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1

Retrospective cost analysis of cervical laminectomy and fusion versus cervical laminoplasty in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical laminoplasty (CLP) and posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion (CLF) are well-established surgical procedures used in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). In situations of clinical equipoise, an influential factor in procedural decision making could be the economic effect of the chosen procedure. The object of this study is to compare and analyze the total hospital costs and charges pertaining to patients undergoing CLP or CLF for the treatment of CSM. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 81 consecutive patients from a single institution; 55 patients were treated with CLP and 26 with CLF. CLP was performed via the double-door allograft technique that does not require implants, whereas laminectomy fusion procedures included metallic instrumentation. We analyzed 10,682 individual costs (HC) and charges (HCh) for all patients, as obtained from hospital accounting data. The Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to estimate the physicians’ fees as such fees are not accounted for via hospital billing records. Total cost (TC) therefore equaled the sum of the hospital cost and the estimated physicians’ fees. Results The mean length of stay was 3.7 days for CLP and 5.9 days for CLF (P < .01). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to age, gender, previous surgical history, and medical insurance. The TC mean was $17,734 for CLP and $37,413 for CLF (P < .01). Mean HCh for CLP was 42% of that for CLF, and therefore the mean charge for CLF was 238% of that for CLP (P < .01). Mean HC was $15,426 for CLP and $32,125 for CLF (P < .01); the main contributor was implant cost (mean $2582). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that, in clinically similar populations, CLP results in reduced length of stay, TC, and hospital charges. In CSM cases requiring posterior decompression, we demonstrate CLP to be a less costly procedure. However, in the presence of neck pain, kyphotic deformity, or gross instability, this procedure may not be sufficient and posterior CLF may be required.

Warren, Daniel T.; Ricart-Hoffiz, Pedro A.; Andres, Tate M.; Hoelscher, Christian M.; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S.; Goldstein, Jeffrey A.; Bendo, John A.

2013-01-01

2

Laminoplasty and Laminectomy Hybrid Decompression for the Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy with Hypertrophic Ligamentum Flavum: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the outcomes of a posterior hybrid decompression protocol for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) associated with hypertrophic ligamentum flavum (HLF). Background Laminoplasty is widely used in patients with CSM; however, for CSM patients with HLF, traditional laminoplasty does not include resection of a pathological ligamentum flavum. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed 116 CSM patients with HLF who underwent hybrid decompression with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up. The procedure consisted of reconstruction of the C4 and C6 laminae using CENTERPIECE plates with spinous process autografts, and resection of the C3, C5, and C7 laminae. Surgical outcomes were assessed using Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, recovery rate, cervical lordotic angle, cervical range of motion, spinal canal sagittal diameter, bone healing rates on both the hinge and open sides, dural sac expansion at the level of maximum compression, drift-back distance of the spinal cord, and postoperative neck pain assessed by visual analog scale. Results No hardware failure or restenosis was noted. Postoperative JOA score improved significantly, with a mean recovery rate of 65.3±15.5%. Mean cervical lordotic angle had decreased 4.9 degrees by 1 year after surgery (P<0.05). Preservation of cervical range of motion was satisfactory postoperatively. Bone healing rates 6 months after surgery were 100% on the hinge side and 92.2% on the open side. Satisfactory decompression was demonstrated by a significantly increased sagittal canal diameter and cross-sectional area of the dural sac together with a significant drift-back distance of the spinal cord. The dural sac was also adequately expanded at the time of the final follow-up visit. Conclusion Hybrid laminectomy and autograft laminoplasty decompression using Centerpiece plates may facilitate bone healing and produce a comparatively satisfactory prognosis for CSM patients with HLF. PMID:24740151

Ding, Huairong; Xue, Yuan; Tang, Yanming; He, Dong; Li, Zhiyang; Zhao, Ying; Zong, Yaqi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Pei

2014-01-01

3

Comparison of ventral corpectomy and plate-screw-instrumented fusion with dorsal laminectomy and rod-screw-instrumented fusion for treatment of at least two vertebral-level spondylotic cervical myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the article is to verify the hypothesis that the dorsal multilevel laminectomy and rod-screw-instrumented\\u000a fusion (DLF) for multilevel spondylotic cervical myelopathy (MSCM) is less strenuous for patients, and less prone to perioperative\\u000a complications, than ventral multilevel corpectomy and plate-screw-instrumented fusion (VCF), while clinical outcome is comparable.\\u000a One hundred and three successive patients were treated for at least

Rudolf Andreas Kristof; Thomas Kiefer; Marcus Thudium; Florian Ringel; Michael Stoffel; Attlila Kovacs; Christian-Andreas Mueller

2009-01-01

4

Laminectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... Reactions to medications Risks of spine surgery are: Infection in wound or vertebral bones Damage to a spinal nerve, causing weakness, pain, or loss of feeling Partial or no relief of pain after surgery A return of back pain in the future ...

5

Comparison of Spinous Process-Splitting Laminectomy versus Conventional Laminectomy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Seventy-five patients who had been treated for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) were reviewed retrospectively. Purpose Invasion into the paravertebral muscle can cause major problems after laminectomy for LSS. To address these problems, we performed spinous process-splitting laminectomy. We present a comparative study of decompression of LSS using 2 approaches. Overview of Literature There are no other study has investigated the lumbar spinal instability after spinous process-splitting laminectomy. Methods This study included 75 patients who underwent laminectomy for the treatment of LSS and who were observed through follow-ups for more than 2 years. Fifty-five patients underwent spinous process-splitting laminectomy (splitting group) and 20 patients underwent conventional laminectomy (conventional group). We evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of each surgical procedure. Results Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved significantly in both groups two years postoperatively. The following values were all significantly lower, as shown with p-values, in the splitting group compared to the conventional group: average operating time (p=0.002), postoperative C-reactive protein level (p=0.006), the mean postoperative number of days until returning to normal body temperature (p=0.047), and the mean change in angulation 2 years postoperatively (p=0.007). The adjacent segment degeneration occurred in 6 patients (10.9%) in the splitting group and 11 patients (55.0%) in the conventional group. Conclusions In this study, the spinous process-splitting laminectomy was shown to be less invasive and more stable for patients with LSS, compared to the conventional laminectomy.

Uehara, Masashi; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Kuraishi, Shugo; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ikegami, Shota; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kato, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

6

Prevention of epidural fibrosis after laminectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: Epidural fibrosis contributes to failed back surgeries. Previously, many methods were used to reduce postlaminectomy scar with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to: 1) compare the effect of a thin barrier (Macropore) sheet and a hyaluronan (HA) gel using a control laminectomy model; 2) to examine the incisional wound integrity after treatment; and 3)

Jennifer Massie; Bill Huang; Alexander Giurea; Robert Sah; Steve Garfin; Wayne Akeson

2002-01-01

7

Decompressive lumbar laminectomy for spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

A total of 258 consecutive decompressive lumbar laminectomies performed on 244 individuals presenting with spinal stenosis were analyzed retrospectively. Spinal fusion was avoided in all but two patients. Outcome in terms of pain relief and return to normal activity was evaluated in two stages, one derived from patient charts and having a relatively short-term follow-up time (mean 8.4 months) and a second derived from patient responses to a questionnaire (which also scored for satisfaction with the results of surgery), which had a longer follow-up time (mean 4.7 years). More than 20 clinical and operative parameters were analyzed. Overall, a high degree of success (93% pain relief, 95% return to normal activity) was achieved in the short term, which was supported by the longer-term follow-up data (64% pain relief, 56% activity return, 75% satisfaction). The following factors were not significantly correlated with outcome: patient age; sex; worker's compensation or no-fault insurance status; employed versus not employed; a history of back surgery prior to the laminectomy studied; existence of degenerative spondylolisthesis or scoliosis; complete versus incomplete myelographic block; or the level of the lumbar spine undergoing surgery. The major conclusions arising from these data are: 1) for all age groups through at least the eighth decade of life, decompressive lumbar laminectomy is a relatively safe operation having a high medium-to-long-term success rate; 2) lumbar instability following laminectomy is rare, even in individuals presenting prior to surgery with degenerative instability conditions; and 3) lumbar fusion in addition to the decompressive laminectomy procedure is rarely required for degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:8468598

Silvers, H R; Lewis, P J; Asch, H L

1993-05-01

8

Trumpet laminectomy microdecompression for lumbal canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Henky, Jefri; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-10-01

9

Trumpet Laminectomy Microdecompression for Lumbal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-01-01

10

Minimally Invasive Laminectomy in Spondylolisthetic Lumbar Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative lumbar stenosis associated with spondylolisthesis is common in elderly patients. The most common symptoms are those of neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Surgery is indicated for those who fail conservative management. The generally accepted recommendation is to perform a laminectomy and a fusion at the involved level. Methods We reviewed our results for minimally invasive single-level decompression without fusion performed by the senior author in patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis with no dynamic instability from 2008 to 2011 at a single institution. Outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale, and revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at initial presentation and at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up time points. Results Records for 28 patients (19 males, 9 females) were reviewed. The success rate, defined as improvement in pain and functional outcome without the need for surgical fusion, was 86%. VAS scores decreased by 6.3 points, Prolo scores increased by 3.5 points, and the ODI decreased by 31% at 1 year. All changes were statistically significant. Conclusion Minimally invasive decompression alone can be a reasonable alternative to decompression and fusion for patients with spondylolisthetic lumbar stenosis and neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Decompression without fusion should be considered for older patients and for patients who are not ideal fusion candidates. PMID:24688331

Caralopoulos, Ilias N.; Bui, Cuong J.

2014-01-01

11

Laminectomy: effects on postoperative technetium and gallium scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Bone scans using Tc-99m diphosphonate were found to become abnormal within 2 weeks after laminectomy in less than half of patients regardless of the extent of the operation. The degree of new uptake equaled that of the sacroiliac joints in only one of 19 patients with a normal preoperative scan. However, the Ga-67 citrate scan usually became abnormal (89%) postoperatively. Thus the Tc-99m bone scan may be helpful in detecting postoperative infection.

Silberstein, E.B.; Schneider, H.J.; Khodadad, G.; DeVries, D.; Rauf, G.C.; Noll, R.

1984-06-01

12

Limited Laminectomy and Restorative Spinoplasty in Spinal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose Evaluation of the clinico-radiological outcome and complications of limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty in spinal canal stenosis. Overview of Literature It is critical to achieve adequate spinal decompression, while maintaining spinal stability. Methods Forty-four patients with degenerative lumbar canal stenosis underwent limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty at our centre from July 2008 to December 2010. Four patients were lost to follow-up leaving a total of 40 patients at an average final follow-up of 32 months (range, 24-41 months). There were 26 females and 14 males. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of the age was 64.7±7.6 years (range, 55-88 years). The final outcome was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Results At the time of the final follow-up, all patients recorded marked improvement in their symptoms, with only 2 patients complaining of occasional mild back pain and 1 patient complaining of occasional mild leg pain. The mean±SD for the preoperative claudication distance was 95.2±62.5 m, which improved to 582±147.7 m after the operation, and the preoperative anterio-posterior canal diameter as measured on the computed tomography scan was 8.3±2.1 mm, which improved to 13.2±1.8 mm postoperatively. The JOA score improved from a mean±SD of 13.3±4.1 to 22.9±4.1 at the time of the final follow-up. As for complications, dural tears occurred in 2 patients, for which repair was performed with no additional treatment needed. Conclusions Limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty is an efficient surgical procedure which relieves neurogenic claudication by achieving sufficient decompression of the cord with maintenance of spinal stability. PMID:25187863

Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Garg, Rakesh; Kundu, Zile Singh; Gupta, Vinay; Kamboj, Pradeep

2014-01-01

13

Lamina replacement with titanium plate fixation improves spinal stability after total lumbar laminectomy.  

PubMed

Biomechanical experiments and strain analyses were performed to investigate the effects of lamina replacement surgery for intraspinal lesions on postoperative spinal stability. Eight specimens of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (T12-L4) were collected from adult cadavers. Stepwise lumbar total laminectomy, and laminoplasty with lamina reduction and replacement was undertaken in combination with titanium-plate fixation to simulate the surgical setting. The effects of thoracic and lumbar vertebral strain, displacement, and rigidity on spinal stability were measured following both single and multiple segment laminectomy. Significant differences in mechanical indices of stability were seen between stepwise laminectomy of lumbar vertebrae and normal specimens (p < 0.05), between lamina replacement in combination with titanium-plate fixation and laminectomy (p < 0.05), and between single- and multiple-segment laminectomy (p < 0.05). Differences between laminoplasty with lamina replacement in combination with titanium-plate fixation and normal specimens need to be examined for further study. Lumbar laminectomy followed by reduction and replacement, in combination with titanium-plate fixation, was shown to be beneficial in terms of preserving spinal stability and maintaining biomechanical function and spinal loading capability. PMID:25169703

Nong, Luming; Zhou, Dong; Xu, Nanwei; Du, Rui; Jiang, Xijia

2015-12-01

14

The Effect of Resveratrol on Surgery-Induced Epidural Fibrosis in Laminectomy Rats  

PubMed Central

Epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication for the patients who underwent laminectomy. Recently, EF is thought to cause recurrent postoperative pain after laminectomy. Resveratrol has been shown to exert its anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproliferative multifaceted properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the prevention of postlaminectomy EF formation in laminectomy rats. A controlled double-blinded study was performed on 60 healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent lumbar laminectomy at the L1-L2 levels. They were divided randomly into 3 groups (1, 2, and 3) of 20 rats each—group 1: resveratrol treatment group; group 2: resveratrol dilution saline treatment group; group 3: sham group (rats underwent laminectomy without treatment). All rats were killed 4 weeks after operation. The Rydell score, hydroxyproline content, vimentin cells density, fibroblasts density, and inflammatory factors expressional levels all suggested better results in resveratrol group than the other two groups. Resveratrol is able to inhibit fibroblasts proliferation, and TGF-?1 and IL-6 expressions and prevent epidural fibrosis in postlaminectomy rat. PMID:24782910

Sun, Peifeng; Miao, Bo; Xin, Hongmei; Zhao, Jinzhu; Xia, Guofeng; Xu, Peng; Hu, Jian; Li, Zhenfeng; Li, Jianmin

2014-01-01

15

The effects of single-level instrumented lumbar laminectomy on adjacent spinal biomechanics.  

PubMed

Study Design?Biomechanical study. Objective?Posterior instrumentation is used to stabilize the spine after a lumbar laminectomy. However, the effects on the adjacent segmental stability are unknown. Therefore, we studied the range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of treated lumbar spinal segments and cranial segments after a laminectomy and after posterior instrumentation in flexion and extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). These outcomes might help to better understand adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is reported cranial to the level on which posterior instrumentation is applied. Methods?We obtained 12 cadaveric human lumbar spines. Spines were axially loaded with 250?N for 1 hour. Thereafter, 10 consecutive load cycles (4 Nm) were applied in FE, LB, and AR. Subsequently, a laminectomy was performed either at L2 or at L4. Thereafter, load-deformation tests were repeated, after similar preloading. Finally, posterior instrumentation was added to the level treated with a laminectomy before testing was repeated. The ROM and stiffness of the treated, the cranial adjacent, and the control segments were calculated from the load-displacement data. Repeated-measures analyses of variance used the spinal level as the between-subject factor and a laminectomy or instrumentation as the within-subject factors. Results?After the laminectomy, the ROM increased (+19.4%) and the stiffness decreased (-18.0%) in AR. The ROM in AR of the adjacent segments also increased (+11.0%). The ROM of treated segments after instrumentation decreased in FE (-74.3%), LB (-71.6%), and AR (-59.8%). In the adjacent segments after instrumentation, only the ROM in LB was changed (-12.9%). Conclusions?The present findings do not substantiate a biomechanical pathway toward or explanation for ASD. PMID:25649753

Bisschop, Arno; Holewijn, Roderick M; Kingma, Idsart; Stadhouder, Agnita; Vergroesen, Pieter-Paul A; van der Veen, Albert J; van Dieën, Jaap H; van Royen, Barend J

2015-02-01

16

Use of decorin to prevent epidural fibrosis in a post-laminectomy rat model.  

PubMed

The formation of epidural fibrosis adjacent to the dura mater is a complex multi-step process that is associated with a marked reduction in tissue cellularity and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components. Extensive epidural fibrosis is a major cause of post-laminectomy syndrome. Decorin strongly inhibits fibrosis formation in various tissues via blockade of transforming growth factor-?1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a topical application of decorin on the formation of epidural fibrosis in a rat laminectomy model. Twenty-four female Wistar albino rats (250-350 g) were equally and randomly divided into three groups (control, spongostan and decorin). Laminectomy was performed between the L3 and L5 levels in all rats. The dura mater was directly exposed to spongostan soaked with saline (2 cc/kg) or decorin (100 µg/kg). Four weeks later, the laminectomized spine of the rats was completely removed between the L3 and L5 levels. The extent of the epidural fibrosis and arachnoidal involvement was histopathologically evaluated and graded. Our data revealed that epidural fibrosis was significantly reduced in the group treated with decorin compared to the spongostan and control groups (P<0.05). Our study demonstrates that the topical application of decorin can be effective in reducing the formation of epidural fibrosis in a simple laminectomy rat model. PMID:24374200

Turkoglu, Erhan; Dinc, Cem; Tuncer, Cengiz; Oktay, Murat; Serbes, Gokhan; Sekerci, Zeki

2014-02-01

17

The Effect of Multi-Level Laminoplasty and Laminectomy on the Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine: a Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Laminectomy has been regarded as a standard treatment for multi-level cervical stenosis. Concern for complications such as kyphosis has limited the indication of multi-level laminectomy; hence it is often augmented with an instrumented fusion. Laminoplasty has emerged as a motion preserving alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the multidirectional flexibility of the cervical spine in response to a plate-only open door laminoplasty, double door laminoplasty, and laminectomy using a computational model. A validated three-dimensional finite element model of a specimen-specific intact cervical spine (C2-T1) was modified to simulate each surgical procedure at levels C3-C6. An additional goal of this work was to compare the instrumented computational model to our multi-specimen experimental findings to ensure similar trends in response to the surgical procedures. Model predictions indicate that mobility was retained following open and double door laminoplasty with a 5.4% and 20% increase in flexion, respectively, compared to the intact state. Laminectomy resulted in 57% increase in flexion as compared to the intact state, creating a concern for eventual kyphosis - a known risk/complication of multi-level laminectomy in the absence of fusion. Increased disc stresses were observed at the altered and adjacent segments post-laminectomy in flexion. PMID:25328475

Kode, Swathi; Kallemeyn, Nicole A; Smucker, Joseph D; Fredericks, Douglas C; Grosland, Nicole M

2014-01-01

18

Retro-odontoid cystic mass treated by laminectomy and C1-C2 fixation  

PubMed Central

Retro-odontoid cysts associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation are extremely rare. This article describes a case of retro-odontoid cystic mass associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation and its management with posterior C1 and partial C2 laminectomy and C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst. A 64-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of neck pain, hand and foot paresthesia. Atlantoaxial instability associated with a retro-odontoid cystic mass was found in the imaging. The patient underwent posterior C1 and partial C2 laminectomy and C1-C2 pedicle screws fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst. During the 24 months followup period, the cyst disappeared completely and the patient remained symptom free and returned to independent daily living. These findings suggest that posterior laminectomy and fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst is relatively simple and safe and the results are satisfactory. PMID:25404777

Lin, Dasheng; Ding, Zhenqi; Guo, Yanjie; Lian, Kejian

2014-01-01

19

Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

20

Influence of TachoComb in comparison to local hemostyptic agents on epidural fibrosis in a rat laminectomy model.  

PubMed

This animal experimental study was designed to examine the effects of TachoComb, a fixed combination of collagen with tissue adhesive, as an interposition membrane on the development of spinal epidural fibrosis in comparison to other hemostyptic materials. In 10 Wistar rats, four laminectomies were performed at lumbar and sacral vertebrae. Alternately, a piece of TachoComb, Spongostan, or Tabotamp was placed into each laminectomy site. One laminectomy site served as an empty control (n = 10). 8 weeks later, the animals were sacrificed, and the spinal column including surrounding muscle tissue was removed en bloc from each rat and fixed in formaldehyde. After decalcification and staining the specimens were graded by a neuropathologist in a blindfold test for severity of epidural fibrosis as "light-moderate" or "marked". Epidural scarring of variable density was seen in all laminectomy sites. Light epidural fibrosis, without any adhesion to dura, as only noted in cases after application of TachoComb (n = 4/10) and Spongostan (n = 1/10). All other slices showed marked epidural fibrosis with dura adherence regardless of the implanted material. Statistical analysis revealed significantly lower epidural fibrosis after application of TachoComb compared to all other groups (p < 0.05). In this series, TachoComb is more effective in reducing the epidural fibrosis than Spongostan, and Tabotamp. However, complete prevention of scar tissue formation was not achieved. PMID:12761682

Lee, J-Y; Ebel, H; Friese, M; Schillinger, G; Schröder, R; Klug, N

2003-04-01

21

Laminectomy and functional impairment of the lumbar spine: the importance of muscle forces in flexible and rigid instrumented stabilization – a biomechanical study in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminectomy is the accepted treatment for spinal canal stenosis in cases where conservative treatment has failed. Opinions\\u000a diverge on the resulting clinical instability and the necessity of instrumented stabilization. The present biomechanical study\\u000a was performed to determine the functional impairment following laminectomy and the stabilizing effect of flexible and rigid\\u000a devices. This was the first time that the effects of

U. Quint; H.-J. Wilke; F. Löer; L. Claes

1998-01-01

22

Outcomes after cervical laminectomy with instrumented fusion versus expansile laminoplasty: A propensity matched study of 3185 patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare reoperation, complication rates, and healthcare resource utilization of expansile laminectomies with instrumented fusion versus laminoplasty. Using the MarketScan database (Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, MI, USA), we selected patients aged >18years who underwent either cervical laminoplasty or laminectomy with fusion between 2000-2009. Propensity score modeling produced a matched cohort balanced for age, sex, comorbidities, and other relevant factors. A total of 3185 patients meeting our inclusion criteria also had 2year follow-up available. Of these, 2927 (91.90%) and 258 (8.10%) had laminectomy with fusion and laminoplasty, respectively. Laminoplasty patients had significantly lower complication rates during index hospitalization (5.81 versus 9.62%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.556, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.418-0.740, p<0.0002), during 30day (6.87 versus 11.12%, aOR: 0.568, 95% CI: 0.436-0.740, p<0.0002) and 90day (7.61 versus 11.78%, aOR: 0.593, 95% CI: 0.460-0.764, p<0.0002) postoperative periods. They also had lower costs (United States dollars) during index hospitalization ($26,129 versus $35,483, p<0.0004), and overall during the 2year postoperative period ($77,960 versus $106,453, p<0.0001). Two year reoperation rates were similar between both groups (9.77% versus 7.36%, p=0.20). Our study suggests that cervical laminoplasty has significantly lower complication rates, similar long-term reoperation rates and lower healthcare resource utilization after 2years than laminectomy with fusion. PMID:25515781

Adogwa, Owoicho; Huang, Kevin; Hazzard, Matthew; Chagoya, Gustavo; Owens, Ryan; Cheng, Joseph; Ugiliweneza, Beatrice; Boakye, Maxwell; Lad, Shivanand P

2015-03-01

23

Selective dorsal rhizotomy in children: comparison of outcomes after single-level versus multi-level laminectomy technique.  

PubMed

Children with cerebral palsy may experience spasticity, which may negatively impact their quality of life. One proven treatment for such spasticity is selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR), whereby a partial sectioning of the dorsal roots from L2 to S1 is performed. SDR can be performed where the nerve root exits the intervertebral foramina via multi-level laminectomies, or at the level of the conus via a single-level laminectomy. At British Columbia Children's Hospital (BCCH), SDRs were performed via multi-level laminectomies until 2005, when the single-level technique was adopted. The single-level procedure is technically more challenging and takes longer, but requires a smaller incision and involves less muscle dissection. Functional outcomes at one-year follow-up are similar for the two methods of surgery. It was hypothesized that post-operative pain would be less, mobilization faster and hospital stay shorter using the single-level technique. Using a retrospective case series analysis, we compared nine patients who had had single-level SDR to 18 matched controls who had undergone SDR using the multi-level technique. There were no significant differences in post-operative pain, duration of opioid infusion, or time to mobilization. Length of hospital stay was significantly decreased after the single level procedure: 3.4 versus 5.2 days (p = 0.01). PMID:20865831

Ou, Christine; Kent, Sarah; Miller, Stacey; Steinbok, Paul

2010-01-01

24

Long-term stability after multilevel cervical laminectomy for spinal cord tumor resection in von Hippel-Lindau disease  

PubMed Central

Object Despite the frequent multiplicity and development of new spinal cord hemangioblastomas that require multiple resections in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, the long-term effects of spinal surgery on spinal column stability in this neoplasia disorder are not known. To determine the effect of multilevel cervical laminectomy for spinal cord tumor resection in VHL, the authors analyzed long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes. Methods The authors included consecutive patients enrolled in a prospective VHL disease natural history study who underwent cervical laminectomy(s) for spinal cord hemangioblastoma resection. Serial clinical examinations, neck disability indices, and radiographs (static and dynamic), as well as operative records, were analyzed. Results Twenty-five adult patients (16 female, 9 male) with VHL disease underwent 34 operations (mean 1.4 ± 0.7 [± SD]/patient) for the resection of cervical spinal cord hemangioblastomas (mean number of lamina removed/surgery 3.0 ± 1.3). The mean age at surgery was 33.9 ± 11.9 years (range 18–61 years), and the mean follow-up duration was 9.1 ± 5.6 years. At last follow-up, radiographic criteria indicated that 9 patients (36%) had spinal column instability, 13 patients (52%) developed a cervical spinal deformity, 4 patients (16%) developed moderate to severe neck disability, and 3 patients (12%) met the criteria for clinical instability. Removal of the C-2 lamina was associated with the development of clinical instability (p = 0.02, Fisher exact test); older age at surgery was associated with the development of cervical deformity (p = 0.05, logistic regression); and a greater number of operations (suboccipital–T4) were associated with increased neck disability indices (p = 0.01, linear regression). Conclusions Whereas patients with VHL disease will often require multiple laminectomies for cervical spinal cord hemangioblastoma resection, a limited number of patients (12%) will develop clinical instability. Because prophylactic cervical instrumentation confers limited benefit at the time of spinal cord tumor resection for most patients, and because these patients need life-long MR imaging of the spinal cord, the quality of which may be affected by instrumentation, longitudinal clinical and radiological evaluation may be used to determine which patients will require stabilization. PMID:21275550

Asthagiri, Ashok R.; Mehta, Gautam U.; Butman, John A.; Baggenstos, Martin; Oldfield, Edward H.; Lonser, Russell R.

2014-01-01

25

Comparative effectiveness of microdecompression and laminectomy for central lumbar spinal stenosis: study protocol for an observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction This observational study is designed to test the equivalence between the clinical effectiveness of microdecompression and laminectomy in the surgical treatment of central lumbar spinal stenosis. Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most frequent indication for spinal surgery in the elderly, and as the oldest segment of the population continues to grow its prevalence is likely to increase. However, data on surgical outcomes are limited. Open or wide decompressive laminectomy, often combined with medial facetectomy and foraminotomy, was formerly the standard treatment. In recent years a growing tendency towards less invasive decompressive procedures has emerged. At present, many spine surgeons perform microdecompression for central lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods and analysis Prospectively registered treatment and outcome data are obtained from the Norwegian Registry for Spine Surgery. The primary outcome measure is change in Oswestry disability index between baseline and 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures are changes in health-related quality of life measured by the Euro-Qol-5D between baseline and 12-month follow-up, perioperative complications, and duration of surgical procedures and length of hospital stay. Ethics and dissemination The study has been evaluated and approved by the regional committee for medical research in central Norway and all participants provided written informed consent. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02006901). PMID:24650809

Nerland, Ulf S; Jakola, Asgeir S; Solheim, Ole; Weber, Clemens; Rao, Vidar; Lønne, Greger; Solberg, Tore K; Salvesen, Øyvind; Carlsen, Sven M; Nygaard, Øystein P; Gulati, Sasha

2014-01-01

26

Radicular Pain due to Subsidence of the Nitinol Shape Memory Loop for Stabilization after Lumbar Decompressive Laminectomy.  

PubMed

A number of dynamic stabilization systems have been used to overcome the problems associated with spinal fusion with rigid fixation recently and the demand for an ideal dynamic stabilization system is greater for younger patients with multisegment disc degeneration. Nitinol, a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium, is flexible at low temperatures and regains its original shape when heated, and the Nitinol shape memory loop (SML) implant has been used as a posterior tension band mostly in decompressive laminectomy cases because the Nitinol implant has various characteristics such as high elasticity and a tensile force, flexibility, and biological compatibility. The reported short-term outcomes of the application of SMLs as posterior column supporters in cervical and lumbar decompressive laminectomies seem to be positive, and complications are minimal except for the rare occurrence of pullout and fracture of the SML. However, there was no report of neurological complications related to neural compression in spite of the use of the loop of SML in the epidural space. The authors report a case of delayed development of radiating pain caused by subsidence of the SML resulting epidural compression. PMID:25674347

Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Deog-Ryeong

2015-01-01

27

Radicular Pain due to Subsidence of the Nitinol Shape Memory Loop for Stabilization after Lumbar Decompressive Laminectomy  

PubMed Central

A number of dynamic stabilization systems have been used to overcome the problems associated with spinal fusion with rigid fixation recently and the demand for an ideal dynamic stabilization system is greater for younger patients with multisegment disc degeneration. Nitinol, a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium, is flexible at low temperatures and regains its original shape when heated, and the Nitinol shape memory loop (SML) implant has been used as a posterior tension band mostly in decompressive laminectomy cases because the Nitinol implant has various characteristics such as high elasticity and a tensile force, flexibility, and biological compatibility. The reported short-term outcomes of the application of SMLs as posterior column supporters in cervical and lumbar decompressive laminectomies seem to be positive, and complications are minimal except for the rare occurrence of pullout and fracture of the SML. However, there was no report of neurological complications related to neural compression in spite of the use of the loop of SML in the epidural space. The authors report a case of delayed development of radiating pain caused by subsidence of the SML resulting epidural compression. PMID:25674347

Kim, Deog-ryeong

2015-01-01

28

Four lateral mass screw fixation techniques in lower cervical spine following laminectomy: a finite element analysis study of stress distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral mass screw fixation (LSF) techniques have been widely used for reconstructing and stabilizing the cervical spine; however, complications may result depending on the choice of surgeon. There are only a few reports related to LSF applications, even though fracture fixation has become a severe complication. This study establishes the three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine, and compares the stress distribution of the four LSF techniques (Magerl, Roy-Camille, Anderson, and An), following laminectomy -- to explore the risks of rupture after fixation. Method CT scans were performed on a healthy adult female volunteer, and Digital imaging and communication in medicine (Dicom) data was obtained. Mimics 10.01, Geomagic Studio 12.0, Solidworks 2012, HyperMesh 10.1 and Abaqus 6.12 software programs were used to establish the intact model of the lower cervical spines (C3-C7), a postoperative model after laminectomy, and a reconstructive model after applying the LSF techniques. A compressive preload of 74 N combined with a pure moment of 1.8 Nm was applied to the intact and reconstructive model, simulating normal flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The stress distribution of the four LSF techniques was compared by analyzing the maximum von Mises stress. Result The three-dimensional finite element model of the intact C3-C7 vertebrae was successfully established. This model consists of 503,911 elements and 93,390 nodes. During flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation modes, the intact model’s angular intersegmental range of motion was in good agreement with the results reported from the literature. The postoperative model after the three-segment laminectomy and the reconstructive model after applying the four LSF techniques were established based on the validated intact model. The stress distribution for the Magerl and Roy-Camille groups were more dispersive, and the maximum von Mises stress levels were lower than the other two groups in various conditions. Conclusion The LSF techniques of Magerl and Roy-Camille are safer methods for stabilizing the lower cervical spine. Therefore, these methods potentially have a lower risk of fixation fracture. PMID:25106498

2014-01-01

29

The use of ultrasound to facilitate spinal anesthesia in a patient with previous lumbar laminectomy and fusion: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe a case of ultrasound (US)-facilitated spinal anesthesia in a patient with a prior lumbar laminectomy and spinal fusion who presented for total knee arthroplasty. Traditional, landmark-guided spinal anesthesia had previously failed. Although pre-procedural US identified a soft-tissue window at L3/4, a 25G pencilpoint needle encountered resistance. Reassured from US imaging that this was not bone, we used a 22G cutting tip needle successfully. We believe spinal anesthesia would not have been possible in this patient without US, adding to the evidence that US-facilitated neuraxial anesthesia is useful, particularly in technically difficult, if not 'impossible,' cases. PMID:19455701

Chin, Ki Jinn; Macfarlane, Alan J R; Chan, Vincent; Brull, Richard

2009-10-01

30

Finite Element Analysis for Comparison of Spinous Process Osteotomies Technique with Conventional Laminectomy as Lumbar Decompression Procedure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical behavior of the lumbar spine after posterior decompression with the spinous process osteotomy (SPiO) technique or the conventional laminectomy (CL) technique using a finite element (FE) model. Materials and Methods Three validated lumbar FE models (L2-5) which represented intact spine and two decompression models using SPiO and CL techniques at the L3-4 segment were developed. In each model, the ranges of motion, the maximal von Mises stress of the annulus fibrosus, and the intradiscal pressures at the index segment (L3-4) and adjacent segments (L2-3 and L4-5) under 7.5 Nm moments were analyzed. Facet contact forces were also compared among three models under the extension and torsion moments. Results Compared to the intact model, the CL and SPiO models had increased range of motion and annulus stress at both the index segment (L3-4) and the adjacent segments under flexion and torsion. However, the SPiO model demonstrated a reduced range of motion and annulus stress than the CL model. Both CL and SPiO models had an increase of facet contact force at the L3-4 segment under the torsion moment compared to that of the intact model. Under the extension moment, however, three models demonstrated a similar facet contact force even at the L3-4 model. Conclusion Both decompression methods lead to postoperative segmental instability compared to the intact model. However, SPiO technique leads to better segmental stability compared to the CL technique. PMID:25510758

Kim, Ho-Joong; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

2015-01-01

31

[A case report of rheumatoid arthritis patient with thoracic myelopathy].  

PubMed

The authors report a 39-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis associated with myelopathy at the thoracic level. X-ray films of thoracic spine showed scoliosis which had its apex at T6. Myelography demonstrated incomplete block at the level of T6. Computerized tomogram revealed destruction of left pedicle of the sixth thoracic vertebra and dislocation of the sixth rib into the spinal canal which compressed cord at T6 level. Hemi-laminectomy at T5-T7 level and decompression were performed. Pathological investigations of soft tissue around the cord and dura mater showed infiltration of small round cells. We concluded that the synovitis of costo-transverse joint or costovertebral joint led to the destruction of the pedicle. As a result, dislocation of the rib, scoliotic deformity and thoracic myelopathy occurred. PMID:1523524

Nakamura, H; Yoshino, S; Fujimori, J; Koiwa, M; Shiga, H; Mukai, E; Tanaka, H

1992-06-01

32

Congestive myelopathy (Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome) due to intradural arteriovenous fistula of the filum terminale fed by anterior spinal artery: Case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Spinal arteriovenous fistulas are rare entities. They often present with congestive myelopathy but are infrequently diagnosed as the cause of the patients’ symptoms. Only one such case has been described previously in Indian literature. We describe one such case who presented to us after a gap of 3 years since symptom onset and following a failed laminectomy where the cause was later diagnosed to be an intradural fistula in the filum terminale fed by the anterior spinal artery and review the available literature. PMID:24101838

Krishnan, Prasad; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Saha, Manash

2013-01-01

33

Acute Myelopathy Caused by a Cervical Synovial Cyst  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts of the cervical spine, although they occur infrequently, may cause acute radiculopathy or myelopathy. Here, we report a case of a cervical synovial cyst presenting as acute myelopathy after manual stretching. A 68-year-old man presented with gait disturbance, decreased touch senses, and increased sensitivity to pain below T12 level. These symptoms developed after manual stretching 3 days prior. Computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1-cm, small multilocular cystic lesion in the spinal canal with cord compression at the C7-T1 level. We performed a left partial laminectomy of C7 and T1 using a posterior approach and completely removed the cystic mass. Histological examination of the resected mass revealed fibrous tissue fragments with amorphous materials and granulation tissue compatible with a synovial cyst. The patient's symptoms resolved after surgery. We describe a case of acute myelopathy caused by a cervical synovial cyst that was treated by surgical excision. Although cervical synovial cysts are often associated with degenerative facet joints, clinicians should be aware of the possibility that these cysts can cause acute neurologic symptoms. PMID:25289127

Kim, Dong Shin; Cho, Yong Jun; Kang, Suk Hyung

2014-01-01

34

Cervical myelopathy in athetoid and dystonic cerebral palsy: retrospective study and literature review.  

