compatibility. The reported short-term outcomes of the application of SMLs as posterior column supporters in cervical and lumbar decompressive laminectomies seem to be positive, and complications are minimal except for the rare occurrence of pullout and fracture of the SML. However, there was no report of neurological complications related to neural compression in spite of the use of the loop of SML in the epidural space. The authors report a case of delayed development of radiating pain caused by subsidence of the SML resulting epidural compression. PMID:25674347

  16. Biomechanical comparison of lumbar spine instability between laminectomy and bilateral laminotomy for spinal stenosis syndrome – an experimental study in porcine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Lung Tai; Pang-Hsing Hsieh; Weng-Pin Chen; Lih-Huei Chen; Wen-Jer Chen; Po-Liang Lai

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association of lumbar spine instability between laminectomy and laminotomy has been clinically studied, but the corresponding in vitro biomechanical studies have not been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that the integrity of the posterior complex (spinous process-interspinous ligament-spinous process) plays an important role on the postoperative spinal stability in decompressive surgery. METHODS: Eight porcine lumbar spine specimens were

  17. Spinous Process splitting Laminectomy: Clinical outcome and Radiological analysis of extent of decompression

    PubMed Central

    Srikantha, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spinous process splitting laminectomy (SPSL) is a useful technique in achieving adequate decompression for lumbar canal stenosis, has the advantage of simultaneously decompressing multiple levels and minimising injury to the paraspinal muscles. Some concern has been expressed over the efficacy of this technique in decompressing lateral recesses. This study was undertaken to assess the clinical outcome of SPSL technique and radiologically assess the extent of decompression. Patients and Methods Thirty-nine consecutive patients treated by SPSL for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis were methodically assessed for demographic data, clinical findings, Pre- and post-op VAS, JOA scores and spinal canal dimensions on imaging. Surgical technique for SPSL is described. Results The mean age of the patients was 66.9 yrs. The mean follow-up was 7.3 months. The mean pre- and post-operative VAS scores were 7.8 and 3.7, respectively. The mean pre- and post-operative JOA scores were 6.3 and 11.2, respectively. The mean JOA recovery rate was 57.3%. 77% of the patients were in the ‘good’ or ‘excellent’ McNab's grades at follow-up. Radiologic results were assessed separately at the 118 levels decompressed by the SPSL technique. The ratio increase for the spinal canal dimensions on post-operative images were as follows – Interfacet distance–116.6%; Effective AP distance–67.6%; Right lateral recess depth–165.1%; Right lateral recess angle–145.5%; Left lateral recess depth–149.3%; Left lateral recess angle–133.6%; Cross-sectional spinal canal area–163.8%. There was no worsening of pre-existing degenerative listhesis or scoliosis in any case. Conclusion SPSL achieves effective central and lateral recess decompression, at the same time minimising injury to the paraspinal muscles thus reducing post-operative pain and aiding in quicker mobilisation and recovery. It is an effective tool to treat multiple level spinal stenosis, especially in elderly patients who have pre-existing spinal deformities which can precipitate into frank instability after conventional procedures.

  18. Four lateral mass screw fixation techniques in lower cervical spine following laminectomy: a finite element analysis study of stress distribution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral mass screw fixation (LSF) techniques have been widely used for reconstructing and stabilizing the cervical spine; however, complications may result depending on the choice of surgeon. There are only a few reports related to LSF applications, even though fracture fixation has become a severe complication. This study establishes the three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine, and compares the stress distribution of the four LSF techniques (Magerl, Roy-Camille, Anderson, and An), following laminectomy -- to explore the risks of rupture after fixation. Method CT scans were performed on a healthy adult female volunteer, and Digital imaging and communication in medicine (Dicom) data was obtained. Mimics 10.01, Geomagic Studio 12.0, Solidworks 2012, HyperMesh 10.1 and Abaqus 6.12 software programs were used to establish the intact model of the lower cervical spines (C3-C7), a postoperative model after laminectomy, and a reconstructive model after applying the LSF techniques. A compressive preload of 74 N combined with a pure moment of 1.8 Nm was applied to the intact and reconstructive model, simulating normal flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The stress distribution of the four LSF techniques was compared by analyzing the maximum von Mises stress. Result The three-dimensional finite element model of the intact C3-C7 vertebrae was successfully established. This model consists of 503,911 elements and 93,390 nodes. During flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation modes, the intact model’s angular intersegmental range of motion was in good agreement with the results reported from the literature. The postoperative model after the three-segment laminectomy and the reconstructive model after applying the four LSF techniques were established based on the validated intact model. The stress distribution for the Magerl and Roy-Camille groups were more dispersive, and the maximum von Mises stress levels were lower than the other two groups in various conditions. Conclusion The LSF techniques of Magerl and Roy-Camille are safer methods for stabilizing the lower cervical spine. Therefore, these methods potentially have a lower risk of fixation fracture. PMID:25106498

  19. Microsurgical Excision of Symptomatic Sacral Perineurial Cyst with Sacral Recapping Laminectomy : A Case Report in Technical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Lee, Sang Koo

    2014-01-01

    Perineurial cysts (Tarlov cysts) are lesions of the nerve root that are often observed in the sacral area. There is debate about whether symptomatic perineurial cysts should be treated surgically. We presented three patients with symptomatic perineurial cyst who were treated surgically, and introduced sacral recapping laminectomy. Patients complained of low back pain and hypesthesia on lower extremities. We performed operations with sacral recapping technique for all three. The outcome measure was baseline visual analogue score and post operative follow up magnetic resonance images. All patients were completely relieved of symptoms after operation. Although not sufficient to address controversies, this small case series introduces successful use of a particular surgical technique to treat sacral perineural cyst, with resolution of most symptoms and no sequelae. PMID:24653808

  20. Microsurgical excision of symptomatic sacral perineurial cyst with sacral recapping laminectomy : a case report in technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Lee, Sang Koo; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-02-01

    Perineurial cysts (Tarlov cysts) are lesions of the nerve root that are often observed in the sacral area. There is debate about whether symptomatic perineurial cysts should be treated surgically. We presented three patients with symptomatic perineurial cyst who were treated surgically, and introduced sacral recapping laminectomy. Patients complained of low back pain and hypesthesia on lower extremities. We performed operations with sacral recapping technique for all three. The outcome measure was baseline visual analogue score and post operative follow up magnetic resonance images. All patients were completely relieved of symptoms after operation. Although not sufficient to address controversies, this small case series introduces successful use of a particular surgical technique to treat sacral perineural cyst, with resolution of most symptoms and no sequelae. PMID:24653808

  1. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the entire cervical spinal cord through two operations: laminectomy and laminoplasty. In both of these operations, the ... portions of the back of the vertebra. In laminectomy, the back of the vertebra is completely removed. ...

  2. Finite Element Analysis for Comparison of Spinous Process Osteotomies Technique with Conventional Laminectomy as Lumbar Decompression Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical behavior of the lumbar spine after posterior decompression with the spinous process osteotomy (SPiO) technique or the conventional laminectomy (CL) technique using a finite element (FE) model. Materials and Methods Three validated lumbar FE models (L2-5) which represented intact spine and two decompression models using SPiO and CL techniques at the L3-4 segment were developed. In each model, the ranges of motion, the maximal von Mises stress of the annulus fibrosus, and the intradiscal pressures at the index segment (L3-4) and adjacent segments (L2-3 and L4-5) under 7.5 Nm moments were analyzed. Facet contact forces were also compared among three models under the extension and torsion moments. Results Compared to the intact model, the CL and SPiO models had increased range of motion and annulus stress at both the index segment (L3-4) and the adjacent segments under flexion and torsion. However, the SPiO model demonstrated a reduced range of motion and annulus stress than the CL model. Both CL and SPiO models had an increase of facet contact force at the L3-4 segment under the torsion moment compared to that of the intact model. Under the extension moment, however, three models demonstrated a similar facet contact force even at the L3-4 model. Conclusion Both decompression methods lead to postoperative segmental instability compared to the intact model. However, SPiO technique leads to better segmental stability compared to the CL technique. PMID:25510758

  3. Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy and Laminectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. O’Toole; Kurt M. Eichholz; Richard G. Fessler

    \\u000a Posterior decompressive procedures are fundamental tools in the surgical treatment of symptomatic cervical degenerative spine\\u000a disease [1–4]. Even as anterior cervical procedures have gained prominence, posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy still provides\\u000a symptomatic relief in 92–97% of patients with radiculopathy from foraminal stenosis or lateral herniated discs [3, 5]. Similarly,\\u000a posterior cervical decompression for cervical stenosis achieves neurological improvement in 62.5–83% of

  4. Cervical myelopathy in athetoid and dystonic cerebral palsy: retrospective study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Celia; Garreau de Loubresse, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The early onset of degenerative cervical lesions has been well described in patients suffering from athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. Myelopathy can occur and aggravate of their unstable neurological status. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed and disrupted by the abnormal movements. This retrospective study was implemented to evaluate the symptoms, the anatomical findings, and the surgical management of seven patients from 20 to 56 years old suffering from cervical myelopathy and athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. The mean delay in diagnosis was 15 months and the mean follow-up was 33 months. The initial symptoms were spasticity, limbs weakness, paresthesias and vesico-sphinteric dysfunction. In addition to abnormal movements, imaging demonstrated disc herniation, spinal stenosis and instability. All patients were managed surgically by performing simultaneous spinal cord decompression and fusion. Two patients benefited from preoperative botulinum toxin injections, which facilitated postoperative care and immobilization. Strict postoperative immobilization was achieved for 3 months by a Philadelphia collar or a cervico-thoracic orthosis. All patients improved functionally with a mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score gain of 1.5 points, in spite of the permanent disabilities of the myelopathy. Complications occurred with wound infection, metal failure and relapse of cervical myelopathy at an adjacent level in one case each. All the previous authors advised against isolated laminectomy but no consensus emerged from the literature analysis. Spinal fusion is usually recommended but can be complicated by degenerative adjacent deterioration. Surgical management provides good outcomes but requires a long-term follow-up. PMID:20066444

  5. Results of laminectomy in spinal cord compression due to tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gorter

    1978-01-01

    Summary In the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Groningen 67 patients were admitted during 8 years with a diagnosis of spinal cord compression by a tumour. Fifthy-three patients had an epidural tumour mass and 14 an intradural tumour. Of the epidural tumour patients became ambulatory, 20 (37.7%) while in the intradural group 78.5% of the patients were improved.

  6. Comparison of minimally invasive surgery with standard open surgery for vertebral thoracic metastases causing acute myelopathy in patients with short- or mid-term life expectancy: surgical technique and early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Miscusi, Massimo; Polli, Filippo Maria; Forcato, Stefano; Ricciardi, Luca; Frati, Alessandro; Cimatti, Marco; De Martino, Luca; Ramieri, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Spinal metastasis is common in patients with cancer. About 70% of symptomatic lesions are found in the thoracic region of the spine, and cord compression presents as the initial symptom in 5%-10% of patients. Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) has recently been advocated as a useful approach for spinal metastases, with the aim of decreasing the morbidity associated with more traditional open spine surgery; furthermore, the recovery time is reduced after MISS, such that postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy can begin sooner. METHODS Two series of oncological patients, who presented with acute myelopathy due to vertebral thoracic metastases, were compared in this study. Patients with complete paraplegia for more than 24 hours and with a modified Bauer score greater than 2 were excluded from the study. The first group (n = 23) comprised patients who were prospectively enrolled from May 2010 to September 2013, and who were treated with minimally invasive laminotomy/laminectomy and percutaneous stabilization. The second group (n = 19) comprised patients from whom data were retrospectively collected before May 2010, and who had been treated with laminectomy and stabilization with traditional open surgery. Patient groups were similar regarding general characteristics and neurological impairment. Results were analyzed in terms of neurological recovery (American Spinal Injury Association grade), complications, pain relief (visual analog scale), and quality of life (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BM22 scales) at the 30-day follow-up. Operation time, postoperative duration of bed rest, duration of hospitalization, intraoperative blood loss, and the need and length of postoperative opioid administration were also evaluated. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of neurological recovery and complications. Nevertheless, the MISS group showed a clear and significant improvement in terms of blood loss, operation time, and bed rest length, which is associated with a more rapid functional recovery and discharge from the hospital. Postoperative pain and the need for opioid administration were also significantly less pronounced in the MISS group. Results from the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BM22 scales showed a more pronounced improvement in quality of life at follow-up in the MISS group. CONCLUSIONS In the authors' opinion, MISS techniques should be considered the first choice for the treatment for patients with spinal metastasis and myelopathy. MISS is as safe and effective for spinal cord decompression and spine fixation as traditional surgery, and it also reduces the impact of surgery in critical patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25723122

  7. Perioperative Risks Associated with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Based on Surgical Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Macagno, Angel; Liu, Shian; Marascalchi, Bryan J; Yang, Sun; Boniello, Anthony J; Bendo, John A; Lafage, Virginie C

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have provided nationwide estimates of patient characteristics and procedure-related complications, or examined postsurgical outcomes for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) comparatively with respect to surgical approach. The objective of this study is to identify patients at risk for morbidity and mortality directly related with the selected approach, report an overall nation-wide complication rate for each approach against which surgeons can compare themselves, and direct future research to improve patient outcomes. Methods Patients surgically treated for CSM were retrospectively identified using ICD-9-CM codes from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Four cohorts were compared for demographics and hospital system-related data: anterior (ACDF, ACCF), posterior decompression without fusion, decompression with posterior fusion, and combined anterior-posterior. Multivariate analysis was also used to determine the odds ratio of morbidity and mortality among the cohorts. Results 54,416 discharges were identified between 2001 and 2010: 34,400 anterior, 9,014 decompression procedures without fusion, 8,741 decompression procedures with posterior fusion, and 2,261 combined anterior-posterior. Groups were statistically different with respect to age, length of hospital stay, mortality, and complications. Groups were statistically different for Deyo score except between posterior decompression only and combined approaches. Using multivariate analysis and adjusting for covariates, the combined (2.74[2.18-3.44]) and laminectomy (1.22[1.04-1.44]) cohorts had an increased risk of mortality when compared to anterior alone. Conclusion These findings are the first to determine the rates and odds of perioperative risks directly related to combined anterior-posterior procedures. This study provides clinically useful data for surgeons to educate patients and direct future research to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26196031

  8. Gossypiboma 19 years after laminectomy mimicking a malignant spinal tumour: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gossypiboma is rare and mostly asymptomatic in chronic cases. It can be confused with other soft tissue masses. Case presentation Our patient was an 87-year-old Japanese man with a history of surgery for a lumbar lesion causing lumbar canal stenosis 19 years earlier. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass with osteolysis and periosteal thickening of the vertebral lamina. On magnetic resonance imaging, the mass showed heterogeneous signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, suggesting a malignancy. At the time of biopsy, small pieces of retained surgical sponge were collected. Surgical treatment was performed to excise the soft tissue tumour. Conclusions Gossypiboma should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses in the paraspinal region in patients with a history of previous spinal surgery. PMID:25236490

  9. Posterior interbody fusion using laminectomy bone and transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    György I Csécsei; Álmos P Klekner; József Dobai; Attila Lajgut; Judit Sikula

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDLaminectomy bone is used widely in posterolateral lumbar fusion, but not interbody fusion. No prospective evaluation of interbody fusion using bone grafts from the posterior neural arch in spondylolisthesis has been found in the literature. We prospectively studied series of patients operated on for lumbar spondylolisthesis to evaluate clinical improvement and bony fusion.METHODSForty-six patients were operated on for lumbar spondylolisthesis

  10. A case of 'tropical' myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Laureys, G; Chaskis, C; Bourgain, C; Stadnik, T; Dielman, C; Ebinger, G

    2007-12-01

    We present a case of lower limb sensory disturbances and weakness in a patient originating from Mali. MRI showed a diffuse myelopathy of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Serological evaluation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid pointed towards schistosomiasis as the cause. Histological confirmation was made on bladder-biopsy. Treatment with praziquantel and steroids brought marked clinical improvement. This case illustrates the need to keep in mind more exotic causes of myelopathy in those patients coming from endemic regions. PMID:18416289

  11. Cervical Myelopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, N.; Todd, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of the cervical spine is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical presentation can be variable, and symptoms may be due to neck pain or compressive myeloradiculopathy. We discuss the pathology, grading systems, clinical presentation, indications for surgery and surgical management of cervical myelopathy related to rheumatoid arthritis in this paper. We describe our surgical technique and results. We recommend early consultation for surgical management when involvement of the cervical spine is suspected in rheumatoid arthritis. Even patients with advanced cervical myelopathy should be discussed for surgical treatment, since in our experience improvement in function after surgery is common. PMID:22203899

  12. Over-shunting associated myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brian M; Sribnick, Eric A; Dhall, Sanjay S

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial hypotension typically presents following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, but can be induced by CSF diversion. Classically, patients present with positional headache, but less common symptoms include neck pain and cranial nerve palsies. To our knowledge, the neurosurgical literature contains six reports of patients with symptomatic cervical, epidural venous plexus engorgement as the result of CSF shunting. The patient presented herein is a 26-year-old woman with shunt-dependent, congenital hydrocephalus. She presented with rapidly progressive cervical myelopathy following ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision. Imaging revealed engorgement of the cervical epidural venous plexus and mass effect on the cervical spinal cord. "Over-shunting associated myelopathy" is a rare complication of CSF diversion that should be familiar to physicians who routinely evaluate patients with intracranial shunts. PMID:25070631

  13. Acute transverse myelopathy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Bucknall, R C

    1989-01-01

    A sixteen year old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus developed acute transverse myelopathy. She was treated with high dose steroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange and regained partial neurological function. Previous descriptions of transverse myelopathy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus are reviewed, with particular reference to the efficacy of high dose steroid treatment. PMID:2662918

  14. Latent period in clinical radiation myelopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Schultheiss; Elizabeth M. Higgins; Anas M. El-Mahdi

    1984-01-01

    Seventy-seven papers containing data on more than 300 cases of radiation myelopathy have been analyzed. The data suggest that the latent periods are similar in the cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord and are bimodally distributed. Myelopathy of lumbar cord apparently has a shorter latent period. As in controlled animal experiments, the latent period decreases with increasing dose.

  15. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Truumees, E; Herkowitz, H N

    2000-01-01

    Appropriate management of degenerative cervical spine conditions requires careful elucidation of the presenting clinical syndrome. Because of the pervasiveness of degenerative changes in asymptomatic patients, a clear correlation of symptoms, physical signs, and imaging findings is required before any specific diagnosis can be made. At this time, surgery is not recommended for prophylactic decompression in asymptomatic patients or in those patients with neck pain in the absence of extremity symptoms. In most patients with radiculopathy or mild myelopathy, a trial of nonsurgical management is recommended. Ultimately, patients with neurologic complaints and in whom nonsurgical measures have failed, as well as those with more pronounced myelopathy, should be offered surgical intervention. Selection of the safest, yet sufficient, approach requires a clear understanding of the benefits and expected outcomes. The outlook for patients with both cervical radiculopathy and early myelopathy is good. Radicular symptoms usually improve, but gait and hand changes may not. LF is preferred in younger patients with posterolateral or lateral soft disk herniations, or focal foraminal osteophyte impingement and predominance of upper extremity symptoms. More central 1- or 2-level pathology should be treated with ACDF. Anterior cervical corpectomy should be entertained in patients with nondisk level encroachment and in those with 3 contiguous levels of pathology. This approach is also required in cases of kyphosis and instability. Laminoplasty is indicated in patients with 4 or more levels of stenosis, particularly in those with global conditions such as continuous OPLL or congenital stenosis. In these patients, kyphosis or severe deformity may be addressed with a circumferential approach. PMID:10829188

  16. Latent period in clinical radiation myelopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Higgins, E.M.; El-Mahdi, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    Seventy-seven papers containing data on more than 300 cases of radiation myelopathy have been analyzed. The data suggest that the latent periods are similar in the cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord and are bimodally distributed. Myelopathy of lumbar cord apparently has a shorter latent period. As in controlled animal experiments, the latent period decreases with increasing dose. Furthermore, the variation in latent periods also decreases with dose. It is also seen that retreated patients and pediatric or adolescent patients have greatly reduced latent periods. The implications of these findings as they compare with the animal data are discussed.

  17. Pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, D N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether either of two mechanical theories predicts the topographic pattern of neuropathology in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The compression theory states that the spinal cord is compressed between a spondylotic bar anteriorly and the ligamenta flava posteriorly. The dentate tension theory states that the spinal cord is pulled laterally by the dentate ligaments, which are tensed by an anterior spondylotic bar. METHODS: The spinal cord cross section, at the level of a spondylotic bar, is modelled as a circular disc subject to forces applied at its circumference. These forces differ for the two theories. From the pattern of forces at the circumference the distribution of shear stresses in the interior of the disc-that is, over the transverse section of the spinal cord-is calculated. With the assumption that highly stressed areas are most subject to damage, the stress pattern predicted by each theory can be compared to the topographic neuropathology of CSM. RESULTS: The predicted stress pattern of the dentate tension theory corresponds to the reported neuropathology, whereas the predicted stress pattern of the compression theory does not. CONCLUSIONS: The results strongly favour the theory that CSM is caused by tensile stresses transmitted to the spinal cord from the dura via the dentate ligaments. A spondylotic bar can increase dentate tension by displacing the spinal cord dorsally, while the dural attachments of the dentate, anchored by the dural root sleeves and dural ligaments, are displaced less. The spondylotic bar may also increase dentate tension by interfering locally with dural stretch during neck flexion, the resultant increase in dural stress being transmitted to the spinal cord via the dentate ligaments. Flexion of the neck increases dural tension and should be avoided in the conservative treatment of CSM. Both anterior and posterior extradural surgical operations can diminish dentate tension, which may explain their usefulness in CSM. The generality of these results must be tempered by the simplifying assumptions required for the mathematical model. Images PMID:9120444

  18. Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, J. G.; Butler, J. S.; Dolan, A. M.; O'Byrne, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications. PMID:22046575

  19. Fibrocartilaginous Embolic Myelopathy in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Gill, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    This case report gives details concerning fibrocartilaginous arterial embolism leading to an ischemic myelopathy in a dog. Using various histochemical techniques, the material occluding the vessels was found to be similar to that reported for fibrocartilaginous ground substance of the nucleus pulposus. The pathway by which this material enters the arterial vasculature of the spinal cord is not known. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4. PMID:544004

  20. Expansion Duroplasty Improves Intraspinal Pressure, Spinal Cord Perfusion Pressure, and Vascular Pressure Reactivity Index in Patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Injured Spinal Cord Pressure Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    Phang, Isaac; Werndle, Melissa C; Saadoun, Samira; Varsos, Georgios; Czosnyka, Marek; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2015-06-15

    We recently showed that, after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), laminectomy does not improve intraspinal pressure (ISP), spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP), or the vascular pressure reactivity index (sPRx) at the injury site sufficiently because of dural compression. This is an open label, prospective trial comparing combined bony and dural decompression versus laminectomy. Twenty-one patients with acute severe TSCI had re-alignment of the fracture and surgical fixation; 11 had laminectomy alone (laminectomy group) and 10 had laminectomy and duroplasty (laminectomy+duroplasty group). Primary outcomes were magnetic resonance imaging evidence of spinal cord decompression (increase in intradural space, cerebrospinal fluid around the injured cord) and spinal cord physiology (ISP, SCPP, sPRx). The laminectomy and laminectomy+duroplasty groups were well matched. Compared with the laminectomy group, the laminectomy+duroplasty group had greater increase in intradural space at the injury site and more effective decompression of the injured cord. In the laminectomy+duroplasty group, ISP was lower, SCPP higher, and sPRx lower, (i.e., improved vascular pressure reactivity), compared with the laminectomy group. Laminectomy+duroplasty caused cerebrospinal fluid leak that settled with lumbar drain in one patient and pseudomeningocele that resolved completely in five patients. We conclude that, after TSCI, laminectomy+duroplasty improves spinal cord radiological and physiological parameters more effectively than laminectomy alone. PMID:25705999

  1. Copper deficiency myelopathy: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Plantone, Domenico; Primiano, Guido; Renna, Rosaria; Restuccia, Domenico; Iorio, Raffaele; Patanella, Katia A; Ferilli, Michela N; Servidei, Serenella

    2015-07-01

    Context Copper deficiency myelopathy represents an often underdiagnosed, acquired neurological syndrome, clinically characterized by posterior column dysfunction. The main causes of copper deficiency are bariatric surgery, increased consumption of zinc, and malabsorption. However, even after a careful history taking and extensive laboratory researches, the etiology of copper deficiency remains undetermined in a significant percentage of cases. Patients affected by copper deficiency myelopathy usually present with sensory ataxia due to dorsal column dysfunction and sometimes with mild leg spasticity. In such patients, spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show hyperintense lesions in T2-weighted sequences involving the posterior columns of cervical and thoracic cord. These MRI findings are not distinguishable from those of subacute combined degeneration associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Findings Here, we describe two patients with gait ataxia and sensory symptoms in which a diagnosis of copper deficiency myelopathy was made. Both patients showed a significant clinical, neuroradiological, and neurophysiological improvement after proper supplementation therapy. Conclusion The patients herein described underline the importance to include serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels as part of the myelopathy diagnostic workup, especially in the cases of otherwise unexplained subacute myelopathy involving the posterior columns. Since copper deficiency myelopathy is a progressive syndrome, early diagnosis is mandatory in order to promptly provide a proper supplementation therapy and, thus, prevent an irreversible neurological damage. PMID:25343982

  2. Aggressive vertebral hemangioma as a rare cause of myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Sari, Hidayet; Uludag, Murat; Akarirmak, Ulku; Ornek, Nurettin Irem; Gun, Kerem; Gulsen, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are common lesions in the adult population. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on radiological imaging. New-onset back pain followed by subacute progression of thoracal myelopathy is the most common presentation in patients with neurological deficit. Differential diagnoses would include metastasis, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, Paget disease, osseous tumors such as Ewing sarcoma or hemangioblastoma and blood dyscrasia. We present a 41 year-old-male patient with thoracal VH causing myelopathy that completely improved after rehabilitation program with embolization and vertebroplasty procedures. PMID:23948851

  3. Gait Analysis in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Kenji; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Gait analysis of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) by using a sheet-type gait analysis system. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the gait patterns of patients with CSM, evaluated by the Nurick grades, and to determine the threshold values of gait parameters predicting the occurrence of a fall by using a gait recorder. Overview of Literature Gait disorder due to CSM may progress to severe paraplegia, following even a minor trauma such as a fall. The indications for the surgery of CSM without severe paralysis remain controversial. The quantitative gait analysis and the decision for decompressive surgery in patients with CSM are important in order to prevent severe paraplegia from a fall. Methods One hundred thirty-two subjects (normal, 34; CSM, 98) underwent gait analysis by using a sensor sheet. Measurements of gait cycle parameters included the step and stride length, step width, foot angle, swing phase, and stance phase. CSM was assessed by Nurick grade. Results Although the clinical symptoms were lacking, Nurick grade 1 had significant abnormalities in the parameters of velocity, step length, and step angle (p<0.05). Regarding the Nurick grade and walking phase, the length of the stance phase was increased to more than 70% of the entire walking cycle in Nurick grade 4. Conclusions Gait analysis was an objective tool for evaluating the gait stability. Our results suggested that when the percentage of the stance phase in the gait cycle increases to above 70%, the CSM patients have an increased fall risk. PMID:26097646

  4. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the spine. Other surgery, such as a diskectomy , laminectomy , or a foraminotomy , is almost always done first. ... procedures for spinal stenosis , such as foraminotomy or laminectomy After diskectomy in the neck Spinal fusion may ...

  5. Neurological recovery after surgical decompression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy - a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Y. Cheung; D. Arvinte; Y. W. Wong; K. D. K. Luk; K. M. C. Cheung

    2008-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a common clinical problem. No study has examined the pattern of neurological recovery after\\u000a surgical decompression. We conducted a prospective study on the pattern of neurological recovery after surgical decompression\\u000a in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy and requiring surgical\\u000a decompression from January 1995 to December 2000 were prospectively included. Upper

  6. University of Connecticut Health Center

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ? ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 14. Have you had any prior surgery related to your symptoms? (i.e. discectomy, fusion, laminectomy

  7. Development and Validation of an Analogue Lumbar Spine Model and its Integral Components

    E-print Network

    Domann, John P.

    2011-04-25

    .................................................................................................................... 9 1.3.2. Intervertebral Disc Replacement (Non-fusion) ................................................................ 11 1.3.4. Laminotomy / Laminectomy .......................................................................................... 12...

  8. Clinical outcomes of microendoscopic decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Munehito; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Maio, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Masaki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective study on the results of microendoscopic decompression surgery for the treatment of cervical myelopathy. The purpose of this study was to describe the microendoscopic laminoplasty (MEL) technique as the surgical method in the treatment of cervical myelopathy, and to document the clinical outcomes for MEL surgery. Endoscopic surgery poses several challenges for the aspiring endoscopic surgeons, the most critical of which is mastering hand–eye coordination. With training in live animal and cadaver surgery, the technical progress has reduced the problem of morbidity following surgery. The authors have performed microendoscopic decompression surgery on more than 2,000 patients for lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Fifty-one patients underwent the posterior decompression surgery using microendoscopy for cervical myelopathy at authors’ institute. The average age was 62.9 years. The criteria for exclusion were cervical myelopathy with tumor, trauma, severe ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, rheumatoid arthritis, pyogenic spondylitises, destructive spondylo-arthropathies, and other combined spinal lesions. The items evaluated were neurological evaluation, recovery rates; these were calculated following examination using the Hirabayashi’s method with the criteria proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system (JOA score). The mean follow-up period was 20.3 months. The average of JOA score was 10.1 points at the initial examination and 13.6 points at the final follow-up. The average recovery rate was 52.5%. The recovery rate according to surgical levels was, respectively, 56.5% in one level, 46.3% in two levels and 54.1% in more than three levels. The complications were as follows: one patient sustained a pin-hole-like dura mater injury inflicted by a high-speed air-drill during surgery, one patient developed an epidural hematoma 3 days after surgery, and two patients had the C5 nerve root palsy after surgery. The epidural hematoma was removed by the microendoscopy. All two C5 palsy improved with conservative therapy, such as a neck collar. These four patients on complications have returned to work at the final follow-up. This observation suggests that the clinical outcomes of microendoscopic surgery for cervical myelopathy were excellent or showed good results. This minimally invasive technique would be helpful in choosing a surgical method for cervical myelopathy. PMID:19956984

  9. Progressive Myelopathy in a Dog Caused by Thorium Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Lord, L. H.; Robinson, G. A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of the use of Thorotrast as a contrast media in myelograms in dogs is presented, indicating that the material introduced into the cerebro-spinal fluid, will become permanently associated with the meninges, leading to the development of myelopathy. ImagesFig. 1 (a)Fig. 1 (b).Fig. 1 (c).Fig. 1 (d).Fig. 2a.FIG. 2b.FIG. 3a.FIG. 3b.FIG. 4.FIG. 5. PMID:4221911

  10. [A case of transverse myelopathy caused by acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Yamane, K; Ezima, M; Sugishita, Y; Nozaki, H

    1991-07-01

    A 54-year-old man received insertion of an acupuncture needle into the region extending from the posterior neck to the back on two occasions for the treatment of shoulder stiffness. Two weeks after the second acupuncture, he developed fever, dysarthria and mictionary disturbance, finally reaching the condition of tetraplegia. He was immediately admitted to an emergency room in our hospital, and was diagnosed as sepsis with DIC, ARDS, heart failure, renal failure, liver failure, and myelitis. After one month, he recovered with transverse myelopathy as a residual deficit. Neurological findings showed transverse myelopathy below the level of Th2 at that time. Cervical CT revealed an irregular low density at the periphery of the cervical vertebra from the C2 to C4 level. Cervical MRI revealed an irregular swelling of his spinal cord from the C2 to C7 level. We explained the mechanism of transverse myelopathy in this case as follows. After the acupuncture, he suffered a focal infection of the region of needle insertion, and then the infection expanded to the cervical vertebra, thus causing osteomyelitis, sepsis, and finally cervical myelitis. Direct injury of the spinal cord and nerve roots as a complication of acupuncture was previously reported, but indirect injury of the spinal cord due to myelitis had not been reported except our present case. Careful attentions should be paid to the complications of acupuncture. PMID:1786654

  11. Transient radiation myelopathy: spinal somatosensory evoked responses following incidental cord exposure during radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B R Lecky; N M Murray; R J Berry

    1980-01-01

    Serial spinal somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in six patients undergoing radiotherapy involving incidental spinal radiation. Two patients developed transient radiation myelopathy. No abnormality was found in the somatosensory evoked potentials throughout the study.

  12. Cervical myelopathy induced by pseudogout in ligamentum flavum and retro-odontoid mass: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S-H Lin; E-T Hsieh; T-Y Wu; C-W Chang

    2006-01-01

    Study design:Retrospective case study.Objectives:Report a rare case of cervical myelopathy induced by calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD) deposition in multiple cervical levels.Setting:An area teaching hospital in Taiwan.Method:A patient with cervical myelopathy was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) image. CPPD deposition known as pseudogout was diagnosed and approved by a polarized microscope.Result:A prominent hypertrophy of ligmentum flavum

  13. Surgical results of anterior corpectomy in the aged patients with cervical myelopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Lu; Xiaotao Wu; Yonggang Li; Xiangfei Kong

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective study on the results of anterior corpectomy for the treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients over 70 years\\u000a old. To evaluate the surgical results of anterior corpectomy in aged patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy and to investigate\\u000a the probable pathomechanism by radiographic study. There are few data focused on the surgical results and post-operative complications\\u000a of anterior corpectomy in aged

  14. Hepatic myelopathy: an unusual neurological complication of chronic liver disease presenting as quadriparesis

    PubMed Central

    Kori, Prakash; Sahu, Ritesh; Jaiswal, Anupam; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic myelopathy is a rare neurological complication of chronic liver disease, which is usually seen in adults, presenting as pure motor spastic paraparesis. It is almost always associated with portosystemic shunts and hepatic decompensation. We report a rare case of a young adult man presenting as rapidly progressive spastic quadriparesis because of hepatic myelopathy and associated spontaneous splenorenal shunt and early hepatic decompensation. PMID:23749858

  15. Treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: outcomes and implications

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ruth E.; Shade-Zeldow, Yvonne; Kostas, Konstantinos; Morrissey, Mary; Elias, Dean A.; Shepard, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Some patients with fibromyalgia also exhibit the neurological signs of cervical myelopathy. We sought to determine if treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia and the patients’ quality of life. A non-randomized, prospective, case control study comparing the outcome of surgical (n = 40) versus non-surgical (n = 31) treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia was conducted. Outcomes were compared using SF-36, screening test for somatization, HADS, MMPI-2 scale 1 (Hypochondriasis), and self reported severity of symptoms 1 year after treatment. There was no significant difference in initial clinical presentation or demographic characteristics between the patients treated by surgical decompression and those treated by non-surgical means. There was a striking and statistically significant improvement in all symptoms attributed to the fibromyalgia syndrome in the surgical patients but not in the non-surgical patients at 1 year following the treatment of cervical myelopathy (P ? 0.018–0.001, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test). At the 1 year follow-up, there was a statistically significant improvement in both physical and mental quality of life as measured by the SF-36 score for the surgical group as compared to the non-surgical group (Repeated Measures ANOVA P < 0.01). There was a statistically significant improvement in the scores from Scale 1 of the MMPI-2 and the screening test for somatization disorder, and the anxiety and depression scores exclusively in the surgical patients (Wilcoxon signed rank, P < 0.001). The surgical treatment of cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord or caudal brainstem compression in patients carrying the diagnosis of fibromyalgia can result in a significant improvement in a wide array of symptoms usually attributed to fibromyalgia with attendant measurable improvements in the quality of life. We recommend detailed neurological and neuroradiological evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia in order to exclude compressive cervical myelopathy, a potentially treatable condition. PMID:17426987

  16. Cervical Myelopathy Secondary to Atlanto-occipital Assimilation: The Usefulness of the Simple Decompressive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang Rae; Kim, Young Zoon; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Joon Soo; Kim, Kyu Hong; Lee, In Chang

    2013-01-01

    Atlanto-occipital assimilation is one of the most common osseous anomalies observed at the craniocervical junction. Most patients with atlas assimilation show no symptom, but some have neurological problems such as myelopathy that may require surgical treatment. Occipitocervical fusion may be required if atlato-occipital assimilation is accompanied by occipito-axial instability. However, in cases of symptomatic atlas assimilation with minor cord compression without instability, simple decompressive surgery may be the treatment modality. This report describes a case of successful treatment of a patient with myelopathy secondary to atlanto-occipital assimilation without instability, using posterior simple decompressive surgery. PMID:24757486

  17. Cervical Myelopathy Secondary to Atlanto-occipital Assimilation: The Usefulness of the Simple Decompressive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Rae; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Young Zoon; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Joon Soo; Kim, Kyu Hong; Lee, In Chang

    2013-09-01

    Atlanto-occipital assimilation is one of the most common osseous anomalies observed at the craniocervical junction. Most patients with atlas assimilation show no symptom, but some have neurological problems such as myelopathy that may require surgical treatment. Occipitocervical fusion may be required if atlato-occipital assimilation is accompanied by occipito-axial instability. However, in cases of symptomatic atlas assimilation with minor cord compression without instability, simple decompressive surgery may be the treatment modality. This report describes a case of successful treatment of a patient with myelopathy secondary to atlanto-occipital assimilation without instability, using posterior simple decompressive surgery. PMID:24757486

  18. Idiopathic spinal epidural lipomatosis: urgent decompression in an atypical case

    PubMed Central

    Resurrección Giner, M.

    2007-01-01

    Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is very rare and frequently associated to chronic exogenous steroid use, obesity and Cushing syndrome. The idiopathic cases where no identifiable association with SEL are found constitute only 17% of all cases. The usual clinical manifestations of this entity consist of dorsal or lumbar pain with paresthesias and weakness in lower limbs, but acute symptoms of myelopathy are exceptional. We report a case of acute paraparesis and urinary retention caused by thoracic SEL in a 55-year-old male who did not have any recognized predisposing factor for this condition. Urgent surgical decompression was performed in order to relieve the symptoms. Slow but progressive improvement was assessed after surgery. We consider this case to be exceptional due to the needing to perform an urgent decompressive laminectomy to treat a rapidly progressive myelopathy caused by idiopathic SEL. PMID:17876611

  19. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish, E-mail: modim72@yahoo.co [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Bapuraj, J. Rajiv [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology (United States); Lal, Anupam [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India); Prabhakar, S. [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Khandelwal, N. [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India)

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  20. Thoracic Disc Herniation of the Adjacent Segment With Acutely Progressing Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, In-Soo; Seo, Jun-Yeong; Kim, Yoon-Chung

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with progressing myelopathy. Her history revealed instrumented fusion from T10 to S1 for degenerative lumbar kyphosis and spinal stenosis. The plain radiographs showed narrowing of the intervertebral disc space with a gas shadow and sclerotic end-plate changes at T9-T10. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterolateral mass compressing the spinal cord at the T9-T10 level. The patient was treated with a discectomy through the posterior approach combined with posterior instrumentation. The patient's symptoms and myelopathy resolved completely after the discectomy and instrumented fusion. The thoracic disc herniation might have been caused by the increased motion and stress concentration at the adjacent segment. PMID:20622956

  1. Schistosomal myelopathy in childhood: findings of magnetic resonance imaging in 26 patients.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Souza, Adélia Maria de Miranda; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2011-12-01

    We describe magnetic resonance image findings of 26 children (16 boys; average age, 9.4 years) with schistosomal myelopathy. All children lived in Pernambuco State, Brazil, an area of endemic mansoni schistosomiasis. Imaging abnormalities were identified in 92.3% of the children. The most frequent findings included: (1) enlargement of the spinal cord at the thoracic level, usually below T(8), in 23/24 (96%) patients; (2) hypointense signals in T(1)-weighted imaging; (3) hyperintense signals in T(2) imaging; and (4) heterogeneous enhancement with gadolinium. Although enlargement was evident at the thoracic level, abnormal signals frequently extended to the lower cervical level, or inferiorly to the lumbar and sacral cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord can play a strong role in the investigation of children with schistosomal myelopathy. Although imaging abnormalities are not specific, their presence strengthens presumptive diagnoses, to expedite treatment and avoid invasive procedures. PMID:22114998

  2. Breed Distribution of SOD1 Alleles Previously Associated with Canine Degenerative Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, R; Coates, JR; Johnson, GC; Hansen, L; Awano, T; Kolicheski, A; Ivansson, E; Perloski, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; O'Brien, DP; Guo, J; Katz, ML; Johnson, GS

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous reports associated 2 mutant SOD1 alleles (SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T) with degenerative myelopathy in 6 canine breeds. The distribution of these alleles in other breeds has not been reported. Objective To describe the distribution of SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T in 222 breeds. Animals DNA from 33,747 dogs was genotyped at SOD1:c.118, SOD1:c.52, or both. Spinal cord sections from 249 of these dogs were examined. Methods Retrospective analysis of 35,359 previously determined genotypes at SOD1:c.118G>A or SOD1:c.52A>T and prospective survey to update the clinical status of a subset of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias. Results The SOD1:c.118A allele was found in cross-bred dogs and in 124 different canine breeds whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele was only found in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Most of the dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A homozygotes, but 8 dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes and had no other sequence variants in their SOD1 amino acid coding regions. The updated clinical conditions of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias suggest that SOD1:c.118A homozygotes are at a much higher risk of developing degenerative myelopathy than are SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We conclude that the SOD1:c.118A allele is widespread and common among privately owned dogs whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele is rare and appears to be limited to Bernese Mountain Dogs. We also conclude that breeding to avoid the production of SOD1:c.118A homozygotes is a rational strategy. PMID:24524809

  3. Hypothesis on the pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy, dementia, and peripheral neuropathy in AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tan, S; Guiloff, R

    1998-01-01

    Certain aspects of the clinical syndrome of dementia, cerebral atrophy, predominantly sensory neuropathy, and vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS resemble those seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. Pathologically, there are similarities not only in the changes in the spinal cord, but also in the brain and peripheral nerves. The pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy may be secondary to a combination of immune mediated myelin and oligodendrocyte injury, and simultaneous impairment of repair mechanisms due to a deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Products derived from macrophages may interfere directly with the methyl transfer cycle through the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and reactions involving nitric oxide and peroxynitrite which may limit the supply of methionine for conversion to SAM, both by direct interaction as well as through inhibition of methionine synthase. Macrophage activation with secretion of cytokines and other biologically reactive substances within the nervous system is sustained in the late stages of HIV infection by the general effects of immune depletion, including loss of T cells (with concomitant reduction of macrophage regulatory molecules) and recurrent opportunistic infections, and may be further augmented by the local presence of the virus itself (or its surface glycoprotein gp120). This would account for the common, but not exclusive, occurrence of vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS. The ability of the virus and its products to stimulate macrophage and microglial activation may also explain the association between severity ofvacuolar myelopathy and the presence of HIV encephalitis. A similar mechanism may underlie the pathogenesis of dementia, cerebral atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy. Local factors or differential susceptibility between the central and peripheral nervous system may determine whether myelinotoxic or neurotoxic processes predominate; the prominence of myelin involvement in the spinal cord, and axonal involvement peripherally may reflect both ends of this range, with the brain manifesting a more equal balance of both processes. ?? PMID:9667556

  4. Hypoplasia of the atlas causing cervical myelopathy with situs inversus totalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Tofuku; H Koga; K Yone; S Komiya

    2007-01-01

    Study design:A case report of myelopathic hypoplasia of the atlas with situs inversus totalis.Objectives:To describe a case of cervical myelopathy caused by hypoplasia of the atlas with situs inversus totalis, and to briefly review the pertinent literature.Setting:Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kagoshima, Japan.Methods:The history, results of examination, and findings of radiographic imaging studies for a 56-year-old man with a 10-year history

  5. Clinical presentation of a patient with thoracic myelopathy at a chiropractic clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Charles W.; Bishop, Mark D.; Beres, Jacqueline L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical presentation, examination findings, and management decisions of a patient with thoracic myelopathy who presented to a chiropractic clinic. Case Report/Methods After receiving a diagnosis of a diffuse arthritic condition and kidney stones based on lumbar radiograph interpretation at a local urgent care facility, a 45-year-old woman presented to an outpatient chiropractic clinic with primary complaints of generalized low back pain, bilateral lower extremity paresthesias, and difficulty walking. An abnormal neurological examination result led to an initial working diagnosis of myelopathy of unknown cause. The patient was referred for a neurological consult. Results Computed tomography revealed severe multilevel degenerative spondylosis with diffuse ligamentous calcification, facet joint hypertrophy, and disk protrusion at T9-10 resulting in midthoracic cord compression. The patient underwent multilevel spinal decompressive surgery. Following surgical intervention, the patient reported symptom improvement. Conclusion It is important to include a neurologic examination on all patients presenting with musculoskeletal complaints, regardless of prior medical attention. The ability to recognize myelopathy and localize the lesion to a specific spinal region by clinical examination may help prioritize diagnostic imaging decisions as well as facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23204955

  6. Surgical results of anterior corpectomy in the aged patients with cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Xiaotao; Li, Yonggang; Kong, Xiangfei

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective study on the results of anterior corpectomy for the treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients over 70 years old. To evaluate the surgical results of anterior corpectomy in aged patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy and to investigate the probable pathomechanism by radiographic study. There are few data focused on the surgical results and post-operative complications of anterior corpectomy in aged patients with cervical myelopathy. Twenty patients 70 years of age or older who underwent anterior corpectomy, titanium mesh cage (TMC) reconstruction and anterior plate fixation for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy were reviewed. The average age at the time of operation was 75 years. Neurologic deficits before and after surgery were assessed using a scoring system proposed by the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA Score). Clinical results and post-operative complications were compared with those of patients 69 years old or younger as a control. Pre-operative Radiologic evaluation of every patient consisted of anterior-posterior, lateral, bilateral oblique, flextion, and extension radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Any factor causing spinal cord compression and the sign of cervical instability were recorded. Surgical-related complications occurred in seven patients in the aged group. The incidence of complications was 35% in the aged patient group and 9.7% in the control group respectively. Although the difference was striking, no statistical significance was found between the two groups. One patient died of respiratory failure resulting from pulmonary infection. The mortality rate was 5%. The pre-operative mean JOA score was 9.3 (from 3 to 14) in the aged patient group. Nineteen patients were followed at least 2 years and the mean JOA score was 13.4 (from 8 to 17). 68.4% of the aged patients achieved a good or excellent result. There was no statistical difference in the recovery rate of JOA score between the aged group (58.1%) and control group (67.0%). In the pre-operative radiographs, the incidence of cervical instability was much higher in the control group (32%) than in the aged group (5%) and multilevel cord compression caused by posterior disc space osteophytes was more common in the aged group. Anterior corpectomy combined with TMC fusion and plate fixation provides favorable neurologic recovery even in the patients over 70 years old. However, the incidence of surgical related complications shows a conspicuous increasing in the aged patients. Overcompensation mechanism for cervical instability is the probable cause of degenerative cervical spondylotic myelopathy in aged patients. PMID:17972117

  7. Anatomical and Functional Outcomes following a Precise, Graded, Dorsal Laceration

    E-print Network

    Harkema, Susan

    laminectomy, dural resection, and a spinal cord laceration to a precisely controlled depth. Four dorsal hemisection injuries with lesion depths of 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.4 mm, as well as normal, sham (laminectomy

  8. Myelopathy Caused by Spinal Dural Arterio-Venous Fistula after First Lumbar Vertebral Body Fracture - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Joo, Young-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Song, Sun-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is a rare vascular lesion of the spinal cord associated with progressive myelopathy. Symptoms include progressive gait dysfunction, weakness, sensory loss, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Because these symptoms overlap with other common causes of myelopathy and the disease is rare, spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is often not suspected and the time to diagnosis is long. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with progressive lower limb weakness and gait disturbance diagnosed as spinal dural arteriovenous fistula involving a fractured L1 vertebral body. PMID:22506198

  9. Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu

    2013-01-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our clinical with left buttock pain and paresthesia for 3 years. A large extradural cyst was found at T1-L2 level on MRI and a communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was illustrated by CT-myelography. We performed cyst fenestration with primary repair of dural defect. Both patients' symptoms gradually subsided and follow up images taken 1-2 months postoperatively showed nearly disappeared cysts. There has been no documented recurrence in these two cases so far. Tailored laminotomy with cyst fenestration can be a safe and effective alternative choice in treating SEACs compared to traditional complete resection of cyst wall with multi-level laminectomy. PMID:24294463

  10. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M

    2014-09-01

    Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event. PMID:24905393

  11. Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis of the cervical spine in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motohiro Kawasaki; Toshikazu Tani; Takahiro Ushida; Kenji Ishida

    2007-01-01

    Background  Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar\\u000a spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis\\u000a and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)\\u000a in the elderly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 79 patients aged 65 or

  12. Intramedullary Sarcoidosis Presenting with Delayed Spinal Cord Swelling after Cervical Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Du Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:25535524

  13. Cervical myelopathy from retro-odontoid calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate mass: a case report.

    PubMed

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Chotivichit, Areesak; Wilartratsami, Sirichai

    2013-10-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease is one of the most common forms of crystal-associated arthropathy in the elderly. However, cervical spine is rarely affected, especially in upper cervical area. There have been previous reported cases of symptomatic retro-odontoid CPPD deposition disease in English literature but this case is the first reported in Thai patients. This is a case report of a 67-year-old man who presented with neck pain with progressive myelopathy. Neurologic examination demonstrated a cervical myelopathy with muscle weakness and sensory disturbance of both extremities. Imaging studies showed extradural retro-odontoid mass compressing the spinal cord. The patient underwent occiput to C3 fusion with plating, posterior arch of atlas resection, transoral odontoidectomy, and mass removal. Histological examination of the mass revealed fibrocartilage tissue and rhomboid shaped crystals that showed positive biferingent in polarized light microscopy consistent with CPPD crystals. After surgery, no complication was found, and his neurological function had improved. PMID:24350422

  14. Neuropsychological improvement in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy after posterior decompression surgery.

    PubMed

    Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy sometimes complain of cognitive dysfunction, which may be coincidence. However, cognitive dysfunction may be related to disorders of the cervical spine and/or spinal cord. This study investigated cognitive dysfunction in patients with cervical spinal disorders. A total of 79 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (40 women and 39 men, mean age 61.2 years) underwent cervical laminoplasty between January 2006 and July 2007. Ten of these 79 patients (7 women and 3 men, mean age 65.2 years) complained of moderate to severe memory disturbances. These 10 patients underwent neuroimaging studies and a battery of neuropsychological tests consisting of the mini-mental state examination, Kohs Block Design Test, Miyake Memory Test, Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and "kana-hiroi" test before and 3 months after surgery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no organic brain lesions in the 10 patients, but single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior cortical areas in eight patients before surgery. Neuropsychological test scores showed statistically significant improvement after surgery in the Kohs Block Design Test and the BVRT, which measure visuospatial perception and reflect the function of the parietal and/or occipital lobes (p < 0.05). The practice effect may have contributed to the neuropsychological improvements, but this study suggests that cervical spinal disorders may affect cognitive functions and that surgical treatment can ameliorate such effects. PMID:20671380

  15. Surgical Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Associated Hypertension—A Retrospective Study of 309 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wen-yu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Bin; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Nie, Lin; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease, and various risk factors are known to be involved in it. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common non-traumatic cause of myelopathy, which displays neurological symptoms and may induce systemic symptoms. To date, it is still unknown whether CSM is associated with hypertension, and if so, whether the decompression operations can attenuate CSM associated hypertension. Here, a total of 309 patients with CSM who received anterior or posterior decompression surgery were enrolled as subjects. Blood pressure measurements were performed before and within one week after the surgery. Among the 309 subjects, 144 (46.6%) of them exhibited hypertension before surgery, a significantly higher ratio than that of the whole population. One week after surgery, blood pressure of 106 (73.6%) patients turned back to normal. Blood pressure of another 37(25.7%) patients decreased with different degrees, although still higher than normal. Moreover, it appears that both approaches were effective in improving blood pressure, while the posterior approach was more effective in decreasing systolic blood pressure. We speculate this type of hypertension might result from hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system as the heart rate of these patients decreased after surgery as well. Collectively, compression of spinal cord in CSM patients might be associated with hypertension, and decompression surgery largely attenuated this type of hypertension. These findings prove CSM to be a potential associated factor of high blood pressure and may shed light on therapies of hypertension in clinics. PMID:26193469

  16. Rehabilitation and long-term course of nontraumatic myelopathy associated with surfing.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masahiro; Moriizumi, Shigehiro; Toki, Megumi; Murakami, Takanori; Ishiai, Sumio

    2013-09-01

    A nontraumatic spinal cord injury related to surfing is called surfer's myelopathy. The case of a 26-yr-old man who became paraplegic after surfing without apparent traumatic events is described. Physical examination revealed a spinal cord injury at T12 according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A. The initial magnetic resonance image revealed a fusiform swelling of the spinal cord from T7-8 to the conus, which was hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 6 mos of rehabilitation, the patient was followed for more than 1 yr after onset. He became able to walk with knee-ankle-foot-orthoses without assistance. A magnetic resonance image obtained 1 yr after the onset of paraplegia showed an atrophic spinal cord from T7-8 to the conus. The course of the neurologic findings and the imaging studies suggest that the pathogenesis of surfer's myelopathy may be ischemia of the anterior spinal artery territory induced by the abnormal trunk posture while surfing. PMID:22019977

  17. Trauma-induced myelopathy in patients with retro-odontoid pseudotumour and ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tobari, Yoshiko; Kimura, Atsushi; Sasaki, Satoru; Tajiri, Yasuhito; Seichi, Atsushi

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of acute, progressive myelopathy after a fall in elderly patients who had a retroodontoid pseudotumour and extensive ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. PMID:25550033

  18. Resection of an intramedullary high cervical metastasis from a malignant mixed Muellerian tumour.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Martin Nikolaus; Hinkerohe, Daniel; Harders, Albrecht; Lücke, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    We present a 66-year-old female patient with a high cervical intramedullary metastasis from a malignant mixed Muellerian tumour (MMMT; carcinosarcoma) with concomitant syringomyelia. She was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of cervical myelopathy. MRI revealed an intramedullary tumour of 2.6cm×1.2cm at the cervical vertebral body C2. We performed a laminectomy on C2 followed by a dorsal median myelotomy from C1 to C3 to resect the tumour. The surgical intervention removed the tumour completely and resolved the syringomyelia. During the 36months of follow-up, the patient presented in a stable condition with no evidence of tumour recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intramedullary metastasis of a MMMT. PMID:23321628

  19. Immunohistochemical screening for viral agents in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Shibly, S; Schmidt, P; Robert, N; Walzer, C; Url, A

    2006-10-21

    Numerous cases of acute-onset progressive ataxia, hindlimb paresis and paralysis of unknown aetiology occurred during 1993 to 2003 in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) within the European Endangered Species Programme (eep). This study describes the immunohistochemical investigation of a possible viral aetiology of the "cheetah myelopathy". Antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1, canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and Borna disease virus were applied to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain and spinal cord sections from 25 affected cheetahs aged between three-and-a-half months and 13 years. Using the avidin-biotin complex technique, none of the antibodies gave positive immunosignals in either the brain or the spinal cord tissue. PMID:17056652

  20. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy manifesting shortly after living-donor renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Yuito; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman experienced numbness in both lower extremities and spastic paralysis a few months after undergoing living-donor renal transplantation. The patient was negative for human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) antibodies prior to the procedure; however, she was diagnosed with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) based on positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibody titers after the surgery. Because the donor was also positive for HTLV-1 antibodies, the infection likely originated from the transplanted kidney. Clinical and imaging improvements were noted following the administration of interferon-?. HAM has been reported to occur after living-donor renal transplantation; however, there are no previous reports of onset within such a short period. PMID:25742898

  1. [Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for a patient with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Taishi; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Mishima, Yasunori; Ushijima, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    An 81-year-old female with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) was scheduled for transurethral lithotomy. She had had paresthesia and spastic paresis in the lower extremities for the past 15 years. The preoperative respiratory function test revealed a vital capacity of 1.3 l (58% of the predicted value). We selected combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for her to avoid postoperative respiratory complications due to general anesthesia. After placement of a thoracic epidural catheter, spinal anesthesia was achieved by administration of bupivacaine 7.5 mg, resulting in the sensory block level to T 6, five min later. The intraoperative blood pressure remained high at 150-200 mmHg, in spite of the administration of nicardipine. Postoperatively, neither the deterioration in the neurological findings of HAM nor the exacerbation of respiratory function was observed. The present report suggests that CSEA can be one of the choices of anesthesia for a patient with HAM. PMID:25199333

  2. HTLV-I associated myelopathy: an endemic disease of Canadian aboriginals of the Northwest Pacific coast?

    PubMed

    Oger, J J; Werker, D H; Foti, D J; Dekaban, G A

    1993-11-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is responsible for HTLV-I associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Both diseases have been well described in individuals living in Japan, West Indies, Seychelles Islands and Columbia where infection with HTLV-I is considered endemic and in persons whose descendants originated from these endemic areas. We report here 4 cases of HAM/TSP in 4 natives from 4 different tribal groups from British Columbia (B.C.). These are the first case reports of HTLV-I linked diseases found among North American Aboriginals. Possible routes of infection for HTLV-I infection included sexual transmission, breast feeding, blood transfusions and IV drug use. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I in North American Native population is unknown and we suggest that it is endemic in this ethnic group. PMID:8313245

  3. Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-2: dementia, myelopathy, and neuropathy in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngjee; Townend, John; Vincent, Tim; Zaidi, Irfan; Sarge-Njie, Ramu; Jaye, Assan

    2015-01-01

    While well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, neurologic sequelae have not been systematically evaluated in HIV-2. After excluding for confounding comorbidities, 67 individuals from a rural cohort in Guinea-Bissau (22 HIV-2 participants, 45 seronegative controls) were evaluated. HIV+individuals were divided into CD4<350 and CD4?350 for analysis. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), assessed by the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSPN), and myelopathy were the main outcome variables. In univariate analysis, there was no difference in IHDS scores among groups. When analyzed by primary education attainment, IHDS scores were nonsignificantly higher (p=0.06) with more education. There was no significant difference in DSPN prevalence among groups; overall, 45% of participants had DSPN. There were no cases of myelopathy. In multivariate linear regression, higher IHDS scores were significantly correlated with older age (coefficient=?0.11, p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that older age (odds ratio (OR) 95% CI 1.04–1.20), lower CD4 count (OR 95% CI 0.996–0.999), and higher BMI (OR 95% CI 1.02–1.43) significantly predicted the presence of DSPN. While a significant increase in cognitive impairment was not observed in HIV-2-infected individuals, the study suggests the IHDS may be a less effective screening tool for HAND in settings of lower educational attainment as encountered in rural Guinea-Bissau. Similar to HIV-1, DSPN seems to occur with lower CD4 counts in HIV-2. Further study of the viral–host interactions in HIV-2 and its consequent neurological diseases may provide an avenue for understanding the epidemic problems of HIV-1. PMID:21424866

  4. Interferon beta-1a treatment in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Souza, Victor Lima; Lopes, Natália Barbosa da Silva; Silva, Diego Luz Felipe da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Here a young patient (< 21 years of age) with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved. PMID:25229227

  5. Antemortem diagnosis and successful management of noncompressive segmental myelopathy in a Siberian-Bengal mixed breed tiger.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Lynch, Kate; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Welle, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Robert; Whittington, Julia K

    2013-12-01

    A 10-yr-old female spayed mixed breed tiger presented for a 9-day history of acute and nonprogressive paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion suggestive of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy with regional spinal cord edema, decreased disk signal intensity at L2-L3, and mild intervertebral disk protrusion at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed no overt evidence of infection or neoplasia. Medical therapy was instituted, including corticosteroids and gastroprotectants as well as nursing care and physical therapy. The tiger began showing clinical improvement 2 wk after initiating treatment, progressing to the point where the animal was standing and intermittently walking. Three months after diagnosis, the tiger had regained muscle strength of its hind limbs and walked regularly with improving coordination. This case is the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful medical management of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a large exotic felid. PMID:24450082

  6. Is there a benefit to operating on patients (bedridden or in wheelchairs) with advanced stage cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Borges Scardino; Leonardo Poubel Rocha; Alécio Cristino Evangelista Santos Barcelos; José Marcus Rotta; Ricardo Vieira Botelho

    2010-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) aims to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. Many\\u000a patients are diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, presenting severe functional disability and extensive radiologic\\u000a changes, which suggests clinical irreversibility. There are doubts about the real benefit of surgery in patients who are seriously\\u000a ill, bedridden or in a wheelchair. The

  7. MRI findings in Hirayama’s disease: flexion-induced cervical myelopathy or intrinsic motor neuron disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Schröder; Ewald Keller; Sebastian Flacke; Stephan Schmidt; Christoph Pohl; Thomas Klockgether; Uwe Schlegel

    1999-01-01

    Hirayama’s disease is a benign juvenile form of focal amyotrophy affecting the upper limbs. Previous studies have suggested\\u000a that the disorder is a neck flexion induced cervical myelopathy. We report clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings\\u000a in nine patients with Hirayama’s disease. Cervical imaging of seven patients revealed spinal cord changes consisting of focal\\u000a atrophy and foci of signal alterations.