PubMed

The early onset of degenerative cervical lesions has been well described in patients suffering from athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. Myelopathy can occur and aggravate of their unstable neurological status. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed and disrupted by the abnormal movements. This retrospective study was implemented to evaluate the symptoms, the anatomical findings, and the surgical management of seven patients from 20 to 56 years old suffering from cervical myelopathy and athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. The mean delay in diagnosis was 15 months and the mean follow-up was 33 months. The initial symptoms were spasticity, limbs weakness, paresthesias and vesico-sphinteric dysfunction. In addition to abnormal movements, imaging demonstrated disc herniation, spinal stenosis and instability. All patients were managed surgically by performing simultaneous spinal cord decompression and fusion. Two patients benefited from preoperative botulinum toxin injections, which facilitated postoperative care and immobilization. Strict postoperative immobilization was achieved for 3 months by a Philadelphia collar or a cervico-thoracic orthosis. All patients improved functionally with a mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score gain of 1.5 points, in spite of the permanent disabilities of the myelopathy. Complications occurred with wound infection, metal failure and relapse of cervical myelopathy at an adjacent level in one case each. All the previous authors advised against isolated laminectomy but no consensus emerged from the literature analysis. Spinal fusion is usually recommended but can be complicated by degenerative adjacent deterioration. Surgical management provides good outcomes but requires a long-term follow-up. PMID:20066444

Jameson, Raphael; Rech, Celia; Garreau de Loubresse, Christian

2010-05-01

35

Lumbar Laminectomy and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... precursor molecule to making bone. It derives the cells, it brings the cells from the tissues and the blood to the ... analogous process to healing of a fracture, where cells will come into the area, blood cells, basic ...

36

Hereditary myelopathies.  

PubMed

Hereditary myelopathies comprise a diverse group of disorders whose signs and symptoms include progressive spasticity, limb ataxia without additional cerebellar signs, impaired vibration and positional sensation, and a variable degree of neurogenic weakness, all suggesting spinal cord impairment. Recent progress in the understanding of hereditary myelopathies has revealed that many are systemic processes with widespread axonal degeneration. However, the concept of hereditary myelopathies remains clinically helpful in differentiating hereditary myelopathies from other potentially treatable myelopathies. In this article, hereditary myelopathies are divided into four categories: hereditary spastic paraplegias, motor neuron disorders, spinocerebellar and spastic ataxias, and metabolic disorders, including leukodystrophies. PMID:22810932

Hedera, Peter

2011-08-01

37

Pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with cervical dystonia and severe cervical dyskinesias with cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Surgical treatment of complex cervical dystonia and of cervical dyskinesias associated with cervical myelopathy is challenging. In this prospective study, the long term effect of chronic pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia and on combining the technique with spinal surgery in patients with severe cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy is described. Methods: Eight patients with a history of chronic dystonia who did not achieve adequate benefit from medical treatment or botulinum toxin injection participated in the study. Five patients had complex cervical dystonia with tonic postures and phasic movements. Three patients had rapidly progressive cervical myelopathy secondary to severe cervical dyskinesias and dystonia in the context of a generalised movement disorder. Quadripolar electrodes were implanted in the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus with stereotactic CT and microelectrode guidance. In the three patients with secondary cervical myelopathy, spinal surgery was performed within a few weeks and included multilevel laminectomies and a four level cervical corporectomy with spinal stabilisation. Results: Improvement of the movement disorder was noted early after pallidal surgery, but the full benefit could be appreciated only with a delay of several months during chronic stimulation. Three months after surgery, patients with cervical dystonia had improved by 38% in the severity score, by 54% in the disability score, and by 38% in the pain score of a modified version of the Toronto western spasmodic torticollis rating scale. At a mean follow up of 20 months, the severity score had improved by 63%, the disability score by 69%, and the pain score by 50% compared with preoperatively. There was also sustained amelioration of cervical dyskinesias in the three patients who underwent spinal surgery. Lead fractures occurred in two patients. The mean amplitude needed for chronic deep brain stimulation was 3.8 V at a mean pulse width of 210 µs, which is higher than that used for pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Conclusions: Chronic pallidal stimualtion is effective for complex cervical dystonia and it is a useful adjunct in patients with cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy who undergo spinal surgery. PMID:11796777

Krauss, J; Loher, T; Pohle, T; Weber, S; Taub, E; Barlocher, C; Burgunder, J

2002-01-01

38

Syphilitic myelopathy  

MedlinePLUS

Syphilitic myelopathy is a complication of untreated syphilis that involves muscle weakness and abnormal sensations . ... which is a complication of late or tertiary syphilis infection. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection. For ...

39

Tropical myelopathies.  

PubMed

A large number of causal agents produce spinal cord lesions in the tropics. Most etiologies found in temperate regions also occur in the tropics including trauma, herniated discs, tumors, epidural abscess, and congenital malformations. However, infectious and nutritional disorders occur with higher prevalence in tropical regions. Among the most common infectious etiologies are tuberculous Pott's disease, brucellosis, and neuroborreliosis. Parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, neurocysticercosis, and eosinophilic meningitis are frequent causes of nontraumatic paraplegia. The retrovirus HTLV-1 is a cause of tropical spastic paraparesis. Nutritional causes of paraparesis include deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate; endemic clusters of konzo and tropical ataxic myeloneuropathy are associated in Africa with malnutrition and excessive consumption of cyanide-containing bitter cassava. Other toxic etiologies of tropical paraplegia include lathyrism and fluorosis. Nutritional forms of myelopathy are associated often with optic and sensory neuropathy, hence the name tropical myeloneuropathies. Acute transverse myelopathy is seen in association with vaccination, infections, and fibrocartilaginous embolism of the nucleus pulposus. Multiple sclerosis and optic myelopathy occur in the tropics but with lesser prevalence than in temperate regions. The advent of modern imaging in the tropics, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, has allowed better diagnosis and treatment of these conditions that are a frequent cause of death and disability. PMID:24365434

Román, Gustavo C

2014-01-01

40

Spinal Stenosis after Total Lumbar Laminectomy for Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of long-term outcome and complications of selective dorsal rhizotomy is limited due to the relatively recent introduction of the procedure. We describe 2 patients with cerebral palsy who developed lumbar spinal stenosis several years after selective dorsal rhizotomy. These patients also had substantial lateral trunk sway during gait and walked for several years with limited assistive devices. This abnormal

Judith L. Gooch; Marion L. Walker

1996-01-01

41

Myelopathy in Marfan's syndrome  

PubMed Central

A patient with Marfan's syndrome and a myelopathy is reported, and the association of multiple spinal arachnoid cysts noted. It is proposed that the basic connective tissue defect in Marfan's syndrome may predispose to the formation of arachnoid diverticuli and that in this case spinal cord damage was the sequel. Images PMID:422966

Newman, P. K.; Tilley, P. J. B.

1979-01-01

42

A novel approach to improving the safety of patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy.  

PubMed

The anesthesiology field has recently embraced the use of checklists to obviate the need for long-term memory, improve safety, and achieve goals and tasks. These checklists serve to increase safety, improve consumer satisfaction, and reduce mortality and morbidity. Spinal surgery with the patient lying prone is associated with complex morbidities when there is inattention to proper positioning technique. Problems arising from malpositioning of the patient undergoing spinal surgery are attributed to body habitus and the body's contact with specialized and complex operating room table frames. Common problems associated with the prone position are brachial plexus injury, cervical spine nerve injuries, and postoperative visual loss. The purpose of this research project was to examine the use of a checklist for nurse anesthetists who provide care for patients undergoing spinal surgery. The checklist addressed specific positioning needs as a means of decreasing mortality and morbidity. It is theorized that the use of a checklist will serve as a systematic aid to memory and enable the anesthetist to adhere to proper positioning techniques in this patient population and thereby improve outcomes. PMID:24354076

Salkind, Edward M

2013-10-01

43

Posterior interbody fusion using laminectomy bone and transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDLaminectomy bone is used widely in posterolateral lumbar fusion, but not interbody fusion. No prospective evaluation of interbody fusion using bone grafts from the posterior neural arch in spondylolisthesis has been found in the literature. We prospectively studied series of patients operated on for lumbar spondylolisthesis to evaluate clinical improvement and bony fusion.METHODSForty-six patients were operated on for lumbar spondylolisthesis

György I Csécsei; Álmos P Klekner; József Dobai; Attila Lajgut; Judit Sikula

2000-01-01

44

Axial pain after posterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior operative approach has been the standard treatment for cervical compressive myelopathy, and axial pain after laminoplasty\\u000a or laminectomy as a postoperative complication is now gradually receiving more and more attention. The objective of this study\\u000a was to provide a systematic review of the current understanding of axial pain after cervical laminoplasty and laminectomy,\\u000a and summarize clinical features, influence factors

Shan-Jin Wang; Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

2011-01-01

45

Pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether either of two mechanical theories predicts the topographic pattern of neuropathology in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The compression theory states that the spinal cord is compressed between a spondylotic bar anteriorly and the ligamenta flava posteriorly. The dentate tension theory states that the spinal cord is pulled laterally by the dentate ligaments, which are tensed by

D N Levine

1997-01-01

46

Longitudinally extensive myelopathy in children.  

PubMed

When children present with acute myelopathy manifested by sensory, motor, or bowel and bladder symptoms, MRI of the neuraxis with contrast agent is the most important imaging study to obtain. Although occasionally normal, MRI often demonstrates signal abnormality within the spinal cord. Classically, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (?3 vertebral bodies in length) has been described with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), but alternative diagnoses should be considered. This pictorial essay reviews the differential diagnoses that may present with longitudinally extensive spinal cord signal abnormalities. Multiple inflammatory, infectious, vascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative etiologies can present with a myelopathy. Thus, radiologists can assist in the diagnosis by familiarizing themselves with the spectrum of diseases in childhood that result in longitudinally extensive signal abnormalities in the absence of trauma. PMID:25636706

Sorte, Danielle Eckart; Poretti, Andrea; Newsome, Scott D; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Izbudak, Izlem

2015-02-01

47

MR Findings in AIDS-Associated Myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The most common cause of spinal cord disease among patients with AIDS or those infected with HIV-1 is AIDS-associated myelopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine the MR characteristics of the spinal cord in this patient popu- lation and to correlate these findings with the clinical severity of myelopathy. METHODS: MR images of the spinal

June Chong; Michele Tagliati; Fabio Danisi; David M. Simpson; Scott W. Atlas

48

Myelopathy but normal MRI: where next?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most patients presenting with a spinal cord syndrome MR scanning has become the key investigation in establishing the diagnosis. However, myelopathy with normal spinal imaging remains a common clinical conundrum. In this review we discuss the diagnoses to consider for the neurologist presented with a patient with “MR normal myelopathy”. We will illustrate this scenario with a series of

S H Wong; M Boggild; T P Enevoldson; N A Fletcher

2008-01-01

49

Transverse myelopathy and radiculomyelopathy associated with pulmonary atypical Mycobacterium infections  

PubMed Central

Myelopathy is a well recognised but rare association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but has not been described with atypical mycobacteria. We report two cases of disabling myelopathy in association with pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium malmoense; the myelopathy is presumed to be a para-infectious phenomenon.?? PMID:11209108

White, V; Al-Shahi, R; Gamble, E; Brown, P; Davison, A

2001-01-01

50

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy following a L2–L5 Laminectomy and Fusion In Situ with Bone Morphogenic Protein  

PubMed Central

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a rare, transient cardiomyopathy, with symptoms mimicking myocardial infarction. It has been reported to typically occur in postmenopausal women and is often triggered by an intense physical or emotional event with stimulation of the sympathetic response; the exact etiology, however, is uncertain. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) is widely used in spinal fusions and has been associated with numerous perioperative complications. BMP is known to stimulate sympathetic pathways. In this paper, we present the case of a patient with a 7-hour episode of TC after a spinal fusion with bone morphogenic protein. The patient's symptoms resolved and long-term followup has been uneventful. This is the first paper to describe TC in the setting of spine or other major orthopaedic surgery and it suggests another possible area for further investigation in peri-operative events potentially associated with the use of bone morphogenic protein. PMID:23585979

Eubanks, Jason

2013-01-01

51

A Novel Endoscopic Technique to Suboccipital Decompression and Atlas Laminectomy for Chiari Malformation Type I: Technical Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In order to make Chiari decompression simple and less invasive while using direct visualization, a noval solely endoscopic procedure has been employed for the decompression of Chiari malformation type 1. Methods: Zero degree and 30°-angled lens endoscope have been used for the resections of occiput and C1 lamina, and to maximally widen the rim of craniovertebral junction (CVJ) bilaterally

Xiao Di; Mark Luciano

52

Successful resuscitation of a patient who developed cardiac arrest from pulsed saline bacitracin lavage during thoracic laminectomy and fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with a history of T12 burst fracture caused by a fall, and with progressive weakness and sensory loss in the left leg, survived a cardiac arrest after pulsed saline bacitracin lavage irrigation during a posterior spinal fusion.

Steven B. Greenberg; Mark Deshur; Yevgeniy Khavkin; Elden Karaikovic; Jeffery Vender

2008-01-01

53

Venous congestive myelopathy: a mimic of neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous congestive myelopathy is a progressive disorder frequently associated with arteriovenous fistulas, usually dural. By causing diffuse spinal cord enlargement and enhancement on imaging, it may simulate a neoplasm and prompt a biopsy. We evaluated the biopsy findings in seven such patients (M=5, F=2, mean age 59±11 years) who presented variably with progressive lower extremity weakness (86%), bowel and bladder

Fausto J Rodriguez; Brian A Crum; William E Krauss; Bernd W Scheithauer; Caterina Giannini

2005-01-01

54

Pure Spinal Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Intralesional Hemorrhage: A Rare Cause of Thoracic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Although cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures, they are rare in the spine. Most of spinal hemangiomas are vertebral origin and "pure" epidural hemangiomas not originating from the vertebral bone are very rare. Our spinal hemangioma case is extremely rare because of its "pure" epidural involvement and intralesional hemorrhage. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis from two months ago. His motor weakness was rated as grade 4/5 in bilateral lower extremities. He also complained of decreased sensation below the T4 sensory dermatome, which continuously progressed to the higher dermatome level. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated thoracic spinal tumor at T3-T4 level. The tumor was located epidural space compressing thoracic spinal cord ventrally. The tumor was not involved with the thoracic vertebral bone. We performed T3-5 laminectomy and removed the tumor completely. The tumor was not infiltrating into intradural space or vertebral bone. The histopathologic study confirmed the epidural tumor as cavernous hemangioma. Postoperatively, his weakness improved gradually. Four months later, his paraparesis recovered completely. Here, we present a case of pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma, which has intralesional hemorrhage. We believe cavernous hemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of the spinal epidural tumors. PMID:25110490

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Ryu, Young-Joon

2014-01-01

55

A Case Report of Reiter's Syndrome with Progressive Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Reiter's syndrome belongs to the family of spondyloarthropathies that usually present with a triad of arthritis, urethritis, and uveitis. The diagnostic criteria include clinical, radiological, and genetic findings, and the response to treatment. Nervous system involvement in Reiter's syndrome is extremely rare. We report here on a 36-year-old man who initially presented with progressive cervical myelopathy and was diagnosed as Reiter's syndrome 2 years later. The myelopathy was stable after treatment with methotrexate and sulfasalazine. This case suggests that Reiter's syndrome can present as progressive myelopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of treatable myelopathies. PMID:19513137

Kim, Soo Kyoung; An, Jae Young; Park, Min Soo

2007-01-01

56

Motor conduction measurement in myelopathy hand  

PubMed Central

Summary We studied the relationship between intramedullary high signal intensity (IMHSI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and motor conduction in the spinal cords of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients. There was no significant difference between the biceps or triceps central motor conduction times (CMCTs) of the patients who did and did not exhibit IMHSI, whereas the abductor pollicis brevis CMCT was significantly longer in the patients who exhibited IMHSI (p<0.05) than in those who did not. The CMCT of the abductor pollicis brevis is sensitive to the degree of damage in the cervical spinal cord. Hand dysfunction is a characteristic of CSM regardless of the cervical level affected by the condition. The motor fibers innervating the intrinsic muscles of the hand in the long tract of the cervical spinal cord are more sensitive than other motor fibers. For this reason, we consider that myelopathy hand is a characteristic impairment of CSM. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the hand motor cortex is useful for the evaluation of cervical myelopathy. PMID:25473737

Shibuya, Ryoichi; Wada, Eiji; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Hideki

2014-01-01

57

[A case of inflammatory demyelinative myelopathy after bone marrow transplantation].  

PubMed

We experienced a case of demyelinating, inflammatory cervical myelopathy after bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). A 28 years-old man who had been having skin and liver graft versus host disease (GVHD), developed paresthesia in the legs, and then, difficulty in walking. At the time of admission, weakness of the hands also appeared. There was no evidence of CML recurrence after bone marrow transplantation. The myelopathy was characterized by multiple abnormal spotty signal intensities in the cervical spinal cord on MRI and these were in part Gd-enhanced. A course of pulse-dose methylprednisolone was given, followed by prednisolone. The neurological deficits were improved to the degree of full recovery. The inflammatory myelopathy together with a plaque in the cerebral hemisphere, moderately delayed p-100 latency of VEP and elevation of myelin basic protein of the spinal fluid, is difficult to distinguish from that of multiple sclerosis. Although the precise mechanism of GVHD-myelopathy is not known, it is likely that the donor myelin-reactive T-lymphocytes were non-specifically activated with GVHD reaction and directed to a central nervous system. Tacrolimus might have precipitated the focal immune reaction by way of cytotoxic effects on brain capillaries. The "GVHD-myelopathy" presented here may thus be akin to multiple sclerosis in its immune mechanism. PMID:11086392

Saito, N; Tanaka, T; Matsuda, S; Inoue, M; Yamamoto, T

2000-06-01

58

Traumatic myelopathy: current concepts in imaging.  

PubMed

Traumatic myelopathy is a frequent complication after spinal trauma. The prognosis is often very poor, and the condition has important socioeconomic consequences. Knowledge of the epidemiology and imaging features is mandatory to ensure correct diagnosis and timely intervention. Imaging studies play an increasing role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this condition. Computed tomography remains the first-line investigation whenever spinal cord injury is suspected. It may indicate the presence of spinal cord lesions by visualizing vertebral lesions, but it cannot assess the spinal cord itself. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict possible spinal cord edema, hemorrhage, or transection, and it is essential in diagnosing and predicting the outcome of spinal cord injury. Follow-up should also be performed with MRI to evaluate long-term intramedullary changes. Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are promising new techniques that allow very early detection of spinal cord injury by measuring the diffusion within the spinal cord, thereby providing information on white matter integrity. However, technical limitations of these new techniques prompt further investigation to improve specificity. PMID:24896747

De Smet, Eline; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Parizel, Paul M

2014-07-01

59

Profile of compressive myelopathy as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

To evaluate spectrum of diseases causing compressive myelopathy and accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing these conditions, a total of 69 clinically diagnosed cases of compressive myelopathy were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and results were tabulated. Caries spine was the commonest condition (24.6%) followed by metastasis spine (17.4%), ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (7.8%), primary bone tumours, nerve sheath tumours, intramedullary tumours and rare conditions like epidural abscess, spontaneous epidural haematoma, subdural haematoma, epidural lipomatosis, etc. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing caries by magnetic resonance imaging was found to be 94%, 98% and 97% while that of metastasis spine was 91%, 98% and 97% respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for diagnosing compressive myelopathy. PMID:18705249

Yadav, Rohtas K; Agarwal, Shalini; Saini, Jitender

2008-02-01

60

Surfer’s Myelopathy: A Radiologic Study of 23 Cases  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Surfing is an uncommon cause of an acute nontraumatic myelopathy. This study describes the MR imaging characteristics and clinical correlates in 23 subjects with surfer’s myelopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective review of 23 cases of surfer’s myelopathy from 2003–2012. Spinal cord MR imaging characteristics and neurologic examinations with the use of the American Spinal Injury Association scale were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between MR imaging characteristics, American Spinal Injury Association scale, and clinical improvement. RESULTS All subjects (19 male, 4 female; mean age, 26.3 ± 7.4 years) demonstrated “pencil-like,” central T2-hyperintense signal abnormalities in the spinal cord extending from the midthoracic region to the conus with associated cord expansion and varying degrees of conus enlargement on spinal cord MR imaging within 24 hours of symptom onset. T1 signal was normal. Faint gadolinium enhancement was present in a minority. Although there was a strong correlation between initial American Spinal Injury Association score and clinical improvement (P = .0032), MR imaging characteristics were not associated with American Spinal Injury Association score or clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS Surfer’s myelopathy should be considered in the radiographic differential diagnosis of a longitudinally extensive T2-hyperintense spinal cord lesion. MR imaging characteristics do not appear to be associated with severity on examination or clinical improvement. PMID:23828111

Nakamoto, B.K.; Siu, A.M.; Hashiba, K.A.; Sinclair, B.T.; Baker, B.J.; Gerber, M.S.; McMurtray, A.M.; Pearce, A.M.; Pearce, J.W.

2015-01-01

61

Identifying Myelopathy Caused by Thoracic Syringomyelia: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Myelopathy is a form of neurological disease caused by compression of the spinal cord. Upper and lower quarter screens are commonly used in identifying myelopathy, although most of the screen components demonstrate poor or unstudied diagnostic value. The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnostic process in detecting syringomyelia, an intramedullary lesion that may cause myelopathy. The patient was a 47-year-old female with a thoracic syrinx that was discovered by spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following a complicated and delayed clinical diagnostic course. Following surgical intervention and a two-week inpatient rehabilitation stay, the patient was discharged using a rolling walker for ambulation and was performing most transfers with modified independence. A complicating pattern of signs and symptoms combined with a diagnostic process guided by poorly studied screen components demonstrates the diagnostic dilemma associated with identifying the cause of myelopathy within the thoracic spine. This also indicates the need for further investigation of individual and clustered components of the neurological screen to improve the ability to identify patients in need of complete imaging studies in a more timely fashion. PMID:19119392

Rene Hudson, Beverly; Cook, Chad; Goode, Adam

2008-01-01

62

Thalassaemia intermedia presenting with compressive myelopathy: a case report.  

PubMed

Extramedullary haematopoiesis leading to spinal cord compression is a rare complication of thalassaemia. An interesting case has been reported where a diagnosis of thalassaemia intermedia was made at the age of 35 years in a male patient with no history of blood transfusion, who presented with compressive myelopathy caused by extramedullary haematopoietic tissue in epidural space. The patient recovered after surgical decompression. PMID:24765699

Bhattacharyya, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Soumitra Kumar; Dhibar, Tapan; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Ghosh, Samarendra Nath; Bhadra, Ashok Kumar; Ghorai, Prabhat Kumar

2013-05-01

63

Dorsal column myelopathy following intrathecal chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Objective/context To describe a distinctive clinical and radiographic pattern of myelopathy following intrathecal chemotherapy. Myelopathy is a rare complication of intrathecal chemotherapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We present a 42-year-old female with T-cell ALL who developed a myelopathy primarily involving the dorsal columns. Method Case report and literature review. Findings Within 24 hours of an injection of intrathecal methotrexate, cytarabine, and hydrocortisone, the patient developed ascending lower limb numbness and balance difficulties progressing to the inability to ambulate. Clinical examination showed profound loss of lower limb proprioception and light touch sensation below T5, mild proximal limb weakness, but preserved pinprick and temperature sensation with intact bowel and bladder function. Initial thoracic and lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1 week revealed no abnormalities. However, repeat imaging at 6 weeks showed abnormal signal in the posterior cord with sparing of the anterior and lateral columns, diffusely involving the lower cervical cord through the conus medullaris. Dermatomal somatosensory-evoked potential (DSEP) conduction abnormalities were consistent with thoracic myelopathy. An empiric trial of high-dose intravenous corticosteroids during inpatient rehabilitation more than 6 weeks later produced no significant clinical improvement. Conclusion/clinical relevance Preferential and persistent dorsal column myelopathy is a distinctive clinical and radiographic presentation of a rare complication of intrathecal chemotherapy. The MRI abnormalities were initially absent, but evolved to consist of multi-level spinal cord T2 and STIR hyperintensity with regional gadolinium enhancement. DSEPs more accurately reflected the clinical level of spinal cord dysfunction. PMID:24090227

Joseph, Prathap Jacob; Reyes, Maria Regina

2014-01-01

64

Treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: outcomes and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some patients with fibromyalgia also exhibit the neurological signs of cervical myelopathy. We sought to determine if treatment\\u000a of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia and the patients’ quality of life.\\u000a A non-randomized, prospective, case control study comparing the outcome of surgical (n = 40) versus non-surgical (n = 31) treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia was

Dan S. Heffez; Ruth E. Ross; Yvonne Shade-Zeldow; Konstantinos Kostas; Mary Morrissey; Dean A. Elias; Alan Shepard

2007-01-01

65

Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route  

SciTech Connect

A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft.

Jain, Deepak, E-mail: deepakjain02@yahoo.com; Arora, Ankur, E-mail: aroradrankur@yahoo.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Radiology (India); Deka, Pranjal, E-mail: drpranjaldeka@gmail.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery (India); Mukund, Amar, E-mail: dramarmukund@gmail.com; Bhatnagar, Shorav, E-mail: drshorav@yahoo.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Radiology (India); Jindal, Deepti, E-mail: deepijindal@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Niteen, E-mail: drniteenkumar@gmail.com; Pamecha, Viniyendra, E-mail: viniyendra@yahoo.co.uk [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery (India)

2013-08-01

66

Cervical Compressive Myelopathy due to Anomalous Bilateral Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of cervical compressive myelopathy by an anomalous bilateral vertebral artery (VA) entering the spinal canal at the C1 level and compressing the spinal cord. A 70-year-old woman had been suffering from progressive gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that a bilateral VA at the V4 segment had abnormal courses and caused compression to the high cervical cord. VA repositioning was performed by anchoring a suture between the artery and around the arachnoid membrane and dentate ligament, and then, microvascular decompression using a Teflon sponge was done between the VA and the spinal cord. The weakness in the patient improved in the lower extremity after the operation. Anomalous VA could be one of the rare causes of cervical compressive myelopathy. Additionally, an anchoring suture and microvascular decompression around the VA could be a sufficient and safe method to indirectly decompress the spinal canal. PMID:24294461

Ha, Eun Jin; Lee, Soo Eon; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2013-01-01

67

Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women) with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women) with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, ?-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 67.3%. Conclusions We successfully developed a simple self-administered questionnaire to screen for cervical myelopathy. PMID:21092213

2010-01-01

68

Intracranial dural arterio-venous fistula presenting with progressive myelopathy.  

PubMed

Spinal dural arterio-venous fistula (DAVF) is rare and usually involves the thoracic segments. The classical presentation is a slowly progressive ataxia. Clinical presentation of intracranial DAVF depends on the site of the DAVF, as well as the vessels involved. Patients may present with pulsatile tinnitus, occipital bruit, headache, dementia, visual impairment as well as neurological deterioration distant from the DAVF as a result of venous hypertension and cortical haemorrhage. The authors present a rare case of progressive myelopathy secondary to an intracranial DAVF. PMID:22675039

Ogbonnaya, Ebere Sunny; Yousaf, Irfan; Sattar, Taufiq Mohammed

2011-01-01

69

Charcot arthropathy of the wrist associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Background?Charcot arthropathy is a cascade of destructive changes that can effect joints of both the axial and appendicular skeleton. The pathogenesis of this condition centers around the accumulation of minor traumatic events after the loss of normal joint sensation. The most frequently cited cause of Charcot arthropathy of the upper extremity is syringomyelia, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine should be obtained at presentation. Case Report?A 72-year-old woman presented with a painless right wrist deformity. Radiographs demonstrated advanced destructive changes of the radiocarpal joint. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed multilevel cervical spondylotic stenosis with cord deformation, but no evidence of syringomyelia. Neurological examination confirmed the presence of myelopathy. Literature Review?The most frequently cited cause of Charcot arthropathy of the upper extremity is syringomyelia, although pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, tabes dorsalis, leprosy, and other disorders affecting the nervous system have been reported to lead to this condition. Neuropathic arthropathy involving the wrist is a rare phenomenon with fewer than 20 published reports in modern literature. Clinical Relevance?Charcot arthropathy of the wrist is a rare but potentially disabling condition. The diagnosis of spondylotic myelopathy should be considered when evaluating a patient with this presentation. Evaluation consisting of a detailed neurological examination and advanced imaging of the cervical spine is warranted to identify the etiology. PMID:24353972

Jackson, Keith; Ramadorai, Uma; Abell, Brian; Devine, John

2012-12-01

70

Atlantodental Osteoarthritis as a Cause of Upper Cervical Myelopathy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Atlantoaxial instability frequently causes extrinsic cervical myelopathy via anterior displacement of the posterior arch of the atlas. However, upper cervical myelopathy resulting from atlantodental osteo-arthritis with the hypertrophic dens due to atlantoaxial instability is very rare. We present a case of upper cervical myelopathy secondary to atlantoaxial instability and atlantodental osteoarthritis. Although there was no atlantoaxial subluxation on the flexion and extension radiographies, hypertrophic changes of the anterior arch of the atlas with the dens axis and a fusion of the atlanto-dental joint resulting from atlantoaxial instability were determined on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Eren, Suat; Kantarci, Mecit; Deniz, Orhan

2008-01-01

71

Diffusion-weighted imaging in noncompressive myelopathies: a 33-patient prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is frequently used to differentiate cerebral lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate\\u000a the diagnostic value of DWI and the measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in noncompressive myelopathy explorations.\\u000a Thirty-three patients presenting a spinal cord syndrome due to a noncompressive myelopathy underwent spinal cord MRI between\\u000a September 2005 and November 2008. For each

Christophe Marcel; Stéphane Kremer; Jérémy Jeantroux; Frédéric Blanc; Jean-Louis Dietemann; Jérôme De Sèze

2010-01-01

72

Abnormal subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials indicate high cervical myelopathy in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with achondroplasia may have high cervical myelopathy due to stenosis of the cranio-cervical junction resulting\\u000a in neurological disability and an increased rate of sudden death. To detect myelopathy we recorded somatosensory evoked potentials\\u000a (SEPs) after median nerve stimulation in 30 patients with achondroplasia aged 13 months to 18 years (mean 6 years). In addition\\u000a to the conventional technique of

R. Boor; G. Fricke; K. Brühl; J. Spranger

1999-01-01

73

Clinical Features and Surgical Results of Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Soft Disc Herniation  

PubMed Central

Objective There are many causes of cervical myelopathy including trauma, degenerative conditions, tumors and demyelinating disorders. However, myelopathy caused by soft disc herniation might be seen rarely than the spondylosis caused by hard disc. Here, authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and results of cervical myelopathy caused by soft disc herniation. Methods From March 2010 to December 2010, 134 patients with degenerative cervical spinal disease were treated with anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion. Among them, 21 patients with cervical myelopathy secondary to cervical soft disc herniation were analyzed. Their clinical features, preoperative and, postoperative clinical results were evaluated by Nurick Grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (JOA) retrospectively. Preoperative clinical features including duration of myelopathy, pain intensity and postoperative clinical results including improvement rate of myelopathy and radiculopathy were retrospectively analyzed by Nurick Grade and JOA scale. We also evaluated correlation between the duration of symptom, type of the disc herniation, pain intensity and clinical outcome. Results Mean age was 49.7 and male was predominant. Gait disturbance with mild to moderate pain was most common symptom in clinical features. Severe pain was shown in only 9 cases, and the other 12 cases experienced mild to moderate pain. Mean duration of myelopathy was 1.18 month. The mean JOA scores were 11.22 before surgery and 14.2 after surgery. The mean Nurick grades were 2.78 before treatment and 1.67 after treatment. Neurologic status of mild or moderate pain group on preoperative state is worse than that of severe pain group. The patients with duration of myelopathy symptom (<1 month) showed lower clinical improvement rate than the patients with myelopathy over 1 month. Patients with median type of disc herniation showed poorer neurological status than those with paramedian type of herniation in preoperative state. Conclusion Authors reviewed the clinical features and surgical outcome of the cervical myelopathy secondary to cervical soft disc herniation. We presumed that patients of more than one month of symptom duration, mild to moderate initial symptom would be related with better postoperative improvement rate. PMID:24757475

Park, Sung Joo; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Sung Ho; Oh, In Ho

2013-01-01

74

Spinal epidural lipomatosis: a review of its causes and recommendations for treatment.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis is most commonly observed in patients receiving long-term exogenous steroid therapy, but can also be seen in patients with endogenous steroid overproduction, obesity, or idiopathic disease. With this condition, there is hypertrophy of the epidural adipose tissue, causing a narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of neural structures. A majority of patients will present with progressive myelopathy, but radicular symptoms are also common. Conservative treatment--weaning from steroids or weight loss--can reverse the hypertrophy of the adipose tissue and relieve the neural compression. If conservative management fails, surgery with decompressive laminectomy is also very successful at improving the patient's neurological symptoms. PMID:15191340

Fassett, Daniel R; Schmidt, Meic H

2004-04-15

75

Progressive Relapse of Ligamentum Flavum Ossification Following Decompressive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (T-OLF) is a relatively rare spinal disorder that generally requires surgical intervention, due to its progressive nature and the poor response to conservative therapy. The prevalence of OLF has been reported at 3.8%-26%, which is similar to that of cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The progression of OPLL after cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of OPLL is often shown in long-term follow-up. However, there have been no reports on the progression of OLF following surgery. We report a case of thoracic myelopathy secondary to the progressive relapse of OLF following laminectomy.

Ando, Kei; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Ukai, Junichi; Muramoto, Akio; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

2014-01-01

76

Regorafenib-induced transverse myelopathy after stereotactic body radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers large doses of radiation with great accuracy, but is known to have deleterious effects on the vascular compartment of irradiated tissues. Combining SBRT with targeted anti-angiogenesis agents, while able to increase therapeutic efficacy, may unexpectedly precipitate vascular-based toxicities. In this report, we describe a patient with colon cancer who developed transverse myelopathy from regorafenib 2 years after receiving SBRT for three metastatic liver lesions. Regorafenib (Stivarga), formerly BAY 73-4506, (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Montville, NJ) is a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with anti-angiogenic effects used in metastatic colon cancer. Its most common side effects are fatigue, diarrhea and hypertension. However, severe neurologic toxicity has not been previously recognized. Here, we illustrate a case in which the patient developed hyperalgesia and radicular pain 2 weeks after starting regorafenib. Several studies report an increased neurological toxicity when angiogenesis inhibitors are given after radiation therapy, and we postulate that the angioinhibitory effects of regorafenib accelerated subclinical microvascular injury from SBRT. This unexpected toxicity may be clinically relevant when giving targeted angiogenesis inhibitors after SBRT. PMID:25436137

Tian, Sibo; Nissenblatt, Michael; Goyal, Sharad

2014-12-01

77

Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy.  

PubMed

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223)]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients. PMID:24486081

Hou, Jia-Woei

2014-01-29

78

Sudden myelopathy secondary to therapeutic total-body hyperthermia after spinal-cord irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Hyperthermia is a new method of treatment receiving increasing clinical attention in cancer therapy. Its efficacy has been well demonstrated in animals, but its indications, contraindications, and appropriate place in cancer therapy have yet to be defined. We report three cases of acute myelopathy in patients undergoing hyperthermia after spinal-cord irradiation within the preceding two months. Post-mortem examination in one case revealed findings similar to those seen in myelopathy resulting from long-term irradiation. Several neurologic side effects have been reported previously with total-body hyperthermia - most commonly peripheral neuropathy, but not myelopathy. The mechanism of action of hyperthermia in cancer therapy (with or without prior irradiation) is unknown. The experience reported suggests that in some patients hyperthermia may potentiate radiation-induced damage to the spinal cord or otherwise interact to cause acute spinal-cord necrosis.

Douglas, M.A.; Parks, L.C.; Bebin, J.

1981-03-05

79

Surgical treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

There have been several reports on surgical interventions in patients with adult cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy; however, the long-term effectiveness of these interventions has not been demonstrated. We have performed surgical treatments--posterior fusion with wave-shaped rods and anterior interbody fusion with internal fixators-- in 20 patients. The present study included 17 of these patients, 16 men and 1 woman, and their mean follow-up period was 8.6 years (range, 5-15.5 years). One year after surgery, walking ability was improved in 14 patients. Pain in the upper extremities and muscle weakness of the deltoid were alleviated in all patients. One patient showed recurrence of myelopathy after 8.5 years' follow-up. Our surgical technique is effective in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy secondary to athetoid cerebral palsy, even in those with severe involuntary movements. Postoperative rigid external fixations are not required. PMID:11180900

Onari, K

2000-01-01

80

Idiopathic Ventral Spinal Cord Herniation: An Increasingly Recognized Cause of Thoracic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), where a segment of the spinal cord has herniated through a ventral defect in the dura, is a rarely encountered cause of thoracic myelopathy. The purpose of our study was to increase the clinical awareness of this condition by presenting our experience with seven consecutive cases treated in our department since 2005. All the patients developed pronounced spastic paraparesis or Brown-Séquard syndrome for several years (mean, 4.7 years) prior to diagnosis. MRI was consistent with a transdural spinal cord herniation in the mid-thoracic region in all the cases. The patients underwent surgical reduction of the herniated spinal cord and closure of the dural defect using an artificial dural patch. At follow-up, three patients experienced considerable clinical improvement, one had slight improvement, one had transient improvement, and two were unchanged. Two of the four patients with sphincter dysfunction regained sphincter control. MRI showed realignment of the spinal cord in all the patients. ISCH is probably a more common cause of thoracic myelopathy than previously recognized. The patients usually develop progressive myelopathy for several years before the correct diagnosis is made. Early diagnosis is important in order to treat the patients before the myelopathy has become advanced. PMID:25336997

Berg-Johnsen, Jon; Ilstad, Eivind; Kolstad, Frode; Züchner, Mark; Sundseth, Jarle

2014-01-01

81

Instrumented open-door laminoplasty as treatment for cervical myelopathy in 104 patients.  

PubMed

Treatment of multilevel cervical myelopathy remains a challenge. We report on a large series of cervical myelopathy patients treated with instrumented open-door laminoplasty. We retrospectively examined the medical records of 104 patients who had undergone instrumented open-door laminoplasty (titanium plate) for cervical myelopathy (minimum follow-up, 24 months). All patients had been myelopathic, 57 (54.8%) had stenosis, 39 (37.5%) had spondylosis, 66 (63.5%) reported gait disturbance, 18 (17.3%) had handwriting changes, 33 (31.7%) complained of deterioration of dexterity, 56 (53.8%) had grasp weakness, 7 (6.7%) had bowel and bladder complaints, 27 (26.0%) had a positive Hoffmann sign, 10 (9.6%) had sustained clonus, and 10 (9.6%) had a positive Babinski sign. Mean preoperative-to-postoperative improvement in Nurick grade was 1.47. Complications included 4 nerve root injuries (3.8%), 1 of which (at C5) was permanent, and 1 transient neurologic deterioration (<1%), 1 incidental durotomy (<1%), and 5 wound infections (4.8%). Four patients required anterior revision for persistent symptoms. Open-door laminoplasty with miniplate instrumentation is an effective, safe method for preventing progression of myelopathy with multilevel involvement while alleviating the need for multilevel fusion. PMID:19714281

Dimar, John R; Bratcher, Kelly R; Brock, Dylan C; Glassman, Steven D; Campbell, Mitchell J; Carreon, Leah Y

2009-07-01

82

Lateral and Dorsal Column Hyperintensity on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Patient with Myelopathy Associated with Intrathecal Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy-related myelopathy mimicking subacute combined degeneration (SCD) has rarely been reported. We encountered a 35-year-old female with sensory ataxia after intrathecal chemotherapy. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed localized abnormal signal areas in the lateral and dorsal white matter, mimicking SCD. Diffusion imaging showed restricted water diffusion and increased microstructural complexity, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed increased levels of myelin basic proteins, indicating demyelinating myelopathy. Advanced diffusion imaging can provide more information on the microstructure of chemotherapy-related myelopathy. PMID:23874296

Saito, Fumine; Hatano, Taku; Hori, Masaaki; Kawamura, Miwako; Sasaki, Makoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Hattori, Nobutaka

2013-01-01

83

Idiopathic spinal epidural lipomatosis: urgent decompression in an atypical case.  

PubMed

Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is very rare and frequently associated to chronic exogenous steroid use, obesity and Cushing syndrome. The idiopathic cases where no identifiable association with SEL are found constitute only 17% of all cases. The usual clinical manifestations of this entity consist of dorsal or lumbar pain with paresthesias and weakness in lower limbs, but acute symptoms of myelopathy are exceptional. We report a case of acute paraparesis and urinary retention caused by thoracic SEL in a 55-year-old male who did not have any recognized predisposing factor for this condition. Urgent surgical decompression was performed in order to relieve the symptoms. Slow but progressive improvement was assessed after surgery. We consider this case to be exceptional due to the needing to perform an urgent decompressive laminectomy to treat a rapidly progressive myelopathy caused by idiopathic SEL. PMID:17876611

López-González, A; Resurrección Giner, M

2008-09-01

84

Idiopathic spinal epidural lipomatosis: urgent decompression in an atypical case  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is very rare and frequently associated to chronic exogenous steroid use, obesity and Cushing syndrome. The idiopathic cases where no identifiable association with SEL are found constitute only 17% of all cases. The usual clinical manifestations of this entity consist of dorsal or lumbar pain with paresthesias and weakness in lower limbs, but acute symptoms of myelopathy are exceptional. We report a case of acute paraparesis and urinary retention caused by thoracic SEL in a 55-year-old male who did not have any recognized predisposing factor for this condition. Urgent surgical decompression was performed in order to relieve the symptoms. Slow but progressive improvement was assessed after surgery. We consider this case to be exceptional due to the needing to perform an urgent decompressive laminectomy to treat a rapidly progressive myelopathy caused by idiopathic SEL. PMID:17876611

Resurrección Giner, M.

2007-01-01

85

Cervical myelopathy in athetoid and dystonic cerebral palsy: retrospective study and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early onset of degenerative cervical lesions has been well described in patients suffering from athetoid or dystonic cerebral\\u000a palsy. Myelopathy can occur and aggravate of their unstable neurological status. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed and disrupted\\u000a by the abnormal movements. This retrospective study was implemented to evaluate the symptoms, the anatomical findings, and\\u000a the surgical management of seven patients

Raphael Jameson; Celia Rech; Christian Garreau de Loubresse

2010-01-01

86

Progressive ascending myelopathy: atypical forms of multiple sclerosis or what else?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinal cord can be affected by multiple heterogeneous disorders often difficult to diagnose. We describe ten patients\\u000a affected by a progressive ascending myelopathy with a poor prognosis. The patients, during the follow-up period, underwent\\u000a neurological examinations, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, hematological, microbiological, auto-antibodies screening, brain\\u000a and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroneurophysiological study. At disease onset spinal cord

Viviana NocitiAnna; Anna Paola Batocchi; Marco Luigetti; Amelia Conte; Vita Santa Lorusso; Silvia Roiati; Tommaso Tartaglione; Alessandra Del Grande; Mario Sabatelli

87

Methotrexate myelopathy with extensive transverse necrosis: Report of an autopsy case.  

PubMed

The patient was a 70-year-old woman with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma which showed a predominantly diffuse involvement of the bone marrow and kidney. Because atypical lymphocytes appeared in the cerebrospinal fluid, the intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX) and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) was repeated several times. The patient developed flaccid paraplegia 8 months after the beginning of intrathecal administration, and died 4 months later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive transverse necrosis involving the lower thoracic cord and marked vacuolar degeneration of the white matter of the cervical, upper thoracic and lumbo-sacral cord. Focal vacuolar degeneration of the white matter was also noted in the left parietal lobe. Although vacuolar degeneration of the white matter is a common feature in MTX myelopathy, extensive transverse necrosis is rare. In the present case, an overlapping of two mechanisms, that is, injury of vascular endothelial cells and the direct toxic effect of MTX and Ara-C on the white matter, probably played a crucial role in the pathogenesis of severe myelopathy. Because severe myelopathy occurs infrequently, considering the large number of patients receiving the intrathecal administration of MTX, it is possible that a constitutional predisposition or abnormal sensitivity to MTX was involved in the pathogenesis in the present patient. PMID:24985097

Shintaku, Masayuki; Toyooka, Nao; Koyama, Takashi; Teraoka, Shunsuke; Tsudo, Mitsuru

2014-12-01

88

Upper thoracic myelopathy caused by vertebral collapse and subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis: report of two cases.  

PubMed

We report two cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with upper thoracic myelopathy and a review of the literature. Clinical data of a 47-year-old woman (case 1) and a 54-year-old woman (case 2) are described. Case 1 showed a transverse-type myelopathy at the T2 segment level of the spinal cord and case 2 had the same type of myelopathy at the T4 segment level. Case 1 had anterior vertebral subluxation of C7 due to marked vertebral collapse and Case 2 had subluxation of T2 with vertebral destruction. These two patients had the mutilating type of RA with multilevel spontaneous fusion in the cervical spine. The lesions in the thoracic spine might be caused by the severe destructive inflammation that is characteristic in mutilating disease. The vertebral collapse might lead to subluxation of the upper thoracic vertebra, resulting in spinal cord compression. Upper thoracic subluxation might be caused by vertebral collapse due to RA and the increased motion as a compensation for decreased mobility caused by spontaneous fusion in the cervical spine. PMID:16228683

Nakamura, Chieko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Ishihara, Hirokazu; Sainoh, Hiroshi; Kimura, Tomoatsu

2004-01-01

89

Concomitant occurrence of cervical myelopathy, cerebral infarction, and peripheral neuropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by multiorgan involvement with diverse clinical presentations. Central nervous system involvement in neuropsychiatric syndromes of SLE (NPSLE), such as cerebrovascular disease and myelopathy, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE patients. The concomitant occurrence of myelopathy, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy in a patient with SLE has not yet been reported. We report on a 41-year-old woman with SLE who showed motor and sensory impairment with urinary retention and was diagnosed with cervical myelopathy and acute cerebral infarction by spine and brain magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral neuropathy by electrodiagnostic examination. Even though pathogenesis of NPSLE is not well elucidated, we assume that increased antibodies of anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), presence of lupus anticoagulant and hypertension are risk factors that have caused neuropsychiatric lupus in this patient. PMID:24855622

Kim, So-Yeon; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Suh, Jee-Hyun

2014-04-01

90

Neurogenic bladder following myelopathies: Has it any correlation with neurological and functional recovery?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To observe neurogenic bladder pattern in patients with myelopathy by performing urodynamic study (UDS) and to observe whether it has any correlation with functional and neurological recovery. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted with 90 patients with myelopathy, both traumatic and non-traumatic (males = 65) in a university tertiary research hospital in India between January 2011 and December 2013. Mean age was 33.5 ± 13.2 years (range 15-65 years), mean duration of injury was 82.63 ± 88.3 days (range 14-365 days) and mean length of stay (LOS) in the rehabilitation unit 42.5 ± 23.3 days (range 14-130 days). The urodynamic study was performed in all the patients to assess the neurogenic bladder pattern. Management was based on the UDS findings. Functional recovery was assessed using Barthel index (BI) scores and spinal cord independence measures (SCIM) scores. Neurological recovery was assessed using ASIA impairment scale (AIS). We tried to correlate neurogenic bladder patterns with recovery. Results: Fifty patients (55.6%) had overactive detrusor with 25 each had detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) and synergic sphincter. Thirty-eight patients had hypoactive/acontractile detrusor and two had normal studies. No significant correlation observed between neurogenic bladder pattern and change in BI scores (P = 0.696), SCIM scores (P = 0.135) or change in ASIA status (P = 0.841) in the study. Conclusions: More than half of the patients with myelopathies had overactive detrusor with or without dyssynergic sphincter according to the urodynamic study. Neurogenic bladder patterns had no significant correlation with functional and neurological recovery in these patients.

Menon, Nitin; Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B.; Khanna, Meeka; Kumar, Sushruth Nagesh

2014-01-01

91

Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy in a 15-year-old boy.  

PubMed

Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event. PMID:24905393

Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M

2014-09-01

92

[Myelopathy caused by tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula: a rare case report].  

PubMed

A 51-year-old man with myelopathy due to intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (dural AVF) is reported. At age 46, the patient experienced subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of the dural AVF and underwent embolization of the lesion at another hospital. At this time, the patient complained of numbness in his legs and showed paraplegic gait disturbance. MRI scan revealed swelling of the cervical spinal cord. Cerebral angiograms demonstrated the recurrence of tentorial dural AVF fed by bilateral meningohypopheseal trunks and the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Arteriovenous shunt (AV shunt) flow was drained into the anterior spinal vein. It seemed that the swelling of the spinal cord and myelopathy was caused by venous hypertension of spinal veins. After surgical interruption of the right petrosal vein which connected dAVF with cerebellar veins, AV shunt was obliterated successfully. Postoperative cerebral angiograms showed disappearance of dural AVF. The patient became ambulant and his cervical spinal cord appeared normal on the postoperative MRI scan. Surgical interruption of the draining vein was simple, effective and essential treatment. PMID:10642997

Yamaguchi, S; Oki, S; Mikami, T; Kawamoto, Y; Kuwamoto, K; Saito, T

2000-01-01

93

[Spontaneous ossification of the cervical spine after subtotal surgery spondylotic myelopathy].  

PubMed

Subtotal corporectomy without fusion (SCWF) is a misunderstood surgical procedure used in the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy. This clinical study was performed to evaluate the efficiency of the SCWF. Long term neurological status and cervical spine ossification were specially studied. Sixty-four patients, operated between 1990 and 2003, were evaluated. The average follow-up period was five years. To assess the severity of neurological symptoms, a functional seven-point classification scale was used. Discriminant analysis was applied as statistic. There was a significant correlation between outcome, functional preoperative score, age, duration of the compression and intramedullary lesion in NMR. After SCWF, no secondary cervical instability was observed. Conversely, we show, for the first time in the literature, that on the twenty-one patients who were the subject of late 3D CT scan, there exists a true rebuilding of the cervical bone with spontaneous fusion and respect of cervical cord decompression. We conclude that the SCWF is a safe and efficient treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. No fusion is required regardless of the number of levels, providing there is no preoperative instability. This surgical procedure which does not require any cervical immobilization considerably decreases surgical risks and costs imposed by the society. PMID:16465778

Born, J D

2005-01-01

94

Intramedullary Sarcoidosis Presenting with Delayed Spinal Cord Swelling after Cervical Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis.

Kwon, Du Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

2014-01-01

95

Intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after cervical laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:25535524

Kwon, Du Ho; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

2014-11-01

96

Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting as myelopathy: Case series and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare type of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Common presenting symptoms are related to hemorrhage. However, rarely these patients may present with myelopathy. We present two cases of DAVF presenting as rapidly progressive myelopathy. Two treatment options are available: microsurgical interruption of the fistula and endovascular embolization. These treatment options of DAVFs have improved significantly in the last decade. The optimal treatment of DAVFs remains controversial, and there is an ongoing debate as to whether primary endovascular or primary microsurgical treatment is the optimal management for these lesions. However, despite treatment a high percentage of patients are still left with severe disability. The potential for functional ambulation in patients with DAVF is related to the time of intervention. This emphasizes the important of early diagnosis and early intervention in DAVF. The eventual outcome may depend on several factors, such as the duration of symptoms, the degree of disability before treatment, and the success of the initial procedure to close the fistula. The usage of magnetic resonance imaging and selective angiography has significantly improved the ability to characterize DAVFs, however, these lesions remain inefficiently diagnosed. If intervention is delayed even prolonged time in rehabilitation does not change the grave prognosis. This review outlines the presentation, classication and management of DAVF as well as discussing patient outcomes. PMID:25516869

Gross, Robert; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Max; Dorbeistein, Curtis; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Khan, Muhib

2014-01-01

97

Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting as myelopathy: Case series and review of literature.  

PubMed

Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare type of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Common presenting symptoms are related to hemorrhage. However, rarely these patients may present with myelopathy. We present two cases of DAVF presenting as rapidly progressive myelopathy. Two treatment options are available: microsurgical interruption of the fistula and endovascular embolization. These treatment options of DAVFs have improved significantly in the last decade. The optimal treatment of DAVFs remains controversial, and there is an ongoing debate as to whether primary endovascular or primary microsurgical treatment is the optimal management for these lesions. However, despite treatment a high percentage of patients are still left with severe disability. The potential for functional ambulation in patients with DAVF is related to the time of intervention. This emphasizes the important of early diagnosis and early intervention in DAVF. The eventual outcome may depend on several factors, such as the duration of symptoms, the degree of disability before treatment, and the success of the initial procedure to close the fistula. The usage of magnetic resonance imaging and selective angiography has significantly improved the ability to characterize DAVFs, however, these lesions remain inefficiently diagnosed. If intervention is delayed even prolonged time in rehabilitation does not change the grave prognosis. This review outlines the presentation, classication and management of DAVF as well as discussing patient outcomes. PMID:25516869

Gross, Robert; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Max; Dorbeistein, Curtis; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Khan, Muhib

2014-12-16

98

Myelopathy Caused by Chronic Epidural Hematoma Associated with L1 Osteoporotic Vertebral Collapse: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Epidural hematoma associated with osteoporotic vertebral collapse has not been reported yet in the literature. We report a case of myelopathy caused by chronic epidural hematoma associated with L1 osteoporotic vertebral collapse and review the relevant literature. PMID:19461928

Oda, Itaru; Fujiya, Masanori; Hasegawa, Kyoichi; Terae, Satoshi

2008-01-01

99

[Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for a patient with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].  

PubMed

An 81-year-old female with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) was scheduled for transurethral lithotomy. She had had paresthesia and spastic paresis in the lower extremities for the past 15 years. The preoperative respiratory function test revealed a vital capacity of 1.3 l (58% of the predicted value). We selected combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for her to avoid postoperative respiratory complications due to general anesthesia. After placement of a thoracic epidural catheter, spinal anesthesia was achieved by administration of bupivacaine 7.5 mg, resulting in the sensory block level to T 6, five min later. The intraoperative blood pressure remained high at 150-200 mmHg, in spite of the administration of nicardipine. Postoperatively, neither the deterioration in the neurological findings of HAM nor the exacerbation of respiratory function was observed. The present report suggests that CSEA can be one of the choices of anesthesia for a patient with HAM. PMID:25199333

Yokomizo, Taishi; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Mishima, Yasunori; Ushijima, Kazuo

2014-08-01

100

Management of surgical splenorenal shunt-related hepatic myelopathy with endovascular interventional techniques.  

PubMed

We present a case with hepatic myelopathy (HM) due to a surgical splenorenal shunt that was successfully treated by endovascular interventional techniques. A 39-year-old man presented with progressive spastic paraparesis of his lower limbs 14 mo after a splenorenal shunt. A portal venogram identified a widened patent splenorenal shunt. We used an occlusion balloon catheter initially to occlude the shunt. Further monitoring of the patient revealed a decrease in his serum ammonia level and an improvement in leg strength. We then used an Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) to enable closure of the shunt. During the follow up period of 7 mo, the patient experienced significant clinical improvement and normalization of blood ammonia, without any complications. Occlusion of a surgically created splenorenal shunt with AVP represents an alternative therapy to surgery or coil embolization that can help to relieve shunt-induced HM symptoms. PMID:23323015

Wang, Mao-Qiang; Liu, Feng-Yong; Duan, Feng

2012-12-21

101

Comparison of Two Reconstructive Techniques in the Surgical Management of Four-Level Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

To compare the clinical efficacy and radiological outcome of treating 4-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with either anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or “skip” corpectomy and fusion, 48 patients with 4-level CSM who had undergone ACDF or SCF at our hospital were analyzed retrospectively between January 2008 and June 2011. Twenty-seven patients received ACDF (Group A) and 21 patients received SCF. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI) score, and Cobb's angles of the fused segments and C2-7 segments were compared in the two groups. The minimum patient follow-up was 2 years. No significant differences between the groups were found in demographic and baseline disease characteristics, duration of surgery, or follow-up time. Our study demonstrates that there was no significant difference in the clinical efficacy of ACDF and SCF, but ACDF involves less intraoperative blood loss, better cervical spine alignment, and fewer postoperative complications than SCF.

Li, FengNing; Li, ZhongHai; Huang, Xuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Fan; Shen, HongXing; Kang, YiFan; Zhang, YinQuan; Cai, Bin; Hou, TieSheng

2015-01-01

102

Chronic compressive myelopathy and progressive neurologic signs associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in a dog.  

PubMed

A 7 yr old castrated male Great Dane presented with a history of progressive myelopathy following the intramuscular injection of melarsomine dihydrochloride 8 wk previously. MRI revealed paraspinal and epidural abscesses at the 13th thoracic (T13) and first lumbar (L1) disc space. The dog's condition worsened despite medical management, necessitating surgical decompression. Surgical decompression resulted in rapid improvement of the patient's clinical signs. Histopathologic evaluation of the lesions revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation. Cultures of fluid and tissue within the lesions were negative for bacterial growth, and no infectious organisms were visualized histologically. Melarsomine-associated neurologic signs can be chronic and progressive in nature, presumably secondary to ongoing sterile inflammation that may result in spinal cord compression. PMID:24051262

Moore, Sarah A; Mariani, Christopher L; Van Wettere, Arnaud; Borst, Luke B

2013-01-01

103

Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Draining into Spinal Perimedullary Veins: A Rare Cause of Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of progressive myelopathy caused by intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula with venous drainage into the spinal perimedullary veins. A 45-yr-old man developed urinary and fecal incontinence and muscle weakness in the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed brainstem edema and dilated veins of the brainstem and spinal cord. Cerebral angiography showed a dural arteriovenous fistula fed by the neuromeningeal branch of the left ascending pharyngeal artery. Occlusion of the fistula could be achieved by embolization after a diagnostic and subsequent therapeutic delay. There was no improvement in clinical condition. For the neurologic outcome of these patients it is important that fistula must be treated before ischemic and gliotic changes become irreversible. PMID:17043439

Atamaz, Funda; Oran, Ismail; Durmaz, Berrin

2006-01-01

104

Immunohistochemical screening for viral agents in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with myelopathy.  

PubMed

Numerous cases of acute-onset progressive ataxia, hindlimb paresis and paralysis of unknown aetiology occurred during 1993 to 2003 in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) within the European Endangered Species Programme (eep). This study describes the immunohistochemical investigation of a possible viral aetiology of the "cheetah myelopathy". Antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1, canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and Borna disease virus were applied to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain and spinal cord sections from 25 affected cheetahs aged between three-and-a-half months and 13 years. Using the avidin-biotin complex technique, none of the antibodies gave positive immunosignals in either the brain or the spinal cord tissue. PMID:17056652

Shibly, S; Schmidt, P; Robert, N; Walzer, C; Url, A

2006-10-21

105

A Caucasian Australian presenting with human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We report the first known case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in an Australian Caucasian, a disease reported in Aboriginal and immigrant populations where the virus is often endemic. Case presentation A 41-year-old Caucasian Australian man had a 3-year background of progressive functional decline from a myelopathy with spastic paraparesis and sphincteric dysfunction. Conclusions Although studies have shown a very low prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I in the greater Australian population, increased focus on Aboriginal health, and the expanding diversity and integration of the Australian population means that presentation of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated disease is likely to increase. PMID:25416840

2014-01-01

106

INTERFERON BETA-1A TREATMENT IN HTLV-1-ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY/TROPICAL SPASTIC PARAPARESIS: A CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

Here a young patient (< 21 years of age) with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved. PMID:25229227

Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; da Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto; Souza, Victor Lima; Lopes, Natália Barbosa da Silva; da Silva, Diego Luz Felipe; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

2014-01-01

107

Antemortem diagnosis and successful management of noncompressive segmental myelopathy in a Siberian-Bengal mixed breed tiger.  

PubMed

A 10-yr-old female spayed mixed breed tiger presented for a 9-day history of acute and nonprogressive paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion suggestive of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy with regional spinal cord edema, decreased disk signal intensity at L2-L3, and mild intervertebral disk protrusion at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed no overt evidence of infection or neoplasia. Medical therapy was instituted, including corticosteroids and gastroprotectants as well as nursing care and physical therapy. The tiger began showing clinical improvement 2 wk after initiating treatment, progressing to the point where the animal was standing and intermittently walking. Three months after diagnosis, the tiger had regained muscle strength of its hind limbs and walked regularly with improving coordination. This case is the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful medical management of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a large exotic felid. PMID:24450082

Flower, Jennifer E; Lynch, Kate; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Welle, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Robert; Whittington, Julia K

2013-12-01

108

Is there any relationship between proinflammatory mediator levels in disc material and myelopathy with cervical disc herniation and spondylosis? A non-randomized, prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

The proinflammatory mediator (PIM) levels were assessed in surgically removed samples of herniated cervical intervertebral discs. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the levels of PIMs in disc material and myelopathy associated with cervical intervertebral disc herniation and spondylosis. The role of proinflammatory mediators in the degeneration of intervertebral disc and the inflammatory effects of disc herniations on radicular pain has been previously published. However, the possible relationship between PIMs and myelopathy related to cervical disc herniation and spondylosis has not been investigated before. Thirty-two patients undergoing surgery for cervical disc herniation and spondylosis were investigated. Surgically obtained disc materials, stored at 70°C, were classified into two groups: cervical disc herniation alone or with myelopathy. Biochemical preparation and solid phase enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassay (ELISIA) analysis of the samples were performed to assess the concentration of mediators in the samples. Very similar values of interleukin-6 were found in both groups whereas the concentrations of mediators were significantly higher in myelopathy group. This study has demonstrated that PIMs are involved in cervical intervertebral disc degeneration with higher concentrations in the samples associated with myelopathy. PMID:17476536

Asir, Alparslan; Cetinkal, Ahmet; Gedik, Nursal; Kutlay, Ahmet Murat; Çolak, Ahmet; Kurtar, Sedat; Simsek, Hakan

2007-01-01

109

Symptomatic lumbar disc protrusion causing progressive myelopathy in a low-lying cord.  

PubMed

Low-lying cord is an uncommon entity, and cord compression due lumbar disc disease is rarely encountered. We discuss our experience with a case of lumbar cord compression secondary to a large disc protrusion, which caused myelopathy in a low-lying/tethered cord. A 77-year-old woman with known spina bifida occulta presented with 6-week history of severe low back pain and progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-lying tethered cord and a large disc prolapse at L2/3 causing cord compression with associated syringomyelia. Medical comorbidities precluded her from anterior decompression, and therefore a posterior decompression was performed. She recovered full motor power in her lower limbs and could eventually walk unaided. She had a deep wound infection, which was successfully treated with debridement, negative pressure therapy (vacuum-assisted closure pump), and antibiotics. Six months after surgery, her Oswestry Disability Index improved from 55% preoperatively to 20%. Posterior spinal cord decompression for this condition has been successful in our case, and we believe that the lumbar lordosis may have helped indirectly decompress the spinal cord by posterior decompression alone. PMID:24353956

Srinivas, Shreya; Shetty, Rohit; Collins, Iona

2012-06-01

110

Feline ischaemic myelopathy with a predilection for the cranial cervical spinal cord in older cats.  

PubMed

All previous studies on feline ischaemic myelopathy (IM) have reported an acute onset of a single event with no recurrence of clinical signs. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and long-term follow-up data in cats presumptively diagnosed with cervical IM in the territory of the ventral spinal artery (VSA). Eight cats (four females and four males) were included with a mean age of 14 years and 2 months. Neurological status at the time of presentation ranged from ambulatory tetraparesis to tetraplegia with nociception present. Six cats had marked cervical ventroflexion. All eight cats were diagnosed with one or more concurrent medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (n = 2), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 2) and hypertension (n = 6). Median time to ambulation was 5.7 days (range 2-14 days). Long-term follow-up ranged from 7 months to 3 years and 3 months (median 1 year and 2 months). Five cats had no reported recurrence of clinical signs and 3/8 had a chronic relapsing disease course. One cat had an acute recurrence of clinical signs 4 months after the first event and was euthanased. Two cats had acute onsets of suspected intracranial infarctions, one of which had further suspected intracranial infarcts every 3 months and was euthanased after one of these. This study highlights the importance of performing ancillary diagnostic tests in older cats presenting with IM, particularly when VSA embolisation is suspected. PMID:24509256

Simpson, Katherine M; De Risio, Luisa; Theobald, Anita; Garosi, Laurent; Lowrie, Mark

2014-12-01

111

Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H becomes elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acutely worsening symptoms of compression myelopathy.  

PubMed

It is known that the severity of compression myelopathy sometimes worsens rapidly and results in poor functional recovery because of limited axonal regeneration. Levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H), which indicate axonal degeneration, are elevated in other neurological disorders. To our knowledge, there has been no examination of pNF-H levels in compression myelopathy. Therefore, we conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to evaluate pNF-H levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with worsening symptoms of cervical compression myelopathy. From January 2011 to March 2013, 51 samples of CSF were collected from patients at the time of myelography before spinal surgery. The indications for surgery were acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM) in eight, chronic compression myelopathy (CM) in six, and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) in 37 patients. The pNF-H levels were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean±standard deviation pNF-H value was 2127.1±556.8pg/ml in AM patients, 175.8±67.38pg/ml in CM patients and 518.7±665.7pg/ml in LCS patients. A significant increase in pNF-H levels was detected in the CSF of patients with AM compared with those with either CM or LCS. The clinical outcome of surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy was satisfactory in both AM and CM patients. Despite the limitations of small sample size and lack of healthy CSF control data due to ethical considerations, our results suggest that pNF-H in CSF can act as a biomarker that reflects the severity of AM. PMID:25065845

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakajima, Arata; Sonobe, Masato; Terajima, Fumiaki; Saito, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Fusako; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Yamazaki, Masashi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi

2014-12-01

112

Progressive myelopathy due to meningeal thickening in shunted patients: description of a novel entity and the role of surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Spinal cord compression due to meningeal thickening is a rare occurrence in shunted patients. Because of the long delay to\\u000a clinical onset, this complication has not been identified as yet.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  We report on nine cases of shunt-related progressive myelopathy due to meningeal thickening (SPMMT).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We reviewed our database of shunted children, for cases having developed progressive tetraparesis due

Matthieu Vinchon; Patrick Dhellemmes; Emmanuelle Laureau; Gustavo Soto-Ares

2007-01-01

113

The role of smoking status and collagen IX polymorphisms in the susceptibility to cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

We investigated a possible association of collagen IX tryptophan (Trp) alleles (Trp2 and Trp3) and smoking with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in 172 Chinese patients and 176 age- and gender-matched controls. The smoking status was evaluated by smoking index (SI). The CSM cases had a significantly higher prevalence of Trp2 alleles (Trp2+) than controls (19.8 vs 6.2%, P = 0.002), but the prevalence of Trp3 alleles (Trp3+) was similar between the two groups (23.3 vs 21.6%, P = 0.713). Logistic regression analyses showed that the subjects with Trp2+ had a higher risk for CSM. We thus analyzed whether smoking status influenced the association between Trp2 alleles and CSM risk. Among Trp2+ subjects with an SI less than 100, the smoking status did not influence the effect of risk for SCM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidential interval (95%CI) = 0.85-2.18, P > 0.05]. When SI increased from 101 to 300, the OR for CSM reached 3.34 (95%CI = 2.11-5.67, P = 0.011); when SI was more than 300, the OR for CSM reached 5.56 (95%CI = 3.62-7.36, P < 0.001). Among Trp2- subjects with SI more than 300, the OR for CSM increased 2.14 (95%CI = 1.15-4.07, P = 0.024). We found a significant association between the Trp2 alleles and CSM risk and smoking amplifies this risk, suggesting that smoking abstinence is important for reducing CSM occurrence in subjects with high genetic risk. PMID:22614351

Wang, Z C; Shi, J G; Chen, X S; Xu, G H; Li, L J; Jia, L S

2012-01-01

114

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis correlates with surgical outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Study design:Prospective study.Objectives:To investigate whether preoperative and postoperative changes of signal intensity (SI) and transverse area (TA) of the spinal cord reflect the surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).Setting:The Second Hospital of Tangshan, Tangshan, Hebei, China.Methods:In 45 consecutive prospective patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scale was used to quantify the neurological status at admission and of at least 12-month follow-up. Preoperative and postoperative TA of the spinal cord at the site of maximal compression and grayscale of signal intensity (GSI) were measured using the image analysis software. Ratio of transverse area (RTA) and ratio of grayscale of signal intensity (RGSI) were used to assess the extent of spinal cord re-expansion and extent of SI regression. Preoperative status and postoperative recovery were assessed in relation to MRI parameters preoperatively and postoperatively using univariate and multivariate analysis.Results:Higher baseline JOA scores were associated with larger TA. Greater recovery rate was associated with larger preoperative and postoperative TA, along with greater RTA. Recovery rate negatively correlated with RGSI and age. Higher baseline JOA score was associated with greater recovery rate. RGSI negatively correlated with RTA. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that the optimal combination of surgical outcome predictors included age, postoperative TA and RGSI.Conclusion:Quantitative MRI analysis in CSM may provide reliable information for the prediction of the postoperative outcome of CSM patients. MRI indicators of good outcome include the larger postoperative TA and greater RGSI.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.204. PMID:25403500

Sun, L-Q; Li, Y-M; Wang, X; Cao, H-C

2014-11-18

115

Immunopathogenesis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: Recent Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is a chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by spastic paraparesis, sphincter dysfunction, and mild sensory disturbance in the lower extremities. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence from host population genetics, viral genetics, DNA expression microarrays, and assays of lymphocyte function suggests that complex virus-host interactions and the host immune response play an important role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Especially, the efficiency of an individual's cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response to HTLV-1 limits the HTLV-1 proviral load and the risk of HAM/TSP. This paper focuses on the recent advances in HAM/TSP research with the aim to identify the precise mechanisms of disease, in order to develop effective treatment and prevention. PMID:23198155

Saito, Mineki; Bangham, Charles R. M.

2012-01-01

116

Myelopathy mimicking subacute combined degeneration in a Down syndrome patient with methotrexate treatment for B lymphoblastic leukemia: report of an autopsy case.  

PubMed

We report clinicopathological features of a 23-year-old woman with Down syndrome (DS) presenting with subacute myelopathy treated with chemotherapy, including intravenous and intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX), and with allogenic bone-marrow transplantation for B lymphoblastic leukemia. Autopsy revealed severe demyelinating vacuolar myelopathy in the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, associated with macrophage infiltration, marked axonal loss and some swollen axons. Pathological changes of posterior and lateral columns were observed from the medulla oblongata to lumbar cord. Proximal anterior and posterior roots were preserved. Cerebral white matter was relatively well preserved. There were no vascular lesions or meningeal dissemination of leukemia. Longitudinal extension of cord lesions was extensive, unlike typical cases of subacute combined degeneration (SACD), but distribution of lesions and histological findings were similar to that of SACD. DS patients show heightened sensitivity to MTX because of their genetic background. Risk factors for toxic myelopathy of DS are discussed, including delayed clearance of MTX despite normal renal function, alterations in MTX polyglutamation and enhanced folic acid depletion due to gene dosage effects of chromosome 21. Alteration of folate metabolism and/or vitamin B12 levels through intravenous or intrathecal administration of MTX might exist, although vitamin B12 and other essential nutrients were managed using intravenous hyperalimentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an autopsy case that shows myelopathy mimicking SACD in a DS patient accompanied by B lymphoblastic leukemia. The case suggests a pathophysiological mechanism of MTX-related myelopathy in DS patients with B lymphoblastic leukemia mimicking SACD. PMID:24661121

Satomi, Kaishi; Yoshida, Mari; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Okita, Hajime; Hosoya, Yosuke; Shioda, Yoko; Kumagai, Masa-Aki; Mori, Tetsuya; Morishita, Yukio; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Atsuko

2014-08-01

117

Donor-transmitted HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in a kidney transplant recipient--case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Clinical disease due to human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a retrovirus endemic in certain regions of the world, is rarely reported after solid organ transplantation. In 2009, universal deceased donor organ screening for HTLV-1 was discontinued in the United States. We report the first case of donor-derived HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in a kidney transplant recipient from the United States. The patient, who was HTLV-1-seronegative prior to transplantation, likely acquired HTLV-1 infection from a seropositive organ donor. In this era when screening of donors and recipients for HTLV infection is not mandatory, clinicians should be vigilant in recognizing the risk and potential occurrence of this donor-derived infection in recipients with epidemiologic exposures. PMID:25138148

Ramanan, P; Deziel, P J; Norby, S M; Yao, J D; Garza, I; Razonable, R R

2014-10-01

118

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: Viral load and muscle tone are correlated  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infections are associated with varying degrees of HTLV-1 viral load and spasticity. Increased viral load is associated with higher risk of developing HTLV-1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The authors performed a cross-sectional study of 24 people with HAM/TSP in Lima, Perú, to determine if higher HTLV-1 viral load was correlated with increased muscle tone, measured with a device providing quantitative spasticity assessment (QSA). Median HTLV-1 viral load was 17.0 copies/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells and QSA value was 39.9 Newton-meters/radian. HTLV-1 viral load was significantly correlated with QSA value (Spearman rho = .48, P = .02), suggesting viral load may play a role in expression of symptomatic neurologic disease. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if treatments that reduce viral load will reduce muscle tone. PMID:17162662

Zunt, JR; Montano, SM; Beck, I; Alarcón, JOV; Frenkel, LM; Bautista, CT; Price, R; Longstreth, WT

2009-01-01

119

The Role of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV1)- Infected Dendritic Cells in the Development of HTLV1- Associated Myelopathy\\/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP) is closely associated with the activation of T cells which are HTLV-1 specific but may cross-react with neural antigens (Ags). Immature dendritic cells (DCs), differentiated from normal donor monocytes by using recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and recombinant inter- leukin-4, were pulsed with HTLV-1 in vitro. The pulsed

MASAHIKO MAKINO; SATOSHI SHIMOKUBO; SHIN-ICHI WAKAMATSU; SHUJI IZUMO; MASANORI BABA

120

Frequent Clonal Proliferation of Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV1)Infected T Cells in HTLV1Associated Myelopathy (HAM-TSP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) integrates its proviruses into random sites in host chromosomal DNA. Random integration of the proviruses was observed in asymp- tomatic HTLV-1 carriers and patients with HTLV-l-associ- ated myelopathy (HAM\\/TSP). However, clonal integration has been reported in patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), including that in'the smoldering, chronic, and acute states, indicating clonal expansion

Y. Furukawa; J. Fujisawa; M. Osame; M. Toit; S. Sonoda; R. Kubota; S. Ijichi; M. Yoshida

121

Do intramedullary spinal cord changes in signal intensity on MRI affect surgical opportunity and approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some controversy still exists over the optimal treatment time and the surgical approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification\\u000a of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The aim of the current study was first to analyze the effect of intramedullary\\u000a spinal cord changes in signal intensity (hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging and hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging) on\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on

Qizhi SunHongwei; Hongwei Hu; Ying Zhang; Yang Li; Linwei Chen; Huajiang Chen; Wen Yuan

122

Cox Decompression Manipulation and Guided Rehabilitation of a Patient With a Post Surgical C6-C7 Fusion With Spondylotic Myelopathy and Concurrent L5-S1 Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe combined treatment utilizing Cox distraction manipulation and guided rehabilitation for a patient with spine pain and post-surgical C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and L5-S1 radiculopathy. Clinical features A 38-year-old man presented to a chiropractic clinic with neck pain and a history of an anterior cervical spine plate fusion at C6-7 after a work related accident 4 years earlier. He had signs and symptoms of spondolytic myelopathy and right lower back, right posterior thigh pain and numbness. Intervention and outcome The patient was treated with Cox technique and rehabilitation. The patient experienced a reduction of pain on a numeric pain scale from 8/10 to 3/10. The patient was seen a total of 12 visits over 3 months. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions A patient with a prior C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and concurrent L5-S1 radiculopathy improved after a course of rehabilitation and Cox distraction manipulation. Further research is needed to establish its efficiency.