  8. Cervical myelopathy due to chronic overshunting in a pediatric patient: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Nils Harry-Bert; Maier, Matthias; Bernays, Rene-Ludwig; Krayenbuhl, Niklaus; Kollias, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare cause of cervical myelopathy produced by an engorged suboccipital epidural venous plexus due to chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage. A 17-year-old boy with obstructive hydrocephalus due to a retrocerebellar cyst and secondary implantation of a ventricloperitoneal shunt (VP-shunt) presented with progressive spastic tetraparesis. MRI imaging revealed myelopathy due to significant compression of the cervical spinal cord by engorged epidural veins. Further assessment at a low-pressure setting revealed a broken shunt valve. The VP-shunt valve was changed with an additional anti-siphon device leading to a gradual increase of the intracranial pressure (ICP). After intensive physiotherapy, the patient showed slight clinical improvement. Follow-up imaging within nine days showed distinct regression of the dilated venous plexus at the cranial-cervical junction (CCJ) with the resolution of cord compression. Engorgement of the epidural venous plexus should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy in long-term shunt patients even when classical clinical and radiological signs of overshunting are missing. PMID:23756987

  9. Intramedullary cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, R N; Hughes, J E; Sachdev, R K; Jarenwattananon, A

    1986-08-01

    In 1976 a 28-year-old Ecuadoran male suffered paraparesis after a kick to his back. Iophendylate myelography was followed by thoracic laminectomy with incomplete resolution of the paraparesis. One year later, worsening of the paraparesis was managed by further thoracic laminectomy without improvement. In 1978 a spinal cord stimulator was implanted via low thoracic laminectomy as a measure to counter his spasticity. In 1984 metrizamide myelography and computed tomography scanning were performed for increasing spastic paraparesis that disclosed an intramedullary lesion at the T-4 level. Exploration and myelotomy revealed an intramedullary cysticercal cyst, which was totally removed. PMID:3726745

  10. Embolization followed by surgery for treatment of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula causing acute myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, I-Han; Lee, Han-Chung; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Cho, Der-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. There are three subtypes, and the treatment strategies for each are different. Subtype B (multiple fistulas) can be treated by either embolization or surgery. On the basis of a case from our treatment experience, we propose a method for achieving optimal outcome while minimizing nerve injury. Case Description: A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with acute myelopathy caused by a perimedullary AVF. Initially, we treated her by embolization using the chemical agent Onyx. Her symptoms improved immediately but gradually returned beginning 1 week later. Two months later, the symptoms had returned to pretreatment status, so we removed the fistulas surgically. Severe adhesions between nerve and occult venous varices were noted during the operation. Afterward, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. Histopathological sections showed an inflammatory reaction around the varices. Conclusions: We initially considered several possible reasons for the return of symptoms: (a) Hypoperfusion of the spinal cord; (b) mass effect of the occult vein varices; (c) residual AVF or vascular remodeling resulting in recurrent cord hypertension; (d) Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation resulting in nerves adhering to each other and to occult venous varices. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings ruled out the first three, leaving Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation as the probable reason. Given our treatment experience and the pros and cons of the two methods, we propose that initial embolization followed by surgery after 5 days to remove occult venous varices is the ideal strategy for treating perimedullary AVF of subtype B.

  11. Optic neuropathy, myelopathy, anemia, and neutropenia caused by acquired copper deficiency after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Yarandi, Shadi S; Griffith, Daniel P; Sharma, Rahul; Mohan, Arun; Zhao, Vivian M; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Malabsorptive bariatric surgery is rapidly becoming a major cause of copper deficiency given the increasing prevalence of these procedures for morbid obesity. Acquired copper deficiency can present with clinically significant hematologic and neurological manifestations. Although hematologic manifestations of copper deficiency are rapidly reversible, significant neurological improvement after copper supplementation therapy is unusual and many patients remain debilitated and may only experience, at best, stabilization of the neurological manifestations. Here we present a case of an undiagnosed copper deficiency several years after bariatric gastric bypass surgery, in a patient who concomitantly used zinc-containing denture cream for several years, associated with anemia, neutropenia, myelopathy, respiratory failure, and bilateral optic neuropathy, which caused major vision loss. This patient was also a heterozygote carrier of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C gene polymorphism, which may affect copper metabolism. Intravenous copper repletion resulted in rapid correction of hematologic indices. However, neurological manifestations, including vision loss responded only modestly to copper supplementation, despite achieving normal blood copper concentrations. Clinicians should consider copper deficiency in patients at risk, as in this case, as a delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible disability due to neurological manifestations. PMID:24583748

  12. Characterizing Thalamocortical Disturbances in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Revealed by Functional Connectivity under Two Slow Frequency Bands

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuqing; Wu, Lin; Liu, Xiaojia; Gong, Honghan; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Hu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent advanced MRI studies on cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) revealed alterations of sensorimotor cortex, but the disturbances of large-scale thalamocortical systems remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to characterizing the CSM-related thalamocortical disturbances, which were associated with spinal cord structural injury, and clinical measures. Methods A total of 17 patients with degenerative CSM and well-matched control subjects participated. Thalamocortical disturbances were quantified using thalamus seed-based functional connectivity in two distinct low frequencies bands (slow-5 and slow-4), with different neural manifestations. The clinical measures were evaluated by Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score system and Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaires. Results Decreased functional connectivity was found in the thalamo-motor, -somatosensory, and -temporal circuits in the slow-5 band, indicating impairment of thalamo-cortical circuit degeneration or axon/synaptic impairment. By contrast, increased functional connectivity between thalami and the bilateral primary motor (M1), primary and secondary somatosensory (S1/S2), premotor cortex (PMC), and right temporal cortex was detected in the slow-4 band, and were associated with higher fractional anisotropy values in the cervical cord, corresponding to mild spinal cord structural injury. Conclusions These thalamocortical disturbances revealed by two slow frequency bands inform basic understanding and vital clues about the sensorimotor dysfunction in CSM. Further work is needed to evaluate its contribution in central functional reorganization during spinal cord degeneration. PMID:26053316

  13. Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H becomes elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acutely worsening symptoms of compression myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakajima, Arata; Sonobe, Masato; Terajima, Fumiaki; Saito, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Fusako; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Yamazaki, Masashi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    It is known that the severity of compression myelopathy sometimes worsens rapidly and results in poor functional recovery because of limited axonal regeneration. Levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H), which indicate axonal degeneration, are elevated in other neurological disorders. To our knowledge, there has been no examination of pNF-H levels in compression myelopathy. Therefore, we conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to evaluate pNF-H levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with worsening symptoms of cervical compression myelopathy. From January 2011 to March 2013, 51 samples of CSF were collected from patients at the time of myelography before spinal surgery. The indications for surgery were acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM) in eight, chronic compression myelopathy (CM) in six, and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) in 37 patients. The pNF-H levels were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean ± standard deviation pNF-H value was 2127.1 ± 556.8 pg/ml in AM patients, 175.8 ± 67.38 pg/ml in CM patients and 518.7 ± 665.7 pg/ml in LCS patients. A significant increase in pNF-H levels was detected in the CSF of patients with AM compared with those with either CM or LCS. The clinical outcome of surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy was satisfactory in both AM and CM patients. Despite the limitations of small sample size and lack of healthy CSF control data due to ethical considerations, our results suggest that pNF-H in CSF can act as a biomarker that reflects the severity of AM. PMID:25065845

  14. A Comparison of Computed Tomography Measures for Diagnosing Cervical Spinal Stenosis Associated with Myelopathy: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoffler, C Edward; Cameron, Brian M; Rhee, John M; Bawa, Maneesh; Malone, David G; Bent, Melissa; Yoon, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective comparative study. Purpose To assess differences in computed tomography (CT) imaging parameters between patients with cervical myelopathy and controls. Overview of Literature There is a lack of information regarding the best predictor of symptomatic stenosis based on osseous canal dimensions. We postulate that smaller osseous canal dimensions increase the risk of symptomatic central stenosis. Methods CT images and medical records of patients with cervical myelopathy (19 patients, 8 males; average age, 64.4±13.4 years) and controls (18 patients, 14 males; average age, 60.4±11.0 years) were collected. A new measure called the laminar roof pitch angle (=angle between the lamina) was conducted along with linear measures, ratios and surrogates of canal perimeter and area at each level C2-C7 (222 levels). Receiver-operator curves were used to assess the diagnostic value of each. Rater reliability was assessed for the measures. Results The medial-lateral (ML) diameter (at mid-pedicle level) and calculated canal area (=anterior-posterior.×ML diameters) were the most accurate and highly reliable. ML diameter below 23.5 mm and calculated canal area below 300 mm2 generated 82% to 84% sensitivity and 67% to 68% sensitivity. No significant correlations were identified between age, height, weight, body mass in dex and gender for each of the CT measures. Conclusions CT measures including ML dimensions were most predictive. This study is the first to identify an important role for the ML dimension in cases of slowly progressive compressive myelopathy. A ML reserve may be protective when the canal is progressively compromised in the anterior-posterior dimension. PMID:25705331

  15. Hyperferritinemia in a woman with systemic lupus erythematosus, severe nephritis and an iron-rich intraspinal schwannoma mimicking lupus myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Conca, W; Al-Hakim, M; Moussa, N; Al-Salam, S; Corr, P

    2009-01-01

    We describe a lupus flare in a 59-year-old woman who presented with pancytopenia, nephritis, severe renal dysfunction and marked hyperferritinemia. The course of the disease was further complicated by an iron-laden, intraspinal ancient schwannoma that compressed the cervical cord mimicking a lupus-related myelopathy and was removed surgically. Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone induced a gradual decline in levels of serum ferritin with a concomitant improvement in renal function and reduction of proteinuria. Serum ferritin may be a useful marker of the response to treatment with MMF in renal lupus. PMID:19917169

  16. Low-back pain in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis: nociceptive or neuropathic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Í R Tavares; A C Franzoi; A Q-C Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Study design:Cross-sectional.Objectives:To describe characteristics of low-back pain in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP) patients and to identify its neuropathic and\\/or non-neuropathic pain components.Setting:A reference center for the care of patients with HAM\\/TSP in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Methods:A total of 90 patients with HAM\\/TSP referred by tertiary care centers were consecutively assessed. The patients were

  17. Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, A Olufemi; Akinyemi, R Olusola

    2010-09-01

    An otherwise-healthy, active 83-year-old Nigerian man developed reversible central cord myelopathy from a mild fall on a level surface. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed C5, 6, and 7 block vertebrae and marked disc extrusions only at the immediately adjoining upper and lower non-fused segments of the cervical spine. There was no spinal canal stenosis otherwise. We think that the unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression that following fusion (congenital or acquired) of one segment of the spinal column, hypermobility of the non-fused adjoining segments may strongly predispose to more disc extrusions. PMID:21327144

  18. Percutaneous transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a dog suspected to have fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wook-Hun; Park, Seon-Ah; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Dai-Jung; Yang, Wo-Jong; Kang, Eun-Hee; Choi, Chi-Bong; Chang, Hwa-Seok; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Hwang, Soo-Han; Han, Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The use of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell transplantation therapy holds great promise for repairing spinal cord injury. Here we report the first clinical trial transplantation of human umbilical cord (hUCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the spinal cord of a dog suspected to have fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCEM) and that experienced a loss of deep pain sensation. Locomotor functions improved following transplantation in a dog. Based on our findings, we suggest that transplantation of hUCB-derived MSCs will have beneficial therapeutic effects on FCEM patients lacking deep pain sensation. PMID:23820160

  19. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of thoracic epidural space presenting with dorsal compressive myelopathy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amandeep; Satyarthee, Guru Dutt; Sable, Mukund; Suri, Vaishali; Sharma, Bhawani S.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma Cell neoplasms result from monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas (SEMPs) are rare and constitute 5% of all plasma cell disorders. SEMPs most commonly involve upper aerodigestive tract. Isolated spinal epidural space involvement by SEMPs is extremely rare and to best of our knowledge only 7 such cases have been reported previously in available English literature. We hereby present a rare case of thoracic epidural SEMP in a 32-year-old female who presented with thoracic compressive myelopathy and discuss the pertinent literature.

  20. FDG-PET SUV can distinguish between spinal sarcoidosis and myelopathy with canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sakushima, Ken; Yabe, Ichiro; Shiga, Tohru; Yashima-Yamada, Moemi; Tsuji-Akimoto, Sachiko; Terae, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2011-02-01

    Spinal cord sarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spinal cord sarcoidosis sometimes resembles that of the non-inflammatory spinal cord lesion. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is an effective method to detect both systemic and central nervous system lesions in sarcoidosis. This study compared the standard uptake value (SUV) of FDG-PET between spinal cord sarcoidosis and non-inflammatory spinal cord lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent both spinal MRI and FDG-PET scans. We used SUV to evaluate the FDG-PET uptake of the lesion. The region of interest was the center of high-intensity areas on T2-weighted MR images. We included three patients with spinal cord sarcoidosis, five with myelomalacia caused by cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, one with spinal cord edema associated with cervical spondylosis, and one with spinal cord edema associated with dural arteriovenous fistula. The spinal cord sarcoidosis group had a significantly higher SUV (mean 4.38, range 3.30-4.93) than patients with the other diseases (mean 1.87, range 1.42-2.74). The SUV of FDG-PET thus may be able to distinguish spinal cord sarcoidosis from other non-inflammatory lesions. FDG-PET can play an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord sarcoidosis because the gadolinium enhancement in MRI is sometimes seen in spondylotic myelopathy or vascular malformation. FDG-PET is informative for the accurate diagnosis of spinal cord sarcoidosis and may enable clinicians to start treatment at an earlier stage. PMID:20820799

  1. MR Classification System Based on Axial Images for Cervical Compressive Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    You, Ja Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Guen Young; Yeom, Jin S; Kang, Heung Sik

    2015-08-01

    Purpose To propose a new magnetic resonance (MR) classification system based on axial images for cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) (Ax-CCM system), to assess the interobserver agreement with the Ax-CCM system, and to evaluate the relationship between Ax-CCM patterns and the baseline severity of CCM and the subsequent surgical outcome. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. A total of 202 patients (male-to-female ratio, 128:84; mean age ± standard deviation, 56.3 years ± 11.9; age range, 24-83 years) with CCM who underwent preoperative MR imaging and decompression surgery were retrospectively evaluated. The Ax-CCM pattern was based on the margin and extent of intramedullary hyperintensity on axial T2-weighted images, as follows; type 0 = normal, type 1 = diffuse, type 2 = fuzzy focal, and type 3 = discrete focal. Interobserver variability was analyzed by using the intraclass correlation coefficient across three readers. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and the postoperative improvement (good vs little improvement) were evaluated according to the Ax-CCM pattern by using one-way analysis of variance, the ?(2) test, and the Fisher exact test. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for the Ax-CCM system was 0.83. The preoperative JOA score was significantly different according to Ax-CCM pattern across all readers (P < .05), with the type 2 pattern showing the worst preoperative JOA score (mean, 11.6 ± 3.1 for readers A and C and 11.7 ± 2.9 for reader B). The proportion of good improvement was significantly lower with the type 2 pattern (27 of 72 patients, 37%) than with the other patterns (64 of 123 patients, 52%) (P = .034). Conclusion The Ax-CCM system showed good interobserver agreement, and the type 2 pattern was correlated with poor preoperative neurologic status and less postoperative improvement. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:25906184

  2. Probabilities of Radiation Myelopathy Specific to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to Guide Safe Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States)] [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chao, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany)] [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gorgulho, Alessandra [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.

  3. The role of smoking status and collagen IX polymorphisms in the susceptibility to cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z C; Shi, J G; Chen, X S; Xu, G H; Li, L J; Jia, L S

    2012-01-01

    We investigated a possible association of collagen IX tryptophan (Trp) alleles (Trp2 and Trp3) and smoking with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in 172 Chinese patients and 176 age- and gender-matched controls. The smoking status was evaluated by smoking index (SI). The CSM cases had a significantly higher prevalence of Trp2 alleles (Trp2+) than controls (19.8 vs 6.2%, P = 0.002), but the prevalence of Trp3 alleles (Trp3+) was similar between the two groups (23.3 vs 21.6%, P = 0.713). Logistic regression analyses showed that the subjects with Trp2+ had a higher risk for CSM. We thus analyzed whether smoking status influenced the association between Trp2 alleles and CSM risk. Among Trp2+ subjects with an SI less than 100, the smoking status did not influence the effect of risk for SCM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidential interval (95%CI) = 0.85-2.18, P > 0.05]. When SI increased from 101 to 300, the OR for CSM reached 3.34 (95%CI = 2.11-5.67, P = 0.011); when SI was more than 300, the OR for CSM reached 5.56 (95%CI = 3.62-7.36, P < 0.001). Among Trp2- subjects with SI more than 300, the OR for CSM increased 2.14 (95%CI = 1.15-4.07, P = 0.024). We found a significant association between the Trp2 alleles and CSM risk and smoking amplifies this risk, suggesting that smoking abstinence is important for reducing CSM occurrence in subjects with high genetic risk. PMID:22614351

  4. Radiation myelopathy: Estimates of risk in 1048 patients in three randomized trials of palliative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Macbeth; T. E. Wheldon; D. J. Girling; R. J. Stephens; D. Machin; N. M. Bleehen; A. Lamont; D. J. Radstone; N. S. Reed

    1996-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy (RM) is an uncommon but serious late effect of thoracic radiotherapy (RT), which oncologists try to avoid by careful planning and dose selection. Five patients with RM are described from among 1048 with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with palliative RT in three randomized trials conducted by the Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. Seven RT

  5. Immunopathogenesis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: Recent Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mineki; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is a chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by spastic paraparesis, sphincter dysfunction, and mild sensory disturbance in the lower extremities. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence from host population genetics, viral genetics, DNA expression microarrays, and assays of lymphocyte function suggests that complex virus-host interactions and the host immune response play an important role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Especially, the efficiency of an individual's cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response to HTLV-1 limits the HTLV-1 proviral load and the risk of HAM/TSP. This paper focuses on the recent advances in HAM/TSP research with the aim to identify the precise mechanisms of disease, in order to develop effective treatment and prevention. PMID:23198155

  6. Medial Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Laminectomy (News) Cyberbullying Less Stressful Than In-Person Bullying, Study Claims (News) Summer Motorcycle Season Is Here, ... Day News Cyberbullying Less Stressful Than In-Person Bullying, Study Claims FRIDAY, June 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  7. Exploration of the Practices of Credentialing of Nurse Practitioners in Acute Care Hospital Settings

    E-print Network

    Hronek, Carla M.

    2014-05-31

    unnecessary procedures, in this case, laminectomy. The hospital board ultimately is held responsible for appropriateness of physician privileges. These and other cases resulted in the formalization of credentialing and privileging processes. Hospitals must...

  8. Development and Validation of a Synthetic Lumbar Facet Joint and its Load Bearing Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Mar, Damon

    2011-12-31

    valid as pain is often reported to persist even after the procedure is performed [16]. ? Laminotomy/Laminectomy: These procedures aim to reduce pressure on spinal nerves and the spinal cord by the removal vertebral lamina. These procedures...

  9. The role of stress in recovery of function after spinal cord injury

    E-print Network

    Washburn, Stephanie Nicole

    2009-05-15

    injury itself produced a stress response. Subjects received anesthesia alone, a laminectomy, or a contusion injury. Twenty-four hours later, they were restrained for 6 minutes and blood was collected from the leg. They were sacrificed 24 hours later...

  10. Myelopathy mimicking subacute combined degeneration in a Down syndrome patient with methotrexate treatment for B lymphoblastic leukemia: report of an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Kaishi; Yoshida, Mari; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Okita, Hajime; Hosoya, Yosuke; Shioda, Yoko; Kumagai, Masa-Aki; Mori, Tetsuya; Morishita, Yukio; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Atsuko

    2014-08-01

    We report clinicopathological features of a 23-year-old woman with Down syndrome (DS) presenting with subacute myelopathy treated with chemotherapy, including intravenous and intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX), and with allogenic bone-marrow transplantation for B lymphoblastic leukemia. Autopsy revealed severe demyelinating vacuolar myelopathy in the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, associated with macrophage infiltration, marked axonal loss and some swollen axons. Pathological changes of posterior and lateral columns were observed from the medulla oblongata to lumbar cord. Proximal anterior and posterior roots were preserved. Cerebral white matter was relatively well preserved. There were no vascular lesions or meningeal dissemination of leukemia. Longitudinal extension of cord lesions was extensive, unlike typical cases of subacute combined degeneration (SACD), but distribution of lesions and histological findings were similar to that of SACD. DS patients show heightened sensitivity to MTX because of their genetic background. Risk factors for toxic myelopathy of DS are discussed, including delayed clearance of MTX despite normal renal function, alterations in MTX polyglutamation and enhanced folic acid depletion due to gene dosage effects of chromosome 21. Alteration of folate metabolism and/or vitamin B12 levels through intravenous or intrathecal administration of MTX might exist, although vitamin B12 and other essential nutrients were managed using intravenous hyperalimentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an autopsy case that shows myelopathy mimicking SACD in a DS patient accompanied by B lymphoblastic leukemia. The case suggests a pathophysiological mechanism of MTX-related myelopathy in DS patients with B lymphoblastic leukemia mimicking SACD. PMID:24661121

  11. Possible causes of seizure after spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Seizure after laminectomy for spinal procedure is very rare and has not been reported after lipomyelomeningocele surgery beforehand. Here, two cases of seizure following laminectomy for lipomyelomeningocele are reported. The exact etiology of the event is unknown but anesthetic material, pneumocephalus, intracranial hypotension subsequent to cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal procedures, spinal-induced seizure and the potential toxic effect of fat molecules could be considered. PMID:21042506

  12. PREDICTING HEALTH CARE NEEDS FOLLOWING LUMBAR SPINE SURGERY

    E-print Network

    Kanaan, Saddam

    2013-08-31

    surgeries would be spinal tumor, spinal infection, spinal fracture and other conditions which are beyond the scope of our current project. 1.2.2 Types of lumbar spine surgeries Discectomy, laminectomy, and spinal fusion are common surgical procedures...-term benefit. (O'Connell, Malhotra, Vresilovic, & Elliott, 2011) Discectomy has a success rate of at least 75%, as suggested by self-reported patient outcomes.(Asch et al., 2002) Laminectomy (or open decompression surgery) is a common spinal surgery used...

  13. Complications corner: Quadriplegia after a minor hyperextension injury with severe OPLL teaching case and illustrative images

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: A previously healthy and asymptomatic male surviving well into his ninth decade (86 years of age) was rendered immediately and completely quadriplegic after a minor fall associated with cervical hyperextension. Methods: Since he was unable to undergo a magnetic resonance (MR) scan due to the presence of a cardiac pacemaker, a non-contrast computed tomography (CT) was performed. This study demonstrated extremely severe cervical spinal canal stenosis secondary to previously undiagnosed ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) resulting in marked spinal cord compression between C5 and C6. Results: Secondary to his severe and irreversible quadriplegia, the patient elected not to undergo any intervention; he expired 4 days later. Had his deficit not been so severe, and had he been diagnosed earlier and undergone prophylactic/preventive posterior decompression (e.g. laminectomy C4-C7) sufficient to allow his cord to migrate dorsally, his irreversible quadriplegic deficit might have been avoided. Conclusions: Older patients with symptoms of progressive myelopathy should undergo early cervical MR (or CT if they have a pacemaker) screening looking for “silent” cord compression due to stenosis, spondyloarthrosis, and/or OPLL. This case highlights the devastating consequences of even a mild hyperextension injury in a patient harboring extremely severe but previously undiagnosed OPLL. Devastating life-threatening or life-ending injuries may be avoided by maintaining a low threshold for performing screening” cervical studies in elderly patients with vague complaints that might signal the onset of myelopathy. PMID:25289162

  14. Juvenile Xanthogranuloma of adult spine: A rare case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Devendra; Chanduka, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Vinod; Mittal, Radhey Shyam; Singhvi, Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare disorder of central nervous system. It rarely produces compressive myelopathy. On reviewing world literature, we could find only nine cases of this disease involving spine and of which only four cases were in adults’ i.e., 18 years and above. We are presenting a case of Spinal JXG in an 18-year-old male with thoracic compressive myelopathy presenting as short duration progressive paraparesis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Spine showed mass lesion in epidural space compressing cord from behind without any bony involvement at D7 to D10 vertebral segment. It was isointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 with no contrast enhancement. D7 to D10 Laminectomy with complete excision of firm epidural mass was carried out. The histopathology with tumor markers confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. Post-operative neurological recovery in this patient was good. His power improved to grade 5/5 with decreased spasticity. Follow-up MRI at 3 months showed no residual tumor. This case appears to be the first in the series with entirely extradural component in adult thoracic spine. PMID:25685229

  15. Familial Clusters of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Nozuma, Satoshi; Matsuura, Eiji; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Watanabe, Osamu; Kubota, Ryuji; Izumo, Shuji; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs) and some genetic factors are reported to be associated with the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, there are very few reports on HAM/TSP having family history. We aimed to define the clinical features and laboratory indications associated with HAM/TSP having family history. Methods Records of 784 HAM/TSP patients who were hospitalized in Kagoshima University Hospital and related hospitals from 1987 to 2012 were reviewed. Using an unmatched case-control design, 40 patients of HAM/TSP having family history (f-HAM/TSP) were compared with 124 patients suffering from sporadic HAM/TSP, who were admitted in series over the last 10 years for associated clinical features. Results Of the 784 patients, 40 (5.1%) were f-HAM/TSP cases. Compared with sporadic cases, the age of onset was earlier (41.3 vs. 51.6 years, p<0.001), motor disability grades were lower (4.0 vs. 4.9, p?=?0.043) despite longer duration of illness (14.3 vs. 10.2 years, p?=?0.026), time elapsed between onset and wheelchair use in daily life was longer (18.3 vs. 10.0 years, p?=?0.025), cases with rapid disease progression were fewer (10.0% vs. 28.2%, p?=?0.019), and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly lower in f-HAM/TSP cases (29.9 vs. 42.5 mg, p<0.001). There was no difference in HTLV-1 PVLs, anti-HTLV-1 antibody titers in serum and CSF, or cell number and neopterin levels in CSF. Furthermore, HTLV-1 PVLs were lower in cases with rapid disease progression than in those with slow progression in both f-HAM/TSP and sporadic cases. Conclusions We demonstrated that HAM/TSP aggregates in the family, with a younger age of onset and a slow rate of progression in f-HAM/TSP cases compared with sporadic cases. These data also suggested that factors other than HTLV-1 PVLs contribute to the disease course of HAM/TSP. PMID:24802839

  16. Posterior Epidural Migration of Sequestrated Cervical Disc Fragment: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gopalan Senthil; Mahesha, Kanthila Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study was undertaken to delineate the characteristics of non-traumatic sequestrated epidurally migrated cervical disc prolapse. Purpose To present first case series of eight such cases diagnosed preoperatively and to discuss their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and their management. Overview of Literature Non-traumatic spontaneous migration of the sequestrated disc fragment epidurally behind cervical vertebral body is rare. Only ten cases have been reported in literature. Methods Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of these 8 cases are presented. In six cases their clinical picture was suggestive of cervical myelopathy. MRI scan showed single level epidural migrated disc behind body of C4, C6, and C7 in six patients and two cases with multiple levels (C5-C6). In six cases, anterior corpectomy with excision of the disc was performed and the seventh patient underwent dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient chose not to undergo surgery. Results T1 images of the MRI scan showed an isointense signal in all the 8 cases. T2 images revealed a varying intensity. In six cases who underwent anterior corpectomy, there was a rent in the posterior longitudinal ligament. Among those in two cases multiple disc fragments were seen. In the rest four cases, a single large fragment was observed. These patients improved after anterior corpectomy and disc excision. There was no improvement in the patient who had undergone dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient who refused surgery progressively deteriorated. Conclusions We opine that MRI scan especially T1 images are useful in these cases. We prefer to treat these cases through anterior corpectomy with excision of the sequestrated disc which proved to result in excellent outcome. PMID:22164316

  17. Donor-transmitted HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in a kidney transplant recipient--case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, P; Deziel, P J; Norby, S M; Yao, J D; Garza, I; Razonable, R R

    2014-10-01

    Clinical disease due to human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a retrovirus endemic in certain regions of the world, is rarely reported after solid organ transplantation. In 2009, universal deceased donor organ screening for HTLV-1 was discontinued in the United States. We report the first case of donor-derived HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in a kidney transplant recipient from the United States. The patient, who was HTLV-1-seronegative prior to transplantation, likely acquired HTLV-1 infection from a seropositive organ donor. In this era when screening of donors and recipients for HTLV infection is not mandatory, clinicians should be vigilant in recognizing the risk and potential occurrence of this donor-derived infection in recipients with epidemiologic exposures. PMID:25138148

  18. Contribution of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation for the Diagnosis of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Matos Cunha, Luciana Cristina; Campelo Tavares, Maurício; Tierra Criollo, Carlos Julio; Labanca, Ludimila; Cardoso dos Santos Couto Paz, Clarissa; Resende Martins, Henrique; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a low-cost and safe examination for testing the vestibulospinal pathway. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive disease that affects the vestibulospinal tract early in its course. This study compared the electromyographic (EMG) responses triggered by GVS of asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected subjects and subjects with HAM/TSP. Methods Bipolar galvanic stimuli (400 ms and 2 mA) were applied to the mastoid processes of 39 subjects (n=120 stimulations per subject, with 60 from each lower limb). Both the short latency (SL) and medium latency (ML) components of the EMG response were recorded from the soleus muscles of 13 healthy, HTLV-1-negative adults (56±5 years, mean±SD), and 26 individuals infected with HTLV-1, of whom 13 were asymptomatic (56±8 years) and 13 had HAM/TSP (60±6 years). Results The SL and ML EMG components were 55±4 and 112±10 ms, respectively, in the group of healthy subjects, 61±6 and 112±10 ms and in the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, and 67±8 and 130±3 ms in the HAM/TSP group (p=0.001). The SL component was delayed in 4/13 (31%) of the examinations in the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, while the ML component was normal in all of them. In the HAM/TSP group, the most common alteration was the absence of waves. Conclusions A pattern of abnormal vestibular-evoked EMG responses was found in HTLV-1-neurological disease, ranging from delayed latency among asymptomatic carriers to the absence of a response in HAM/TSP. GVS may contribute to the early diagnosis and monitoring of nontraumatic myelopathies. PMID:24285967

  19. Polygenic Control of Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV?I) Provirus Load and the Risk of HTLV?I–Associated Myelopathy\\/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asna Siddiqui; Mike Bunce; Nobutaka Eiraku; Shuji Izumo; Koichiro Usuku; Mitsuhiro Osame

    2002-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic para- paresis (HAM\\/TSP) is one outcome of infection with HTLV-I. A population association study of 229 patients with HAM\\/TSP and 202 healthy carriers of HTLV-I in southern Japan showed that this outcome of HTLV-I infection and the HTLV-I provirus load are under polygenic control. Of 58 polymorphic sites studied in 39

  20. Is there any relationship between proinflammatory mediator levels in disc material and myelopathy with cervical disc herniation and spondylosis? A non-randomized, prospective clinical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Nusret Demircan; Alparslan Asir; Ahmet Cetinkal; Nursal Gedik; Ahmet Murat Kutlay; Ahmet Çolak; Sedat Kurtar; Hakan Simsek

    2007-01-01

    The proinflammatory mediator (PIM) levels were assessed in surgically removed samples of herniated cervical intervertebral\\u000a discs. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the levels of PIMs in disc material\\u000a and myelopathy associated with cervical intervertebral disc herniation and spondylosis. The role of proinflammatory mediators\\u000a in the degeneration of intervertebral disc and the

  1. Cox Decompression Manipulation and Guided Rehabilitation of a Patient With a Post Surgical C6-C7 Fusion With Spondylotic Myelopathy and Concurrent L5-S1 Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Joachim, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe combined treatment utilizing Cox distraction manipulation and guided rehabilitation for a patient with spine pain and post-surgical C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and L5-S1 radiculopathy. Clinical features A 38-year-old man presented to a chiropractic clinic with neck pain and a history of an anterior cervical spine plate fusion at C6-7 after a work related accident 4 years earlier. He had signs and symptoms of spondolytic myelopathy and right lower back, right posterior thigh pain and numbness. Intervention and outcome The patient was treated with Cox technique and rehabilitation. The patient experienced a reduction of pain on a numeric pain scale from 8/10 to 3/10. The patient was seen a total of 12 visits over 3 months. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions A patient with a prior C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and concurrent L5-S1 radiculopathy improved after a course of rehabilitation and Cox distraction manipulation. Further research is needed to establish its efficiency. PMID:25685119

  2. Cervical myelopathy due to single level disc herniation presenting as intramedullary mass lesion: What to do first?

    PubMed

    Ek?i, Murat ?akir; Özcan Ek?i, Emel Ece; Y?lmaz, Baran; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy (CM) is mostly a degenerative process ending in myelopathic and/or radiculopathic syndromes. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CM appears as a hyperintense area near the spondylotic spine. This high intensity signal depends on the impact of outer forces and their duration. It also determines the prognosis of the surgical candidate. A 40-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with right upper extremity weakness and hypoesthesia that had started 2 months earlier. On neurological examination there was 2/5 motor weakness of right biceps brachii, and hypoesthesia over right C6 dermatome. Right upper extremity deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive, but lower ones were hyperactive. After clinical and radiological work-up, preliminary diagnosis was directed to a spinal intramedullary tumor. Total resection of the herniated cervical disc fragment and the mass lesion was managed. Pathology of the mass lesion was compatible with subacute infarct tissue and inflammatory response. Final diagnosis was CM under effect of cervical disc herniation. Contrast-enhanced spinal cord myelopathic lesions are very rare and resemble much more tumors and inflammatory processes. However, the principal treatment approach totally differs depending on pathology. When there are both a disc herniation and a high clinical suspicion; biopsy should be delayed. The most probable solution will be surgery for the disc disease with thorough preoperative scanning of vascular malformations; clinical and radiological close follow-up after surgery. Biopsy or surgical resection can be performed if patient deteriorates despite the primary surgery. PMID:25972718

  3. Clinical features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in northeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Shoeibi, Ali; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Mokhber, Naghme; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Amin; Hashemi, Peyman; Foroghipour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Reza Farid; Bazarbachi, Ali; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to introduce clinical manifestations of patients in northeast Iran with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and describe the epidemiological features, as well as risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of HTLV-1 infected cases and HAM/TSP patients referred by outpatient neurology clinics as well as Mashhad Blood Transfusion Center from 2005 to 2010. The study comprises 513 cases, including 358 healthy carriers (HCs) and 145 HAM/TSP patients. The majority of carriers were male (73.5%), whereas 67.6% of HAM/TSP sufferers were female (P < 0.001). The mean age of HAM/TSP patients and HCs was 45.9 ± 13.6 and 39.5 ± 11.58 years, respectively (P < 0.001). The history of transfusion, surgery, hospitalization and cupping was observed in a significant greater number of HAM/TSP patients than the HCs (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.029, respectively). Gait disturbance was the most common complaint in HAM/TSP patients (72.4%). This research develops an HTLV-1 data registry in an endemic area such as Mashhad which can serve useful purposes, including evaluation of clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients and epidemiological data of HTLV-1-infected cases. PMID:23568138

  4. Tax mutation associated with tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia virus type I-associated myelopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Renjifo, B; Borrero, I; Essex, M

    1995-01-01

    Tumaco, Colombia, is an area with elevated rates of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We have identified a mutation in nucleotide 7959 of the tax gene of 14 Tumaco HTLV-I isolates (14 positive of 14 tested) that was present in 5 of 14 (35%) TSP/HAM patients from Japan and in 8 of 11 (72%) TSP/HAM patients from other geographic locations. In contrast, this mutation was found in only 2 of 21 (9.5%) HTLV-I-infected subjects outside of Tumaco who did not have TSP/HAM. tax clones with nucleotide mutations including one at nucleotide 7959 showed a greater ability to transactivate the HTLV-I U3 promoter. However, this effect was not observed when two clones that differed only in nucleotide 7959 were compared. These results suggest that HTLV-I-infected individuals carrying isolates with this tax mutation are at higher risk for developing TSP/HAM. PMID:7884912

  5. Use of electrical stimulation and exercise to increase muscle strength in a patient after surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Donna

    2010-02-01

    Current literature offers little research on the restoration of function in patients following anterior decompression surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. This case report describes the functional outcomes for a physical therapy program using a protocol of alternate day electrical stimulation to hip and knee extensor muscles along with exercise. The protocol, designed to increase lower extremity strength necessary for ambulation in a patient who was status post anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery, consisted of treatment sessions five times per week for 6 weeks and included electrical stimulation [medium frequency alternating current (MFAC)] in conjunction with active range of motion exercises, followed by functional mobility training and gait training. Outcome measures included Manual Muscle testing, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injuries (WISCI). Improvement was demonstrated in all three measures following the use of the treatment regimen, suggesting there may be a benefit to the use of electrical stimulation and exercise to increase lower extremity strength and improve gait outcomes in this population. Definitive conclusions regarding the correlation between this treatment protocol and the outcomes achieved are limited by the case report design. Carefully designed research studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol. PMID:20067363

  6. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in Brazil: a nationwide survey. HAM/TSP Brazilian Study Group.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A Q; Andrade-Filho, A S; Castro-Costa, C M; Menna-Barreto, M; Almeida, S M

    1998-12-15

    To study the epidemiology of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Brazil, we conducted a nationwide survey between March 1994 and April 1995. Five centers from three regions of the country participated, enrolling 163 patients. Most patients came from the northeastern and southeastern regions (93.2%). Most enrollees were white women, 42.9% and 64.4%, respectively. The most common risk factors for infection included a history of venereal diseases (30.6%) and blood transfusion (21.6%). The median age at the beginning of the disease was 42 years. The main neurologic findings were spastic paraparesis, widespread brisk tendon jerks, bilateral Babinski's sign, and bladder dysfunction. Some interregional differences reached statistical significance. The ratio of females over males increased from south to north. In addition, in both southern and southeastern regions, whites prevailed, whereas in the northeast, mulattos predominated. This follows the normal distribution of the population in these regions. A significantly higher rate of venereal diseases was found in the southeast compared with the other regions studied. A history of intravenous drug use was more frequent among patients as the sample moves south. Finally, a fluctuating course of the disease was proportionally more frequent in the southern region. PMID:9859969

  7. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sá, Katia N; Macêdo, Maíra C; Andrade, Rosana P; Mendes, Selena D; Martins, José V; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord - HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis - and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions. PMID:25759588

  8. Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Disc Herniation at the Segment of Existing Osteochondroma in a Patient with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses

    PubMed Central

    Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Senba, Hideyuki; Kitamura, Takahiro; Komiya, Norihiro; Shidahara, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a benign hereditary disorder characterized by multiple osteochondromas. Osteochondroma appears occasionally in the spinal column as a part of HME. A 37-year-old man presented with a history of HME and cervical compressive myelopathy caused by intraspinal osteochondroma arising from the lamina of the C5 and disc herniation at the C5-6. He was treated by open-door laminoplasty at the C5 and C6 with excision of the tumor. The neurological symptoms were immediately relieved after surgery. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a sufficient decompression of the spinal cord with a spontaneous regression of the herniated disc at one year after surgery. There was no recurrence of the tumor and no appearance of kyphosis and segmental instability of the cervical spine on postoperative imaging studies for three years after surgery. The patient could be successfully treated by laminoplasty with excision of the tumor and without removal of the herniated disc. PMID:25558330

  9. [A case of acute progressive myelopathy due to intravascular large B cell lymphoma diagnosed with only random skin biopsy].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hidekazu; Imai, Keisuke; Hamanaka, Masashi; Yamada, Takehiro; Tsuto, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tsutumi, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A 64-year old woman was admitted to our hospital with subacute onset paraparesis and sensory disturbance at a level below Th10. Spinal MRI showed a T2 weighted high-signal intensity lesion at a level from Th5 to Th12, and an abdominal CT showed a mass in the left kidney. Her paraparesis deteriorated rapidly, and administration of high dose methyl prednisolone followed by oral steroid therapy was started before obtaining of a definitive diagnosis. However her symptoms did not improve after the beginning of treatment. At the same time, a bone marrow puncture, and biopsies from kidney and spinal cord were performed. These biopsies demonstrated no clues, diagnostically. Therefore a random skin biopsy was performed at the five sites on the 17th day after the steroid dosage end. From this, pathological evidence of intravascular large B cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) was shown. For rapid diagnosis of acute myelopathy with mass lesion of another organ due to IVLBCL, a biopsy is taken not only from spinal cord or mass lesions, but is also taken of multiple sites in skin randomly. This must be performed without a delay before a sudden deterioration of neurologic symptoms can occur from ischemic events not responsive to steroid therapy. PMID:25746076

  10. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Katia N; Macêdo, Maíra C; Andrade, Rosana P; Mendes, Selena D; Martins, José V; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord – HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis – and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions. PMID:25759588

  11. Clinical Reversible Myelopathy in T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Treated with Nelarabine and Radiotherapy: Report of a Case and Review of Literature of an Increasing Complication

    PubMed Central

    Tisi, Maria Chiara; Ausoni, Giuseppe; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Balducci, Mario; Laurenti, Luca; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Hohaus, Stefan; Sica, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Eleven cases of neurological defects in T-ALL patients treated with nelarabine have been described in the last 4 years, seven of these after stem cell transplantation (SCT) for T Lymphoblastic Lymphoma (T-LBL). Most of these patients had an unfavorable outcome or irreversible neurological damage. We now report the case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from T-LBL who presented with severe, but reversible myelopathy after receiving nelarabine-based treatment and mediastinal radiotherapy, and we provide a review of the literature on the topic. PMID:25745552

  12. Increased Low-Frequency Oscillation Amplitude of Sensorimotor Cortex Associated with the Severity of Structural Impairment in Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuqing; Gong, Honghan; Liu, Xiaojia; Wu, Lin; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Hu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Decreases in metabolites and increased motor-related, but decreased sensory-related activation of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) have been observed in patients with cervical myelopathy (CM) using advanced MRI techniques. However, the nature of intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC, and the relationship between cerebral function and structural damage of the spinal cord in patients with CM are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess intrinsic neuronal activity by calculating the regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and correlations with clinical and imaging indices. Nineteen patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans. ALFF measurements were performed in the SMC, a key brain network likely to impaired or reorganized patients with CM. Compared with healthy subjects, increased amplitude of cortical low-frequency oscillations (LFO) was observed in the right precentral gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, increased z-ALFF values in the right precentral gyrus and right postcentral gyrus correlated with decreased fractional anisotropy values at the C2 level, which indicated increased intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC corresponding to the structural impairment in the spinal cord of patients with CM. These findings suggest a complex and diverging relationship of cortical functional reorganization and distal spinal anatomical compression in patients with CM and, thus, add important information in understanding how spinal cord integrity may be a factor in the intrinsic covariance of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations of BOLD signals involved in cortical plasticity. PMID:25111566

  13. CSF CXCL10, CXCL9, and Neopterin as Candidate Prognostic Biomarkers for HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomoo; Coler-Reilly, Ariella; Utsunomiya, Atae; Araya, Natsumi; Yagishita, Naoko; Ando, Hitoshi; Yamauchi, Junji; Inoue, Eisuke; Ueno, Takahiko; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Jacobson, Steven; Izumo, Shuji; Yamano, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare chronic neuroinflammatory disease. Since the disease course of HAM/TSP varies among patients, there is a dire need for biomarkers capable of predicting the rate of disease progression. However, there have been no studies to date that have compared the prognostic values of multiple potential biomarkers for HAM/TSP. Methodology/Principal Findings Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1-infected control subjects were obtained and tested retrospectively for several potential biomarkers, including chemokines and other cytokines, and nine optimal candidates were selected based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Next, we evaluated the relationship between these candidates and the rate of disease progression in HAM/TSP patients, beginning with a first cohort of 30 patients (Training Set) and proceeding to a second cohort of 23 patients (Test Set). We defined “deteriorating HAM/TSP” as distinctly worsening function (?3 grades on Osame's Motor Disability Score (OMDS)) over four years and “stable HAM/TSP” as unchanged or only slightly worsened function (1 grade on OMDS) over four years, and we compared the levels of the candidate biomarkers in patients divided into these two groups. The CSF levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, and neopterin were well-correlated with disease progression, better even than HTLV-1 proviral load in PBMCs. Importantly, these results were validated using the Test Set. Conclusions/Significance As the CSF levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin were the most strongly correlated with rate of disease progression, they represent the most viable candidates for HAM/TSP prognostic biomarkers. The identification of effective prognostic biomarkers could lead to earlier detection of high-risk patients, more patient-specific treatment options, and more productive clinical trials. PMID:24130912

  14. Congestive Myelopathy due to Intradural Spinal AVM Supplied by Artery of Adamkiewicz: Case Report with Brief Literature Review and Analysis of the Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome Definition

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Dinesh; Mistry, Kewal A.; Khatri, Garvit D.; Chadha, Veenal; Garg, Swati; Suthar, Pokhraj P.; Patel, Dhruv G.; Patel, Ankitkumar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can lead to development of congestive myelopathy (Foix-Alajouanine syndrome). Spinal AVMs are rare and so is this syndrome. Diagnosis is often missed due to its rarity and confusing definitions of the Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. Case Report We report a case of a 47-year-old male patient suffering from this rare syndrome with an AVM arising from the artery of Adamkiewicz, which is another rarity. Our patient was treated by embolization of the lesion with 20% glue, after which he showed mild improvement of symptoms. We also present a brief review of literature on spinal AVMs and elucidate the evolution of the term Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. Conclusions Use of the term “Foix-Alajouanine syndrome” should be restricted to patients with progressive subacute to chronic neurological symptoms due to congestive myelopathy caused by intradural spinal AVMs. CT angiography should supplement DSA as preliminary Imaging modality. Patients may be treated with surgery or endovascular procedures. PMID:26171088

  15. Increased seroreactivity to human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus-related endogenous sequence-1 Gag peptides in patients with human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Perzova, Raisa; Graziano, Elliot; Sanghi, Swathi; Welch, Caitlin; Benz, Patricia; Abbott, Lynn; Lalone, Danielle; Glaser, Jordan; Loughran, Thomas; Sheremata, William; Poiesz, Bernard J

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we had shown that although only 8% of patients with large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL) were infected with human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus (HTLV)-2, almost half had antibodies to HTLV Gag and Env peptides. Herein, we investigated whether this could be due to cross-reactive antibodies to two homologous peptides in the Gag protein of the endogenous retrovirus HTLV-related endogenous sequence-1 (HRES-1). In addition, we had previously shown that patients with HTLV neurodegenerative diseases had increased seroreactivity to homologous HERV-K10 endogenous retrovirus peptides. Hence, in this study we also examined whether these patients had increased seroreactivity to the aforementioned HRES-1 Gag peptides. Sera from 100 volunteer blood donors (VBD), 53 patients with LGLL, 74 subjects with HTLV-1 or 2 infection (58 nonmyelopathy and 16 myelopathy), and 83 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were evaluated. The HTLV-positive myelopathy (HAM) patients had a statistically increased prevalence of antibodies to both HRES-1 Gag peptides (81%) vs. the VBD (0%), LGLL patients (13%), and MS patients (1%), and the HTLV-positive nonmyelopathy subjects (21%). The data suggest that cross-reactivity to HRES-1 peptides could be involved in the pathogenesis of HAM. The difference between the VBD and LGLL patients was also statistically significant, also suggesting a possible association in a minority of patients. PMID:25295378

  16. Complications corner: Anterior thoracic disc surgery with dural tear/CSF fistula and low-pressure pleural drain led to severe intracranial hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Oudeman, Eline A.; Tewarie, Rishi D. S. Nandoe; Jöbsis, G. Joost; Arts, Mark P.; Kruyt, Nyika D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thoracic disc surgery can lead to a life-threatening complication: intracranial hypotension due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula. Case Description: We report a 63-year-old male with paraparesis due to multiple herniated thoracic discs, with compressive myelopathy. The patient required a circumferential procedure including a laminectomy/fusion followed by an anterior thoracic decompression to address both diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) anteriorly and posterior stenosis. The postoperative course was complicated by severe intracranial hypotension attributed to the erroneous placement of a low-pressure drain placed in the pleural cavity instead of a lumbar drain; this resulted in subdural hematoma's necessitating subsequent surgery. Conclusion: Severe neurological deterioration occurring after thoracic decompressive surgery may rarely be attributed to intracranial hypotension due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula. Patients should be treated with external lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for 3–5 days rather than a low-pressure pleural drain to avoid the onset of intracranial hypotension leading to symptomatic subdural hematomas. PMID:26005575

  17. Comparison of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score and Modified JOA (mJOA) Score for the Assessment of Cervical Myelopathy: A Multicenter Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kato, So; Oshima, Yasushi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Yujiro; Miyoshi, Kota; Kawamura, Naohiro; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Kunogi, Junichi; Okazaki, Rentaro; Azuma, Seiichi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Sakae; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score is widely used to assess the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy, particularly in East Asian countries. In contrast, modified versions of the JOA score are currently accepted as the standard tool for assessment in Western countries. The objective of the present study is to compare these scales and clarify their differences and interchangeability and verify their validity by comparing them to other outcome measures. Materials and Methods Five institutions participated in this prospective multicenter observational study. The JOA and modified JOA (mJOA) proposed by Benzel were recorded preoperatively and at three months postoperatively in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy who underwent decompression surgery. Patient reported outcome (PRO) measures, including Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ), the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), were also recorded. The preoperative JOA score and mJOA score were compared to each other and the PRO values. A Bland-Altman analysis was performed to investigate their limits of agreement. Results A total of ninety-two patients were included. The correlation coefficient (Spearman’s rho) between the JOA and mJOA was 0.87. In contrast, the correlations between JOA/mJOA and the other PRO values were moderate (|rho| = 0.03 – 0.51). The correlation coefficient of the recovery rate between the JOA and mJOA was 0.75. The Bland-Altman analyses showed that limits of agreement were 3.6 to -1.2 for the total score, and 55.1% to -68.8% for the recovery rates. Conclusions In the present study, the JOA score and the mJOA score showed good correlation with each other in terms of their total scores and recovery rates. Previous studies using the JOA can be interpreted based on the mJOA; however it is not ideal to use them interchangeably. The validity of both scores was demonstrated by comparing these values to the PRO values. PMID:25837285

  18. A prospective uncontrolled trial of fermented milk drink containing viable Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota in the treatment of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Toshio; Saito, Mineki; Usuku, Koichiro; Nose, Hirohisa; Izumo, Shuji; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    2005-10-15

    Ten patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were treated in an uncontrolled preliminary trial by oral administration of viable Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) containing fermented milk. HTLV-1 provirus load, motor function, neurological findings, and immunological parameters were evaluated after 4 weeks. Although LcS did not change the frequencies or absolute numbers of all the examined cell surface phenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, NK cell activity was significantly increased after 4 weeks of oral administration of LcS preparation. Improvements in spasticity (modified Ashworth Scale scores) and urinary symptoms were also seen after LcS treatment. No adverse effect was observed in all the 10 patients throughout the study period. Our results indicated that LcS may be a safe and beneficial agent for the treatment of HAM/TSP; therefore randomized controlled studies are warranted. PMID:15961107

  19. Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type-I (HTLV-I)-associated Myelopathy with Bulbar Palsy-type Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-like Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ando, Rina; Nishikawa, Noriko; Tsujii, Tomoaki; Iwaki, Hirotaka; Yabe, Hayato; Nagai, Masahiro; Nomoto, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a case of Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy with bulbar palsy-type amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like symptoms. A 52-year-old woman developed dyslalia at approximately 40 years of age, which slowly progressed. She presented with muscular atrophy and increased tendon reflexes of the extremities as well as bulbar palsy, from which motor neuron disease was suspected. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing revealed no abnormalities except for an elevated neopterin concentration at 143.17 pmol/mL (normal ?30 pmol/mL). Her serum and CSF anti-HTLV-I antibody titers were also high. Intravenous infusions of methylprednisolone decreased the CSF neopterin concentration to 50.33 pmol/mL. Subsequent oral prednisolone therapy was effective in alleviating the symptoms. PMID:25948358

  20. Difficult-to-wean: High index of suspicion

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Alehegn; Patel, Brijesh; Farra, Wassim; Kole, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 57 Final Diagnosis: Syryngomyelia • cervical Symptoms: Acute respiratory insufficiency Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Rare disease Background: Failed planned extubation occurs in a minority of patients with acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. In patients presenting with acute respiratory failure with no identifiable cardiopulmonary causes, uncommon conditions, such as cervical spondylotic myelopathy, should be considered. In very rare instances, when cervical spondylotic myelopathy and syringomyelia present concomitantly, they can be devastating. Case Report: A 57-year-old woman visited the emergency room (ER) after feeling unwell for several days. She was brought to the ER with acute respiratory distress and obtunded state with GCS of 6/15. She was hypotensive and agonally breathing. Her initial neurologic evaluation was unrevealing. Based on these findings, she was intubated. Over the next several days, she was difficult to wean from the ventilator and had persistent respiratory acidosis. After a short-lived extubation, the patient was again re-intubated. This time the neurologic evaluation showed decreased movements of all muscle groups against gravity and forces, with generalized weakness. An MRI of the brain and cervical spine demonstrated moderate degenerative disc disease and syringomyelia extending from C2 to C7 level. The patient underwent de-compression laminectomy. After failing several weaning trials, she underwent bronchoscopically-assisted tracheotomy. Conclusions: Acute cardiopulmonary and intensive care unit-acquired neuromuscular conditions have been attributed as a major cause of difficult weaning and extubation. Failure to identify and correct other rare combinations (such as cervical degenerative disc disease and syringomyelia) may cause acute respiratory failure and subsequent failure to wean and extubation, resulting in high rates of mortality and morbidity. PMID:24790685

  1. The impact of interferon-alpha treatment on clinical and immunovirological aspects of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Rezaee, Abdolrahim; Etemadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Reza Farid; Khorram, Bita; Afsahr, Leila; Taylor, Graham; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Foroghipor, Mohsen; Hashemi, Peyman; Amiri, Amin; Tehrani, Mohsen; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

    2012-09-15

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic inflammatory myelopathy. The pathophysiology of HAM/TSP is not yet fully understood; therefore, effective therapy remains a challenging issue. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of interferon-alpha (IFN-?) in HAM/TSP patients in the Northeast of Iran. Forty-nine patients with a definite diagnosis of HAM/TSP were enrolled in this clinical trial. For six months, the patients received three million international units of subcutaneous IFN-?-2b per each injection. The dose regimen was daily injection for the first month, three times administration per week for the months 2 and 3, twice weekly injection for the months 4 and 5 and weekly injection for the sixth month. The clinical and laboratory responses were evaluated based on neurologic examinations and immunovirological markers. IFN-? had significant but temporary effect on the motor and urinary functions of the patients. Comparing to the baseline values, proviral load was significantly decreased one month after treatment in responders (495.20±306.87 to 262.69±219.24 p=0.02) and non-responders (624.86±261.90 to 428.28±259.88 p=0.03). Anti-HTLV-1 antibody titers were significantly decreased among responders (1152.1±200.5 to 511.6±98.2 p=0.009) and non-responders (1280.1±368.1 to 537.6±187 p=0.007). Flow cytometry showed no significant changes in CD4, CD8, CD4CD25 and CD16CD56 counts with IFN-?. The positive impact of IFN-? was observed during the treatment period with significant effects on some clinical aspects of HAM/TSP. PMID:22727800

  2. Efficacy of prosultiamine treatment in patients with human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: results from an open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic myelopathy characterized by motor dysfunction of the lower extremities and urinary disturbance. Immunomodulatory treatments are the main strategy for HAM/TSP, but several issues are associated with long-term treatment. We conducted a clinical trial with prosultiamine (which has apoptotic activity against HTLV-I-infected cells) as a novel therapy in HAM/TSP patients. Methods We enrolled 24 HAM/TSP patients in this open-label clinical trial. Prosultiamine (300 mg, orally) was administered once daily for 12 weeks. We monitored changes in the motor function of the lower extremities and urinary function as well as copy numbers of the HTLV-I provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results Improvement in the motor function of the lower extremities based on a reduction in spasticity (for example, decrease in time required for walking and descending a flight of stairs) was observed. In an urodynamic study (UDS), bladder capacity and detrusor pressure and then maximum flow rate increased significantly. Detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia improved in 68.8% and 45.5% of patients observed at pretreatment, respectively. Improvement in UDS corresponded with improvements in the score of nocturia-quality of life questionnaire. HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in PBMCs decreased significantly (approximately 15.4%) compared with pretreatment levels. Conclusions These data suggest that prosultiamine can safely improve motor dysfunction of the lower extremities and urinary disturbance as well as reduce HTLV-I provirus levels in peripheral blood. It therefore has potential as a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP patients. Trial registration University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) number, UMIN000005969. Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/183. PMID:23945290

  3. Biomechanical Analysis of Fusion Segment Rigidity Upon Stress at Both the Fusion and Adjacent Segments: A Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of unilateral pedicle screw fixation on the fusion segment and the superior adjacent segment after one segment lumbar fusion using validated finite element models. Materials and Methods Four L3-4 fusion models were simulated according to the extent of decompression and the method of pedicle screws fixation in L3-4 lumbar fusion. These models included hemi-laminectomy with bilateral pedicle screw fixation in the L3-4 segment (BF-HL model), total laminectomy with bilateral pedicle screw fixation (BF-TL model), hemi-laminectomy with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UF-HL model), and total laminectomy with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UF-TL model). In each scenario, intradiscal pressures, annulus stress, and range of motion at the L2-3 and L3-4 segments were analyzed under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments. Results Under four pure moments, the unilateral fixation leads to a reduction in increment of range of motion at the adjacent segment, but larger motions were noted at the fusion segment (L3-4) in the unilateral fixation (UF-HL and UF-TL) models when compared to bilateral fixation. The maximal von Mises stress showed similar patterns to range of motion at both superior adjacent L2-3 segments and fusion segment. Conclusion The current study suggests that unilateral pedicle screw fixation seems to be unable to afford sufficient biomechanical stability in case of bilateral total laminectomy. Conversely, in the case of hemi-laminectomy, unilateral fixation could be an alternative option, which also has potential benefit to reduce the stress of the adjacent segment. PMID:25048501

  4. Detection of human T-lymphotropic virus type I p40 tax protein in cerebrospinal fluid cells from patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Moritoyo; Shuji Izumo; Hiroyoko Moritoyo; Yuetsu Tanaka; Yoshimasa Kiyomatsu; Masahiro Nagai; Koichiro Usuku; Masaru Sorimachi; Mitsuhiro Osame

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the role of viral transcripts of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy (HAM)\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). To detect the HTLV-I p40tax protein, we developed a new sensitive method of immunohistochemistry combined with tyramide signal amplification and quantitative

  5. Analgesia or Addiction: Implications for Morphine Use After Spinal Cord Injury

    E-print Network

    Woller, Sarah Ann

    2012-07-16

    , and two incisions extending 3 cm rostral and caudal to T12-T13 were made on either side of the vertebral column. The dorsal spinous processes at T12-T13 were removed (laminectomy), exposing spinal tissue. The vertebral column was then fixed within... laminectomy only (no weight drop), and intact subjects received anesthesia only. In Experiments 3 and 4, an intrathecal catheter was implanted immediately after the contusion injury. For this procedure, a 15-cm polyethylene (PE-10) cannula, fitted with a...

  6. Visualization of HTLV-1–Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in the Spinal Cords of Patients With HTLV-1–Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Eiji; Kubota, Ryuji; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Takashima, Hiroshi; Izumo, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Activated human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)–specific CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are markedly increased in the periphery of patients with HTLV-1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), an HTLV-1–induced inflammatory disease of the CNS. Although virus-specific CTLs play a pivotal role to eliminate virus-infected cells, the potential role of HTLV-1–specific CTLs in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP remains unclear. To address this issue, we evaluated the infiltration of HTLV-1–specific CTLs and the expression of HTLV-1 proteins in the spinal cords of 3 patients with HAM/TSP. Confocal laser scanning microscopy with our unique staining procedure made it possible to visualize HTLV-1–specific CTLs infiltrating the CNS of the HAM/TSP patients. The frequency of HTLV-1–specific CTLs was more than 20% of CD8-positive cells infiltrating the CNS. In addition, HTLV-1 proteins were detected in CD4-positive infiltrating T lymphocytes but not CNS resident cells. Although neurons were generally preserved, apoptotic oligodendrocytes were frequently in contact with CD8-positive cells; this likely resulted in demyelination. These findings suggest that the immune responses of the CTLs against HTLV-1–infected CD4-positive lymphocytes migrating into the CNS resulted in bystander neural damage. PMID:25470342

  7. Association of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis in North-East of Iran (Mashhad).

    PubMed

    Shirdel, Abbas; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Sahebari, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Mirfeizi, Seyedeh Zahra; Hutchinson, Ian; Ziaee, Aghigh; Rafatpanah, Houshang

    2013-03-01

    The underlying mechanisms leading to the development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-I infected individuals are not fully understood. Host genetic factors appear to be involved as risk factors for developing HAM/TSP. We investigated the possible contribution of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as a risk factor to HAM/TSP by comparing frequencies of promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms in HTLV-I infected Iranian patients who either remained asymptomatic or developed HAM/TSP and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Healthy, uninfected individuals from the same region served as healthy controls. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of IL-10 promoter alleles and genotypes at position -819 and -592 between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls (P=0.01), and between HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls (P=0.02). The frequency of the low IL-10 producer haplotype (-1082*A, -819*T, -592*A) was significantly associated with HTLV-I carriage or HAM/TSP compared with healthy controls (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that IL-10 -819*T and -592*A alleles are significant risk factors for developing HTLLV-I infection but do not appear to convey additional risk for developing HAM/TSP. PMID:24470873

  8. The Impact of Immune Response on HTLV-I in HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    PubMed

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Farid Hosseini, Reza; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus which is associated with adult T cells leukaemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in a minority of HTLV-I-infected individuals. It is not clear why a minority of HTLV-I-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP and majority remains lifelong carriers. It seems that the interaction between the virus and the immune response plays an important role in HTLV-I-associated diseases. Although the role of the immune response in HTLV-I pathogenesis is not fully understood, however it seems that the efficacy of the immune response which is involved in controlling or limiting of viral persistence determines the outcome of HTLV-I-associated diseases. Here we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immune response and also the risk factors contribute to the observed differences between HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. PMID:24470869

  9. The Impact of Immune Response on HTLV-I in HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    PubMed Central

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Farid Hosseini, Reza; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus which is associated with adult T cells leukaemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in a minority of HTLV-I-infected individuals. It is not clear why a minority of HTLV-I-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP and majority remains lifelong carriers. It seems that the interaction between the virus and the immune response plays an important role in HTLV-I-associated diseases. Although the role of the immune response in HTLV-I pathogenesis is not fully understood, however it seems that the efficacy of the immune response which is involved in controlling or limiting of viral persistence determines the outcome of HTLV-I-associated diseases. Here we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immune response and also the risk factors contribute to the observed differences between HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. PMID:24470869

  10. Association of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis in North-East of Iran (Mashhad)

    PubMed Central

    Shirdel, Abbas; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Sahebari, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Mirfeizi, Seyedeh Zahra; Hutchinson, Ian; Ziaee, Aghigh; Rafatpanah, Houshang

    2013-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms leading to the development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-I infected individuals are not fully understood. Host genetic factors appear to be involved as risk factors for developing HAM/TSP. We investigated the possible contribution of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as a risk factor to HAM/TSP by comparing frequencies of promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms in HTLV-I infected Iranian patients who either remained asymptomatic or developed HAM/TSP and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Healthy, uninfected individuals from the same region served as healthy controls. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of IL-10 promoter alleles and genotypes at position -819 and -592 between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls (P=0.01), and between HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls (P=0.02). The frequency of the low IL-10 producer haplotype (-1082*A, -819*T, -592*A) was significantly associated with HTLV-I carriage or HAM/TSP compared with healthy controls (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that IL-10 -819*T and -592*A alleles are significant risk factors for developing HTLLV-I infection but do not appear to convey additional risk for developing HAM/TSP. PMID:24470873

  11. Characterization of Thoracic Motor and Sensory Neurons and Spinal Nerve Roots in Canine Degenerative Myelopathy, a Potential Disease Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Brandie R.; Coates, Joan R.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Shelton, G. Diane; Katz, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Canine Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) is a progressive adult-onset multisystem degenerative disease with many features in common with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As with some forms of ALS, DM is associated with mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Clinical signs include general proprioceptive ataxia and spastic upper motor neuron paresis in pelvic limbs, which progress to flaccid tetraplegia and dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to characterize DM as a potential disease model for ALS. We previously reported that intercostal muscle atrophy develops in dogs with advanced stage DM. To determine if other components of the thoracic motor unit (MU) also demonstrated morphological changes consistent with dysfunction, histopathologic and morphometric analyses were conducted on thoracic spinal motor neurons (MN) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and in motor and sensory nerve root axons from DM-affected Boxers and Pembroke Welsh Corgis (PWCs). No alterations in MNs, or motor root axons were observed in either breed. However, advanced stage PWCs exhibited significant losses of sensory root axons, and numerous DRG sensory neurons displayed evidence of degeneration. These results indicate that intercostal muscle atrophy in DM is not preceded by physical loss of the motor neurons innervating these muscles, or of their axons. Axonal loss in thoracic sensory roots and sensory nerve death suggest sensory involvement may play an important role in DM disease progression. Further analysis of the mechanisms responsible for these morphological findings would aid in the development of therapeutic intervention for DM and some forms of ALS. PMID:24375814

  12. Polygenic control of human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load and the risk of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Vine, Alison M; Witkover, Aviva D; Lloyd, Alun L; Jeffery, Katie J M; Siddiqui, Asna; Marshall, Sara E F; Bunce, Mike; Eiraku, Nobutaka; Izumo, Shuji; Usuku, Koichiro; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Bangham, Charles R M

    2002-10-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is one outcome of infection with HTLV-I. A population association study of 229 patients with HAM/TSP and 202 healthy carriers of HTLV-I in southern Japan showed that this outcome of HTLV-I infection and the HTLV-I provirus load are under polygenic control. Of 58 polymorphic sites studied in 39 non-HLA candidate gene loci, 3 new host genetic factors that influenced the risk of HAM/TSP or the provirus load of HTLV-I were identified. The promoter TNF -863A allele predisposed to HAM/TSP, whereas SDF-1 +801A 3'UTR, and IL-15 191C alleles conferred protection. Knowledge of HTLV-I-infected individuals' ages, sex, provirus load, HTLV-I subgroup, and genotypes at the loci HLA-A, HLA-C, SDF-1, and TNF-alpha allowed for the correct identification of 88% of cases of HAM/TSP in this Japanese cohort. PMID:12232833

  13. Therapeutic benefits of an oral vitamin B1 derivative for human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    PubMed

    Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Prosultiamine, a vitamin B1 derivative, has long been used for beriberi neuropathy and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Based on the finding that prosultiamine induces apoptosis in human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T cells, Nakamura et al. conducted a clinical trial of prosultiamine in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). In this open-label, single arm study enrolling 24 HAM/TSP patients recently published in BMC Medicine, oral prosultiamine (300 mg/day for 12 weeks) was found to be effective by neurological, urological and virological evaluations. Notably, it increased detrusor pressure, bladder capacity and maximum flow rate, and improved detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. A significant decrease in HTLV-I copy numbers in peripheral blood following the treatment provided a rationale for using the drug. The trial has some limitations, such as the small numbers of participants, the open-label design, the lack of a placebo arm, and the short trial period. Nevertheless, the observation that such a safe, cheap drug may have excellent therapeutic effects on HAM/TSP, a chronic devastating illness occurring mainly in developing countries, provides support for future large-scale randomized controlled trials.Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/182. PMID:23945332

  14. Therapeutic benefits of an oral vitamin B1 derivative for human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Prosultiamine, a vitamin B1 derivative, has long been used for beriberi neuropathy and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Based on the finding that prosultiamine induces apoptosis in human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T cells, Nakamura et al. conducted a clinical trial of prosultiamine in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). In this open-label, single arm study enrolling 24 HAM/TSP patients recently published in BMC Medicine, oral prosultiamine (300 mg/day for 12 weeks) was found to be effective by neurological, urological and virological evaluations. Notably, it increased detrusor pressure, bladder capacity and maximum flow rate, and improved detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. A significant decrease in HTLV-I copy numbers in peripheral blood following the treatment provided a rationale for using the drug. The trial has some limitations, such as the small numbers of participants, the open-label design, the lack of a placebo arm, and the short trial period. Nevertheless, the observation that such a safe, cheap drug may have excellent therapeutic effects on HAM/TSP, a chronic devastating illness occurring mainly in developing countries, provides support for future large-scale randomized controlled trials. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/182. PMID:23945332

  15. Visualization of HTLV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the spinal cords of patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Eiji; Kubota, Ryuji; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Takashima, Hiroshi; Izumo, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Activated human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-specific CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are markedly increased in the periphery of patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), an HTLV-1-induced inflammatory disease of the CNS. Although virus-specific CTLs play a pivotal role to eliminate virus-infected cells, the potential role of HTLV-1-specific CTLs in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP remains unclear. To address this issue, we evaluated the infiltration of HTLV-1-specific CTLs and the expression of HTLV-1 proteins in the spinal cords of 3 patients with HAM/TSP. Confocal laser scanning microscopy with our unique staining procedure made it possible to visualize HTLV-1-specific CTLs infiltrating the CNS of the HAM/TSP patients. The frequency of HTLV-1-specific CTLs was more than 20% of CD8-positive cells infiltrating the CNS. In addition, HTLV-1 proteins were detected in CD4-positive infiltrating T lymphocytes but not CNS resident cells. Although neurons were generally preserved, apoptotic oligodendrocytes were frequently in contact with CD8-positive cells; this likely resulted in demyelination. These findings suggest that the immune responses of the CTLs against HTLV-1-infected CD4-positive lymphocytes migrating into the CNS resulted in bystander neural damage. PMID:25470342

  16. Traumatic myelopathy in a seventeen-year-old child with cervical spinal stenosis (without fracture or dislocation) and a C2-C3 Klippel-Feil fusion. A case report.

    PubMed

    Epstein, N E; Epstein, J A; Zilkha, A

    1984-01-01

    A 17-year-old white male patient sustained a cervical hyperextension injury while body surfing. Plain cervical radiographs, tomography, and CAT scan showed neither fracture nor subluxation, but congenital narrowing of the spinal canal and fusion of C2-C3 (Klippel-Feil). Clinically, he had a central cord syndrome, characterized by a motor dominant myelopathy. The conservative management of this patient with a central cord injury in the presence of spinal stenosis and a Klippel-Feil syndrome resulted in almost full recovery although he was quadriplegic initially. This constellation of findings rarely has been reported in adolescence. PMID:6474247

  17. Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunzhou Shi; Delong Zhang; Terry B. Huff; Xiaofei Wang; Riyi Shi; Xiao-Ming Xu; Ji-Xin Cheng

    2011-01-01

    In vivo imaging of white matter is important for the mechanistic understanding of demyelination and evaluation of remyelination therapies. Although white matter can be visualized by a strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal from axonal myelin, in vivo repetitive CARS imaging of the spinal cord remains a challenge due to complexities induced by the laminectomy surgery. We present a

  18. Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra. PMID:24932020

  19. Cerebral Palsy Spasticity. Selective Posterior Rhizotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warwick J. Peacock; Leila J. Arens; Barbara Berman

    1987-01-01

    We have performed selective posterior rhizotomies on 60 children with cerebral palsy. The procedure involves lumbar laminectomy with stimulation of the rootlets (fascicles) of the second lumbar to the first sacral posterior roots bilaterally; those rootlets associated with an abnormal motor response, as evidenced by sustained or diffused muscular contraction, are divided leaving intact rootlets associated with a brief localized

  20. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Che Ramli, Muhammad Danial

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180?mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25152764

  1. Review Article: Pediatric Neurosonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward G. Grant; E. Maureen White

    1986-01-01

    Neurosonography is an excellent modality for imaging a wide array of intracranial pathology in the infant and newborn. Neurosonography is also finding increasing use in other accessible regions of the central nervous system, including the adult brain during craniotomy and the spine during laminectomy. Sonography represents the primary modality for the evaluation of the preterm brain. Because of the high

  2. AMPA-receptor mediated plasticity within the rat spinal cord

    E-print Network

    Hoy, Kevin Corcoran

    2009-05-15

    -caudal to the vertebra. A laminectomy was performed to expose the cord rostral of T2. Heat cautery was used to transect the exposed cord and the cavity formed was filed with gelfoam (Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, MA). A 25 cm catheter (PE-10, VWR International Bristol...

  3. Utility of the MMPI Pain Assessment Index in Predicting Outcome After Lumbar Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the ability of the Pain Assesment Index, determined from presurgery Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores, to predict outcome subsequent to lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. The PAI was found to have good ability to identify patients who were doing well after surgery, but low power in predicting which patients would have…

  4. Detrimental Effects of Uncontrollable Stimulation on Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    E-print Network

    Hudson, Kara

    2007-07-23

    with iodine. A 7.0 cm incision was made over the vertebral column, and a laminectomy was performed to remove the vertebrae dorsal and medial to the desired injury site (T12-T13). This exposed the spinal cord tissue. Next, two incisions were made on either...

  5. Anaphylactic reaction after autologous blood transfusion: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailendra; Goyal, Keshav; Dubey, Surya; Bindra, Ashish; Kedia, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Autologous blood transfusion as a cause of intraoperative anaphylaxis is very rare. We encountered one such life-threatening event in a 72-year-old patient undergoing laminectomy and pedicle screw fixation. The probable cause identified was the floseal mixed autologous blood transfusion. Review of literature has been done, and measures to avoid such an event in the future are discussed. PMID:25972952

  6. BDNF Facilitates Instrumental Learning and Spinal Plasticity In Vivo.

    E-print Network

    Niemerski, Ashley

    2014-01-27

    of the incision site was done using Michel clips (Fine Science Tools, Foster, CA). Another anterior-posterior incision was made above the L3/S1 region. Using rongeurs the tissue surrounding the vertebrae was cleared. A laminectomy, in which vertebrae is removed...

  7. Contribution of the Peripheral Nervous System to Instrumental Learning and Performance

    E-print Network

    Hoy, Kevin

    2012-10-19

    using a concentration of 5% Isoflurane, and maintained at a 2% concentration during surgery. The T2 vertebra was located and an incision was made rostral-caudal to the vertebra. A laminectomy was then performed to expose the cord rostral to T2. Heat...

  8. Behavioral assessment of depressive-like symptoms in a rodent model of spinal cord injury

    E-print Network

    Luedtke, Kelsey 1988-

    2011-05-05

    the spinal cord. Two incisions were then made on either side of the vertebral column, extending approximately 3 cm rostral and caudal to the 14 T12-T13 segment. The dorsal spinous processes at T12-T13 were removed (laminectomy), and the spinal tissue...

  9. Electrophysiological analysis shows dizziness as the first symptom in human T cell lymphotropic virus type-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Labanca, Ludimila; Starling, Ana Lúcia Borges; de Sousa-Pereira, Silvio Roberto; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Carvalho, Lucas Novaes; Fernandes, Daniele Rosa; Utsch Gonçalves, Denise

    2015-06-01

    Dizziness is a symptom in human T cell lymphotropic virus type-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and may occur due to vestibulospinal tract dysfunction. This tract can be assessed by an electrophysiological test called vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). The aim was to correlate the result of VEMP generated by acoustic stimuli and dizziness in individuals with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-asymptomatic infection and HAM/TSP. VEMP was recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscle of 60 HTLV-1-negative adults (60±8 years) and 60 individuals infected with HTLV-1, 30 being asymptomatic (59±8 years) and 30 with HAM/TSP (59±8 years). In all groups, 90% of the participants were women. VEMP was generated by acoustic stimuli (short tone bursts), with an intensity of 118 dBHL and band-pass filter from 10?Hz to 1,500?Hz, and presented 200 stimuli at a frequency of 1,000?Hz with a record time of 60?ms. Of 60 HTLV-1-negative individuals, 14 (23%) reported dizziness; VEMP was normal in all. In the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, 11(37%) complained of dizziness (p=0.31); VEMP was altered in four (40%) subjects with dizziness and in one (5%) without dizziness (p=0.00). In the group with HAM/TSP, dizziness was reported by 17 (57%) subjects (p=0.002); VEMP was altered in 11 (64%) with dizziness and in 5 (38%) without dizziness (p=0.15). Dizziness without an apparent etiology in HTLV-1-asymptomatic carriers deserves attention in terms of a possible subclinical spinal cord involvement that can be clarified through spinal electrophysiological tests. Damage of the vestibulospinal tract seems to occur in the early stages of HAM/TSP. PMID:25760424

  10. Electrophysiological Analysis Shows Dizziness as the First Symptom in Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Labanca, Ludimila; Starling, Ana Lúcia Borges; de Sousa-Pereira, Silvio Roberto; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas; Carvalho, Lucas Novaes; Fernandes, Daniele Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dizziness is a symptom in human T cell lymphotropic virus type-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and may occur due to vestibulospinal tract dysfunction. This tract can be assessed by an electrophysiological test called vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). The aim was to correlate the result of VEMP generated by acoustic stimuli and dizziness in individuals with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-asymptomatic infection and HAM/TSP. VEMP was recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscle of 60 HTLV-1-negative adults (60±8 years) and 60 individuals infected with HTLV-1, 30 being asymptomatic (59±8 years) and 30 with HAM/TSP (59±8 years). In all groups, 90% of the participants were women. VEMP was generated by acoustic stimuli (short tone bursts), with an intensity of 118 dBHL and band-pass filter from 10?Hz to 1,500?Hz, and presented 200 stimuli at a frequency of 1,000?Hz with a record time of 60?ms. Of 60 HTLV-1-negative individuals, 14 (23%) reported dizziness; VEMP was normal in all. In the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, 11(37%) complained of dizziness (p=0.31); VEMP was altered in four (40%) subjects with dizziness and in one (5%) without dizziness (p=0.00). In the group with HAM/TSP, dizziness was reported by 17 (57%) subjects (p=0.002); VEMP was altered in 11 (64%) with dizziness and in 5 (38%) without dizziness (p=0.15). Dizziness without an apparent etiology in HTLV-1-asymptomatic carriers deserves attention in terms of a possible subclinical spinal cord involvement that can be clarified through spinal electrophysiological tests. Damage of the vestibulospinal tract seems to occur in the early stages of HAM/TSP. PMID:25760424

  11. Ascorbic Acid Has Superior Ex Vivo Antiproliferative, Cell Death-Inducing and Immunomodulatory Effects over IFN-? in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Britta; Decanine, Daniele; Menezes, Soraya Maria; Khouri, Ricardo; Silva-Santos, Gilvanéia; Lopez, Giovanni; Alvarez, Carolina; Talledo, Michael; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; de Almeida Kruschewsky, Ramon; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Weyenbergh, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Background Clear therapeutic guidelines for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) are missing due to the lack of randomized double-blind controlled clinical trials. Moderate yet similar clinical benefit has been demonstrated for IFN-? and high-dose ascorbic acid (AA) monotherapy in a large open clinical trial. However, there is a lack of in vivo and in vitro studies exploring and comparing the effects of high-dose AA and IFN-? treatment in the context of HAM/TSP. Therefore, we performed the first comparative analysis of the ex vivo and in vitro molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of IFN-? and high-dose AA in HAM/TSP. Principal Findings Through thymidine incorporation and quantification of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, we demonstrate that high-dose AA displays differential and superior antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects over IFN-? in HAM/TSP PBMCs ex vivo. In addition, high-dose AA, but not IFN-?, induced cell death in both HAM/TSP PBMCs and HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines MT-2 and MT-4. Microarray data combined with pathway analysis of MT-2 cells revealed AA-induced regulation of genes associated with cell death, including miR-155. Since miR-155 has recently been demonstrated to up-regulate IFN-?, this microRNA might represent a novel therapeutic target in HAM/TSP, as recently demonstrated in multiple sclerosis, another neuroinflammatory disease. On the other hand, IFN-? selectively up-regulated antiviral and immune-related genes. Conclusions In comparison to IFN-?, high-dose AA treatment has superior ex vivo and in vitro cell death-inducing, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory anti-HTLV-1 effects. Differential pathway activation by both drugs opens up avenues for targeted treatment in specific patient subsets. PMID:22848768

  12. Role of posterior elements in the disc bulging of a degenerated cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Solitro, Giovanni F.; Siemionow, Kris; Drucker, David; Upadhyay, Ashish; Patel, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have been developed to characterize the mechanical behavior of the intervertebral disc specifically for the lumbar spine and there have been limited studies done on the cervical spine with the goal to evaluate the strength of the cervical spine under compression without any information on the bulging of the intervertebral discs. The goal of the current study is to examine the deformation response of the cervical intervertebral disc classified with grade III or greater degeneration and analyze the relationship between axial deformation and anterior and posterior bulge under compression up to 550 N. Methods Each specimen was compressed for 3 cycles to a maximum load of 550N in steps of 50 N. The bulge was measured using Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs on an intact spinal segment, spinal segment with post laminectomy, and spinal segment post facetectomy. Results The anterior budge for an intact spinal segment shows a change of slope at loads of 262N±66N. For a physiological load of 250N the vertical displacement or spine segment height was reduced by 10.1% for an intact segment and 8.78% for the laminectomy and facetectomy configurations with F = 0.159 (Fcrit = 3.89) with no statistical difference observed. For the post laminectomy there was a decrease of 35% in anterior bulge compared to the intact specimen. Conclusions Our results show that for grade III disc degeneration the cervical segments bulging for both the laminectomy and facetectomy procedures are not significantly different. In post laminectomy the average anterior and posterior bulges are similar to the average anterior and posterior bulge post facetectomy. PMID:26056628

  13. Association between HLA Class I Alleles and Proviral Load in HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraperesis (HAM/TSP) Patients in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Taghaddosi, Mahdi; Rezaee, S. A. Rahim; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Rajaei, Taraneh; Farid Hosseini, Reza; Narges, Valizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I alleles (HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, HLA-Cw*08, HLA-B5401) and proviral load in HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraperesis (HAM/TSP) patients in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: 20 new cases of HAM/TSP patients and 30 HTLV-I infected healthy carriers were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. DNA was extracted from PBMC.HTLV-I proviral load was calculated by Taqman quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). PCR sequence-speci?c primer (PCR-SSP) reactions were performed to detect HLA-A, HLA-B and, HLA-Cw alleles. Results: There was no signi?cant difference in sex and age between asymptomatic and HAM/TSP group. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare proviral load between HAM/TSP patients and healthy carrier. Provirus load of HAM/TSP patients was signi?cantly higher than that of HCs (P=0.003, Mann–Whitney U test).Odd ratio was calculated to determine association between class I alleles including (HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, HLA-Cw*08) and risk of HAM/TSP development. We couldn’t find any association between these class I alleles and risk of HAM/TSP development in our study. In our survey HLA-A*02, HLA-A24, HLA-Cw*08 didn’t have protective effect on proviral load (P=0.075, P=0.060 and 0.650 Mann–Whitney U test respectively). Conclusion: In conclusion, certain HLA alleles with protective effect in one population may have not similar effect in other population. This may be because of pathogen polymorphism or host genetic heterogeneity and allele frequency in desired population. PMID:24470874

  14. CD80+ and CD86+ B cells as biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of the incapacitating, neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Currently, there are no disease-modifying therapies with long-term clinical benefits or validated biomarkers for clinical follow-up in HAM/TSP. Although CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules play prominent roles in immune regulation and reflect disease status in multiple sclerosis (MS), data in HAM/TSP are lacking. Methods Using flow cytometry, we quantified ex vivo and in vitro expression of CD80 and CD86 in PBMCs of healthy controls, HTLV-1-infected individuals with and without HAM/TSP, and MS patients. We hypothesized ex vivo CD80 and CD86 expressions and their in vitro regulation by interferon (IFN)-?/? mirror similarities between HAM/TSP and MS and hence might reveal clinically useful biomarkers in HAM/TSP. Results Ex vivo expression of CD80 and CD86 in T and B cells increased in all HTLV-1 infected individuals, but with a selective defect for B cell CD86 upregulation in HAM/TSP. Despite decreased total B cells with increasing disease duration (p?=?0.0003, r?=??0.72), CD80+ B cells positively correlated with disease severity (p?=?0.0017, r?=?0.69) in HAM/TSP. B cell CD80 expression was higher in women with HAM/TSP, underscoring that immune markers can reflect the female predominance observed in most autoimmune diseases. In contrast to MS patients, CD80+ (p?=?0.0001) and CD86+ (p?=?0.0054) lymphocytes expanded upon in vitro culture in HAM/TSP patients. The expansion of CD80+ and CD86+ T cells but not B cells was associated with increased proliferation in HTLV-1 infection. In vitro treatment with IFN-? but not IFN-? resulted in a pronounced increase of B cell CD86 expression in healthy controls, as well as in patients with neuroinflammatory disease (HAM/TSP and MS), similar to in vivo treatment in MS. Conclusions We propose two novel biomarkers, ex vivo CD80+ B cells positively correlating to disease severity and CD86+ B cells preferentially induced by IFN-?, which restores defective upregulation in HAM/TSP. This study suggests a role for B cells in HAM/TSP pathogenesis and opens avenues to B cell targeting (with proven clinical benefit in MS) in HAM/TSP but also CD80-directed immunotherapy, unprecedented in both HAM/TSP and MS. PMID:24472094

  15. Increased expression of OX40 is associated with progressive disease in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background OX40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that is expressed primarily on activated CD4+ T cells and promotes the development of effector and memory T cells. Although OX40 has been reported to be a target gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) viral transactivator Tax and is overexpressed in vivo in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells, an association between OX40 and HTLV-1-associated inflammatory disorders, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), has not yet been established. Moreover, because abrogation of OX40 signals ameliorates chronic inflammation in animal models of autoimmune disease, novel monoclonal antibodies against OX40 may offer a potential treatment for HTLV-1-associated diseases such as ATL and HAM/TSP. Results In this study, we showed that OX40 was specifically expressed in CD4+ T cells naturally infected with HTLV-1 that have the potential to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines along with Tax expression. We also showed that OX40 was overexpressed in spinal cord infiltrating mononuclear cells in a clinically progressive HAM/TSP patient with a short duration of illness. The levels of the soluble form of OX40 (sOX40) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from chronic progressive HAM/TSP patients or from patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (OINDs) were not different. In contrast, sOX40 levels in the CSF of rapidly progressing HAM/TSP patients were higher than those in the CSF from patients with OINDs, and these patients showed higher sOX40 levels in the CSF than in the plasma. When our newly produced monoclonal antibody against OX40 was added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture, HTLV-1-infected T cells were specifically removed by a mechanism that depends on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Conclusions Our study identified OX40 as a key molecule and biomarker for rapid progression of HAM/TSP. Furthermore, blocking OX40 may have potential in therapeutic intervention for HAM/TSP. PMID:23651542

  16. Surgical results of sacral perineural (Tarlov) cysts.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Ito, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Ikuma, Hisanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes and to determine indicators of the necessity of surgical intervention. Twelve consecutive patients harboring symptomatic sacral perineural cysts were treated between 1995 and 2003. All patients were assessed for neurological deficits and pain by neurological examination. Magnetic resonance of imaging, computerized tomography, and myelography were performed to detect signs of delayed filling of the cysts. We performed a release of the valve and imbrication of the sacral cysts with laminectomies in 8 cases or recapping laminectomies in 4 cases. After surgery, symptoms improved in 10 (83%) of 12 patients, with an average follow-up of 27 months. Ten patients had sacral perineural cysts with signs of positive filling defect. Two (17%) of 12 patients experienced no significant improvement. In one of these patients, the filling defect was negative. In conclusion, a positive filling defect may become an indicator of good treatment outcomes. PMID:16508691

  17. Epidural abscess T5T8 due to methicillin-resistent staphylococcus aureus in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Shaoqi, He; Lixing, Lin; Chengxuan, Tang; Guojing, Yang

    2010-10-01

    A 28-year-old man was admitted with severe thoracic pain, a body temperature of 37.20, paraplegia and sphincter disturbances. MRI revealed an epidural abscess T5T8. A decompressive laminectomy T5T8 was performed and the abscess was removed. A methicillin-resistent Staphylococcus aureus was cultured. Vancomycin was administered. Six months later muscle testing showed values from 3/5 to 4/5. MRI is the first choice diagnostic tool. Laminectomy, drainage and intravenous antibiotics constitute the basic treatment. Antibiotics alone can be sufficient in case of whole spine involvement, lumbosacral localization without neurological symptoms, fixed neurological deficit, complete paralysis for more than 72 hours, or severe concomitant medical problems. PMID:21138231

  18. Evoked potential versus behavior to detect minor insult to the spinal cord in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gracee; Thakor, Nitish V; All, Angelo H

    2009-08-01

    Reliable outcome measurement is needed for spinal cord injury research to critically evaluate the severity of injury and recovery thereafter. However, such measurements can sometimes be affected by minor, injury to the spinal cord during surgical procedures, including laminectomy. The open-field Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) behavior motor scores are subjective and prone to human error. We investigated somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) as an electrophysiological measure to assess the integrity of the spinal cord after injury. In our experiment, control rats with a minor unintentional spinal cord insult during laminectomy showed a decrease in SEP amplitude by 16% to 18%, which recovered in around 7 days. However, there was no change in the BBB scores for the same animals over the same period. This highlights the sensitivity of SEP to minor insult as compared to BBB. These differences may be beneficial in accurate evaluation of the severity and progression of spinal cord injury, and subsequent recovery. PMID:19419872

  19. Endovascular treatment of a giant aorto-ostial renal artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vulev, Ivan; Klepanec, Andrej; Madaric, Juraj; Tomka, Jan; Sefranek, Vladimir

    2011-11-01

    Vascular complications after lumbar laminectomy are rare, but are potentially life-threatening. A 59-year-old man presented with progressive and worsening abdominal pain over several weeks. Multidetector computed tomography angiography revealed a large aorto-ostial left renal artery pseudoaneurysm 3 years after lumbar laminectomy. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated with a combination of various endovascular techniques ("jailed" microcatheter technique, stent-graft implantation, thrombin injection, balloon remodeling technique, Onyx application), with preserved patency of the left renal artery and pseudoaneurysm exclusion on 6-month follow-up multidetector computed tomography angiography. The size and location of this pseudoaneurysm and the combination of different techniques for endovascular treatment provides an update on current endovascular technology. Combination of different endovascular techniques can be a safe and feasible alternative for the treatment of complicated iatrogenic postlaminectomy vascular injuries and renal artery pseudoaneurysms. PMID:21835587

  20. Delayed Diagnosis of Cauda Eqina Syndrome with Perineural Cyst after Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia in Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Sudo, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared. PMID:24066221

  1. Delayed diagnosis of cauda eqina syndrome with perineural cyst after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Shigeo; Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Sudo, Akihiro

    2013-09-01

    Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared. PMID:24066221

  2. Concurrent occipital hypoplasia, occipital dysplasia, syringohydromyelia, and hydrocephalus in a Yorkshire terrier

    PubMed Central

    Cagle, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of a 7.5-year-old neutered male Yorkshire terrier with mild generalized ataxia and intermittent neck scratching led to a diagnosis of caudal occipital malformation and syringohydromyelia. Surgical exploration led to a diagnosis of occipital dysplasia with concurrent occipital hypoplasia. Following a dorsal laminectomy of the first cervical vertebra there was no progression or improvement a month later. PMID:21037897

  3. Common Aches and Pains What You Need To Know andWhat You Need To Know and

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    for Communityy Dwelling Elderly #12;EXERCISE!EXERCISE! Be Proactive About Managing Your Health Cardio FlexibilityShoulder Decompression distal clavicle excision and/or acromioplasty #12;Sh ld E iShoulder Exercises #12;S iSpine 7 Spinal Laminectomy #12;N k E i & T t tNeck Exercises & Treatment #12;B k E i & T t tBack Exercises

  4. Hemodynamic evaluation of the prone position by transesophageal echocardiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeyoshi Toyota; Yoshikiyo Amaki

    1998-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate the hemodynamic response in the prone position in surgical patients by measuring the effects of prone positioning on cardiac function using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).Design: Prospective study.Setting: Elective surgery at a university hospital.Patients: 15 adult ASA physical status I and II patients free of significant coexisting disease undergoing lumbar laminectomy.Interventions and Measurements: Approximately 15 minutes after the

  5. Decompression for Chiari type I-malformation ( with or without syringomyelia ) by extreme lateral foramen magnum opening and expansile duraplasty with arachnoid preservation: comparison with other technical modalities (Literature review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sindou; E. Gimbert

    Posterior craniocervical decompression is the procedure most currently used for treating Chiari I malformation (alone or in\\u000a association with syringomyelia in the absence of hydrocephalus). We reviewed the various technical modalities reported in\\u000a the literature. We present a personal series of 44 patients harboring Chiari type I malformation (CM-I) operated with a suboccipital\\u000a craniectomy and a C1 (or C1\\/C2) laminectomy,

  6. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rajendra; Middha, Sanjay; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Nath, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Background: The long term outcomes of decompressive surgery on relief of pain and disability in degenerative lumbar canal stenosis are unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical management of secondary degenerative lumbar canal stenosis and to analyze the effect on outcome variables using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis managed surgically were included in this study. Laminectomy (n=2), laminectomy with disectomy (n=23), laminectomy and disectomy with instrumental stabilization (n=5), and laminectomy, disectomy with posterior interbody fusion (n=2) were performed. JOA scoring system for low backache was used to assess the patients. The recovery rate was calculated as described by Hirabayashi et al. (1981). Surgical outcome was assessed based on the recovery rate and was classified using a four-grade scale: Excellent, improvement of >90%; good, 75–89% improvement; fair, 50–74% improvement; and poor, below 49% improvement. The patients were evaluated at 3 months, one year and at last followup. Results: At 3-month followup, 18.75% patients showed excellent outcome, 62.50% patients showed good outcome, and 18.75% showed fair outcome. At 1-year followup, 64% patients showed excellent outcome and 36% patients showed good outcome. At >1 year followup (average 34.2 months, range: 2–110 months), 64% patients showed excellent outcome, 28% showed good outcome, and 8% showed fair outcome. No patient had poor outcome. Outcome of the patients improved as the time after surgery increased till 1 year and was sustained thereafter till the last followup. Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression. PMID:22719114

  7. Acute spinal cord compression due to epidural lipomatosis complicated by an abscess: magnetic resonance and pathology findings

    PubMed Central

    Pipitone, Nicolò; De Carli, Nicola; Vecchia, Luigi; Bartoletti, Stefano C.

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old male presented with rapidly progressive paraplegia. MR images of the thoracic spine were interpreted as being consistent with an abscess within an epidural lipomatosis compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed, and a large amount of pus was drained from the epidural lipomatosis, from which Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. This is the first reported case of an abscess involving an epidural lipomatosis. PMID:20372939

  8. Influence of connecting plate on construct stiffness of spinal implants and motion of adjacent segments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hon So

    2003-01-01

    An in vitro biomechanical study compared the influence of connecting plates on construct stiffness and motion of adjacent segments. Twelve porcine lumbar spines were destabilized by laminectomy and instrumented at the L3 and L4 vertebrae by one of three transpedicular screw fixation systems: Cotrel?Dubousset, Diapason, and a newly designed implant (FPI).The current study demonstrated that connecting plates significantly increased the

  9. A rare case of complete C2–C3 dislocation with mild neurological symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theofilos G. Machinis; Kostas N. Fountas; E. Z. Kapsalaki; I. Kapsalakis; A. A. Grigorian

    2006-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of complete C2–C3 dislocation with unexpectedly mild neurological symptoms in a 57 year old\\u000a man involved in a motor vehicle accident, who had previously undergone posterior laminectomy from C3 through C7. A retrospective\\u000a chart analysis and a thorough radiographic review were performed. X-rays and CT of the cervical spine demonstrated a complete\\u000a dislocation at the

  10. Direct Evidence for Calpain Involvement in Apoptotic Death of Neurons in Spinal Cord Injury in Rats and Neuroprotection with Calpain Inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Sribnick; Denise D. Matzelle; Naren L. Banik; Swapan K. Ray

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate calpain involvement in neurodegeneration in rat spinal cord injury (SCI), we examined SCI segments for DNA\\u000a fragmentation, neurons for calpain overexpression, neuronal death, and neuroprotection with calpain inhibitor (E-64-d). After\\u000a the induction of SCI (40 g cm force) on T12, rats were treated within 15 min with vehicle (DMSO) or E-64-d. Sham animals underwent\\u000a laminectomy only. Animals were sacrificed at 24 h,

  11. Intraspinal synovial cysts: natural history and diagnosis by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminghytt, S.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1982-11-01

    Synovial cysts rarely have been recognized in the spinal canal. In one subsequently proved case, and in three other unproved cases that we are reporting, computed tomography (CT) showed the synovial cyst as an encapsulated cystic structure that was adjacent to a degenerated L4-5 facet joint. Although a synovial cyst may clinically simulate a herniated disk or a intraspinal tumor at myelography, it can be identified reliably by CT, and thereby exploratory laminectomy may be prevented.

  12. Effects of tadalafil-Type-V phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitor-On rats with spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Salim; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Bozkurt, Ismail; Gurcan, Oktay; Eroglu, Hakan; Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Bodur, Ebru; Bavbek, Murad

    2015-04-01

    In this research, the effect of tadalafil, a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, on rats with spinal trauma was evaluated. The evaluation consisted of neurological examination and biochemical parameters. Twenty healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. They were separated into three groups: tadalafil-receiving (TD) group (n = 7), laminectomy and trauma (LT) group (n = 7), and just laminectomy group (n = 6). The TD group received daily dose of tadalafil (10 mg/kg) for a week along with bait and water. Each rat's spinal cord was dissected with utter caution. The spinal cord was traumatized by Allen's weight-drop method. Using a standard apparatus, 5 g of weight was dropped from a height of 10 cm on the spinal cords of the TD and LT (laminectomy + trauma) group. No extra maneuvers were conducted on the laminectomy group. A day later, the rat's functional neurological status was examined followed by re-exploration of the spinal cord for sampling 1 cm of tissue. The Tarlov scale was used to evaluate the functional neurological status. The modified Tarlov scale was rated to be significantly higher in the TD group than that in the LT group. For the biochemical parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) and cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) involved in the inflammatory process were examined. MDA-an indicator of lipid peroxidation-was found to be significantly lower in the TD group compared with that in the LT group. TNF-? and IL-6 levels were also found to be lower in the TD group compared with those in the LT group. Shortly, this research showed that the use of TD group in spinal trauma resulted in better neurological outcome and significant improvement in biochemical parameters. PMID:25380483

  13. CT identification of postlaminectomy pseudomeningocele

    SciTech Connect

    Teplick, J.G.; Peyster, R.G.; Teplick, S.K.; Goodman, L.R.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-06-01

    A postlaminectomy pseudomeningocele is a spherical, fluid-filled space with fibrous capsule lying dorsal to the thecal canal in the laminectomy opening that occasionally develops after surgery. Eight cases were found in 400 symptomatic postlaminectomy patients undergoing computed tomographic examination. The contents are of cerebrospinal fluid density and may or may not have demonstrable communication with the subarachnoid space. Whether they are the cause of symptoms is conjectural; none of these eight patients had surgical removal.

  14. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  15. Treatment Results in the Differential Surgery of Intradural Extramedullary Schwannoma of 110 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Chunxiang; Wei, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study of intradural extramedullary schwannoma. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare treatment results in the differential surgery of intradural extramedullary schwannoma. Background A reference guide to the surgical procedures available to treat intradural extramedullary schwannoma has not yet been established. Methods The study retrospectively reviewed 110 patients: Group A: laminectomy+microscopic excision; Group B: hemilaminectomy+microscopic excision; Group C: laminectomy+microscopic excision+pedicle screw fixation. Researchers selected patients for this retrospective review by applying the following criteria: 1) back pain spread out from the tumor level, sensory and motor loss; 2) treatment by surgery; 3) clinical diagnosis made by physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and pathology; 4) a minimum clinical and radiologic follow-up of 12 months. The clinical outcomes were assessed by comparing the Visual Analogue Pain Scores (VAS) and the Japanese Orthopedic Association Scores (JOA score). The study also performed a cost-effectiveness analysis. Results Cervical vertebrae: The estimated blood loss in Group B was significantly less than in Group C (P<0.05) (Table 1). Thoracic vertebrae: The duration of hospital stay and estimated blood loss in Group A was significantly less than in Group C (P<0.05) (Table 2, 3). Lumbar vertebrae: The resection rate in Group C was significantly higher than in Group A and Group B (P<0.05) (Table 4). Treatment in Group B was the least expensive, and therefore, the most cost-effective. Conclusion In the case of appropriate surgical indications, the study suggests that hemilaminectomy+microscopic excision is advantageous in the removal of cervical schwannoma, and that laminectomy+microscopic excision is advantageous in the removal of thoracic schwannoma; lumbar intradural extramedullary schwannoma can be managed by laminectomy+microscopic excision+pedicle screw fixation. PMID:23724010

  16. Midterm outcome after unilateral approach for bilateral decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis: 5-year prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halit Çavu?o?lu; Ramazan Alper Kaya; Osman Nuri Türkmenoglu; Cengiz Tuncer; ?brahim Çolak; Yunus Ayd?n

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the results and effectiveness of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in\\u000a the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We have conducted a prospective study to compare the midterm outcome\\u000a of unilateral laminotomy with unilateral laminectomy. One hundred patients with 269 levels of lumbar stenosis without instability\\u000a were randomized to two treatment

  17. Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in the Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kalbarczyk; A. Lukes; R. W. Seiler

    1998-01-01

    Summary  ?148 elderly patients, aged 70 years or more, diagnosed as having lumbar spinal stenosis, were operated upon at our institution\\u000a during 1983 to 1995. Totally 161 operative procedures were performed. We analysed retrospectively the results of the surgical\\u000a treatment.\\u000a \\u000a ?The most frequently performed procedure was multisegmental laminectomy, in 32% interlaminar fenestration and laminotomy were\\u000a done. In 9 cases fusion was

  18. Marfan syndrome and symptomatic sacral cyst: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Paul M.; Teuber, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Context Meningeal abnormalities such as dural ectasia are seen in Marfan syndrome, but spinal meningeal cysts are rarely seen. These cysts usually asymptomatic and often found incidentally on magnetic resonance imaging, large cysts may cause neurological deficits and pain secondary to nerve root compression. Design Case reports. Findings Two patients with Marfan syndrome presented with urinary symptoms secondary to dural ectasia and sacral cysts. Patient 1 had a history of low back pain, erectile dysfunction, and occasional urinary incontinence and groin pain with recent symptom worsening. He underwent L5 partial laminectomy and S1-S2 laminectomy with sacral cyst decompression. Nine weeks later, he underwent drainage of a sacral pseudomeningocele. Pain and urinary symptoms resolved, and he remains neurologically normal 2 years after surgery. Patient 2 presented after a fall on his tailbone, complaining of low back pain and difficulty urinating. Physical therapy was implemented, but after 4 weeks, urinary retention had not improved. He then underwent resection of the sacral cyst and S1-S3 laminectomy. Pain and paresthesias resolved and bowel function returned to normal. Other than needing intermittent self-catheterization, all other neurologic findings were normal 30 months after surgery. Conclusion/clinical relevance Surgical goals for sacral cysts include resection as well as closure of the dura, which can be challenging due to thinning from ectasia. Neurosurgical intervention in Marfan syndrome is associated with a high risk of dural tears and osseous complications, and should be performed only when symptoms are severe. PMID:23941798

  19. Long-term results of selective dorsal rhizotomy for hereditary spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Kai, Ma; Yongjie, Li; Ping, Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Pure hereditary spastic paraparesis usually presents with progressive weakness and spasticity of the legs, which is similar to spastic cerebral palsy. In this study selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) was performed to improve the spasticity of pure hereditary spastic paraparesis and the long-term results were followed. A series of four patients with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team received SDR. The dorsal rootlets from the L2 to S1 levels were selectively resected under electrophysiological monitoring. The patients were followed up for more than 2 years to evaluate the outcome of surgery. There was a significant reduction in muscular spasm after SDR. Standing and walking stability were improved in all patients which led to improvement in walking posture and longer walking distance without assistance. No urinary retention, cerebrospinal fluid leak, surgical infection or kyphosis occurred. For severe pure hereditary spastic paraparesis, SDR can reduce muscle spasm and improve standing and walking stability. These results were stable throughout follow-up. SDR performed at the level of the conus medullaris through a laminectomy from T12 to L1 or L1 to L2 requires a shorter incision, laminectomy of fewer segments, and has a shorter operation time than the usual method (laminectomy from L2 to S1). Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is helpful to discriminate abnormal rootlets and protect sphincter function. PMID:24153323

  20. Biomechanical evaluation of a novel nucleus pulposus prosthesis in canine cadaveric spines.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Lucas Adam; Bergknut, Niklas; Kingma, Idsart; van der Veen, Albert Jan; Smit, Theodoor Henri; Koole, Levinus Hendrik; Hazewinkel, Herman Anthonie Willem; Meij, Björn Petrus

    2012-05-01

    Partial disc replacement is a new surgical technique aimed at restoring functionality to degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs). The aim of the present study was to assess biomechanically the behaviour of a novel nucleus pulposus prosthesis (NPP) in situ and its ability to restore functionality to the canine IVD after nuclectomy alone or after combined dorsal laminectomy and nuclectomy. Nine canine T13-L5 specimens (L2L3 group) and 10 L5-Cd1 specimens (LS group) were tested biomechanically in the native state, after nuclectomy (L2L3 group) or after combined dorsal laminectomy and nuclectomy (LS group), and after insertion of the NPP. Range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), and neutral zone stiffness (NZS) were determined in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Nuclectomy alone and combined dorsal laminectomy and nuclectomy caused significant instability in all motion directions. Implantation of the NPP resulted in significant restoration of the parameters (ROM, NZ, and NZS) towards the native state; however, fragmentation/herniation of the NPP occurred in 47% of the cases. In conclusion, the NPP has the ability to improve functionality of the nuclectomized canine IVD. The high rate of NPP failure requires modifications directed at the integrity of the NPP and its confinement to the nuclear cavity. PMID:21727014

  1. A valuable animal model of spinal cord injury to study motor dysfunctions, comorbid conditions, and aging associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Pascal; Guertin, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    Most animal models of contused, compressed or transected spinal cord injury (SCI) require a laminectomy to be performed. However, despite advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these models, the laminectomy itself is generally associated with significant problems including longer surgery and anaesthesia (related post-operative complications), neuropathic pain, spinal instabilities, deformities, lordosis, and biomechanical problems, etc. This review provides an overview of findings obtained mainly from our laboratory that are associated with the development and characterization of a novel murine model of spinal cord transection that does not require a laminectomy. A number of studies successfully conducted with this model provided strong evidence that it constitutes a simple, reliable and reproducible transection model of complete paraplegia which is particularly useful for studies on large cohorts of wild-type or mutant animals - e.g., drug screening studies in vivo or studies aimed at characterizing neuronal and non-neuronal adaptive changes post-trauma. It is highly suitable also for studies aimed at identifying and developing new pharmacological treatments against aging associated comorbid problems and specific SCI-related dysfunctions (e.g., stereotyped motor behaviours such as locomotion, sexual response, defecation and micturition) largely related with 'command centers' located in lumbosacral areas of the spinal cord. PMID:23360275

  2. Potential risk of mitomycin C at high concentrations on peripheral nerve structure

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Tao; Zhang, Jinhong; Du, Shihao; Su, Changhui; Que, Jun; Cao, Xiaojian

    2014-01-01

    Although the local application of mitomycin C may prevent epidural adhesion after laminectomy, mitomycin C can induce neurotoxicity in optic and acoustic nerves at high concentrations. To determine the safe concentration range for mitomycin C, cotton pads soaked with mitomycin C at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mg/mL) were immediately applied for 5 minutes to the operation area of rats that had undergone laminectomy at L1. Rat sciatic nerves, instead of dorsal nerves, were used in this study. The results showed that mitomycin C at 0.1-0.5 mg/mL did not damage the structure and function of the sciatic nerve, while at 0.7 mg/mL, mitomycin C significantly reduced the thickness of the sciatic nerve myelin sheath compared with lower concentrations, though no functional change was found. These experimental findings indicate that the local application of mitomycin C at low concentrations is safe to prevent scar adhesion following laminectomy, but that mitomycin C at high concentrations (> 0.7 mg/mL) has potential safety risks to peripheral nerve structures. PMID:25206895

  3. Tax Posttranslational Modifications and Interaction with Calreticulin in MT-2 Cells and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastian; Alberti, Carolina; Barriga, Andres; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Ramírez, Eugenio; Ferreira, Arturo; Tanaka, Yuetsu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The human retrovirus human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Axonal degeneration in HAM/TSP patients occurs without neuron infection, with the secreted viral Tax protein proposed to be involved. We previously found that Tax secreted into the culture medium of MT-2 cells (HTLV-1-infected cell line) produced neurite retraction in neuroblastoma cells differentiated to neuronal type. To assess the relevance of Tax posttranslational modifications on this effect, we addressed the question of whether Tax secreted by MT-2 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HTLV-1-infected subjects is modified. The interaction of Tax with calreticulin (CRT) that modulates intracellular Tax localization and secretion has been described. We studied Tax localization and modifications in MT-2 cells and its interaction with CRT. Intracellular Tax in MT-2 cells was assessed by flow cytometry, corresponding mainly to a 71-kDa protein followed by western blot. This protein reported as a chimera with gp21 viral protein—confirmed by mass spectrometry—showed no ubiquitination or SUMOylation. The Tax–CRT interaction was determined by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation. Extracellular Tax from HAM/TSP PBMCs is ubiquitinated according to western blot, and its interaction with CRT was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. A positive correlation between Tax and CRT secretion was observed in HAM/TSP PBMCs and asymptomatic carriers. For both proteins inhibitors and activators of secretion showed secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi complex. Tax, present in PBMC culture medium, produced neurite retraction in differentiated neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that Tax, whether ubiquitinated or not, is active for neurite retraction. PMID:24321043

  4. Evaluation of Anterior Cervical Reconstruction with Titanium Mesh Cages versus Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Polyamide66 Cages after 1- or 2-Level Corpectomy for Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Retrospective Study of 117 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Luo, Xiaoji; Tang, Ke; Li, Jie; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Dianming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively compare the efficacy of the titanium mesh cage (TMC) and the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cage (n-HA/PA66 cage) for 1- or 2-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM). Methods A total of 117 consecutive patients with MCSM who underwent 1- or 2-level ACCF using a TMC or an n-HA/PA66 cage were studied retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 45.28±12.83 months. The patients were divided into four groups according to the level of corpectomy (1- or 2-level corpectomy) and cage type used (TMC or n-HA/PA66 cage). Clinical and radiological parameters were used to evaluate outcomes. Results At the one-year follow-up, the fusion rate in the n-HA/PA66 group was higher, albeit non-significantly, than that in the TMC group for both 1- and 2-level ACCF, but the fusion rates of the procedures were almost equal at the final follow-up. The incidence of cage subsidence at the final follow-up was significantly higher in the TMC group than in the n-HA/PA66 group for the 1-level ACCF (24% vs. 4%, p?=?0.01), and the difference was greater for the 2-level ACCF between the TMC group and the n-HA/PA66 group (38% vs. 5%, p?=?0.01). Meanwhile, a much greater loss of fused height was observed in the TMC group compared with the n-HA/PA66 group for both the 1- and 2-level ACCF. All four groups demonstrated increases in C2-C7 Cobb angle and JOA scores and decreases in VAS at the final follow-up compared with preoperative values. Conclusion The lower incidence of cage subsidence, better maintenance of the height of the fused segment and similar excellent bony fusion indicate that the n-HA/PA66 cage may be a superior alternative to the TMC for cervical reconstruction after cervical corpectomy, in particular for 2-level ACCF. PMID:24789144

  5. Risk factors for scoliosis in children with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paulino, Arnold C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory Clinic, Emory University (United States) and Department of Pediatrics, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)]. E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Fowler, B. Zach [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory Clinic, Emory University (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors for scoliosis in children treated for neuroblastoma. Methods and materials: From 1957 to 1997, 58 children with neuroblastoma were treated at one institution and have survived a minimum of 5 years. There were 35 boys and 23 girls with a median age of 6 months (range, 2 weeks to 15 years) at initial diagnosis. Primary site was located in the adrenal gland in 25 (43.1%), abdominal/nonadrenal in 16 (27.6%), thoracic in 12 (20.7%), cervical in 3 (5.3%), and pelvic region in 2 (3.5%). The International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage was Stage 1 in 10 (17.2%), Stage 2A in 7 (12.1%), Stage 2B in 5 (8.6%), Stage 3 in 22 (37.9%), Stage 4 in 4 (6.9%), and Stage 4S in 10 (17.2%). Thirty-three (56.9%) received chemotherapy whereas 5 (8.6%) had a laminectomy as part of the surgical procedure. Twenty-seven (46.6%) received radiotherapy (RT). Beam energy was 1.25 MV in 11 (41%), 250 kV in 10 (37%), 4 MV in 4 (15%), and 6-MV photons in 1 patient. One patient received 300 cGy in 1 fraction total skin RT using 6-MeV electrons. For the remaining patients, fraction size was 100 cGy in 6 (22%), 150-180 cGy in 11 (41%), 200 cGy in 4 (15%), and 250-300 cGy in 3. Three patients had total body irradiation at 333 cGy for 3 fractions. For all children who received RT, median total dose was 2000 cGy (range, 300-3900 cGy). Patients who were treated with RT had plain films of the irradiated area every 1 to 2 years until at least the age of puberty. Median follow-up was 10 years (range, 5-46 years). Results: The overall 5-, 10-, and 15-year scoliosis-free rates were 87.6%, 79.0%, and 76.0% respectively. Twelve (21%) developed scoliosis at a median time of 51 months (range, 8-137 months). The degree of scoliosis was mild ({<=}20 deg ) in 8 (67%). Four had scoliosis ranging from 30 deg to 66 deg ; 3 of these patients required surgical intervention, whereas 1 had an underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy which manifested itself 8 years after diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Median time to scoliosis was 23 months (range, 8-54 months) in children who had a laminectomy. On multivariate analysis, both history of laminectomy (p = 0.0005) and use of RT (p = 0.0284) were found to be risk factors for development of scoliosis. Gender, age at diagnosis, INSS stage, primary site, and use of chemotherapy were not found to be significant. Both RT fraction size and beam energy were also not significant, but increasing total RT dose was found to be significant (p = 0.0039). The 15-year scoliosis-free rates were 20% for children who had a laminectomy and 81.3% for those who did not have a laminectomy. The 15-year scoliosis-free rates for children treated with RT doses 0 cGy, 1-1750 cGy, 1751-2300 cGy, and >2300 cGy were 91.7%, 87.5%, 51.4%, and 44.4% respectively. Conclusions: Treatment-related factors, namely laminectomy and radiotherapy, were found to increase the risk of scoliosis in patients with neuroblastoma. Children who had a laminectomy were more likely to manifest scoliosis earlier. Increasing RT dose was found to impact adversely on the development of scoliosis.