Joachim, George C.

2014-01-01

123

Foraminotomy  

MedlinePLUS

... or laminectomy ). The surgeon may do a spinal fusion to make sure your spinal column is stable ... spine surgery. If you had foraminotomy and spinal fusion, the spinal column above and below the fusion ...

124

[Elusive thoracic spine tumour. Report of an exceptional case and literature review.  

PubMed

Elusive tumours in the spine, most of them schwannomas of the cauda equina, have been reported very rarely. We present the case of a woman with a preoperative radiological diagnosis of schwannoma at D10 level in whom a laminectomy was performed to remove the tumour. Although the laminectomy was correctly positioned, there was no tumour upon opening the dura and the laminectomy had to be extended cephalad to find and remove the tumour. Mobile intradural extramedullary spinal tumours, the so-called «elusive tumours», occur very rarely, and it is exceptional when they are located in the thoracic spine. Knowing preoperatively which tumour is going to behave in this way is almost impossible. However, in the reported cases there are common features such as symptoms changing with different body positions, small tumour size and weak attachment to nearby structures. Neurosurgeons must be able to resolve this situation when confronted with a negative correctly-positioned laminectomy. PMID:25441419

Botana-Fernández, Marcos; Cabezudo-Artero, José Manuel; Royano-Sánchez, Manuel; García-Moreno, Rafael; Murias-Quintana, Eduardo; Ortega-Martínez, Marta

2014-11-13

125

En plaque intradural extramedullary spinal tuberculoma and concurrent intracranial tuberculomas: paradoxical response to antituberculous therapy. Case report.  

PubMed

Spinal intradural extramedullary tuberculoma is a rare entity. Rarer still are extensive en plaque intradural extramedullary tuberculomas occurring concurrently with multiple intracranial tuberculomas as a paradoxical response to chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB). The authors describe the case of a 21-year-old man who was treated for tuberculous meningitis. Three months after the episode of meningitis, while undergoing chemotherapy for TB, he developed features of thoracic myelopathy. Investigations revealed an extensive en plaque intradural extramedullary lesion spanning seven segments in the lower thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple asymptomatic intracranial tuberculomas. Even after further treatment with antituberculous chemotherapy was initiated, the lesion failed to respond. The authors performed a laminectomy and excised the en plaque intradural extramedullary lesion. The patient's condition responded well to this treatment. Although the appearance of intracranial tuberculoma as a paradoxical response to chemotherapy has been previously reported, no authors have reported on the development of an extensive en plaque intradural extramedullary tuberculoma in conjunction with asymptomatic multiple intracranial tuberculomas as a paradoxical response. In cases in which patients present with compressive myelopathy following therapy for tuberculous meningitis, it is important to consider in the differential diagnosis that intradural extramedullary tuberculoma may be a paradoxical response to chemotherapy. The authors' experience and their review of the literature indicate that surgery has a definitive role to play in the management of spinal intradural extramedullary tuberculoma. PMID:17330587

Muthukumar, Natarajan; Sureshkumar, Venkatachalam; Ramesh, Vengalathur Ganesan

2007-02-01

126

Juvenile Xanthogranuloma of adult spine: A rare case and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Juvenile Xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare disorder of central nervous system. It rarely produces compressive myelopathy. On reviewing world literature, we could find only nine cases of this disease involving spine and of which only four cases were in adults’ i.e., 18 years and above. We are presenting a case of Spinal JXG in an 18-year-old male with thoracic compressive myelopathy presenting as short duration progressive paraparesis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Spine showed mass lesion in epidural space compressing cord from behind without any bony involvement at D7 to D10 vertebral segment. It was isointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 with no contrast enhancement. D7 to D10 Laminectomy with complete excision of firm epidural mass was carried out. The histopathology with tumor markers confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. Post-operative neurological recovery in this patient was good. His power improved to grade 5/5 with decreased spasticity. Follow-up MRI at 3 months showed no residual tumor. This case appears to be the first in the series with entirely extradural component in adult thoracic spine.

Purohit, Devendra; Chanduka, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Vinod; Mittal, Radhey Shyam; Singhvi, Shashi

2014-01-01

127

Posterior Epidural Migration of Sequestrated Cervical Disc Fragment: Case Series  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study was undertaken to delineate the characteristics of non-traumatic sequestrated epidurally migrated cervical disc prolapse. Purpose To present first case series of eight such cases diagnosed preoperatively and to discuss their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and their management. Overview of Literature Non-traumatic spontaneous migration of the sequestrated disc fragment epidurally behind cervical vertebral body is rare. Only ten cases have been reported in literature. Methods Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of these 8 cases are presented. In six cases their clinical picture was suggestive of cervical myelopathy. MRI scan showed single level epidural migrated disc behind body of C4, C6, and C7 in six patients and two cases with multiple levels (C5-C6). In six cases, anterior corpectomy with excision of the disc was performed and the seventh patient underwent dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient chose not to undergo surgery. Results T1 images of the MRI scan showed an isointense signal in all the 8 cases. T2 images revealed a varying intensity. In six cases who underwent anterior corpectomy, there was a rent in the posterior longitudinal ligament. Among those in two cases multiple disc fragments were seen. In the rest four cases, a single large fragment was observed. These patients improved after anterior corpectomy and disc excision. There was no improvement in the patient who had undergone dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient who refused surgery progressively deteriorated. Conclusions We opine that MRI scan especially T1 images are useful in these cases. We prefer to treat these cases through anterior corpectomy with excision of the sequestrated disc which proved to result in excellent outcome. PMID:22164316

Kumar, Gopalan Senthil; Mahesha, Kanthila Bhat

2011-01-01

128

HIF-1? Polymorphism in the Susceptibility of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy and Its Outcome after Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of hypoxia-inducible factor1 ? (HIF-1?) and the susceptibility to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and its outcome after surgical treatment. Method A total of 230 CSM patients and 284 healthy controls were recruited. All patients received anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACF) and were followed for 12 months. The genotypes for two HIF-1? variants (1772C>T and 1790G>A) were determined. Results In the present study, we found that the HIF-1? polymorphism at 1790G>A significantly affects the susceptibility to CSM and its clinical features, including severity and onset age. In addition, the 1790A>G polymorphism also determines the prognosis of CSM patients after ACF treatment. The GG genotype of 1790G>A polymorphism is associated with a higher risk to develop CSM, higher severity and earlier onset age. More importantly, we found that the 1790G>A polymorphism determines the clinical outcome in CSM patients who underwent ACF treatment. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the HIF-1? 1790G>A polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to CSM and can be used as predictor for the clinical outcome in CSM patients receiving ACF treatment. PMID:25401740

Wang, Zhan-Chao; Hou, Xu-Wei; Shao, Jiang; Ji, Yong-Jing; Li, Lulu; Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Si-Ming; Mao, Yu-Lun; Zhang, Hao-Jie; Zhang, Ping-Chao; Lu, Hua

2014-01-01

129

Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Disc Herniation at the Segment of Existing Osteochondroma in a Patient with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses  

PubMed Central

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a benign hereditary disorder characterized by multiple osteochondromas. Osteochondroma appears occasionally in the spinal column as a part of HME. A 37-year-old man presented with a history of HME and cervical compressive myelopathy caused by intraspinal osteochondroma arising from the lamina of the C5 and disc herniation at the C5-6. He was treated by open-door laminoplasty at the C5 and C6 with excision of the tumor. The neurological symptoms were immediately relieved after surgery. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a sufficient decompression of the spinal cord with a spontaneous regression of the herniated disc at one year after surgery. There was no recurrence of the tumor and no appearance of kyphosis and segmental instability of the cervical spine on postoperative imaging studies for three years after surgery. The patient could be successfully treated by laminoplasty with excision of the tumor and without removal of the herniated disc. PMID:25558330

Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Senba, Hideyuki; Kitamura, Takahiro; Komiya, Norihiro; Shidahara, Satoshi

2014-01-01

130

Hemifacial hyperhidrosis associated with ipsilateral/contralateral cervical disc herniation myelopathy. Functional considerations on how compression pattern determines the laterality  

PubMed Central

Summary Sweating is an important mechanism for ensuring constant thermoregulation, but hyperhidrosis may be disturbing. We present five cases of hemifacial hyperhidrosis as a compensatory response to an/hypohidrosis caused by cervical disc herniation. All the patients complained of hemifacial hyperhidrosis, without anisocoria or blepharoptosis. Sweat function testing and thermography confirmed hyperhidrosis of hemifacial and adjacent areas. Neck MRI showed cervical disc herniation. Three of the patients had lateral compression with well-demarcated hypohidrosis below the hyperhidrosis on the same side as the cervical lesion. The rest had paramedian compression with poorly demarcated hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis on the contralateral side. Although MRI showed no intraspinal pathological signal intensity, lateral dural compression might influence the circulation to the sudomotor pathway, and paramedian compression might influence the ipsilateral sulcal artery, which perfuses the sympathetic descending pathway and the intermediolateral nucleus. Sweat function testing and thermography should be performed to determine the focus of the hemifacial hyperhidrosis, and the myelopathy should be investigated on both sides. PMID:25014051

Iwase, Satoshi; Inukai, Yoko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sato, Maki; Sugenoya, Junichi

2014-01-01

131

Tandem spinal stenosis: a case of stenotic cauda equina syndrome following cervical decompression and fusion for spondylotic cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Tandem spinal stenosis is a clinical phenomenon which may cause a functional loss related to neurologic compression in numerous areas of the spinal cord. In this phenomenon, the second area of symptomatic neurologic insult is not revealed until the primary symptomatic area has been treated. This case describes a 71-year-old male referred to physical therapy 4 weeks following a combined anterior/posterior C3/4 decompression and fusion for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Approximately 8 weeks post-operatively (4 weeks after initiation of physical therapy), the patient began to complain of bilateral lower extremity weakness, primarily with climbing stairs. At 12 weeks post-operatively, the patient developed bowel incontinence and saddle paresthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple levels of critical stenosis of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine, which resulted in referral for surgical intervention. Following surgical decompression there was complete recovery of lower extremity strength, saddle area sensation and bowel function. This case highlights the need for the clinician to remain vigilant for concomitant pathology despite successful surgical intervention. A thorough knowledge of the presentation of various spinal disorders, as well as a thorough neurologic examination, is required to accurately recognize both candid and subtle red flags requiring immediate referral for surgical intervention. PMID:23372394

Swanson, Brian T

2012-01-01

132

Cervical myelopathy caused by disc herniation at the segment of existing osteochondroma in a patient with hereditary multiple exostoses.  

PubMed

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a benign hereditary disorder characterized by multiple osteochondromas. Osteochondroma appears occasionally in the spinal column as a part of HME. A 37-year-old man presented with a history of HME and cervical compressive myelopathy caused by intraspinal osteochondroma arising from the lamina of the C5 and disc herniation at the C5-6. He was treated by open-door laminoplasty at the C5 and C6 with excision of the tumor. The neurological symptoms were immediately relieved after surgery. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a sufficient decompression of the spinal cord with a spontaneous regression of the herniated disc at one year after surgery. There was no recurrence of the tumor and no appearance of kyphosis and segmental instability of the cervical spine on postoperative imaging studies for three years after surgery. The patient could be successfully treated by laminoplasty with excision of the tumor and without removal of the herniated disc. PMID:25558330

Ikuta, Ko; Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Senba, Hideyuki; Kitamura, Takahiro; Komiya, Norihiro; Shidahara, Satoshi

2014-12-01

133

Tax mutation associated with tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia virus type I-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed Central

Tumaco, Colombia, is an area with elevated rates of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We have identified a mutation in nucleotide 7959 of the tax gene of 14 Tumaco HTLV-I isolates (14 positive of 14 tested) that was present in 5 of 14 (35%) TSP/HAM patients from Japan and in 8 of 11 (72%) TSP/HAM patients from other geographic locations. In contrast, this mutation was found in only 2 of 21 (9.5%) HTLV-I-infected subjects outside of Tumaco who did not have TSP/HAM. tax clones with nucleotide mutations including one at nucleotide 7959 showed a greater ability to transactivate the HTLV-I U3 promoter. However, this effect was not observed when two clones that differed only in nucleotide 7959 were compared. These results suggest that HTLV-I-infected individuals carrying isolates with this tax mutation are at higher risk for developing TSP/HAM. PMID:7884912

Renjifo, B; Borrero, I; Essex, M

1995-01-01

134

Tax mutation associated with tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia virus type I-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

Tumaco, Colombia, is an area with elevated rates of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We have identified a mutation in nucleotide 7959 of the tax gene of 14 Tumaco HTLV-I isolates (14 positive of 14 tested) that was present in 5 of 14 (35%) TSP/HAM patients from Japan and in 8 of 11 (72%) TSP/HAM patients from other geographic locations. In contrast, this mutation was found in only 2 of 21 (9.5%) HTLV-I-infected subjects outside of Tumaco who did not have TSP/HAM. tax clones with nucleotide mutations including one at nucleotide 7959 showed a greater ability to transactivate the HTLV-I U3 promoter. However, this effect was not observed when two clones that differed only in nucleotide 7959 were compared. These results suggest that HTLV-I-infected individuals carrying isolates with this tax mutation are at higher risk for developing TSP/HAM. PMID:7884912

Renjifo, B; Borrero, I; Essex, M

1995-04-01

135

Characteristics of Spondylotic Myelopathy on 3D Driven-Equilibrium Fast Spin Echo and 2D Fast Spin Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

In patients with spinal stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine can be improved by using 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences to provide a high-resolution assessment of osseous and ligamentous structures. However, it is not yet clear whether 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences adequately evaluate the spinal cord itself. As a result, they are generally supplemented by additional 2D fast spin echo sequences, adding time to the examination and potential discomfort to the patient. Here we investigate the hypothesis that in patients with spinal stenosis and spondylotic myelopathy, 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences can characterize cord lesions equally well as 2D fast spin echo sequences. We performed a retrospective analysis of 30 adult patients with spondylotic myelopathy who had been examined with both 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences and 2D fast spin echo sequences at the same scanning session. The two sequences were inspected separately for each patient, and visible cord lesions were manually traced. We found no significant differences between 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo sequences in the mean number, mean area, or mean transverse dimensions of spondylotic cord lesions. Nevertheless, the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of cord lesions was decreased on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences compared to 2D fast spin echo sequences. These findings suggest that 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences do not need supplemental 2D fast spin echo sequences for the diagnosis of spondylotic myelopathy, but they may be less well suited for quantitative signal measurements in the spinal cord. PMID:25025170

Abdulhadi, Mike A.; Perno, Joseph R.; Melhem, Elias R.; Nucifora, Paolo G. P.

2014-01-01

136

Acute spontaneous cervical disc herniation causing rapidly progressive myelopathy in a patient with comorbid ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical disc herniation are commonly encountered neurosurgical conditions. Here we present an unusual case of nontraumatic rapidly progressive myelopathy due to cervical disc herniation with comorbid OPLL and conduct a literature review focusing on the frequency and management of disc herniations with OPLL. Case Description: A 52-year-old healthy female presented with a 72-h history of rapid progression of dense quadriparesis with sensory deficits, with a precedent 4-week history of nontraumatic midline neck pain. Clinical examination revealed profound motor deficits below the C5 myotome. Spinal neuroimaging revealed OPLL (computed tomography [CT]) and a cervical disc herniation spanning from C4/5 to C5/6 with significant retrovertebral disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Operative management involved an anterior cervical corpectomy and instrumented fusion, with removal of both the sequestered disc material and the locally compressive OPLL. The patient recovered full motor function and independent ambulation with no residual signs or symptoms of myelopathy at the time of discharge. Conclusion: This unique case of a spontaneous cervical disc herniation in the context of OPLL causing rapidly progressive myelopathy illustrates the complementarity of CT and MRI in diagnosing the underlying cause of a rapidly progressive neurologic deficit in the absence of antecedent trauma. Though the optimal surgical management of such pathology remains uncertain; in this case, the anterior approach was motivated by the significant retrovertebral ventrally compressive sequestrum, and provided for excellent neurologic outcome. This article also reviews the occurrence/management of such acute cervical discs with OPLL. PMID:25289163

Westwick, Harrison J.; Goldstein, Christina L.; Shamji, Mohammed F.

2014-01-01

137

CSF CXCL10, CXCL9, and Neopterin as Candidate Prognostic Biomarkers for HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare chronic neuroinflammatory disease. Since the disease course of HAM/TSP varies among patients, there is a dire need for biomarkers capable of predicting the rate of disease progression. However, there have been no studies to date that have compared the prognostic values of multiple potential biomarkers for HAM/TSP. Methodology/Principal Findings Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1-infected control subjects were obtained and tested retrospectively for several potential biomarkers, including chemokines and other cytokines, and nine optimal candidates were selected based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Next, we evaluated the relationship between these candidates and the rate of disease progression in HAM/TSP patients, beginning with a first cohort of 30 patients (Training Set) and proceeding to a second cohort of 23 patients (Test Set). We defined “deteriorating HAM/TSP” as distinctly worsening function (?3 grades on Osame's Motor Disability Score (OMDS)) over four years and “stable HAM/TSP” as unchanged or only slightly worsened function (1 grade on OMDS) over four years, and we compared the levels of the candidate biomarkers in patients divided into these two groups. The CSF levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, and neopterin were well-correlated with disease progression, better even than HTLV-1 proviral load in PBMCs. Importantly, these results were validated using the Test Set. Conclusions/Significance As the CSF levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin were the most strongly correlated with rate of disease progression, they represent the most viable candidates for HAM/TSP prognostic biomarkers. The identification of effective prognostic biomarkers could lead to earlier detection of high-risk patients, more patient-specific treatment options, and more productive clinical trials. PMID:24130912

Sato, Tomoo; Coler-Reilly, Ariella; Utsunomiya, Atae; Araya, Natsumi; Yagishita, Naoko; Ando, Hitoshi; Yamauchi, Junji; Inoue, Eisuke; Ueno, Takahiko; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Jacobson, Steven; Izumo, Shuji; Yamano, Yoshihisa

2013-01-01

138

Increased Seroreactivity to Human T Cell Lymphoma/Leukemia Virus-Related Endogenous Sequence-1 Gag Peptides in Patients with Human T Cell Lymphoma/Leukemia Virus Myelopathy.  

PubMed

Abstract Previously, we had shown that although only 8% of patients with large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL) were infected with human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus (HTLV)-2, almost half had antibodies to HTLV Gag and Env peptides. Herein, we investigated whether this could be due to cross-reactive antibodies to two homologous peptides in the Gag protein of the endogenous retrovirus HTLV-related endogenous sequence-1 (HRES-1). In addition, we had previously shown that patients with HTLV neurodegenerative diseases had increased seroreactivity to homologous HERV-K10 endogenous retrovirus peptides. Hence, in this study we also examined whether these patients had increased seroreactivity to the aforementioned HRES-1 Gag peptides. Sera from 100 volunteer blood donors (VBD), 53 patients with LGLL, 74 subjects with HTLV-1 or 2 infection (58 nonmyelopathy and 16 myelopathy), and 83 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were evaluated. The HTLV-positive myelopathy (HAM) patients had a statistically increased prevalence of antibodies to both HRES-1 Gag peptides (81%) vs. the VBD (0%), LGLL patients (13%), and MS patients (1%), and the HTLV-positive nonmyelopathy subjects (21%). The data suggest that cross-reactivity to HRES-1 peptides could be involved in the pathogenesis of HAM. The difference between the VBD and LGLL patients was also statistically significant, also suggesting a possible association in a minority of patients. PMID:25295378

Perzova, Raisa; Graziano, Elliot; Sanghi, Swathi; Welch, Caitlin; Benz, Patricia; Abbott, Lynn; Lalone, Danielle; Glaser, Jordan; Loughran, Thomas; Sheremata, William; Poiesz, Bernard J

2014-11-19

139

Measuring Surgical Outcomes in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: Assessment of Minimum Clinically Important Difference  

PubMed Central

Object The concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) has been used to measure the threshold by which the effect of a specific treatment can be considered clinically meaningful. MCID has previously been studied in surgical patients, however few studies have assessed its role in spinal surgery. The goal of this study was to assess the role of MCID in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Data was collected on 30 patients who underwent ACDF for CSM between 2007 and 2012. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual-Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Component Summary PRO scores were collected. Five distribution- and anchor-based approaches were used to calculate MCID threshold values average change, change difference, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The Health Transition Item of the SF-36 (HTI) was used as an external anchor. Results Patients had a significant improvement in all mean physical PRO scores postoperatively (p<0.01) NDI (29.24 to 14.82), VAS (5.06 to 1.72), and PCS (36.98 to 44.22). The five MCID approaches yielded a range of values for each PRO: 2.00–8.78 for PCS, 2.06–5.73 for MCS, 4.83–13.39 for NDI, and 0.36–3.11 for VAS. PCS was the most representative PRO measure, presenting the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.94). MDC values were not affected by the choice of anchor and their threshold of improvement was statistically greater than the chance of error from unimproved patients. Conclusion SF-36 PCS was the most representative PRO measure. MDC appears to be the most appropriate MCID method. When MDC was applied together with HTI anchor, the MCID thresholds were: 13.39 for NDI, 3.11 for VAS, 5.56 for PCS and 5.73 for MCS. PMID:23826290

Auffinger, Brenda M.; Lall, Rishi R.; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Wong, Albert P.; Lam, Sandi K.; Koski, Tyler; Fessler, Richard G.; Smith, Zachary A.

2013-01-01

140

Effects of unilateral facet fixation and facetectomy on muscle spindle responsiveness during simulated spinal manipulation in an animal model  

PubMed Central

Objectives Manual therapy practitioners commonly assess lumbar intervertebral mobility before deciding treatment regimens. Changes in mechanoreceptor activity during the manipulative thrust are theorized to be an underlying mechanism of spinal manipulation (SM) efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine if facet fixation or facetectomy at a single lumbar level alters muscle spindle activity during 5 SM thrust durations in an animal model. Methods Spinal stiffness was determined using the slope of a force-displacement curve. Changes in the mean instantaneous frequency of spindle discharge were measured during simulated SM of the L6 vertebra in the same 20 afferents for laminectomy-only, 19 laminectomy & facet screw conditions; only 5 also had data for the laminectomy & facetectomy condition. Neural responses were compared across conditions and five thrust durations (? 250ms) using linear mixed models. Results Significant decreases in afferent activity between the laminectomy-only and laminectomy & facet screw conditions were seen during 75ms (P<.001), 100ms (P=.04) and 150ms (P=.02) SM thrust durations. Significant increases in spindle activity between the laminectomy-only and laminectomy & facetectomy conditions were seen during the 75ms (P<.001) and 100ms (P<.001) thrust durations. Conclusion Intervertebral mobility at a single segmental level alters paraspinal sensory response during clinically relevant high velocity low amplitude SM thrust durations (?150ms). The relationship between intervertebral joint mobility and alterations of primary afferent activity during and following various manual therapy interventions may be used to help to identify patient subpopulations who respond to different types of manual therapy and better inform practitioners (eg, chiropractic, osteopathic) delivering the therapeutic intervention. PMID:24161386

Reed, William R.; Long, Cynthia R.; Pickar, Joel G.

2013-01-01

141

Minimally invasive microsurgical treatment of cervical intraspinal extramedullary tumors.  

PubMed

Removal of intraspinal tumors by the classic posterior midline approach with laminectomy may cause damage to and instability of cervical segments. We investigated whether the less invasive hemilaminectomy or hemi-semi-laminectomy can achieve satisfactory clinical outcomes in 39 patients with intraspinal extramedullary tumors of the cervical spine. Twenty-seven patients were treated with conventional microsurgery using a posterior midline approach; and were compared to 12 patients treated with hemilaminectomy or hemi-semi-laminectomy using a posterior midline approach. Patients were retrospectively reviewed and their preoperative and postoperative clinical status was measured using the Frankel Grade. The surgical time for the 27 patients who underwent a classical laminectomy was 3±0.39 hours and blood loss was 123±34 mL. Twenty-five patients had their tumors removed entirely, and two patients had partial removal. Twenty-six patients were followed-up for between 38 months and 7 years (mean=5 years), of whom 23 improved and three remained in a stable condition. One patient with a meningioma had a tumor recurrence 3 years post-operatively and underwent further surgery. The surgical time for the hemilaminectomy or hemi-semi-laminectomy group was 2.5±0.3 hours and blood loss was 88±18 mL. All patients were followed-up for between 26 and 42 months (mean=31 months) and 11 recovered to an improved grade while one remained in a stable condition. No patient had a tumor recurrence. The hemilaminectomy or hemi-semi-laminectomy approach achieved similar clinical outcomes to the conventional posterior midline laminectomy approach and was also associated with a shorter operative time, decreased intraoperative blood loss, greater preserved ligament and bone structure and a reduced deformity rate. PMID:21763145

Yu, Yong; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Hu, Fan; Xie, Tao; Gu, Ye

2011-09-01

142

Upregulation of hsa-miR-125b in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.  

PubMed

The retrovirus human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) promotes spastic paraparesis, adult T cell leukaemia and other diseases. Recently, some human microRNAs (miRNAs) have been described as important factors in host-virus interactions. This study compared miRNA expression in control individuals, asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis patients. The proviral load and Tax protein expression were measured in order to characterize the patients. hsa-miR-125b expression was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p = 0.0285) or in the HAM group (p = 0.0312). Therefore, our findings suggest that miR-125b expression can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of viral replication and pathogenic processes. PMID:22990976

Nicolete, Larissa Deadame de Figueiredo; Nicolete, Roberto; Haddad, Rodrigo; Azevedo, Rochele; Castro, Fabíola Attié de; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone

2012-09-01

143

Nucleotide sequences of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) from a family cluster with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

We describe nucleotide sequences of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviruses from three symptomatic family members with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) from Tumaco, Colombia. Polymerase chain reaction was used to clone the U3 region, envelope and tax/rex genes of these HTLV-I proviruses from fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes. Sequences in U3, env and tax/rex showed 96.9-99.5% conservation when compared with sequences from HTLV-I clone ATK, and 96.6-100% when compared with each other. The range of sequence divergence within the family was similar to that described between unrelated TSP/HAM patients of the same geographical origin. Certain mutations were present in all three family members, supporting a geographic and/or familial segregation of mutations. PMID:7638441

Renjifo, B; Osterman, J; Borrero, I; Essex, M

1995-01-01

144

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM)  

MedlinePLUS

... being pressed and squeezed.) CSM often affects older adults, but affects men at an earlier age than women. In people who have CSM, changes in the bones, disks and ligaments of the spine cause pressure on the spinal cord. Sometimes bony ...

145

Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Cervical kyphosis is a progressive cervical sagittal plane deformity that may cause a reduction in the ability to look horizontally, breathing and swallowing difficulties, sense of thoracic oppression and social isolation. Moreover, cervical kyphosis can cause myelopathy due to a direct compression by osteo-articular structures on the spinal cord or to a transitory ischaemic injury. The treatment of choice is surgery. The goals of surgery are: nervous structures decompression, cervical and global sagittal balance correction and vertebral stabilization and fusion. PRESENTATION OF CASE In October 2008 a 35 years old woman underwent surgical removal of a cervical-bulbar ependymoma with C1–C5 laminectomy and a C2–C5 laminoplasty. Five months after surgery, the patient developed a kyphotic posture, with intense neck and scapular girdle pain. The patients had a flexible cervical kyphosis. Therefore, we decided to perform an anterior surgical approach. We performed a corpectomy C4–C5 in order to achieve the anterior decompression; we placed a titanium expansion mesh. DISCUSSION Cervical kyphosis can be flexible or fixed. Some authors have reported the use of anterior surgery only for flexible cervical kyphosis as discectomy and corpectomy. This approach is useful for anterior column load sharing however it is not required for deformity correction. CONCLUSION The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability. PMID:25462050

Dugoni, D.E.; Mancarella, C.; Landi, A.; Tarantino, R.; Ruggeri, A.G.; Delfini, R.

2014-01-01

146

Association of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis in North-East of Iran (Mashhad)  

PubMed Central

The underlying mechanisms leading to the development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-I infected individuals are not fully understood. Host genetic factors appear to be involved as risk factors for developing HAM/TSP. We investigated the possible contribution of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as a risk factor to HAM/TSP by comparing frequencies of promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms in HTLV-I infected Iranian patients who either remained asymptomatic or developed HAM/TSP and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Healthy, uninfected individuals from the same region served as healthy controls. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of IL-10 promoter alleles and genotypes at position -819 and -592 between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls (P=0.01), and between HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls (P=0.02). The frequency of the low IL-10 producer haplotype (-1082*A, -819*T, -592*A) was significantly associated with HTLV-I carriage or HAM/TSP compared with healthy controls (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that IL-10 -819*T and -592*A alleles are significant risk factors for developing HTLLV-I infection but do not appear to convey additional risk for developing HAM/TSP. PMID:24470873

Shirdel, Abbas; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Sahebari, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Mirfeizi, Seyedeh Zahra; Hutchinson, Ian; Ziaee, Aghigh; Rafatpanah, Houshang

2013-01-01

147

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion versus anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion in the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: systematic review and a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To date, the decision to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively determine the efficacy of ACDF and ACCF in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Methods We searched several databases for related research articles published in English or Chinese. We extracted and assessed the data independently. We determined the pooled data, data heterogeneity, and overall effect, respectively. Results We identified 15 eligible studies with 1,368 patients. We found that blood loss and numbers of complications during surgery in ACDF were significantly less that in ACCF; however, other clinical outcomes, such as operation time, bone fusion failure, post Japanese Orthopedic Association scores, recovery rates, and visual analog scale scores between ACDF and ACCF with multilevel CSM were not significantly different. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that surgical treatments of multilevel CSM are similar in terms of most clinical outcomes using ACDF or ACCF. PMID:25673996

Wen, Zhi-qiang; Du, Jing-yu; Ling, Zhi-heng; Xu, Hai-dong; Lin, Xiang-jin

2015-01-01

148

Biomechanical analysis of cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: Effects of posterior decompression and kyphosis following decompression  

PubMed Central

Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) results in myelopathy. Conservative treatment is usually ineffective, thus, surgical treatment is required. One of the reasons for the poor surgical outcome following laminoplasty for cervical OPLL is kyphosis. In the present study, a 3-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) was used to analyze the stress distribution in preoperative, posterior decompression and kyphosis models of OPLL. The 3D-FEM spinal cord model established in this study consisted of gray and white matter, as well as pia mater. For the preoperative model, 30% anterior static compression was applied to OPLL. For the posterior decompression model, the lamina was shifted backwards and for the kyphosis model, the spinal cord was studied at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50° kyphosis. In the preoperative model, high stress distributions were observed in the spinal cord. In the posterior decompression model, stresses were lower than those observed in the preoperative model. In the kyphosis model, an increase in the angle of kyphosis resulted in augmented stress on the spinal cord. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that posterior decompression was effective, but stress distribution increased with the progression of kyphosis. In cases where kyphosis progresses following surgery, detailed follow-ups are required in case the symptoms worsen. PMID:24940393

NISHIDA, NORIHIRO; KANCHIKU, TSUKASA; KATO, YOSHIHIKO; IMAJO, YASUAKI; YOSHIDA, YUICHIRO; KAWANO, SYUNICHI; TAGUCHI, TOSHIHIKO

2014-01-01

149

Texture-based characterization of pre- and post-operative T2-weighted magnetic resonance signals of the cervical spinal cord in cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility of texture analysis regarding the provision of quantitative prognostic factors, potentially valuable to the prediction of the post-operative outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients, is investigated. The clinical sample of the study comprised six subjects, who had undergone surgical therapeutic intervention for CSM. Following a specific imaging protocol, a pair of MR images of the cervical spine, corresponding to pre- and post-operative MR scans, was obtained for each of the patients. Accordingly, 12 sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were studied. Employing custom developed software, a Region Of Interest (ROI) within the spinal cord, corresponding to the region of the high-intensity CSM MR signal, was segmented on each image, according to the region growing method. Utilizing custom developed algorithms, the following sets of textural features were generated from the segmented ROIs: (i) gradient features, (ii) mean values of features from co-occurrence matrices (co-occurrence features) and (iii) range values of co-occurrence features. Utilizing each one of these sets of features, as well as the least-squares minimum distance and the quadratic classification algorithms, pattern recognition classification schemes were implemented for the discrimination between pre-operative and post-operative MR signals. Statistical analysis revealed the existence of statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between textural features generated from pre-operative and post-operative high-intensity MR signals. The classification accuracies accomplished ranged from 75% to 100%. Textural features, descriptive of relevant properties of the high-intensity MR signal in CSM, may be considered as quantitative information of potential value for the prediction of the post-operative outcome of CSM patients.

Boniatis, Ioannis; Klironomos, George; Gatzounis, George; Panayiotakis, George

2009-10-01

150

Increased expression of OX40 is associated with progressive disease in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Background OX40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that is expressed primarily on activated CD4+ T cells and promotes the development of effector and memory T cells. Although OX40 has been reported to be a target gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) viral transactivator Tax and is overexpressed in vivo in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells, an association between OX40 and HTLV-1-associated inflammatory disorders, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), has not yet been established. Moreover, because abrogation of OX40 signals ameliorates chronic inflammation in animal models of autoimmune disease, novel monoclonal antibodies against OX40 may offer a potential treatment for HTLV-1-associated diseases such as ATL and HAM/TSP. Results In this study, we showed that OX40 was specifically expressed in CD4+ T cells naturally infected with HTLV-1 that have the potential to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines along with Tax expression. We also showed that OX40 was overexpressed in spinal cord infiltrating mononuclear cells in a clinically progressive HAM/TSP patient with a short duration of illness. The levels of the soluble form of OX40 (sOX40) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from chronic progressive HAM/TSP patients or from patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (OINDs) were not different. In contrast, sOX40 levels in the CSF of rapidly progressing HAM/TSP patients were higher than those in the CSF from patients with OINDs, and these patients showed higher sOX40 levels in the CSF than in the plasma. When our newly produced monoclonal antibody against OX40 was added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture, HTLV-1-infected T cells were specifically removed by a mechanism that depends on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Conclusions Our study identified OX40 as a key molecule and biomarker for rapid progression of HAM/TSP. Furthermore, blocking OX40 may have potential in therapeutic intervention for HAM/TSP. PMID:23651542

2013-01-01

151

C1 dome-like laminotomy and posterior C1-C2 polyaxial screw-rod fixation for a patient with cervical myelopathy due to a retro-odontoid pseudotumor.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old man presented with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by a retro-odontoid mass, with associated developmental canal stenosis at C1, and C1-C2 instability. Surgery was scheduled for a dome-like laminotomy at C1, posterior C1-C2 fixation using C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws, and structural bone grafting between C1 and C2. Prior to surgery, we produced a 3-dimensional full-scale model of the patient's cervical spine and performed a simulation of the scheduled surgery. Through the simulation, we accurately evaluated the laminotomy sites and the screw insertion points. During the actual surgery, all procedures were successful. After surgery, the patient's neurological deficits markedly improved. Successful C1-C2 fusion, adequate decompression of the spinal cord, and spontaneous regression of the retro-odontoid mass were achieved by this procedure without any apparent restriction in neck movement. PMID:19010681

Yamazaki, Masashi; Okawa, Akihiko; Mannoji, Chikato; Kadota, Ryo; Miyashita, Tomohiro; Koda, Masao

2009-01-01

152

The 2-Year Cost-Effectiveness of 3 options to Treat Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) may result from degenerative changes of the spine, which lead to neural ischemia, neurogenic claudication, and a significant decrease in quality of life. Treatments for LSS range from conservative management including epidural steroid injections (ESI) to laminectomy surgery. Treatments vary greatly in cost and success. ESI is the least costly treatment may be successful for early stages of LSS but often must be repeated frequently. Laminectomy surgery is more costly and has higher complication rates. Minimally invasive lumbar decompression (mild(®) ) is an alternative. Using a decision-analytic model from the Medicare perspective, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing mild(®) to ESI or laminectomy surgery. The analysis population included patients with LSS who have moderate to severe symptoms and have failed conservative therapy. Costs included initial procedure, complications, and repeat/revision or alternate procedure after failure. Effects measured as change in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) from preprocedure to 2 years postprocedure. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were determined, and sensitivity analysis conducted. The mild(®) strategy appears to be the most cost-effective ($43,760/QALY), with ESI the next best alternative at an additional $37,758/QALY. Laminectomy surgery was the least cost-effective ($125,985/QALY). PMID:24393198

Udeh, Belinda L; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Ghosh, Raktim; Yousef, Hani; Mekhail, Nagy

2015-02-01

153

Corynebacterium xerosis as a cause of vertebral osteomyelitis.  