  6. The Effects of Lumbar Facet Dowels on Joint Stiffness: A Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Trahan, Jayme; Morales, Eric; Richter, Erich O.; Tender, Gabriel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Facet joint arthrosis may play a significant role in low back pain generation. The placement of facet dowels is a percutaneous treatment that aims to fuse the facets and increase joint stiffness. In this cadaveric study, we evaluated spine stiffness after facet dowel insertion in combination with several surgical procedures and determined which motions promote dowel migration. Methods Six fresh frozen lumbar spines were tested in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Spine stiffness was determined for the intact specimens, after L4 laminectomy, and after bilateral L4-L5 facet dowel placement, respectively. One specimen underwent a unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) construct and another underwent extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) graft (22 mm) placement, followed by placement of facet dowels. Afterwards, the specimens were subjected to 10,000 cycles of fatigue testing in flexion-extension or axial rotation. Results The overall decrease in stiffness after laminectomy was 4.6%. Facet dowel placement increased overall stiffness by 7.2%. The greatest increase was seen with axial rotation (13%), compared to flexion, extension, and lateral bending (9.5%, 2.3%, and 5.6%, respectively). The TLIF and XLIF plus dowel construct increased specimen stiffness to 266% and 163% of baseline, respectively. After fatigue testing, dowel migration was detected by computed tomography in the 2 uninstrumented specimens undergoing axial rotation cycling. Conclusion Facet dowels increase the stiffness of the motion segment to which they are applied and can be used in conjunction with laminectomy procedures to increase the stiffness of the joint. However, dowel migration can occur after axial rotation movements. Hybrid TLIF or XLIF plus facet dowel constructs have significantly higher stiffness than noninstrumented ones and may prevent dowel migration. PMID:24688332

  7. C5 Nerve root palsies following cervical spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical C5 nerve root palsies may occur in between 0% and 30% of routine anterior or posterior cervical spine operations. They are largely attributed to traction injuries/increased cord migration following anterior/posterior decompressions. Of interest, almost all studies cite spontaneous resolution of these deficits without surgery with 3–24 postoperative months. Methods: Different studies cite various frequencies for C5 root palsies following anterior or posterior cervical spine surgery. In their combined anterior/posterior series involving C4-C5 level decompressions, Libelski et al. cited up to a 12% incidence of C5 palsies. In Gu et al. series, C5 root palsies occurred in 3.1% of double-door laminoplasty, 4.5% of open-door laminoplasty, and 11.3% of laminectomy. Miller et al. observed an intermediate 6.9% frequency of C5 palsies followed by posterior cervical decompressions and fusions (PCDF). Results: Gu et al. also identified multiple risk factors for developing C5 palsies following posterior surgery; male gender, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), narrower foramina, laminectomy, and marked dorsal spinal cord drift. Miller et al. also identified an average $1918 increased cost for physical/occupational therapy for patients with C5 palsies. Conclusions: The incidence of C5 root deficits for anterior/posterior cervical surgery at C4-C5 was 12% in one series, and ranged up to 11.3% for laminectomies, while others cited 0–30%. Although identification of preoperative risk factors for C5 root deficits may help educate patients regarding these risks, there is no clear method for their avoidance at this time. PMID:26005577

  8. Cervico-oculo-acoustic (Wildervanck) syndrome: clinicoradiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Rihani, Farouk Bassam

    2013-01-01

    We describe a girl presented with facial asymmetry and oral mucosal cleft and with further investigations other anomalies were found including hearing loss, Duane syndrome, Klippel-Feil anomaly, Chiari malformation and accessory bone mass in mandibular ramus leading to the clinical diagnosis of cervico-oculo-acoustic (Wildervanck) syndrome (COAS). The patient underwent surgical occipital decompression by preforming suboccipital craniectomy and C1 posterior laminectomy to relieve the cerebellar tonsillar herniation. Surgical removal of mandibular bony mass was done and the patient is now under orthodontic treatment to correct facial asymmetry and malocclusion. PMID:23616324

  9. Validation of a Score Predicting Post-Treatment Ambulatory Status After Radiotherapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Douglas, Sarah; Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Basic, Hiba [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Karstens, Johann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Hoskin, Peter J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Mount Vernon Cancer Center, Northwood (United Kingdom); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: A score predicting post-radiotherapy (RT) ambulatory status was developed based on 2,096 retrospectively evaluated metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients. This study aimed to validate the score in a prospective series. Methods and Materials: The score included five factors associated with post-RT ambulatory status: tumor type, interval tumor diagnosis to MSCC, visceral metastases, pre-RT motor function, time developing motor deficits. Patients were divided into five groups: 21-28, 29-31, 32-34, 35-37, 38-44 points. In this study, 653 prospectively followed patients were divided into the same groups. Furthermore, the number of prognostic groups was reduced from five to three (21-28, 29-37, 38-44 points). Post-RT ambulatory rates from this series were compared with the retrospective series. Additionally, this series was compared with 104 patients receiving decompressive surgery plus RT (41 laminectomy, 63 laminectomy plus stabilization of vertebrae). Results: In this study, post-RT ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 43.5% (29-31 points), 71.0% (32-34 points), 89.5% (35-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points). Ambulatory rates from the retrospective study were 6.2%, 43.5%, 70.0%, 86.1%, and 98.7%. After regrouping, ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 70.9% (29-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points) in this series, and 6.2%, 68.4%, and 98.7% in the retrospective series. Ambulatory rates were 0%, 62.5%, and 90.9% in the laminectomy plus RT group, and 14.3%, 83.9%, and 100% in the laminectomy + stabilization plus RT group. Conclusions: Ambulatory rates in the different groups in this study were similar to those in the retrospective study demonstrating the validity of the score. Using only three groups is simplier for clinical routine.

  10. [Epidural extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Rafael; Bernal-García, Luis Miguel; Pineda-Palomo, Manuel; Botana-Fernández, Marcos; Gilete-Tejero, Ignacio Javier; Cabezudo-Artero, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant tumour of the bone that sometimes presents extraskeletal involvement, with the epidural location being rare. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with paresthesia, paresis and urinary retention. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass from C6 to D3. Laminectomy from C7 to D2 and partial resection of the lesion was performed. Pathological analysis was consistent with Ewing sarcoma. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, without evidence of disease at 8 months follow-up. A review of the literature on all published cases of extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma with epidural involvement is presented. PMID:25497289

  11. Reconstruction of posterior neck and skull with vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap

    SciTech Connect

    Mathes, S.J.; Stevenson, T.R.

    1988-10-01

    The vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap has been successfully utilized for reconstruction in 13 patients with complex posterior skull and neck defects. This flap based on its vascular pedicle, the descending branch of the transverse cervical artery, provides well-vascularized tissue for coverage of defects related to chronic osteomyelitis, tumor extirpation, osteoradionecrosis, and dehisced cervical laminectomy wounds. Emphasis on flap design, including the location of the skin island, allows adequate wound coverage, direct donor site closure, and muscle function preservation. With its large size and wide arc of rotation, the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap provides reliable coverage for posterior trunk, cervical, and skull defects.

  12. Spinal subdural hematoma with cauda equina syndrome: A complication of combined spinal epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neha; Sethi, Priyanka; Jain, Jitesh Kumar; Agarwal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSE) is considered safe in lower limb surgeries. We report a case of sudden neurological deterioration in a stable postoperative patient who was given CSE for total knee replacement and low molecular weight heparin in postoperative period. On the 4(th) postoperative day, she developed sudden onset weakness in left lower limb along with bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging spine revealed a subdural hematoma at L2-L3 level. Immediate laminectomy along with cord decompression was done and patient recovered well except for a persistent foot drop on left side. PMID:25948911

  13. Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggal, Neil

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  14. Clinical symptoms and the odds of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in healthy virus carriers: application of best-fit logistic regression equation based on host genotype, age, and provirus load.

    PubMed

    Nose, Hirohisa; Saito, Mineki; Usuku, Koichiro; Sabouri, Amir H; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Kubota, Ryuji; Eiraku, Nobutaka; Furukawa, Yoshitaka; Izumo, Shuji; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    2006-06-01

    The authors have previously developed a logistic regression equation to predict the odds that a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individual of specified genotype, age, and provirus load has HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in southern Japan. This study evaluated whether this equation is useful predictor for monitoring asymptomatic HTLV-1-seropositive carriers (HCs) in the same population. The authors genotyped 181 HCs for each HAM/TSP-associated gene (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha-863A/C, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) +801G/A, human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-A*02, HLA-Cw*08, HTLV-1 tax subgroup) and measured HTLV-1 provirus load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the odds of HAM/TSP for each subject were calculated by using the equation and compared the results with clinical symptoms and laboratory findings. Although no clear difference was seen between the odds of HAM/TSP and either sex, family history of HAM/TSP or adult T-cell lenkemia (ATL), history of blood transfusion, it was found that brisk patellar deep tendon reflexes, which suggest latent central nervous system compromise, and flower cell-like abnormal lymphocytes, which is the morphological characteristic of ATL cells, were associated with a higher odds of HAM/TSP. The best-fit logistic regression equation may be useful for detecting subclinical abnormalities in HCs in southern Japan. PMID:16877298

  15. A simple and effective semi-invasive method for inducing local hypothermia in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Bazley, Faith A; Pashai, Nikta; Kerr, Candace; Thakor, Nitish; All, Angelo H

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia has been shown to be an effective treatment for spinal cord injury. Local hypothermia is advantageous because it avoids inducing systemic side effects of general hypothermia while providing the opportunity for greater temperature reduction at the site of injury, which may contribute to increased neuroprotection. We report a new semi-invasive method for inducing local hypothermia in rats' spinal cords. Our method does not require laminectomy or penetration of the dura and is more effective at cooling the cord than transcutaneous approaches. We show that we were successfully able to cool the spinal cord to 30.2 ± 0.3°C for 2 hours with rectal temperature maintained at 37.3 ± 0.3°C after a spinal cord contusion injury. We also validated our method in control rats that received only a laminectomy. Furthermore, this method was able to reliably cool and rewarm the cord at a steady rate (?5.5°C in 30 min, or 0.2°C/min). Future work will include validating long-term functional improvements of injured rats after treatment and to apply local cooling to other spinal cord injury models, such as compression injuries. PMID:24111186

  16. Foramen Magnum Meningioma: Some Anatomical and Surgical Remarks through Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Foramen magnum meningioma foramen magnum meningioma (FMM) represents 2% all of meningiomas. The clinical symptomatology is usually insidious and consists of headache, neck pain and hypoesthesia in C2 dermatome. Because of their location, the management is challenging. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the surgery of FMM. Overview of Literature Since 1938, numerous series have been published but they are very heterogeneous with high variability of location and surgical approaches. Methods During two years, we operated 5 patients with FMM. All the patients had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with angio-MRI to study the relationship between tumour and vertebral artery (VA). In all the cases, we used prone position. Results In one case, considering the tumour localization (posterior and pure intradural) the tumour was removed via a midline suboccipital approach with craniotomy and C1-C2 laminectomy. In all other cases, meningiomas were posterolateral (classification of George) with extradural extension in one case. In all cases, VA was surrounded by tumor. So, we opted for a modified postero-lateral approach with inverted L incision, craniotomy and C1-C2 laminectomy without resect occipital condyle. Epidural part of VA was identified and mobilized laterally. Once VA was identified we opened dura mater and began to remove the tumour. Conclusions In this paper, we present five cases of operated FMM, describe our approaches, the reason of each approach and propose some surgical remarks. PMID:25705335

  17. Adverse effects of the management of malignant spinal cord compression.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, G F

    1984-01-01

    As a prelude to further work which attempts to improve the management of metastatic spinal cord compression the efficacy and adverse effects of existing therapy has been assessed. All papers dealing with the management of malignant spinal cord compression since 1960 have been reviewed. Data from this review is presented in a novel manner in order to identify not only the degree of successful return to ambulation achieved but more importantly the extent of the adverse effects which occur during existing management. It is seen that, while in general some 35% of patients treated in any manner retain or return to the ability to walk, some 20% to 25% sustain major neurological deterioration. In addition, those patients treated by laminectomy who do deteriorate may be subject to a significant rate of perioperative mortality and major structural complications related to the surgical wounds. In the light of the adverse factors described, the role of laminectomy as first-line management of malignant cord compression is questioned. Alternative modes of treatment are discussed and a tentative scheme of management described which it is hoped will lead to a better quality of survival of the group as a whole in addition to maintaining, or perhaps, improving the rate of successful return to ambulation. PMID:6470717

  18. Spontaneous epidural hematoma of spine associated with clopidogrel: A case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Khalid Javid; Kapoor, Sidhart; Watali, Yamin Zahoor; Sharma, Jaggatar Ram

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon neurological emergency which can present with the features ranging from simple back pain with radiculopathy to complete paraplegia or quadriplegia depending on the site and severity of the compression. Spinal hemorrhage associated with anti-platelet drugs is rarely seen. We report a case of SSEH in a 68-year-old hypertensive male who was on a low dose clopidogrel for secondary stroke prophylaxis and presented with bilateral lower limb paralysis, preceeded by severe back bain. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed which revealed a posterior epidural hematoma of the thoraco-lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, not more than four cases of clopidogrel related spinal epidural hematoma have been reported. Emergent decompressive laminectomy was done within 4 hours of the presentation with excellent clinical outcome. Clinicians should, therefore, consider the remote risk of SSEH in hypertensive patients who are on anti-platelet drugs as early decompressive laminectomy and evacuation of the hematoma minimizes the permanent neurological damage. PMID:25767588

  19. Spontaneous epidural hematoma of spine associated with clopidogrel: A case study and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Khalid Javid; Kapoor, Sidhart; Watali, Yamin Zahoor; Sharma, Jaggatar Ram

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon neurological emergency which can present with the features ranging from simple back pain with radiculopathy to complete paraplegia or quadriplegia depending on the site and severity of the compression. Spinal hemorrhage associated with anti-platelet drugs is rarely seen. We report a case of SSEH in a 68-year-old hypertensive male who was on a low dose clopidogrel for secondary stroke prophylaxis and presented with bilateral lower limb paralysis, preceeded by severe back bain. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed which revealed a posterior epidural hematoma of the thoraco-lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, not more than four cases of clopidogrel related spinal epidural hematoma have been reported. Emergent decompressive laminectomy was done within 4 hours of the presentation with excellent clinical outcome. Clinicians should, therefore, consider the remote risk of SSEH in hypertensive patients who are on anti-platelet drugs as early decompressive laminectomy and evacuation of the hematoma minimizes the permanent neurological damage. PMID:25767588

  20. Hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Kaoutzanis, M; Anagnostopoulos, D; Apostolou, A

    1989-01-01

    Six cases of hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae are described. Four patients presented with paraparesis and sphincter disturbances while the other two presented with low back pain and sciatica. Myelographic findings were positive in all six patients. The CT scans showed a paravertebral mass with destruction of bone in two cases. The nuclear magnetic resonance performed in one patient showed the exact extent of the disease all along the spine. Posterior laminectomy with decompression of the spinal cord and removal of the hydatid cysts was performed in all six patients. After the operation four patients received oral treatment with mebendazole. The patients with paraparesis showed little improvement of their neurological status. The two patients with low back pain and sciatica showed marked improvement. Hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae presents with neurological complications due to cord compression. The prognosis remains poor in spite of laminectomy, although removal of the hydatid cysts and long-term mebendazole medication may result in relief of symptoms. PMID:2741736

  1. Acute spinal subdural hematoma complicating lumbar decompressive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kok Chun; Samartzis, Dino; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Wong, Yat-Wa

    2012-01-01

    Study design:?A case report. Objective:?To report a rare case of acute spinal subdural hematoma (SSH) complicating lumbar spine surgery, its characteristic presenting symptoms, diagnostic imaging, possible cause, and pitfall in management. Methods:?A 59-year-old woman with lumbar spinal instability and stenosis underwent laminectomy and decompression at L3–L5 with instrumentation and fusion from L3–S1. Results:?Immediately following surgery, the patient presented with incapacitating pain of both lower extremities from the mid-thigh downward, which was not relieved by narcotic analgesia and was disproportional to surgical trauma. Left ankle and great toes weakness was detected at postoperative day 2 and deteriorated on day 6. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed urgently and revealed a characteristic SSH with thecal sac compression at the level of L2, proximal to the laminectomy. Emergency decompression and evacuation of the hematoma was performed. The patient had partial recovery 6 weeks postoperatively. Conclusion:?Acute SSH is a rare complication of lumbar spine surgery. This diagnosis must be considered when severe leg pain, unresolved with analgesia and disproportional to surgical trauma, with neurological deterioration occurring after lumbar spine surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice to assist in the differential diagnosis of an SSH. Early surgical decompression is necessary for optimal neurological recovery. PMID:23236307

  2. Experience with surgical decompression of the Arnold-Chiari malformation in young infants with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Park, T S; Hoffman, H J; Hendrick, E B; Humphreys, R P

    1983-08-01

    Forty-five infants with myelomeningocele in whom hydrocephalus was absent or adequately controlled developed signs and symptoms of the Arnold-Chiari malformation before the age of 3 months. All of them underwent laminectomy and opening of the dura mater for hindbrain decompression. The clinical presentation included swallowing difficulty, apneic episodes, stridor, bronchial aspiration, arm weakness, and opisthotonos. Within 2 weeks of the initial clinical presentation, the neurological status of 14 patients (31%) deteriorated dramatically and culminated in irreversible neurological deficits. In all patients, compression of the brain stem occurred in the spinal canal. A transverse dural band constricting the dural sac at the C-1 level was noted in 41% of the patients, and a mild degree of arachnoidal adhesion was noted in 23%. The lowermost level of the cerebellar tongue or medullary kink was located at C-1 to C-4 in 28 cases and at C-5 to T-1 in 17 cases. Twenty-eight (62%) of the patients were alive and 17 (38%) had died at the last follow-up assessment. All survivors showed improvement of their overall neurological function. Twenty-four made a complete recovery. The majority of deaths were attributed to respiratory failure. Early recognition of symptoms and prompt decompressive laminectomy are essential for successful management of the Arnold-Chiari malformation in infants. PMID:6888694

  3. Preventive effect of dexamethasone gelatin sponge on the lumbosacral epidural adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fuming; Dou, Changwu; Qi, Songtao; Zhao, Liqun; Chen, Bo; Yan, Haicheng; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the preventive effect of dexamethasone gelatin sponge on the lumbosacral epidural adhesion in the laminectomy. Methods: A total of 36 Wista rats were divided into A, B, C and D groups randomly. Dexamethasone was not used in group A, Dexamethasone was used in group B, Dexamethasone was not used in group C but covered with gelatin sponge, dexamethasone gelatin sponge was used in group D. 3 rats in each group were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after operation respectively and the wound was opened to observe the dural scar formation and the dura adhesion. Immunohistochemical technique was used for histology observation. The expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 in the epidural scar and surrounding tissues were detected with western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. Results: According to the Rydell score standard, there were different degree of adhesion formation in A, B and C groups while there was no obvious adhesion formation in D group. It was confirmed that the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 in group D were lower than that of the other groups. Conclusions: Dexamethasone gelatin sponge could significantly reduce the occurrence of epidural scar tissue hyperplasia and adhesion after laminectomy in rats, and its mechanism may be related to the decreased expression of VEGF and VEGFR2.

  4. A case of cauda equina syndrome in early-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy clinically similar to charcot-marie-tooth disease type 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Seung Won; Ha, Sam Yeol; Nam, Taek Kyun

    2014-06-01

    To present a case of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) which seemed clinically similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMT1). CIDP is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy, either progressive or relapsing-remitting. It is a non-hereditary disorder characterized by symmetrical motor and sensory deficits. Rarely, spinal nerve roots can be involved, leading to CES by hypertrophic cauda equina. A 34-year-old man presented with low back pain, radicular pain, bilateral lower-extremity weakness, urinary incontinence, and constipation. He had had musculoskeletal deformities, such as hammertoes and pes cavus, since age 10. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the cauda equina. Electrophysiological testing showed increased distal latency, conduction blocks, temporal dispersion, and severe nerve conduction velocity slowing (3 m/s). We were not able to find genetic mutations at the PMP 22, MPZ, PRX, and EGR2 genes. The pathologic findings of the sural nerve biopsy revealed thinly myelinated nerve fibers with Schwann cells proliferation. We performed a decompressive laminectomy, intravenous IgG (IV-IgG) and oral steroid. At 1 week after surgery, most of his symptoms showed marked improvements except foot deformities. There was no relapse or aggravation of disease for 3 years. We diagnosed the case as an early-onset CIDP with cauda equine syndrome, whose initial clinical findings were similar to those of CMT1, and successfully managed with decompressive laminectomy, IV-IgG and oral steroid. PMID:25237436

  5. A Case of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Early-Onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Clinically Similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Ha, Sam Yeol; Nam, Taek Kyun

    2014-01-01

    To present a case of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) which seemed clinically similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMT1). CIDP is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy, either progressive or relapsing-remitting. It is a non-hereditary disorder characterized by symmetrical motor and sensory deficits. Rarely, spinal nerve roots can be involved, leading to CES by hypertrophic cauda equina. A 34-year-old man presented with low back pain, radicular pain, bilateral lower-extremity weakness, urinary incontinence, and constipation. He had had musculoskeletal deformities, such as hammertoes and pes cavus, since age 10. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the cauda equina. Electrophysiological testing showed increased distal latency, conduction blocks, temporal dispersion, and severe nerve conduction velocity slowing (3 m/s). We were not able to find genetic mutations at the PMP 22, MPZ, PRX, and EGR2 genes. The pathologic findings of the sural nerve biopsy revealed thinly myelinated nerve fibers with Schwann cells proliferation. We performed a decompressive laminectomy, intravenous IgG (IV-IgG) and oral steroid. At 1 week after surgery, most of his symptoms showed marked improvements except foot deformities. There was no relapse or aggravation of disease for 3 years. We diagnosed the case as an early-onset CIDP with cauda equine syndrome, whose initial clinical findings were similar to those of CMT1, and successfully managed with decompressive laminectomy, IV-IgG and oral steroid. PMID:25237436

  6. CCN5 attenuates profibrotic phenotypes of fibroblasts through the Smad6-CCN2 pathway: Potential role in epidural ?brosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Honghai; Liu, Cong; Sun, Zhengming; Guo, Xiong; Zhang, Yuelin; Liu, Mengting; Li, Peng

    2015-07-01

    Epidural ?brosis is characterized by the development of dense and thick scar tissue adjacent to the dural mater and ranked as the major contributor for post-operative pain recurrence after laminectomy or discectomy. Recently, CCN5 exhibited an inhibitory effect on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)/CCN2 (a critical regulator for fibrotic disease)?mediated fibrogenesis. However, its function in epidural fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms involved remain to be determined. In this study, an obvious downregulation of CCN5 was observed in scar tissues from laminectomized rats, concomitant with a marked upregulation of CCN2, suggesting a potential negative regulatory role of CCN5 in fibrogenesis. Furthermore, CCN5 overexpression notably mitigated transforming growth factor??1-enhanced fibroblast viability and proliferation. Of note, CCN5 upregulation inhibited the switch of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts as its overexpression abrogated the expression of the myo?broblast marker, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). CCN5 upregulation also reduced an increase in collagen type I, ?1 (COL1A1) and total collagen concentrations. Additionally, CCN5 over-expression decreased CCN2 expression and increased Smad6 phosphorylation. Mechanism analysis revealed that blocking Smad6 signaling significantly ameliorated the inhibitory effect of CCN5 on the CCN2 levels, accompanied by the reduction in cell proliferation and collagen production. These results confirm that CCN5 exerts an anti-fibrotic function by regulating the Smad6-CCN2 pathway, thereby indicating a potential approach for ameliorating epidural ?brosis after laminectomy. PMID:25901787

  7. Systemic hypothermia following spinal cord compression injury in the rat: an immunohistochemical study on MAP 2 with special reference to dendrite changes.

    PubMed

    Yu, W R; Westergren, H; Farooque, M; Holtz, A; Olsson, Y

    2000-11-01

    Systemic hypothermia has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental ischemic CNS models caused by vascular occlusions. The present study addresses the question as to whether systemic hypothermia has similar neuroprotective qualities following severe spinal cord compression trauma using microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunohistochemistry combined with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method as marker to identify neuronal and dendritic lesions. Fifteen rats were randomized into three equally sized groups. One group sustained thoracic laminectomy, the others severe spinal cord compression trauma of the T8-9 segment. The control group contained laminectomized animals submitted to a hypothermic procedure in which the esophageal temperature was reduced from 38 degrees C to 30 degrees C. The two trauma groups were either submitted to the same hypothermic procedure or kept normothermic during the corresponding time. All animals were sacrificed 24 h following the surgical procedure. The MAP2 immunostaining in the normothermic trauma group indicated marked reductions in MAP2 antigen in the cranial and caudal peri-injury zones (T7 and T10, respectively). This reduction was much less pronounced in the hypothermic trauma group. In fact, the MAP2 antigen was present in almost equally sized areas in both the hypothermic groups independent of previous laminectomy alone or the addition of trauma. Our study thus indicates that hypothermia has a neuroprotective effect on dendrites of rat spinal cords subjected to compression trauma. PMID:11045677

  8. Midterm outcome after unilateral approach for bilateral decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis: 5-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ramazan Alper; Türkmenoglu, Osman Nuri; Tuncer, Cengiz; Çolak, ?brahim; Ayd?n, Yunus

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the results and effectiveness of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We have conducted a prospective study to compare the midterm outcome of unilateral laminotomy with unilateral laminectomy. One hundred patients with 269 levels of lumbar stenosis without instability were randomized to two treatment groups: unilateral laminectomy (Group 1), and laminotomy (Group 2). Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form–36 Health Survey (SF-36). Spinal canal size was measured pre- and postoperatively. The spinal canal was increased to 4–6.1-fold (mean 5.1 ± SD 0.8-fold) the preoperative size in Group 1, and 3.3–5.9-fold (mean 4.7 ± SD 1.1-fold) the preoperative size in Group 2. The mean follow-up time was 5.4 years (range 4–7 years). The ODI scores decreased significantly in both early and late follow-up evaluations and the SF-36 scores demonstrated significant improvement in late follow-up results in our series. Analysis of clinical outcome showed no statistical differences between two groups. For degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis unilateral approaches allowed sufficient and safe decompression of the neural structures and adequate preservation of vertebral stability, resulted in a highly significant reduction of symptoms and disability, and improved health-related quality of life. PMID:17712577

  9. The transdural approach for thoracic disc herniations: a technical note

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Jun; Jang, Jae-Won; Hur, Hyuk; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Han

    2010-01-01

    Surgery for thoracic disc herniations is still challenging, and the disc excision via a posterior laminectomy is considered risky. A variety of dorsolateral and ventral approaches have been developed. However, the lateral extracavitary and transthoracic approach require extensive surgical exposure. Therefore, we adopted a posterior transdural approach for direct visualization without entry into the thoracic cavity. Three cases that illustrate this procedure are reported here with the preoperative findings, radiological findings and surgical techniques used. After the laminectomy, at the involved level, the dorsal dura was opened with a longitudinal paramedian incision. The cerebrospinal fluid was drained to gain more operating space. After sectioning of the dentate ligaments, gentle retraction was applied to the spinal cord. Between the rootlets above and below, the ventral dural bulging was clearly observed. A small paramedian dural incision was made over the disc space and the protruded disc fragment was removed. Neurological symptoms were improved, and no surgery-related complication was encountered. The posterior transdural approach may offer an alternative surgical option for selected patients with thoracic paracentral soft discs, while limiting the morbidity associated with the exposure. PMID:20143105

  10. Effects of Rapamycin on Reduction of Peridural Fibrosis: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Like; Zhang, Chifei; Zhao, Jinmin; Wei, Qingjun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Peridural fibrosis (PF) is a normal complication after lumbar surgery. It is a challenge for both surgeons and patients. Rapamycin (RPM), a novel antibiotic with anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive properties, has been shown to be effective in preventing uncontrolled scar proliferation diseases. The object of the present research was to investigate the effects of RPM on inhibiting PF in vitro and in vivo. Material/Methods In vitro, the fibroblasts collected and isolated from the rat tail skin were cultured with/without RPM and cell counting was performed. In vivo, the double-blinded study was conducted in 60 healthy Wistar rats divided randomly into 3 groups: 1) RPM treatment group; 2) Vehicle treatment group; 3) Control group. Rats underwent a L1-L2 level laminectomy with a satisfactory anesthetization. Four weeks post-operatively, the Rydell score, histological analysis, hydroxyproline content, vimentin expressional level, and inflammatory cytokines expressional levels were assessed. Results In vitro, RPM showed ability to prevent fibroblast proliferation. In vivo, the laminectomy was well tolerated by all rats, which were killed 4 weeks post-operatively. The Rydell score, histological evaluation, hydroxyproline content, vimentin expression level, and inflammatory activity showed the positive effect of RPM in preventing peridural adhesion, inhibiting fibrotic formation and collagen synthesis, and down-regulating inflammation. Conclusions In the present primary study, RPM showed good efficacy in preventing the proliferation of fibroblasts. RPM can prevent rat peridural adhesion through inhibiting collagen synthesis, fibroblasts proliferation, and inflammatory activity. PMID:25677111

  11. Meningococcal meningitis with myelopathy: case report and review of literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikhil Choudhary; Nirmal Kumar; Ravinder Ahlawat; Kapil Jain; Yasir Rizvi; Gaurav Agarwal; Bhavna Kaul

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitis is a common etiological agent in bacterial meningitis in humans. Common complications associated with meningococcal meningitis\\u000a include cranial nerve palsies, hydrocephalus, seizures, stroke, cerebritis or brain abscesses. Spinal cord dysfunction is\\u000a a very rare complication of meningococcal meningitis and its occurrence is limited to case reports only. We report such a\\u000a case along with a review of available

  12. Pathogenesis and treatment of HTLV-I associated myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, G. P.

    1998-01-01

    That HTLV-I is not a latent infection is indicated by the detection of mRNA in the peripheral blood and CNS of patients with HTLV-I infection and by the persisting humoral and cellular immune responses. Indeed the frequency of anti-HTLV CTL is extremely high. The reduction in anti-TAX CTL frequency following reduction in proviral load suggests that removal of viral antigen may result in a reduced inflammatory response at least in peripheral blood and although the clinical data should be interpreted with caution, perhaps in the CNS. Patients with more advanced disease, and possibly fixed deficits may not benefit from either anti-inflammatory or antiretroviral treatment. The patients with most to gain are those with least deficit in whom early diagnosis and treatment will depend on raising awareness of HTLV-I beyond the neurological community. Many patients with HAM first present to a urologist or gynaecologist with bladder dysfunction or may have been seen in the genitourinary clinical with impotence or positive treponemal serology, which in the older patient is often the result of childhood infection with Treponema pallidum pertenue. Investigation of these patients should include HTLV-I serology and further investigation of HTLV-I positive patients should include proviral load measurements as well as markers of inflammation. Treatments whether antiviral or anti-inflammatory should be assessed for their effect on both as well as a clinical response. ??? PMID:10195025

  13. Surgical Treatment of Spinal Stenosis with and without Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Cost-Effectiveness after 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Herkowitz, Harry; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Bridwell, Keith; Longley, Michael; Andersson, Gunnar B.; Blood, Emily A.; Grove, Margaret R.; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Background The SPORT (Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial) reported favorable surgery outcomes over 2 years among patients with stenosis with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis, but the economic value of these surgeries is uncertain. Objective To assess the short-term cost-effectiveness of spine surgery relative to nonoperative care for stenosis alone and for stenosis with spondylolisthesis. Design Prospective cohort study. Data Sources Resource utilization, productivity, and EuroQol EQ-5D score measured at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment among SPORT participants. Target Population Patients with image-confirmed spinal stenosis, with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis. Time Horizon 2 years. Perspective Societal. Intervention Nonoperative care or surgery (primarily decompressive laminectomy for stenosis and decompressive laminectomy with fusion for stenosis associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis). Outcome Measures Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Among 634 patients with stenosis, 394 (62%) had surgery, most often decompressive laminectomy (320 of 394 [81%]). Stenosis surgeries improved health to a greater extent than nonoperative care (QALY gain, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.22]) at a cost of $77 600 (CI, $49 600 to $120 000) per QALY gained. Among 601 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 368 (61%) had surgery, most including fusion (344 of 368 [93%]) and most with instrumentation (269 of 344 [78%]). Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgeries significantly improved health versus non-operative care (QALY gain, 0.23 [CI, 0.19 to 0.27]), at a cost of $115 600 (CI, $90 800 to $144 900) per QALY gained. Result of Sensitivity Analysis Surgery cost markedly affected the value of surgery. Limitation The study used self-reported utilization data, 2-year time horizon, and as-treated analysis to address treatment non-adherence among randomly assigned participants. Conclusion The economic value of spinal stenosis surgery at 2 years compares favorably with many health interventions. Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgery is not highly cost-effective over 2 years but could show value over a longer time horizon. PMID:19075203

  14. Lumbar Disk Herniation Surgery: Outcome and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?A retrospective cohort study. Objectives?To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods?We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results?Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion?Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated by JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire–Low Back Pain (JOABPQ-LBP) and lumbar function functional scores, laminectomy achieved significantly better outcome compared with other methods. It is worth mentioning that relief of radicular pain was associated with subjective satisfaction with the surgery among our study population. Predictive factors for ineffective surgical treatment for lumbar disk herniation were female sex and negative preoperative straight leg raising. Age, level of education, and preoperative VAS for low back pain were other factors that showed prediction power. PMID:25396104

  15. Grade 4 spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra associated with dural ectasia in neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Modi, H N; Srinivasalu, S; Suh, S W; Yang, J H

    2009-08-01

    Spondylolisthesis associated with neurofibromatosis is rare, and only 12 cases have been reported so far. However, only one report of grade 4 spondylolisthesis with neurofibromatosis has been reported in the literature. A 15-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis was admitted for back pain and neurological claudication. Radiograph showed grade 4 spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra with scalloping of the L4-L5 vertebrae. L4-L5 laminectomy, reduction, L3-S1 posterior instrumentation and fusion were performed. The reduction of the spondylisthesis was done entirely from the posterior approach using pedicle screws. Radiography at four months showed a broken S1 screw with a loss of reduction. The patient was re-operated on, to provide additional stability with pelvic fixation. He was pain-free with a good fusion at the two-year follow-up. Adequate posterior stabilisation with fusion gives good results in grade 4 spondylolisthesis associated with neurofibromatosis and dural ectasia. PMID:19710961

  16. Method for recording spinal reflexes in mice: effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, DOI, tolperisone and baclofen on monosynaptic spinal reflex potentials.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Honda, M; Ono, H

    2001-05-01

    Mice were used to record the spinal reflex potentials and to examine the effects of some drugs upon them. In anesthetized mice, laminectomy was performed in the lumbo-sacral region, and monosynaptic reflex potential (MSR) and polysynaptic reflex potential were recorded from the L5 ventral root after stimulation of the L5 dorsal root. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) produced transient and long-lasting increases in the MSR amplitude, respectively. Tolperisone hydrochloride and baclofen produced transient and long-lasting MSR depressions, respectively. These results show that mice can be used to record spinal reflex potentials, and that it may be possible to study the spinal cord function of mutant and knockout mice using this method. PMID:11430467

  17. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  18. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Prashad, Bhagwat; Jain, Anil K; Dhammi, Ish K

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints. PMID:21139800

  19. Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

    2006-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441

  20. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Prashad, Bhagwat; Jain, Anil K; Dhammi, Ish K

    2007-10-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints. PMID:21139800

  1. Noncommunicating Spinal Extradural Meningeal Cyst in Thoracolumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Sup; Son, Byung Chul; Lee, Sang Won

    2010-01-01

    Spinal extradural meningeal cyst has been rarely reported, whose etiologies are assumed to be the communication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between intradural subarchnoid space and cyst due to the congenital defect in dura mater. Although the CSF communication due to this defect can be found, in most case, few cases in which there is a lack of the communication have also been reported. We report a case of the huge extradural meningeal cyst occurring in the thoracolumbar spine (from T10 to L2) where there was a lack of the communication between the intradural subarachnoid space and cyst in a 46-year-old man who presented with symptoms that were indicative of progressive paraparesis and leg pain. The patient underwent laminectomy and cyst excision. On intraoperative findings, the dura was intact and there was a lack of the communication with intradural subarachnoid space. Immediately after the surgery, weakness and leg pain disappeared shortly. PMID:21430982

  2. Intraoperative Pontine Infarction: A Hidden Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Marcanthony, Nicholas; Farag, Ehab

    2012-01-01

    Apneusis, or apneustic respirations, is characterized by an abnormal breathing pattern involving gasping and the inability to fully expire. A loss of gag reflex and other cranial nerve deficits are also often accompanied with these respiratory changes. In neurological intensive care units (NICUs), these respiratory and airway changes are not uncommon and have been well documented (Lee et al. 1976). These clinical changes are often associated with pontine trauma as it is the core pneumotaxic center in the brain stem. We describe the airway management of a patient with an acute, occult pontine infarct status post craniectomy and cervical laminectomy for decompression of known Chiari malformation in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). PMID:22606411

  3. DTI for assessing axonal integrity after contusive spinal cord injury and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bazley, Faith A; Pourmorteza, Amir; Gupta, Siddharth; Pashai, Nikta; Kerr, Candace; All, Angelo H

    2012-01-01

    We describe the feasibility of using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) to study a contusive model of rat spinal cord injury following human stem cell transplantation at and around the site of injury. Rats receiving either a laminectomy or contusion injury were transplanted with oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). During the course of the study, bioluminescence imaging (BLI; up to 100 days) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs; up to 42 days) were used to evaluate cell survival and functional outcomes. Spinal cords were then analyzed ex vivo upon termination using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Improvements in fractional anisotropy (FA) at day 100 post-transplantation corresponded with cell survival and functional SSEP improvements. Thus, we illustrate the feasibility of DTI for evaluating axonal integrity in SCI after cell replacement therapies, and we provide examples utilizing OPC transplantations in a contusion rat model. PMID:23365837

  4. Embolisation techniques in neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Kendall, B

    1986-11-01

    Embolisation is a definitive treatment for selected arteriovenous fistulas, aneurysms and both extra- and intra-axial angiomatous malformations. It is an effective emergency treatment for many cases of intractable epistaxis. It is useful prior to surgery to reduce blood loss from hypervascular tumours, including juvenile angiofibromas, paragangliomas and basal meningiomas, and from angiomas or soft tissue or of bone prior to excision, dental extraction or laminectomy. Embolisation is a satisfactory palliative treatment for angiomas involving superficial tissues, in which the cosmetic effects of surgery are unlikely to be satisfactory, and of mucosal surfaces causing intractable bleeding. In inoperable tumours, embolisation can relieve pain, bleeding, pulsatile tinnitus or discomfort due to mass effect. PMID:3543226

  5. Melanotic cyst of L5 spinal root: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Hariprakash

    2012-10-01

    Till date, 85 cases of melanotic schwannoma and 11 cases of spinal root melanoma have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with primary low back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbo-sacral spine showed at left L5-S1 foraminal lesion extending to the para-spinal compartment. Hemi-laminectomy, facetectomy, and excision of the lesion were done. It was primarily a cystic lesion with attachment to the exiting spinal nerve root. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed a fibro-collagenous stroma with no specific cell lining containing melanin pigment suggestive of a melanotic cyst. The patient was completely relieved of the back pain, and had no recurrence over a follow-up period of one and half years. This case is probably the first reported predominantly cystic, pigmented lesion, affecting the spinal root. PMID:23559992

  6. Post-myelography paraplegia in a woman with thoracic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hesham M.; Arnold, Paul M.; Madarang, Ernest J.

    2013-01-01

    Context Myelography is a commonly performed diagnostic test used to assess spine pathology. Complications are unusual and usually self-limited. We report a rare case of transient paraplegia following myelography in a woman with thoracic stenosis. Findings A 51-year-old woman, 20 months status post-thoracic laminectomy, presented with progressive lower extremity weakness. The patient underwent myelography and post-myelography CT, and became paraplegic after the lumbar injection. Intravenous steroids were administered and a lumbar puncture was performed. The patient's neurologic function returned to baseline over the next 96 hours. Conclusion and clinical relevance Myelography is generally a safe procedure, but on rare occasions serious complications can arise. Therapeutic maneuvers may be helpful in reversing neurologic deficit. PMID:23809597

  7. Epidural hematoma occurred by massive bleeding intraoperatively in cesarean section after combined spinal epidural anesthesia -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Jinhwan; Cha, Seung-Cheol; Jung, Taehyeng

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of acute lumbar epidural hematoma at the L2-3 level complicated by paraplegia, which occurred after coagulation disorder because of massive bleeding intraoperatively in cesarean section. The preoperative coagulation laboratory finding was in normal range and so we tried combined spinal epidural anesthesia. Uterine atony occurred in the operation, and there was persistant bleeding during and after the operation. After the operation, she complained of paresthesia on her both legs and was diagnosed with epidural hematoma (EDH) by radiologic examination. Emergency laminectomy on lumbar spine was carried out for hematoma evacuation and decompression of the epidural space at once. In our experience, massive bleeding during surgery may potentially increase the risk of EDH postoperatively. PMID:22110889

  8. Acute Spontaneous Cervical Epidural Hematoma Mimicking Cerebral Stroke: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Sang Keun; Hwang, Yong Soon; Shin, Hyung Shik; Shin, Jun Jae

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma (SCEDH) is a rare disease, but can cause severe neurologic impairment. We report a case of a 68-year-old female who presented with sudden onset, posterior neck pain, right shoulder pain, and progressive right hemiparesis mimicking stroke with no trauma history. Initial brain CT and diffusion MRI performed to rule out brain lesion did not show any positive findings. Laboratory examination presented only severe thrombocytopenia (45,000/mm3). Subsequent cervical MRI revealed a cervical epidural mass lesion. We confirmed that it was pure hematoma through C5 unilateral total laminectomy and C6 partial hemilaminectomy. She achieved complete neurologic recovery with active rehabilitation. Early surgical decompression for SCEDH with neurologic impairment should be recommended for better outcome. PMID:24757481

  9. Teenager with chest pain and swollen neck: a leave-it-alone condition.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pen-Yuan; Wang, Hung-Jung

    2015-07-01

    A 19-year-old boy with shortness of breath and chest pain after strenuous exercise presented to emergency department . On physical examination, the neck and shoulders appeared to be swollen. There was crepitus on skin palpation. Chest X-ray disclosed diffuse subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. CT showed additional finding of air in epidural space. The patient was discharged after 2?days of hospitalisation with conservative treatment uneventfully. Pneumorrhachis is usually caused by abrupt increase in intrathoracic pressure in instance of forceful vomiting, cough or asthma attack in an otherwise healthy young adult. It is usually accompanied with pneumomediastinum. The management of epidural pneumatosis should be tailored according to its primary cause. For most patients with pneumorrhachis associated to a spontaneous pneumomediastinum without neurological symptoms, this condition is generally self-limited. For epidural free air of large volume that causes neurological deficits, surgical laminectomy may be indicated. PMID:25786802

  10. Lumbar spinal stenosis: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Nasca, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Spinal stenosis is an acquired or congenital narrowing of the spinal or nerve-root canals. Surgical treatment is often effective. Acquired spinal stenosis most commonly occurs in those with degenerative disk disease and arthritic facets. If the degenerative process stabilizes and there is adequate room to accommodate the neural contents, symptomatic patients become asymptomatic. Residual stability after decompression must be assessed in patients having multilevel decompression. Fusion maybe indicated. In women with osteoporosis coexisting with degenerative scoliosis and spinal stenosis, decompression for concave nerve-root compression and fusion are necessary. Spinal fusion is not indicated in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis having unilateral decompression for lateral stenosis. Patients with central-mixed stenosis may not need fusion. Patients with spinal stenosis after laminectomies and diskectomies had better results when arthrodesis was done in conjunction with repeated decompression. Arthrodesis with instrumentation and decompression is recommended for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. PMID:12539936

  11. Vertebral hydatidosis and paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Karray, S; Zlitni, M; Fowles, J V; Zouari, O; Slimane, N; Kassab, M T; Rosset, P

    1990-01-01

    We report the management of two children and 11 adults with paraplegia secondary to vertebral hydatidosis. Destruction of pedicles, posterior vertebral elements and discs as well as the vertebral bodies was common and all six patients with thoracic disease had involvement of adjacent ribs. The 13 patients had a total of 42 major surgical procedures; two patients died from postoperative complications and four from complications of the disease and paraplegia. All eight patients initially treated by laminectomy or anterior decompression alone relapsed within two years and seven required further surgery. Circumferential decompression and grafting gave the best results, six of nine patients being in remission an average of three years and six months later. The prognosis for such patients is poor; remission is the aim, rather than cure. Anthelminthic drugs may improve the prognosis, but radical surgery is likely to remain the keystone of treatment in the foreseeable future. PMID:2298801

  12. Partial cauda equina compromise: result of sacral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Buszek, M C; Ellenberg, M; Friedman, P

    1985-12-01

    Although partial or complete cauda equina compromise due to lumbar stenosis is a recognized entity, cauda equina compromise due to sacral stenosis is extremely uncommon. We present a patient with a three-week history of right thigh and buttock pain who developed right scrotal and buttock numbness, urinary retention, and difficulty with bowel evacuation. The patient had diminished sensation to right buttock and anus pinprick with decreased anal sphincter tone and absent bulbocavernosus reflex. Lumbosacral spine films revealed only minimal degenerative changes, while lumbar myelogram showed L4-L5 and L5-S1 ventral extradural defects. Only a drop of pantopaque descended caudally below the level of the L5-S1 interspace. Operatively, significant stenosis and thickening of the posterior sacrum with compromise of the lower sacral nerve roots was noted. Bilateral sacral laminectomy was performed and the symptoms resolved postoperatively. This case illustrates an unusual clinical entity: partial cauda equina compromise due to sacral stenosis. PMID:4074117

  13. Solitary xanthogranuloma of the upper cervical spine in a male adult.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Joo; Jo, Dae Jean; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Sung Min

    2012-01-01

    We present the rare case of solitary xanthogranuloma in the upper cervical column mimicking a Brown-Sequard syndrome. A 29-year-old man complained with right hemiparesis and left hypoesthesia after a car accident. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a lobulated homogenously well-enhancing mass in between posterior arch of the atlas (C1) and spinous process of the axis (C2) resulting in a marked spinal canal narrowing with cortical erosions. The patient was managed by complete resection of the tumor with partial laminectomy with lower half of C1 posterior arch and upper half of C2 spinous process. The authors advise complete removal of the xanthogranuloma and consideration as a differential diagnosis of lesions among upper cervical lesions. PMID:22396846

  14. Intravital imaging of axonal interactions with microglia and macrophages in a mouse dorsal column crush injury.

    PubMed

    Evans, Teresa A; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Myers, Jay T; Huang, Alex Y

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury causes an inflammatory reaction involving blood-derived macrophages and central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia. Intra-vital two-photon microscopy enables the study of macrophages and microglia in the spinal cord lesion in the living animal. This can be performed in adult animals with a traumatic injury to the dorsal column. Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. We also describe a injury model that crushes the dorsal column of the spinal cord, thereby producing a simple, easily accessible, rectangular lesion that is easily visualized in an animal through a laminectomy. Furthermore, we will outline procedures to sequentially image the animals at the anatomical site of injury for the study of cellular interactions during the first few days to weeks after injury. PMID:25489963

  15. Extradural spinal cord lesion in a dog: first case study of canine neurological histoplasmosis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Reginato, A; Giannuzzi, P; Ricciardi, M; De Simone, A; Sanguinetti, M; Porcellato, I; Mandara, M T

    2014-06-01

    A 7-year-old intact male mixed dog was presented with a history of acute and progressive paraparesis. Abnormal clinical signs consisted of non-ambulatory paraparesis, hind limbs hypertonia and severe thoracolumbar pain. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense in T1 and T2 WI epidural lesion, with good contrast enhancement, extending from T-10 to T-13. Laminectomy was carried out to remove the epidural mass. Histological examination revealed a pyogranulomatous lesion characterized by numerous macrophages containing yeast-like Grocott and PAS-positive bodies. Immunohistochemistry and PCR performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue confirmed Histoplasma capsulatum as the causative agent. H. capsulatum has a worldwide distribution in temperate and subtropical climates but its presence as an autochthonous fungus in Europe is now recognized. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of canine histoplasmosis in Italy with lesion confined to the central nervous system. PMID:24646600

  16. Subdural and cerebellar hematomas which developed after spinal surgery: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Utku, Ufuk; Güler, Sibel; Yaln?z, Erol; Unlü, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar hemorrhage following a spinal surgery is extremely rare; however, considering the localization, it can cause major clinical manifestations. While it is considered that these types of bleedings occur secondary to a venous infarct, the pathogenesis is still unclear. A 57-year-old male patient who underwent a laminectomy by exposing T12-L5 and had pedicle screws placed for ankylosing spondylitis developed a CSF leak due to a 2?mm dural tear. A hemorrhage with parallel streaks on the left cerebellar hemisphere was seen in CT scan, and a thin subdural hematoma at right frontotemporal region was seen on cranial MRI, performed after the patient developed intense headache, nausea, vomiting, and stiff neck in the early postoperative period. In this paper, a case of cerebellar and subdural hematomas following a spinal surgery is discussed with its clinical and radiologic findings. PMID:23956894

  17. Pycnodysostosis with Multi-Segmental Spinal Canal Stenosis due to Ossification of the Yellow Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Koichi; Murata, Yasuaki; Kato, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by osteosclerosis, small stature, acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, loss of the mandibular angle, separated cranial sutures with open fontanels, and frequent fractures. One identified cause of the disease is reduced activity of the cysteine protease cathepsin K. A 48-year-old woman with a history of frequent fractures presented with a severe gait disturbance. Radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and gene analysis were performed. Physical examination revealed open fontanels, and radiographs showed increased bone density. DNA sequence analysis revealed a deletion mutation of the cathepsin K gene. We diagnosed pycnodysostosis based on these findings. The magnetic resonance and computed tomography images demonstrated multilevel spinal canal stenosis due to ossification of the yellow ligament. We performed a laminectomy, and the patient's neurological signs and symptoms improved. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pycnodysostosis with ossification of the yellow ligament. PMID:25901243

  18. Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Delong; Huff, Terry B.; Wang, Xiaofei; Shi, Riyi; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2011-10-01

    In vivo imaging of white matter is important for the mechanistic understanding of demyelination and evaluation of remyelination therapies. Although white matter can be visualized by a strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal from axonal myelin, in vivo repetitive CARS imaging of the spinal cord remains a challenge due to complexities induced by the laminectomy surgery. We present a careful experimental design that enabled longitudinal CARS imaging of de- and remyelination at single axon level in live rats. In vivo CARS imaging of secretory phospholipase A2 induced myelin vesiculation, macrophage uptake of myelin debris, and spontaneous remyelination by Schwann cells are sequentially monitored over a 3 week period. Longitudinal visualization of de- and remyelination at a single axon level provides a novel platform for rational design of therapies aimed at promoting myelin plasticity and repair.

  19. Pycnodysostosis with Multi-Segmental Spinal Canal Stenosis due to Ossification of the Yellow Ligament.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiji; Kanaya, Koichi; Murata, Yasuaki; Kato, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by osteosclerosis, small stature, acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, loss of the mandibular angle, separated cranial sutures with open fontanels, and frequent fractures. One identified cause of the disease is reduced activity of the cysteine protease cathepsin K. A 48-year-old woman with a history of frequent fractures presented with a severe gait disturbance. Radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and gene analysis were performed. Physical examination revealed open fontanels, and radiographs showed increased bone density. DNA sequence analysis revealed a deletion mutation of the cathepsin K gene. We diagnosed pycnodysostosis based on these findings. The magnetic resonance and computed tomography images demonstrated multilevel spinal canal stenosis due to ossification of the yellow ligament. We performed a laminectomy, and the patient's neurological signs and symptoms improved. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pycnodysostosis with ossification of the yellow ligament. PMID:25901243

  20. Multiple spinal and cranial meningiomas: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Sundar, I Vijay; Sharma, Vinod; Goel, Ravishankar S; Prasanna, K L

    2015-01-01

    Though meningiomas are common neoplasms of the nervous system, the occurrence of multiple meningiomas in different neuraxial compartments is rather rare. We report a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with spastic paraparesis in both lower limbs, and was found to have multiple homogenously enhancing tumors of dorsolumbar spine. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple bilateral supratentorial meningiomas. She underwent multiple level laminectomy and total removal of spinal tumors after which power improved in both lower limbs. Histopathology revealed psammomatous meningiomas. Only around 19 cases of multiple cranial and spinal meningiomas have been reported, of which, only five cases have more than one spinal meningioma. The implication of the incidence of such multiple meningiomas in the same patient with relevance to investigations and decision making are discussed along with a brief review of literature of cases with multiple spinal and cranial meningiomas. PMID:25972948

  1. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis with sarcoidosis: a rare cause of craniocervical compression.

    PubMed

    Subrati, Nagina; Vaqas, Babar; Peterson, David; Patel, Maneesh C

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 58-year-old woman with a suspected dural tumour. She presented with progressive pyramidal weakness. MRI confirmed compression of the medulla oblongata and spinal cord at the level of C1-3. The localised dural mass lesion homogenously enhanced on T1 MRI and was considered most likely to be a meningioma. Incidentally, CT scan of the chest revealed peribronchial soft tissue thickening, suggestive of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Owing to the progressive nature of her weakness, she had a posterior occipitocervical decompression with a C1-3 laminectomy and resection of the thickened dura. Histology showed densely collagenous tissue with scanty psammoma bodies and multinucleate giant cells, consistent with hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP)-a rare, chronic inflammatory condition, characterised by thickening and fibrosis of the dura. This case demonstrates that masses in the craniocervical junction can be varied in pathology and when there is evidence of systemic inflammation, HP should be considered. PMID:26021381

  2. Holmium:YAG laser discectomy in dogs: a pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Thomas R.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Henry, George A.; Schafer, Steven A.; Stair, Ernest L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Powell, Richard C.

    1994-09-01

    Objectives of our project were to determine the affects of Ho:YAG laser energy on canine intervertebral (IV) discs by thermography, and histology. Multiple IV discs in three cadaveric nonchondrodystrophoid spines were treated with 20 J to 180 J of energy and evaluated by thermography and histology. Histologic evaluation revealed thermal affects at all doses including potential acoustic wave affects, increased eosinophilia, carbonization, and in some cases a large defect due to laser irradiation. Laser affects were confined only to the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus with adjacent structures unaffected. In an acute study, two nonchondrodystrophoid dogs were sacrificed after IV discs were treated with 20 - 180 J of Ho:YAG laser radiation, following an extensive dorsal laminectomy to allow placement of thermoprobes in spinal and spinal cord structures. Heating occurred in only the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus with minimal temperature changes in the adjacent structures including the spinal cord.

  3. The Microendoscopic Decompression of Lumbar Stenosis: A Review of the Current Literature and Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Albert P.; Smith, Zachary A.; Lall, Rohan R.; Bresnahan, Lacey E.; Fessler, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Lumbar stenosis is a well-defined pathologic condition with excellent surgical outcomes. Empiric evidence as well as randomized, prospective trials has demonstrated the superior efficacy of surgery compared to medical management for lumbar stenosis. Traditionally, lumbar stenosis is decompressed with open laminectomies. This involves removal of the spinous process, lamina, and the posterior musculoligamentous complex (posterior tension band). This approach provides excellent improvement in symptoms, but is also associated with potential postoperative spinal instability. This may result in subsequent need for spinal fusion. Advances in technology have enabled the application of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) as an acceptable alternative to open lumbar decompression. Recent studies have shown similar to improved perioperative outcomes when comparing MISS to open decompression for lumbar stenosis. A literature review of MISS for decompression of lumbar stenosis with tubular retractors was performed to evaluate the outcomes of this modern surgical technique. In addition, a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this technique is provided. PMID:22900163

  4. Minimal access microsurgical ligation of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with tubular retractor

    PubMed Central

    On Tsang, Anderson Chun; Hang Tse, Philip Yat; Ting Ng, Grace Hoi; Kit Leung, Gilberto Ka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open surgical ligation is an effective treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF). Until recently, the procedure would require an open laminectomy, which may potentially cause significant postoperative pain, spinal deformity, and instability due to disruptions of the spinal mechanics. Development in minimal access spine surgery provides an alternative approach that can minimize bone and soft tissue trauma. Case Description: We report two patients who presented with progressive paraparesis secondary to thoracolumbar SDAVF. Minimal access microsurgical ligation was successfully performed through a tubular retractor using a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. Conclusion: With accurate localization of the fistulous point in each patient, only a hemilaminectomy and a small dura opening were required using the tube-assisted technique. This allows direct visualization and ligation of the fistulous point while minimizing postoperative morbidities. PMID:26110081

  5. Preliminary study showing safety/efficacy of nanoss bioactive versus vitoss as bone graft expanders for lumbar noninstrumented fusions

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lateral fusion mass for multilevel lumbar laminectomies with noninstrumented posterolateral fusions now often utilizes lamina autograft and bone marrow aspirate (BMA) mixed with one of two bone graft expanders: either Vitoss (Orthovita, Malvern, PA, USA) or NanOss Bioactive (Regeneration Technologies Corporation: RTI, Alachua, FL, USA). Methods: Here, we compared two sequential prospective the times to fusion, fusion rates, complications, and infection rates for two prospective cohorts of patients utilizing either Vitoss (first 213 patients) or NanOss (subsequent 45 patients) respectively, undergoing multilevel lumbar laminectomies (average 4.6 vs. 4.5 levels) with noninstrumented fusions (average 1.3 vs. 1.2 levels). Surgery addressed stenosis/ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) (all patients), with subsets exhibiting degenerative spondylolisthesis synovial cysts, and disc disease. Fusion was documented by two independent neuroradiologists blinded to the study design, utilizing dynamic X-rays and two dimensional computed tomography (2D-CT) studies up to 6 months postoperatively, and up to 1 year where indicated. Results: Comparison of patients receiving Vitoss versus NanOss as bone graft expanders revealed nearly comparable; times to fusion (5.3 months vs. 4.8 months), fusion rates (210 [98.6%] vs. 45 [100%] patients), pseudarthroses (3 [1.4%] vs. 0), postoperative seromas (2 [0.94%] vs. 0), and deep wound infections (2 [0.94%] vs. 0). Conclusion: In this preliminary study of patients undergoing multilevel lumbar lamienctomies with posterolateral noninstrumented fusions, results were nearly comparable utilizing Vitoss or NanOss as bone graft expanders. Although the number of NanOss patients was substantially lower, the comparable efficacy and absence of postoperative complications for noninstrumented fusions is promising.

  6. Post-Injury Estrogen Treatment of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Improves Locomotor Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sribnick, Eric A.; Samantaray, Supriti; Das, Arabinda; Smith, Joshua; Matzelle, D. Denise; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of neurological function and, depending on serverity, may cause paralysis. The only recommended pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SCI is high-dose methylprednisolone and its use is controversial. We have previously shown that estrogen treatment attenuated cell death, axonal and myelin damage, calpain and caspase activities, and inflammation in acute SCI. The aim of this study was to examine whether post-treatment of SCI with estrogen would improve locomotor function by protecting cells and axons and reducing inflammation during chronic phase following injury. Moderately severe injury (40 g.cm force) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats following laminectomy at T10. Three groups of animals were used: sham (laminectomy only), vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide or DMSO) treated injury group, and estrogen treated injury group. Animals were treated with 4 mg/kg estrogen at 15 min and 24 h post-injury followed by 2 mg/kg estrogen daily for the next 5 days. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed at the end of 6 weeks following injury, and 1-cm segments of spinal cord (lesion, rostral to lesion, and caudal to lesion) were removed for biochemical analyses. Estrogen treatment reduced COX-2 activity, blocked NF-?B translocation, prevented glial reactivity, attenuated neuron death, inhibited activation and activity of calpain and caspase-3, decreased axonal damage, reduced myelin loss in the lesion and penumbra, and improved locomotor function when compared with vehicle treated animals. These findings suggest that estrogen may be useful as a promising therapeutic agent for prevention of damage and improvement of locomotor function in chronic SCI. PMID:20091771

  7. Postinjury estrogen treatment of chronic spinal cord injury improves locomotor function in rats.

    PubMed

    Sribnick, Eric A; Samantaray, Supriti; Das, Arabinda; Smith, Joshua; Matzelle, D Denise; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2010-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of neurological function and, depending on serverity, may cause paralysis. The only recommended pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SCI is high-dose methylprednisolone, and its use is controversial. We have previously shown that estrogen treatment attenuated cell death, axonal and myelin damage, calpain and caspase activities, and inflammation in acute SCI. The aim of this study was to examine whether posttreatment of SCI with estrogen would improve locomotor function by protecting cells and axons and reducing inflammation during the chronic phase following injury. Moderately severe injury (40 g . cm force) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats following laminectomy at T10. Three groups of animals were used: sham (laminectomy only), vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO)-treated injury group, and estrogen-treated injury group. Animals were treated with 4 mg/kg estrogen at 15 min and 24 hr postnjury, followed by 2 mg/kg estrogen daily for the next 5 days. After treatment, animals were sacrificed at the end of 6 weeks following injury, and 1-cm segments of spinal cord (lesion, rostral to lesion, and caudal to lesion) were removed for biochemical analyses. Estrogen treatment reduced COX-2 activity, blocked nuclear factor-kappaB translocation, prevented glial reactivity, attenuated neuron death, inhibited activation and activity of calpain and caspase-3, decreased axonal damage, reduced myelin loss in the lesion and penumbra, and improved locomotor function compared with vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that estrogen may be useful as a promising therapeutic agent for prevention of damage and improvement of locomotor function in chronic SCI. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20091771

  8. Enhancement of bilateral cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to intact forelimb stimulation following thoracic contusion spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bazley, Faith A; Maybhate, Anil; Tan, Chuen Seng; Thakor, Nitish V; Kerr, Candace; All, Angelo H

    2014-09-01

    The adult central nervous system is capable of significant reorganization and adaptation following neurotrauma. After a thoracic contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) neuropathways that innervate the cord below the epicenter of injury are damaged, with minimal prospects for functional recovery. In contrast, pathways above the site of injury remain intact and may undergo adaptive changes in response to injury. We used cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) to evaluate changes in intact forelimb pathways. Rats received a midline contusion SCI, unilateral contusion SCI, or laminectomy with no contusion at the T8 level and were monitored for 28 days post-injury. In the midline injury group, SSEPs recorded from the contralateral forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex were 59.7% (CI 34.7%, 84.8%; c(2) = 21.9; dof = 1; p = 2.9 ×10(-6)) greater than the laminectomy group; SSEPs from the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex were 47.6% (CI 18.3%, 77%; c(2) = 10.1; dof = 1; p = 0.001) greater. Activation of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex was further supported by BOLD-fMRI, which showed increased oxygenation at the ipsilateral hemisphere at day seven post-injury. In the unilateral injury group, ipsilesional side was compared to the contralesional side. SSEPs on day 14 (148%; CI 111%, 185%) and day 21 (137%; CI 110%, 163%) for ipsilesional forelimb stimulation were significantly increased over baseline (100%). SSEPs recorded from the hindlimb sensory cortex upon ipsilesional stimulation were 33.9% (CI 14.3%, 53.4%; c(2) = 11.6; dof = 1; p = 0.0007) greater than contralesional stimulation. Therefore, these results demonstrate the ability of SSEPs to detect significant enhancements in the activation of forelimb sensory pathways following both midline and unilateral contusive SCI at T8. Reorganization of forelimb pathways may occur after thoracic SCI, which SSEPs can monitor to aid the development of future therapies. PMID:24801738

  9. Unusual presentation of giant cell tumor originating from a facet joint of the thoracic spine in a child: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Giant cell tumor of the synovium is a common benign lesion that frequently occurs at the tendon sheaths in the hand; it is usually found in adults over 30 years old. It is related to pigmented villonodular synovitis. Giant cell tumor of the synovium or pigmented villonodular synovitis has been described rarely in the axial skeleton especially in the thoracic vertebrae of a child. Case presentation A previously healthy 7-year-old Thai girl presented with back pain and progressive paraparesis and was unable to walk for 1 month. She had weakness and hyperreflexia of both lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined homogeneously and intensely enhanced extradural mass with cord compression at T4 to T7 levels. The patient underwent laminectomy at T4 through to T7 and total tumor removal. Permanent histopathologic sections and immunostains revealed a giant cell tumor of the synovium. Postoperative neurological status recovered to grade V. Magnetic resonance imaging at the 1-year follow-up showed no recurrence and there was no clinical recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion We report an extremely rare case of giant cell tumor in the epidural space that extended from a thoracic facet joint. The tumor was removed successfully through laminectomies. Although giant cell tumor of a facet joint of the thoracic spine is very rare, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis for masses occurring in the epidural space in a child. Total tumor removal is the best treatment. Careful monitoring of recurrence can achieve a good clinical outcome. PMID:23830026

  10. Valproic Acid Increases Expression of Neuronal Stem/Progenitor Cell in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Woo-Seok; Cho, Dae-Chul; Kim, Hye-Jeong; Sung, Joo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effect of valproic acid (VPA) on expression of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model. Methods Adult male rats (n=24) were randomly and blindly allocated into three groups. Laminectomy at T9 was performed in all three groups. In group 1 (sham), only laminectomy was performed. In group 2 (SCI-VPA), the animals received a dose of 200 mg/kg of VPA. In group 3 (SCI-saline), animals received 1.0 mL of the saline vehicle solution. A modified aneurysm clip with a closing force of 30 grams was applied extradurally around the spinal cord at T9, and then rapidly released with cord compression persisting for 2 minutes. The rats were sacrificed and the spinal cord were collected one week after SCI. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting sample were obtained from 5 mm rostral region to the lesion and prepared. We analyzed the nestin immunoreactivity from the white matter of ventral cord and the ependyma of central canal. Nestin and SOX2 were used for markers for NSPCs and analyzed by IHC and western blotting, respectively. Results Nestin and SOX2 were expressed significantly in the SCI groups but not in the sham group. Comparing SCI groups, nestin and SOX2 expression were much stronger in SCI-VPA group than in SCI-saline group. Conclusion Nestin and SOX2 as markers for NSPCs showed increased expression in SCI-VPA group in comparison with SCI-saline group. This result suggests VPA increases expression of spinal NSPCs in SCI. PMID:24044073

  11. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  12. Evaluation of hemilaminectomy use in microsurgical resection of intradural extramedullary tumors

    PubMed Central

    GU, RUI; LIU, JIA-BEI; XIA, PENG; LI, CHEN; LIU, GUANG-YAO; WANG, JIN-CHENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microsurgical techniques of hemilaminectomy, used in the excision of intradural extramedullary (IDEM) tumors, and to illustrate its clinical effects. Clinical data obtained from 16 patients (seven males, nine females) with IDEM tumors, which were treated at the China-Japan Union Hospital between January 2009 and December 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age of patients was 49 years, ranging from 34–72 years. The IDEM tumors were located cervically in three patients, thoracically in four patients and at the thoracico-lumbar level in nine patients. Fourteen patients underwent hemilaminectomy, while two patients were treated with laminectomy during surgery. The clinical effect of hemilaminectomy was evaluated based on Frankel grade. The mean bleeding volume was 300 ml (range, 150–500 ml) and the mean duration of surgery was 140 min (range, 90–200 min). The maximum and minimum tumor volumes were 4×1.5×1.5 cm and 1.5×1.0×1.0 cm, respectively. Neurinoma was evident in 11 patients, meningioma in four cases and neurofibroma in one case. Three cases improved from Frankel grade B to C, five cases improved from grade C to D and seven cases improved from grade D to grade E. All patients were followed up for a period of 6–40 months, with a mean follow-up time of 23.7 months. None of the patients exhibited tumor recurrence or spinal instability. The mean bleeding volume of patients that underwent hemilaminectomy and laminectomy was 275 and 475 ml, respectively. The advantages of hemilaminectomy are minor invasion, less bleeding and retention of spinal stability. In general, hemilaminectomy for the excision of IDEM tumors has a satisfactory outcome. PMID:24765198

  13. Change of Lumbar Motion after Multi-Level Posterior Dynamic Stabilization with Bioflex System : 1 Year Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hunho; Cho, Bo Young; Park, Jeong Yoon

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the change of range of motion (ROM) at the segments within the dynamic posterior stabilization, segments above and below the system, the clinical course and analyzed the factors influencing them. Methods This study included a consecutive 27 patients who underwent one-level to three-level dynamic stabilization with Bioflex system at our institute. All of these patients with degenerative disc disease underwent decompressive laminectomy with/without discectomy and dynamic stabilization with Bioflex system at the laminectomy level without fusion. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, whole lumbar lordosis (from L1 to S1), ROMs from preoperative, immediate postoperative, 1.5, 3, 6, 12 months at whole lumbar (from L1 to S1), each instrumented levels, and one segment above and below this instrumentation were evaluated. Results VAS scores for leg and back pain decreased significantly throughout the whole study period. Whole lumbar lordosis remained within preoperative range, ROM of whole lumbar and instrumented levels showed a significant decrease. ROM of one level upper and lower to the instrumentation increased, but statistically invalid. There were also 5 cases of complications related with the fixation system. Conclusion Bioflex posterior dynamic stabilization system supports operation-induced unstable, destroyed segments and assists in physiological motion and stabilization at the instrumented level, decrease back and leg pain, maintain preoperative lumbar lordotic angle and reduce ROM of whole lumbar and instrumented segments. Prevention of adjacent segment degeneration and complication rates are something to be reconsidered through longer follow up period. PMID:19893714

  14. [Special considerations in therapy of injuries of the cervical spine in ankylosing spondylitis (Bechterew disease)].

    PubMed

    Einsiedel, T; Kleimann, M; Nothofer, W; Neugebauer, R

    2001-12-01

    Cervical spine changed by Bechterew's disease is severely endangered with any increased load. Even decent trauma is enough to produce a fracture with affection of spinal cord. Because of little knowledge in these special items, late diagnosis of overlooked injury is not rare, especially in two-level injuries. Neurolesions following secondary fracture dislocations may occur ("fatal pause"). From january 1990 to february 2000 12 patients underwent surgery (dorsoventral stabilisation, ventral stabilisation, laminectomy). Diagnostic procedures, levels of injury, pre- and postoperative neurostatus (following Frankel's score), operative technique, typical complications and follow-up (Ø 17.8 months) were analyzed and compared with the literature. 11 patients showed preoperative neurodeficits. They were better in five cases and disappeared at all in another five cases after surgery (83% positive neurological outcome). There was no increase of neurology failure. Two patients died (ARDS and cerebral ischemia with destruction of vertebral arteries). One patient had to be reoperated because of implant dislocation. MRI is obvious in diagnostic for these lesions. There is also an absolute need for total (both clinical and radiological) examination of the whole spinal column, because there is often injury of more than one level (three times in our study). Therapy should be operative (dorsoventral stabilisation, in certain cases only anterior procedure or laminectomy). Late diagnosis and therapy with secondary worsening after fracture dislocation is not rare because of "overlooked injury". There were four patients, that would not have suffered cervical spine fracture (minimal injury force) without Bechterew's changes. There is often pulmonary failure through limitation of thoracic movement and cerebral ischemia following rupture of vertebral arteries as typical complications. Mortality (2 cases; 16%) in our collective is less than literature's medium rates (35-57%). PMID:11803718

  15. Nanofiber nets in prevention of cicatrization in spinal procedures. Experimental study.

    PubMed

    Andrychowski, Jaros?aw; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Ma?gorzata; Sulejczak, Dorota; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Czernicki, Zbigniew; Kowalewski, Tomasz Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Excessive cicatrisation or epidural fibrosis in the operative field is an inappropriate event occasionally occurring after neurosurgical procedures (i.e., spine procedures and craniotomies). This excessive process may disturb the postoperative course and render reoperations more difficult and risky. The literature describes this phenomenon as accompanying up to 20% of neurosurgical procedures. The scar tissue that forms postoperatively adheres to the dura mater, penetrates into the spinal canal and can cause narrowing symptoms, neurological deficits and pain. The incidence and spread of this excessive scar or epidural fibrosis can be prevented through the modification of the surgical technique by incorporating endoscopic or microscopic access to minimize the operative field and the use of isolating substances (autogenous or heterogeneous) administered intraoperatively. The aim of this experimental study was to morphologically assess the cicatrization process, adhesion and to prevent excessive scar formation with the local use of membranes manufactured by an electrospinning process (nanotechnology). We also investigated whether the biodegradable nanofibrous net triggers or modifies the immunological response or the local inflammatory process. Micro-nanofibrous membranes were produced by the electrospinning process. A biodegradable, medically certified copolymer poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) was used as the electrospun material. An experimental rat model was used in this study. Experimental and control groups were formed with specified follow-up times of 4, 14 and 30 days. During the operation, a two-level laminectomy in the thoracic segment was performed. The operative field was divided into two regions. Isolating material was used on the dura mater and surface of the spinal cord in the area where the laminectomy was performed. The material was analysed with the use of light and electron microscopy. Local cicatrisation can be modified using nanomaterials. Scar formation and epidural fibrosis can be limited and modified locally. No local inflammation process was observed. Initial observations indicate the potential for the effective use of materials obtained in the electrospinning process to prevent cicatrization. PMID:23821387

  16. Morphometric Study of the Nerve Roots Around the Lateral Mass for Posterior Foraminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae-Chan; Bae, Hak-Geun; Cho, Sung-Won; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Hyung-Ki

    2010-01-01

    Objective Morphometric data on dorsal cervical anatomy were examined in an effort to protect the nerve root near the lateral mass during posterior foraminotomy. Methods Using 25 adult formalin-fixed cadaveric cervical spines, measurements were taken at the lateral mass from C3 to C7 via a total laminectomy and a medial one-half facetectomy. The morphometric relationship between the nerve roots and structures of the lateral mass was investigated. Results from both genders were compared. Results Following the total laminectomy, from C3 to C7, the mean of the vertical distance from the medial point of the facet (MPF) of the lateral mass to the axilla of the root origin was 3.2-4.7 mm. The whole length of the exposed root had a mean of 4.2-5.8 mm. Following a medial one-half facetectomy, from C3 to C7, the mean of the vertical distance to the axilla of the root origin was 2.1-3.4 mm, based on the MPF. Mean vertical distances from the MPF to the medial point of the root that crossed the inferior margin of the intervertebral disc were 1.2-2.7 mm. The mean distance of the exposed root was 8.2-9.0 mm, and the mean angle between the dura and the nerve root was significantly different between males and females, at 53.4-68.4°. Conclusion These data will aid in reducing root injuries during posterior cervical foraminotomy. PMID:20539795

  17. Postoperative infection in spine surgery: does the month matter?

    PubMed

    Durkin, Michael J; Dicks, Kristen V; Baker, Arthur W; Moehring, Rebekah W; Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J; Lewis, Sarah S; Anderson, Deverick J

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The relationship between time of year and surgical site infection (SSI) following neurosurgical procedures is poorly understood. Authors of previous reports have demonstrated that rates of SSI following neurosurgical procedures performed during the summer months were higher compared with rates during other seasons. It is unclear, however, if this difference was related to climatological changes or inexperienced medical trainees (the July effect). The aim of this study was to evaluate for seasonal variation of SSI following spine surgery in a network of nonteaching community hospitals. METHODS The authors analyzed 6 years of prospectively collected surveillance data (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2012) from all laminectomies and spinal fusions from 20 hospitals in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network of community hospitals. Surgical site infections were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network criteria and identified using standardized methods across study hospitals. Regression models were then constructed using Poisson distribution to evaluate for seasonal trends by month. Each analysis was first performed for all SSIs and then for SSIs caused by specific organisms or classes of organisms. Categorical analysis was performed using two separate definitions of summer: June through September (definition 1), and July through September (definition 2). The prevalence rate of SSIs during the summer was compared with the prevalence rate during the remainder of the year by calculating prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS The authors identified 642 SSIs following 57,559 neurosurgical procedures (overall prevalence rate = 1.11/100 procedures); 215 occurred following 24,466 laminectomies (prevalence rate = 0.88/100 procedures), and 427 following 33,093 spinal fusions (prevalence rate = 1.29/100 procedures). Common causes of SSI were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 380; 59%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 90; 14%), and Escherichia coli (n = 41; 6.4%). Poisson regression models demonstrated increases in the rates of SSI during each of the summer months for all SSIs and SSIs due to gram-positive cocci, S. aureus, and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. Categorical analysis confirmed that the rate of SSI during the 4-month summer period was higher than the rate during the remainder of the year, regardless of which definition for summer was used (definition 1, p = 0.008; definition 2, p = 0.003). Similarly, the rates of SSI due to grampositive cocci and S. aureus were higher during the summer months than the remainder of the year regardless of which definition of summer was used. However, the rate of SSI due to gram-negative bacilli was not. CONCLUSIONS The rate of SSI following fusion or spinal laminectomy/laminoplasty was higher during the summer in this network of community hospitals. The increase appears to be related to increases in SSIs caused by gram-positive cocci and, more specifically, S. aureus. Given the nonteaching nature of these hospitals, the findings demonstrate that increases in the rate of SSI during the summer are more likely related to ecological and/or environmental factors than the July effect. PMID:25860519

  18. The Significance of Removing Ruptured Intervertebral Discs for Interbody Fusion in Treating Thoracic or Lumbar Type B and C Spinal Injuries through a One-Stage Posterior Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian-Shi; Lü, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify the negative effect on treatment results of reserving damaged intervertebral discs when treating type B and type C spinal fracture-dislocations through a one-stage posterior approach. Methods This is a retrospective review of 53 consecutive patients who were treated in our spine surgery center from January 2005 to May 2012 due to severe thoracolumbar spinal fracture-dislocation. The patients in Group A (24 patients) underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression. In Group B (29 patients), the patients underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression evacuating of the ruptured disc and inserting of a bone graft into the evacuated disc space for interbody fusion. The mean time between injury and operation was 4.1 days (range 2–15 days). The clinical, radiologic and complication outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results Periodic follow-ups were carried out until an affirmative union or treatment failure took place. A progressive kyphosis angle larger than 10°, loss of disc height, pseudoarthrosis, recurrence of dislocation or subluxation, or instrument failure before fusion were considered treatment failures. Treatment failures were detected in 13 cases in Group A (failure rate was 54.2%). In Group B, there were 28 cases in which definitive bone fusion was demonstrated on CT scans, and CT scans of the other cases demonstrated undefined pseudoarthrosis without hardware failure. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (p<0.001 chi-square test). The neurologic recoveries, assessed by the ASIA scoring system, were not satisfactory for the neural deficit patients in either group, indicating there was no significant difference with regard to neurologic recovery between the two groups (p>0.05 Fisher's exact test). Conclusion Intervertebral disc damage is a common characteristic in type B and C spinal fracture-dislocation injuries. The damaged intervertebral disc should be removed and substituted with a bone graft because reserving the damaged disc in situ increases the risk of treatment failure. PMID:24827733

  19. “The Flipping Bullet” with Associated Intramedullary Dystrophic Calcification: An Unusual Cause for Migratory Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Christopher H; McKenzie, Gavin A; Diehn, Felix E; Morris, Jonathan M; Wood, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 24 year old male who had a retained bullet within his thoracic spine from a gunshot wound resulting in paraplegia. After 7 months he began experiencing painful dysesthesias at his sensory level. Repeat imaging demonstrated migration of the bullet as well as the development of intramedullary dystrophic calcification associated with the bullet. This case demonstrates not only the ability for retained bullets to migrate within the spinal canal but also demonstrates they can lead to remote symptoms due to the development of dystrophic calcification. PMID:22942925

  20. FDG-PET SUV can distinguish between spinal sarcoidosis and myelopathy with canal stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken SakushimaIchiro YabeTohru Shiga; Ichiro Yabe; Tohru Shiga; Moemi Yashima-Yamada; Sachiko Tsuji-Akimoto; Satoshi Terae; Hidenao Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord sarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spinal cord sarcoidosis\\u000a sometimes resembles that of the non-inflammatory spinal cord lesion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is an effective method to detect both systemic and central nervous\\u000a system lesions in sarcoidosis. This study compared the standard uptake value (SUV) of FDG-PET between spinal cord sarcoidosis

  1. Midline synovial and ganglion cysts causing neurogenic claudication

    PubMed Central

    Pindrik, Jonathan; Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Maleki, Zahra; Bydon, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Typically situated posterolateral in the spinal canal, intraspinal facet cysts often cause radicular symptoms. Rarely, the midline location of these synovial or ganglion cysts may cause thecal sac compression leading to neurogenic claudication or cauda equina syndrome. This article summarizes the clinical presentation, radiographic appearance, and management of three intraspinal, midline facet cysts. Three patients with symptomatic midline intraspinal facet cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Documented clinical visits, operative notes, histopathology reports, and imaging findings were investigated for each patient. One patient presented with neurogenic claudication while two patients developed partial, subacute cauda equina syndrome. All 3 patients initially responded favorably to lumbar decompression and midline cyst resection; however, one patient required surgical stabilization 8 mo later. Following the three case presentations, we performed a thorough literature search in order to identify articles describing intraspinal cystic lesions in lateral or midline locations. Midline intraspinal facet cysts represent an uncommon cause of lumbar stenosis and thecal sac compression. Such entities should enter the differential diagnosis of midline posterior cystic lesions. Midline cysts causing thecal sac compression respond favorably to lumbar surgical decompression and cyst resection. Though laminectomy is a commonly performed operation, stabilization may be required in cases of spondylolisthesis or instability. PMID:24364023

  2. Neuroprotective effects of rosuvastatin against traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Ramazan; Gökçe, Emre Cemal; Gürer, Bora; Gökçe, Aysun; Kisa, Uçler; Cemil, Duran Berker; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Kahveci, Fatih Ozan; Aksoy, Nurkan; Erdo?an, Bülent

    2014-10-15

    Rosuvastatin, which is a potent statin, has never been studied in traumatic spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rosuvastatin treatment could protect the spinal cord after experimental spinal cord injury. Rats were randomized into the following five groups of eight animals each: control, sham, trauma, rosuvastatin, and methylprednisolone. In the control group, no surgical intervention was performed. In the sham group, only laminectomy was performed. In all the other groups, the spinal cord trauma model was created by the occlusion of the spinal cord with an aneurysm clip. In the spinal cord tissue, caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, nitric oxide levels, and superoxide dismutase levels were analyzed. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations were also performed. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined-plane test.After traumatic spinal cord injury, increases in caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels were detected. In contrast, the superoxide dismutase levels were decreased. After the administration of rosuvastatin, decreases were observed in the tissue caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels. In contrast, tissue superoxide dismutase levels were increased. Furthermore, rosuvastatin treatment showed improved results concerning the histopathological scores, the ultrastructural score and the functional tests. Biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural analysis and functional tests revealed that rosuvastatin exhibits meaningful neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury. PMID:25084223

  3. Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation type 1 with syringohydromyelia presenting as acute tetraparesis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Byron; Birthi, Pravardhan; Salles, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Context A 19-year-old woman who presented to a community hospital after awakening with tetraparesis, generalized paresthesia, and severe neck pain, and was transferred to an acute care hospital. Findings Magnetic resonance imaging of the head and spine was performed and revealed a cystic lesion extending from the C1 level to the C6 level as well as an Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation. Emergent surgical posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty and C1 laminectomy was undertaken. Most symptoms improved immediately postoperatively. On post-operative day 15, the patient was transferred to our acute rehabilitation hospital for an additional 16 days. With continued aggressive therapy, she demonstrated complete resolution of tetraparesis as well as significant improvement in muscle strength and function in addition to resolution of paresthesia and neck pain. Functional independence measure scores were 69/126 on admission to 110/126 on discharge from the rehabilitation hospital. Her tetraparesis eventually resolved; manual muscle testing scores on follow-up 2 months later were 5/5 in all four extremities. Clinical relevance This is the first reported case of Chiari I malformation with syringohydromyelia presenting as acute tetraparesis, generalized paresthesia, and neck pain. Surgical decompression leading to resolution of symptoms made other etiologies extremely unlikely and there was no history of trauma. The different theories on the pathogenesis of syringomyelia are discussed. PMID:23809533

  4. Cervical epidural hematoma in a healthy donor presenting stroke mimic symptoms: a rare adverse event following peripheral blood stem cell apheresis.

    PubMed

    Terabe, Satomi; Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Koyama, Daisuke; Okuno, Shingo; Harada, Yasuhiko; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yoshihara, Hisatake; Iwasaki, Toshihiro; Sugiura, Isamu

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell apheresis from a healthy donor is indispensable for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Here, we report a rare adverse event following peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. A female sibling donor, aged 61 years with an unremarkable medical history, complained of pain in the left neck and shoulder and numbness in the left upper limb 1 h after the end of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. Paralysis of the left upper and lower limbs appeared consecutively. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed no abnormalities. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated according to the standard treatment of atherothrombotic brain infarction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical cord on the following day revealed a cervical epidural hematoma. An emergency C4-C5 laminectomy was performed, and the paralysis was improved immediately after surgery. This report is the first case of cervical epidural hematoma in a healthy donor who underwent peripheral blood stem cell apheresis and presented symptoms confusingly similar to those of brain infarction. PMID:25759485

  5. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

  6. Spinal hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    I?lekel, S; Er?ahin, Y; Zileli, M; Oktar, N; Oner, K; Ovül, I; Ozdamar, N; Tunçbay, E

    1998-03-01

    Vertebral hydatid cysts are rare and found in less than 1% of all the cases of hydatidosis. Neural compression is common in vertebral hydatidosis. The prognosis is generally regarded as very poor. This paper examines the natural history and complications which may arise during the treatment of vertebral hydatid cyst, and discusses their treatment. Thirteen cases of hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae are presented. The patients were admitted with symptoms of spinal cord compression. Twelve were treated by laminectomy and one by costotransversectomy. Low back pain radiating to the legs and lower extremity weakness were the predominant symptoms. Different degrees of pareses were present in 12 patients. Nine patients had impaired sensation in lower extremities. In 13 patients, 27 operations were performed. The major complication of surgery was the death of one patient due to the formaline irrigation. The surgical goal should be an extensive removal of the cysts and affected bone. The surgical area needs to be irrigated with hypertonic saline. Mebendazole or albendazole therapy seems to retard the recurrences and control the disease. PMID:9554015

  7. The effects of a polyphenol present in olive oil, oleuropein aglycone, in an experimental model of spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Esposito, Emanuela; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Di Paola, Rosanna; Bramanti, Placido; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Procopio, Antonio; Perri, Enzo; Britti, Domenico; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2012-05-15

    Several olive oil phenolic compounds, such us oleuropein have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant activity, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of oleuropein aglycone, a hydrolysis product of oleuropein, in the inflammatory response, in particular in the secondary injury associated with the mouse model of spinal cord trauma. The injury was induced by application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy in mice. Oleuropein aglycone was administered in mice (100 ?g/kg, 40 ?g/kg, 20 ?g/kg, 10% ethanol, i.p.) 1h and 6h after the trauma. The treatment with oleuropein aglycone significantly decreased: (1) histological damage, (2) motor recovery, (3) nuclear factor (NF)-?B expression and IKB-? degradation, (4) protein kinase A (PKA) activity and expression, (5) pro-inflammatory cytokines production such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), 6) inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, (7) neutrophil infiltration, (8) lipid peroxidation, (9) nitrotyrosine and poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) formation, (10) glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels, (11) apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand expression, Caspase 3, Bax and Bcl-2 expression). Thus, we propose that olive oil phenolic constituents such as oleuropein aglycone may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:22342994

  8. Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in a 22-Month-Old Child in Arizona: First Report in the United States and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Mark L.; Ostovar, Gholamabbas Amin; Chundu, Kote; Hobohm, Dan; Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Mathison, Blaine A.; Bishop, Henry S.; Cantey, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    A 22-month-old girl presented with neck pain and stiffness and magnetic resonance imaging showed an extradural mass extending from C2 through the C4 level with moderate to severe compression of the cord. A left unilateral C2–C4 laminectomy was performed revealing an extradural rubbery tumor; a small biopsy was obtained. Examination of stained tissue revealed the presence of a parasitic worm that was identified as a gravid female Onchocerca lupi. A magnetic resonance imaging at 7 weeks follow-up showed a significantly decreased size of the enhancing lesion and the patient's symptoms gradually resolved. This is the first report of zoonotic O. lupi in the United States. The parasite has been reported in dogs and cats in the western United States, and from people in four cases reported from Europe. A great deal more needs to be learned, including full host range and geographic distribution, before we fully understand O. lupi infections in animals and man. PMID:23382171

  9. Typhoid spondylodiscitis: the first reported case in Southeast Asia and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Nilgate, Sumanee; Suankratay, Chusana

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first case of typhoid spondylodiscitis in Southeast Asia, and the literature were also reviewed. A 57-year-old diabetic Thai man who presented with a one-month course of progressive low back pain associated with paraparesis and bowel-bladder dysfunction. Examination revealed local tenderness over T12 area, spastic paraparesis, impaired pinprick sensation up to T12 level, and loose anal sphincter tone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spondylodiscitis of T11 and T12 and epidural abscess causing spinal cord compression. T11 and T12 laminectomy, T11/12 discectomy, and debridement of epidural abscess were performed, and the cultures of the pus grew Salmonella Typhi. He was treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin for three weeks and was discharged from the hospital with oral ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for another five months of treatment. The patient was doing well when last seen two months after discontinuation of antimicrobial treatment. In addition, a total of ten cases of typhoid spondylitis/spondylodiscitis were reviewed. PMID:20196424

  10. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Koreckij, Theodore D; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is one of the more commonly encountered spine conditions. The diagnosis of DS has changed little in the last 30 years. However, there has been an evolution in the treatment of this disease entity. There have been several landmark papers that helped govern our treatment. These helped serve as the basis for the treatment arms of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT), which offers the highest quality evidence to date. Although few would argue that the fusion of the diseased segment appears to offer the best and most durable results, treatment of this disease is best tailored to the individual. Fusion may offer the best results in the young active patient, but the same results may never become evident in the medically infirm patient. Laminectomy or unilateral laminoforaminotomy still plays a role in disease treatment. This review will focus on the diagnosis and the treatment of DS as well as discuss the author's preferred treatment of this disease. PMID:26172828

  11. Polyarticular Septic Arthritis in an Immunocompetent Adult: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Annelise; Abduljabbar, Fahad; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Septic arthritis is a clinical emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid significant morbidity and mortality. Polyarticular septic arthritis (PASA) accounts for 15% of all infectious arthritides and rarely occurs in immunocompetent adults. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism, with infection primarily affecting knees, shoulders, elbows, and hips. The morbidity associated with PASA is very high, and mortality in treated cases of PASA may be as high as 50% of cases. We report a case of PASA with associated epidural abscess in a healthy adult male, who presented with complaints of arthralgia and limited range of motion of his left shoulder, wrist, and ankle. He also presented with low back pain and motor weakness associated with an epidural abscess spanning L2-S1, with multilevel vertebral osteomyelitis. Surgical washout of the affected joints as well as decompressive laminectomies was performed, and he received a standard course of intravenous antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from joint aspirations and from blood cultures. The patient had a full neurological and functional recovery postoperatively with no sequelae. To the best of our knowledge this is the only case report of Staphylococcus aureus PASA with concomitant epidural abscess in an immunocompetent adult. PMID:26146580

  12. Could an osteoinductor result in degeneration of a neurofibroma in NF1?

    PubMed Central

    Julia, Bouchaïb; Axel, Walter; Sébastien, Schuller; Philippe, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of fatal evolution of neurofibromatosis in a young boy. A laminectomy was performed when he was 9 years old. A secondary hyperkyphosis led to many surgeries resulting in recurrent malunions. When he was 23 years old, a breakage of his rods was treated by a new instrumentation and a T12–L1 interbody cage fitted with rh-BMP. Five months later, he developed a huge posterior tumour on his back. The biopsy diagnosed a neurofibrosarcoma. The growth of the tumour was extremely rapid. He died after several months from a septic shock. NF1 is characterised by neurofibromas that have a possibility of malign degeneration and conversion to a sarcoma. However, the chronology, rapidity of evolution and the exceptional volume of the tumour made us wonder whether the BMP had a part of responsibility as osteoinductor in the malignant degeneration, in this particular case, of neurofibromatosis. It seemed important to point out this case to the medical community. PMID:20449613

  13. Spinal Myeloid Sarcoma “Chloroma” Presenting as Cervical Radiculopathy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaobang; Shahab, Imran; Lieberman, Isador H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Myeloid sarcoma (also known as chloroma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may occur early in the course of acute or chronic leukemia or myeloproliferative disorders. Spinal cord invasion by myeloid sarcoma is rare. The authors report a rare case of spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Methods?A previously healthy 43-year-old man presented with progressive neck, right shoulder, and arm pain. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a very large enhancing extradural soft tissue mass extending from C7 through T1, with severe narrowing of the thecal sac at the T1 level. The patient underwent posterior cervical open biopsy, laminectomy, and decompression. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Postoperatively, a bone marrow biopsy was done, which showed myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia. The patient then received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Results?At the 10-month follow-up, the patient reported complete relief of arm pain and neck pain. X-rays showed that the overall cervical alignment was intact and there was no evidence of a recurrent lesion. MRI showed no evidence of compressive or remnant lesion. Conclusions?Spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy is rare, and it may be easily misdiagnosed. Knowledge of its clinical presentation, imaging, and histologic characterization can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26131394

  14. Hydrocephalus due to Membranous Obstruction of Magendie's Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Varthalitis, Dimitrios; Georgakoulias, Nikolaos; Orphanidis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of non communicating hydrocephalus due to membranous obstruction of Magendie's foramen. A 37-year-old woman presented with intracranial hypertension symptoms caused by the occlusion of Magendie's foramen by a membrane probably due to arachnoiditis. As far as the patient's past medical history is concerned, an Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis was described. Fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral papilledema. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant ventricular dilatation of all ventricles and turbulent flow of cerebelospinal fluid (CSF) in the fourth ventricle as well as back flow of CSF through the Monro's foramen to the lateral ventricles. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniotomy with C1 laminectomy. An occlusion of Magendie's foramen by a thickened membrane was recognized and it was incised and removed. We confirm the existence of hydrocephalus caused by fourth ventricle outflow obstruction by a membrane. The nature of this rare entity is difficult to demonstrate because of the complex morphology of the fourth ventricle. Treatment with surgical exploration and incision of the thickened membrane proved to be a reliable method of treatment without the necessity of endoscopic third ventriculostomy or catheter placement. PMID:25674349

  15. Syncope caused by congenital anomaly at the craniovertebral junction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Anomalies in the craniovertebral junction may be a rare cause of syncope. The mechanisms of syncope related to craniovertebral junction anomaly remain unknown. We present an extremely rare case with anomaly in the craniovertebral junction and syncope, and discuss the mechanism of the syncope. Case presentation A 10-year-old Japanese boy with a congenital anomaly in the craniovertebral junction presented with recurrent syncope. A physical examination showed generalized hyperreflexia, but motor and sensory examinations were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed basilar invagination and spinal cord compression at his craniovertebral junction. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an anomalous course of his bilateral vertebral arteries, both of which showed a persistent first intersegmental artery that entered the spinal canal at the caudal portion of the C1 posterior arch. In this case, the arteries were nearly pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of the C2. C1 laminectomy and occiput-cervical fusion (O-C2) was performed using an instrumentation system. After surgery, the syncope was not observed. Conclusions Syncope can be related to compression of extracranial arteries within the neck. In this case, transient brain ischemia caused by the anomalous course of vertebral arteries that were pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of C2 in cervical motion was the suspected cause of the syncope. PMID:25296768

  16. Occipital Neuralgia after Occipital Cervical Fusion to Treat an Unstable Jefferson Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Seong Ju; Park, Jin Hoon

    2012-01-01

    In this report we describe a patient with an unstable Jefferson fracture who was treated by occipitocervical fusion and later reported sustained postoperative occipital neuralgia. A 70-year-old male was admitted to our center with a Jefferson fracture induced by a car accident. Preoperative lateral X-ray revealed an atlanto-dens interval of 4.8mm and a C1 canal anterior-posterior diameter of 19.94mm. We performed fusion surgery from the occiput to C5 without decompression of C1. The patient reported sustained continuous pain throughout the following year despite strong analgesics. The pain dermatome was located mainly in the great occipital nerve territory and posterior neck. Magnetic resonance images revealed no evidence of cord compression, however a C1 lamina compressed dural sac and C2 root compression could not be excluded. We performed bilateral C2 root decompression via a C1 laminectomy. After decompression, bilateral C2 root redundancy was identified by palpation. After decompression surgery, pain was reduced. This case indicates that occipital neuralgia, suggesting the need for diagnostic block, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with sustained occipital headache after occipitocervical fusion surgery. PMID:25983846

  17. The effect of electrical stimulation on colonic transit following spinal cord injury in cats.

    PubMed

    Bruninga, K; Riedy, L; Keshavarzian, A; Walter, J

    1998-12-01

    The effect of direct electrical stimulation on colinic transit and manometric recordings following spinal cord injury were assessed in five adult male cats. Intra-colonic catheters were surgically placed, stimulating electrodes were sutured to the colonic serosa and a laminectomy with spinal cord clamping at a T4 level was done to induce spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty radiopaque markers were inserted through an intra-colonic catheter located 1 cm distal to the cecum and were monitored with daily fluoroscopy as a measure of colonic transit. Transit measurements were compared before SCI, after SCI and after SCI with electrical stimulation of 40 pps, 1 ms, and 0-50 mA. Colonic transit following SCI was significantly prolonged (P<0.05) when compared to the transit before SCI. Electrical stimulation following SCI improved colonic transit to values not significantly different from those before SCI. Spontaneous colonic phasic motor activity was similar both before and after SCI. Manometric defection patterns were also observed to be similar before SCI and after SCI with electrical stimulation. Based on our scoring criteria, the most frequent response to electrical stimulation was an abdominal contraction. These findings demonstrate that colonic transit is prolonged following SCI and that direct electrical stimulation of the colon following SCI improves colonic transit in an animal model. PMID:9881734

  18. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Genevay, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is most commonly due to degenerative changes in older individuals. LSS is being more commonly diagnosed and may relate to better access to advanced imaging and to an aging population. This review focuses on radicular symptoms related to degenerative central and lateral stenosis and updates knowledge of LSS pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Since patients with anatomic LSS can range from asymptomatic to severely disabled, the clinical diagnosis focuses on symptoms and examination findings associated with LSS. Imaging findings are helpful for patients with persistent, bothersome symptoms in whom invasive treatments are being considered. There is limited information from high quality studies about the relative benefits and harms of commonly used treatments. Interpreting and comparing results of available research is limited by a lack of consensus about the definition of LSS. Nevertheless, evidence supports decompressive laminectomy for patients with persistent and bothersome symptoms. Recommendations favor a shared decision making approach due to important trade-offs between alternative therapies and differences among patients in their preferences and values. PMID:20227646

  19. Lumbar discal cyst causing bilateral radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hyung-Jun, Kwak; Dae-Yong, Kim; Tae-Ho, Kim; Ho-Sang, Park; Jae-Sung, Kim; Jae-Won, Jang; Jung-Kil, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Background: Discal cyst is a rare lesion that can result in clinical symptoms typical of disc herniation manifesting as a unilateral single nerve root lesion. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of discal cyst resulting in bilateral radiculopathy. Case Description: A 48-year-old female presented with bilateral sciatica and neurogenic claudication for 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extradural cystic lesion compressing the ventral aspect of the thecal sac at the level of the L3-L4 intervertebral disc. The lesion showed low and high signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images, respectively. Total excision of the cyst was achieved after a left hemipartial laminectomy of L3, and an obvious communication with the disc space was found. Bilateral sciatica was immediately resolved after surgery, and was sustained at the two-year follow-up. The histological diagnosis was consistent with a discal cyst. Conclusions: Although a discal cyst is extremely rare, the possibility of a discal cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with radiculopathy, particularly when encountering any extradural mass lesion ventral to the thecal sac. Surgical resection is the most employed therapeutic method for symptomatic lumbar discal cysts. PMID:21427789

  20. Epidural catheter with integrated light guides for spectroscopic tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Astorga, R. P.; West, S.; Putnis, S.; Hebden, J. C.; Desjardins, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Epidural catheters are used to deliver anesthetics and opioids for managing pain in many clinical scenarios. Currently, epidural catheter insertion is performed without information about the tissues that are directly ahead of the catheter. As a result, the catheter can be incorrectly positioned within a blood vessel, which can cause toxicity. Recent studies have shown that optical reflectance spectroscopy could be beneficial for guiding needles that are used to insert catheters. In this study, we investigate the whether this technique could benefit the placement of catheters within the epidural space. We present a novel optical epidural catheter with integrated polymer light guides that allows for optical spectra to be acquired from tissues at the distal tip. To obtain an initial indication of the information that could be obtained, reflectance values and photon penetration depth were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and optical reflectance spectra were acquired during a laminectomy of a swine ex vivo. Large differences between the spectra acquired from epidural adipose tissue and from venous blood were observed. The optical catheter has the potential to provide real-time detection of intravascular catheter placement that could reduce the risk of complications. PMID:24298420

  1. A Rare Case of Multiregional Spinal Stenosis: Clinical Description, Surgical Complication, and Management Concept Review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Liu, Ka Po Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report and literature review. Objective?Multiregional spinal stenosis (MRSS) has not been described in the English literature, although a few studies report the concept of tandem spinal stenosis. Due to the concurrent spinal stenosis occurring in three separate regions of the spine, clinical presentation of MRSS may be less distinct, and its surgical treatment priorities and challenges differ from single-region spinal stenosis. The purpose of this article is to describe a new concept and a rare case of MRSS as separated segments of spinal stenosis in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Methods?A retrospective case description of MRSS and surgical strategies used in managing such extensive multiregional stenosis and its potential complications. Results ?A novel surgical strategy using a combination of laminectomies with fusion and laminoplasty without fusion to treat this patient with such extensive cervical to thoracic myelopathic cord compression is described. Initial good recovery after cervical cord decompression was followed by a delayed recurrence of symptoms from thoracic cord compression. The subsequent thoracic surgical decompression, its complications and management, and patient recovery are discussed with a literature review highlighting the possible mechanisms for postoperative loss of neurologic function after thoracic decompression. Conclusion?MRSS is a rare cause of extensive compression of multiple regions of the spinal cord. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to use the term multiregional spinal stenosis to describe this new emergent clinical entity, surgical management strategies, and potential complications. PMID:25648605

  2. Bronchogenic cyst of the conus medullaris with spinal cord tethering: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming-Xiang; Hu, Jia-Rui; Kang, Yi-Jun; Li, Jing; Lv, Guo-Hua; She, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts (BCs) are congenital malformations that originate from remnants of the primitive foregut. Intraspinal BCs, especially those of the conus medullaris are rare with only one case reported until now. To date, a bronchogenic cyst with spinal cord tethering has not been previously reported. We reviewed the clinical course of a 44-year-old woman, who presented with low back pain and leg weaknesss as well as sphincter disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intradural oval mass located at the conus medullaris. A tethered cord was also observed, as well as a dermal sinus tract. The mass was totally removed after an L3-L4 laminectomy without detethering during operation. Pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst. By six months after treatment, the patient had experienced nearly complete recovery. The review of literature indicated that detethering was performed in most reported cases of neurenteric cysts with spinal cord tethering, and one of six patients was diagnosed with a postoperative recurrence. The co-existence of bronchogenic cyst and a tethered spinal cord would imply associated developmental errors in embryogenesis. It is worth noting that whether detethering is necessary after the cyst removal.

  3. Pelvic pain from a giant presacral Tarlov cyst successfully obliterated using aneurysm clips in a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bonnie; Moon, Seong-Jin; Olivero, William C; Wang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    Patients with Marfan syndrome used to succumb early in life from cardiovascular complications. With the current rapid advance in medical and surgical care, such patients may now have near-normal longevities. Consequently, rare late-life complications are emerging in these patients and represent challenges to clinicians for their diagnoses and treatments. The authors report a rare case of pelvic pain and genital prolapse from a giant presacral Tarlov cyst in a 67-year-old patient with Marfan syndrome. This 67-year-old Caucasian female presented with progressively severe pelvic pain, intermittent explosive diarrhea, and dysuria. Physical and bimanual examination demonstrated genital prolapse and a nontender, cyst-like mass fixed in the midline. She underwent ultrasound, CT, and eventually MRI evaluations that led to the diagnosis of a giant (6.7 × 6.4 × 6.6 cm) Tarlov cyst originating from the right S-2 nerve root sleeve/sacral foramen with intrapelvic extension. She underwent S1-S2 and S2-S3 laminectomy with obliteration of the Tarlov cyst using aneurysm clips. Postoperatively, her pelvic pain and bowel symptoms resolved and the bladder symptoms improved. The 3-month follow-up CT of abdomen/pelvis demonstrated resolution of the cyst. The present case illustrates that clinicians caring for elderly patients with Marfan syndrome need to increasingly recognize such unusual late-life complications. Also, these large Tarlov cysts can be simply and effectively obliterated with aneurysm clips. PMID:25216402

  4. Intradural Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Distinctive Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kaksi, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Sav, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasms of putative fibroblastic origin. They were originally described in the pleura but subsequently have been reported in many extraserosal sites. Solitary fibrous tumors may also occur in the meninges, central nervous system parenchyma, and spinal cord. Case. A 67-year-old male patient with progressive lower extremity weakness, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction has been admitted to our hospital. On his lumbar MRI, we detected an intradural lesion posterior to the L3 vertebral corpus. We resected the lesion by L3 total laminectomy. Immunohistological findings revealed strong and diffuse immunopositivity with vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2. Ki-67 proliferation index was 5–8%. We did not detect any recurrence 12 months after his operation. Conclusion. SFT is mostly seen in young and middle-aged patients and should be considered among differential diagnosis in cases suffering from pain, hypoesthesia, and urinary dysfunction. Gross total resection should be primary treatment. Tumors that have high Ki-67 labeling should be followed up for potential recurrences. PMID:25648160

  5. Intradural solitary fibrous tumor of the lumbar spine: a distinctive case report.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Recep; Kaksi, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Sav, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasms of putative fibroblastic origin. They were originally described in the pleura but subsequently have been reported in many extraserosal sites. Solitary fibrous tumors may also occur in the meninges, central nervous system parenchyma, and spinal cord. Case. A 67-year-old male patient with progressive lower extremity weakness, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction has been admitted to our hospital. On his lumbar MRI, we detected an intradural lesion posterior to the L3 vertebral corpus. We resected the lesion by L3 total laminectomy. Immunohistological findings revealed strong and diffuse immunopositivity with vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2. Ki-67 proliferation index was 5-8%. We did not detect any recurrence 12 months after his operation. Conclusion. SFT is mostly seen in young and middle-aged patients and should be considered among differential diagnosis in cases suffering from pain, hypoesthesia, and urinary dysfunction. Gross total resection should be primary treatment. Tumors that have high Ki-67 labeling should be followed up for potential recurrences. PMID:25648160

  6. The Mechanisms of Medial Pedicle Wall Violation: Insertion Method Is as Important as Correct Cannulation of the Pedicle

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Cengiz; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Inanmaz, Mustafa Erkan; Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Sarman, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    A cadaver study aims to determine the mechanisms of medial pedicle wall violation after a correct cannulation of the pedicle. The study presents finding out the effect of insertion angle and insertion force on medial wall violation. We used 100 lumbar pedicles of cadavers. Special wooden blocks were produced to simulate a fixed angle fault after a correct pedicle cannulation. Pedicles were divided into 4 groups: 10-degree free drive (group 10), 15-degree free drive (group 15), 10-degree push drive (group 10P), and 15-degree push drive (group 15P). After insertion of pedicle screws, laminectomies were done and the pedicles were evaluated from the inside. Pedicle complications were more in group 10P than group 10 (P = 0.009). Medial wall fracture (P = 0.002) and canal penetration were more in group 15P than group 15 (P = 0.001). Groups 10P and 15P were similar regarding medial wall fractures but canal penetration was significantly higher in group 15P (P = 0.001). Medial wall breaches can happen after correct cannulation of pedicles. Change in insertion angle is one factor but the most important factor is the use of a pushing force while inserting a screw. The pedicle seems to be extremely tolerant to insertion angulation mistakes up to 10 degrees and tends to lead the screw into the correct path spontaneously. PMID:25400951

  7. Solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma mimicking a spinal meningioma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng-Jun; Zhan, Ren-Ya; Chen, Man-Tao; Cao, Fei; Zheng, Xiu-Jue

    2014-01-01

    Dural granuloma is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there has no case reported solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma worldwide so far. Here we report our findings in a 49-year-old woman, who presented with 10-year progressive left lower-limb numbness and two weeks of right lower-limb numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a homogeneous enhanced spindle-shaped lesion, 2.9 × 1.5 cm in size, occupying the spinal intradural extramedullary space, at the level of Thoracic (T)-2/3, which mimicked the appearance of spinal meningioma. The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test titer of 1:8, and the venereal diseases research laboratory of cerebral spinal fluid (VDRL-CSF) was reactive, so confirmed neurosyphilis was considered. After formal anti-syphilis treatment, posterior laminectomy surgery was performed, and the lesion was completely separated and extirpated. Final histopathologic diagnosis of the lesion was confirmed as chronic granulomatous inflammation, combined with the neurosyphilis history, spinal dural syphilis granuloma was finally diagnosed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without any further treatment. PMID:24831378

  8. Thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syrinx formation secondary to myelography with Myodil, 30 years previously.

    PubMed

    Gnanalingham, Kanna K; Joshi, Shabin Man; Sabin, Ian

    2006-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis can rarely occur following irritation from foreign body substances, including certain oil based contrast agents used for myelography. We describe a patient with thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syringomyelia, 30 years following a myelogram with Myodil. A 62-year-old female presented with chronic thoraco-lumbar back pain, a spastic paraparesis and sphincter disturbance. She had undergone a myelogram with Myodil, 30 years previously for investigation of back pain. A MRI scan revealed evidence of arachnoiditis, thoracic syringomyelia (T6-T8) and an anteriorly placed, extramedullary, arachnoid cyst at T10-T12, compressing the cord. At surgery, T7-T10 thoracic laminectomies were carried out and syringo- and cysto-subarachnoid shunts were inserted. At 12 months follow-up, the sphincter disturbance, lower limb weakness and mobility problems had almost resolved. Although, the use of oil based contrast agents such as Myodil has been discontinued, the present case illustrates some of the rare sequelae of its use, manifesting decades later. Aggressive surgical intervention produced symptomatic benefit. PMID:16944225

  9. A case report of 3-level degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal canal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Moo, Ing How; Tan, See Wei; Kasat, Niraj; Thng, Leong Keng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis is a major cause of impaired quality of life and diminished functional capacity in the elderly. Degenerative spondylolisthesis often involves only one or two level and tend to present with one or two level spinal canal stenosis. Case report The authors describe an unusual case of degenerative spondylolisthesis involving 3 levels of the lumbar spine from L2 to L5. The patient was a 58-year-old woman who suffered chronic back pain and neurogenic claudication. Plain radiography revealed grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis at L2–L3, L3–L4 and L4–L5. Elevated pedicle-facet joint angles and W-type facet joints at the lumbar spine was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed L2–S1 spinal cord compression at the lumbar spine. Patient underwent L2–S1 decompression laminectomy and posterior lateral fusion of L2–S1 with posterior instrumentation and bone grafting. Symptoms improved significantly at 4 months follow-up. Conclusion Thorough evaluation for multilevel segmental involvement in degenerative spondylolisthesis is important because of the frequency of severe symptomatic spinal stenosis or foraminal encroachment. Good surgical outcome can be expected from decompression and stabilisation. The pathogenesis of multi-level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis can be complex and heterogeneous. PMID:25666306

  10. Occipital neuralgia after occipital cervical fusion to treat an unstable jefferson fracture.

    PubMed

    Kong, Seong Ju; Park, Jin Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo

    2012-12-01

    In this report we describe a patient with an unstable Jefferson fracture who was treated by occipitocervical fusion and later reported sustained postoperative occipital neuralgia. A 70-year-old male was admitted to our center with a Jefferson fracture induced by a car accident. Preoperative lateral X-ray revealed an atlanto-dens interval of 4.8mm and a C1 canal anterior-posterior diameter of 19.94mm. We performed fusion surgery from the occiput to C5 without decompression of C1. The patient reported sustained continuous pain throughout the following year despite strong analgesics. The pain dermatome was located mainly in the great occipital nerve territory and posterior neck. Magnetic resonance images revealed no evidence of cord compression, however a C1 lamina compressed dural sac and C2 root compression could not be excluded. We performed bilateral C2 root decompression via a C1 laminectomy. After decompression, bilateral C2 root redundancy was identified by palpation. After decompression surgery, pain was reduced. This case indicates that occipital neuralgia, suggesting the need for diagnostic block, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with sustained occipital headache after occipitocervical fusion surgery. PMID:25983846

  11. Spinal Myeloid Sarcoma "Chloroma" Presenting as Cervical Radiculopathy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaobang; Shahab, Imran; Lieberman, Isador H

    2015-06-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Myeloid sarcoma (also known as chloroma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may occur early in the course of acute or chronic leukemia or myeloproliferative disorders. Spinal cord invasion by myeloid sarcoma is rare. The authors report a rare case of spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Methods?A previously healthy 43-year-old man presented with progressive neck, right shoulder, and arm pain. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a very large enhancing extradural soft tissue mass extending from C7 through T1, with severe narrowing of the thecal sac at the T1 level. The patient underwent posterior cervical open biopsy, laminectomy, and decompression. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Postoperatively, a bone marrow biopsy was done, which showed myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia. The patient then received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Results?At the 10-month follow-up, the patient reported complete relief of arm pain and neck pain. X-rays showed that the overall cervical alignment was intact and there was no evidence of a recurrent lesion. MRI showed no evidence of compressive or remnant lesion. Conclusions?Spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy is rare, and it may be easily misdiagnosed. Knowledge of its clinical presentation, imaging, and histologic characterization can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26131394

  12. Selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia secondary to stroke in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Melissa Ann; Berman, Casey Melissa; Mazzola, Catherine Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is often recommended for children with spastic paraparesis and cerebral palsy. SDR reduces spasticity in the lower extremities for these children with spastic paraplegia. However, SDR is infrequently recommended for adults with spasticity. Spastic diplegia in adult patients can be due to stroke, brain or spinal cord injury from trauma, infection, toxic-metabolic disorders, and other causes. Although rarely considered, SDR is an option for adult patients with spastic diplegia as well. Case Description: The authors describe a patient who underwent a SDR with a successful postoperative outcome. This man suffered a hypertensive and hemorrhagic stroke secondary to intravenous drug abuse at age 46. A SDR was performed after two failed intrathecal baclofen pump placements due to recurrent infections, likely resulting from his immunocompromised status. The patient underwent lumbar laminectomies and dorsal rhizotomies at levels L1-S1 bilaterally. Postoperatively, the patient's spasticity was significantly reduced. His Ashworth spasticity score decreased from 4/5 to 1/5, and the reduction in tone has been durable over 3 years. Conclusion: SDR in older patients with spastic paraparesis may be considered as a treatment option. PMID:26167363

  13. The treatment of lumbar spondyloptosis or impending lumbar spondyloptosis accompanied by neurologic deficit and/or neurogenic intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, H

    1979-01-01

    Three patients with complete lumbar spondyloptosis and 8 patients with fourth-degree spondylolisthesis suffering from radicular signs and symptoms are reported. There were 8 female and 3 male patients in the study. A high incidence of neurogenic intermittent claudication was noted in this condition. Decompressive laminectomy and foraminectomy were performed on all patients followed by transabdominal console fusion. Length of follow-up varied from 3 to 17 years, with a mean value of 13.5 years, and results are reported. Radicular signs and symptoms had completely subsided in all cases. Nine of 11 patients are free from signs and symptoms and 2 suffer from residual pain, although less severe than before surgery. All 3 males fathered children after surgery, which is in contrast to the opinion that anterior lumbosacrial fusion is followed by infertility in males. Special attention was given to individuality of remodeling of the lumbosacral junction over the course of time. Solid fusion was obtained in 10 of the 11 patients, while the console fusion collapsed because of failure to follow instructions after surgery in 1 patient. PMID:432718

  14. Graft derived reafferentation of host spinal cord is not necessary for amelioration of lesion-induced deficits: possible role of migrating grafted astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J J; Goldberg, W J

    1989-01-01

    The present study explores the ability of fetal spinal cord homografts into lesioned host C3 fasiculus gracilis to influence the expected deterioration of hindlimb performance following this lesion. Rats were trained to traverse a narrow platform for a water reward. Animals were ranked for hindlimb performance utilizing slips, recovery and manner of traversing the platform. After training the animals, numbers were recorded, laminectomy performed at C3 and subject fasiculus gracilis (FG) bilaterally aspirated. Half the subjects were randomly selected for implantation of two, one mm segments of 14 day gestation cervical spinal cord. Recorded lesion-only and lesion-transplanted animals were tested 21, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days later. C3 fetal transplants significantly decreased the severity of hindlimb deficit at 21 and 90 days postlesion (p less than 0.05). The C1-FG of both groups contained no nerve fibers. However, the host nucleus gracilis of lesion-transplant animals contained normal sizes and numbers of neurons whereas the lesion-only group did not. This neuronal maintenance may have been due to factor(s) secreted by transplant derived astrocytes which migrated at 0.72-0.76 mm/day and reside in the host nucleus gracilis. PMID:2713712

  15. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma: Patients' profile, outcome, and prognostic factors: A multicenter Rare Cancer Network study

    SciTech Connect

    Monnard, Virginie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sun, Alex [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Epelbaum, Ron [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Centre, Haifa (Israel); Poortmans, Philip [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Instituut, Tilburg (Netherlands); Miller, Robert C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Verschueren, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology MAASTRO, University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands); Scandolaro, Luciano [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Villa, Salvador [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Barcelona (Spain); Majno, Sabine Balmer [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire de Geneve (HCUGE), Geneva (Switzerland); Ostermann, Sandrine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rene-olivier.mirimanoff@chuv.ch

    2006-07-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors in primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL). Methods and Materials Between 1982 and 2002, 52 consecutive patients with PSEL were treated in nine institutions of the Rare Cancer Network. Forty-eight patients had an Ann Arbor stage IE and four had a stage IIE. Forty-eight patients underwent decompressive laminectomy, all received radiotherapy (RT) with (n = 32) or without chemotherapy (n = 20). Median RT dose was 36 Gy (range, 6-50 Gy). Results Six (11%) patients progressed locally and 22 (42%) had a systemic relapse. At last follow-up, 28 patients were alive and 24 had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control were 69%, 57%, and 88%, respectively. In univariate analyses, favorable prognostic factors were younger age and complete neurologic response. Multivariate analysis showed that combined modality treatment, RT volume, total dose more than 36 Gy, tumor resection, and complete neurologic response were favorable prognostic factors. Conclusions Primary spinal epidural lymphoma has distinct clinical features and outcome, with a relatively good prognosis. After therapy, local control is excellent and systemic relapse occurs in less than half the cases. Combined modality treatment appears to be superior to RT alone.