PubMed Central

We report a patient who developed Corynebacterium xerosis vertebral osteomyelitis 6 months following a decompressive laminectomy. Prolonged parenteral and subsequent oral therapy for 11 months resulted in apparent cure. This is the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by C. xerosis. Images PMID:2592549

Krish, G; Beaver, W; Sarubbi, F; Verghese, A

1989-01-01

154

Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy and Postoperative Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is an operation method that decreases the degree of spasticity with long-lasting beneficial effects for children with spastic diplegia. Children undergoing SDR are postoperatively in severe pain, a pain related to both the extensive surgical exposure with multilevel laminectomy and the nerve root manipulation. Various pain management strategies for children undergoing SDR have been published.

K. Hesselgard; P. Reinstrup; L. G. Stromblad; J. Undén; B. Romner

2007-01-01

155

Replacement Laminoplasty in Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy: Possible Protection against the Development of Musculoskeletal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent selective dorsal rhizotomy between 1990 and 1992. The first 15 patients underwent laminectomy from L1 to the sacrum without replacement of the posterior elements. The subsequent 20 patients had the laminae replaced during wound closure. No patient in either group developed spinal instability or symptomatic deformity. However, 4 patients

Mark A. Cobb; Frederick A. Boop

1994-01-01

156

The Roads to Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Posttraumatic Syringomyelia  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of posttraumatic syringomyelia is incompletely understood. We examined whether local ischemia occurs after spinal cord injury. If so, whether it causes neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and depletion, and subsequent energy metabolism impairment results in cell starvation of energy and even cell death, contributing to the enlargement of the cavity. Local blood flow was measured in a rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia that had received injections of quisqualic acid and kaolin. We found an 86 ± 11% reduction of local blood flow at C8 where a cyst formed at 6 weeks after syrinx induction procedure (P < 0.05), and no difference in blood flow rate between the laminectomy and intact controls. Electron microscopy confirmed irreversible neuronal mitochondrion depletion surrounding the cyst, but recoverable mitochondrial loses in laminectomy rats. Profound energy loss quantified in the spinal cord of syrinx animals, and less ATP and ADP decline observed in laminectomy rats. Our findings demonstrate that an excitotoxic injury induces local ischemia in the spinal cord and results in neuronal mitochondrial depletion, and profound ATP loss, contributing to syrinx enlargement. Ischemia did not occur following laminectomy induced trauma in which mitochondrial loss and decline in ATP were reversible. This confirms excitotoxic injury contributing to the pathology of posttraumatic syringomyelia.

Hu, Zhiqiang

2015-01-01

157

Cerebral Palsy Spasticity. Selective Posterior Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed selective posterior rhizotomies on 60 children with cerebral palsy. The procedure involves lumbar laminectomy with stimulation of the rootlets (fascicles) of the second lumbar to the first sacral posterior roots bilaterally; those rootlets associated with an abnormal motor response, as evidenced by sustained or diffused muscular contraction, are divided leaving intact rootlets associated with a brief localized

Warwick J. Peacock; Leila J. Arens; Barbara Berman

1987-01-01

158

Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180?mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25152764

Che Ramli, Muhammad Danial

2014-01-01

159

Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180?mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25152764

Aziz, Izzuddin; Che Ramli, Muhammad Danial; Mohd Zain, Nurul Suraya; Sanusi, Junedah

2014-01-01

160

Effects of Intrathecal Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Methylprednisolone on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries.  

PubMed

Purpose?To examine the effect of intrathecally given caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on peroxidation and total oxidant and antioxidant systems, and the effect of intrathecally given methylprednisolone (MP) in spinal cord injury (SCI) models. Materials and Methods?Four groups of 10 rats were formed: (1) Laminectomy, intrathecal saline injection, no SCI (sham: S); (2) Laminectomy, intrathecal saline injection, SCI (control: SCI); (3) Laminectomy, intrathecally given single dose of 3 mg/kg MP, SCISCI (SCI?+?MP). 4) Laminectomy, intrathecally given single dose of 1 µg/kg CAPE, SCI (SCI?+?CAPE). Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant activity (TOA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) values in the spinal cord tissue were evaluated. Results?When group S and group SCI were compared, MDA, TOA, and SOD parameters increased post-SCI (p?

Gocmez, Cuneyt; Celik, Feyzi; Kamasak, Kagan; Kaplan, Metin; Uzar, Ertugrul; Ar?kanoglu, Adalet; Evliyaoglu, Osman

2014-05-28

161

Metallothionein deficiency leads to soleus muscle contractile dysfunction following acute spinal cord injury in mice  

PubMed Central

Metallothionein (MT) is a small molecular weight protein possessing metal binding and free radical scavenging properties. We hypothesized that MT-1/MT-2 null (MT?/?) mice would display exacerbated soleus muscle atrophy, oxidative injury, and contractile dysfunction compared with the response of wild-type (WT) mice following acute spinal cord transection (SCT). Four groups of mice were studied: WT laminectomy, WT transection, MT?/? laminectomy (MT?/? lami), and MT?/? transection (MT?/? trans). Laminectomy animals served as surgical controls. Mice in SCT groups experienced similar percent body mass (BM) losses at 7 days postinjury. Soleus muscle mass (MM) and MM-to-BM ratio were lower at 7 days postinjury in SCT vs. laminectomy mice, with no differences observed between strains. However, soleus muscles from MT?/? trans mice showed reduced maximal specific tension compared with MT?/? lami animals. Mean cross-sectional area (?m2) of type I and type IIa fibers decreased similarly in SCT groups compared with laminectomy controls, and no difference in fiber distribution was observed. Lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynoneal) was greater in MT?/? trans vs. MT?/? lami mice, but protein oxidation (protein carbonyls) was not altered by MT deficiency or SCT. Expression of key antioxidant proteins (catalase, manganese, and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase) was similar between the groups. In summary, MT deficiency did not impact soleus MM loss, but resulted in contractile dysfunction and increased lipid peroxidation following acute SCT. These findings suggest a role of MT in mediating protective adaptations in skeletal muscle following disuse mediated by spinal cord injury. PMID:19828842

DeRuisseau, Lara R.; Recca, Daniel M.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Zoccolillo, Michelle

2009-01-01

162

Dorsal paddle leads implant for spinal cord stimulation through laminotomy with midline structures preservation  

PubMed Central

Background: Pain relief obtained with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) has been shown to be more effective with paddle leads than with percutaneous catheters. A laminectomy is generally required to implant the paddles, but the surgical approach may lead to iatrogenic spinal instability in flexion. In contrast, clinical and experimental data showed that a laminotomy performed through flavectomy and minimal resection of inferior and superior lamina with preservation of the midline ligamentous structures allowed to prevent iatrogenic instability. Aim of the study was to assess degree of instability and pain level in patients operated for SCS through laminectomy or laminotomy with midline structures integrity. The surgical technique is described and our preliminary results are discussed. Methods: Nineteen patients with FBSS underwent SCS, 12 through laminectomy and 7 through uni- or bilateral interlaminotomy with supraspinous ligament preservation. Postoperative local pain was evaluated at 15, 30, and 60 days. Static and dynamic X-rays were performed after 2 months. Results: The techniques allowed implanting the paddle leads in all cases. No intraoperative complications occurred. Local pain was higher and recovery time was longer in patients with laminectomy. We did not observe radiological signs of postoperative iatrogenic vertebral instability. Nevertheless, two patients who underwent laminectomy showed persistence of local pain after 2 months probably due to pathologic compensatory stability provided by the paraspinal musculature. Conclusions: The laminotomy is a minimally invasive approach that ensures rapid recovery after surgery, spinal functional integrity, and complete reversibility. Further studies are needed to confirm our preliminary results. PMID:23372980

Mearini, Massimo; Bergomi, Riccardo; Panciani, Pier Paolo; Stefini, Roberto; Esposito, Giacomo; Sicuri, G. Marco; Costi, Emanuele; Ronchetti, Gabriele; Fontanella, Marco

2012-01-01

163

Temporal lesions and widespread involvement of white matter associated with multi-organ inflammatory disease in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).  

PubMed

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord, characterized by spastic paraparesis, back pain, and sphincter disorders. Involvement of multiple organs and encephalopathy are uncommon in HAM/TSP. Nonspecific small white matter lesions of unknown etiology, mainly in the periventricular and subcortical regions, have been found on brain magnetic resonance imaging of HAM/TSP patients. Bitemporal lesions have rarely been described. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with HAM/TSP who presented subclinical cognitive deficits associated with bitemporal and widespread white matter lesions. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was inflammatory (blood-CSF barrier dysfunction, intrathecal synthesis of total and HTLV-1 IgG). The proviral load was higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The neurological picture was complicated by multi-organ inflammatory disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, uveitis, anemia, and chronic renal failure). This case highlights the potential multisystem inflammatory nature of HTLV-1 infection, with a wide spectrum of manifestations. In cases of HAM/TSP with multi-organ inflammatory disease, encephalic involvement should be investigated, even in the absence of clinical manifestations. Also bitemporal lesions can be the consequence of intense and diffuse inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:24815740

Mendes, Gustavo B; Kalil, Rosangela S; Rosadas, Carolina; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

2014-08-01

164

Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-specific antibodies and cell-free RNA in crevicular fluid-rich saliva from patients with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

Despite the likely role of mucosae in human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) transmission, little is known about the mucosal immune response to HTLV-I. The present study evaluated the antibody response to HTLV-I in oral mucosa and the value of crevicular fluid rich saliva (CFRS) for diagnosing HTLV-I infection. CFRS and sera from patients with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM), asymptomatic carriers, and HTLV-I seronegative individuals from Tumaco, Colombia, were analyzed for HTLV-I specific IgG, IgA, and secretory IgA (sIgA). Detection of IgG in CFRS by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay correlated with its presence in sera for TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic carriers. IgA and sIgA were more frequently detected in CFRS and sera from TSP/HAM patients than in those from asymptomatic carriers. An HTLV-I pol fragment could be amplified from CFRS by reverse transcriptase-PCR in 3 TSP/HAM patients and one asymptomatic carrier, all of whom had an IgA response in CFRS but not in sera. The more frequent detection of IgA and sIgA in sera and CFRS of TSP/HAM patients suggests increased viral replication. Further, the association of viral RNA in CFRS with a local IgA response may signify rounds of viral replication in the oral cavity. PMID:8833267

Soto-Ramirez, L E; Garcia-Vallejo, F; Renjifo, B; Vergara, A; Borrero, I; Marlink, R; Essex, M

1995-01-01

165

Genes related to antiviral activity, cell migration, and lysis are differentially expressed in CD4(+) T cells in human t cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.  

PubMed

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4(+) T cells and these cells play a central role in HTLV-1 infection. In this study, we investigated the global gene expression profile of circulating CD4(+) T cells from the distinct clinical status of HTLV-1-infected individuals in regard to TAX expression levels. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier (HAC) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients in order to identify genes involved in HAM/TSP development using a microarray technique. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that healthy control (CT) and HTLV-1-infected samples clustered separately. We also observed that the HAC and HAM/TSP groups clustered separately regardless of TAX expression. The gene expression profile of CD4(+) T cells was compared among the CT, HAC, and HAM/TSP groups. The paxillin (Pxn), chemokine (C-X-C motif?) receptor 4 (Cxcr4), interleukin 27 (IL27), and granzyme A (Gzma) genes were differentially expressed between the HAC and HAM/TSP groups, regardless of TAX expression. The perforin 1 (Prf1) and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) genes were increased in the HAM/TSP group and presented a positive correlation to the expression of TAX and the proviral load (PVL). The frequency of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) was higher in HTLV-1-infected individuals. Foxp3 gene expression was positively correlated with cell lysis-related genes (Gzma, Gzmb, and Prf1). These findings suggest that CD4(+) T cell activity is distinct between the HAC and HAM/TSP groups. PMID:24041428

Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Malmegrim de Farias, Kelen Cristina Ribeiro; Sousa, Alessandra De Paula; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone

2014-06-01

166

Radicular Compression by Intraspinal Epidural Gas Bubble Occurred in Distant Two Levels after Lumbar Microdiscectomy  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of symptomatic epidural gas accumulation 2 weeks after the multi-level lumbar surgery, causing postoperative recurrent radiculopathy. The accumulation of epidural gas compressing the dural sac and nerve root was demonstrated by CT and MRI at the distant two levels, L3-4 and L5-S1, where vacuum in disc space was observed preoperatively and both laminectomy and discectomy had been done. However, postoperative air was not identified at L4-5 level where only laminectomy had been done in same surgical field, which suggested the relationship between postoperative epidural gas and the manipulation of disc structure. Conservative treatment and needle aspiration was performed, but not effective to relieve patient's symptoms. The patient underwent revision surgery to remove the gaseous cyst. Her leg pain was improved after the second operation.

Yoon, Kang-Jun; Ha, Sang-Soo; Kang, Joon-Ki

2014-01-01

167

The pathophysiology, classification, treatment, and prognosis of a spontaneous thoracic spinal cord herniation: A case study with literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal cord herniation was first described in 1974. It generally occurs in middle-aged adults in the thoracic spine. Symptoms typically include back pain and progressive paraparesis characterized by Brown-Séquard syndrome. Surgical reduction of the hernia improves the attendant symptoms and signs, even in patients with longstanding deficits. Case Description: A 66-year-old female with back pain for 7 years, accompanied by paresthesias and a progressive paraparesis, underwent a thoracic MRI which documented a ventral spinal cord herniation at the T4 level. Following a laminectomy, with reduction of the hernia and ventral dural repair, the patient improved. Conclusion: Herniation of the thoracic cord, documented on MR, may produce symptomatic paraparesis which may resolve following laminectomy with ventral dural repair.

De Souza, Rodrigo Becco; De Aguiar, Guilherme Brasileiro; Daniel, Jefferson Walter; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves

2014-01-01

168

Chiari I Malformation Associated with Atlanto-Occipital Assimilation Presenting as Orthopnea and Cough Syncope: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Although it is not uncommon for patients with Chiari I malformations to present with respiratory complaints, cough syncope is a rare presenting symptom. We report an adult patient who harbored both a Chiari I malformation and atlanto-occipital assimilation who complained of cough syncope, orthopnea, and central sleep apnea. The patient underwent decompressive craniectomy of the posterior fossa and cervical level 2 laminectomy. However, due to a possible initial underappreciation of the profound narrowing of the foramen magnum as a result of these concomitant pathologies, the patient may have had continued impaired cerebrospinal fluid flow, leading to a symptomatic pseudomeningocele and requiring a more extensive decompression that included a cervical level 3 laminectomy as well as a temporary lumbar drain. On 2-year follow-up, he has remained asymptomatic. PMID:25083365

Mangubat, Erwin Zeta; Wilson, Tom; Mitchell, Brian A.; Byrne, Richard W.

2013-01-01

169

Steroid-induced Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis after Suprasella Tumor Resection  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is an abnormal localized accumulation of fat tissues in the epidural space. It is strongly related with steroid administration. The symptoms of SEL are various and range from back pain to paraplegia. In severe cases, decompressive laminectomy is the choice of treatment. A 32-year-old woman who had been under long-term steroid administration after suprasellar tumor resection was admitted for both leg radiating pain and weakness. She was diagnosed with SEL and had a decompressive laminectomy. During the operation, we found the nerve roots were compressed by epidural fat tissues and engorged vessels. After the operation, her radiating pain was relieved and motor weakness was improved. PMID:24757466

Kim, Si On; Park, Keuk Kyu; Kwon, Young Jun; Shin, Hyun Chul

2013-01-01

170

Steroid-induced Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis after Suprasella Tumor Resection.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is an abnormal localized accumulation of fat tissues in the epidural space. It is strongly related with steroid administration. The symptoms of SEL are various and range from back pain to paraplegia. In severe cases, decompressive laminectomy is the choice of treatment. A 32-year-old woman who had been under long-term steroid administration after suprasellar tumor resection was admitted for both leg radiating pain and weakness. She was diagnosed with SEL and had a decompressive laminectomy. During the operation, we found the nerve roots were compressed by epidural fat tissues and engorged vessels. After the operation, her radiating pain was relieved and motor weakness was improved. PMID:24757466

Kim, Si On; Park, Keuk Kyu; Kwon, Young Jun; Shin, Hyun Chul; Choi, Chun Sik

2013-06-01

171

Study on different surgical approaches for acute Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome  

PubMed Central

To compare the long and short term effectiveness and complications of different surgical approaches for Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome and find a better surgical method for the disease. In this study, follow up records of 144 patients received conventional laminectomy and minimally invasive decompression and fenestration 48 hours within acute injury of lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome were analyzed. Surgical outcome immediately and 3, 6, 12, 36 months after the surgery were compared to evaluate the effectiveness two different approaches. The results indicated that there are no significant differences regarding age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) score as well as Frankel scores before the surgery, and significant differences VAS score as well as Frankel scores immediately after the surgery. In conclusion, minimally invasive decompression and fenestration can be of the same effectiveness and less complications comparing with the conventional laminectomy.

Shen, Lianbing; Fang, Liangqin; Qiu, Yihua; Xing, Shunming; Chen, Dechun; He, Xiang; Wang, Jinxin; Lai, Jing; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Jiefeng; Liao, Teng; Tan, Junming

2014-01-01

172

Foramen magnum stenosis in homozygous achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-month-old female with homozygous achondroplasia and daytime apnea was found to have a small foramen magnum by computerized\\u000a tomography. Following suboccipital craniectomy and C1-C2 laminectomy respiratory problems did not recur during a 7 month post-operative period. We suggest that the respiratory problems\\u000a in homozygous achondroplasia may be due to brainstem compression from an abnormally small foramen magnum.

J. T. Hecht; W. A. Horton; I. J. Butler; W. D. Goldie; M. E. Miner; R. Shannon; R. M. Pauli

1986-01-01

173

Effects of methylprednisolone and dextromethorphan on lipid peroxidation in an experimental model of spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Objective. This study examines the effects of agents purported to improve recovery following spinal cord trauma, methylprednisolone\\u000a sodium succinate, dextromethorphan, and the combination of both, on the post-traumatic alterations of membrane lipid metabolism.\\u000a Methods. After sparing ten rats for a control group (G1) and performing T3–T6 laminectomies in 150 rats, spinal cord injuries were\\u000a accomplished in 120 of 150

Cahide Topsakal; Fatih S. Erol; Faik M. Ozveren; Nejat Yilmaz; Nevin Ilhan

2002-01-01

174

Primary vertebral and spinal epidural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with spinal cord compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined eight patients with primary spinal epidural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with spinal cord compression and proven histologically after laminectomy (7 cases) or biopsy (1 case) by MRI. The most common findings were an isointense or low signal relative to the spinal cord on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Spinal cord compression, vertebral bone marrow

M. Boukobza; C. Mazel; E. Touboul

1996-01-01

175

Juxtafacet Cyst of the Lumbar Spine. Clinical, Radiological and Therapeutic Aspects in 28 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Object. A consecutive series of 28 “operated” juxtafacet cysts is reported. We emphasize the clinical and radiological aspects leading\\u000a to diagnosis. We also discuss the results of the surgical treatment.\\u000a \\u000a ?Material and Methods. Medical information and radiological studies involving 28 patients were analyzed. Each patient has been operated on by decompressive\\u000a laminectomy and resection of the cyst. The diagnosis was

B. Salmon; D. Martin; J. Lenelle; A. Stevenaert

2001-01-01

176

Hemodynamic evaluation of the prone position by transesophageal echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To evaluate the hemodynamic response in the prone position in surgical patients by measuring the effects of prone positioning on cardiac function using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).Design: Prospective study.Setting: Elective surgery at a university hospital.Patients: 15 adult ASA physical status I and II patients free of significant coexisting disease undergoing lumbar laminectomy.Interventions and Measurements: Approximately 15 minutes after the

Shigeyoshi Toyota; Yoshikiyo Amaki

1998-01-01

177

Acute spinal cord compression due to epidural lipomatosis complicated by an abscess: magnetic resonance and pathology findings.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old male presented with rapidly progressive paraplegia. MR images of the thoracic spine were interpreted as being consistent with an abscess within an epidural lipomatosis compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed, and a large amount of pus was drained from the epidural lipomatosis, from which Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. This is the first reported case of an abscess involving an epidural lipomatosis. PMID:20372939

Zuccoli, Giulio; Pipitone, Nicolò; De Carli, Nicola; Vecchia, Luigi; Bartoletti, Stefano C

2010-07-01

178

[Spinal cord compression caused by idiopathic dorsal epidural lipomatosis: Case report and critical review of the literature].  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient with spinal cord compression evolving over 36 months with spastic paraparesis. Anatomic imagery showed epidural lipomatosis. No predisposing factors were found. Surgical treatment was decided. A T1-T10 laminectomy with excision of the surplus epidural fat was performed. Immediate and medium-term postsurgical follow-up was favorable with the disappearance of the pyramidal syndrome. Other cases found in literature and the principal predisposing factors are discussed. PMID:20074758

Eap, C; Litre, C-F; Duntze, J; Theret, E; Noudel, R; Graftieaux, J-P; Rousseaux, P

2010-02-01

179

Acute spinal cord compression due to epidural lipomatosis complicated by an abscess: magnetic resonance and pathology findings  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old male presented with rapidly progressive paraplegia. MR images of the thoracic spine were interpreted as being consistent with an abscess within an epidural lipomatosis compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed, and a large amount of pus was drained from the epidural lipomatosis, from which Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. This is the first reported case of an abscess involving an epidural lipomatosis. PMID:20372939

Pipitone, Nicolò; De Carli, Nicola; Vecchia, Luigi; Bartoletti, Stefano C.

2010-01-01

180

Results of Cervical Recapping Laminoplasty: Gross Anatomical Changes, Biomechanical Evaluation at Different Time Points and Degrees of Level Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Recapping laminoplasty has become the frequently-used approach to the spinal canal when bone decompression of the vertebral canal is not the goal. However, what changes will occur after surgery, and whether recapping laminoplasty can actually reduce the risk of delayed deformities remains unknown. Methodology We designed an animal experiment using a caprine model, and partitioned the animals into in vitro and in vivo surgical groups. We performed recapping laminoplasty on one group and laminectomy on another group. These animals were sacrificed six months after operating, cervical spines removed, biomechanically tested, and these data were compared to determine whether the recapping laminoplasty technique leads to subsequent differences in range of motion. Image data were also obtained before the surgery and when the animals were killed. Besides, we investigated the initial differences in kinetics between recapping laminoplasty and laminectomy. We did this by comparing data obtained from biomechanical testing of in vitro-performed recapping laminoplasty and laminectomy. Finally, we investigated the effect that longitudinal distance has on cervical mechanics. This was determined by performing a two-level recapping laminoplasty, and then extending the laminoplasty to the next level and repeating the mechanical testing at each step. Principal Findings There were three mainly morphological changes at the six months after laminoplasty: volume reduction and bone nonunion of the recapping laminae, irregular fibrosis formation around the facet joints and re-implanted lamina-ligamentous complex. In the biomechanical test, comparing with laminectomy, recapping laminoplasty didn’t show significant differences in the immediate postoperative comparison, while recapping laminoplasty demonstrated significantly decreased motion in flexion/extension six months later. Inclusion of additional levels in the laminotomy procedure didn’t lead to changes in immediate biomechanics. Conclusions Recapping laminoplasty can’t fully restore the posterior structure, but still reduced the risk of delayed cervical instability in a caprine model. PMID:24950103

Si, Yu; Wang, Zhenyu; Yu, Tao; Lin, Guo zhong; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yuan chao

2014-01-01

181

Tisseel utilized as hemostatic in spine surgery impacts time to drain removal and length of stay  

PubMed Central

Background: Although fibrin sealants (FSs) and fibrin glues (FGs) are predominantly utilized to strengthen repairs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas (deliberate/traumatic) during spinal surgery, they are also increasingly utilized to achieve hemostasis. Here, we investigated whether adding Tisseel (Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA), utilized to address increased bleeding during multilevel lumbar laminectomies with non-instrumented fusions, would reduce or equalize the time to drain removal and length of stay (LOS) without contributing to infections or prolonging time to fusion. Methods: Prospectively, 39 patients underwent multilevel laminectomies and 1-2 level non-instrumented (in situ) fusions to address stenosis/olisthesis; 22 who demonstrated increased intraoperative bleeding received Tisseel, while 17 without such bleeding did not. Results: The 22 receiving versus 17 not receiving Tisseel, with similar clinical parameters, underwent comparable average multilevel laminectomies (4.36 and 4.25) and 1-2 level fusions (1.4 vs. 1.29 levels). As anticipated, for those receiving Tisseel, the average intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL), total postoperative blood loss, and total perioperative transfusion requirements [red blood cells (RBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets] were higher. However, Tisseel had the added benefit of equalizing the time to postoperative drain removal [e.g. 3.41 days (with) vs. 3.38 days (without)] and LOS [e.g. 5.86 days (with) vs. 5.82 days (without)] without increasing the infection rates (e.g. one superficial infection per group) or average times to fusion (e.g. 5.9 vs. 5.5 months). Conclusions: Adding Tisseel for increased bleeding during multilevel laminectomies/in situ fusions contributed to hemostasis by equalizing the average times to drain removal/LOS compared to patients without increased bleeding and not requiring Tisseel. PMID:25289160

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

182

Effects of tadalafil-Type-V phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitor-On rats with spinal trauma.  

PubMed

In this research, the effect of tadalafil, a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, on rats with spinal trauma was evaluated. The evaluation consisted of neurological examination and biochemical parameters. Twenty healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. They were separated into three groups: tadalafil-receiving (TD) group (n = 7), laminectomy and trauma (LT) group (n = 7), and just laminectomy group (n = 6). The TD group received daily dose of tadalafil (10 mg/kg) for a week along with bait and water. Each rat's spinal cord was dissected with utter caution. The spinal cord was traumatized by Allen's weight-drop method. Using a standard apparatus, 5 g of weight was dropped from a height of 10 cm on the spinal cords of the TD and LT (laminectomy + trauma) group. No extra maneuvers were conducted on the laminectomy group. A day later, the rat's functional neurological status was examined followed by re-exploration of the spinal cord for sampling 1 cm of tissue. The Tarlov scale was used to evaluate the functional neurological status. The modified Tarlov scale was rated to be significantly higher in the TD group than that in the LT group. For the biochemical parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) and cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) involved in the inflammatory process were examined. MDA-an indicator of lipid peroxidation-was found to be significantly lower in the TD group compared with that in the LT group. TNF-? and IL-6 levels were also found to be lower in the TD group compared with those in the LT group. Shortly, this research showed that the use of TD group in spinal trauma resulted in better neurological outcome and significant improvement in biochemical parameters. PMID:25380483

Senturk, Salim; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Bozkurt, Ismail; Gurcan, Oktay; Eroglu, Hakan; Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Bodur, Ebru; Bavbek, Murad

2014-11-01

183

Total dura substitute in the spine: double layer dural substitute made from polylactide layer and bovine pericardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  When there is significant loss of spinal dura mater, dural substitution with synthetic or allogenic materials is essential.\\u000a In the case of laminectomy, mechanical protection and reformation of the dorsal spinal canal may be useful.\\u000a \\u000a This is a report on a patient with total dura loss through tumour atrophy of the dura and laminae. In order to reconstruct\\u000a the dorsal

T. Hoell; C. Hohaus; G. Huschak; A. Beier; H.-J. Meisel

2007-01-01

184

Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess  

SciTech Connect

A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

1982-12-17

185

Marfan syndrome and symptomatic sacral cyst: Report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Context Meningeal abnormalities such as dural ectasia are seen in Marfan syndrome, but spinal meningeal cysts are rarely seen. These cysts usually asymptomatic and often found incidentally on magnetic resonance imaging, large cysts may cause neurological deficits and pain secondary to nerve root compression. Design Case reports. Findings Two patients with Marfan syndrome presented with urinary symptoms secondary to dural ectasia and sacral cysts. Patient 1 had a history of low back pain, erectile dysfunction, and occasional urinary incontinence and groin pain with recent symptom worsening. He underwent L5 partial laminectomy and S1-S2 laminectomy with sacral cyst decompression. Nine weeks later, he underwent drainage of a sacral pseudomeningocele. Pain and urinary symptoms resolved, and he remains neurologically normal 2 years after surgery. Patient 2 presented after a fall on his tailbone, complaining of low back pain and difficulty urinating. Physical therapy was implemented, but after 4 weeks, urinary retention had not improved. He then underwent resection of the sacral cyst and S1-S3 laminectomy. Pain and paresthesias resolved and bowel function returned to normal. Other than needing intermittent self-catheterization, all other neurologic findings were normal 30 months after surgery. Conclusion/clinical relevance Surgical goals for sacral cysts include resection as well as closure of the dura, which can be challenging due to thinning from ectasia. Neurosurgical intervention in Marfan syndrome is associated with a high risk of dural tears and osseous complications, and should be performed only when symptoms are severe. PMID:23941798

Arnold, Paul M.; Teuber, Jan

2013-01-01

186

Long-term results of selective dorsal rhizotomy for hereditary spastic paraparesis.  

PubMed

Pure hereditary spastic paraparesis usually presents with progressive weakness and spasticity of the legs, which is similar to spastic cerebral palsy. In this study selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) was performed to improve the spasticity of pure hereditary spastic paraparesis and the long-term results were followed. A series of four patients with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team received SDR. The dorsal rootlets from the L2 to S1 levels were selectively resected under electrophysiological monitoring. The patients were followed up for more than 2 years to evaluate the outcome of surgery. There was a significant reduction in muscular spasm after SDR. Standing and walking stability were improved in all patients which led to improvement in walking posture and longer walking distance without assistance. No urinary retention, cerebrospinal fluid leak, surgical infection or kyphosis occurred. For severe pure hereditary spastic paraparesis, SDR can reduce muscle spasm and improve standing and walking stability. These results were stable throughout follow-up. SDR performed at the level of the conus medullaris through a laminectomy from T12 to L1 or L1 to L2 requires a shorter incision, laminectomy of fewer segments, and has a shorter operation time than the usual method (laminectomy from L2 to S1). Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is helpful to discriminate abnormal rootlets and protect sphincter function. PMID:24153323

Kai, Ma; Yongjie, Li; Ping, Zhuang

2014-01-01

187

Potential risk of mitomycin C at high concentrations on peripheral nerve structure  

PubMed Central

Although the local application of mitomycin C may prevent epidural adhesion after laminectomy, mitomycin C can induce neurotoxicity in optic and acoustic nerves at high concentrations. To determine the safe concentration range for mitomycin C, cotton pads soaked with mitomycin C at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mg/mL) were immediately applied for 5 minutes to the operation area of rats that had undergone laminectomy at L1. Rat sciatic nerves, instead of dorsal nerves, were used in this study. The results showed that mitomycin C at 0.1-0.5 mg/mL did not damage the structure and function of the sciatic nerve, while at 0.7 mg/mL, mitomycin C significantly reduced the thickness of the sciatic nerve myelin sheath compared with lower concentrations, though no functional change was found. These experimental findings indicate that the local application of mitomycin C at low concentrations is safe to prevent scar adhesion following laminectomy, but that mitomycin C at high concentrations (> 0.7 mg/mL) has potential safety risks to peripheral nerve structures. PMID:25206895

Sui, Tao; Zhang, Jinhong; Du, Shihao; Su, Changhui; Que, Jun; Cao, Xiaojian

2014-01-01

188

A novel anterior technique for simultaneous single-stage anterior and posterior cervical release for fixed kyphosis.  

PubMed

The incidence rate of kyphosis of the cervical spine after a laminectomy can be as high as 20% after a multilevel laminectomy. The loss of the posterior tension band leads to increased load on the vertebral body and discs, leading to further degenerative changes and kyphotic deformities. The initial decompression of the spinal cord disappears as the cord is stretched over the anterior lesions. Muscle damage and facet degeneration from prior surgery contribute to additional pain, muscle spasm, and motion. Occasionally prior surgical fusion that fails to address the kyphosis or spontaneous fusion in a kyphotic position (observed more in laminectomies performed in the growing spine) can result in a challenging rigid deformity with anterior vertebral body and lateral mass facet fusion. For this fixed deformity, anterior and posterior release are often necessary for restoration of lordosis, which can result in the need for a 540 degrees procedure. In this report the authors describe an anterior technique for simultaneous anterior and posterior lateral mass release. The vertebral artery is mobilized using this technique, allowing for its lateral retraction. The nerve roots are visualized and retracted superiorly and inferiorly. The lateral mass and facets can then be accessed anteriorly using an osteotome or drill for the release. The authors illustrate this technique in a patient who developed fixed scoliosis and kyphosis of the cervical spine after surgery for degenerative disc disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this technique. PMID:18518684

Wang, Vincent Y; Aryan, Henry; Ames, Christopher P

2008-06-01

189

Cervical extradural meningioma with rapidly progressive myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old man noticed numbness of both hands. Muscle strength in the upper and lower extremities progressively deteriorated, and he became unable to stand or hold a cup over a five-day period. MRI showed an extradural tumour encasing the anterior, posterior and right lateral aspects of the cervical spinal cord, maximal at C3-4 but extending to C1, and emerging from the right C3-4 intervertebral foramen. At surgery, the tumour was entirely extradural. Histological examination revealed a meningioma. The patient recovered without neurological deficit with no recurrence 3 years after surgery. PMID:16542842

Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kubota, Toshihiko; Sato, Kazufumi; Hirose, Satoshi

2006-04-01

190

Myelotomy reduces spinal cord edema and inhibits aquaporin-4 and aquaporin-9 expression in rats with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Objective:Spinal cord edema contributes to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury (SCI) and is associated with functional recovery after SCI. Early myelotomy may be a promising surgical intervention for reducing SCI-induced edema. However, it remains unclear whether myelotomy can reduce SCI-induced edema. In addition, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and aquaporin-9 (AQP9) have important roles in the regulation of water homeostasis. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of myelotomy on AQP4 and AQP9 expression and spinal cord edema in a rat model of moderate SCI.Methods:Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the sham control group (n=22) receiving laminectomy alone; the contusion group (n=44) receiving laminectomy plus contusion; and the myelotomy group (n=44) receiving laminectomy plus contusion followed by myelotomy at 24?h. Functional recovery was estimated by the open-field and inclined plane tests. Spinal cord edema was determined by measuring the water content. The expression of AQP4 and AQP9 was determined by western blot.Results:Compared with the contusion group, myelotomy significantly improved the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores in the open-field test and resulted in a higher mean angle value in the incline plane test. Myelotomy significantly reduced SCI-induced edema at 4 and 6 days after SCI, which was accompanied by downregulation of AQP4 and AQP9 expression.Conclusion:Myelotomy improves locomotor function, reduces edema in rats with SCI and is associated with decreased expression of AQP4 and AQP9.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 2 December 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.209. PMID:25448191

Hu, A-M; Li, J-J; Sun, W; Yang, D-G; Yang, M-L; Du, L-J; Gu, R; Gao, F; Li, J; Chu, H-Y; Zhang, X; Gao, L-J

2014-12-01

191

Spinal deformity after multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy  

PubMed Central

Multilevel laminectomy in children has a significant rate of postoperative spinal deformity. To decrease the incidence of this complication, the use of osteoplastic laminotomy is advocated to minimise the risk of spinal deformity by preserving the normal architecture of the spine. In this retrospective study, a 10-year series of a paediatric population undergoing multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy is reviewed to determine the incidence, especially in contrast to laminectomies, and to identify factors that affect the occurrence of spinal column deformity. Seventy patients (mean age 4.2 years) underwent multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy for congenital anomalies or removal of spinal tumours. All patients had a clinical and radiographic examination preoperatively, 12 months postoperatively and at follow-up. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years (range 3–12.6 years). Nineteen patients (27%) had a new or progressive spinal deformity. There was an increased incidence in patients who had surgery for spinal tumours (P?laminectomy (n?=?330), the incidence of spinal deformity found a significantly higher (46%) compared to our study group. This study demonstrates that osteoplastic laminotomy was found to be very effective in decreasing the incidence of spinal deformities after spinal-canal surgery for spinal-cord tumours or congenital anomalies in children and adolescents. The choice of an anatomical reconstructive surgical technique such as osteoplastic laminotomy seems to be essential to minimise secondary problems due to the surgical technique itself. Nevertheless, growing patients should be followed up for several years after the initial operation for early detection and consequent management of any possible deformity of the spinal column. PMID:17323095

Juergen, Krauss; Gloger, Harald; Soerensen, Nils; Wild, Alexander

2007-01-01

192

Extradural chondroma presenting as lumbar mass with compressive neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The identification of a soft tissue chondroma within the spine represents a rarity and is typically not included within the differential diagnosis for patients with sensory complaints of the leg. The authors describe 46-year-old female presenting with 3-week history of decreased sensation and paresthesias of the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated an L3 extradural soft tissue mass. She underwent an uncomplicated excision through an L3 laminectomy and exhibited complete resolution of symptoms. Pathologic examination revealed benign cartilaginous tissue; however, the authors recommend long-term follow-up for such lesions as the potential for malignant transformation is unknown. PMID:25336836

Pace, Jonathan; Lozen, Andrew M.; Wang, Marjorie C.; Cochran, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

193

Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the thoracic spine: paradoxical response to antituberculous therapy.  