  16. Influence of intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation on iNOS, total-NOS, and ET-1 in acute spinal cord-injured rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhenchun; Dong, Yinghai; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective To research the influence of intravascular low level Laser irradiation (ILLLI) on total NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord following acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), and discuss the protective effects of ILLLI on neurons .Methods 72 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: treatment group, injury group and control group. In treatment group and injury group, after laminectomy at the level of T-13, ASCI was performed by using Allen"s method with slight modification (6g×10cm) on rabbits. After injury, rabbits were treated immediately with He-Ne laser (power 5 mW, 1 hour per day for 10 days). At the day of 10th after treatment, total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord tissues were measured. Results The expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord in injury group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while after ILLLI the level of these index in treatment group decreased statistically significantly compared with those in injury group (P<0.05). Conclusion ILLLI can significantly decrease the expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord. It indicates that ILLLI can relieve the overexpression of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 ,and thus can perform protective effects on neurons in the course of secondary spinal cord injury (SSCI) following ASCI

  17. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kertmen, H; Gürer, B; Yimaz, E R; Sekerci, Z

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patient was a 45-year-old man presented with acute bilateral foot drop, without any sign of the cauda equina syndrome. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging of the patient revealed L4-5 disc herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first presented case of acute bilateral foot drop without any signs of cauda equina syndrome caused by L4-5 disc herniation. The second patient was a 50-year-old man who was also presented with acute bilateral foot drop, and had T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension. Also this is the first presented case of T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension causing acute bilateral foot drop. We performed emergent decompressive laminectomy to both of the patients and extrude disc materials were excised. Both of the patients were recovered with favorable outcome. PMID:25972945

  18. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-03-18

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  19. Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopic Analysis of the Effects of Anti-inflammatory Therapeutics on Would Healing in Laminectomized Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Weins,R.; Rak, M.; Cox, N.; Abraham, S.; Juurlink, B.; Kulyk, W.; Gough, K.

    2007-01-01

    Peridural scarring, or the excessive formation of scar tissue following spinal surgery, is one of the important contributing factors that result in persistent pain and disability in many individuals who have undergone elective back surgery. Treatment with anti-inflammatory agents following surgery may reduce oxidative stress and scarring, leading to a reduction in post-operative pain. We are using a surgical rat model to test the hypothesis that post-surgical inflammation and oxidative stress following laminectomy can be reduced by systemic administration of L: -2-oxo-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) and quercetin. OTC is a cysteine precursor required for the synthesis of glutathione, an important antioxidant. Quercetin is a flavenoid with anti-oxidant properties, found in fruits and vegetables. Synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy data has been collected on OTC, quercetin and saline (control)-treated post-surgery animals, sacrificed at 3 and 21 days (n=6 per age and treatment group). This paper presents preliminary IR results, supported by immunocytochemistry, on the heterogenous distribution of biological components present in the healing tissue. The data collected on animals sacrificed at 3 and 21 days post-surgery will be combined in the future with data from animals sacrificed 63 days after surgery (representing a third time point) to evaluate the efficacy of the different treatments. Initial statistical analysis of ED1 immunohistochemistry results indicates a decrease in the number of activated macrophages 21 days post-surgery in the OTC-treated animals compared with the saline controls.

  20. Extraspinal Type I Dural Arteriovenous Fistula with a Lumbosacral Lipomyelomeningocele: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Karsy, Michael; Ray, Wilson Z.; Dailey, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Seven cases of adult spinal vascular malformations presenting in conjunction with spinal dysraphism have been reported in the literature. Two of these involved male patients with a combined dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) and lipomyelomeningocele. The authors present the third case of a patient with an extraspinal DAVF and associated lipomyelomeningocele in a lumbosacral location. A 58-year-old woman with rapid decline in bilateral motor function 10 years after a prior L4-5 laminectomy and cord detethering for diagnosed tethered cord underwent magnetic resonance imaging showing evidence of persistent cord tethering and a lipomyelomeningocele. Diagnostic spinal angiogram showed a DAVF with arterial feeders from bilateral sacral and the right internal iliac arteries. The patient underwent Onyx embolization of both feeding right and left lateral sacral arteries. At 6-month follow-up, MRI revealed decreased flow voids and new collateralized supply to the DAVF. The patient underwent successful lipomyelomeningocele exploration, resection, AV fistula ligation, and cord detethering. This report discusses management of this patient as well as the importance of endovascular embolization followed by microsurgery for the treatment of cases with combined vascular and dysraphic anomalies. PMID:25949837

  1. In situ forming hydrogel composed of hyaluronate and polygalacturonic acid for prevention of peridural fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Yi; Peng, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Tse-Ying; Chen, Ming-Hong

    2015-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels can reduce postoperative adhesion. However, the long-term application of hyaluronic acid is limited by tissue mediated enzymatic degradation. To overcome this limitation, we developed a polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel by Schiff's base crosslinking reaction. The polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogels had short gelation time (less than 15 s) and degraded by less than 50 % in the presence of hyaluronidase for 7 days. Cell adhesion and migration assays showed polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogels prevented fibroblasts from adhesion and infiltration into the hydrogels. Compared to hyaluronate hydrogels and commercial Medishield™ gels, polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel was not totally degraded in vivo after 4 weeks. In the rat laminectomy model, polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel also had better adhesion grade and smaller mean area of fibrous tissue formation over the saline control and hyaluronate hydrogel groups. Polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel is a system that can be easy to use due to its in situ cross-linkable property and potentially promising for adhesion prevention in spine surgeries. PMID:25791456

  2. Predisposing factors for dural tear in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Smorgick, Yossi; Baker, Kevin C; Herkowitz, Harry; Montgomery, David; Badve, Siddharth A; Bachison, Casey; Ericksen, Steven; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to identify risk factors for incidental durotomies in lumbar spine surgery. The authors hypothesized that the incidence of durotomy would be higher in cases involving multiple operations. METHODS The authors prospectively evaluated 523 patients who underwent lumbar and thoracolumbar spine surgery. They compared data on patients in whom a dural tear occurred and those in whom a dural tear did not occur. Data from patients in whom a dural tear occurred were compared with data from patients who did not experience durotomy. The data included basic demographic information, intraoperative data, and clinical information from a medical record review. RESULTS One hundred thirty-one patients underwent discectomy and 392 patients underwent laminectomy. Among the 131 patients who underwent discectomy 6 patients had a dural tear. Among the 392 patients who underwent discectomy 49 patients had dural tear. Patients with incidental durotomy were older (mean 65 ± 13 vs 60 ± 14 years of age; p = 0.044, t-test), and had longer surgery (146 ± 59 vs 110 ± 54 minutes; p = 0.025, t-test), compared with the patients without dural tear. The incidence of dural tear was more common in patients with a history of previous spine surgery (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In patients who underwent lumbar and thoracolumbar spine surgery for degenerative problems, previous surgery and older age were found to be predisposing factors for dural tear. PMID:25700240

  3. Biomechanical changes of spinous process osteotomy with different amounts of facetectomy using finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K.-T.; Kim, K.-Y.; Jung, H.-J.; Lee, H.-Y.; Chun, H.-J.; Lee, H.-M.; Moon, S.-H.; Kim, H.-J.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical changes after Spinous Process Osteotomy (SPO) with different amounts of facetectomy of the lumbar spine and to compare the models with SPO and intact models using finite element models. Intact spine models and one decompression models (L3-4) with SPO were developed. SPO models included three different amounts of facetectomy (25%, 50%, and 75%). After validation of the models, finite element analyses were performed to investigate the ranges of motion and disc stresses at each corresponding level among three SPO models and intact lumbar spine models. The ranges of motion in the SPO models were increased more than the intact models. According to increase of amounts of facetectomy, ranges of motion were also increased. Similar to range of motion, the von Mises stress of disc in the SPO models was higher than that of intact models. Moreover, with the increase of amount of facetectomy, the disc stress increased at each segments under various moments. The decompression procedures using spinous process osteotomy has been reported to provide better postoperative stability compared to the conventional laminectomy. However, facetectomy over 50 % is likely to attenuate this advantage.

  4. Arachnoiditis ossificans after spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Di; Zhao, Song; Liu, Wan-Guo; Zhang, Shao-Kun

    2015-05-01

    This article presents an unusual case of arachnoiditis ossificans after spinal surgery. A case of arachnoiditis ossificans secondary to lumbar fixation and decompression surgery for the treatment of multilevel lumbar fractures is reported and the relevant literature is reviewed. A 29-year-old man who previously underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation and fusion for multiple lumbar spine fractures reported lower back stiffness and discomfort 23 months postoperatively. A laminectomy was performed at L2 and at L3-L4. At L2, bone fragments from the burst fracture had injured the dural sac and some nerve roots. A posterolateral fusion was performed using allogeneic bone. Postoperatively, there were no signs of fever, infection, or systemic inflammatory responses. Arachnoiditis ossificans of the thecal sac from L1-L5 was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography at the 2-year follow-up. His postoperative neurological status progressively improved and he regained motor and sensory functions. Because of neurological improvements, fixation hardware was removed without further decompression. The authors report a case of arachnoiditis ossificans secondary to lumbar fixation and decompression surgery, which involved a large region. Arachnoiditis ossificans is a relatively rare disorder with unclear etiologies and limited treatment options. Spinal surgical intervention of arachnoiditis ossificans should be carefully considered because it may lead to poor outcomes and multiple revision surgeries. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(5):e437-e442.]. PMID:25970374

  5. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a novel method to detect demyelination in rat sciatic nerve in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Senapati, Arun; Peng, Yuan Bo; Kashyap, Dheerendra; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    This study was done to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to bring out differences in the anatomical substructures in the rat spinal cord and further to differentiate scattering between demyelinated and normal sciatic nerves in rat models, thereby exploring a new methodology to localize MS (multiple Sclerosis) lesions in vivo for animal studies. The experimental setup consisted of a tungsten light source, CCD array spectrometer, and bifurcated optical fibers for light delivery and detection of back scattered light from tissue. The measurement system was calibrated with reflectance standard. The spinal cord of 14 rats was exposed by laminectomy, and the measurements were taken on 8 points at intervals of 1 mm on the right and left lumbar-sacral regions and the central blood vessel. For measurements on the sciatic nerve, the spinal nerves of 84 rats were ligated according to the Chung Model. Measurements were taken on five points on both the ligated and the control nerve side after 1, 4, 7 and 14 days. The reduced scattering coefficient, ?s', was found to be higher in the lumbar-sacral regions (34.17 +/- 2.05 cm-1) than that near the central blood vessel (19.9 +/- 3.8 cm-1). Statistically, there was significant difference in scattering between the control side and the ligated side on postoperative days 4, 7, and 14. This study shows a promising diagnostic value in the future for monitoring of demyelinated CNS (central nervous system) diseases, like Multiple Sclerosis.

  6. Relative effectiveness of radiation therapy, corticosteroids, and surgery in the management of melanoma metastatic to the central nervous system. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, H.R.

    1981-07-01

    The records of all patients who received radiotherapy for melanoma metastatic to brain (63 patients) and epidural space (9 patients) at the American Oncologic Hospital from January 1971, through March 1980, were reviewed. Patients were evaluated according to the type of therapy received (corticosteroids, radiotherapy, surgery) and whether their brain metastases were radiographically solitary (60%) or multiple (40%). Forty-nine patients with brain metastases received corticosteroid therapy for 2 to 7 days or more before radiotherapy. Fifty-two percent of the patients with solitary and 30% of those with multiple brain metastases responded to radiotherapy. The use of large doses (greater than or equal to 500 rad) per fraction produced a significantly higher response rate than did the use of low doses (less than or equal to 400 rad) per fraction (P < .02), but only for those patients with solitary brain metastases. Patients with cord compression undergoing decompressive laminectomy had relief of neurologic symptoms, whereas those not paralyzed who received radiotherapy alone did not respond. Surgical excision with postoperative irradiation is recommended for the management of solitary brain metastases from melanoma. Surgical decompression is recommended for the management of epidural cord compression.

  7. Does the Removal of Spinal Implants Reduce Back Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Ak, Hakan; Gulsen, Ismail; Atalay, Tugay; Gencer, Muzaffer

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of the removal of spinal implants is known in the presence of infection. However, the benefits and/or risks of the removal of spinal implant for the management of back pain are not clear. Methods In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects of the removal of spinal implants for back pain. Study included 25 patients with thoracolumbar instrumentation. Results Seventeen (68%) of them were male. Indications for spinal instrumentation were vertebra fracture (n = 9), iatrogenic instability due to multiple segment laminectomy (n = 12), and instrumentation after recurrent disk herniations (n = 4). Mean visual analog score (VAS) before the removal was 8.08. Mean VAS was 3.36 after the removal. Spinal instruments were removed after the observance of the presence of fusion. All patients were prescribed analgesics and muscle relaxants for 3 weeks before removal. Back pain did not decrease in five (20%) patients in total. Four of them had been instrumented due to recurrent lumbar disk herniation. None of the patients reported the complete relief of pain. Conclusion In conclusion, patients should be cautioned that their back pain might not decrease after a successful removal of their instruments. PMID:25883710

  8. Cortical screw trajectory for instrumentation and fusion in the setting of osteopathic compression fracture allows for percutaneous kyphoplasty for adjacent level compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Donato; Kim, Irene; Wilson, Taylor A; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Spinal fixation in the osteoporotic patient can be challenging due to the poor trabecular bone quality of the vertebral body. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures are at risk for future compression fractures at adjacent levels, especially after cement augmentation. The purpose of this technical report is to describe the utilization of a cortical screw trajectory along with kyphoplasty for a patient with an osteoporotic compression fracture as well as degenerative spinal disease. This trajectory allows for the possibility of percutaneous pedicle access in the event of future compression fractures. Our patient underwent a decompressive laminectomy and kyphoplasty at the level of an osteoporotic compression fracture. The fracture was stabilized with cortical screw instrumentation and fusion at a level above and a level below the fracture. Subsequently the patient developed an adjacent level fracture within the fusion construct. Due to the utilization of a cortical screw trajectory for the initial fusion, the traditional pedicle trajectory was still accessible. As a result, the new fracture was treated with a percutaneous kyphoplasty through a standard pedicle trajectory. In conclusion, the use of a cortical screw trajectory for stabilization of osteoporotic compression fractures provides for a stronger bone screw interface and avoids osteoporotic trabecular vertebral body bone. At the same time this trajectory allows for future percutaneous pedicular access in the event that the patient suffers future compression fractures. PMID:25724313

  9. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.; D'Angio, G.J.; Drummond, D.S. (UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick (USA))

    1990-02-01

    One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy.

  10. [Juxta-facet Cyst Associated with Conjoined Nerve Roots:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Miyuki; Ueda, Shigeo; Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of a patient with a juxta-facet cyst and conjoined nerve roots. A 66-year-old man presented with left leg pain from the past 4 months. Neurological examinations revealed L5 and S1 radiculopathy on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)detected a mass lesion located near the left intervertebral joint at the level of L5/S1 and canal stenosis at the level of L3/L4. A juxta-facet cyst was diagnosed by arthrography. We performed a curettage and resection of the mass, posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the level of L5/S1, and laminectomy at the level of L3/L4. Conjoined left L5/S1 nerve roots were observed during surgery. The patient recovered from the symptoms of L5 and S1 radiculopathy immediately after surgery. Postoperative review of the preoperative computed tomography images revealed bony abnormality in the L5/S1 joint. We speculate that the bony abnormality may be associated with the development of conjoined nerve roots and the juxta-facet cyst. PMID:26015382

  11. Calibrated forceps model of spinal cord compression injury.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Ashley; Monterrubio, Angela; Ariza, Jeanelle; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Compression injuries of the murine spinal cord are valuable animal models for the study of spinal cord injury (SCI) and spinal regenerative therapy. The calibrated forceps model of compression injury is a convenient, low cost, and very reproducible animal model for SCI. We used a pair of modified forceps in accordance with the method published by Plemel et al. (2008) to laterally compress the spinal cord to a distance of 0.35 mm. In this video, we will demonstrate a dorsal laminectomy to expose the spinal cord, followed by compression of the spinal cord with the modified forceps. In the video, we will also address issues related to the care of paraplegic laboratory animals. This injury model produces mice that exhibit impairment in sensation, as well as impaired hindlimb locomotor function. Furthermore, this method of injury produces consistent aberrations in the pathology of the SCI, as determined by immunohistochemical methods. After watching this video, viewers should be able to determine the necessary supplies and methods for producing SCI of various severities in the mouse for studies on SCI and/or treatments designed to mitigate impairment after injury. PMID:25938880

  12. Biomechanical changes of spinous process osteotomy with different amounts of facetectomy using finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K.-T.; Kim, K.-Y.; Jung, H.-J.; Lee, H.-Y.; Chun, H.-J.; Lee, H.-M.; Moon, S.-H.; Kim, H.-J.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical changes after Spinous Process Osteotomy (SPO) with different amounts of facetectomy of the lumbar spine and to compare the models with SPO and intact models using finite element models. Intact spine models and one decompression models (L3-4) with SPO were developed. SPO models included three different amounts of facetectomy (25%, 50%, and 75%). After validation of the models, finite element analyses were performed to investigate the ranges of motion and disc stresses at each corresponding level among three SPO models and intact lumbar spine models. The ranges of motion in the SPO models were increased more than the intact models. According to increase of amounts of facetectomy, ranges of motion were also increased. Similar to range of motion, the von Mises stress of disc in the SPO models was higher than that of intact models. Moreover, with the increase of amount of facetectomy, the disc stress increased at each segments under various moments. The decompression procedures using spinous process osteotomy has been reported to provide better postoperative stability compared to the conventional laminectomy. However, facetectomy over 50 % is likely to attenuate this advantage.

  13. Postinjury treatment with magnesium sulfate attenuates neuropathic pains following spinal cord injury in male rats.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Leila; Afshari, Khashayar; Keshavarz, Mansoor; NaghibZadeh, Maryam; Memari, Fereidoon; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas

    2015-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has a number of severe and disabling consequences including chronic pain. Approximately 40% of patients experience neuropathic pain, which appears to be persistent. Previous studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). We aimed to investigate the effect of MgSO4 on neuropathic pains following SCI in male rats. Thirty-two adult male rats (weight 300-350?g) were used. After laminectomy, a complete SCI was induced by compression of the spinal cord for 1?min with an aneurysm clip. A single dose of 300 or 600?mg/kg MgSO4 was injected intraperitoneally. Tail-flick latency and acetone drop test scores were evaluated before surgery and once a week for 4 weeks after surgery. Rats in groups SCI+Mg300 and SCI+Mg600 showed significantly higher mean tail-flick latencies and lower mean scores in the acetone test compared with those in the SCI+veh group 4 weeks after surgery (P<0.05). These findings revealed that systemic single-dose administration of MgSO4 can attenuate thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia induced by SCI in rats. PMID:25369748

  14. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  15. Anesthetic management during Cesarean section in a woman with residual Arnold–Chiari malformation Type I, cervical kyphosis, and syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Candido, Kenneth D.; Sauer, Ruben; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Type I Arnold–Chiari malformation (ACM) has an adult onset and consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and the medulla through the foramen magnum. There is paucity of literature on the anesthetic management during pregnancy of residual ACM Type I, with cervical xyphosis and persistent syringomyelia. Case Description: A 34-year-old woman with surgically corrected ACM Type I presented for Cesarean delivery. A recent MRI demonstrated worsening of cervical xyphosis after several laminectomies and residual syringomyelia besides syringopleural shunt. Awake fiberoptic intubation was performed under generous topical anesthesia to minimize head and neck movement during endotracheal intubation. We used a multimodal general anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. The neck was maintained in a neutral position. Following delivery, the patient completely recovered in post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), with no headache and no exacerbation or worsening of neurological function. Conclusions: The present case demonstrates that patients with partially corrected ACM, syringomyelia, cervical kyphosis, and difficult intubation undergoing Cesarean delivery require an interdisciplinary team approach, diligent preparation, and skilled physicians. PMID:22439117

  16. Microendoscopic Decompression Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis via the Paramedian Approach: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kazunori; Yoshida, Munehito

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a microendoscopic spinal decompression surgical technique using a novel approach for the treatment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). The following modifications were made to the conventional microendoscopic bilateral decompression via the unilateral approach: the base of the spinous process was first resected partially to secure a working space, so as not to separate the spinous process from the lamina. The tip of the tubular retractor was placed at the midline of the lamina, where laminectomy was performed microendoscopically. A total of 126 stenotic levels were decompressed in 70 patients. The mean operating time per level was 77.0 minutes, and the mean intraoperative blood loss per level was 15.0 mL. There were no dural tears or neurological injuries intraoperatively. Fracture of the spinous process was detected postoperatively in two patients, both of whom were asymptomatic. All patients could be followed up for at least 12 months. Their median Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score improved significantly from 16 points preoperatively to 27.5 points after the surgery (p?

  17. Minimally invasive removal of a giant extradural lumbar foraminal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Alexander G.; Obaid, Sami; Shehadeh, Mohammed; Shedid, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Purely extradural lumbar schwannomas are rare lesions. Resection traditionally requires an open laminectomy and ipsilateral complete facectomy. Recent reports have demonstrated safety and efficacy of removal of these tumors using mini-open access devices with expandable retractors. We report a case of a giant L3 schwannoma successfully resected through a minimally invasive approach using the non-expandable Spotlight tubular retrator (Depuy Spine). Case Description: A 77-year-old woman presented with a history of chronic right leg pain, paresthesias and proximal right leg weakness. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large dumbbell-shaped extradural foraminal lesion at the L3–L4 level with significant extraforaminal extension. The patient underwent a minimally invasive gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor using an 18-mm Spotlight tubular retractor system. Pathology confirmed the lesion to be a benign schwannoma. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms resolved and she was discharged from the hospital on the second postoperative day. Postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor. The patient returned to normal activities after 2 weeks and remained asymptomatic with no neurological deficits at final 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: Giant lumbar extradural schwannomas can be safely and completely resected using minimally invasive surgery without the need for facectomy or subsequent spinal fusion. PMID:22368787

  18. Minimally Invasive Resection of an Extradural Far Lateral Lumbar Schwannoma with Zygapophyseal Joint Sparing: Surgical Nuances and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Vítor M.; Santiago, Bruno; Ferreira, Vítor C.; Cunha e Sá, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Spinal schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors. Completely extradural schwannomas of the lumbar spine are extremely rare lesions, accounting for only 0,7–4,2% of all spinal NSTs. Standard open approaches have been used to treat these tumors, requiring extensive muscle dissection, laminectomy, radical foraminotomy, and facetectomy. In this paper the authors present the case of a minimally invasive resection of a completely extradural schwannoma. Operative technique literature review is presented. Material & Methods. A 50-year-old woman presented with progressive complains of chronic right leg pain and paresthesia. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant well-encapsulated dumbbell-shaped extradural lesion at the L3-L4 level. The patient underwent a minimally invasive gross total resection of the tumor using a tubular expandable retractor system. Results. The patient had complete resolution of radiculopathy in the immediate postoperative period and she was discharged home, neurologically intact, on the second postoperative day. Postoperative MRI demonstrated no evidence of residual tumor. At latest follow-up (18 months) the patient remains asymptomatic. Conclusion. Although challenging, this minimally invasive procedure is safe and effective, being an appropriate alternative, with many potential advantages, to the open approach. PMID:25328530

  19. Contralateral neurologic deficits following microendoscopic lumbar surgery. Can it happen?

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsung-Jen; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei; Li, Yen-Yao; Cheng, Chin-Chang

    2006-01-01

    A contralateral neurologic deficit following microendoscopic discectomy (MED) or laminectomy (MEL) had not previously been reported. Between September 1999 and April 2004, 60 patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations or spinal stenotic syndrome received MED or MEL at the authors' institution. Three out of 60 patients were found to exhibit a contralateral neurologic deficit following unilateral microendoscopic surgery. All three patients complained of a newly developed, contralateral neurologic deficit following their operations. One MED patient with a concomitant contralateral disc herniation developed contralateral motor and sensory deficits and required immediate open surgery. At the two-year follow-up, a residual motor deficit was noted. The other two patients (1 MED, 1MEL) with temporary sensory deficits were only treated conservatively and experienced complete recovery one week and six weeks following the operation, respectively. Surgeons should pay close attention to the possibility that contralateral neurologic deficits may occur following MED or MEL. Our reports indicate that caution should be exercised when performing microendoscopic procedures on patients with substantial dural compromise, a concomitant contralateral disc herniation, or a lateral spinal stenosis, which may be etiologies. PMID:17062406

  20. Microendoscopic Decompression Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis via the Paramedian Approach: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazunori; Yoshida, Munehito

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a microendoscopic spinal decompression surgical technique using a novel approach for the treatment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). The following modifications were made to the conventional microendoscopic bilateral decompression via the unilateral approach: the base of the spinous process was first resected partially to secure a working space, so as not to separate the spinous process from the lamina. The tip of the tubular retractor was placed at the midline of the lamina, where laminectomy was performed microendoscopically. A total of 126 stenotic levels were decompressed in 70 patients. The mean operating time per level was 77.0 minutes, and the mean intraoperative blood loss per level was 15.0 mL. There were no dural tears or neurological injuries intraoperatively. Fracture of the spinous process was detected postoperatively in two patients, both of whom were asymptomatic. All patients could be followed up for at least 12 months. Their median Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score improved significantly from 16 points preoperatively to 27.5 points after the surgery (p?

  1. Pathological dislocation of the dorsal spine following granulocytic sarcoma in a non-leukaemic patient

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, K.; Premkumar, Anne J.; Sundararaj, Gabriel D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a previously healthy, non-leukaemic young male presenting with neurological deficit and a pathological dislocation of D8 over D9 vertebra. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing soft tissue tumour. His basic laboratory workup as well as a bone marrow biopsy was normal. Through a single midline posterior approach, he underwent a decompressive laminectomy of D8 and D9 vertebra, anterior column reconstruction with a meshed titanium cage and posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. The histological diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma was confirmed by appropriate immuno-histochemical studies. He received postoperative radiotherapy following which his wound dehiscesed and the tumour fungated and spread to his left thigh. He declined chemotherapy and unfortunately expired 9 months later. This case is presented to draw attention to the unusual presentation and to stress that granulocytic sarcoma should be kept in mind when making the differential diagnosis in patients with signs of spinal cord compression even in non-leukaemic individuals. PMID:19688354

  2. Catastrophic chest pain: blinded by cardiopulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Timothy John; Asiimwe, Denis D; Gemmel, David; Brine, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with a history of diabetic foot ulcer, osteomyelitis, coronary artery disease, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, presented with chest pain of 3?weeks duration. Eleven days earlier, the patient had had a drug-eluting stent (DES) placed in a branch of the right coronary artery (RCA) after similar chest pain, leading to the findings of a positive nuclear stress test. Since discharge, he was not compliant with taking clopidegrel (Plavix), a concern for in-stent thrombosis with recurrent myocardial ischaemia; but work up was negative and medications were restarted. Within 24?h of admission, he developed bilateral flaccid leg weakness, urine retention and loss of sensation from the umbilicus level down. MRI revealed a T4-T6 epidural abscess. Emergent decompression laminectomy and abscess drainage was completed. Neurological symptoms improved hours after surgery with complete resolution of sensory deficits. Cultures grew Streptococcus sp., treated with intravenous nafcillin for 8?weeks. He regained leg strength with continued improvement seen in rehabilitation. PMID:26135489

  3. Thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy in the treatment of severe pediatric deformities.

    PubMed

    Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Di Silvestre, Mario; Greggi, Tiziana; Astolfi, Stefano; Martikos, Konstantinos; Vommaro, Francesco; Barbanti-Brodano, Giovanni; Cioni, Alfredo; Giacomini, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The traditional surgical treatment of severe spinal deformities, both in adult and pediatric patients, consisted of a 360° approach. Posterior-based spinal osteotomy has recently been reported as a useful and safe technique in maximizing kyphosis and/or kyphoscoliosis correction. It obviates the deleterious effects of an anterior approach and can increase the magnitude of correction both in the coronal and sagittal plane. There are few reports in the literature focusing on the surgical treatment of severe spinal deformities in large pediatric-only series (age <16 years old) by means of a posterior-based spinal osteotomy, with no consistent results on the use of a single posterior-based thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy in the treatment of such challenging group of patients. The purpose of the present study was to review our operative experience with pediatric patients undergoing a single level PSO for the correction of thoracic kyphosis/kyphoscoliosis in the region of the spinal cord (T12 and cephalad), and determine the safety and efficacy of posterior thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) in the treatment of severe pediatric deformities. A retrospective review was performed on 12 consecutive pediatric patients (6 F, 6 M) treated by means of a posterior thoracic PSO between 2002 and 2006 in a single Institution. Average age at surgery was 12.6 years (range, 9-16), whereas the deformity was due to a severe juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in seven cases (average preoperative main thoracic 113°; 90-135); an infantile idiopathic scoliosis in two cases (preoperative main thoracic of 95° and 105°, respectively); a post-laminectomy kypho-scoliosis of 95° (for a intra-medullar ependimoma); an angular kypho-scoliosis due to a spondylo-epiphisary dysplasia (already operated on four times); and a sharp congenital kypho-scoliosis (already operated on by means of a anterior-posterior in situ fusion). In all patients a pedicle screws instrumentation was used, under continuous intra-operative neuromonitoring (SSEP, NMEP, EMG). At an average follow-up of 2.4 years (range, 2-6) the main thoracic curve showed a mean correction of 61°, or a 62.3% (range, 55-70%), with an average thoracic kyphosis of 38.5° (range, 30°-45°), for an overall correction of 65% (range, 60-72%). Mean estimated intra-operative blood loss accounted 19.3 cc/kg (range, 7.7-27.27). In a single case (a post-laminectomy kypho-scoliosis) a complete loss of NMEP occurred, promptly assessed by loosening of the initial correction, with a final negative wake-up test. No permanent neurologic damage, or instrumentation related complications, were observed. According to our experience, posterior-based thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomies represent a valuable tool in the surgical treatment of severe pediatric spinal deformities, even in revision cases. A dramatic correction of both the coronal and sagittal profile may be achieved. Mandatory the use of a pedicle screws-only instrumentation and a continuous intra-operative neuromonitoring to obviate catastrophic neurologic complications. PMID:21468647

  4. Cervical laminoplasty developments and trends, 2003-2013: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Duetzmann, Stephan; Cole, Tyler; Ratliff, John K

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT Despite extensive clinical experience with laminoplasty, the efficacy of the procedure and its advantages over laminectomy remain unclear. Specific clinical elements, such as incidence or progression of kyphosis, incidence of axial neck pain, postoperative cervical range of motion, and incidence of postoperative C-5 palsies, are of concern. The authors sought to comprehensively review the laminoplasty literature over the past 10 years while focusing on these clinical elements. METHODS The authors conducted a literature search of articles in the Medline database published between 2003 and 2013, in which the terms "laminoplasty," "laminectomy," and "posterior cervical spine procedures" were used as key words. Included was every single case series in which patient outcomes after a laminoplasty procedure were reported. Excluded were studies that did not report on at least one of the above-mentioned items. RESULTS A total of 103 studies, the results of which contained at least 1 of the prespecified outcome variables, were identified. These studies reported 130 patient groups comprising 8949 patients. There were 3 prospective randomized studies, 1 prospective nonrandomized alternating study, 15 prospective nonrandomized data collections, and 84 retrospective reviews. The review revealed a trend for the use of miniplates or hydroxyapatite spacers on the open side in Hirabayashi-type laminoplasty or on the open side in a Kurokawa-type laminoplasty. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring was reported most commonly; in the 4949 patients for whom a JOA score was reported, there was improvement from a mean (± SD) score of 9.91 (± 1.65) to a score of 13.68 (± 1.05) after a mean follow-up of 44.18 months (± 35.1 months). The mean preoperative and postoperative C2-7 angles (available for 2470 patients) remained stable from 14.17° (± 0.19°) to 13.98° (± 0.19°) of lordosis (average follow-up 39 months). The authors found significantly decreased kyphosis when muscle/posterior element-sparing techniques were used (p = 0.02). The use of hardware in the form of hydroxyapatite spacers or miniplates did not influence the progression of deformity (p = 0.889). An overall mean (calculated from 2390 patients) of 47.3% loss of range of motion was reported. For the studies that used a visual analog scale score (totaling 986 patients), the mean (cohort size-adjusted) postoperative pain level at a mean follow-up of 29 months was 2.78. For the studies that used percentages of patients who complained of postoperative axial neck pain (totaling 1249 patients), the mean patient number-adjusted percentage was 30% at a mean follow-up of 51 months. The authors found that 16% of the studies that were published in the last 10 years reported a C-5 palsy rate of more than 10% (534 patients), 41% of the studies reported a rate of 5%-10% (n = 1006), 23% of the studies reported a rate of 1%-5% (n = 857), and 12.5% reported a rate of 0% (n = 168). CONCLUSIONS Laminoplasty remains a valid option for decompression of the spinal cord. An understanding of the importance of the muscle-ligament complex, plus the introduction of hardware, has led to progress in this type of surgery. Reporting of outcome metrics remains variable, which makes comparisons among the techniques difficult. PMID:25909270

  5. Comparison between Bilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing and Unilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing, Combined with Contralateral C2 Laminar Screwing, for Atlantoaxial Posterior Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Michio; Kobayashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Abe, Eiji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes between bilateral C2 pedicle screwing (C2PS) and unilateral C2PS, combined with contralateral C2 laminar screwing (LS), for posterior atlantoaxial fixation. Overview of Literature Posterior fixation with C1 lateral mass screwing (C1LMS) and C2PS (C1LMS-C2PS method) is an accepted procedure for rigid atlantoaxial stabilization. However, conventional bilateral C2PS is not always allowed in this method due to anatomical variations of C2 pedicles and/or asymmetry of the vertebral artery. Although unilateral C2PS plus contralateral LS (C2PS+LS) is an alternative in such cases, the efficacy of this procedure has not been evaluated in controlled studies (i.e., with bilateral C2PS as a control). Methods Clinical and radiological records of patients who underwent the C1LMS-C2PS method, using unilateral C2PS+LS (n=9), and those treated using conventional bilateral C2PS (n=10) were compared, with a minimum two years follow-up. Results Postoperative complications related to the unilateral C2PS+LS technique included one case of spontaneous spinous process fracture of C2. A C1 anterior arch fracture occurred after a fall in one patient, who underwent bilateral C2PS and C1 laminectomy. No significant differences were seen between the groups in reduction of neck pain after surgery or improvement of neurological status, as evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. A delayed union occurred in one patient each of the groups, with the final fusion rate being 100% in both groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral C2PS+LS were comparable with those of the bilateral C2PS fixation technique for the C1LMS-C2PS method. PMID:25558320

  6. Role of Toll like receptor 4 signaling pathway in the secondary damage induced by experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Ahmad, Akbar; Di Paola, Rosanna; Campolo, Michela; Navarra, Michele; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling receptors in the innate immune system that is specific immunologic response to systemic bacterial infection and injury. TLRs contribute to the initial induction of neuroinflammation in the CNS. In spinal cord injury (SCI) intricate immune cell interactions are triggered, typically consisting of a staggered multiphasic immune cell response, which can become deregulated. The present study aims to evaluate the role of TLR4 signaling pathway in the development of secondary damage in a mouse model of SCI using TLR4-deficient (TLR4-KO) mice such as C57BL/10ScNJ and C3H/HeJ mice. We evaluated behavioral changes, histological, immunohistochemistry and molecular assessment in TLR4-KO after SCI. SCI was performed on TLR4-KO and wild-type (WT) mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24g) to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Mice were sacrificed at 24h after SCI to evaluate the various parameters. SCI TLR4 KO mice developed severer hind limb motor dysfunction and neuronal death by histological evaluation, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (Myd88) expression as well as an increase in nuclear factor NF-?B activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? levels, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microglia marker (CD11?), inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and nitrotyrosine expression compared to WT mice. Moreover, the absence of TLR4 also caused a decrease in phosphorylated interferon regulatory transcription factor (p-IRF3) and interferon (IFN-?) release. In addition, SCI TLR4 KO mice showed in spinal cord tissues a more pronounced up-regulation of Bax and a down-regulation of Bcl-2 compared to SCI WT mice. Finally, we clearly demonstrated that TLR4 is important for coordinating post-injury sequel and in regulating inflammation after SCI. PMID:25990044

  7. Spinal surgeons need to read patients’ studies to avoid missing pathology

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee D.; Silvergleid, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many spine surgeons rely on reports of radiological studies for patients seen routinely in consultation. However, “best practice” should include the spine surgeon's individual assessment of the images themselves to better determine whether the diagnoses rendered were/are correct. Methods: A now 54-year-old male had an original enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MR) scan of the cervical spine performed in 2012 that was read as showing mild spondylotic changes at multiple levels. Results: In 2015, the patient presented with a severe spastic quadriparesis, right greater than left, which had markedly worsened over the prior 3 months. Review of the original enhanced MR from 2012 revealed a right-sided C5–C6 tumor (e.g., likely meningioma) filling the right neural foramen with extension into the spinal canal (7 mm × 8 mm × 11 mm): The tumor was originally “missed”. The new 2015 enhanced MR scan documented the tumor had enlarged 6.7 fold (measuring 17 mm × 11 mm × 2.2 cm), and now filled 2/3 of the spinal canal, markedly compressing the cord and right C6 nerve root. Following a C4–C6 laminectomy, and a challenging tumor removal, and the patient was neurologically intact. Conclusion: This case underscores the need for spine surgeons to carefully review both images and reports of prior diagnostic studies that accompany patients. In this case, the original failure to recognize the tumor led to a 2.5-year delay in surgery that resulted in the patient's severe preoperative quadriparesis, and a much more challenging surgery.

  8. Tanshinone IIA Attenuates the Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis after Traumatic Injury of the Spinal Cord in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Peng, Ye; Hou, Wu-Gang; Sun, Shu-Kai; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI), including immediate mechanical injury and secondary injury, is associated with the inflammatory response, apoptosis and oxidative stress in response to traumatic injury. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) is one of the major extracts obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on many diseases. However, little is known about the effects of TIIA treatment on SCI. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacological action of TIIA on secondary damage and the underlying mechanisms of experimental SCI in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings SCI was generated using a weight drop device on the dorsal spinal cord via a two-level T9-T11 laminectomy. SCI in rats resulted in severe trauma, characterized by locomotor disturbance, edema, neutrophil infiltration, the production of astrocytes and inflammatory mediators, apoptosis and oxidative stress. TIIA treatment (20 mg/kg, i.p.) after SCI induced significant effects: (1) improved motor function (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores), (2) reduced the degree of tissue injury (histological score), neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and the expression of astrocytes, (3) inhibited the activation of SCI-related pathways, such as NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways, (4) decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) and iNOS, (5) reduced apoptosis (TUNEL staining, and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression) and (6) reversed the redox state imbalance. Conclusions/Significance The results clearly show that TIIA has a prominent protective effect against SCI through inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue after SCI. PMID:22675554

  9. Characterization of Graded MASCIS Contusion Spinal Cord Injury using Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Gracee; Kerr, Candace; Thakor, Nitish V.; All, Angelo H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Electrophysiological analysis using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and behavioral assessment using Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scale were compared over time for graded MASCIS contusion spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective To study SEP responses across different contusion injury severities and to compare them with BBB scores. Summary of Background Data For any SCI therapy evaluation, it is important to accurately and objectively standardize the injury model. The graded MASCIS contusion injuries on dorsal spine have been standardized using BBB, which is subjective and prone to human errors. Furthermore, dorsal pathway disruption does not always produce locomotor deficits. SEP monitoring provides an advantage of providing a reliable and objective assessment of the functional integrity of dorsal sensory pathways. Methods Four groups of Fischer rats received contusion at T8 using NYU-MASCIS impactor from impact heights of 6.25 (mild), 12.5 (moderate), 25 (severe), or 50 mm (very severe). The control group underwent laminectomy only. SEP and BBB recordings were performed once prior to injury, and then weekly for up to 7 weeks. Results Graded levels of injury produced concomitant attenuations in hindlimb SEP amplitudes. Following injury, 25 and 50 mm groups together differed significantly from 12.5 and 6.25 mm groups (p<0.01). From week 5, differences between 12.5 and 6.25 mm groups also became apparent (p<0.01), which showed significant electrophysiological improvement. However, no significant differences were observed between 25 and 50 mm groups, which showed negligible electrophysiological recovery. While comparable differences between different groups were also detected by BBB after injury (p<0.001), BBB was less sensitive in detecting any improvement in 6.25 and 12.5 mm groups. Conclusion SEP amplitudes and BBB scores decrease corresponding to increase in injury severity, however these show different temporal patterns of recovery. These results demonstrate the utility of SEPs, in conjunction with BBB, to monitor therapeutic interventions in SCI research. PMID:20354478

  10. Immobilizing Doses of Halothane, Isoflurane or Propofol, Do Not Preferentially Depress Noxious Heat-Evoked Responses of Rat Lumbar Dorsal Horn Neurons with Ascending Projections

    PubMed Central

    Barter, Linda S.; Mark, Laurie O.; Jinks, Steven L.; Carstens, Earl E.; Antognini, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The spinal cord is an important site where volatile anesthetics decrease sensation and produce immobility. Beyond this knowledge, our understanding of a site of anesthetic action is limited. Previous evidence suggests that dorsal horn neurons with ascending projections may be more susceptible to depression by general anesthetics than local spinal interneurons. In this study we evaluated the effects of volatile and injectable general anesthetics on lumbar dorsal horn neurons with and without ascending projections. METHODS Thirty-seven adult male rats underwent laminectomies at C1, for placement of a stimulating electrode, and T13/L1, for extracellular recording from the spinal cord dorsal horn. Neuronal responses to heat were evaluated under two doses of halothane, isoflurane, or propofol anesthesia. RESULTS Under both halothane and isoflurane anesthesia, increasing the dose from 0.8 to 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) had no significant effect on heat-evoked responses in neurons that had ascending projections identified via antidromic stimulation (AD) or those without ascending projections (nAD). Heat responses in AD neurons 1 min after IV administration of 3 and 5 mg/kg of propofol were reduced to 60% ± 18% (mean ± se) and 39% ± 14% of control respectively. Similarly, in nAD neurons responses were reduced to 56% ± 14% and 50% ± 10% of control by 3 and 5 mg/kg propofol respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest, at peri-MAC concentrations, these general anesthetics do not preferentially depress lumbar dorsal horn neurons with ascending projections compared to those with no identifiable ascending projections. PMID:18292450

  11. Combined surgical and radiosurgical treatment for a symptomatic cervical metastasis in a case of malignant paraganglioma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare tumors. Moreover, malignant paragangliomas of the cervical spine are extremely rare. Currently, the combination of curative surgical resection and secondary adjuvant radiotherapy is the gold standard for treating symptomatic malignant paragangliomas. However, traditional treatments for malignant paraganglioma remain unsuccessful. The purpose of this study is to report an exceedingly rare case involving cervical metastasis of a malignant paraganglioma. Case presentation In this case report, we present a case involving a 72-year-old male with a history of paraganglioma of the neck. He had been experiencing bilateral shoulder pain, neck pain and weakness in the upper extremities for more than six months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed a metastasis at C4 with severe vertebral body destruction. To avoid serious complications associated with surgical resection, CyberKnife® radiosurgery (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) was performed on the parapharyngeal and cervical lesions. A secondary surgery, which involved a posterior laminectomy at C3-6 and posterior fusion at C1-T1, was performed two weeks after the radiosurgery. A histological examination of the surgical specimen demonstrated a malignant paraganglioma. The patient regained strength in all extremities in the postoperative field, and his pain was dramatically reduced. A magnetic resonance imaging study performed three months after the surgery showed a reduced tumor size and spinal cord decompression. Conclusion This case study is the first report of a patient with symptomatic cervical metastasis of a malignant paraganglioma treated with a combination of radiosurgery and posterior spinal surgery. Although the optimal treatment for these conditions remains unclear, concomitant treatment with radiosurgery and reconstructive surgery appeared to be both safe and effective in this challenging case. PMID:24289190

  12. A Novel Vertebral Stabilization Method for Producing Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y. Ping; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Shields, Christopher B.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Clinically-relevant animal cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) models are essential for developing and testing potential therapies; however, producing reliable cervical SCI is difficult due to lack of satisfactory methods of vertebral stabilization. The conventional method to stabilize the spine is to suspend the rostral and caudal cervical spine via clamps attached to cervical spinous processes.  However, this method of stabilization fails to prevent tissue yielding during the contusion as the cervical spinal processes are too short to be effectively secured by the clamps (Figure 1).  Here we introduce a new method to completely stabilize the cervical vertebra at the same level of the impact injury.  This method effectively minimizes movement of the spinal column at the site of impact, which greatly improves the production of consistent SCIs.  We provide visual description of the equipment (Figure 2-4), methods, and a step-by-step protocol for the stabilization of the cervical 5 vertebra (C5) of adult rats, to perform laminectomy (Figure 5) and produce a contusive SCI thereafter.  Although we only demonstrate a cervical hemi-contusion using the NYU/MASCIS impactor device, this vertebral stabilization technique can be applied to other regions of the spinal cord, or be adapted to other SCI devices.  Improving spinal cord exposure and fixation through vertebral stabilization may be valuable for producing consistent and reliable injuries to the spinal cord.  This vertebral stabilization method can also be used for stereotactic injections of cells and tracers, and for imaging using two-photon microscopy in various neurobiological studies. PMID:25590284

  13. The effects of local and general hypothermia on temperature profiles of the central nervous system following spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bazley, Faith A; Pashai, Nikta; Kerr, Candace L; All, Angelo H

    2014-09-01

    Local and general hypothermia are used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as other neurological traumas. While hypothermia is known to provide significant therapeutic benefits due to its neuroprotective nature, it is unclear how the treatment may affect healthy tissues or whether it may cause undesired temperature changes in areas of the body that are not the targets of treatment. We performed 2-hour moderate general hypothermia (32°C core) or local hypothermia (30°C spinal cord) on rats that had received either a moderate contusive SCI or laminectomy (control) while monitoring temperatures at three sites: the core, spinal cord, and cortex. First, we identified that injured rats that received general hypothermia exhibited larger temperature drops at the spinal cord (-3.65°C, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] -3.72, -3.58) and cortex (-3.64°C, CIs -3.73, -3.55) than uninjured rats (spinal cord: -3.17°C, CIs -3.24, -3.10; cortex: -3.26°C, CIs -3.34, -3.17). This was found due to elevated baseline temperatures in the injured group, which could be due to inflammation. Second, both general hypothermia and local hypothermia caused a significant reduction in the cortical temperature (-3.64°C and -1.18°C, respectively), although local hypothermia caused a significantly lower drop in cortical temperature than general hypothermia (p<0.001). Lastly, the rates of rewarming of the cord were not significantly different among the methods or injury groups that were tested; the mean rate of rewarming was 0.13±0.1°C/min. In conclusion, local hypothermia may be more suitable for longer durations of hypothermia treatment for SCI to reduce temperature changes in healthy tissues, including the cortex. PMID:25019643

  14. Corticomotor and somatosensory evoked potential evaluation of acute spinal cord injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baskin, D S; Simpson, R K

    1987-06-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and corticomotor evoked potentials (CMEPs) were utilized to study acute blunt spinal cord trauma. Rats, anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride, were subjected to a parasagittal craniotomy and a midthoracic laminectomy. SSEPs were cortically recorded and CMEPs were transcortically produced using epidural ball and disc electrodes. SSEPs were elicited and CMEPs were recorded via hindlimb percutaneous needle electrodes. After control records were made, animals were subjected to a 25-, 50-, or 75-g/cm impact to the dorsal cord surface via a modified weight drop procedure. Evaluation of neurological injury was made by SSEP and CMEP analysis as well as by physical testing with noxious stimulation applied to the hindlimb. Neurohistopathological verification of each spinal cord lesion was performed. No significant change in SSEP configuration was identified in animals subjected to a 25-g/cm cord impact; however, a small decrement in CMEP amplitude was consistently observed. Although vocalization to noxious stimulation was present, flexion activity was less than normal. Animals subjected to a 50-g/cm cord impact also showed no change in SSEP wave forms. All components of the CMEP were greatly attenuated with this injury. Either very weak movement or no movement to noxious stimulation was present without vocalization. After a 75-g/cm cord impact, both SSEPs and CMEPs were abolished. There was no movement or vocalization in response to noxious stimulation. Serial sections of the spinal cords revealed incremental destruction with increasing severity of injury. These results support the hypothesis that CMEPs are a more sensitive indicator of residual spinal cord function after injury than are SSEPs. PMID:3614567

  15. Anti-CD11d monoclonal antibody treatment for rat spinal cord compression injury.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Andres; Marcillo, Alexander; Frydel, Beata; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2012-02-01

    This study was initiated due to an NIH "Facilities of Research-Spinal Cord Injury" contract to support independent replication of published studies. Transient blockage of the CD11d/CD18 integrin has been reported to reduce secondary neuronal damage as well as to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with an anti-CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) would improve motor performance, reduce pain and histopathological damage in animals following clip-compression injury as reported. Adult male Wistar rats (250g) were anesthetized with isoflurane, and the T12 spinal cord exposed by T10 and T11 dorsal laminectomies followed by a 60s period of clip compression utilizing a 35g clip. Control animals received an isotype-matched irrelevant antibody (1B7) while the treated group received the anti-CD11d mAb (217L; 1.0mg/kg) systemically. Open-field locomotion and sensory function were assessed and animals were perfusion-fixed at twelve weeks after injury for quantitative histopathological analysis. As compared to 1B7, 217L treated animals showed an overall non-significant trend to better motor recovery. All animals showed chronic mechanical allodynia and anti-CD11d mAb treatment did not significantly prevent its development. Histopathological analysis demonstrated severe injury to gray and white matter after compression with a non-significant trend in anti-CD11d protection compared to control animals for preserved myelin. Although positive effects with the anti-CD11d mAb treatment have been reported after compressive SCI, it is suggested that this potential treatment requires further investigation before clinical trials in spinal cord injured patients are implemented. PMID:21145887

  16. False positive radiographical evidence of pump catheter migration into the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Dardashti, Simon; Chang, Eric Y; Kim, Robert B; Alsharif, Kais I; Hata, Justin T; Perret, Danielle M

    2013-01-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery systems are becoming an increasingly common modality used by physicians to treat patients. Specifically, chronic spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis (MS) may be treated with intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy when oral antispasmodics do not provide adequate relief. ITB therapy is effective, localizes drug delivery, and does not have the same degree of intolerable systemic effects often seen with oral and parenteral medications. As the use of intrathecal drug delivery systems has become more common, so has the incidence of adverse events. ITB administration requires the surgical implantation of indwelling catheters and a pump reservoir. Although this therapy is useful in treating spasticity, risks unique to intrathecal drug delivery systems include medication dosing errors, pump malfunction, infection, and catheter breakage or dislocation. To our knowledge intrathecal pump catheter migration into the spinal cord is a very rare complication with only 2 such complications reported. We present a case of an intrathecal baclofen pump catheter that was initially believed to have migrated into the spinal cord and the innovative use of cinefluoroscopy and digital subtraction used to identify catheter placement. Moreover, after confirmation of the catheter position within the spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) our team elected to perform a laminectomy, which demonstrated that the catheter was not in the spinal cord but was surrounded by arachnoid adhesions. We hope our efforts will provide the clinician insight into the common difficulties that arise and how best to troubleshoot them to serve this specific patient population and prevent potentially life-threatening complications. PMID:24077212

  17. Curcumin modulates TLR4/NF-?B inflammatory signaling pathway following traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hongbin; Jin, Wei; Zhu, Tiansheng; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Baoyu; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Weibang; Ma, Zhengliang

    2015-03-01

    Background Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound extracted from the plant turmeric, has protective effects on spinal cord injury (SCI) through attenuation of inflammatory response. This study was designed to detect whether curcumin modulates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) inflammatory signaling pathway in the injured rat spinal cord following SCI. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to laminectomy at T8-T9 and compression with a vascular clip. There were three groups: (a) sham group; (b) SCI group; and (g) SCI + curcumin group. We measured TLR4 gene and protein expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis; NF-?B activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hindlimb locomotion function by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating, spinal cord edema by wet/dry weight method, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. Results The results showed that SCI induced the up-regulation of TLR4, NF-?B, and inflammatory cytokines in the injured rat spinal cord. Treatment with curcumin following SCI markedly down-regulated the levels of these agents related to the TLR4/NF-?B inflammatory signaling pathway. Administration of curcumin also significantly ameliorated SCI induced hind limb locomotion deficits, spinal cord edema, and apoptosis. Conclusions Post-SCI curcumin administration attenuates the TLR4/NF-?B inflammatory signaling pathway in the injured spinal cord, and this may be a mechanism whereby curcumin improves the outcome following SCI. PMID:24621048

  18. Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated expression of interleukin-10 reduces below-level central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Darryl; Harte, Steven E.; Morrow, Thomas J.; Wang, Shiyong; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroimmune activation in the spinal dorsal horn plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Objective We wanted to examine the role of neuroimmune activation in below level neuropathic pain after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Right hemilateral SCI was created in male Sprague Dawley rats by controlled blunt impact through a T12 laminectomy. Pain related behaviors were assessed using both evoked reflex responses and an operant conflict-avoidance test. Neuroimmune activation was blocked by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) delivered by a non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based gene transfer vector (vIL10). Markers of neuroimmune activation were assessed using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results One week after SCI, injured animals demonstrated mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical hyperalgesia in the hind limbs below the level of injury. Animals inoculated with vIL10 had a statistically significant reduction in all of these measures compared to injured rats or injured rats inoculated with control vector. Conflict-avoidance behavior of injured rats inoculated with vIL10 was consistent with significantly reduced pain compared to injured rats injected with control vector. These behavioral results correlated with a significant decrease in spinal tumor necrosis factor ? (mTNF?) expression assessed by Western blot and astrocyte activation assessed by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. Conclusion Below level pain after SCI is characterized by neuroimmune activation (increase mTNF? and astrocyte activation). Blunting of the neuroimmune response by HSV-mediated delivery of IL-10 reduced pain-related behaviors, and may represent a potential novel therapeutic agent. PMID:22593113

  19. Combat-Related Intradural Gunshot Wound to the Thoracic Spine: Significant Improvement and Neurologic Recovery Following Bullet Removal

    PubMed Central

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury. PMID:25705346

  20. Characteristics of lumbar disc herniation with exacerbation of presentation due to spinal manipulative therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Li; Liu, Yan-Xi; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Hong-Wei

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article was to delineate the characteristics of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in patients with exacerbation of symptoms caused by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). The main emphasis should be on the prevention of this condition by identifying relevant risk factors. Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of a total number of 10 LDH patients with exacerbation of presentation after SMT were reviewed. All the patients underwent neurological and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Laminectomy and discectomy were performed, and follow-up was carried out in all patients. The duration of symptoms in the patients before SMT was 4-15 years. After the therapy, an acute exacerbation of back and radicular pain was observed within 24?h. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that L4-L5 was the most frequently affected level observed (7 patients), and each patient had a large disc fragment in the spinal canal. The disc fragments were classified into 3 types according to their localizations. The time internal between the exacerbation of presentation and surgery was 23.1 days. No perioperative complications were noted. All the patients were relieved of radicular pain a few days after surgery. During postoperative follow-up, all patients regained the ability to walk; one patient received catheterization for 1 month and another for 6 months. Eight patients reported a complete resolution of presentation and the rest 2 patients were significantly improved. SMT should be prohibited in some LDH patients to prevent neurological damages, in whom there are 5 possible risk factors. Surgical results for these patients are encouraging. PMID:25816037

  1. Surgical versus Non-Operative Treatment for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna; Blood, Emily; Herkowitz, Harry; Cammisa, Frank; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Hilibrand, Alan; Goldberg, Harley; Berven, Sigurd; An, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Randomized trial and concurrent observational cohort study Objective To compare 4 year outcomes of surgery to non-operative care for spinal stenosis. Summary of Background Data Surgery for spinal stenosis has been shown to be more effective compared to non-operative treatment over two years, but longer-term data have not been analyzed. Methods Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 U.S. states with at least 12 weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging were enrolled in a randomized cohort (RC) or observational cohort (OC). Treatment was standard decompressive laminectomy or standard non-operative care. Primary outcomes were SF-36 bodily pain (BP) and physical function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability index (ODI) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and yearly up to 4 years. Results 289 patients enrolled in the RC and 365 patients enrolled in the OC. An as-treated analysis combining the RC and OC and adjusting for potential confounders found that the clinically significant advantages for surgery previously reported were maintained through 4 years, with treatment effects (defined as mean change in surgery group minus mean change in non-op group) for BP 12.6 (95% CI, 8.5 to 16.7); PF 8.6 (95% CI, 4.6 to 12.6); and ODI ?9.4 (95% CI, ?12.6, to ?6.2). Early advantages for surgical treatment for secondary measures such as bothersomeness, satisfaction with symptoms and self-rated progress also were maintained. Conclusions Patients with symptomatic spinal stenosis treated surgically compared to those treated non-operatively maintain substantially greater improvement in pain and function through four years. PMID:20453723

  2. Evaluation of unilateral cage-instrumented fixation for lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To investigate how unilateral cage-instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) affects the three-dimensional flexibility in degenerative disc disease by comparing the biomechanical characteristics of unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. Methods Twelve motion segments in sheep lumbar spine specimens were tested for flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by nondestructive flexibility test method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. The specimens were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 received unilateral procedures while group 2 received bilateral procedures. Laminectomy, facectomy, discectomy, cage insertion and transpedicle screw insertion were performed sequentially after testing the intact status. Changes in range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ) were compared between unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. Results Both ROM and NZ, unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF, transpedicle screw insertion procedure did not revealed a significant difference between flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation direction except the ROM in the axial rotation. The bilateral group's ROM (-1.7 ± 0. 8) of axial rotation was decreased significantly after transpedicle screw insertion procedure in comparison with the unilateral group (-0.2 ± 0.1). In the unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF group, the transpedicle screw insertion procedure did not demonstrate a significant difference between right and left side in the lateral bending and axial rotation direction. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF have similar stability after transpedicle screw fixation in the sheep spine model. The unilateral approach can substantially reduce exposure requirements. It also offers the biomechanics advantage of construction using anterior column support combined with pedicle screws just as the bilateral cage-instrumented group. The unpleasant effect of couple motion resulting from inherent asymmetry was absent in the unilateral group. PMID:21070626

  3. Early clinical results with cortically based pedicle screw trajectory for fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Andrew Glennie, R; Dea, Nicolas; Kwon, Brian K; Street, John T

    2015-06-01

    This study reviews the outcomes and revision rates of degenerative lumbar fusion surgery using cortical trajectory pedicle screws in lieu of traditional pedicle screw instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation can be a challenge in patients with low bone mineral density. Wide posterior approaches to the lumbar spine exposing lateral to the facet joints and onto transverse processes causes an additional degree of muscular damage and blood loss not present with a simple laminectomy. A cortical bone trajectory pedicle screw has been proposed as an alternative to prevent screw pullout and decrease the morbidity associated with the wide posterior approach to the spine. We present a series of eight consecutive patients using a cortical bone trajectory instead of traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. A retrospective review of our institutional registry data identified eight patients who had cortical screws placed with the assistance of O-arm Stealth navigation (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) from 2010-2013. We analyzed the need for revision, the maintenance of reduction and the incidence of screw pullout or breakage. Our review demonstrated that two of eight patients were revised at an average of 12months. The reasons for these revisions were pseudarthrosis and caudal adjacent segment failure. All patients who were revised had frank screw loosening. We present early clinical results of a new technique that has been shown to have a better fixation profile in laboratory testing. Our less than favorable early clinical results should be interpreted with caution and highlight important technical issues which should be considered. PMID:25769253

  4. Surgery Followed by Radiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression From Unfavorable Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Bajrovic, Amira [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Karstens, Johann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University Hannover (Germany); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Kazic, Nadja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Despite a previously published randomized trial, controversy exists regarding the benefit of adding surgery to radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). It is thought that patients with MSCC from relatively radioresistant tumors or tumors associated with poor functional outcome after radiotherapy alone may benefit from surgery. This study focuses on these tumors. Methods and Materials: Data from 67 patients receiving surgery plus radiotherapy (S+RT) were matched to 134 patients (1:2) receiving radiotherapy alone (RT). Groups were matched for 10 factors and compared for motor function, ambulatory status, local control, and survival. Additional separate matched-pair analyses were performed for patients receiving direct decompressive surgery plus stabilization of involved vertebrae (DDSS) and patients receiving laminectomy (LE). Results: Improvement of motor function occurred in 22% of patients after S+RT and 16% after RT (p = 0.25). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 67% and 61%, respectively (p = 0.68). Of nonambulatory patients, 29% and 19% (p = 0.53) regained ambulatory status. One-year local control rates were 85% and 89% (p = 0.87). One-year survival rates were 38% and 24% (p = 0.20). The matched-pair analysis of patients receiving LE showed no significant differences between both therapies. In the matched-pair analysis of patients receiving DDSS, improvement of motor function occurred more often after DDSS+RT than RT (28% vs. 19%, p = 0.024). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 86% and 67% (p = 0.30); 45% and 18% of patients regained ambulatory status (p = 0.29). Conclusions: Patients with MSCC from an unfavorable primary tumor appeared to benefit from DDSS but not LE when added to radiotherapy in terms of improved functional outcome.