PubMed

Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord (IETSC) is a rare complication of tuberculosis, which can occur as a paradoxical response to antituberculous therapy. A 46-year-old woman with tuberculosis meningitis developed an acute sensory disturbance and paraplegia eight weeks after the antituberculous treatment was started. MRI revealed a cystic lesion at the Th 2 and 3 vertebrae levels, and continuous dural thickening. Laminectomy was performed; soft granulomas were unexpectedly observed inside the dura matter. After the operation, the patient experienced progressive improvement in motor strength. IETSC should be known as rare but possible complication of tuberculous meningitis. PMID:18421202

Takahashi, Hirokatsu; Ito, Shoichi; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Tanno, Takaaki; Hattori, Takamichi

2008-01-01

194

Large Thoracolumbar Extradural Arachnoid Cyst Excised by Minimal Skipped Hemilaminectomy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The standard treatment for symptomatic spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is complete surgical removal of cyst and closure of the dural defect. In most cases, total laminectomy has been performed at affected vertebra for complete removal of the SEAC. However, this invasive surgery may result in postoperative kyphosis and back pain. We report a case of large SEAC involving T10-L1 which was excised through the minimal skipped hemilaminectomy, to minimize the risk of postoperative kyphotic deformity. Simultaneously, we closed the dural defect after preoperative precise identification of the site through several radiological studies. PMID:24757454

Lee, Hwa Joong; Han, In Ho; Choi, Byung Kwan

2013-01-01

195

Progressive spinal cord compression due to epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia intermedia. A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) can occur in patients with thalassemia intermedia as a physiologic response to insufficient erythropoiesis to meet circulatory demands. Rarely, EMH involve the epidural space causing spinal cord compression. We describe a case of EMH in a 21-year-old man with ?-thalassemia intermedia presenting with progressive low back pain, worsening paraparesis and sphincter disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated spinal cord compression by EMH epidural mass lesions extending from T3 to T10 levels. An emergency multilevel decompressive laminectomy was performed with excision of the masses and complete rehabilitation of the patient. PMID:23859178

Ghieda, U; Elshimy, M; El Beltagi, A H

2013-02-01

196

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

197

Adult tethered cord syndrome resembling plantar fasciitis and peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Adult tethered cord syndrome without spinal dysraphism is rare, and can present with subtle symptoms that could mimic other pathologies. As a result, timely diagnosis of this condition has proved to be a significant challenge. It is crucial for clinicians to be aware of adult tethered cord syndrome and its presenting symptoms in order to achieve early diagnosis and subsequent management. We present such a case with particular attention to the presenting history and examination. Following diagnosis, the patient underwent a laminectomy and cord untethering, resulting in significant improvement to his symptoms. PMID:24311422

Amiri, Amir Reza; Kanesalingam, Kavitha; Srinivasan, Venkataramanan; Price, Rupert Francis

2013-01-01

198

Validation of a Score Predicting Post-Treatment Ambulatory Status After Radiotherapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A score predicting post-radiotherapy (RT) ambulatory status was developed based on 2,096 retrospectively evaluated metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients. This study aimed to validate the score in a prospective series. Methods and Materials: The score included five factors associated with post-RT ambulatory status: tumor type, interval tumor diagnosis to MSCC, visceral metastases, pre-RT motor function, time developing motor deficits. Patients were divided into five groups: 21-28, 29-31, 32-34, 35-37, 38-44 points. In this study, 653 prospectively followed patients were divided into the same groups. Furthermore, the number of prognostic groups was reduced from five to three (21-28, 29-37, 38-44 points). Post-RT ambulatory rates from this series were compared with the retrospective series. Additionally, this series was compared with 104 patients receiving decompressive surgery plus RT (41 laminectomy, 63 laminectomy plus stabilization of vertebrae). Results: In this study, post-RT ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 43.5% (29-31 points), 71.0% (32-34 points), 89.5% (35-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points). Ambulatory rates from the retrospective study were 6.2%, 43.5%, 70.0%, 86.1%, and 98.7%. After regrouping, ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 70.9% (29-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points) in this series, and 6.2%, 68.4%, and 98.7% in the retrospective series. Ambulatory rates were 0%, 62.5%, and 90.9% in the laminectomy plus RT group, and 14.3%, 83.9%, and 100% in the laminectomy + stabilization plus RT group. Conclusions: Ambulatory rates in the different groups in this study were similar to those in the retrospective study demonstrating the validity of the score. Using only three groups is simplier for clinical routine.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Douglas, Sarah; Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Basic, Hiba [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Karstens, Johann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Hoskin, Peter J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Mount Vernon Cancer Center, Northwood (United Kingdom); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

2011-04-01

199

Cardiac myxosarcoma with thoracic spinal metastasis.  

PubMed

Echocardiography revealed a left atrial tumor in a 59-year-old man with back pain that concurrently worsened with left foot drop and loss of the left ankle reflex soon after admission to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an epidural tumor extending from Th5 with spinal cord compression. The patient was immediately treated by emergency Th4-5 laminectomy and epidural decompression. One month later, a cardiac tumor excised via the left atrial approach was histopathologically diagnosed as myxosarcoma, and the Th5 tumor was consistent with this finding. This is the first report to describe spinal metastasis of cardiac myxosarcoma. PMID:23677508

Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Chizuo; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Satoshi

2014-07-01

200

Effects of cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid on epidural fibrosis: experimental study.  

PubMed

OBJECT Epidural fibrosis is nonphysiological scar formation, usually at the site of neurosurgical access into the spinal canal, in the intimate vicinity of and around the origin of the radicular sheath. The formation of dense fibrous tissue causes lumbar and radicular pain. In addition to radicular symptoms, the formation of scar tissue may cause problems during reoperation. The authors aimed to investigate the effects of cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA), an HA derivative known as HA gel, on the prevention of epidural fibrosis by using histopathological and biochemical parameters. METHODS Fifty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated. The rats were divided into 4 groups. Rats in the sham group (n = 14) underwent laminectomy and discectomy and received no treatment; rats in the control group (n = 14) underwent laminectomy and discectomy and received 0.9% NaCl treatment in the surgical area; rats in the HA group (n = 14) received HA treatment at the surgical area after laminectomy and discectomy; and rats in the HA gel group (n = 14) underwent laminectomy and discectomy in addition to receiving treatment with cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA in the surgical area. All rats were decapitated after 4 weeks, and the specimens were evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. The results were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS Compared with the sham and control groups, the HA and HA gel groups showed significantly lower fibroblast cell density and tissue hydroxyproline concentrations (p < 0.05). There was statistically significant lower dural adhesion and foreign-body reaction between the control and HA gel groups (p < 0.05). Granulation tissue and epidural fibrosis were significantly lower in the HA and HA gel groups compared with the sham group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in any histopathological parameters or biochemical values between Groups 3 and 4 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA had positive effects on the prevention of epidural fibrosis and the reduction of fibrotic tissue density. The efficacy of this agent should also be verified in further experimental and clinical studies. PMID:25396261

Is?k, Semra; Ta?kap?l?o?lu, M Özgür; Atalay, Fatma Oz; Dogan, Seref

2015-01-01

201

Effects of rapamycin on reduction of peridural fibrosis: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Background Peridural fibrosis (PF) is a normal complication after lumbar surgery. It is a challenge for both surgeons and patients. Rapamycin (RPM), a novel antibiotic with anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive properties, has been shown to be effective in preventing uncontrolled scar proliferation diseases. The object of the present research was to investigate the effects of RPM on inhibiting PF in vitro and in vivo. Material and Methods In vitro, the fibroblasts collected and isolated from the rat tail skin were cultured with/without RPM and cell counting was performed. In vivo, the double-blinded study was conducted in 60 healthy Wistar rats divided randomly into 3 groups: 1) RPM treatment group; 2) Vehicle treatment group; 3) Control group. Rats underwent a L1-L2 level laminectomy with a satisfactory anesthetization. Four weeks post-operatively, the Rydell score, histological analysis, hydroxyproline content, vimentin expressional level, and inflammatory cytokines expressional levels were assessed. Results In vitro, RPM showed ability to prevent fibroblast proliferation. In vivo, the laminectomy was well tolerated by all rats, which were killed 4 weeks post-operatively. The Rydell score, histological evaluation, hydroxyproline content, vimentin expression level, and inflammatory activity showed the positive effect of RPM in preventing peridural adhesion, inhibiting fibrotic formation and collagen synthesis, and down-regulating inflammation. Conclusions In the present primary study, RPM showed good efficacy in preventing the proliferation of fibroblasts. RPM can prevent rat peridural adhesion through inhibiting collagen synthesis, fibroblasts proliferation, and inflammatory activity. PMID:25677111

Luo, Like; Zhang, Chifei; Zhao, Jinmin; Wei, Qingjun; Li, Xiaofeng

2015-01-01

202

Posterior Instrumentation for Occipitocervical Fusion  

PubMed Central

Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability. PMID:21772931

Sapkas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Segkos, Dimitrios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsakotos, George; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-01-01

203

A Case of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Early-Onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Clinically Similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1  

PubMed Central

To present a case of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) which seemed clinically similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMT1). CIDP is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy, either progressive or relapsing-remitting. It is a non-hereditary disorder characterized by symmetrical motor and sensory deficits. Rarely, spinal nerve roots can be involved, leading to CES by hypertrophic cauda equina. A 34-year-old man presented with low back pain, radicular pain, bilateral lower-extremity weakness, urinary incontinence, and constipation. He had had musculoskeletal deformities, such as hammertoes and pes cavus, since age 10. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the cauda equina. Electrophysiological testing showed increased distal latency, conduction blocks, temporal dispersion, and severe nerve conduction velocity slowing (3 m/s). We were not able to find genetic mutations at the PMP 22, MPZ, PRX, and EGR2 genes. The pathologic findings of the sural nerve biopsy revealed thinly myelinated nerve fibers with Schwann cells proliferation. We performed a decompressive laminectomy, intravenous IgG (IV-IgG) and oral steroid. At 1 week after surgery, most of his symptoms showed marked improvements except foot deformities. There was no relapse or aggravation of disease for 3 years. We diagnosed the case as an early-onset CIDP with cauda equine syndrome, whose initial clinical findings were similar to those of CMT1, and successfully managed with decompressive laminectomy, IV-IgG and oral steroid. PMID:25237436

Lee, Seung Eun; Ha, Sam Yeol; Nam, Taek Kyun

2014-01-01

204

A case of cauda equina syndrome in early-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy clinically similar to charcot-marie-tooth disease type 1.  

PubMed

To present a case of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) which seemed clinically similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMT1). CIDP is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy, either progressive or relapsing-remitting. It is a non-hereditary disorder characterized by symmetrical motor and sensory deficits. Rarely, spinal nerve roots can be involved, leading to CES by hypertrophic cauda equina. A 34-year-old man presented with low back pain, radicular pain, bilateral lower-extremity weakness, urinary incontinence, and constipation. He had had musculoskeletal deformities, such as hammertoes and pes cavus, since age 10. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the cauda equina. Electrophysiological testing showed increased distal latency, conduction blocks, temporal dispersion, and severe nerve conduction velocity slowing (3 m/s). We were not able to find genetic mutations at the PMP 22, MPZ, PRX, and EGR2 genes. The pathologic findings of the sural nerve biopsy revealed thinly myelinated nerve fibers with Schwann cells proliferation. We performed a decompressive laminectomy, intravenous IgG (IV-IgG) and oral steroid. At 1 week after surgery, most of his symptoms showed marked improvements except foot deformities. There was no relapse or aggravation of disease for 3 years. We diagnosed the case as an early-onset CIDP with cauda equine syndrome, whose initial clinical findings were similar to those of CMT1, and successfully managed with decompressive laminectomy, IV-IgG and oral steroid. PMID:25237436

Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Seung Won; Ha, Sam Yeol; Nam, Taek Kyun

2014-06-01

205

A rare case of complete C2-C3 dislocation with mild neurological symptoms.  

PubMed

The authors report a rare case of complete C2-C3 dislocation with unexpectedly mild neurological symptoms in a 57 year old man involved in a motor vehicle accident, who had previously undergone posterior laminectomy from C3 through C7. A retrospective chart analysis and a thorough radiographic review were performed. X-rays and CT of the cervical spine demonstrated a complete dislocation at the C2-C3 level. Computed tomographic angiography revealed disruption of both vertebral arteries; however, blood flow was evident in the basilar artery. After radiologically guided placement in cervical traction with tongs that reduced the subluxation by approximately 50% the patient had spontaneous eye opening and was able to follow commands. A two-stage 360 degree stabilization and fusion was performed and the patient was finally discharged 24 days after admission with his neurological status essentially unchanged. In conclusion, our patient presented with surprisingly mild neurological symptoms. The previously performed laminectomy could have both predisposed to injury as well as protected his spinal cord from potentially fatal trauma. PMID:16429292

Machinis, Theofilos G; Fountas, Kostas N; Kapsalaki, E Z; Kapsalakis, I; Grigorian, A A

2006-10-01

206

Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid cyst.  

PubMed

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right extremity as well as urinary dysfunction and sphincter dysfunction. She had a lumbar puncture three times due to Pneumococcal meningitis when she was 13 years old. The well-circumscribed intradural extramedullary mass of 1.8×1.6×4 cm size was found on the L4-5 in a magnetic resonance image. Gross total tumor removal was garried out after the total laminectomy L5 and partial laminectomy L4. The tumor mass was gray-colored and so fragile that it was easy to be removed. The histological diagnosis confirmed epidermoid cyst without malignancy. After the operation, the patient progressively showed remarkable neurological recovery. In this case, the cause of epidermoid cyst is considered iatrogenic concerning history of several times of lumbar puncture as meningitis. PMID:25346768

Park, Min Ho; Cho, Tach Geun; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-09-01

207

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, with a radiographically occult primary tumor, presenting in the operative site of a thoracic meningioma: long-term follow-up: Case report.  

PubMed

Lesions metastatic to the site of a meningioma resection from a different primary tumor are rare. Metastasis of a tumor without a known primary tumor is also rare. Metastasis of a renal cell carcinoma, without an identifiable primary tumor, to the bed of a meningioma resection has not been previously reported. The authors describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with decreased sensory and motor function in the lower extremities. He underwent T3-5 laminectomies and gross-total removal of an intradural, extramedullary meningioma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient regained full neurological function. After a 3-year period, he developed progressive upper thoracic pain and lower-extremity paresthesias. Imaging studies showed an epidural mass at the T2-4 levels and what appeared to be blastic involvement of the T2-4 vertebrae. A metastatic workup was negative. Emergency revision laminectomies yielded a fibrous, nonvascular mass. Neuropathology was consistent with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. After 6 months, the patient's symptoms of pain and paresthesias recurred. Repeat excision, with decompression of the spinal cord, revealed tumor cells morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to those obtained from the prior surgery. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A novel case of an epidural metastatic renal cell carcinoma, of unknown primary origin, in the same operative bed of a previously resected intradural, extramedullary meningioma of the thoracic spine is reported. PMID:25014504

Heary, Robert F; Agarwal, Nitin; Barrese, James C; Barry, Maureen T; Baisre, Ada

2014-10-01

208

Regulation of nitric oxide generation by up-regulated arginase I in rat spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Recently, arginase is suggested to regulate nitric oxide production by competing with nitric oxide synthase for the same substrate, L-arginine, in experimental asthma. We investigated the role of arginase and its relationship to nitric oxide production after spinal cord injury. Rats were subjected to laminectomy and complete transection of their spinal cords (injury group) or laminectomy only (sham group). In the injury group, arginase I was increased in the macrophages at the transection edge, and the peak was observed 48 h after spinal cord injury. However, nitric oxide production decreased significantly in the injury group despite increased nitric oxide synthase2 mRNA expression compared with the sham group. We also demonstrated the reduction in L-arginine concentrations, which was inversely associated with changes in arginase activity. Therefore, arginase appeared to regulate nitric oxide production by consuming L-arginine. The regulation of arginase activity and L-arginine levels may improve nitroxidative stress and reduce tissue damage in spinal cord injury. PMID:22798716

Imagama, Takashi; Ogino, Keiki; Takemoto, Kei; Kato, Yoshihiko; Kataoka, Hideo; Suzuki, Hidenori; Ran, Zhang; Setiawan, Heri; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Taguchi, Toshihiko

2012-01-01

209

Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute demyelinating myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a reference MRI technique for the evaluation of neurological disorders. Few publications\\u000a have investigated the application of DWI for inflammatory demyelinating lesions. The purpose of the study was to describe\\u000a diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics of acute, spinal demyelinating lesions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Six consecutive patients (two males, four females; aged 28–64 years) with acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions were studied

Chiara Zecca; Carlo Cereda; Stephan Wetzel; Silvia Tschuor; Claudio Staedler; Francesco Santini; Navarajah Nadarajah; Claudio L. Bassetti; Claudio Gobbi

210

Case Report Subacute delayed ascending myelopathy after low spine injury  

E-print Network

and other secondary changes involving one or two spinal cord segments adjacent to the original site of trauma. After a period of neurological stability, late delayed complications, such as progressive post

Manitoba, University of

211

Surgical Treatment of Spinal Stenosis with and without Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Cost-Effectiveness after 2 Years  

PubMed Central

Background The SPORT (Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial) reported favorable surgery outcomes over 2 years among patients with stenosis with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis, but the economic value of these surgeries is uncertain. Objective To assess the short-term cost-effectiveness of spine surgery relative to nonoperative care for stenosis alone and for stenosis with spondylolisthesis. Design Prospective cohort study. Data Sources Resource utilization, productivity, and EuroQol EQ-5D score measured at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment among SPORT participants. Target Population Patients with image-confirmed spinal stenosis, with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis. Time Horizon 2 years. Perspective Societal. Intervention Nonoperative care or surgery (primarily decompressive laminectomy for stenosis and decompressive laminectomy with fusion for stenosis associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis). Outcome Measures Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Among 634 patients with stenosis, 394 (62%) had surgery, most often decompressive laminectomy (320 of 394 [81%]). Stenosis surgeries improved health to a greater extent than nonoperative care (QALY gain, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.22]) at a cost of $77 600 (CI, $49 600 to $120 000) per QALY gained. Among 601 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 368 (61%) had surgery, most including fusion (344 of 368 [93%]) and most with instrumentation (269 of 344 [78%]). Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgeries significantly improved health versus non-operative care (QALY gain, 0.23 [CI, 0.19 to 0.27]), at a cost of $115 600 (CI, $90 800 to $144 900) per QALY gained. Result of Sensitivity Analysis Surgery cost markedly affected the value of surgery. Limitation The study used self-reported utilization data, 2-year time horizon, and as-treated analysis to address treatment non-adherence among randomly assigned participants. Conclusion The economic value of spinal stenosis surgery at 2 years compares favorably with many health interventions. Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgery is not highly cost-effective over 2 years but could show value over a longer time horizon. PMID:19075203

Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Herkowitz, Harry; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Bridwell, Keith; Longley, Michael; Andersson, Gunnar B.; Blood, Emily A.; Grove, Margaret R.; Weinstein, James N.

2009-01-01

212

High-grade spondyloretrolisthesis in a 12-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 is characterized by several skin, endocrine, central nervous system and musculoskeletal manifestations, spine deformities being the most common, affecting up to 64% of patients. Thoracic kyphoscoliosis is the most common deformity observed; however, high-grade spondylolisthesis and dural defects such as dural ectasia can also be found. The aim of this study is to describe a case of high-grade spondyloretrolisthesis in an NF-1 patient, associated with dural ectasia and extensive lumbar laminectomies, and to discuss our management and review the current literature on this controversial topic. A 12-year-old girl with NF-1 who had undergone extensive lumbar laminectomies in an outside facility presented to our emergency department complaining of back pain and lower limbs upper motor neuron symptoms. Image studies showed a high-grade lumbar spondyloretrolisthesis associated with dural ectasia. The first step of treatment was spine immobilization using a Boston brace. An anterior approach was used, and an L2 corporectomy was performed, using a Moss type cage between L1 and L3 with an instrumented arthrodesis and autologous bone graft for stabilization purposes. The second step planned was a posterior approach for arthrodesis and instrumentation, but after an extensive discussion with the parents and the patient, the parents did not agree to the procedure planned for the patient. A brace was used for 1 year while rehabilitation was performed. At the 1-year follow-up, there was a 70° kyphosis at the thoracolumbar junction but it was clinically stable, with an acceptable sagittal balance. Dural ectasia is not a common finding in children with NF-1; however, it should be identified as its presence may predispose to spine instability and as a consequence the development of a high-grade spondyloretrolisthesis. Even though a few cases have been reported, we believe that it is important to consider the option of a double approach to achieve a better correction in both planes and a good outcome. If an extensive laminectomy is involved, it is mandatory to perform a posterior fusion and instrumentation. PMID:22863687

Martín-Fuentes, Ana María; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Curto de la Mano, Angel; Viña-Fernández, Rafael

2013-03-01

213

Melanotic cyst of L5 spinal root: A case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Till date, 85 cases of melanotic schwannoma and 11 cases of spinal root melanoma have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with primary low back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbo-sacral spine showed at left L5-S1 foraminal lesion extending to the para-spinal compartment. Hemi-laminectomy, facetectomy, and excision of the lesion were done. It was primarily a cystic lesion with attachment to the exiting spinal nerve root. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed a fibro-collagenous stroma with no specific cell lining containing melanin pigment suggestive of a melanotic cyst. The patient was completely relieved of the back pain, and had no recurrence over a follow-up period of one and half years. This case is probably the first reported predominantly cystic, pigmented lesion, affecting the spinal root. PMID:23559992

Chakravarthy, Hariprakash

2012-10-01

214

Melanotic cyst of L5 spinal root: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Till date, 85 cases of melanotic schwannoma and 11 cases of spinal root melanoma have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with primary low back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbo-sacral spine showed at left L5-S1 foraminal lesion extending to the para-spinal compartment. Hemi-laminectomy, facetectomy, and excision of the lesion were done. It was primarily a cystic lesion with attachment to the exiting spinal nerve root. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed a fibro-collagenous stroma with no specific cell lining containing melanin pigment suggestive of a melanotic cyst. The patient was completely relieved of the back pain, and had no recurrence over a follow-up period of one and half years. This case is probably the first reported predominantly cystic, pigmented lesion, affecting the spinal root. PMID:23559992

Chakravarthy, Hariprakash

2012-01-01

215

Spinal giant cell tumor in tuberous sclerosis: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Patients affected by tuberous sclerosis (TS) have a greater incidence of tumors than the healthy population. Spinal tumours in TS are reported very rarely and consist mainly of sacrococcygeal and cervical chordomas. Method Case report. Findings A 21-year-old man, affected by TS, presented a spinal dorsal T2 tumor that caused medullary compression. He underwent decompressive laminectomy and microsurgical excision of a giant cell tumor and an associated aneurysmal bone cyst. Postoperative hypofractionated radiotherapy was performed on the surgical field. At 2.4 years of follow-up the patient reported total recovery of neurological deficits and was free from tumor recurrence. Conclusion Considering this association, which is the first reported in the literature, spinal magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium should be performed at the onset of spinal pain in patients affected by TS. PMID:23809532

Fraioli, Mario Francesco; Lecce, Mario; Fraioli, Chiara; Paolo, Curatolo

2013-01-01

216

Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo imaging of white matter is important for the mechanistic understanding of demyelination and evaluation of remyelination therapies. Although white matter can be visualized by a strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal from axonal myelin, in vivo repetitive CARS imaging of the spinal cord remains a challenge due to complexities induced by the laminectomy surgery. We present a careful experimental design that enabled longitudinal CARS imaging of de- and remyelination at single axon level in live rats. In vivo CARS imaging of secretory phospholipase A2 induced myelin vesiculation, macrophage uptake of myelin debris, and spontaneous remyelination by Schwann cells are sequentially monitored over a 3 week period. Longitudinal visualization of de- and remyelination at a single axon level provides a novel platform for rational design of therapies aimed at promoting myelin plasticity and repair.

Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Delong; Huff, Terry B.; Wang, Xiaofei; Shi, Riyi; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

2011-10-01

217

Primary lumbar epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum diagnosed by 16S rRNA PCR.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 71-year-old woman who presented a primary spinal epidural abscess caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. This is the second report in the medical literature to associate this organism with a primary spinal epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis. After treatment with emergency laminectomy followed by 8 weeks of antibiotic treatment the patient was cured. Oral metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h) was the definitive choice of treatment. F. necrophorum spinal epidural abscess is rare, although samples for anaerobic culture should be collected in order to improve detection of anaerobic spinal infections. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA permits early diagnosis in anaerobic infections. PMID:23845584

Sanmillán, Jose Luis; Pelegrín, Iván; Rodríguez, David; Ardanuy, Carmen; Cabellos, Carmen

2013-10-01

218

Spinal lobular capillary hemangioma with an intramedullary component.  

PubMed

Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms rarely involving the spinal cord, where their usual location is extramedullary. A 59-year-old man presented with a 7-month history of progressive numbness which began in the left lower extremity and progressed across the lower back, right flank, trunk and into the right lower extremity with associated pressure and pain in his lower back. On magnetic resonance imaging, there was an avidly-enhancing thoracic intradural lesion that contained an extramedullary intradural component posteriorly, with an apparent intramedullary component anteriorly. Laminectomy of T7 - 8 was performed, and intradural exploration revealed a highly vascular-appearing tumor below the arachnoid, which was not completely dissected because it was densely adherent to the spinal cord. The pathological diagnosis was lobular capillary hemangioma with extra- and intramedullary components. We suggest this lesion should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with an intramedullary component. PMID:23924752

Gonzalez, Ricardo; Spears, Julian; Bharatha, Aditya; Munoz, David G

2014-01-01

219

Intraspinal Lipomas Without Associated Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of this study was to report surgical strategies and clinical outcomes for thoraco-lumbar intradural lipomas. Intraspinal lipomas are rare congenital histologically benign neoplasms, which account for less than 1% of all spinal cord tumors. These tumors are most frequently found in the lumbosacral area as components of a dysraphic state, however, intramedullary lipomas are not associated with spina bifida or cutaneous malformations and have only been described as isolated cases among spinal lipomas, where the thoracolumbar region is rarely affected. Case Presentation: Three patients with thoracolumbar intradural lipomas were admitted to our clinic at different points of time. Partial resections and debulking of the tumors were achieved with the guidance of an operating microscope. We performed laminectomies or laminoplasties, for tumor resections. Discussion: Postoperatively, the patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements. In this manuscript we presented our surgical experiences for intraspinal lipomas. PMID:25031846

Arslan, Erhan; Kuzeyli, Kayhan; Acar Arslan, Elif

2014-01-01

220

Thoracic congenital dermal sinus associated with intramedullary spinal dermoid cyst  

PubMed Central

Dorsal dermal sinus is a rare, congenital lesion found most frequently in the lumbosacral followed by the occipital regions. It is rarely localized at the thoracic level. We report a rare case of thoracic congenital dermal sinus (CDS) associated with an intramedullary dermoid cyst in a 2-year-old male child, who presented with a 3 month history of motor weakness of both the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine showed an intramedullary dermoid cyst extending from the lower border of T4 to upper border of T7, which was connected with the skin dimple along the sinus tract. Total excision of the dermoid cyst and the sinus tract with T5–7 laminectomy resulted in good functional recovery. PMID:24891899

Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Panigrahi, Souvagya

2014-01-01

221

Regrowth of Cervical Intradural Lipoma without Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

A 49 years old male patient who suffered from deterioration of posterior neck pain, left hand numbness, left lower limb pain and gait disturbance for 3 years visited our outpatient department. He had been diagnosed as non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma and operated in August 1990. On the radiologic images, we found the regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma from C2 to C7 level, which surrounds and compresses the cervical spinal cord. Previous subtotal laminectomy from C2 to C7 and severe cervical lordosis were also found. Appropriate debulking of lipoma mass without duroplasty was successfully done with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). We are following up the patient for 24 months via outpatient department, his neurologic symptoms such as hand numbness, gait disturbance, left lower limb pain and posterior neck pain have improved. We describe a rare case of regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma. PMID:25328656

Son, Doo Kyung; Choi, Chang Hwa; Song, Geun Sung

2014-01-01

222

Intramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of cervicothoracic spinal cord.  

PubMed

Solitary fibrous tumor is rare benign mesenchymal neoplasm. The spinal solitary fibrous tumor is extremely rare. The authors experienced a case of intramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of cervicothoracic spinal cord in a 48-year-old man with right lower extremity sensory disturbance. Spinal MRI showed intradural mass lesion in the level of C7-T1, the margin between the spinal cord and tumor was not clear on MRI. A Left unilateral laminectomy and mass removal was performed. Intra operative finding, the tumor boundary was unclear from spinal cord and it had intramedullary and extramedullary portion. After surgery, patient had good recovery and had uneventful prognosis. Follow up spinal MRI showed no recurrence of tumor. PMID:25368773

Hwang, Ui Seung; Kim, Sung Bum; Jo, Dae Jean; Kim, Sung Min

2014-09-01

223

Coexisting intramedullary schwannoma with an ependymal cyst of the conus medullaris: A case report  

PubMed Central

Synchronous spinal intramedullary ependymal cysts and intramedullary schwannomas are rare. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report of a case of intramedullary schwannoma coexisting with an ependymal cyst. A 35-year-old male presented with lower back pain and weakness in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging identified an intramedullary cystic-solid lesion at the thoracolumbar junction of T11-L2; based on the clinical presentation and radiological features, a pre-operative diagnosis of ependymoma was formed. Subsequently, the patient underwent a T11-12 laminectomy via a posterior approach, with intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory and motor-evoked potentials, achieving a gross total resection of the tumor with a well-demarcated dissection plane. Post-operative histopathological examination demonstrated a schwannoma coexisting with the ependymal cyst, and the neurological status of the patient markedly improved compared with the pre-operatively observed neurological deficit. PMID:25621066

YANG, TAO; WU, LIANG; YANG, CHENLONG; DENG, XIAOFENG; XU, YULUN

2015-01-01

224

Intramedullary Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Cervicothoracic Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumor is rare benign mesenchymal neoplasm. The spinal solitary fibrous tumor is extremely rare. The authors experienced a case of intramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of cervicothoracic spinal cord in a 48-year-old man with right lower extremity sensory disturbance. Spinal MRI showed intradural mass lesion in the level of C7-T1, the margin between the spinal cord and tumor was not clear on MRI. A Left unilateral laminectomy and mass removal was performed. Intra operative finding, the tumor boundary was unclear from spinal cord and it had intramedullary and extramedullary portion. After surgery, patient had good recovery and had uneventful prognosis. Follow up spinal MRI showed no recurrence of tumor. PMID:25368773

Hwang, Ui Seung; Kim, Sung Bum; Jo, Dae Jean

2014-01-01

225

Whole Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication. PMID:24967052

Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook

2014-01-01

226

[Multilevel costovertebral echinococcosis: effectiveness of a combined approach].  

PubMed

Hydatid disease generally involves the liver and the lung, but rarely can be encountered in bones. The disease predominantly occurs in vascularized areas, involving in descending order: vertebrae, long bones, ilium, skull, and ribs. Vertebral and rib hydatidosis may result from vascular or lymphatic migration of a fertile cell from a hepatic focus. In humans, the two main forms are due to Echinococcus granulosis and less frequently, E. multilocularis (alveolaris). The hydatid cysts usually grow slowly asymptomatically and compression of the involved or the neighboring organ causes clinical manifestations. In this patient, hydatid disease occurred in the chest wall with secondary spinal canal involvement successfully treated by removal of cysts via T7, T8, T9, T10, and T11 laminectomies via a posterior approach, followed by resection of the involved ribs. Total removal of cysts without rupture appears to provide effective protection against late recurrences. PMID:17337017

Bahloul, K; Abdennadher, M; Rebai, R; Frikha, I; Boudawara, M-Z

2007-02-01

227

Jarcho–Levin syndrome with diastematomyelia: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Jarcho–Levin syndrome (JLS) is a type of segmental costovertebral malformation. It is a congenital disorder characterized by a variety of vertebral and costal anomalies. Only four cases of Jarcho–Levin syndrome with diastematomyelia have been reported in the literature. We report the fifth case of Jarcho–Levin syndrome with diastematomyelia and review the literature. A one-and-half-year-old male child born of full-term normal delivery was brought with complaints of progressively increasing weakness in lower limbs with inability to stand since 1 month. Radiological examination revealed irregular fusion of ribs, spina bifida, and diastematomyelia at L2–L3 vertebral level. The patient underwent L1 to L3 laminectomy. A large bony spur was identified and excised with microrongeurs. Spondylocostal dysplasia may be associated with diastematomyelia or other surgically correctable occult intraspinal anomalies which may be diagnosed in early asymptomatic stage by magnetic resonance image screening of spine. PMID:22408667

Kansal, Ritesh; Mahore, Amit; Kukreja, Sanjay

2011-01-01

228

[Chondromyxoid fibroma of the thoracic spine: a case report and review of the literature].  

PubMed

A case of chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) arising from the 5th right costovertebral junction and spreading into spinal canal causing spinal cord compression is presented. A myelotomography revealed a complete block at T5 level. The patient underwent a decompressive laminectomy with removal of an epidural tumor. This specimen was sent for pathological examination and interpreted as a CMF. The patient had a neurological improvement, post operative MRI revealed a spinal cord free of compression, and we decided on the follow up of the case. Two years later there was recurrence of the tumor. A posterolateral access by costotransversectomy was made and the lesion was resected. The patient had a neurological improvement which persists on the follow up (two years, at present). Clinical, radiologic and histologic findings, surgical management and recurrence are discussed. The pertinent literature is reviewed. PMID:8729785

Leal Filho, M B; Pereira Neto, A; Pereira, L C; Franco, P S; Suzuki, K; De Mello, P A; Burnett, J C; Veloso, M G

1995-12-01

229

Idiopathic spinal epidural lipomatosis - two cases report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL), an abnormal localized or tumor-like accumulation of fat in the epidural space, is an infrequent complication of chronic steroid usage and an uncommon cause of spinal cord compression. During the period of 1990 to 2006, we have two cases of medically heath SEL patients without history of steroid administration. Their initial clinical manifestations were low back pain, progressive lower extremities weakness, numbness, followed by rapid deterioration of neurogenic intermittent claudication. They were misdiagnosed and treated as degenerative spinal disease for a long time. Due to prominent neurological deficit, lumbar magnetic resonance image (MRI) was obtained and showed SEL. These 2 patients all underwent laminectomy and removal of epidural fat. Postoperatively, they both showed improvement. We reviewed the literature and discussed the current concept in the management of SEL. PMID:20035646

Chan, Jun-Yeen; Chang, Chih-Ju; Jeng, Chin-Ming; Huang, Shih-Hung; Liu, Yuan-Kai; Huang, Jing-Shan

2009-01-01

230

Tapia Syndrome after Cervical Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Tapia syndrome is a rare entity characterized by unilateral paralysis of the tongue and vocal cord caused by Xth and XIIth cranial nerve lesions. However, there has been no report of Tapia syndrome immediately following spine surgery. A 47-year-old man underwent posterior decompressive laminectomy for cervical stenosis. The surgery took about 117 minutes and it was uneventful. Postoperatively he developed hoarseness of voice during speech, with deviation of tongue protrusion. On laryngoscopic examination, paralysis of the left side of the tongue and the soft palate was found and complete palsy of the left vocal cord was noted. After excluding surgical cause and craniocervical lesion, a clinical diagnosis of Tapia syndrome was made. Here we report a rare case of Tapia syndrome developed after posterior approach for cervical spine surgery and discuss the possible mechanisms of this uncommon syndrome. PMID:24891858

Kang, Jung Hoon; Kim, Dong Min

2013-01-01

231

Acute hydrocephalus following cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drowsiness with dilatation of the right pupil. Findings on brain computed tomography revealed acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebellomedullary cistern, therefore, extraventricular drainage was performed immediately. Acute hydrocephalus as a complication of cervical spine trauma is rare, however, it should be considered if the patient shows deterioration of neurologic symptoms. PMID:24175033

Son, Seong; Lee, Sang Gu; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung

2013-08-01

232

Sacral Fracture Causing Neurogenic Bladder: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 76-year-old man presented with a Denis Zone III sacral fracture after a traffic accident. He also developed urinary retention and perineal numbness. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder dysfunction caused by the sacral fracture. A computed tomogram (CT) revealed that third sacral lamina was fractured and displaced into the spinal canal, but vertebral body did not displace. The fracture lines began at the center of lamina and extended bilateraly. The fracture pattern was unique. The sacrum was osteoporosis, and this fracture may be based on osteoporosis. We performed laminectomy to decompress sacral nerve roots. One month after surgery, the patient was able to urinate. Three months after surgery, his bladder function recovered normally. One year after surgery, he returned to a normal daily life and had no complaints regarding urination. One-year postoperative CT showed the decompressed third sacrum without displacement. PMID:22431935

Sasaji, Tatsuro; Yamada, Noboru; Iwai, Kazuo

2012-01-01

233

Ruptured S1-S2 disc presenting with S2 radiculopathy.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 61-year-old man in whom numbness developed on the right side of the penis, scrotum, and perineum after he jumped into a swimming pool. Magnetic resonance imaging and a computed tomographic scan disclosed a lesion at S1-S2 impinging on the right S2 nerve root. At surgery, ruptured disc material originating in an area normally occupied by the fixed fibrocartilaginous plate was identified and excised. Postoperatively, the numbness resolved. We discuss a possible cause of the rupturing of the sacral disc and recommended treatment by laminectomy and excision, as in other cases of ruptured disc at other levels of the spinal column. PMID:2918978

Nabors, M W; Cooney, F D

1989-02-01

234

[Tarlov cysts: report of four cases].  

PubMed

Four perineurial cysts cases (Tarlov's cysts) are reported. The purpose of this study is to describe and to compare them with data from a literature review. The evaluation was performed among 88 adult patients with symptoms of radiculopathy, sacral pain, low back pain. Four patients revealed Tarlov's cysts (4.5%). The diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. Four cases underwent sacral laminectomy. Following surgery, the claudication pain resolved with no motor or sensory deficits. Tarlov's cysts should be considered as a differential diagnosis of sacral radiculopathy, sacral or lumbar pain syndromes and mainly to the lumbar disc prolapse. The goal of the surgical treatment is to relieve the neural compression and stop bone erosion. PMID:15334232

Sá, Márcia Cristina da Paixão Rodrigues Miranda de; Sá, Renato Carlos Ferreira Leite Miranda de

2004-09-01

235

Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic spinal cord injury causes an inflammatory reaction involving blood-derived macrophages and central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia. Intra-vital two-photon microscopy enables the study of macrophages and microglia in the spinal cord lesion in the living animal. This can be performed in adult animals with a traumatic injury to the dorsal column. Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. We also describe a injury model that crushes the dorsal column of the spinal cord, thereby producing a simple, easily accessible, rectangular lesion that is easily visualized in an animal through a laminectomy. Furthermore, we will outline procedures to sequentially image the animals at the anatomical site of injury for the study of cellular interactions during the first few days to weeks after injury. PMID:25489963

Evans, Teresa A.; Barkauskas, Deborah S.; Myers, Jay T.; Huang, Alex Y.

2014-01-01

236

Appropriate selection of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis for interspinous process decompression with the X STOP device.  

PubMed

With the aging of the population, the number of patients suffering from progressive lumbar spinal stenosis with symptomatic neurogenic intermittent claudication is projected to increase. Unfortunately, these patients are limited to a choice between nonsurgical conservative care and more invasive decompressive surgical procedures such as laminectomy with or without fusion. The X STOP interspinous process decompression system is a commercially available device that provides a minimally invasive alternative treatment, an intermediate option within the continuum of care for these patients. The X STOP is appropriate for patients with moderately severe functional impairment whose symptoms are exacerbated in extension and relieved in flexion. Implanted between the spinous processes without disrupting the normal anatomical structures, the X STOP limits narrowing of the spinal canal and neural foramina by reducing extension at the symptomatic level(s). In this report the author details the approved indications for use of the X STOP and discusses several illustrative cases. PMID:17608339

Lauryssen, Carl

2007-01-01

237

Surgical treatment of giant cell tumor of the cervicothoracic spine with combined anterior and posterior approaches.  

PubMed

Generally, giant cell tumors are rare and their localization in the spine is even more so. They are locally aggressive leading to spine instability and neurologic deficits. Radical excision is highly advocated. A role of radiotherapy in these tumors is controversial. We report the case of a giant cell tumor localized in D1 and D2 on a 39-year-old patient, presented with interscapular back pain, paraparesis grade 3/5 and sphincter dysfunction. Thoracic spine computed tomogarphy and magnetic resonance imaging showed a vertebral body tumor in D1 and D2, compressing the spinal cord at the same level. The patient initially underwent decompressive laminectomy of affected levels and stabilized with laminar hooks and rods. Second surgery performed through an anterior approach whereby tumor excision together with corpectomy of D1 and D2 carried out, autograft was placed and plate applied. Three weeks postoperatively, the patient's neurologic deficit recovered fully and back pain subsided. PMID:25687442

Habibou, M L; Boutarbouch, M; Oudghiri, M Y; Mchome, L; Louraoui, M; Derraz, S; El Ouahabi, A

2015-01-01

238

Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman Disease presenting as spinal extradural lesion: a case report with a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) or Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare, but well-documented entity. We report a male patient who presented with progressive paraparesis, with thoracolumbar extradural lesion (from D11 to L2 level) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He underwent D12-L2 laminectomy followed by total removal of extradural spinal space-occupying lesion (SOL). Histopathological diagnosis of the lesion was RDD. Four weeks after surgery, he was treated with external beam radiotherapy, total dose: 50.4GY in 28 fractions. On three-month follow-up, he did not have any neurological deficits. There was no evidence of other extranodal or lymph node involvement. This case has been reported on account of rare presentation of this disease as spinal extradural lesion. Pertinent literature has been reviewed. PMID:23361292

Roy, Chhaya; Saha, Animesh; Roy, Subhendu; Ghosh, Angshuman

2012-01-01

239

Usefulness of Intraoperative Monitoring during Microsurgical Decompression of Cervicomedullary Compression Caused by an Anomalous Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

We report a case of cervicomedullary compression by an anomalous vertebral artery treated using microsurgical decompression with intraoperative monitoring. A 68-year-old woman presented with posterior neck pain and gait disturbance. MRI revealed multiple abnormalities, including an anomalous vertebral artery that compressed the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. Suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy was performed. The spinal cord was found to be compressed by the vertebral arteries, which were retracted dorsolaterally. At that time, the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) changed. After release of the vertebral artery, the SSEP signal normalized instantly. The vertebral artery was then lifted gently and anchored to the dura. There was no other procedural complication. The patient's symptoms improved. This case demonstrates that intraoperative monitoring may be useful for preventing procedural complications during spinal cord microsurgical decompression. PMID:25628814

Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Dong Mun; Lee, Kun Soo

2014-01-01

240

Dorsal Extradural Lumbar Disc Herniation Causing Cauda Equina Syndrome : A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old male presented with a rare dorsally sequestrated lumbar disc herniation manifesting as severe radiating pain in both leg, progressively worsening weakness in both lower extremities, and urinary incontinence, suggesting cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested the sequestrated disc fragment located in the extradural space at the L4-L5 level had surrounded and compressed the dural sac from the lateral to dorsal sides. A bilateral decompressive laminectomy was performed under an operating microscope. A large extruded disc was found to have migrated from the ventral aspect, around the thecal sac, and into the dorsal aspect, which compressed the sac to the right. After removal of the disc fragment, his sciatica was relieved and the patient felt strength of lower extremity improved. PMID:20379476

Lee, Sang-Ho; Arbatti, Nikhil J.

2010-01-01

241

Primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare. We will discuss the clinical features and treatment of primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this paper, a 30-year-old male patient who presented with spinal epidural tumor at the T9–11 level is reported. Subtotal resection of the tumor was performed and the histological examination of the tumor specimen revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma. All other examinations were negative for an occult disease. Six courses of chemotheraphy containing adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine were given to the patient. Surgery is the first therapeutic approach in malignancies compressing the spinal cord. Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very chemo- and radio-sensitive tumor. The indications for surgery were reduced and limited to laminectomy or even biopsy only, leaving the major role to chemo- and radiotheraphy. PMID:24964329

Yaman, Onur; Özdemir, Nail; Sevin, ?smail Ertan; Özer, Füsun Demirçivi; Ünlüo?lu, Saime

2013-01-01

242

Decancellation Sacral Osteotomy in Iliosacral Tumor Resection: A Technique for Precise Sacral Margins  

PubMed Central

En bloc resection of iliosacral sarcomas is a surgical challenge. There are substantial risks of inadequate margins, local recurrence, and nerve root loss when pelvic sarcomas involve sacral root canals and foramina. The decancellation technique uses principles similar to transpedicle decancellation in spinal deformity correction to perform the sacral osteotomy in iliosacral tumor resection. The technique aims at improving sacral margins and minimizing loss of neural function. We performed a decancellation osteotomy in five patients with sarcomas requiring difficult oblique or sagittal sacral osteotomies and selective root sacrifice. Through laminectomy and without anterior exposure, a precise full-thickness osteotomy of the sacrum was performed without major technique-related morbidities or complications. This was followed by formal pelvic resection and reconstruction. Surgical margins were adequate in all patients and all tumor-free nerve roots were preserved. PMID:19690933

2009-01-01

243

Diffusion tensor imaging as a predictor of locomotor function after experimental spinal cord injury and recovery.  

PubMed

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-term disability with limited functional recovery linked to the extent of axonal connectivity. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of axonal integrity has been suggested as a potential biomarker for prognostic and therapeutic evaluation after trauma, but its correlation with functional outcomes has not been clearly defined. To examine this application, female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent midthoracic laminectomy followed by traumatic spinal cord contusion of differing severities or laminectomy without contusion. Locomotor scores and hindlimb kinematic data were collected for 4 weeks post-injury. Ex vivo DTI was then performed to assess axonal integrity using tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA), a numerical measure of relative white matter integrity, at the injury epicenter and at specific intervals rostral and caudal to the injury site. Immunohistochemistry for tissue sparing was also performed. Statistical correlation between imaging data and functional performance was assessed as the primary outcome. All injured animals showed some recovery of locomotor function, while hindlimb kinematics revealed graded deficits consistent with injury severity. Standard T2 magnetic resonance sequences illustrated conventional spinal cord morphology adjacent to contusions while corresponding FA maps indicated graded white matter pathology within these adjacent regions. Positive correlations between locomotor (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and gait kinematics) and imaging (FA values) parameters were also observed within these adjacent regions, most strongly within caudal segments beyond the lesion. Evaluation of axonal injury by DTI provides a mechanism for functional recovery assessment in a rodent SCI model. These findings suggest that focused DTI analysis of caudal spinal cord should be studied in human cases in relationship to motor outcome to augment outcome biomarkers for clinical cases. PMID:24779685

Kelley, Brian J; Harel, Noam Y; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Papademetris, Xenophon; Coman, Daniel; Wang, Xingxing; Hasan, Omar; Kaufman, Adam; Globinsky, Ronen; Staib, Lawrence H; Cafferty, William B J; Hyder, Fahmeed; Strittmatter, Stephen M

2014-08-01

244

Holospinal epidural abscess of the spinal axis: two illustrative cases with review of treatment strategies and surgical techniques.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing prevalence of spinal infections, the subcategory of holospinal epidural abscesses (HEAs) is extremely infrequent and requires unique management. Panspinal imaging (preferably MRI), modern aggressive antibiotic therapy, and prompt surgical intervention remain the standard of care for all spinal axis infections including HEAs; however, the surgical decision making on timing and extent of the procedure still remain ill defined for HEAs. Decompression including skip laminectomies or laminoplasties is described, with varied clinical outcomes. In this review the authors present the illustrative cases of 2 patients with HEAs who were treated using skip laminectomies and epidural catheter irrigation techniques. The discussion highlights different management strategies including the role of conservative (nonsurgical) management in these lesions, especially with an already identified pathogen and the absence of mass effect on MRI or significant neurological defects. Among fewer than 25 case reports of HEA published in the past 25 years, the most important aspect in deciding a role for surgery is the neurological examination. Nearly 20% were treated successfully with medical therapy alone if neurologically intact. None of the reported cases had an associated cranial infection with HEA, because the dural adhesion around the foramen magnum prevented rostral spread of infection. Traditionally a posterior approach to the epidural space with irrigation is performed, unless an extensive focal ventral collection is causing cord compression. Surgical intervention for HEA should be an adjuvant treatment strategy for all acutely deteriorating patients, whereas aspiration of other infected sites like a psoas abscess can determine an infective pathogen, and appropriate antibiotic treatment may avoid surgical intervention in the neurologically intact patient. PMID:25081960

Smith, Gabriel A; Kochar, Arshneel S; Manjila, Sunil; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Geertman, Robert T; Anderson, James S; Steinmetz, Michael P

2014-08-01

245

Four-year follow-up results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion as revision surgery for recurrent lumbar disc herniation after conventional discectomy.  

PubMed

This study investigated the safety, effectiveness, and clinical and radiological outcomes of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) following previous lumbar spine surgery. Seventy-three consecutive patients treated for rLDH between June 2005 and May 2012 were included in the study. The previous surgical procedures included percutaneous discectomy, discectomy with laminotomy, discectomy with unilateral laminectomy, and discectomy with bilateral laminectomy. The level of rLDH was L4-L5 in 51 patients, L5-S1 in 19 patients, and L3-L4 in three patients. All patients underwent reoperation using the TLIF technique. Outcomes were evaluated using the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for low back pain and leg pain, and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, based on the results of physical examinations and questionnaires. The range of motion and disc height index of the operative segment were compared between preoperative and postoperative radiographs. The mean follow-up period was 4.1years. The VAS scores for low back pain and leg pain, ODI, and JOA score improved significantly between the preoperative and final follow-up evaluations. The mean recovery rate of the JOA score was 89.0%. The disc space height and stability at the fused level were significantly improved after surgery. The fusion rate at the final follow-up was 93.2%. There were no major complications. These results indicate that TLIF can be considered an effective, reliable, and safe alternative procedure for the treatment of rLDH. PMID:25443080

Li, Zhonghai; Tang, Jiaguang; Hou, Shuxun; Ren, Dongfeng; Li, Li; Lu, Xiang; Hou, Tiesheng

2015-02-01

246

Intra-operative vertebroplasty combined with posterior cord decompression. A report of twelve cases.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) is a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of vertebral pathology providing early vertebral stabilization and pain relief. In cases of vertebral pathology complicated by spinal cord compression with associated neurological deficits, VP alone cannot be performed free of risks. We describe a combined approach in which decompressive laminectomy and intra-operative vertebroplasty (IVP) are performed during a single session. Among the 252 VP performed in our centre in the past three years, 12 patients (12 vertebral levels) with different pathologies (six symptomatic haemangiomas, two metastatic fractures, four osteoporotic fractures) were treated with an open procedure combined with surgery. All cases were treated with decompressive laminectomy and IVP (mono/bipeduncular or median-posterior trans-somatic access). Five patients with symptomatic haemangiomas were treated with endovascular embolization prior to the combined approach. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to assess pain intensity before and after surgery. The neurological deficits were evaluated with an ASIA impairment scale. In all cases benefit from pain and neurological deficits was observed. The mean VAS score decreased from 7.8 to 2.5 after surgery. The ASIA score improved in all cases (five cases from D to E and five cases from C to D). No clinical complications were observed. In one case a CT scan performed after the procedure showed a foraminal accumulation of PMMA, but the patient referred no symptoms. IVP can be successfully applied in different pathologies affecting the vertebrae. In our limited series this approach proved safe and efficient to provide decompression of spinal cord and dural sac and vertebral body stabilization in a single session. PMID:25363261

Allegretti, Luca; Mavilio, Nicola; Fiaschi, Pietro; Bragazzi, Roberto; Pacetti, Mattia; Castelletti, Lara; Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio

2014-10-31

247

Unusual presentation of giant cell tumor originating from a facet joint of the thoracic spine in a child: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Giant cell tumor of the synovium is a common benign lesion that frequently occurs at the tendon sheaths in the hand; it is usually found in adults over 30 years old. It is related to pigmented villonodular synovitis. Giant cell tumor of the synovium or pigmented villonodular synovitis has been described rarely in the axial skeleton especially in the thoracic vertebrae of a child. Case presentation A previously healthy 7-year-old Thai girl presented with back pain and progressive paraparesis and was unable to walk for 1 month. She had weakness and hyperreflexia of both lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined homogeneously and intensely enhanced extradural mass with cord compression at T4 to T7 levels. The patient underwent laminectomy at T4 through to T7 and total tumor removal. Permanent histopathologic sections and immunostains revealed a giant cell tumor of the synovium. Postoperative neurological status recovered to grade V. Magnetic resonance imaging at the 1-year follow-up showed no recurrence and there was no clinical recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion We report an extremely rare case of giant cell tumor in the epidural space that extended from a thoracic facet joint. The tumor was removed successfully through laminectomies. Although giant cell tumor of a facet joint of the thoracic spine is very rare, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis for masses occurring in the epidural space in a child. Total tumor removal is the best treatment. Careful monitoring of recurrence can achieve a good clinical outcome. PMID:23830026

2013-01-01

248

Evaluation of hemilaminectomy use in microsurgical resection of intradural extramedullary tumors  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the microsurgical techniques of hemilaminectomy, used in the excision of intradural extramedullary (IDEM) tumors, and to illustrate its clinical effects. Clinical data obtained from 16 patients (seven males, nine females) with IDEM tumors, which were treated at the China-Japan Union Hospital between January 2009 and December 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age of patients was 49 years, ranging from 34–72 years. The IDEM tumors were located cervically in three patients, thoracically in four patients and at the thoracico-lumbar level in nine patients. Fourteen patients underwent hemilaminectomy, while two patients were treated with laminectomy during surgery. The clinical effect of hemilaminectomy was evaluated based on Frankel grade. The mean bleeding volume was 300 ml (range, 150–500 ml) and the mean duration of surgery was 140 min (range, 90–200 min). The maximum and minimum tumor volumes were 4×1.5×1.5 cm and 1.5×1.0×1.0 cm, respectively. Neurinoma was evident in 11 patients, meningioma in four cases and neurofibroma in one case. Three cases improved from Frankel grade B to C, five cases improved from grade C to D and seven cases improved from grade D to grade E. All patients were followed up for a period of 6–40 months, with a mean follow-up time of 23.7 months. None of the patients exhibited tumor recurrence or spinal instability. The mean bleeding volume of patients that underwent hemilaminectomy and laminectomy was 275 and 475 ml, respectively. The advantages of hemilaminectomy are minor invasion, less bleeding and retention of spinal stability. In general, hemilaminectomy for the excision of IDEM tumors has a satisfactory outcome. PMID:24765198

GU, RUI; LIU, JIA-BEI; XIA, PENG; LI, CHEN; LIU, GUANG-YAO; WANG, JIN-CHENG

2014-01-01

249

Evaluation of hemilaminectomy use in microsurgical resection of intradural extramedullary tumors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the microsurgical techniques of hemilaminectomy, used in the excision of intradural extramedullary (IDEM) tumors, and to illustrate its clinical effects. Clinical data obtained from 16 patients (seven males, nine females) with IDEM tumors, which were treated at the China-Japan Union Hospital between January 2009 and December 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age of patients was 49 years, ranging from 34-72 years. The IDEM tumors were located cervically in three patients, thoracically in four patients and at the thoracico-lumbar level in nine patients. Fourteen patients underwent hemilaminectomy, while two patients were treated with laminectomy during surgery. The clinical effect of hemilaminectomy was evaluated based on Frankel grade. The mean bleeding volume was 300 ml (range, 150-500 ml) and the mean duration of surgery was 140 min (range, 90-200 min). The maximum and minimum tumor volumes were 4×1.5×1.5 cm and 1.5×1.0×1.0 cm, respectively. Neurinoma was evident in 11 patients, meningioma in four cases and neurofibroma in one case. Three cases improved from Frankel grade B to C, five cases improved from grade C to D and seven cases improved from grade D to grade E. All patients were followed up for a period of 6-40 months, with a mean follow-up time of 23.7 months. None of the patients exhibited tumor recurrence or spinal instability. The mean bleeding volume of patients that underwent hemilaminectomy and laminectomy was 275 and 475 ml, respectively. The advantages of hemilaminectomy are minor invasion, less bleeding and retention of spinal stability. In general, hemilaminectomy for the excision of IDEM tumors has a satisfactory outcome. PMID:24765198

Gu, Rui; Liu, Jia-Bei; Xia, Peng; Li, Chen; Liu, Guang-Yao; Wang, Jin-Cheng

2014-05-01

250

Enhancement of bilateral cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to intact forelimb stimulation following thoracic contusion spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

The adult central nervous system is capable of significant reorganization and adaptation following neurotrauma. After a thoracic contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) neuropathways that innervate the cord below the epicenter of injury are damaged, with minimal prospects for functional recovery. In contrast, pathways above the site of injury remain intact and may undergo adaptive changes in response to injury. We used cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) to evaluate changes in intact forelimb pathways. Rats received a midline contusion SCI, unilateral contusion SCI, or laminectomy with no contusion at the T8 level and were monitored for 28 days post-injury. In the midline injury group, SSEPs recorded from the contralateral forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex were 59.7% (CI 34.7%, 84.8%; c(2) = 21.9; dof = 1; p = 2.9 ×10(-6)) greater than the laminectomy group; SSEPs from the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex were 47.6% (CI 18.3%, 77%; c(2) = 10.1; dof = 1; p = 0.001) greater. Activation of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex was further supported by BOLD-fMRI, which showed increased oxygenation at the ipsilateral hemisphere at day seven post-injury. In the unilateral injury group, ipsilesional side was compared to the contralesional side. SSEPs on day 14 (148%; CI 111%, 185%) and day 21 (137%; CI 110%, 163%) for ipsilesional forelimb stimulation were significantly increased over baseline (100%). SSEPs recorded from the hindlimb sensory cortex upon ipsilesional stimulation were 33.9% (CI 14.3%, 53.4%; c(2) = 11.6; dof = 1; p = 0.0007) greater than contralesional stimulation. Therefore, these results demonstrate the ability of SSEPs to detect significant enhancements in the activation of forelimb sensory pathways following both midline and unilateral contusive SCI at T8. Reorganization of forelimb pathways may occur after thoracic SCI, which SSEPs can monitor to aid the development of future therapies. PMID:24801738

Bazley, Faith A; Maybhate, Anil; Tan, Chuen Seng; Thakor, Nitish V; Kerr, Candace; All, Angelo H

2014-09-01

251

Assessing forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury: novel forelimb tasks predict lesion severity and recovery.  

PubMed

Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) can cause devastating neurological deficits, including impairment or loss of upper limb and hand function. Recently there has been increasing interest in cervical spinal cord injury models because the majority of spinal cord injuries are at cervical levels. Here we examined spontaneous functional recovery of adult rats with either laminectomy or lateral hemisection of the cervical spinal cord at C3-C4. Behavioral tests were carried out, including the forelimb locomotor scale (FLS), a postural instability test (PIT), a pasta-handling test that has been used to assess forepaw digit function and latency to eat, forelimb use during vertical-lateral wall exploration in a cylindrical enclosure, and vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing tests. In addition, a forelimb step-alternation test was developed to assess functional recovery at 12 weeks post-injury. All tests detected cSCI-induced deficits relative to laminectomy. Interestingly, the severity of deficits in the forelimb step-alternation test was associated with more extensive spinal damage, greater impairment, and less recovery in the FLS and other tests. For the pasta-handling test we found that rats with a milder cervical injury (alternators) were more likely to use both forepaws together compared to rats with a more severe injury (non-alternators). In addition, using the PIT, we detected enhanced function of the good limb, suggesting that neural plasticity on the unaffected side of the spinal cord may have occurred to compensate for deficits in the impaired forelimb. These outcome measures should be useful for investigating neural events associated with cSCI, and for developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:22022897

Khaing, Zin Z; Geissler, Sydney A; Jiang, Shan; Milman, Brian D; Aguilar, Sandra V; Schmidt, Christine E; Schallert, Timothy

2012-02-10

252

Dysregulation of kv3.4 channels in dorsal root Ganglia following spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

2015-01-21

253

[The narrow lumbar canal: 53 operated cases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

These 53 operated patients were divided into 2 groups: 29 had an intermittent claudication as Verbiest first described it soon as 1949, whereas 24 had permanent radicular pain in legs as Epstein emphasized it. We think emulsified Duroliopaque myelography to be the best investigation to make sure the diagnosis and to forecast the operative tactics: we gave up Dimer X myelography which occasioned serious complications in 2 cases and gas myelography which seems to us inadequate to this radicular pathology. Total-Body Scanner is rather an elegant method but a discontinuous one. The radiographic and operative findings have shown the stenosis of the lumbar canal to be congenital in 5 cases, development in 20 cases, degenerative in 27 cases (with 15 pseudo-spondylolisthesis) and tabetic in one case. A disc herniation was found in 25 cases over 53. The extent of the bone resection has been in relation with clinical picture, myelography and mainly operative findings, aiming at a "cut-to-measure costum". In every case the initial laminectomy was made easier by trenching the thickened laminae on each side of the spinal process prior to remove it. Only soft disc hernations were removed; the dura was never opened; no vertebral fusion was performed; for 2 years we have tried to avoid the "laminectomy membrane" by interposing an autogenous fat and aponevrotic graft between the dura and the overlying paraspinal muscles. The operative results are satisfactory with 75% of excellent and good; they are much better in patients with intermittent claudication than in those with permanent radicular pain. It is a question of functional surgery in one case, of pain surgery in the other. The major trick seems to us to be that of the associated disc hernation with the risk of missing the narrow canal. PMID:547193

Rousseaux, P; Bernard, M H; Scherpereel, B; Guyot, J F

1979-01-01

254

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis with ossification of the ligamentum flavum in achondroplasia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder of bone growth. Congenital spinal stenosis is a well-known complication of this disease, but, to the best of our knowledge, no cases involving combined stenosis with congenital lumbar spinal stenosis and ossification of the ligamentum flavum in achondroplasia have been reported previously. In this report, we describe a case of a patient with congenital spinal stenosis with achondroplasia combined with ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine, which we treated with decompressive surgery. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese woman with achondroplasia was unable to walk due to a neurological deficit of the lower extremities caused by congenital spinal stenosis that resulted from achondroplasia and ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine. Congenital spinal stenosis was observed from L1 to L5, and ossification of the ligamentum flavum was identified from L1/2 to L3/4. A decompressive laminectomy from L1 to L5 and removal of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum were performed. The patient’s neurological symptoms improved after surgery. She could walk with T-cane at the time of her four-year follow-up examination. Conclusion In this report, we describe what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first known published case of ossification of the ligamentum flavum in congenital spinal stenosis associated with achondroplasia at the lumbar spine. Although resection of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the congenital spinal stenosis at the lumbar spine was technically difficult because of congenital narrowing of the spinal canal, thickening of the lamina and adhesion of the ossified ligamentum flavum, a wide laminectomy and resection of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum resulted in acceptable improvement of the patient’s neurological symptoms. PMID:24597928

2014-01-01

255

Granulocytic Sarcoma with Compressive Myelopathy: A Rare Presentation of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Granulocytic sarcoma occurs most commonly in acute myelogenous leukemia. The appearance of granulocytic sarcoma in chronic myelogenous leukemia signals accelerated phase/ blast transformation. This is a rare case of undiagnosed chronic myelogenous leukemia with granulocytic sarcoma causing cord compression, which went into tumour lysis syndrome requiring dialysis after starting of steroids and radiotherapy. A 43-year-old male presented in emergency department with acute onset of flaccid paralysis. On clinical examination, there was hepatosplenomegaly and lower motor neuron paralysis in the lower limbs. The peripheral smear was consistent with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. The MRI spine revealed para-spinal and epidural masses causing cord compression and the biopsy from the paraspinal mass was consistent with granulocytic sarcoma. PMID:25177619

Viswabandya, Auro; Jasper, Anita; Patel, Palak; Kokil, Gautami

2014-01-01

256

Granulocytic sarcoma with compressive myelopathy: a rare presentation of chronic myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

Granulocytic sarcoma occurs most commonly in acute myelogenous leukemia. The appearance of granulocytic sarcoma in chronic myelogenous leukemia signals accelerated phase/ blast transformation. This is a rare case of undiagnosed chronic myelogenous leukemia with granulocytic sarcoma causing cord compression, which went into tumour lysis syndrome requiring dialysis after starting of steroids and radiotherapy. A 43-year-old male presented in emergency department with acute onset of flaccid paralysis. On clinical examination, there was hepatosplenomegaly and lower motor neuron paralysis in the lower limbs. The peripheral smear was consistent with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. The MRI spine revealed para-spinal and epidural masses causing cord compression and the biopsy from the paraspinal mass was consistent with granulocytic sarcoma. PMID:25177619

Ganapule, Abhijeet P; Viswabandya, Auro; Jasper, Anita; Patel, Palak; Kokil, Gautami

2014-07-01

257

Feline ischemic myelopathy and encephalopathy secondary to hyaline arteriopathy in five cats.  

PubMed

Five cats presented with acute-onset neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging in four cats showed a T2-weighted hyperintense spinal cord lesion that was mildly contrast-enhancing in three cats. Owing to inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid changes three cats were treated with immunosuppression. One cat was treated with antibiotics. All cats improved initially, but were eventually euthanased owing to the recurrence of neurological signs. Histopathology in all cats showed hyaline degeneration of the ventral spinal artery, basilar artery or associated branches with aneurysmal dilation, thrombosis and ischemic degeneration and necrosis of the spinal cord and brain. Two cats also had similar vascular changes in meningeal vessels. Vascular hyaline degeneration resulting in vascular aneurysmal dilation and thrombosis should be a differential diagnosis in cats presenting with acute central nervous system signs. PMID:24518252

Rylander, Helena; Eminaga, Salih; Palus, Viktor; Steinberg, Howard; Caine, Abby; Summers, Brian A; Gehrke, Joshua; West, Chad; Fox, Philip R; Donovan, Taryn; Cherubini, Giunio Bruto

2014-10-01

258

MRI of cervical cord lesions and their resolution in Toxocara canis myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report serial MRI findings in a 58-year-old man with cervical cord involvement by Toxocara canis, in whom antihelminthic chemotherapy yielded improvement of the neurological deficits and cord lesions seen on MRI.

T. P. J. Duprez; G. Bigaignon; E. Delgrange; P. Desfontaines; M. Hermans; T. Vervoort; C. J. M. Sindic; M. Buysschaert

1996-01-01

259

The Significance of Removing Ruptured Intervertebral Discs for Interbody Fusion in Treating Thoracic or Lumbar Type B and C Spinal Injuries through a One-Stage Posterior Approach  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the negative effect on treatment results of reserving damaged intervertebral discs when treating type B and type C spinal fracture-dislocations through a one-stage posterior approach. Methods This is a retrospective review of 53 consecutive patients who were treated in our spine surgery center from January 2005 to May 2012 due to severe thoracolumbar spinal fracture-dislocation. The patients in Group A (24 patients) underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression. In Group B (29 patients), the patients underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression evacuating of the ruptured disc and inserting of a bone graft into the evacuated disc space for interbody fusion. The mean time between injury and operation was 4.1 days (range 2–15 days). The clinical, radiologic and complication outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results Periodic follow-ups were carried out until an affirmative union or treatment failure took place. A progressive kyphosis angle larger than 10°, loss of disc height, pseudoarthrosis, recurrence of dislocation or subluxation, or instrument failure before fusion were considered treatment failures. Treatment failures were detected in 13 cases in Group A (failure rate was 54.2%). In Group B, there were 28 cases in which definitive bone fusion was demonstrated on CT scans, and CT scans of the other cases demonstrated undefined pseudoarthrosis without hardware failure. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (p<0.001 chi-square test). The neurologic recoveries, assessed by the ASIA scoring system, were not satisfactory for the neural deficit patients in either group, indicating there was no significant difference with regard to neurologic recovery between the two groups (p>0.05 Fisher's exact test). Conclusion Intervertebral disc damage is a common characteristic in type B and C spinal fracture-dislocation injuries. The damaged intervertebral disc should be removed and substituted with a bone graft because reserving the damaged disc in situ increases the risk of treatment failure. PMID:24827733

Zhang, Qian-Shi; Lü, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Li, Jing

2014-01-01

260

Spinal trauma. Pathophysiology and management of traumatic spinal injuries.  

PubMed

Spinal trauma can originate from internal or external sources. Injuries to the spinal cord can be classified as either concussive or compressive and concussive. The pathophysiologic events surrounding spinal cord injury include the primary injury (compression, concussion) and numerous secondary injury mechanisms (vascular, biochemical, electrolyte), which are mediated by excessive oxygen free radicles, neurotransmitter and electrolyte alterations in cell membrane permeability, excitotoxic amino acids, and various other biochemical factors that collectively result in reduced SCBF, ischemia, and eventual necrosis of the gray and white matter. Management of acute spinal cord injuries includes the use of a high-dose corticosteroid regimen within the initial 8 hours after trauma. Sodium prednisolone and methylprednisolone, at recommended doses, act as oxygen radical scavengers and are anti-inflammatory. Additional considerations are the stability of the vertebral column, other conditions associated with trauma (i.e., pneumothorax), and the presence or absence of spinal cord compression, which may warrant surgical therapy. Vertebral fractures or luxations can occur in any area of the spine but most commonly occur at the junction of mobile and immobile segments. Dorsal and dorsolateral surgical approaches are applicable to the lumbosacral and thoracolumbar spine and dorsal and ventral approaches to the cervical spine. Indications for surgical intervention include spinal cord compression and vertebral instability. Instability can be determined from the type of fracture, how many of the three compartments of the vertebrae are disrupted, and on occasion, by carefully positioned stress studies of fluoroscopy. Decompression (dorsal laminectomy, hemilaminectomy, or ventral cervical slot) is employed when compression of the spinal cord exists. The hemilaminectomy (unilateral or bilateral) causes less instability than dorsal laminectomy and therefore should be used when practical. The preferred approach for atlantoaxial subluxation is ventral, and the cross pinning, vertebral fusion technique is used for stabilization. Fracture luxations of C-2 are repaired with small plates on the ventral vertebral body. The thoracic and upper lumbar spine is stabilized with dorsal fixation techniques or combined dorsal spinal plate/vertebral body plate fixation. Several methods of fixation can be used with lower lumbar or lumbosacral fractures, including the modified segmental technique and the combined dorsal spinal plate/Kirschner-Ehmer technique. PMID:1641921

Shores, A

1992-07-01

261

Epidural catheter with integrated light guides for spectroscopic tissue characterization  

PubMed Central

Epidural catheters are used to deliver anesthetics and opioids for managing pain in many clinical scenarios. Currently, epidural catheter insertion is performed without information about the tissues that are directly ahead of the catheter. As a result, the catheter can be incorrectly positioned within a blood vessel, which can cause toxicity. Recent studies have shown that optical reflectance spectroscopy could be beneficial for guiding needles that are used to insert catheters. In this study, we investigate the whether this technique could benefit the placement of catheters within the epidural space. We present a novel optical epidural catheter with integrated polymer light guides that allows for optical spectra to be acquired from tissues at the distal tip. To obtain an initial indication of the information that could be obtained, reflectance values and photon penetration depth were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and optical reflectance spectra were acquired during a laminectomy of a swine ex vivo. Large differences between the spectra acquired from epidural adipose tissue and from venous blood were observed. The optical catheter has the potential to provide real-time detection of intravascular catheter placement that could reduce the risk of complications. PMID:24298420

Soto-Astorga, R. P.; West, S.; Putnis, S.; Hebden, J. C.; Desjardins, A. E.

2013-01-01

262

Intradural solitary fibrous tumor of the lumbar spine: a distinctive case report.  