  5. Contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging for assessment of spinal cord blood flow in experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dubory, Arnaud; Laemmel, Elisabeth; Badner, Anna; Duranteau, Jacques; Vicaut, Eric; Court, Charles; Soubeyrand, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Reduced spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) (i.e., ischemia) plays a key role in traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) pathophysiology and is accordingly an important target for neuroprotective therapies. Although several techniques have been described to assess SCBF, they all have significant limitations. To overcome the latter, we propose the use of real-time contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEU). Here we describe the application of this technique in a rat contusion model of SCI. A jugular catheter is first implanted for the repeated injection of contrast agent, a sodium chloride solution of sulphur hexafluoride encapsulated microbubbles. The spine is then stabilized with a custom-made 3D-frame and the spinal cord dura mater is exposed by a laminectomy at ThIX-ThXII. The ultrasound probe is then positioned at the posterior aspect of the dura mater (coated with ultrasound gel). To assess baseline SCBF, a single intravenous injection (400 µl) of contrast agent is applied to record its passage through the intact spinal cord microvasculature. A weight-drop device is subsequently used to generate a reproducible experimental contusion model of SCI. Contrast agent is re-injected 15 min following the injury to assess post-SCI SCBF changes. CEU allows for real time and in-vivo assessment of SCBF changes following SCI. In the uninjured animal, ultrasound imaging showed uneven blood flow along the intact spinal cord. Furthermore, 15 min post-SCI, there was critical ischemia at the level of the epicenter while SCBF remained preserved in the more remote intact areas. In the regions adjacent to the epicenter (both rostral and caudal), SCBF was significantly reduced. This corresponds to the previously described "ischemic penumbra zone". This tool is of major interest for assessing the effects of therapies aimed at limiting ischemia and the resulting tissue necrosis subsequent to SCI. PMID:25993259

  6. Lewis, Fischer 344, and Sprague-Dawley Rats Display Differences in Lipid Peroxidation, Motor Recovery, and Rubrospinal Tract Preservation after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Humberto; Ramirez, Manuel; Garcia, Elisa; Martiñón, Susana; Cruz, Yolanda; Campos, Maria G.; Ibarra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The rat is the most common animal model for the preclinical validation of neuroprotective therapies in spinal cord injury (SCI). Lipid peroxidation (LP) is a hallmark of the damage triggered after SCI. Free radicals react with fatty acids causing cellular and membrane disruption. LP accounts for a considerable amount of neuronal cell death after SCI. To better understand the implications of inbred and outbred rat strain selection on preclinical SCI research, we evaluated LP after laminectomy sham surgery and a severe contusion of the T9 spinal cord in female Sprague-Dawley (SPD), Lewis (LEW), and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Further analysis included locomotor recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and retrograde rubrospinal tract tracing. LEW had the highest levels of LP products 72?h after sham surgery and SCI, significantly different from both F344 and SPD. SPD rats had the fastest functional recovery and highest BBB scores; these were not significantly different to F344. However, LEW rats achieved the lowest BBB scores throughout the 2-month follow-up, yielding significant differences when compared to SPD and F344. To see if the improvement in locomotion was secondary to an increase in axon survival, we evaluated rubrospinal neurons (RSNs) via retrograde labeling of the rubrospinal tract and quantified cells at the red nuclei. The highest numbers of RSNs were observed in SPD rats then F344; the lowest counts were seen in LEW rats. The BBB scores significantly correlated with the amount of positively stained RSN in the red nuclei. It is critical to identify interstrain variations as a potential confound in preclinical research. Multi-strain validation of neuroprotective therapies may increase chances of successful translation. PMID:26029162

  7. Effects of combining methylprednisolone with magnesium sulfate on neuropathic pain and functional recovery following spinal cord injury in male rats.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Leila; Naghib Zadeh, Maryam; Afshari, Khashayar; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Naghshband, Zeinab; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2015-03-01

    Methylprednisolone (MP) has been widely used as a standard therapeutic agent for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Because of its controversial useful effects, the combination of MP and other pharmacological agents to enhance neuroprotective effects is desirable. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been shown to have neuroprotective and antihyperalgesic effects. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of combining MP and MgSO4, on neuropathic pain and functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in male rats. A total of 48 adult male rats (weight 300-350 g) were used. After laminectomy, complete SCI was achieved by compression of the spinal cord for one minute with aneurysm clips. Single doses of Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), (600 mg/kg), Methylprednisolone (MP), (30 mg/kg) or combining MgSO4 and MP were injected intraperitoneally. Prior to surgery and during four weeks of study Tail flick latency (TFL) and BBB (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan) score and the acetone drop test were evaluated. In mean values of BBB score, a significant difference was observed in SCI+veh compared with other groups (P<0.05). Mean TFL also was significantly higher in SCI+veh compared with other groups (P<0.05). Mean acetone drop test score and weight were significantly different in MgSO4, MP and combining MgSO4 and MP  treated groups compared with SCI+veh group (P<0.05). These findings revealed that MP, MgSO4 and combining MgSO4 and MP treatment can attenuate neuropathic pains following SCI in rats include: thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. They also can yield better improvement in motor function and decrease weight loss after SCI in rats compared with the control group. PMID:25796020

  8. Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Prayson, Richard A. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Joseph F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kalfas, Iain H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Whitfield, Melvin D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)]. E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

  9. Spinal deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, J.K.; Riseborough, E.J.; Jaffe, N.; Nehme, M.E.

    1981-02-01

    Of seventy-four children who were treated at a mean age of seventeen months for neuroblastoma and survived more than five years, fifty-six had spinal deformity due either to the disease or to the treatment after a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Of these fifty-six, 50 per cent had post-radiation scoliosis, and 16 per cent had post-radiation kyphosis, most frequently at the thoracolumbar junction, at the time of follow-up. Two kyphotic thoracolumbar curve patterns were identified: an angular kyphosis with a short radius of curvature and its apex at the twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae, and a thoracic kyphosis with a long radius of curvature that extended into the lumbar spine. The post-radiation deformity - both the scoliosis and the kyphosis - progressed with growth, the scoliosis at a rate of 1 degree per year and the kyphosis at a rate of 3 degrees per year. Epidural spread of the neuroblastoma was associated with most of the cases of severe scoliosis and kyphosis. The deformity was due either to the laminectomy or to the paraplegia acting in conjunction with the radiation. Eighteen per cent of 419 children with this malignant disease survived more than five years, and of the survivors, 20 per cent had spinal deformity severe enough to warrant treatment. The factors associated with the development of spinal deformity in patient treated for neuroblastoma were: orthovoltage radiation exceeding 3000 rads, asymmetrical radiation of the spine, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and epidural spread of the tumor.

  10. Posterior thoracic laminoplasty with dorsal, intradural identification of ventral defect and transdural discectomy for a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak: case report.

    PubMed

    Pricola Fehnel, Katie; Borges, Lawrence F

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) has been increasingly reported in the literature concomitant with the improved sensitivity of imaging modalities. Although typically associated with meningeal weakening, a handful of cases of SIH secondary to thoracic disc osteophytes have been reported. Five of 7 reported cases were treated with epidural blood patch (EBP) alone while 2 required surgical management. There is no standard operative approach; both anterior and posterolateral approaches can be cumbersome and associated with morbidity, particularly in young, healthy patients. The authors report a case of SIH in which a ventral dural tear secondary to a calcified thoracic disc was repaired via posterior thoracic laminoplasty with dorsal durotomy and intradural exposure of the ventral defect with transdural discectomy followed by primary closure. A 34-year-old man presented with low-pressure headaches following axial load injury from a ski accident 5 years earlier. The patient's symptoms were refractory to a trial of conservative treatment and EBP, and he developed bilateral upper-extremity paresthesias. MRI of the spine demonstrated an extrathecal collection spanning the thoracic spine, and dynamic CT myelography identified contrast extravasation adjacent to a calcified paramedian disc at T9-10. The patient underwent posterior laminoplasty with neuromonitoring. A ventral dural defect was visualized via a dorsal durotomy, the penetrating disc osteophyte was removed transdurally, and the ventral and dorsal dura maters were closed primarily. Both somatosensory and motor evoked potentials were unchanged during surgery. The patient has remained asymptomatic more than 10 months postoperatively and he has resumed work as a surgeon. Cases of SIH secondary to a calcified thoracic disc are rare with little precedent as to optimal surgical intervention. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of posterior laminectomy in nonmyelopathic patients in whom there is no evidence of canal compromise and for whom neuromonitoring is available. Additionally, surgeon experience and patient preference may guide surgical planning. PMID:25658466

  11. Simvastatin Ameliorates Cauda Equina Compression Injury in a Rat Model of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Shunmugavel, Anandakumar; Martin, Marcus M.; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Copay, Anne G.; Subach, Brian R.; Schuler, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. LSS pathology is associated with secondary injury caused by inflammation, oxidative damage and cell death. Apart from laminectomy, pharmacological therapy targeting secondary injury is limited. Statins are FDA-approved cholesterol-lowering drug. They also show pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of simvastatin in restoring normal locomotor function after cauda equina compression (CEC) in a rat model of LSS, CEC injury was induced in rats by implanting silicone gels into the epidural spaces of L4 and L6. Experimental group was treated with simvastatin (5 mg/kg body weight), while the injured (vehicle) and sham operated (sham) groups received vehicle solution. Locomotor function in terms of latency on rotarod was measured for 49 days and the threshold of pain was determined for 14 days. Rats were sacrificed on day 3 and 14 and the spinal cord and cauda equina fibers were extracted and studied by histology, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy (EM) and TUNEL assay. Simvastatin aided locomotor functional recovery and enhanced the threshold of pain after the CEC. Cellular Infiltration and demyelination decreased in the spinal cord from the simvastatin group. EM revealed enhanced myelination of cauda equina in the simvastatin group. TUNEL assay showed significantly decreased number of apoptotic neurons in spinal cord from the simvastatin group compared to the vehicle group. Simvastatin hastens the locomotor functional recovery and reduces pain after CEC. These outcomes are mediated through the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin. The data indicate that simvastatin may be a promising drug candidate for LSS treatment in humans. PMID:23188522

  12. Association of multiple vertebral hemangiomas and severe paraparesis in a patient with a PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome. Case report.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Benoit; Radovanovic, Ivan; Haenggeli, Charles-Antoine; Delavelle, Jacqueline; Rüfenacht, Daniel; Kaelin, André; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Bottani, Armand; Rilliet, Bénédict

    2007-10-01

    The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, manifestations of which include Cowden disease and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, is caused by various mutations of the PTEN gene located at 10q23. Its major criteria are macrocephaly and a propensity to develop breast and thyroid cancers as well as endometrial carcinoma. Minor diagnostic criteria include hamartomatous intestinal polyps, lipomas, fibrocystic disease of the breasts, and fibromas. Mutations of PTEN can also be found in patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease (dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum). The authors report the case of a 17-year-old girl who had a severe cyanotic cardiac malformation for which surgery was not advised and a heterozygous missense mutation (c.406T>C) in exon 5 of PTEN resulting in the substitution of cysteine for arginine (p.Cysl36Arg) in the protein, which was also found in her mother and sister. The patient presented in the pediatric emergency department with severe spastic paraparesis. A magnetic resonance imaging study of the spine showed vertebral hemangiomas at multiple levels, but stenosis and compression were maximal at level T5-6. An emergency T5-6 laminectomy was performed. The decompression was extremely hemorrhagic because the rapid onset of paraparesis necessitated prompt treatment, and there was no time to perform preoperative embolization. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful with gradual recovery. This represents the first report of an association of a PTEN mutation and multiple vertebral angiomas. The authors did not treat the remaining angiomas because surgical treatment was contraindicated without previous embolization, which in itself would present considerable risk in this patient with congenital cyanotic heart disease. PMID:17941496

  13. Endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Evins, Alexander I; Banu, Matei A; Njoku, Innocent; Elowitz, Eric H; Härtl, Roger; Bernado, Antonio; Hofstetter, Christoph P

    2015-04-01

    Foraminal stenosis frequently causes radiculopathy in lumbar degenerative spondylosis. Endoscopic transforaminal techniques allow for foraminal access with minimal tissue disruption. However, the effectiveness of foraminal decompression by endoscopic techniques has yet to be studied. We evaluate radiographic outcome of endoscopic transforaminal foraminotomies performed at L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 on cadaveric specimens. Before and after the procedures, three dimensional CT scans were obtained to measure foraminal height and area. Following the foraminotomies, complete laminectomies and facetectomies were performed to assess for dural tears or nerve root damage. L3-L4 preoperative foraminal height increased by 8.9%, from 2.12±0.13cm to 2.27±0.14cm (p<0.01), and foraminal area increased by 24.8% from 2.21±0.18cm(2) to 2.72±0.19cm(2) (p<0.01). At L4-L5, preoperative foraminal height was 1.87±0.17cm and area was 1.78±0.18cm(2). Endoscopic foraminotomies resulted in a 15.3% increase of foraminal height (2.11±0.15cm, p<0.05) and 44.8% increase in area of (2.51±0.21cm(2), p<0.01). At L5-S1, spondylitic changes caused diminished foraminal height (1.26±0.14cm) and foraminal area (1.17±0.18cm(2)). Postoperatively, foraminal height increased by 41.6% (1.74±0.09cm, p<0.05) and area increased by 98.7% (2.08±0.17cm(2), p<0.01). Subsequent inspection via a standard midline approach revealed one dural tear of an S1 nerve root. Endoscopic foraminotomies allow for effective foraminal decompression, though clinical studies are necessary to further evaluate complications and efficacy. PMID:25744073

  14. Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spastic Paraparesis Information Page Synonym(s): Retrovirus-Associated Myelopathy, HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy Table of Contents (click to ... cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (also known as HTLV-1) — and TSP. TSP is now called HTLV- ...

  15. IL28B Gene Polymorphism SNP rs8099917 Genotype GG Is Associated with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malta, Fernanda; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gonçalves, Fernanda de Toledo; Duarte, Alberto Jose da Silva; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva

    2014-01-01

    Background The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) are associated with HAM/TSP. Methods The study included 229 subjects, classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (136 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers) and Group II (93 HAM/TSP patients). The proviral loads were quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System. Results A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphisms were independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome in rs12979860 genotype CT (OR?=?2.03; IC95%?=?0.96–4.27) and in rs8099917 genotype GG (OR?=?7.61; IC95%?=?1.82–31.72). Conclusion Subjects with SNP rs8099917 genotype GG and rs12979618 genotype CT may present a distinct immune response against HTLV-1 infection. So, it seems reasonable to suggest that a search for IL28B polymorphisms should be performed for all HTLV-1-infected subjects in order to monitor their risk for disease development; however, since this is the first description of such finding in the literature, we should first replicate this study with more HTLV-1-infected persons to strengthen the evidence already provided by our results. PMID:25233462

  16. Correlation between degree of subvoxel spinal cord compression measured with super-resolution tract density imaging and neurological impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Salamon, Noriko; Woodworth, Davis C; Holly, Langston T

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the use of super-resolution tract density images derived from probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography of the spinal cord as an imaging surrogate for microstructural integrity and functional impairment in patients with cervical spondylosis. METHODS Structural MRI and DTI images were collected for 27 patients with cervical spondylosis with (n= 21) and without (n= 6) functional impairment as defined by the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale (mJOA). DTI was performed axially through the site of compression in a total of 20 directions with 10 averages. Probabilistic tractography was performed at 0.5-mm isotropic spatial resolution using the streamline technique combined with constrained spherical deconvolution. The following measurements were calculated for each patient: maximum tract density at the site of compression, average tract density in rostral normal-appearing spinal cord, and the ratio of maximum density to normal density. RESULTS Compared with normal tissue, the site of compression exhibited elevated fiber tract density in all patients, and a higher fiber tract density was also noted in focal areas at the site of compression in patients with functional impairment. There was a strong negative correlation between maximum tract density and mJOA score (R(2)= 0.6324, p < 0.0001) and the ratio of maximum tract density to normal tract density (R(2)= 0.6647, p < 0.0001). When grouped according to severity of neurological impairment (asymptomatic, mJOA score of 18; mild, mJOA score of 15-17; moderate, mJOA score of 11-14; and severe, mJOA score < 11), the results showed a significant difference in the ratio between severe and both no impairment (p= 0.0009) and any impairment (p= 0.036). A ratio of maximum fiber tract density at the site of compression to fiber tract density at C-2 greater than 1.45 had 82% sensitivity and 70% specificity for identifying patients with moderate to severe impairment (ROC AUC= 0.8882, p= 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS These results support the use of DTI as a surrogate for determining spinal cord integrity in patients with cervical spondylosis. Probabilistic tractography provides spinal cord microstructural information that can help discern clinical status in cervical spondylosis patients with varying degrees of neurological impairment. PMID:25746116

  17. [Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine. Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

    2015-04-01

    A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

  18. [A case of meningeal carcinomatosis showing myelopathy--detection of TNF-alpha in infiltrating CSF cells and brain tissue sections of cerebellum].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S; Kogure, K

    1993-02-01

    A 41-year-old woman had radical mastectomy for breast cancer with metastasis of axial lymph nodes three years previously. In February 1990, she noticed swelling of lymph nodes in right suparclavicular region. A lymph node biopsy revealed cancer cells. Immediately, radiation therapy was performed. However, in August serum levels of CA 15-3 and LDH were markedly elevated. Two months later the patient complained of severe headache, dysarthria, shoulder pain and anorexia. Neurological examination revealed stiff neck, weakness of bilateral facial muscles, deviation of tongue to the left and no sensory disturbance. A CSF sample by lumbar puncture showed 26/mm3 in cell counts, 204 mg/dl of protein and 11 mg/dl of glucose. In addition, CSF cytology revealed malignant cells four to five times as large as lymphocytes. Immediately, and intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX) was started. However, one week later she developed complete paraplegia with sensory disturbance below the L1 levels and an incontinentia urine. CSF examination performed again, and showed 97/mm3 in cell counts, 792 mg/dl of protein and 91 mg/dl of glucose. On October 10, a CT scan of the head showed contrast enhancement along cerebellar folia and narrowing of quadrigeminal cistern. On November 31, sagittal T1W1 with Gadolinium revealed an enhancing stripes along the spinal cord at the Th10 to L4 levels. This finding was suggested to be meningeal carcinomatosis. On December 8, she died. At autopsy, brownish hemorrhagic mass was noticed in the bilateral cerebellar tonsils, and severe downward displacement of the tonsils.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8319390

  19. Syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis: A rare condition.

    PubMed

    Landi, Alessandro; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Delfini, Roberto

    2013-06-16

    Spinal spondylosis is an extremely common condition that has only rarely been described as a cause of syringomyelia. We describe a case of syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis admitted at our division and treated by our institute. It is the case of a 66-year-old woman. At our observation she was affected by moderate-severe spastic tetraparesis. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an hyperintense signal within spinal cord from C3 to T1 with a more sharply defined process in the inferior cervical spinal cord. At the same level bulging discs, facets and ligamenta flava hypertrophy determined a compression towards subarachnoid space and spinal cord. Spinal cord compression was more evident in hyperextension rather than flexion. A 4-level laminectomy and subsequent posterior stabilization with intra-articular screws was executed. At 3-mo follow up there was a regression of tetraparesis but motor deficits of the lower limbs residuated. At the same follow up postoperative MRI was executed. It suggested enlargement of the syrinx. Perhaps hyperintensity within spinal cord appeared "bounded" from C3 to C7 with clearer margins. At the level of surgical decompression, subarachnoid space and spinal cord enlargement were also evident. A review of the literature was executed using PubMed database. The objective of the research was to find an etiopathological theory able to relate syringomyelia with cervical spondylosis. Only 6 articles have been found. At the origin of syringomyelia the mechanisms of compression and instability are proposed. Perhaps other studies assert the importance of subarachnoid space regard cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamic. We postulate that cervical spine instability may be the cause of multiple microtrauma towards spinal cord and consequently may damage spinal cord parenchyma generating myelomalacia and consequently syrinx. Otherwise the hemorrhage within spinal cord central canal can cause an obstruction of CSF outflow, finally generating the syrinx. On the other hand in cervical spondylosis the stenotic elements can affect subarachnoid space. These elements rubbing towards spinal cord during movements of the neck can generate arachnoiditis, subarachnoid hemorrhages and arachnoid adhesions. Analyzing the literature these "complications" of cervical spondylosis are described at the origin of syringomyelia. So surgical decompression, enlarging medullary canal prevents rubbings and contacts between the bone-ligament structures of the spine towards spinal cord and subarachnoid space therefore syringomyelia. Perhaps stabilization is also necessary to prevent instability of the cervical spine at the base of central cord syndrome or syringomyelia. Finally although patients affected by central cord syndrome are usually managed conservatively we advocate, also for them, surgical treatment in cases affected by advanced state of the symptoms and MRI. PMID:24303479

  20. A Guidance Channel Seeded With Autologous Schwann Cells for Repair of Cauda Equina Injury in a Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Calancie, Blair; Madsen, Parley W; Wood, Patrick; Marcillo, Alexander E; Levi, Allan D; Bunge, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: To evaluate an implantable guidance channel (GC) seeded with autologous Schwann cells to promote regeneration of transected spinal nerve root axons in a primate model. Methods: Schwann cells were obtained from sural nerve segments of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; cynomolgus). Cells were cultured, purified, and seeded into a PAN/PVC GC. Approximately 3 weeks later, monkeys underwent laminectomy and dural opening. Nerve roots of the L4 through L7 segments were identified visually. The threshold voltage needed to elicit hindlimb muscle electromyography (EMG) after stimulation of intact nerve roots was determined. Segments of 2 or 3 nerve roots (each ?8–15 mm in length) were excised. The GC containing Schwann cells was implanted between the proximal and distal stumps of these nerve roots and attached to the stumps with suture. Follow-up evaluation was conducted on 3 animals, with survival times of 9 to 14 months. Results: Upon reexposure of the implant site, subdural nerve root adhesions were noted in all 3 animals. Several of the implanted GC had collapsed and were characterized by thin strands of connective tissue attached to either end. In contrast, 3 of the 8 implanted GC were intact and had white, glossy cables entering and exiting the conduits. Electrical stimulation of the tissue cable in each of these 3 cases led to low-threshold evoked EMG responses, suggesting that muscles had been reinnervated by axons regenerating through the repair site and into the distal nerve stump. During harvesting of the GC implant, sharp transection led to spontaneous EMG in the same 3 roots showing a low threshold to electrical stimulation, whereas no EMG was seen when harvesting nerve roots with high thresholds to elicit EMG. Histology confirmed large numbers of myelinated axons at the midpoint of 2 GC judged to have reinnervated target muscles. Conclusions: We found a modest rate of successful regeneration and muscle reinnervation after treatment of nerve root transection with a Schwann cell–seeded, implanted synthetic GC. Newer treatments, which include the use of absorbable polymers, neurotrophins, and antiscar agents, may further improve spinal nerve regeneration for repair of cauda equina injury. PMID:19777858

  1. A Consistent, Quantifiable, and Graded Rat Lumbosacral Spinal Cord Injury Model.

    PubMed

    Wen, Junxiang; Sun, Dongming; Tan, Jun; Young, Wise

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury (SCI) model that causes consistent motoneuronal loss and behavior deficits. Most SCI models focus on the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. Lumbosacral SCI accounts for about one third of human SCI but no standardized lumbosacral model is available for evaluating therapies. Twenty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: sham (n=9), 25?mm (n=8), and 50?mm (n=9). Sham rats had laminectomy only, while 25?mm and 50?mm rats were injured by dropping a 10?g rod from a height of 25?mm or 50?mm, respectively, onto the L4-5 spinal cord at the T13/L1 vertebral junction. We measured footprint length (FL), toe spreading (TS), intermediate toe spreading (ITS), and sciatic function index (SFI) from walking footprints, and static toe spreading (STS), static intermediate toe spreading (SITS), and static sciatic index (SSI) from standing footprints. At six weeks, we assessed neuronal and white matter loss, quantified axons, diameter, and myelin thickness in the peroneal and tibial nerves, and measured cross-sectional areas of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71?mm and 5.01?mm columns in the spinal cord. Dropping a 10-g weight from 25?mm or 50?mm caused 1.5?mm or 3.75?mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss. Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25?mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25?mm contusions. This model of lumbosacral SCI produces consistent and graded loss of white matter, motoneuronal loss, peripheral nerve axonal changes, and anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles atrophy in rats. PMID:25313633

  2. [Lumbar spinal stenosis. An overview 50 years following initial description].

    PubMed

    Benini, A

    1993-08-01

    About 50 years after the first descriptions of lumbar stenosis and its most frequent symptom, neurogenic intermittent claudication, this update gives an overview of present-day concepts of the disease and of new experience in this area. Stenosis of the central and lateral lumbar spine is chiefly held to be one of the results of segmental degenerative instability throughout the several stages of spondylosis. The degenerative process of the spine has its starting point in regressive changes of the disc. This leads to instability of the motion segment, which explains the pathophysiological dynamics of the stenosis and its symptoms, including intermittent neurogenic claudication. Segmental instability is the crucial lesion causing all the changes in the degenerative process, which are not to be considered as separate entities but as part of the dynamics of the same disease. The spine's congenital anatomic individual patterns, which confirm the population thinking of the evolutionary biology (since they are different from one motion segment to the other) help to determine the outline of single cases. The disparity between radiological and clinical patterns is pointed out: severe stenosis may be asymptomatic or cause just modest monoradicular trouble as well as serious multiradicular deficit. The reason for the discrepancy is unknown. One must be careful to avoid surgery on a silent, purely radiological stenosis. Experience of more than 15 years confirms the uselessness of performing a complete laminectomy to achieve sufficient decompression. The author's method of selective decompression is described briefly. The English term "undercutting decompression" runs the risk of being misunderstood, since it is also used for rather destroying procedures. Finally, we point out that surgery for spinal stenosis must resolve both root compression and degenerative instability in the majority of cases. In most cases of lumbar stenosis, if decompression alone is performed, only the consequence, and not the cause of the disease, segmental degenerative instability, is treated. Osteophyte formation is an attempt by nature to stabilize the motion segments by stiffening its components. Spinal fusion tries to achieve the same effect. For most cases of spinal stenosis, we suggest our own technique, which combines safe and preserving ("selective") decompression according to Benini [1,7] with the translaminar screw fixation of Magerl [7]. In cases of degenerative spondylolisthesis, however, transpeduncular fusion is mandatory. PMID:8414483

  3. The potential contributing effect of ketorolac and fluoxetine to a spinal epidural hematoma following a cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection: a case report and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Chien, George C Chang; McCormick, Zack; Araujo, Marco; Candido, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are commonly performed as one part of a multi-modal analgesic regimen in the management of upper extremity radicular pain. Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare complication with a reported incidence ranging from 1.38 in 10,000 to 1 in 190,000 epidurals. Current American Society of Regional Anesthesia (ASRA), American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), and the International Spine Intervention Society (ISIS) recommendations are that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) do not need to be withheld prior to epidural anesthesia. We report a case wherein intramuscular ketorolac and oral fluoxetine contributed to a SEH and tetraplegia following a cervical interlaminar (ESI). A 66 year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency and neck pain radiating into her right upper extremity presented for evaluation and was deemed an appropriate CESI candidate. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multi-level neuroforaminal stenosis and degenerative intervertebral discs. Utilizing a loss of resistance to saline technique, an 18-gauge Tuohy-type needle entered the epidural space at C6-7. After negative aspiration, 4 mL of saline with 80 mg of methyl-prednisolone was injected. Immediately thereafter, the patient reported significant spasmodic-type localized neck pain with no neurologic status changes. A decision was made to administer 30 mg intramuscular ketorolac as treatment for the spasmodic-type pain. En route home, she developed a sudden onset of acute tetraplegia. She was brought to the emergency department for evaluation including platelet and coagulation studies which were normal. MRI demonstrated an epidural hematoma extending from C5 to T7. She underwent a bilateral C5-T6 laminectomy with epidural hematoma evacuation and was discharged to an acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Chronic renal insufficiency, spinal stenosis, female gender, and increasing age have been identified as risk factors for SEH following epidural anesthesia. In the present case, it is postulated that after the spinal vascular system was penetrated, hemostasis was compromised by the combined antiplatelet effects of ketorolac, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E. Although generally well tolerated, the role of ketorolac, a potent anti-platelet medication used for pain relief in the peri-neuraxial intervention period, should be seriously scrutinized when other analgesic options are readily available. Although the increased risk of bleeding for the alternative medications are minimal, they are nevertheless well documented. Additionally, their additive impairment on hemostasis has not been well characterized. Withholding NSAIDs, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E in the peri-procedural period is relatively low risk and should be considered for all patients with multiple risk factors for SEH. PMID:24850120

  4. Surgical Compared with Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Blood, Emily A.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Birkmeyer, Nancy; Herkowitz, Harry; Longley, Michael; Lenke, Lawrence; Emery, Sanford; Hu, Serena S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The management of degenerative spondylolisthesis associated with spinal stenosis remains controversial. Surgery is widely used and has recently been shown to be more effective than nonoperative treatment when the results were followed over two years. Questions remain regarding the long-term effects of surgical treatment compared with those of nonoperative treatment. Methods: Surgical candidates from thirteen centers with symptoms of at least twelve weeks' duration as well as confirmatory imaging showing degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis were offered enrollment in a randomized cohort or observational cohort. Treatment consisted of standard decompressive laminectomy (with or without fusion) or usual nonoperative care. Primary outcome measures were the Short Form-36 (SF-36) bodily pain and physical function scores and the modified Oswestry Disability Index at six weeks, three months, six months, and yearly up to four years. Results: In the randomized cohort (304 patients enrolled), 66% of those randomized to receive surgery received it by four years whereas 54% of those randomized to receive nonoperative care received surgery by four years. In the observational cohort (303 patients enrolled), 97% of those who chose surgery received it whereas 33% of those who chose nonoperative care eventually received surgery. The intent-to-treat analysis of the randomized cohort, which was limited by nonadherence to the assigned treatment, showed no significant differences in treatment outcomes between the operative and nonoperative groups at three or four years. An as-treated analysis combining the randomized and observational cohorts that adjusted for potential confounders demonstrated that the clinically relevant advantages of surgery that had been previously reported through two years were maintained at four years, with treatment effects of 15.3 (95% confidence interval, 11 to 19.7) for bodily pain, 18.9 (95% confidence interval, 14.8 to 23) for physical function, and ?14.3 (95% confidence interval, ?17.5 to ?11.1) for the Oswestry Disability Index. Early advantages (at two years) of surgical treatment in terms of the secondary measures of bothersomeness of back and leg symptoms, overall satisfaction with current symptoms, and self-rated progress were also maintained at four years. Conclusions: Compared with patients who are treated nonoperatively, patients in whom degenerative spondylolisthesis and associated spinal stenosis are treated surgically maintain substantially greater pain relief and improvement in function for four years. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19487505

  5. Syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis: A rare condition

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Alessandro; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Delfini, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Spinal spondylosis is an extremely common condition that has only rarely been described as a cause of syringomyelia. We describe a case of syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis admitted at our division and treated by our institute. It is the case of a 66-year-old woman. At our observation she was affected by moderate-severe spastic tetraparesis. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an hyperintense signal within spinal cord from C3 to T1 with a more sharply defined process in the inferior cervical spinal cord. At the same level bulging discs, facets and ligamenta flava hypertrophy determined a compression towards subarachnoid space and spinal cord. Spinal cord compression was more evident in hyperextension rather than flexion. A 4-level laminectomy and subsequent posterior stabilization with intra-articular screws was executed. At 3-mo follow up there was a regression of tetraparesis but motor deficits of the lower limbs residuated. At the same follow up postoperative MRI was executed. It suggested enlargement of the syrinx. Perhaps hyperintensity within spinal cord appeared “bounded” from C3 to C7 with clearer margins. At the level of surgical decompression, subarachnoid space and spinal cord enlargement were also evident. A review of the literature was executed using PubMed database. The objective of the research was to find an etiopathological theory able to relate syringomyelia with cervical spondylosis. Only 6 articles have been found. At the origin of syringomyelia the mechanisms of compression and instability are proposed. Perhaps other studies assert the importance of subarachnoid space regard cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamic. We postulate that cervical spine instability may be the cause of multiple microtrauma towards spinal cord and consequently may damage spinal cord parenchyma generating myelomalacia and consequently syrinx. Otherwise the hemorrhage within spinal cord central canal can cause an obstruction of CSF outflow, finally generating the syrinx. On the other hand in cervical spondylosis the stenotic elements can affect subarachnoid space. These elements rubbing towards spinal cord during movements of the neck can generate arachnoiditis, subarachnoid hemorrhages and arachnoid adhesions. Analyzing the literature these “complications” of cervical spondylosis are described at the origin of syringomyelia. So surgical decompression, enlarging medullary canal prevents rubbings and contacts between the bone-ligament structures of the spine towards spinal cord and subarachnoid space therefore syringomyelia. Perhaps stabilization is also necessary to prevent instability of the cervical spine at the base of central cord syndrome or syringomyelia. Finally although patients affected by central cord syndrome are usually managed conservatively we advocate, also for them, surgical treatment in cases affected by advanced state of the symptoms and MRI. PMID:24303479

  6. C-shaped Incision for Far-Lateral Suboccipital Approach: Anatomical Study and Clinical Correlation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Tsz; Reintjes, Stephen; Olivera, Raul; van Loveren, Harry R; Agazzi, Siviero

    2015-03-01

    Background?The standard incision for far-lateral suboccipital approaches has been the classic "reverse hockey stick." Although that incision provides ample exposure, concern has been raised that excessive muscle dissection and skin elevation might lead to accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) under the flap with increased risk of CSF leak. We hypothesize that the C-shaped incision can minimize the amount of muscle dissection and provide optimal exposure and surgical outcomes. Objective?To describe the anatomical dissection for the C-shaped incision and clinical application of the C-shaped incision for the far-lateral approach. Methods?A retrospective analysis of all the patients operated on at our center using this approach for the treatment of aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) from 2005 to 2011. Results of clinical and operative outcome are evaluated. Surgical techniques are described in detail. Cadaveric dissections using the C-shaped incision were performed to assess the exposure of the far-lateral suboccipital area. Results?Eleven consecutive patients who had undergone this procedure were selected. All patients underwent clipping of PICA aneurysms. Nine patients (82%) presented with ruptured aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. All of them underwent suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. The dura mater was closed in a watertight fashion in 10 patients (91%). No CSF leak or pseudomeningocele were reported. In nine SAH patients, two (22%) had postoperative dysphagia and required long-term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. One patient (11%) had chronic respiratory failure and required a tracheostomy. Three patients (33%) developed hydrocephalus and required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusions?The C-shaped incision is a valid alternative to the classic reverse hockey-stick incision to gain exposure for far-lateral craniotomies. Knowing the anatomy and dissection techniques can provide an easy and safe route to address anterior lateral cranial-cervical lesions. Our results suggest the C-shaped incision is reliable in preventing CSF leak and the formation of pseudomeningocele. PMID:25844297

  7. Surgical versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Hanscom, Brett; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Blood, Emily A.; Birkmeyer, Nancy J.O.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Herkowitz, Harry; Cammisa, Frank P.; Albert, Todd J.; Emery, Sanford E.; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Abdu, William A.; Longley, Michael; Errico, Thomas J.; Hu, Serena S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Management of degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis is controversial. Surgery is widely used, but its effectiveness in comparison with that of nonsurgical treatment has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. METHODS Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 U.S. states who had at least 12 weeks of symptoms and image-confirmed degenerative spondylolisthesis were offered enrollment in a randomized cohort or an observational cohort. Treatment was standard decompressive laminectomy (with or without fusion) or usual nonsurgical care. The primary outcome measures were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36) bodily pain and physical function scores (100-point scales, with higher scores indicating less severe symptoms) and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (100-point scale, with lower scores indicating less severe symptoms) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. RESULTS We enrolled 304 patients in the randomized cohort and 303 in the observational cohort. The baseline characteristics of the two cohorts were similar. The one-year crossover rates were high in the randomized cohort (approximately 40% in each direction) but moderate in the observational cohort (17% crossover to surgery and 3% crossover to nonsurgical care). The intention-to-treat analysis for the randomized cohort showed no statistically significant effects for the primary outcomes. The as-treated analysis for both cohorts combined showed a significant advantage for surgery at 3 months that increased at 1 year and diminished only slightly at 2 years. The treatment effects at 2 years were 18.1 for bodily pain (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.5 to 21.7), 18.3 for physical function (95% CI, 14.6 to 21.9), and ?16.7 for the Oswestry Disability Index (95% CI, ?19.5 to ?13.9). There was little evidence of harm from either treatment. CONCLUSIONS In nonrandomized as-treated comparisons with careful control for potentially confounding baseline factors, patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis treated surgically showed substantially greater improvement in pain and function during a period of 2 years than patients treated nonsurgically. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000409.) PMID:17538085

  8. Sclerostin inhibition prevents spinal cord injury-induced cancellous bone loss.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Luke A; Ye, Fan; Ghosh, Payal; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Balaez, Alexander; Miller, Julie R; Phillips, Ean G; Zheng, Nigel; Williams, Alyssa A; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Wronski, Thomas J; Bose, Prodip K; Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2015-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in rapid and extensive sublesional bone loss. Sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived glycoprotein that negatively regulates intraskeletal Wnt signaling, is elevated after SCI and may represent a mechanism underlying this excessive bone loss. However, it remains unknown whether pharmacologic sclerostin inhibition ameliorates bone loss subsequent to SCI. Our primary purposes were to determine whether a sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) prevents hindlimb cancellous bone loss in a rodent SCI model and to compare the effects of a Scl-Ab to that of testosterone-enanthate (TE), an agent that we have previously shown prevents SCI-induced bone loss. Fifty-five (n?=?11-19/group) skeletally mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive: (A) SHAM surgery (T8 laminectomy), (B) moderate-severe (250 kilodyne) SCI, (C) 250 kilodyne SCI?+?TE (7.0?mg/wk, im), or (D) 250 kilodyne SCI?+?Scl-Ab (25?mg/kg, twice weekly, sc) for 3 weeks. Twenty-one days post-injury, SCI animals exhibited reduced hindlimb cancellous bone volume at the proximal tibia (via ?CT and histomorphometry) and distal femur (via ?CT), characterized by reduced trabecular number and thickness. SCI also reduced trabecular connectivity and platelike trabecular structures, indicating diminished structural integrity of the remaining cancellous network, and produced deficits in cortical bone (femoral diaphysis) strength. Scl-Ab and TE both prevented SCI-induced cancellous bone loss, albeit via differing mechanisms. Specifically, Scl-Ab increased osteoblast surface and bone formation, indicating direct bone anabolic effects, whereas TE reduced osteoclast surface with minimal effect on bone formation, indicating antiresorptive effects. The deleterious microarchitectural alterations in the trabecular network were also prevented in SCI?+?Scl-Ab and SCI?+?TE animals, whereas only Scl-Ab completely prevented the reduction in cortical bone strength. Our findings provide the first evidence indicating that sclerostin inhibition represents a viable treatment to prevent SCI-induced cancellous and cortical bone deficits and provides preliminary rationale for future clinical trials focused on evaluating whether Scl-Ab prevents osteoporosis in the SCI population. PMID:25359699

  9. Early applied electric field stimulation attenuates secondary apoptotic responses and exerts neuroprotective effects in acute spinal cord injury of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Zhang, G; Rong, W; Wang, A; Wu, C; Huo, X

    2015-04-16

    Injury potential, which refers to a direct current voltage between intact and injured nerve ends, is mainly caused by injury-induced Ca2+ influx. Our previous studies revealed that injury potential increased with the onset and severity of spinal cord injury (SCI), and an application of applied electric field stimulation (EFS) with the cathode distal to the lesion could delay and attenuate injury potential formation. As Ca2+ influx is also considered as a major trigger for secondary injury after SCI, we hypothesize that EFS would protect an injured spinal cord from secondary injury and consequently improve functional and pathological outcomes. In this study, rats were divided into three groups: (1) sham group, laminectomy only; (2) control group, subjected to SCI only; and (3) EFS group, received EFS immediately post-injury with the injury potential modulated to 0±0.5 mV by EFS. Functional recovery of the hind limbs was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. Results revealed that EFS-treated rats exhibited significantly better locomotor function recovery. Luxol fast blue staining was performed to assess the spared myelin area. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the number of myelinated nerve fibers. Ultrastructural analysis was performed to evaluate the size of myelinated nerve fibers. Findings showed that the EFS group rats exhibited significantly less myelin loss and had larger and more myelinated nerve fibers than the control group rats in dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST) 8 weeks after SCI. Furthermore, we found that EFS inhibited the activation of calpain and caspase-3, as well as the expression of Bax, as detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, EFS decreased cellular apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL, within 4 weeks post-injury. Results suggest that early EFS could significantly reduce spinal cord degeneration and improve functional and historical recovery. Furthermore, these neuroprotective effects may be related to the inhibition of secondary apoptotic responses after SCI. These findings support further investigation of the future clinical application of EFS after SCI. PMID:25701712

  10. Multimodal evaluation of CSF dynamics following extradural decompression for Chiari malformation Type I.

    PubMed

    Quon, Jennifer L; Grant, Ryan A; DiLuna, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Extradural decompression is a minimally invasive technique for treating Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) that avoids the complications of dural opening. While there is no agreement on which surgical method is optimal, mounting evidence demonstrates that extradural decompression effectively treats clinical symptoms, with a minimal reoperation rate. Neurological symptoms such as headache may be related to obstructed flow of CSF, and one aspect of successful extradural decompression is improved CSF dynamics. In this series, the authors report on their use of phase-contrast cine flow MRI to assess CSF flow as well as satisfactory decompression. METHODS The authors describe their first surgical series of 18 patients with CM-I undergoing extradural decompression and correlate clinical improvement with radiological changes. Patients were categorized as having complete, partial, or no resolution of their symptoms. Posterior fossa area, cisterna magna area, and tonsillar herniation were assessed on T2-weighted MRI, whereas improvement of CSF flow was evaluated with phase-contrast cine flow MRI. All patients received standard pre- and postoperative MRI studies; 8 (44.4%) patients had pre- and postoperative phase-contrast cine, while the rest underwent cine studies only postoperatively. RESULTS All 18 patients presented with symptomatic CM-I, with imaging studies demonstrating tonsillar herniation ? 5 mm, and 2 patients had associated syringomelia. All patients underwent suboccipital decompression and C-1 laminectomy with splitting of the dura. Patients with complete resolution of their symptoms had a greater relative increase in cisterna magna area compared with those with only partial improvement (p = 0.022). In addition, in those with complete improvement the preoperative cisterna magna area was smaller than in those who had either partial (0.020) or no (0.025) improvement. Ten (91%) of the 11 patients with improved flow also had improvement in their symptoms. There was 1 postoperative complication of dysphagia and dysphonia. None of the patients have required a second operation. CONCLUSIONS Extradural decompression has the potential to be the first-line treatment for CM-I but has been lacking an objective measure by which to assess surgical success as well as the need for reoperation. An increase in the CSF spaces and improved CSF dynamics may be associated with resolution of clinical symptoms. Including cine imaging as part of routine pre- and postoperative evaluation can help identify which patients are most likely to benefit from surgery. PMID:25746119

  11. Benefits of the Paraspinal Muscle-Sparing Approach Versus the Conventional Midline Approach for Posterior Nonfusion Stabilization: Comparative Analysis of Clinical and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Eli M.; Bray, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of approach on outcomes of posterior nonfusion stabilization has not been described. This paper analyzes the influence of surgical approach on functional outcome with nonfusion stabilization. Methods We performed a prospective consecutive cohort outcome analysis of 88 patients who had undergone posterior nonfusion stabilization of the lumbar spine at 178 levels using the Dynesys system (Zimmer Spine, Inc, Warsaw, Indiana). Patients needing decompression (n = 42) were operated through a midline approach using microscopic laminotomy/foraminotomy with or without discectomy, followed by posterior nonfusion stabilization with Dynesys. None of the patients had a complete laminectomy. Patients not needing decompression (n = 46) underwent the procedure via the bilateral paraspinal muscle-sparing approach and were subsequently stabilized. Clinical and functional outcomes data were collected using the visual analog scale (VAS), Treatment Intensity Score (TIS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36. Average follow-up was 18 months (range, 12–36 mo). Results All outcome measures in both groups showed significant improvement at last follow-up. Between the groups a significant difference was apparent in the reduction of the TIS when measured at 1 week and 6 weeks. The preoperative, 1-week, and 6-week values were 66, 48, and 40, respectively (P < 0.05), for the midline group and 80, 32, and 28 (P < 0.05) for the paraspinal group. This trend continued through 3 to 6 months after the procedure but did not reach statistical significance. In the paraspinal group, pain scores showed a nonsignificant trend toward lower values in the first month, compared with values in the midline group. Patients reported excellent to fair results, with the exception of three patients in the midline group and two in the paraspinal group, who rated the procedure as fair. Conclusions Significantly fewer patients required postoperative narcotics in the paraspinal group than in the midline group. This improvement in early outcomes suggests a significant early benefit to the less tissue-destructive muscle-sparing approach in posterior nonfusion stabilization procedures. PMID:25802585

  12. Lumbar and cervical stenosis. Frequency of the association, role of the ankylosing hyperostosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Laroche; L. Moulinier; J. Arlet; Ph. Arrue; H. Rousseau; A. Cantagrel; B. Mazieres

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The authors report a study of 47 patients admitted for cervical myelopathy (N=17) or symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (N=30). Nine patients had clinical evidence of coexisting cervical myelopathy and lumbar spinal stenosis. Ten out of the 17 patients having cervical myelopathy had lumbar spinal stenosis as evidenced by saggital tomography and\\/or computerized tomography. Nine out of the 30 patients admitted

  13. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients according to new diagnostic criteria of HAM/TSP.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Olavarria, Viviana Nilla; Kruschewsky, Ramon de Almeida; Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Dourado, Inês; Correia, Luis C L; de Castro-Costa, Carlos Maurício; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2011-07-01

    A high human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load is described in HTLV-1-associated diseases, especially HAM/TSP. However, the cut-off value to define high levels of HTLV-1 proviral load is not well established. 281 HTLV-1-infected patients from the HTLV reference center in Salvador, Brazil, were followed from 2005 to 2008. Patients were classified as asymptomatic, possible-, probable-, and definite-HAM/TSP, in accordance with diagnostic criteria proposed by De Castro-Costa et al. (2006): AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:931-935. HTLV-1 proviral load was determined using real-time PCR. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed using only asymptomatic individuals and definite-HAM/TSP patients. The ROC curve was used to predict the proviral load level that differentiates these two groups. Out of 281 patients, 189 were asymptomatic and 92 were diagnosed with HAM/TSP (22 possible, 23 probable, 47 definite). The mean HTLV-1 proviral load was higher in possible- (89,104 ± 93,006 copies/106 PBMC), -probable (175,854 ± 128,083 copies/106 PBMC), and definite-HAM/TSP patients (150,667 ± 122,320 copies/106 PBMC),when compared to asymptomatic individuals (27,178 ± 41,155 copies/106 PBMC) (P < 0.0001). A comparison of all HAM/TSP groups showed the highest proviral loads in probable-HAM/TSP patients, yet the differences in mean values were not statistically significant. The ROC curve suggested a value of 49,865 copies/106 PBMC, with 87% sensitivity (95% CI ¼ 74-95) and 81% specificity (95% CI ¼ 75-86), as the best proviral load cut-off point to differentiate definite HAM/TSP patients from asymptomatic individuals. HTLV-1 proviral loads are higher in groups of infected patients with eurological symptoms and may represent a relevant biological marker of disease progression. PMID:21567429

  14. Pectoralis major motor evoked potentials in cervical spondylosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Lo; L. L. Chan; C. T. Tan; J. L. T. Chen; S. B. Tan

    2005-01-01

    Myelopathy is a severe complication of cervical spondylosis (CS). We studied 27 consecutive patients with CS referred for evaluation for possible myelopathy using transcranial magnetic stimulation. The findings were compared with those from 20 normal controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was utilized to assess the degree of cord compromise. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) abnormalities showed equivalent diagnostic yield with pectoralis

  15. Long-term results of pediculo-body fixation and posterolateral fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Zagra, Antonino; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone; Corriero, Andrea Saverio; Zagra, Luigi

    2009-06-01

    Grob et al. (Eur Spine J 5:281-285, 1996) illustrated a new fixation technique in inveterate cases of grade 2-3 spondylolisthesis (degenerative or spondylolytic): a fusion without reduction of the spondylolisthesis. Fixation of the segment was achieved by two cancellous bone screws inserted bilaterally through the pedicles of the lower vertebra into the body of the upper slipped vertebra. Since 1998 we have been using this technique according to the authors' indications: symptomatic spondylolisthesis with at least 25% anterior slippage and advanced disc degeneration. Afterwards this technique was used also in spondylolisthesis with low reduction of the disc height and slippage less than 25%. In every case we performed postero-lateral fusion and fixation with two AO 6.5 Ø thread 16 mm cancellous screws. From 1998 to 2002 we performed 62 fusions for spondylolisthesis with this technique: 28 males (45.16%) and 34 females (54.84%), mean age 45 years (14-72 years). The slipped vertebra was L5 in 57 cases (92%), L4 in 2 cases (3.2%), L3 in 1 case (1.6%), combined L4 and L5 in 2 cases (3.2%). In all cases there was an ontogenetic spondylolisthesis with lysis. Lumbar pain was present in 22 patients and lumbar-radicular pain was present in 40 patients. The mean preoperative VAS was 6.2 (range 5-8) for lumbar pain, and 5.5 (range 4-7) for leg pain. The fusion area was L5-S1 in 53 cases (85.5%), L3-L4 in 1 case (1.6%), L4-S1 in 8 cases (12.9%). A decompression of the spinal canal by laminectomy was performed in 33 procedures (53%). When possible a bone graft was done from the removed neural arc, and from the posterior iliac crest in the other cases. The mean blood loss was about 254 ml (100-1,000). The mean operative time was 75 min (range 60-90). The results obtained by computerized analysis at follow-up at least 5 years after surgery showed a significant improvement in preoperative symptoms. The patients were asymptomatic in 52 cases (83.9%); strained-back pain was present in 8 cases (12.9%), and there was persistent lumbar-radicular pain in 2 cases (3.2%). The mean ODI score was 2.6%, the mean VAS back pain was 1.3, the mean VAS leg pain 0.7. Some complications were observed: a nerve root compression by a screw invasion of intervertebral foramen, resolved by screw removal; an iliac artery compression by a lateral exit screw from pediculo, resolved by screw removal; a deep iliac vein phlebitis with thrombosis caused by external compression due to a wrong intraoperative position, treated by medicine. Two cases of synthesis mobilization and two cases of broken screws was detected. No cases of pseudoarthrosis and immediate or late superficial or deep infection were observed. The analysis of the long-term results of the spondylolisthesis surgical treatment with direct pediculo-body screw fixation and postero-lateral fusion gave a very satisfactory response. The technique is reliable in allowing an optimal primary stability, creating the best biomechanical conditions to obtain a solid fusion. PMID:19444490

  16. Electron Microscopy of Cat Spinal Cord Subject to Circulatory Arrest and Deep Local Hypothermia (15 C)

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Jonathan; Gonatas, Nicholas K.

    1973-01-01

    Circulatory arrest to the lumbar spinal cord of adult cat was produced by occlusion of the descending aorta and concurrent arterial hypotension. Local hypothermia of the cord was induced by paraffin oil at 5 C, which was circulated over the exposed surface of the cord, using the laminectomy wound as a trough. Intramedullary temperature was 15 C at a depth of 5 mm. In 10 control animals oil at 37 or 5 C was circulated over the exposed cords (normal-normothermic and normal-hypothermic controls with 1 and 2 hours hypothermia). Three animals had circulatory arrest and recirculation in normothermia (ischemic-normothermic) and 3 in hypothermia (ischemic-simultaneous hypothermia). Three had circulatory arrest and 15 minutes of recirculation in normothermia followed by 1 hour of hypothermia (ischemic-delayed hypothermia). The medial and lateral portions of the anterior gray horns of the last lumbar spinal segment were studied in the light and electron microscopes. Ischemic-normothermic tissue showed 20% shrinkage in mean areas of neuronal perikarya and massive “watery” swelling of astrocytic cell bodies and processes. Within neuronal perikarya and dendrites, cytoplasm increased in electron density, ribosomes dispersed, Golgi apparatus swelled and mitochondria swelled with loss of matrix density and disruption of cristae. Axons and axon terminals did not increase in size, but mitochondria within these structures doubled in size without loss of matrix density or change in pattern of cristae. Synaptic vesicles were no longer uniform in size, and they were clumped away from the synaptic cleft and diminished in number. Lysosomes were unchanged in appearance and size. Mitochondria of astrocytes underwent approximately fourfold enlargement without loss of matrix density or pattern of cristae. Bundles of astrocytic microfilaments were fragmented, spread apart and diminished in quantity. Oligodendroglia and endothelial cells were unchanged. Normal-hypothermic animals were similar to normal-normothermic except for clefts in rough endoplasmic reticulum of neurons and dendrites. These clefts were formed by a separation of the cisternal membrane from the adjacent row of ribosomal rosettes. Ischemic-simultaneous hypothermia animals had findings identical to normal-hypothermic animals. Ischemic-delayed hypothermia animals were similar to ischemic-normothermic animals except for less swelling of astrocytic processes, greater swelling of astrocytic mitochondria and less alteration of microfilaments. The findings show that ischemia in normothermia brings about alterations in virtually every organelle of the neurronal perikaryon except the lysosome. Simultaneous hypothermia in ischemia prevents the protean alterations of ischemia, whereas hypothermia delayed until after the ischemic episode only slightly modifies the cellular lesions found in ischemic-normothermic animals. ImagesFig 18Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 13Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:4728889

  17. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P., E-mail: jkirk@radonc.duke.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Physics, City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Dose-volume data for myelopathy in humans treated with radiotherapy (RT) to the spine is reviewed, along with pertinent preclinical data. Using conventional fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy/fraction to the full-thickness cord, the estimated risk of myelopathy is <1% and <10% at 54 Gy and 61 Gy, respectively, with a calculated strong dependence on dose/fraction (alpha/beta = 0.87 Gy.) Reirradiation data in animals and humans suggest partial repair of RT-induced subclinical damage becoming evident about 6 months post-RT and increasing over the next 2 years. Reports of myelopathy from stereotactic radiosurgery to spinal lesions appear rare (<1%) when the maximum spinal cord dose is limited to the equivalent of 13 Gy in a single fraction or 20 Gy in three fractions. However, long-term data are insufficient to calculate a dose-volume relationship for myelopathy when the partial cord is treated with a hypofractionated regimen.

  18. Solitary sclerosis: Progressive neurological deficit from a spatially isolated demyelinating lesion: A further report.

    PubMed

    Rathnasabapathi, Devipriya; Elsone, Liene; Krishnan, Anita; Young, Carolyn; Larner, Andrew; Jacob, Anu

    2015-07-01

    Context Progressive myelopathy can be a manifestation of a variety of disorders including progressive multiple sclerosis. However it is extremely uncommon for a single lesion to cause a progressive myelopathy in MS. Such a myelopathy, i.e. a progressive neurological deficit from a solitary demyelinating lesion, not fulfilling the International diagnostic criteria for MS or Neuromyelitis Optica was first reported in 2012 and termed 'solitary sclerosis'. Method We report 3 further cases of progressive myelopathy fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for solitary sclerosis. Findings Two patients had a single demyelinating lesion in the cervical cord and the third patient had it in the brain stem. All patients had serial MRI scans showing no dissemination or progression of lesions. Extensive diagnostic tests including aquaporin 4 antibodies were negative in all. At last follow-up at a median of 3.8 years, all patients continued to clinically progress despite immunosuppressive treatment. Conclusion/Clinical Relevance Solitary demyelinating lesions can cause a progressive myelopathy without clinical or radiological evidence of dissemination. Importantly, clinicians, both surgical and medical should be aware of such a diagnosis, to avoid invasive and often harmful tests particularly biopsies. PMID:25615515

  19. Paraparesis, hypermanganesaemia, and polycythaemia: a novel presentation of cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gospe, S; Caruso, R; Clegg, M; Keen, C; Pimstone, N; Ducore, J; Gettner, S; Kreutzer, R

    2000-01-01

    Progressive myelopathy is a rare complication of chronic hepatic disease which has never been reported in the paediatric age group. We describe the 11 year course of an adolescent male with hepatic myelopathy caused by cryptogenic micronodular cirrhosis. His condition has been associated with persistent polycythaemia and extraordinary increases of whole blood manganese, with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of manganese deposition within the basal ganglia and other regions of the brain. The patient has developed neither liver failure nor parkinsonism. The pathophysiological bases of this multiorgan system disorder are described.?? PMID:11040156

  20. Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Lin; Chen, Chi-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Hirayama disease (juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity) is a cervical myelopathy. Predominantly affecting male adolescents, it is characterized by progressive muscular weakness and atrophy of distal upper limbs, followed by spontaneous arrest within several years. Although the cause of cervical myelopathy remains unclear, neuropathologic and neuroradiologic findings suggest a forward displacement of the posterior cervical dural sac during neck flexion, causing compression of the cervical cord, and results in atrophic and ischemic changes in the anterior horn. A good understanding of Hirayama disease is essential because early recognition and management can effectively halt the progressive deterioration. PMID:22032508

  1. A simplified algorithm for diagnosis of spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Dhiraj; Chandra, Tushar; Bajaj, Manish; Sonowal, Purabi; Klein, Andrew; Maheshwari, Mohit; Guleria, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging is indispensable for evaluation of Myelopathy not only for localization but also for etiologic determination. MRI is the preferred examination for further characterization of the majority of these conditions. These include traumatic, inflammatory, infections, compressive and neoplastic conditions. This article provides an overview of a variety of pathologies that afflict the spinal cord in an easy to understand format. Their respective imaging manifestations on MRI and differential diagnoses are focused in this review. Early diagnosis and treatment of Myelopathy is critical in preventing or arresting neurological morbidity. PMID:25801464

  2. Intramedullary spinal epidermoid presenting after thoracic meningocele repair: case report.

    PubMed

    Grobelny, Bartosz T; Weiner, Howard L; Harter, David H

    2015-06-01

    A 4-year-old girl with a history of thoracic meningocele repair at the age of 3 months presented with progressive myelopathy. An intramedullary thoracic epidermoid was identified on MRI. The patient underwent excision of the epidermoid and subsequently returned to neurological baseline. This case illustrates the potential for delayed development of intraspinal epidermoid after initial repair of a simple meningocele. PMID:25815631

  3. Atlantooccipital fusion and ataxia in the calf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JS Boyd; PE McNeil

    1987-01-01

    Atlanto-occipital fusion is a rare bony anomaly due to the failure of the developing arches of the first cervical vertebra to separate from the occiput. It may be associated with compressive myelopathy and must therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of ataxia in the young animal. This report reviews the embryological development of the region and reports the findings

  4. Pannus resolution after occipitocervical fusion in a non-rheumatoid atlanto-axial instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Lagares; Iñaki Arrese; Beatriz Pascual; Pedro A. Gòmez; Ana Ramos; Ramiro D. Lobato

    2006-01-01

    Periodontoid pseudotumor or pannus is considered to be an inflammatory mass most frequently associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Transoral resection of the pannus has been the treatment of choice for patients with associated myelopathy, followed in many instances by posterior stabilization. However, some authors have reported resolution of pannus associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of chronic atlanto-axial instability only

  5. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Schultheiss; L. E. Kun; K. K. Ang; L. C. Stephens

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathognomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits

  6. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mimicking late CNS relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Kumar; Shobha Nijalingappa; John Grainger; Omar Ismayl

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute encephalomyelopathy occurring after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant for leukaemia is a diagnostic emergency. The diagnosis can be challenging since there is a wide set of alternative diagnoses, including opportunistic infections and relapse of the leukaemia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year old girl presented with a severe acute myelopathy and encephalopathy. She was in prolonged remission from a central

  7. Hirayama Disease: MR Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Jen Chen; Chiung-Mei Chen; Chia-Lun Wu; Long-Sun Ro; Sien-Tsong Chen; Tsong-Hai Lee

    Summary: We report the MR findings in two cases of Hirayama disease, a kind of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. In flexion MR studies, we can see the striking and pathognomonic picture of anterior shifting of posterior dura at the lower cervical spinal canal. In nonflexion studies, we find that asymmetric cord atro- phy, especially at

  8. Longitudinal length of the spinal cord after cervical laminoplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Yokoyama; Kazumasa Ueyama; Akihiro Okada; Takashi Tomita

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of study: In cases of cervical myelopathy, the relationship between surgical outcome after laminoplasty and the sagittal alignment is controversial. In our cases with OPLL of unexpected poor surgical outcome, we often found a straight, tense spinal cord on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI). So we tried to measure a longitudinal length of the cervical spinal cord (LSC) as

  9. Contribution of disc degeneration to osteophyte formation in the cervical spine: a biomechanical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Dennis J. Maiman; Vijay K. Goel

    2001-01-01

    Cervical spine disorders such as spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy are often related to osteophyte formation. Bone remodeling experimental–analytical studies have correlated biomechanical responses such as stress and strain energy density to the formation of bony outgrowth. Using these responses of the spinal components, the present study was conducted to investigate the basis for the occurrence of disc-related pathological conditions. An

  10. Neuromyelitis optica following CMV primo-infection.

    PubMed

    Tran, C; Du Pasquier, R A; Cavassini, M; Guex-Crosier, Y; Meuli, R; Ciuffreda, D; Waeber, G

    2007-05-01

    We report the case of an acute optic neuromyelitis with rhabdomyolysis in a 34-year-old immunocompetent transsexual patient following a recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The combination of optic neuropathy and myelopathy is recognized as Devic's syndrome. Clinical presentation was unusual as the recent CMV infection induced rhabdomyolysis and was the suspected trigger of neuromyelitis. PMID:17444889

  11. Spinal Cord Injuries without Radiographic Abnormality at Two Pediatric Trauma Centers in Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Trigylidas; S. J. Yuh; M. Vassilyadi; M. A. Matzinger; A. Mikrogianakis

    2010-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) represents a traumatic myelopathy, either transient or permanent, that is not associated with visible vertebral fractures or ligamentous abnormalities on plain radiographs or CT. MRI has become essential in the diagnosis and evaluation of trauma patients and in predicting the long-term neurological outcome. Methods: The medical charts of 578 children with vertebral

  12. Clinical characterization of neuroschistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni and its treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa C. A. Ferrari; Paulo R. R. Moreira; Aloísio S. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by Schistosoma mansoni may or may not cause clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis mansoni (NSM) is one of the most severe presentations of this infection. The neurological manifestations are due to numerous granulomas grouped in confined areas of the spinal cord or the brain. Considering the symptomatic form, myelopathy is far more

  13. Thoracic spondylosis presenting with spastic paraparesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Chana; F. Afshar

    1996-01-01

    Spondylotic change of the spine is common in the cervical and lumbar regions and may present with compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Myelopathy due to degenerative disease in the thoracic spine is exceptional. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature and these reports have described disease in the lower four thoracic segments. We report

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: frequent complications by cervical spondylosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahito Yamada; Yutaka Furukawa; Mie Hirohata

    2003-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is associated with myelopathy and radiculopathy, which sometimes mimic clinical manifestations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Cervical spondylosis may coexist with ALS because both diseases preferentially affect individuals of middle or old age. We investigated 63 patients with ALS to clarify the complications of cervical spondylosis and

  15. Spinal Cord Tolerance for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Wong Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Fowler, Jack [Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric data are reported for five cases of radiation-induced myelopathy after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to spinal tumors. Analysis per the biologically effective dose (BED) model was performed. Methods and Materials: Five patients with radiation myelopathy were compared to a subset of 19 patients with no radiation myelopathy post-SBRT. In all patients, the thecal sac was contoured to represent the spinal cord, and doses to the maximum point, 0.1-, 1-, 2-, and 5-cc volumes, were analyzed. The mean normalized 2-Gy-equivalent BEDs (nBEDs), calculated using an alpha/beta value of 2 for late toxicity with units Gy 2/2, were compared using the t test and analysis of variance test. Results: Radiation myelopathy was observed at the maximum point with doses of 25.6 Gy in two fractions, 30.9 Gy in three fractions, and 14.8, 13.1, and 10.6 Gy in one fraction. Overall, there was a significant interaction between patient subsets and volume based on the nBED (p = 0.0003). Given individual volumes, a significant difference was observed for the mean maximum point nBED (p = 0.01). Conclusions: The maximum point dose should be respected for spine SBRT. For single-fraction SBRT 10 Gy to a maximum point is safe, and up to five fractions an nBED of 30 to 35 Gy 2/2 to the thecal sac also poses a low risk of radiation myelopathy.

  16. Unusual case of tetraparesis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ishchenko, A; Malghem, J; Banse, X; Houssiau, F A

    2015-06-01

    We describe the case of a 67-year-old Asian female patient suffering from severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis, since the age of 40 who was admitted for tetraparesis. Neurological examination confirmed proximal muscular weakness, hypoesthesia and diminished tendon reflexes. The patient suffered from extremely severe Jaccoud's arthropathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated severe narrowing of the upper spinal canal due to a soft tissue mass surrounding the odontoid process, assumed to be a synovial pannus, causing myelopathy. The patient was treated with three intravenous pulses of methylprednisolone with prompt and full clinical recovery. Follow-up MRI confirmed considerable regression of the pannus. Inflammatory transverse myelopathy is the most common explanation for para/tetraparesis in SLE. However, in this case, the symptoms were caused by atlantoaxial synovitis, which is more typical for rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25631855

  17. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan; Poll-The, Bwee-Tien

    2014-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a puzzling inborn error of metabolism with a strikingly heterogeneous clinical spectrum. All patients have mutations in the ABCD1 gene and accumulate very long chain fatty acids in all tissues. Virtually all male X-ALD patients develop adrenocortical insufficiency in childhood and progressive myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy in adulthood. A subset of male patients, however, develops a fatal cerebral demyelinating disease, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Female patients also develop progressive myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy, but generally at a later age than males. They only very rarely develop adrenocortical insufficiency or cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. This review proposes to simplify the classification of the clinical spectrum of X-ALD and reviews the largely unresolved pathophysiological mechanisms and the current treatment options. PMID:25115486

  18. Surgical treatment of myeloradiculopathy in cervical spondylosis. A report on 438 operations.

    PubMed

    Samii, M; Völkening, D; Sepehrnia, A; Penkert, G; Baumann, H

    1989-01-01

    In the past eleven years we have performed 438 microsurgical ventral discectomies with bilateral foraminotomy followed by fusion with palacos in the cervical spine in our clinic. An analysis of the preoperative symptoms shows a great variability and overlapping of the various segments. To determine the right level for the operation it is crucial that the results of the clinical and the radiological examinations be evaluated. The results of ascending myelography and CT scans are of great value. In cases of cervical myelopathy a multisegmental operation is often necessary to obtain good results. The complication rate was small in our patients and a second operation was only necessary in a few cases. We had very good postoperative results in radicular pain and muscle weakness. In patients with symptoms of cervical myelopathy we achieved considerable improvement. PMID:2594204

  19. Kinaesthetic ipsilateral and crossed extensor plantar response: A new way to elicit upgoing toe sign (Babinski response)?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Abraham; Wattamwar, Pandurang R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a phenomenon of “kinaesthetic extensor plantar response” in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, an interesting observation noted in a patient with dorsal myelopathy. A 44-year-old woman presented with one-year history of gradually progressive weakness and stiffness of both lower limbs along with urge incontinence of urine. Examination showed spontaneous elicitation of extensor plantar response while assessing the tone by rolling method as well as on noxious stimulation of the thigh. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dorsal spine and digital subtraction angiography showed the presence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula causing myelopathy. This case exemplifies the fact that in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, not only the receptive field of Babinski reflex may extend to the leg or thigh, but may also integrate with other modalities of stimulation, such as the rolling movement. The possible underlying pathophysiology of such a phenomenon is discussed. PMID:22028534

  20. Echols’ Procedure for Treating Syringomyelia: Case Report and Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew M.; Cracium, Liviu; Heiss, John D.

    2009-01-01

    A 9 year-old girl with syringomyelia and scoliosis was treated with Echols’ procedure, a surgical technique that employs a metal stent to maintain drainage of fluid from the syrinx into the subarachnoid space. The patient presented to our institution 34 years later with a history of progressive myelopathy and surgically-treated deformities of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and right foot. Computer-assisted myelography indicated that the metal wire remained in place and that the syrinx had collapsed. Neurological examination and neurophysiological testing confirmed the presence of thoracic myelopathy, which may be due to the wire tethering the thoracic spinal cord to the dorsal dura. This is believed to be the sole long-term report of the effects of Echols’ procedure. The history of direct treatment of syringomyelia is reviewed and is contrasted with indirect treatment of syringomyelia, which relieves the condition by opening obstructed CSF pathways within the foramen magnum or spine. PMID:19119937

  1. The worm that turned.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, C A; Jardine, D L; Hurrell, M A; Pithie, A D

    2009-10-01

    When a patient presents with acute myelopathy in the developed world, helminthic infection is not routinely considered in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 34-year-old South African male who presented with acute urinary retention and lower leg paraesthesiae. Subsequently, myeloradiculopathy secondary to Schistosoma mansoni was diagnosed on the basis of typical magnetic resonance imaging changes in the conus medullaris and positive stool microscopy. Prior to this presentation the patient had lived in urban western South Africa and more recently in New Zealand, without exposure to infected water for 22 years. His symptoms and signs resolved following treatment with praziquantel and methylprednisolone. Spinal schistosomiasis is a rare but serious cause of myelopathy and should be considered in any patient who has ever visited or lived in an endemic area. PMID:19539339

  2. Retroviral proteins that target the major histocompatibility complex class I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M Johnson; Genoveffa Franchini

    2002-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) retroviruses are two evolutionary distinct human pathogens. HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of two diverse diseases: adult T-cell leukemia\\/lymphoma, as well as the neurologic disorder tropical spastic paraparesis\\/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. HTLV-1 is the only retrovirus known to be the etiologic agent of human cancer. HTLV-2, the

  3. Interactions between Brain Endothelial Cells and Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1Infected Lymphocytes: Mechanisms of Viral Entry into the Central Nervous System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IGNACIO A. ROMERO; MARIE-CHRISTINE PREVOST; EMMANUELLE PERRET; PETER ADAMSON; JOHN GREENWOOD; PIERRE-OLIVIER COURAUD; SIMONA OZDEN

    2000-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with a variety of clinical manifestations, including tropical spastic paraparesis or HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP\\/HAM). Viral detection in the central nervous system (CNS) of TSP\\/HAM patients demonstrates the ability of HTLV-1 to cross the blood- brain barrier (BBB). To investigate viral entry into the CNS, rat brain capillary endothelial cells were exposed

  4. Hypertrophied Cauda Equina Presenting As Intradural Mass: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hahn; Alan Hirschfeld; Howard Sander

    1998-01-01

    BackgroundHereditary motor and sensory neuropathy types I and III usually lead to enlargement of peripheral nerves. Rarely, spinal nerve roots may also be involved, leading to radiculopathy and\\/or myelopathy.MethodsThis 44-year-old man with back and lower extremity radicular pain and distal lower extremity weakness and numbness was found to have a nonenhancing intradural mass that caused a nearly complete myelographic block

  5. Astrocyte-Specific Expression of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV1) Tax: Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Susceptibility to Lysis by CD8 1 HTLV1- Specific Cytotoxic T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDUARDO MENDEZ; TAKETO KAWANISHI; KAREN CLEMENS; HARUHIKO SIOMI; SAMANTHA S. SOLDAN; PETER CALABRESI; JOHN BRADY; STEVEN JACOBSON

    1997-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with a chronic neurological disease termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraperesis (HAM\\/TSP). Although the pathogenesis of this disease remains to be elucidated, the evidence suggests that immunopathological mechanisms are involved. Since HTLV-1 tax mRNA was colocalized with glial acidic flibrillary protein, a marker for astrocytes, we developed an in vitro model to

  6. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N; Wisner, Erik R; Prutton, Jamie W; Madigan, John E

    2014-11-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  7. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N.; Wisner, Erik R.; Prutton, Jamie W.; Madigan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  8. De novo “Classic” Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) (Marchiafava-Micheli Syndrome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Pleyer; Richard Greil

    \\u000a PNH, although a benign clonal stem cell myelopathy, is included in the myeloproliferative disorders by some [1]. PNH is mainly a disease of adults, but can be present in adolescence or childhood on rare occasions [2]. Overall both genders are affected in approximately equivalent numbers. However, some Asian studies report a strong male\\u000a preponderance [3]. The median age at diagnosis

  9. [Traumatic recurrence of idiopathic spinal cord herniation].

    PubMed

    Lorente-Muñoz, Asís; Cortés-Franco, Severiano; Moles-Herbera, Jesús; Casado-Pellejero, Juan; Rivero-Celada, David; Alberdi-Viñas, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy and its recurrence is even more infrequent. Cord herniation is through an anterior dural defect in thoracic spine with unknown causes. Symptomatic cases must be surgically treated to reduce the hernia and seal the defect to prevent recurrences. We report a patient presenting a Brown-Séquard syndrome secondary to a D5 spinal cord herniation treated successfully and its posterior traumatic recurrence. PMID:23453309

  10. The Radiation Dose-Response of the Human Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States)], E-mail: schultheiss@coh.org

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To characterize the radiation dose-response of the human spinal cord. Methods and Materials: Because no single institution has sufficient data to establish a dose-response function for the human spinal cord, published reports were combined. Requisite data were dose and fractionation, number of patients at risk, number of myelopathy cases, and survival experience of the population. Eight data points for cervical myelopathy were obtained from five reports. Using maximum likelihood estimation correcting for the survival experience of the population, estimates were obtained for the median tolerance dose, slope parameter, and {alpha}/{beta} ratio in a logistic dose-response function. An adequate fit to thoracic data was not possible. Hyperbaric oxygen treatments involving the cervical cord were also analyzed. Results: The estimate of the median tolerance dose (cervical cord) was 69.4 Gy (95% confidence interval, 66.4-72.6). The {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy. At 45 Gy, the (extrapolated) probability of myelopathy is 0.03%; and at 50 Gy, 0.2%. The dose for a 5% myelopathy rate is 59.3 Gy. Graphical analysis indicates that the sensitivity of the thoracic cord is less than that of the cervical cord. There appears to be a sensitizing effect from hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusions: The estimate of {alpha}/{beta} is smaller than usually quoted, but values this small were found in some studies. Using {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy, one would expect a considerable advantage by decreasing the dose/fraction to less than 2 Gy. These results were obtained from only single fractions/day and should not be applied uncritically to hyperfractionation.

  11. Constitutively Activated Jak-STAT Pathway in T Cells Transformed with HTLV-I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thi-Sau Migone; Jian-Xin Lin; Anna Cereseto; James C. Mulloy; John J. O'Shea; Genoveffa Franchini; Warren J. Leonard

    1995-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I) is the etiological agent for adult T cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis (also termed HTLV-I-associated myelopathy). HTLV-I-infected peripheral blood T cells exhibit an initial phase of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent growth; over time, by an unknown mechanism, the cells become IL-2-independent. Whereas the Jak kinases Jak1 and Jak3 and the signal transducer and activator

  12. Multimodal Therapy for Localized Spinal Epidural Follicular Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Kahl; Carsten Hirt; Susanne Decker; Dietrich Gläser; Sebastian Rohde; Kirsten Jost; Inken Hilgendorf; Eva Respondek-Dryba; Malte Leithäuser; Christian Junghanss; Mathias Freund

    2010-01-01

    SummaryBackground: Myelopathy due to epidural spinal cord compression is rare in patients with malignant lymphoma and most of these patients are diagnosed with high-grade lymphoma. An epidural growth of low-grade lymphoma is even more unusual. Due to this low incidence, therapeutic experience for this entity is limited. Patients and Methods: We report the outcome of 3 consecutive patients with primary

  13. Symptomatic epidural lipomatosis of the spinal cord in a child: MR demonstration of spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Muñoz; James A. Barkovich; Fernando Mateos; Rogelio Simón

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in an 8-year-old girl with Cushing's syndrome secondary to longstanding high-dose steroid therapy for Crohn's disease. MR imaging of the spine revealed massive diffuse epidural fat compressing the entire spinal cord with T2 prolongation in the central gray matter of the cord suggesting ischemic myelopathy. This finding has not been previously demonstrated

  14. The effect of muscle-tone-reducing procedures in athetotic head movements: partial nerve block by lidocaine and surgical release of the neck muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Saiki; N Tsuzuki; R Tanaka

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of muscle-tone-reducing procedures (MTRPs), i.e. partial nerve block by lidocaine (PNB) and surgical release of muscle attachment to bone (SRMAB), on incessant involuntary head movements in athetotic patients.Methods: Pre\\/post-MTRP changes in neck-muscle activities, glabella movement and maximum isometric forces of the head were measured in six athetotic patients with severe spondylotic myelopathy resulting from incessant

  15. [Imaging diagnosis of cervical spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Song, Z Q

    1989-04-01

    Myodil-myelographic manifestations of 60 cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy were analyzed. For better understanding the biomechanical disturbances of cervical spondylosis, CT scans of 26 cases of this disease were also investigated. Myelography and/or CT were considered necessary if surgical procedure was to be undertaken with anterior approach. Myodil myelography or CT could fulfill the diagnostic requirements for surgery if Non-ionic water-soluble contrast media or other new techniques were not available. PMID:2758936

  16. Propriospinal Myoclonus Induced by a Herniated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc at a Young Age: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwan Su; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

    2011-01-01

    The cause of propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) is idiopathic. Cervical trauma, ischemic myelopathy secondary to a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, syringomyelia, Lyme neuroborreliosis, human immunodeficiency virus central nervous system infection, and cervical disc herniation can be the cause of PSM, but lumbar herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) induced PSM has not been reported. We describe a patient who presented with PSM induced by HIVD and was treated with an epidural steroid injection using a transforaminal approach.

  17. Brain necrosis after fractionated radiation therapy: Is the halftime for repair longer than we thought?

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Edward T. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To derive a radiobiological model that enables the estimation of brain necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy rates for a variety of fractionation schemes, and to compare repair effects between brain and spinal cord. Methods: Sigmoidal dose response relationships for brain radiation necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy are derived from clinical data using nonlinear regression. Three different repair models are considered and the repair halftimes are included as regression parameters. Results: For radiation necrosis, a repair halftime of 38.1 (range 6.9-76) h is found with monoexponential repair, while for spinal cord myelopathy, a repair halftime of 4.1 (range 0-8) h is found. The best-fit alpha beta ratio is 0.96 (range 0.24-1.73)Conclusions: A radiobiological model that includes repair corrections can describe the clinical data for a variety of fraction sizes, fractionation schedules, and total doses. Modeling suggests a relatively long repair halftime for brain necrosis. This study suggests that the repair halftime for late radiation effects in the brain may be longer than is currently thought. If confirmed in future studies, this may lead to a re-evaluation of radiation fractionation schedules for some CNS diseases, particularly for those diseases where fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is used.

  18. Value of Prominent Flow Voids without Cord Edema in the Detection of Spinal Arteriovenous Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Alhilali, Lea M.; Reynolds, Arich R.; Fakhran, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (SDAVF) in patients presenting with prominent vascular flow voids on imaging without other imaging findings suggestive of SDAVF. Methods We retrospectively identified patients from January 1, 2005 to March 1, 2012 who underwent spinal angiography for suspected SDAVF with prominent vascular flow voids on prior imaging. We excluded patients with other major spinal pathology or other imaging findings of SDAVF including cord hyperintensity, enhancement, or expansion. We calculated the proportion of patients with positive findings for SDAVF on angiography and evaluated the prevalence of SDAVF for this finding alone and in correlation with clinical findings. Results 18 patients underwent spinal angiography for prominent flow voids on imaging without other spinal pathology or imaging findings of SDAVF. Three had a SDAVF detected on angiography. The prevalence of SDAVF in this population was low, only 17% (95% CI 6-39%). All of the patients with positive angiography findings had myelopathy, increasing the prevalence to 100% if the additional clinical finding of myelopathy was present. Conclusions Prominent flow voids without other imaging findings suggestive of SDAVF is poorly predictive of the presence of a SDAVF, unless myelopathy is present clinically. PMID:24905497

  19. Neurological complications of Schistosoma infection.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2008-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Currently more than 200 million people worldwide are affected. Neuroschistosomiasis constitutes a severe presentation of the disease. Neurological symptoms result from the inflammatory response of the host to egg deposition in the brain and spinal cord. Neurological complications of cerebral schistosomiasis include delirium, loss of consciousness, seizures, dysphasia, visual field impairment, focal motor deficits and ataxia. Cerebral and cerebellar tumour-like neuroschistosomiasis can present with increased intracranial pressure, headache, nausea and vomiting, and seizures. Myelopathy (acute transverse myelitis and subacute myeloradiculopathy) is the most common neurological complication of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Schistosomal myelopathy tends to occur early after infection and is more likely to be symptomatic than cerebral schistosomiasis. The conus medullaris and cauda equina are the most common sites of involvement. Severe schistosomal myelopathy can provoke a complete flaccid paraplegia with areflexia, sphincter dysfunction and sensory disturbances. Schistosomicidal drugs, steroids and surgery are the currently available treatments for neuroschistosomiasis. Rehabilitation and multidisciplinary team care are needed in severely disabled patients. PMID:17905371

  20. Clinical application of a new plate fixation system in open-door laminoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liangjun; Chen, Weishan; Chen, Qixin; Xu, Kan; Wu, Qionghua; Li, Fangcai

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective clinical series was to evaluate the benefits and complications of plate fixation for open-door laminoplasty in cervical spondylotic myelopathy with multilevel spinal stenosis compared with open-door laminoplasty without fixation. Forty-nine patients underwent open-door laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy with multilevel spinal stenosis with at least 13 months of follow-up. A plate was used as the sole method of fixation between the lateral mass and lamina with 3 screws. Computed tomography scans obtained pre- and postoperatively were assessed for plate complications and spinal canal enlargement. Pre- and postoperative neurological condition was assessed by the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) myelopathy score. Overall cervical spine range of motion (ROM) was measured in full flexion and extension radiographs pre- and postoperatively. No restenosis due to door reclosure was noted, and no plates failed. No screws were backed out or broken. Almost all patients showed neurological improvement. The JOA score increased by 3.9±0.7 points in the suture group and 4.3±0.8 points in the plate group (P>.05). The postoperative increase in mean anteroposterior diameter of the spinal canal from C3 to C7 was 4.5±0.6 mm in the suture group and 5.1±0.5 mm in the plate group. The greater mean anteroposterior diameter increase in the plate group was statistically significant (P<.01). The mean cervical ROM decreased in the plate and suture groups postoperatively (P<.001). No significant difference was found in mean cervical ROM reduction between the groups (P>.05). No difference in axial symptoms was found between the 2 groups. PMID:22310411

  1. Does walking change the Romberg sign?

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Gordon F. G.; Trivedi, Jayesh M.; Jaffray, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The Romberg sign helps demonstrate loss of postural control as a result of severely compromised proprioception. There is still no standard approach to applying the Romberg test in clinical neurology and the criteria for and interpretation of an abnormal result continue to be debated. The value of this sign and its adaptation when walking was evaluated. Detailed clinical examination of 50 consecutive patients of cervical myelopathy was performed prospectively. For the walking Romberg sign, patients were asked to walk 5 m with their eyes open. This was repeated with their eyes closed. Swaying, feeling of instability or inability to complete the walk with eyes closed was interpreted as a positive walking Romberg sign. This test was compared to common clinical signs to evaluate its relevance. Whilst the Hoffman’s reflex (79%) was the most prevalent sign seen, the walking Romberg sign was actually present in 74.5% of the cases. The traditional Romberg test was positive in 17 cases and 16 of these had the walking Romberg positive as well. Another 21 patients had a positive walking Romberg test. Though not statistically significant, the mean 30 m walking times were slower in patients with traditional Romberg test than in those with positive walking Romberg test and fastest in those with neither of these tests positive. The combination of either Hoffman’s reflex and/or walking Romberg was positive in 96% of patients. The walking Romberg sign is more useful than the traditional Romberg test as it shows evidence of a proprioceptive gait deficit in significantly more patients with cervical myelopathy than is found on conventional neurological examination. The combination of Hoffman’s reflex and walking Romberg sign has a potential as useful screening tests to detect clinically significant cervical myelopathy. PMID:19387702

  2. From less to maximally invasiveness in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Visocchi, M.; Conforti, G.; Roselli, R.; La Rocca, G.; Spallone, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multilevel cervical myelopathy without surgical treatment is generally poor in the neurological deficit without surgical decompression. The two main surgical strategies used for the treatment of multilevel cervical myelopathy are anterior decompression via anterior corpectomy or posterior decompression via laminctomy/laminoplasty. Presentation of case We present the case of a 62 year-old lady, harboring rheumatoid artritis (RA) with gait disturbances, pain, and weakness in both arms. A C5 and C6 somatectomy, C4–C7 discectomy and, instrumentation and fusion with telescopic distractor “piston like”, anterior plate and expandable screws were performed. Two days later the patient complained dysfagia, and a cervical X-ray showed hardware dislocation. So a C4 somatectomy, telescopic extension of the construct up to C3 with expandible screws was performed. After one week the patient complained again soft dysfagia. New cervical X-ray showed the pull out of the cranial screws (C3). So the third surgery “one stage combined” an anterior decompression with fusion along with posterior instrumentation, and fusion was performed. Discussion There is a considerable controversy over which surgical approach will receive the best clinical outcome for the minimum cost in the compressive cervical myelopathy. However, the most important factors in patient selection for a particular procedure are the clinical symptoms and the radiographic alignment of the spine. the goals of surgery for cervical multilevel stenosis include the restoration of height, alignment, and stability. Conclusion We stress the importance of a careful patients selection, and invocated still the importance for 360° cervical fixation. PMID:25734320

  3. Cervical spondylosis with spinal cord encroachment: should preventive surgery be recommended?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Donald R; Coulis, Christopher M; Gerrard, Jonathan K

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been stated that individuals who have spondylotic encroachment on the cervical spinal cord without myelopathy are at increased risk of spinal cord injury if they experience minor trauma. Preventive decompression surgery has been recommended for these individuals. The purpose of this paper is to provide the non-surgical spine specialist with information upon which to base advice to patients. The evidence behind claims of increased risk is investigated as well as the evidence regarding the risk of decompression surgery. Methods A literature search was conducted on the risk of spinal cord injury in individuals with asymptomatic cord encroachment and the risk and benefit of preventive decompression surgery. Results Three studies on the risk of spinal cord injury in this population met the inclusion criteria. All reported increased risk. However, none were prospective cohort studies or case-control studies, so the designs did not allow firm conclusions to be drawn. A number of studies and reviews of the risks and benefits of decompression surgery in patients with cervical myelopathy were found, but no studies were found that addressed surgery in asymptomatic individuals thought to be at risk. The complications of decompression surgery range from transient hoarseness to spinal cord injury, with rates ranging from 0.3% to 60%. Conclusion There is insufficient evidence that individuals with spondylotic spinal cord encroachment are at increased risk of spinal cord injury from minor trauma. Prospective cohort or case-control studies are needed to assess this risk. There is no evidence that prophylactic decompression surgery is helpful in this patient population. Decompression surgery appears to be helpful in patients with cervical myelopathy, but the significant risks may outweigh the unknown benefit in asymptomatic individuals. Thus, broad recommendations for decompression surgery in suspected at-risk individuals cannot be made. Recommendations to individual patients must consider possible unique circumstances. PMID:19703280

  4. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases.

    PubMed

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms. PMID:24703344

  5. Treatment of superficial siderosis with iron chelation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Gemma; Crundwell, Gemma; Baguley, David; Lennox, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Superficial siderosis is caused by recurrent haemorrhage in the subarachnoid space leading to haemosiderin deposition. It typically causes the triad of ataxia, deafness and myelopathy. We report a patient who developed superficial siderosis following neurosurgery for syringomyelia and who had an improvement in his hearing and mobility following treatment with a new iron chelation therapy that can penetrate the blood–brain barrier. It provides an intriguing insight into a therapy that could potentially modify the course of this rare neurodegenerative disorder. Further studies are required to assess the clinical efficacy of deferiprone in superficial siderosis. PMID:23843408

  6. Direct Visualization of AntigenSpecific T Cells: HTLV1 Tax11-19Specific CD8+ T Cells are Activated in Peripheral Blood and Accumulate in Cerebrospinal Fluid from HAM\\/TSP Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim F. Greten; Jill E. Slansky; Ryuji Kubota; Samantha S. Soldan; Elizabeth M. Jaffee; Thomas P. Leist; Drew M. Pardoll; Steven Jacobson; Jonathan P. Schneck

    1998-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy\\/tropic spastic paraparesis is a demyelinating inflammatory neurologic disease associated with HTLV-1 infection. HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific cytotoxic T cells have been isolated from HLA-A2-positive patients. We have used a peptide-loaded soluble HLA-A2-Ig complex to directly visualize HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific T cells from peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid without in vitro stimulation. Five of six

  7. Intradural tumor and concomitant disc herniation of cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Bapat, Mihir R; Rathi, Prasanna; Pawar, Uday; Chaudhary, Kshitij

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare patient of a simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the cervical spinal cord due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. The intradural lesion was missed resulting in recurrence of myelopathy after a surprisingly complete functional recovery following anterior cervical discectomy. Retrospectively, it was noted that the initial cord swelling noticed was tumor being masked by the compression produced by the herniated disc. A contrast magnetic resonance imaging scan is important in differentiating intradural tumors of the spinal cord. A high index of suspicion is often successful in unmasking both the pathologies. PMID:21221228

  8. Intradural tumor and concomitant disc herniation of cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Mihir R; Rathi, Prasanna; Pawar, Uday; Chaudhary, Kshitij

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare patient of a simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the cervical spinal cord due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. The intradural lesion was missed resulting in recurrence of myelopathy after a surprisingly complete functional recovery following anterior cervical discectomy. Retrospectively, it was noted that the initial cord swelling noticed was tumor being masked by the compression produced by the herniated disc. A contrast magnetic resonance imaging scan is important in differentiating intradural tumors of the spinal cord. A high index of suspicion is often successful in unmasking both the pathologies. PMID:21221228

  9. Treatment of superficial siderosis with iron chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Gemma; Crundwell, Gemma; Baguley, David; Lennox, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Superficial siderosis is caused by recurrent haemorrhage in the subarachnoid space leading to haemosiderin deposition. It typically causes the triad of ataxia, deafness and myelopathy. We report a patient who developed superficial siderosis following neurosurgery for syringomyelia and who had an improvement in his hearing and mobility following treatment with a new iron chelation therapy that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. It provides an intriguing insight into a therapy that could potentially modify the course of this rare neurodegenerative disorder. Further studies are required to assess the clinical efficacy of deferiprone in superficial siderosis. PMID:23843408

  10. Unexpected death of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis complicated by a cervical deformity.

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Harada, Kazuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Ito, Takako; Okutsu, Kosuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2010-09-01

    An elderly female with a 43-year history of rheumatoid arthritis died 2weeks after the onset of chest discomfort, electrolyte disturbance, and interstitial pneumonia. She had frequent premature ventricular contractions, fluctuating heart rate, and hypotension. Ischemic heart disease and interstitial pneumonia were excluded as the cause of death based on clinical course and autopsy findings. A severe cervical deformity with myelopathy likely contributed to circulatory instability, possibly through injury to the intra-spinal sympathetic nervous system, which can induce cardiovascular instability and suppress respiratory function. This likely led to death. PMID:20634116

  11. Neuroschistosomiasis: clinical symptoms and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Teresa Cristina A; Moreira, Paulo Roberto R

    2011-09-01

    Neuroschistosomiasis, referring to schistosomal involvement of the CNS, when symptomatic, is a severe disorder in which prognosis depends largely on early diagnosis and treatment. It is an underdiagnosed disorder, but has been increasingly reported in populations in endemic areas and in tourists. CNS involvement can occur at any time during schistosomal infection. Both the brain and the spinal cord can be affected. Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium usually cause myelopathy, whereas Schistosoma japonicum usually causes encephalic disease. There are substantial differences in the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and outcome of the neurological disorder, depending on the phase and clinical form of schistosomiasis in which it occurs. PMID:21849166

  12. Combined Anterior Approach with Transcorporeal Herniotomy for a Huge Migrated Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yong; Lee, Choon Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-01-01

    The report describes the herniation of a huge migrated cervical disc, which was treated by a combined anterior approach. A 50-year-old man presented with radiculopathy and myelopathy. Radiological images revealed the herniation of a huge disc which had migrated superiorly from the C6-7 disc to the C5-6 disc. We tried to combine an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and transcorporeal herniotomy to avoid corpectomy. Postoperatively, successful clinical and radiological results were obtained. It is therefore possible to remove a huge migrated herniated cervical disc completely by a combined ACDF and trancorporeal approach without corpectomy.

  13. Boomerang deformity of cervical spinal cord migrating between split laminae after laminoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Gomibuchi, F; Shimoda, H; Ikezawa, Y; Segawa, H; Kaneko, F; Uchiyama, S; Homma, T

    2000-04-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy were studied to elucidate the mechanism underlying boomerang deformity, which results from the migration of the cervical spinal cord between split laminae after laminoplasty with median splitting of the spinous processes (boomerang sign). Thirty-nine cases, comprising 25 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 8 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and 6 patients with cervical disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis, were examined. The clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively compared between patients with (B group, 8 cases) and without (C group, 31 cases) boomerang sign. Moderate increase of the grade of this deformity resulted in no clinical recovery, although there was no difference in clinical recovery between the two groups. Most boomerang signs developed at the C4/5 and/or C5/6 level, where maximal posterior movement of the spinal cord was achieved. Widths between lateral hinges and between split laminae in the B group were smaller than in the C group. Flatness of the spinal cord in the B group was more severe than in the C group. In conclusion, the boomerang sign was caused by posterior movement of the spinal cord, narrower enlargement of the spinal canal and flatness of the spinal cord. PMID:10823431

  14. CD160 expression defines a uniquely exhausted subset of T lymphocytes in HTLV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Arima, Naomichi

    2014-10-24

    HTLV-1 infection is a life-long retroviral infection. Chronic viral antigenic stimulation induces persistent infection which results in a clinically asymptomatic carrier state. Only a minor proportion of infected individuals develop adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) or HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic myelopathy (HAM/TSP). This is dependent on a balance of host and genetic factors. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte function is important in the immune response against viral infection; however, the contribution of CD160 receptor associated with CD8+ T lymphocytes is unclear. Thus, we sought to decipher its role on CTL function in HTLV-1 infection. Here, we report high frequencies of CD160 on CD8+ T cells, with significantly higher levels on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. Intercepting the CD160 pathway via blockade of the receptor or its ligand, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) resulted in improved perforin production and CD107a degranulation of HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. Analysis of the CD160-expressing CD8+ cells demonstrated a unique subset associated with a highly differentiated effector memory based on CD45RA and CCR7 co-expression, increased expression of inhibitory molecules, 2B4 and PD1. Altogether, these results suggest a role for CD160/HVEM pathway in regulating immune response against HTLV-1 infection which may prove promising in the development of immune therapies for the treatment of HTLV-1 infection and other associated disorders. PMID:25277889

  15. Spinal Stenosis with Paraparesis in a Korean Boy with Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy: Identification of a Novel Nonsense Mutation in the GNAS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Heon; Mun, Seung Hyeon; Cho, Sung Yoon; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2015-05-01

    Children with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) suffering from spinal cord compression are rarely reported worldwide. The association of compressive myelopathy with AHO is not still well known. AHO is a rare heterogeneous group of inherited disorders and results from the GNAS mutation. AHO manifests in two different phenotypes, pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia) and pseudopsedohypoparthyroidim (PPHP), which may happen in the same family members. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with AHO features, who was later diagnosed with PHP-Ia. He suffered from cervical myelopathy with paraparesis due to spinal stenosis. His mother with AHO phenotype was diagnosed with PPHP without spinal stenosis. Genetic analysis revealed a novel heterozygous nonsense mutation within exon 1 of GNAS(c.49A>T; p.Lys17*) in both of them. This is the first clinically, biochemically, and genetically identified child case of spinal stenosis and paraparesis associated with PHP-Ia, having a novel GNAS mutation in Korea. PMID:26116601

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with interstitial implantation of 125I seeds in banna mini-pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although brachytherapy is one of the most effective ways to treat metastatic spinal tumor with little damage to surrounding healthy tissue, it may cause radiation myelopathy if an overdose occurs. Establishing a valuable animal model can help to find a method to overcome its complications. In the current study, we set up a banna mini-pig model to mimic percutaneous vertebroplasty with 125I seed implantation. Methods Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) combined with interstitial implantation of 125I seeds, 125I seeds were transplanted into the vertebral body at the T13 level of the spine in banna mini-pigs. After raising them for up to eight months, the spinal cord and vertebral body were collected for pathological analysis. Results A potential animal model had been successfully established, no case of radiation myelopathy was found in any of the treated banna pigs, and no significant cellular impairment was noted by pathological analysis. Conclusions It proves that PVP with 125I brachytherapy is an effective method to treat metastasis spinal tumor, and that the banna mini-pig can be a suitable model to investigate the mechanism of brachytherapy complications. PMID:23442259

  17. Update on Neurological Manifestations of HTLV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Abelardo Q-C

    2015-02-01

    The human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that infects 10-20 million persons around the world. Initially associated with the hematological malignancy adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), HTLV-1 is also the cause of a chronic progressive myelopathy named "HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis" (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP arises as the tip of the iceberg of an assortment of neurological syndromes triggered by the virus such as inflammatory myopathies, polyneuropathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndromes, dysautonomia, and cognitive impairment. HAM/TSP typifies a chronic progressive spastic paraparesis with neurogenic bladder and minimal sensory signs. The neuropathology of HAM/TSP is concentrated in the thoracic spinal cord and is typically biphasic. Initially, there is a perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and mild parenchymal mononuclear infiltrates. Subsequently, this is replaced by gliosis and scarring. The neuropathogenesis of HTLV-1 is still partially understood. At present, the therapy of HAM/TSP remains basically symptomatic. PMID:25787112

  18. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, José Roberto; Silva, Luciana Cristina dos Santos; do Amaral, Ronaldo Santos

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy is the most severe and disabling ectopic form of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The prevalence of SMR in centres in Brazil and Africa that specialise in attending patients with non traumatic myelopathy is around 5%. The initial signs and symptoms of the disease include lumbar and/or lower limb pain, paraparesis, urinary and intestinal dysfunctions, and impotence in men. The cerebrospinal fluid of SMR patients shows an increase in protein concentration and in the number of mononuclear cells in 90% of cases; eosinophils have been reported in 40%. The use of magnetic resonance imaging is particularly valuable in the diagnosis of Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy. The exclusion of other myelopathies and systemic diseases remains mandatory. Early diagnosis and treatment with steroids and schistosomicides provide a cure for most patients, whilst delayed treatment can result in irreversible physical disabilities or death. To improve awareness concerning Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy amongst public health professionals, and to facilitate the control of the disease, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has launched a program of education and control of this ectopic form of schistosomiasis. The present paper reviews current methods for the diagnosis of SMR and outlines protocols for treatment of the disease. PMID:17992416

  19. Clinical characterization of neuroschistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Teresa C A; Moreira, Paulo R R; Cunha, Aloísio S

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by Schistosoma mansoni may or may not cause clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis mansoni (NSM) is one of the most severe presentations of this infection. The neurological manifestations are due to numerous granulomas grouped in confined areas of the spinal cord or the brain. Considering the symptomatic form, myelopathy is far more frequent than the cerebral disease. Spinal cord NSM presents as a low cord syndrome of acute/subacute progression usually associated with involvement of the cauda esquina roots. Lower limbs pain, weakness and sensory disturbance, and autonomic dysfunctions, particularly bladder dysfunction, are often present. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination generally shows an inflammatory pattern with or without eosinophils and/or IgG against schistosomal antigens. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates signs of inflammatory myelopathy. Cerebral NSM presents as a slow-expanding intracranial tumor-like lesion. Its clinical manifestations are variable and depend on the increased intracranial pressure and on the site of the lesion. The diagnosis of spinal cord NSM is based on clinical evidence whereas the cerebral disease is usually diagnosed by biopsy of the nervous tissue. There is no consensus on the treatment of NSM. We discuss the literature data on this topic, and suggest a therapeutic approach based on our experience with 69 spinal cord NSM patients who have been followed up by a long period of time. Outcome is largely dependent on early treatment, particularly in the medullar disorder, and is better in cerebral NSM. PMID:18499080

  20. Varicella Zoster Complications

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Maria A.; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), after which virus becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. With advancing age or immunosuppression, cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines and virus reactivates to cause zoster (shingles), which can occur anywhere on the body. Skin lesions resolve within 1-2 weeks, while complete cessation of pain usually takes 4-6 weeks. Zoster can be followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia), cranial nerve palsies, zoster paresis, meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, myelopathy, multiple ocular disorders and vasculopathy that can mimic giant cell arteritis. All of the neurological and ocular disorders listed above may also develop without rash. Diagnosis of VZV-induced neurological disease may require examination of CSF, serum and/ or ocular fluids. In the absence of rash in a patient with neurological disease potentially due to VZV, CSF should be examined for VZV DNA by PCR and for anti-VZV IgG and IGM. Detection of VZV IgG antibody in CSF is superior to detection of VZV DNA in CSF to diagnose vasculopathy, recurrent myelopathy, and brainstem encephalitis. Oral antiviral drugs speed healing of rash and shorten acute pain. Immunocompromised patients require intravenous acyclovir. First-line treatments for post-herpetic neuralgia include tricyclic antidepressants gabapentin, pregabalin, and topical lidocaine patches. VZV vasculopathy, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis are all treated with intravenous acyclovir. PMID:23794213

  1. Seropositive Neuromyelitis Optica imitating an Intramedullary Cervical Spinal Cord Tumor: Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Jennifer Hiu-Fung; Leung, Kar-Ming; Chan, Kwong-Yau

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman with progressive cervical myelopathy and central cord syndrome was noted to have an extensive cervical intramedullary contrast-enhancing lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesion resembled a spinal astrocytoma or ependymoma that required surgical intervention. She was subsequently diagnosed to have neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a rare idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorder, when the clinical examination revealed left optic atrophy. This was confirmed by a test showing seropositivity for NMO-immunoglobulin (IgG). Disease control was achieved with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. We report a rare case of a patient with NMO who had MRI features that could have easily led to the condition being misdiagnosed as a spinal cord tumor. The importance of careful history taking, awareness of typical radiological findings and the usefulness of serum NMO-IgG as a diagnostic tool are emphasized. PMID:25346824

  2. Spinal Cord Infarction and Patent Foramen Ovale: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Marcelo; Correia, Ana Sofia; Luís, Ana; Soares, Pedro; Calado, Sofia; Viana-Baptista, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is an uncommon but important cause of acute myelopathy. Nevertheless, contrary to cerebral stroke, the discussion about paradoxical embolism as a cause of cryptogenic SCI remains dubious. We describe the case of a 24-year-old woman who developed sudden-onset back pain followed by upper limb paralysis. T2-weighted MRI demonstrated hyperintense signal, extending from C5 to D1 with corresponding restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted MRI and reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient. Diagnostic workup, including lumbar puncture, showed no changes. Transcranial Doppler showed a right-to-left shunt with an uncountable number of microembolic signals after Valsalva maneuvers, and a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with an atrial septum aneurysm was identified. We discuss the paucity of evidence of right-to-left shunting in spinal diseases compared to cerebral events and the potential role of paradoxical embolism through PFO as a possible mechanism of SCI. PMID:25076895

  3. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-08-27

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease. PMID:20600105

  4. Cervical paravertebral osteolipoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Guirro, Pau; Saló, Guillem; Molina, Antoni; Lladó, Andreu; Puig-Verdié, Lluís; Ramírez-Valencia, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Lipomas are the most frequent soft tissue tumors. Osteolipomas are a rare variant that can be difficult to diagnose. We report the case of a 66-year-old man consulting with a tumor of 2 years development in the right paravertebral cervical region. Neurologically, the patient had no sign of myelopathy or neurological focality. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass with a lipid component and calcifications inside within the right paravertebral musculature with a possible origin in the right C3 posterior root. A computed tomography scan and guided biopsy were performed, revealing hematic material and small bone spicules with no apparent neoplastic element. The tumor was totally removed, including the right C3 posterior branch, and was confirmed to be an osteolipoma on biopsy. The patient remains asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up. The osteolipoma is a benign tumor of soft tissue, characterized by lipoma areas with mature bone tissue differentiation, and even with hematopoietic marrow. PMID:25901244

  5. Mutational analysis of glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) gene in Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Sergiu C; Drory, Vivian E; Sadeh, Menachem; El-Ad, Baruch; Soimu, Uri; Groozman, Galina B; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2010-01-01

    Sporadic juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper extremity or Hirayama's disease (HD) and autosomal dominant motor distal neuronopathy/axonopathy (CMT2D/dSMA-V), produced by glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) gene mutations, share some clinical features including: young age of onset, predilection for the distal upper extremity, asymmetry, sparing of proximal muscles and unusual cold sensitivity. However, incomplete penetrance of GARS gene mutations may account for apparently non-familial cases. In order to inquire whether GARS gene mutations are associated with HD we studied seven patients fulfilling the clinical and electrodiagnostic criteria for HD. All patients underwent MRI of cervical spine that excluded compressive myelopathy in neutral position and intramedullary pathology. Each patient was tested for the presence of mutations in GARS by sequencing all coding exons amplified from genomic DNA. No pathogenic mutations were found, excluding the role of GARS gene as a possible factor in the aetiology of HD in this cohort. PMID:19412816

  6. Mutational analysis of glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) gene in Hirayama Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blumen, Sergiu C.; Drory, Vivian E.; Sadeh, Menachem; El-Ad, Baruch; Soimu, Uri; Groozman, Galina B.; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Goldfarb, Lev G.

    2009-01-01

    Sporadic juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper extremity or Hirayama's Disease (HD) and autosomal dominant motor distal neuronopathy/axonopathy (CMT2D/dSMA-V), produced by glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) gene mutations, share some clinical features including: young age of onset, predilection for the distal upper extremity, asymmetry, sparing of proximal muscles and unusual cold sensitivity. However, incomplete penetrance of GARS gene mutations may account for apparently non-familial cases. In order to inquire whether GARS gene mutations are associated with HD we studied seven patients fulfilling the clinical and electrodiagnostic criteria for HD. All patients underwent MRI of cervical spine that excluded compressive myelopathy in neutral position and intramedullary pathology. Each patient was tested for the presence of mutations in GARS by sequencing all coding exons amplified from genomic DNA. No pathogenic mutations were found, excluding the role of GARS gene as a possible factor in the etiology of HD in this cohort. PMID:19412816

  7. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander (NCI); (Kyoto)

    2010-09-28

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  8. Crystal Structures of Inhibitir Complexes of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-1) Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander (NCI); (Kyoto)

    2010-09-17

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  9. Whippits, nitrous oxide and the dangers of legal highs

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alexander G; Leite, M Isabel; Lunn, Michael P; Bennett, David L H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is increasingly being used as a recreational drug. Prolonged use of nitrous oxide can have disabling neurological sequelae due to functional inactivation of vitamin B12. We present three cases illustrating the neurological complications of using nitrous oxide. Two of these patients received nitrous oxide as a consequence of repeated hospital attendance and the third via ‘Whippit’ canisters used in cream dispensers, which are now widely available. Two patients developed sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy with demyelinating features with no clinical or imaging evidence of myelopathy, emphasising that not all patients develop subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (the typical presentation of functional vitamin B12 deficiency). The diagnosis was based upon the history of nitrous oxide use and raised levels of homocysteine and/or methylmalonic acid. All patients were treated with parenteral vitamin B12 with partial recovery, though two were left significantly disabled. PMID:25977272

  10. Quincke's edema in a dialysis patient after administration of acrylic bone cement: possible role of ethylene oxide allergy.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, K W; Rieger, J; Jansen, J; Scherer, M; Seubert, S; Seubert, A; Sellin, H J

    1986-01-01

    A 33-year-old female dialysis patient suffered from osteomyelitis and luxation of the dens axis with cervical myelopathy. In the past she had had three attacks of anaphylaxis after treatment with dialyzers that had been sterilized with ethylene oxide. IgE-type antibodies directed against human serum albumin-ethylene oxide complexes could be demonstrated in the patient's serum by radioallergosorbent techniques. Immediately after an operation in which acrylic bone cement (Palacos-R) sterilized with ethylene oxide was implanted for stabilization of the cervical spine, the patient developed massive edema of the larynx, pharynx, and tongue, suggesting Quincke's edema. It is concluded that ethylene oxide present in acrylic bone cement may induce acute allergic reactions in sensitized patients. Dialysis patients may be at special risk, since the incidence of ethylene oxide allergy in this patient population is about 10%. PMID:3753182

  11. HTLV-I and Apoptosis: Role in Cellular Transformation and Recent Advances in Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John M.; Nicot, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    A universal cellular defense mechanism against viral invasion is the elimination of infected cells through apoptotic cell death. To counteract host defenses many viruses have evolved complex apoptosis evasion strategies. The oncogenic human retrovirus HTLV-I is the etiological agent of adult-T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and the neurodegenerative disease known as HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The poor prognosis in HTLV-I-induced ATLL is linked to the resistance of neoplastic T cells against conventional therapies and the immunocompromised state of patients. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that the apoptotic pathway is largely intact and can be reactivated in ATLL tumor cells to induce specific killing. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms employed by HTLV-I to counteract cellular death pathways remains an important challenge for future therapies and the treatment of HTLV-I-associated diseases. PMID:18421579

  12. A case of monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb: MRI findings and the implication on its pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuebing; Remmel, Krista

    2012-06-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb or Hirayama disease is mostly considered as an anterior horn disorder resulting from local ischemia, triggered by arterial compression from an anterior shifting of the posterior cervical dura upon neck flexion. However, such a dural shifting is not universally seen. We report on a Caucasian male patient who developed a slowly progressive unilateral distal hand weakness in his teens. His clinical and electromyographic findings were consistent with Hirayama disease. Local anterior cervical cord atrophy was observed without dural shifting on the dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Axial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated signal changes of "snake-eye" appearance in the cervical anterior horn region, similar to ischemic myelopathies caused by various etiologies. This case illustrated that even without dural shifting, a mechanism of anterior spinal cord ischemia could still be responsible for the pathogenesis of Hirayama disease. PMID:22622169

  13. The use of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of HTLV-1-associated overactive bladder refractory to conventional therapy.

    PubMed

    Carneiro Neto, José Abraão; Bittencourt, Valéria Gusmão; de Oliveira, Cassius; Andrade, Rosana; Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino de

    2014-07-01

    Urinary symptoms occur in 19% of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected patients who do not fulfill criteria for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and in almost 100% of HAM/TSP patients. Few studies have evaluated therapies for overactive bladder (OAB) caused by HTLV-1 infection. This case report describes the effect of onabotulinum toxin A on the urinary manifestations of three patients with HAM/TSP and OAB symptoms. The patients were intravesically administered 200 units of Botox®. Their incontinence episodes improved, and their OAB symptoms scores (OABSS) reduced significantly. These data indicate that Botox® should be a treatment option for OAB associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:25229299

  14. Rationale and efficacy of CD52 targeting in HTLV-1-associated myositis.

    PubMed

    Cochereau, Delphine; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Maisonobe, Thierry; Dubourg, Odile; Melboucy-Belkhir, Sara; Hermine, Olivier; Aouba, Achille

    2014-07-01

    We retrospectively analysed two selected patients, referred to our Haematology Department for refractory HTLV-1 associated myositis with circulating pathologic T-cell population with ATL phenotype. They respectively presented also HTLV-1 associated Crohn-like disease and myelopathy. Muscle biopsy of both patients was analysed to determine the pathologic infiltrate. Alemtuzumab was proposed as salvage therapy. Targeting CD52 with alemtuzumab showed good efficacy on myopathy of both patients for respectively 11 and 10 months. Interestingly, this treatment showed also efficacy on circulating pathologic T-cell population and on concomitant digestive and neurological diseases. The double infected cells ablation and immunosuppressive propriety of alemtuzumab probably explains its interest in this infectious and dysimmunitary disorder. Even though alemtuzumab probably remains a suspensive treatment, its place should be assessed in controlled trial in this difficult to treat rare disease. PMID:24709000

  15. Overview on HTLV-1 p12, p8, p30, p13: accomplices in persistent infection and viral pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue Tao; Nicot, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is etiologically linked to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. While the role of Tax and Rex in viral replication and pathogenesis has been extensively studied, recent evidence suggests that additional viral proteins are essential for the virus life cycle in vivo. In this review, we will summarize possible molecular mechanisms evoked in the literature to explain how p12, p8, p30, and p13 facilitate persistent viral infection of the host. We will explore several stratagems used by HTLV-1 accessory genes to escape immune surveillance, to establish latency, and to deregulate cell cycle and apoptosis to participate in virus-mediated cellular transformation. PMID:23248621

  16. Overview on HTLV-1 p12, p8, p30, p13: accomplices in persistent infection and viral pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue Tao; Nicot, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is etiologically linked to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. While the role of Tax and Rex in viral replication and pathogenesis has been extensively studied, recent evidence suggests that additional viral proteins are essential for the virus life cycle in vivo. In this review, we will summarize possible molecular mechanisms evoked in the literature to explain how p12, p8, p30, and p13 facilitate persistent viral infection of the host. We will explore several stratagems used by HTLV-1 accessory genes to escape immune surveillance, to establish latency, and to deregulate cell cycle and apoptosis to participate in virus-mediated cellular transformation. PMID:23248621

  17. Paraplegia due to Acute Aortic Coarctation and Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang-Bum; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Coarctation and occlusion of the aorta is a rare condition that typically presents with hypertension or cardiac failure. However, neuropathy or myelopathy may be the presenting features of the condition when an intraspinal subarachnoid hemorrhage has compressed the spinal cord causing ischemia. We report two cases of middle-aged males who developed acute non-traumatic paraplegia. Undiagnosed congenital abnormalities, such as aortic coarctation and occlusion, should be considered for patients presenting with nontraumatic paraplegia in the absence of other identifiable causes. Our cases suggest that spinal cord ischemia resulting from acute spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage and can cause paraplegia, and that clinicians must carefully examine patients presenting with nontraumatic paraplegia because misdiagnosis can delay initiation of the appropriate treatment. PMID:24851152

  18. An Unusual Cause of Paraparesis in a Patient on Chronic Steroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, R; Kumar, A. N; Gupta, V; Madhavan, Sethu M; Sharma, S. K

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Spinal epidural lipomatosis is the excessive deposition of unencapsulated fat in the epidural space. This is a rare disorder often associated with high levels of endogenous steroids or the administration of exogenous steroids. Case Description: A 32-year-old man with congenital kyphosis treated with prednisolone daily for 5 months for interstitial lung disease developed compressive myelopathy. Findings: Magnetic resonance imaging showed congenital kyphosis along with epidural lipomatosis compressing the cord. Cessation of steroid therapy was associated with improvement in the symptoms. Conclusions: Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare side effect of chronic steroid therapy that may occur with relatively short-term, low-dose regimens. In patients with congenital vertebral anomalies, spinal fat deposition may worsen the neurological status in an already compromised cord. Discontinuation of steroid therapy is beneficial; some patients may require surgical intervention for decompression. PMID:17385272

  19. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D Raja

    2009-01-01

    Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings. PMID:19305069

  20. Cyclosporine for the treatment of HLTV-1-induced HAM/TSP: an experience from a case report.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Salvador, Fernando; Caballero, Estrella; Molina, Israel

    2015-01-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) remains a challenging disease. Treatment options are scarce, and their safety and efficacy are currently a matter of concern.We present a case report describing our experience using cyclosporine in a patient with early HAM/TSP who started with a gait disturbance at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona) from August 2012 to October 2013. After 62 weeks of treatment, clinical improvement was observed and proviral load diminished. No safety concerns were observed.Cyclosporine seems to be effective in new-onset HAM/TSP or in chronic HAM/TSP that develops a relapse. However, the duration and safety profile of this steroid-sparing therapy remain unknown and should be further investigated. PMID:25569667