PubMed

Background. Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasms of putative fibroblastic origin. They were originally described in the pleura but subsequently have been reported in many extraserosal sites. Solitary fibrous tumors may also occur in the meninges, central nervous system parenchyma, and spinal cord. Case. A 67-year-old male patient with progressive lower extremity weakness, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction has been admitted to our hospital. On his lumbar MRI, we detected an intradural lesion posterior to the L3 vertebral corpus. We resected the lesion by L3 total laminectomy. Immunohistological findings revealed strong and diffuse immunopositivity with vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2. Ki-67 proliferation index was 5-8%. We did not detect any recurrence 12 months after his operation. Conclusion. SFT is mostly seen in young and middle-aged patients and should be considered among differential diagnosis in cases suffering from pain, hypoesthesia, and urinary dysfunction. Gross total resection should be primary treatment. Tumors that have high Ki-67 labeling should be followed up for potential recurrences. PMID:25648160

Basaran, Recep; Kaksi, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Sav, Aydin

2015-01-01

263

Intradural Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Distinctive Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background. Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasms of putative fibroblastic origin. They were originally described in the pleura but subsequently have been reported in many extraserosal sites. Solitary fibrous tumors may also occur in the meninges, central nervous system parenchyma, and spinal cord. Case. A 67-year-old male patient with progressive lower extremity weakness, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction has been admitted to our hospital. On his lumbar MRI, we detected an intradural lesion posterior to the L3 vertebral corpus. We resected the lesion by L3 total laminectomy. Immunohistological findings revealed strong and diffuse immunopositivity with vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2. Ki-67 proliferation index was 5–8%. We did not detect any recurrence 12 months after his operation. Conclusion. SFT is mostly seen in young and middle-aged patients and should be considered among differential diagnosis in cases suffering from pain, hypoesthesia, and urinary dysfunction. Gross total resection should be primary treatment. Tumors that have high Ki-67 labeling should be followed up for potential recurrences. PMID:25648160

Kaksi, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Sav, Aydin

2015-01-01

264

The Retrospective Analysis of Posterior Short-Segment Pedicle Instrumentation without Fusion for Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture with Neurological Deficit  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the efficacy of posterior short-segment pedicle instrumentation without fusion in curing thoracolumbar burst fracture. All of the 53 patients were treated with short-segment pedicle instrumentation and laminectomy without fusion, and the restoration of retropulsed bone fragments was conducted by a novel custom-designed repositor (RRBF). The mean operation time and blood loss during surgery were analyzed; the radiological index and neurological status were compared before and after the operation. The mean operation time was 93?min (range: 62–110?min) and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 452?mL in all cases. The average canal encroachment was 50.04% and 10.92% prior to the surgery and at last followup, respectively (P < 0.01). The preoperative kyphotic angle was 17.2 degree (±6.87 degrees), whereas it decreased to 8.42 degree (±4.99 degrees) at last followup (P < 0.01). Besides, the mean vertebral body height increased from 40.15% (±9.40%) before surgery to 72.34% (±12.32%) at last followup (P < 0.01). 45 patients showed 1-2 grades improvement in Frankel's scale at last followup. This technique allows for satisfactory canal clearance and restoration of vertebral body height and kyphotic angle, and it may promote the recovery of neurological function. However, further research is still necessary to confirm the efficacy of this treatment. PMID:24723809

Zou, Hui; Ping, Ansong; Wang, Yongzhi; Ai, Qiyong

2014-01-01

265

Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a novel method to detect demyelination in rat sciatic nerve in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was done to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to bring out differences in the anatomical substructures in the rat spinal cord and further to differentiate scattering between demyelinated and normal sciatic nerves in rat models, thereby exploring a new methodology to localize MS (multiple Sclerosis) lesions in vivo for animal studies. The experimental setup consisted of a tungsten light source, CCD array spectrometer, and bifurcated optical fibers for light delivery and detection of back scattered light from tissue. The measurement system was calibrated with reflectance standard. The spinal cord of 14 rats was exposed by laminectomy, and the measurements were taken on 8 points at intervals of 1 mm on the right and left lumbar-sacral regions and the central blood vessel. For measurements on the sciatic nerve, the spinal nerves of 84 rats were ligated according to the Chung Model. Measurements were taken on five points on both the ligated and the control nerve side after 1, 4, 7 and 14 days. The reduced scattering coefficient, ?s', was found to be higher in the lumbar-sacral regions (34.17 +/- 2.05 cm-1) than that near the central blood vessel (19.9 +/- 3.8 cm-1). Statistically, there was significant difference in scattering between the control side and the ligated side on postoperative days 4, 7, and 14. This study shows a promising diagnostic value in the future for monitoring of demyelinated CNS (central nervous system) diseases, like Multiple Sclerosis.

Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Senapati, Arun; Peng, Yuan Bo; Kashyap, Dheerendra; Liu, Hanli

2005-04-01

266

Cervical chondroid chordoma in a standard dachshund: a case report  

PubMed Central

A ten-year-old male standard dachshund was presented with a history of neck pain and progressive gait disturbances. Following a neurological examination and diagnostic imaging, including CT, a neoplastic lesion involving the third and fourth cervical vertebrae was suspected. The lesion included an extradural mass on the right side of the spinal canal causing a local compression of the cervical cord. Surgery, using a modified dorsal laminectomy procedure, was performed in order to decompress the cervical spinal cord. Histopathological examination of the extradural mass indicated that the tumour was a chondroid chordoma. Following discharge, the quality of life for the dog was very good for a sustained period, but clinical signs recurred at 22 months. The dog was euthanased 25 months post-surgery. On post-mortem examination, a regrowth of neoplastic tissue was found to have infiltrated the bone and spinal cord at C3-C4. This is the first report to show that palliative surgery can offer successful long-lasting treatment of chondroid chordoma of the cervical spine in the dog. PMID:22017812

2011-01-01

267

Minimally invasive surgery for benign intradural extramedullary spinal meningiomas: experience of a single institution in a cohort of elderly patients and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Meningiomas of the spine are the most common benign intradural extramedullary lesions and account for 25%–46% of all spinal cord tumors in adults. The goal of treatment is complete surgical resection while preserving spinal stability. Usually, these lesions occur in the thoracic region and in middle-aged women. Clinical presentation is usually nonspecific and the symptoms could precede the diagnosis by several months to years, especially in older people, in whom associated age-related diseases can mask the tumor for a long time. We report a series of 30 patients, aged 70 years or more, harboring intradural extramedullary spinal meningiomas. No subjects had major contraindications to surgery. A minimally invasive approach ( hemilaminectomy and preservation of the outer dural layer) was used to remove the tumor, while preserving spinal stability and improving the watertight dural closure. We retrospectively compared the outcomes in these patients with those in a control group subjected to laminectomy or laminotomy with different dural management. In our experience, the minimally invasive approach allows the same chances of complete tumor removal, while providing a better postoperative course than in a control group. PMID:23271902

Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Gladi, Maurizio; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Dobran, Mauro; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Nocchi, Niccolò; Maria, Lucia Giovanna; Somma, Di; Colasanti, Roberto; Scerrati, Massimo

2012-01-01

268

Intraspinal penetrating stab injury to the middle thoracic spinal cord with no neurologic deficit.  

PubMed

The annual incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury worldwide is estimated to be 35 patients per million. Nonmissile penetrating spinal injuries most commonly occur in the thoracic region, and the majority has neurologic deficits on admission. The management of patients who lack neurologic deficits is controversial due to the risk of neurologic status alteration intraoperatively. However, failure to intervene increases the risk of infection, delayed onset of neurologic deficits, and worsening functional outcome.A 17-year-old boy presented with an intradural T7-T8 knife penetration injury to the spinal cord with no neurologic deficit. Rapid surgical intervention was critical because the knife was lodged between the 2 hemispheres of the spinal cord. The patient was intubated in the lateral position, transferred to the prone position on a Jackson table, and underwent surgical decompression with laminectomy 1 level above and below the injury site, removal of the knife blade in the original path of trajectory, and repair of the dural tear with a collagen matrix. The patient sustained no neurologic sequelae from the penetrating knife injury. He was able to ambulate at discharge and had no complications. To our knowledge, this is the only report of a patient with intradural spinal cord penetration by a foreign object (knife blade) presenting with a normal neurologic preoperative examination that persisted throughout the course of postoperative care. PMID:22588426

Li, Xinning; Curry, Emily J; Blais, Micah; Ma, Richard; Sungarian, Arno S

2012-05-01

269

Progranulin expression is upregulated after spinal contusion in mice  

PubMed Central

Progranulin (proepithelin) is a pleiotropic growth factor associated with inflammation and wound repair in peripheral tissues. It also has been implicated in the response to acute traumatic brain injury as well as to chronic neurodegenerative diseases. To determine whether changes in progranulin expression also accompany acute spinal cord injury, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to mid-thoracic (T9 level) contusion spinal cord injury and analyzed by immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. Whereas spinal cord sections prepared from non-injured laminectomy control animals contained low basal levels of progranulin immunoreactivity in gray matter, sections from injured animals contained intense immunoreactivity throughout the injury epicenter that peaked 7–14 days post injury. Progranulin immunoreactivity colocalized with myeloid cell markers CD11b and CD68, indicating that expression increased primarily in activated microglia and macrophages. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that progranulin protein levels rose after injury. On the basis of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, increased protein levels resulted from a 10-fold rise in progranulin transcripts. These data demonstrate that progranulin is dramatically induced in myeloid cells after experimental spinal cord injury and is positioned appropriately both spatially and temporally to influence recovery after injury. PMID:19946692

Naphade, Swati B.; Kigerl, Kristina A.; Jakeman, Lyn B.; Kostyk, Sandra K.; Popovich, Phillip G.

2015-01-01

270

Is clear cell sarcoma a malignant form of psammomatous melanotic schwannoma? Case report.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in which the tumor originated in the S-1 nerve root and had been previously diagnosed as psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS). This is the third case of a spinal nerve root origin for CCS reported in the English-language literature. The similar histogenesis of CCS and malignant melanoma supports the hypothesis that biological agents or immunotherapy are potentially important areas of investigation. The patient underwent S1-3 laminectomy and gross-total resection of the mass lesion. The border of the resection was extended 1 cm distal to the tumor margin. The postoperative period was uneventful. The new histopathological diagnosis was CCS (malignant melanoma of soft tissue). Despite total resection, the patient returned with disseminated disease at the 18-month follow-up visit. His follow-up magnetic resonance image of the lumbar spine revealed sacral L5-S3 involvement of the vertebral bodies along with disseminated cauda equina seeding. A CCS originating from peripheral nerves is quite rare. The histopathological and immunohistochemical appearance of CCSs resembles those of PMSs. Surgery should be the first choice of treatment. PMID:17341045

Sengöz, Ahmet; Ta?demiro?lu, Erol; Togay, Halit

2006-01-01

271

An alternative method of chronic cerebrospinal fluid collection via the cisterna magna in conscious rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Models of chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection previously have been established for nonhuman primates and canines; many of these methods implement stainless-steel cannulas into the lateral or 4th ventricles or catheters into the cerebral or spinal subarachnoid space. These models have proved successful and reliable but unfortunately require invasive techniques to pass through the skull or require a laminectomy to enter the spinal subarachnoid space, involve the use of expensive and highly specialized stereotaxic equipment for the precise placement of the implants, and may require exteriorized hardware which is cumbersome to maintain and unaesthetic. The model we developed for the rhesus monkey allows for direct access to CSF outflow from the cisterna magna by using a 3.5-French fenestrated silicone catheter which was placed 1.0 cm into the cisterna. The catheter was attached to a titanium port placed subcutaneously between the scapulae to permit easy access for sampling CSF in a conscious, chaired rhesus monkey. We currently have instrumented animals from which we have consistently collected CSF for over 18 months. This novel, economical, less-invasive method permits chronic, reliable collection of CSF in conscious rhesus monkeys and has the additional advantages that the model is easier to maintain and more aesthetic. PMID:12906404

Gilberto, David B; Zeoli, Angela H; Szczerba, Peter J; Gehret, John R; Holahan, Marie A; Sitko, Gary R; Johnson, Colena A; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Motzel, Sherri L

2003-07-01

272

Chest pain in a patient with a tall R wave in V1.  

PubMed

An 83-year-old man 2?days postoperative from L3 to L5 laminectomy developed sudden onset of chest pain. Initial ECGs demonstrated a tall R wave in V1 and ST-segment depression in leads V2-V5. A posterior ECG was performed, but failed to demonstrate ST elevations. The patient was initially treated as an non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with weight-based enoxaparin. On further review, the patient's ECG was identified as a STEMI equivalent, and he underwent cardiac catheterisation. He was noted to have a near complete occlusion of the posterior descending branch of the right coronary artery (RCA). Bare-metal stents were placed in the proximal and distal RCA, with restored flow distal to the lesions. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit for observation, and was noted to develop atrial fibrillation. Rate control was achieved with diltiazem, and the patient was started on dabigatran. Medical therapy including aspirin and clopidogrel was initiated, and the patient was discharged home. PMID:25150241

McManus, Kenneth; Condos, Gregory; Lin, Andrew

2014-01-01

273

Intrathecal granuloma and intramedullary abscess associated with an intrathecal morphine pump.  

PubMed

Objective and Importance.? Several previous reports have documented cord compression resulting from the formation of an intrathecal inflammatory mass in patients using intrathecal drug delivery systems. We present the first reported case of an intramedullary abscess and intrathecal inflammatory mass associated with an intrathecal drug delivery system. Clinical Presentation.? A 47-year-old man was transferred to our institution from an outside hospital with a 3-week history of the inability to ambulate or move his legs. His medical history included multiple failed back surgeries for back pain that had been effectively managed after the implantation of an intrathecal drug delivery system eight years prior. Upon presentation to us, his examination showed no movement in his lower extremities with pinprick-preserved sensation in his toes. Imaging showed an intrathecal mass at the catheter tip, at spinal level T10 and T11. Contrast-enhanced imaging indicated an intramedullary abscess at T11 and T12 level. Intervention.? The patient underwent T10-L1 laminectomies with complete resection of the inflammatory mass, catheter tip, and explantation of the intrathecal drug delivery pump. A midline myelotomy also was performed to aspirate the abscess and the cavity was profusely irrigated. Pathology studies demonstrated that the inflammatory mass contained chronic inflammatory markers and necrotic tissue. The abscess was linked to infection with Streptococcus anginosus. Conclusion.? Generally, inflammatory masses forming along the catheter tip are not associated with infections. We report the first case of an intramedullary abscess associated with an intrathecal drug delivery pump. PMID:22151806

Vadera, Sumeet; Harrop, James S; Sharan, Ashwini D

2007-01-01

274

Minimally invasive therapeutic interventional procedures in the spine: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

This chapter evaluates the current evidence on common minimally invasive therapeutic spinal procedures based on the Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendation developed by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (Oxford, United Kingdom). The results of the evaluation of current clinical evidence allow the following recommendations to be made: epidural adhesiolysis performed repeatedly every 3 months to 4 months is effective in the "post lumbar laminectomy" syndrome; epidural steroid injections may provide only short-term relief from pain in lumbar radiculopathy but have no long-term effect; selective nerve root injections of corticosteroids have no therapeutic effect on the long-term natural history of radiculopathy symptoms; intra-articular facet joint injections of corticosteroids have no therapeutic effect on lower back pain (grade of recommendation: A). Furthermore, percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty provide immediate pain relief from osteoporotic spinal fractures but no significant long-lasting benefit (grade of recommendation: B). Finally, there is limited evidence (grade of recommendation: C) of the value of medial branch (facet) neurotomy, sacroiliac joint injection of steroids, and intradiscal electrothermal therapy, as well as of the advantages of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy over open microdiscectomy. As the level of evidence is generally low, more prospective randomized-controlled studies are needed to establish the value of the considered methods. PMID:18802912

Karnezis, Ioannis A

2008-01-01

275

Deformity of lumbar spine after selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

To observe the effect of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) on the deformity of the lumbar spine, a retrospective review was conducted from October 1992 to December 2002 on children who had undergone SDR in our department, and in whom preoperative and postoperative spine radiographs had been obtained. The angles of hyperlordolysis were measured. The study group comprised 219 patients, in which 61 cases were followed up and examined between May 2004 and February 2005. The mean age at surgery was 6.9 years (range 3-20 years), with a mean time to recent follow-up radiographs of 6.3 years (5-9 years). A total 219 children underwent laminectomy from L(2)-S(1). Scoliosis existed in one case, and two cases of L(5) spondylolysis were detected before surgery. One case presented lumbar hyperlordosis. After SDR, 10 cases showed distinctively abnormal walking posture of hyperlordolysis. Compared with the preoperative angle of hyperlordolysis, the angle was improved after the operation. Among them, four patients developed spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis (grade I). We also observed that one case developed lumbar kyphosis deformity. In conclusion, cerebral palsy patients may develop spinal deformity. Some cases showed distinctively abnormal walking posture of hyperlordolysis, and they developed spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis after surgery. PMID:18081189

Li, Zhiyong; Zhu, Jiakai; Liu, Xiaolin

2008-01-01

276

The Mechanisms of Medial Pedicle Wall Violation: Insertion Method Is as Important as Correct Cannulation of the Pedicle  

PubMed Central

A cadaver study aims to determine the mechanisms of medial pedicle wall violation after a correct cannulation of the pedicle. The study presents finding out the effect of insertion angle and insertion force on medial wall violation. We used 100 lumbar pedicles of cadavers. Special wooden blocks were produced to simulate a fixed angle fault after a correct pedicle cannulation. Pedicles were divided into 4 groups: 10-degree free drive (group 10), 15-degree free drive (group 15), 10-degree push drive (group 10P), and 15-degree push drive (group 15P). After insertion of pedicle screws, laminectomies were done and the pedicles were evaluated from the inside. Pedicle complications were more in group 10P than group 10 (P = 0.009). Medial wall fracture (P = 0.002) and canal penetration were more in group 15P than group 15 (P = 0.001). Groups 10P and 15P were similar regarding medial wall fractures but canal penetration was significantly higher in group 15P (P = 0.001). Medial wall breaches can happen after correct cannulation of pedicles. Change in insertion angle is one factor but the most important factor is the use of a pushing force while inserting a screw. The pedicle seems to be extremely tolerant to insertion angulation mistakes up to 10 degrees and tends to lead the screw into the correct path spontaneously. PMID:25400951

Isik, Cengiz; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Inanmaz, Mustafa Erkan; Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Sarman, Hakan

2014-01-01

277

Fibromyxoma of the axis.  

PubMed

Fibromyxoma of bone is a rare benign tumor of fibrous tissue origin. The typical location is the jaws. Sporadic extragnathic cases have been reported, but fibromyxoma of the spine has not been reported. The histological appearance of fibromyxoma is benign and includes abundant extracellular fibrous and myxoid stroma with varying amounts of calcification and ossification. Myxoid changes are usually extensive. Extragnathic fibromyxoma of bone should be distinguished from benign cartilage-forming bone tumors, such as chondromyxoid and myxoid chondrosarcoma and myxoma of bone. It has also been suggested that fibromyxoma is a variant of myxoid fibrous dysplasia, whereas other authors reported extragnathic fibromyxoma resulting from myxoid degeneration of bone tumors, such as chondrosarcoma or fibrosarcoma. The overtreatment of patients with fibromyxoma of bone due to an aggressive imaging appearance should be avoided; the prognosis is excellent compared with the jaw variant and depends on the location and extent of the tumor. This article describes a case of a 21-year-old woman with fibromyxoma of bone originating from the spinous process of the axis. Clinical examination showed a tender mass in the midline of the posterior aspect the neck and slight limitation of neck range of motion; neurologic examination was normal. Diagnosis was obtained with a preoperative biopsy. Marginal excision of the lesion with posterior laminectomy of the axis was performed. The facets were preserved, and no fusion was performed. At last follow-up 2 years after diagnosis and treatment, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of local recurrence. PMID:22784917

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Casadei, Roberto; Gambarotti, Marco; Ruggieri, Pietro

2012-07-01

278

Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma Presenting as an Intradural Spinal Mass: Report of a Rare Clinical Presentation With an Emphasis on Differential Diagnostic Considerations  

PubMed Central

Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm that occurs predominantly in the soft tissues of the lower extremities. Herein we present a case of a 29 year old male who presented with bilateral femoral numbness believed to be the result of prior injury to his back. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the T4-T5 epidural space compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed and the lesion removed piecemeal. The pathology specimen consisted of multiple fragments of dura involved by a myxoid neoplasm with a nodular growth pattern. The tumor cells were arranged in anastomosing cords and strands. Individual tumor cells were small, of uniform size and shape, with small hyperchromatic nuclei and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains were performed which showed the tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and focally positive for EMA, S-100 protein and cytokeratin, whereas they were negative for CD34 and CD99. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies showed a clonal population of cells with re-arrangement of the EWSR1 locus, confirming the histologic impression of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. This is the first report of a case of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma arising from the dura, confirmed to have rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene by FISH. There have only been two other cases of dural based extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma reported prior to our case. We also briefly review the published literature and discuss differential diagnostic considerations for this rare tumor. PMID:25568751

Rao, Priya; Colen, Rivka R.; Bruner, Janet M.; Meis, Jeanne M.

2014-01-01

279

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

280

Protection of rat spinal cord against contusion injury by new prostaglandin derivatives.  

PubMed

Two prostaglandin oligomeric compounds, an acid-form compound and an ester-form compound, were synthesized from alprostadil (prostaglandin E1). They were found to provide significant protection to the rat spinal cord against contusion injury. After laminectomy at the T-11 segment of the spinal cord, a weight drop (10 g x 5 cm) caused a "dynamic" injury. The degree of recovery was estimated by several neurologic deficit indices; the Tarlov score, inclined plane test and hot plate test. In the control group (no drug), animals were still paralyzed 4 weeks after injury (Tarlov score 1 to 2). By administering these prostaglandin oligomers, either pre-injury (30 min before injury; one dose of 6 mg/kg i.p.) or post-injury (3 doses, each of 6 mg/kg i.p. at 30 min, 6 h, and 12 h after injury), the Tarlov scores recovered to 3.5 to 4.5 by 4 weeks, and animals were able to either support body weight or to walk with a slight deficit. Although both acid- and ester-forms of the compound demonstrated efficacy, the ester-form provided greater protection to the spinal cord. Other neurologic deficit indices also supported these observations. PMID:2730694

Ohnishi, S T; Barr, J K; Katagi, C; Katsuoka, M

1989-02-01

281

Mesenchymal Stem Cells as an Alternative for Schwann Cells in Rat Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal cord has a limited capacity to repair; therefore, medical interventions are necessary for treatment of injuries. Transplantation of Schwann cells has shown a great promising result for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, harvesting Schwann cell has been limited due to donor morbidity and limited expansion capacity. Furthermore, accessible sources such as bone marrow stem cells have drawn attentions to themselves. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of bone marrow-derived Schwann cell on functional recovery in adult rats after injury. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured from adult rats’ bone marrow and induced into Schwann cells in vitro. Differentiation was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Next, Schwann cells were seeded into collagen scaffolds and engrafted in 3 mm lateral hemisection defects. For 8 weeks, motor and sensory improvements were assessed by open field locomotor scale, narrow beam, and tail flick tests. Afterwards, lesioned spinal cord was evaluated by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. Results: In vitro observations showed that differentiated cells had Schwann cell morphology and markers. In this study, we had four groups (n = 10 each): laminectomy, control, scaffold and scaffold + Schwann cells. Locomotor and sensory scores of cell grafted group were significantly better than control and scaffold groups. In histology, axonal regeneration and remyelination were better than control and scaffold groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that bone marrow-derived Schwann cells can be considered as a cell source for Schwann cells in SCI treatment. PMID:23748888

Zaminy, Arash; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghi, Yousef; Noroozian, Mohsen; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Piryaei, Abbas

2013-01-01

282

Primary osseous hemangiopericytoma in the thoracic spine.  

PubMed

Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare tumor of the central nervous system, most commonly found in the cranial cavity. HPCs in the spine are rare, and very few of them are primary osseous HPC. The aims of this study were to describe a rare case of primary osseous HPC in the thoracic spine and review the literature. A 54-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of back pain. Aneuro logical examination revealed no motor or sensory deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a tumor originating from the bone structure of the T10 vertebra with paravertebral extension, and chest CT revealed pulmonary metastases. A laminectomy, face-totomy,and subtotal resection of the tumor was performed with posterior pedicle screw system fixation followed by radiotherapy. The post-operative course was uneventful. His back pain was resolved completely after surgery. The patient survived with tumor during the 18-month follow-up period. Histopathology and immunohistologic findings were consistent with HPC. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for vimentin and CD34, partially positive for S-100, but negative for EMA, desmin, CD117, and CD1a. A literature review identified eight such cases reported between 1942 and 2013. As a conclusion, clinical manifestations of primary osseous spinal HPCs are different from intraspinal meningeal HPCs. Although showing certain variability, histopathology and immunohistochemical examinations are essential to establish the diagnosis. Surgical resection and radiotherapy are the treatment of choice. *These authors contributed equally to this work. PMID:24887400

Ren, Ke; Zhou, Xing; Wu, SuJia; Sun, Xiaoliang

2014-01-01

283

Cauda Equina Syndrome Associated with Dural Ectasia in Chronic Anlylosing Spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) associated with dural ectasia is a rare neurologic complication in patients with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We report a 68-year-old male with a 30-year history of AS who presented a typical symptom and signs of progressive CES, urinary incontinence and neuropathic pain of the lumbosacral radiculopathy. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings showed the unique appearances of dural ectasia, multiple dural diverticula, erosion of posterior element of the lumbar spine, tethering of the conus medullaris and adhesion of the lumbosacral nerve roots to the posterior aspect of the dural ectasia. Considering the progressive worsening of the clinical signs, detethering of the conus medullaris through resection of the filum terminale was performed through a limited laminectomy. However, the urinary incontinence did not improve and there was a partial relief of the neuropathic leg pain only. The possible pathogenetic mechanism of CES-AS and the dural ectasia in this patient with longstanding AS are discussed with a literature review.

Ha, Sang-woo

2014-01-01

284

Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in a 22-Month-Old Child in Arizona: First Report in the United States and a Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

A 22-month-old girl presented with neck pain and stiffness and magnetic resonance imaging showed an extradural mass extending from C2 through the C4 level with moderate to severe compression of the cord. A left unilateral C2–C4 laminectomy was performed revealing an extradural rubbery tumor; a small biopsy was obtained. Examination of stained tissue revealed the presence of a parasitic worm that was identified as a gravid female Onchocerca lupi. A magnetic resonance imaging at 7 weeks follow-up showed a significantly decreased size of the enhancing lesion and the patient's symptoms gradually resolved. This is the first report of zoonotic O. lupi in the United States. The parasite has been reported in dogs and cats in the western United States, and from people in four cases reported from Europe. A great deal more needs to be learned, including full host range and geographic distribution, before we fully understand O. lupi infections in animals and man. PMID:23382171

Eberhard, Mark L.; Ostovar, Gholamabbas Amin; Chundu, Kote; Hobohm, Dan; Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Mathison, Blaine A.; Bishop, Henry S.; Cantey, Paul T.

2013-01-01

285

[Multidisciplinary treatment for severe syndromic craniosynostosis].  

PubMed

We describe the treatment of patients having syndromic craniosynostosis with severe craniofacial abnormality. One patient had Cruzon's syndrome, one had Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome, and four had Pfeiffers syndrome. Anterior cranial deformity in all patients was treated using fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) by gradual distraction. Initially, the frontal and supraorbital bones were removed and remodeled. Next, the frontal bones were fixed loosely to the supraorbital bones with absorbable threads. Then, the supraorbital and temporal bones were connected using distraction devices on both sides. The temporal bones were thereafter reinforced with titanium plates. Distraction was started one week postoperation, and the mean amount of elongation was 28.9 mm. Distraction devices were removed one to five months after the operation. One case required FOA by the traditional method ten months after the initial operation. Local infection was observed in three cases, but there were no majors complications. Posterior cranial remodelings were performed in five cases, with one requiring a second operation. We chose the appropriate procedure according to the degree of cranial deformity and operative findings. We performed decompression of the foramen magnum in five cases and laminectomy of the atlas in two cases. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus and tracheotomy for airway obstruction were performed in all cases. Cranial remodeling for treating severe craniofacial abnormality requires careful inspection of abnormalities, proper timing, close attention to the procedure and adequate perioperative care. Multidisciplinary therapy is essential for treating severe syndromic craniosynostosis due to systematic osseocartilaginous aplasia. PMID:19175030

Uyama, Atsushi; Kawamura, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Nishimoto, Soh; Oyama, Tomoki; Nishijima, Eiji; Satoh, Shiiki; Nakao, Hideto; Nomura, Koji; Otsu, Masahide; Sakamoto, Koichi

2009-01-01

286

Side-Cutting Aspiration Device for Endoscopic and Microscopic Tumor Removal*  

PubMed Central

The authors present a unique side-cutting instrument (NICO Myriad, Indianapolis, IN) with variable aspiration designed specifically for tumor resection. The study included retrospective review of data collected from 10/2009 to 01/2011. We detail the use of the Myriad in 31 patients with the following pathologies: meningioma (n=16), chordoma (n?=?3), schwannoma (n?=?3), pituitary adenoma (n?=?2), metastasis (n?=?3), hemangioblastoma (n?=?1), craniopharyngioma (n?=?1), and nasopharyngeal tumors (n?=?2). Surgical approaches included expanded endonasal approach (n?=?19), endoscopic brain port (n?=?3), supraorbital “eyebrow” craniotomy (n?=?3), retrosigmoid suboccipital craniotomy (n?=?3), pterional craniotomy (n?=?1), extreme far lateral (n?=?1), and laminectomy (n?=?1). Successful tumor resection was achieved in 30 cases. Instrument failure was noted in only one extremely fibrous meningioma. The design of this instrument facilitated maneuvering through narrow corridors while providing direct visualization of the suction aperture during tumor resection. These features allowed for tumor removal without injury to adjacent neurovascular structures. The side-cutting aspiration device allows safe and effective tumor removal. Its low profile, variable aspiration, and lack of thermal heat energy are particularly useful in tumor resection through narrow corridors, such as endonasal, port, and keyhole approaches. The multifunctional nature of the instrument (suction, scissors, and dissectors) minimizes multiple exchanges, facilitating tumor resection through these minimal access corridors. PMID:23372990

McLaughlin, Nancy; Filho, Leo F.S. Ditzel; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Kelly, Daniel F.; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Kassam, Amin B.

2012-01-01

287

The mechanisms of medial pedicle wall violation: insertion method is as important as correct cannulation of the pedicle.  

PubMed

A cadaver study aims to determine the mechanisms of medial pedicle wall violation after a correct cannulation of the pedicle. The study presents finding out the effect of insertion angle and insertion force on medial wall violation. We used 100 lumbar pedicles of cadavers. Special wooden blocks were produced to simulate a fixed angle fault after a correct pedicle cannulation. Pedicles were divided into 4 groups: 10-degree free drive (group 10), 15-degree free drive (group 15), 10-degree push drive (group 10P), and 15-degree push drive (group 15P). After insertion of pedicle screws, laminectomies were done and the pedicles were evaluated from the inside. Pedicle complications were more in group 10P than group 10 (P = 0.009). Medial wall fracture (P = 0.002) and canal penetration were more in group 15P than group 15 (P = 0.001). Groups 10P and 15P were similar regarding medial wall fractures but canal penetration was significantly higher in group 15P (P = 0.001). Medial wall breaches can happen after correct cannulation of pedicles. Change in insertion angle is one factor but the most important factor is the use of a pushing force while inserting a screw. The pedicle seems to be extremely tolerant to insertion angulation mistakes up to 10 degrees and tends to lead the screw into the correct path spontaneously. PMID:25400951

Isik, Cengiz; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Inanmaz, Mustafa Erkan; Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Sarman, Hakan

2014-01-01

288

Spinal Cord Ependymoma Associated with Neurofibromatosis 1 : Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) are predisposed to develop central nervous system tumors, due to the loss of neurofibromin, an inactivator of proto-oncogene Ras. However, to our knowledge, only three cases of ependymomas with NF1 have been reported in the literature. The authors present a case of NF1 patient with a spinal cord ependymoma. She was referred for about half a year history of increasing numbness that progressed from her fingers to her entire body above the bellybutton. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a relative-demarcated, heterogeneously enhanced mass lesion accompanied by perifocal edema in C5-7 level, a left-sided T11 spinous process heterogeneously enhanced mass in soft tissue, intervertebral disk hernia in L2-5 level, and widespread punctum enhancing lesion in her scalp and in T11-L5 level. The patient underwent C5-7 laminectomies and total excision of the tumor under operative microscope, and intraoperative ultrasonography and physiological monitoring were used during the surgery. Histopathologically, her tumor was found to be a ependymoma without malignant features (grade II in the World Health Organization classification). Therefore, no adjuvant therapy was applied. Following the operation, the patient showed an uneventful clinical recovery with no evidence of tumor recurrence after one year of follow-up. PMID:24570818

Shan, Ming; Feng, Chunguo; Wang, Xiaojie

2014-01-01

289

Solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma mimicking a spinal meningioma.  

PubMed

Dural granuloma is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there has no case reported solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma worldwide so far. Here we report our findings in a 49-year-old woman, who presented with 10-year progressive left lower-limb numbness and two weeks of right lower-limb numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a homogeneous enhanced spindle-shaped lesion, 2.9 × 1.5 cm in size, occupying the spinal intradural extramedullary space, at the level of Thoracic (T)-2/3, which mimicked the appearance of spinal meningioma. The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test titer of 1:8, and the venereal diseases research laboratory of cerebral spinal fluid (VDRL-CSF) was reactive, so confirmed neurosyphilis was considered. After formal anti-syphilis treatment, posterior laminectomy surgery was performed, and the lesion was completely separated and extirpated. Final histopathologic diagnosis of the lesion was confirmed as chronic granulomatous inflammation, combined with the neurosyphilis history, spinal dural syphilis granuloma was finally diagnosed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without any further treatment. PMID:24831378

Zhou, Heng-Jun; Zhan, Ren-Ya; Chen, Man-Tao; Cao, Fei; Zheng, Xiu-Jue

2014-01-01

290

Lumbar Intradural Neurocysticercosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease affecting the central nervous system. Spinal involvement is rare in neurocysticercosis, and isolated spinal involvement without evidence of cranial involvement is even rarer. We report an unusual case of neurocysticercosis with isolated spinal involvement. A 59 year-old male presented with radiating pain in the left leg. He complained of aggravating weakness and numbness in the left leg since his previous visit one month ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple peripheral wall-enhanced intradural cystic masses from L1 to L5. The patient underwent a total laminectomy of L4. Dissection revealed abnormal cystic masses compressing the nerve roots. The cyst was punctured, spilling clear mucoid fluid into the surgical field. The exposed cysticerci, white and mucoid, was easily removed. Patient received course of steroids and oral albendazole. The patient experienced symptomatic improvement without further neurologic deficits except for mild sensory impairment. Clinicians should include spinal neurocysticercosis in differential diagnosis of radiculopathies. Although isolated spinal neurocysticercosis is rare, it can be satisfactorily managed with surgery and medication. PMID:25346771

Han, Sang-Beom; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Choi, Seung-Won; Koh, Hyeon-Song; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Song, Shi-Hun

2014-01-01

291

Simultaneous discovery of cranial and spinal intradural chordomas: case report.  

PubMed

The present case illustrates the unexpected occurrence of intradural chordomas that were simultaneously discovered in cranial and spinal locations. A 63-year-old female presented with weakness in the left upper extremity. The patient visited a local doctor and underwent brain computerized tomography (CT). CT revealed a brain tumor, and she was referred to our hospital. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a midline intradural retroclival tumor in addition to an intradural extramedullary mass lesion at the level of C1-C2. The patient developed a spastic gait disturbance that forced her to use a cane. She underwent laminectomy at C1-C2 along with total removal of the tumor and showed no remarkable symptoms after surgery. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of chordoma. One month after the cervical surgery, the intracranial tumor was subtotally removed in intracranial surgery via the right subtemporal approach. Histopathological data were identical to that of the cervical tumor. The patient consulted another hospital and underwent gamma-knife surgery. Her neurological examination is relatively unchanged 20 months after the cervical surgery. This case suggests that neuroradiological evaluation should also be performed for an intradural spinal chordoma when an intracranial chordoma is detected. Careful determination of the tumor responsible for the symptoms is necessary if an intradural spinal chordoma is simultaneously detected with an intracranial chordoma. PMID:24477062

Kawanabe, Yoshifumi; Ueda, Shigeo; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Hoshimaru, Minoru

2014-01-01

292

Intradural extramedullary primary hydatid cyst of the spine: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Primary intradural extramedullary hydatid cyst is a rare form of parasitic infection, causing focal neurological signs, commonly observed in sheep-raising areas of the world. We report a rare case of intradural, extramedullary spinal cyst, which we had misdiagnosis in the first surgery, because of rarity of the case. A 55-year-old man presented to our hospital in August 2008. He was admitted to our clinic because of lumbar pain of increasing severity and progressive difficulty with walking and stiffness of both lower limbs, which had lasted for 1 month. On the basis of imaging results, arachnoid cyst of the lumbar spine was diagnosed. Due to rapid progression of the patient's symptoms toward spastic paraplegia, he underwent an emergency surgical decompression procedure. The patient underwent exploratory surgery using a posterior approach. A L1-L2 laminectomy was performed. After opening the dura, an intradural extramedullary cystic mass was determined. The surgical specimen measured 6 × 2 cm and was described as a whitish, pearl-like, semitranslucent, cystic material, which was thought to be parasitic. Surgery has to be followed by albendazole therapy. PMID:22706667

Lotfinia, Iraj; Sayyahmelli, Sima; Mahdkhah, Ata; Shoja, M M

2013-05-01

293

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma in cervical spine: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) in the spinal column is extremely rare. Here, we report and characterize the case of xanthogranuloma of the upper cervical spine. A 18-year-old male presented with neck pain for 3 months, along with progressive quadriparesis and sensory loss of 2 months duration with urinary retention. Motor examination revealed spastic quadriparesis with power of 2/5 in all the 4 limbs. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) spine with contrast showed a dorsally placed intradural extramedullary lesion at the level of C2-C4 vertebral body. The lesion, measuring 2.9x1.7x1.4 cm, was isointense on T1WI, hypointense on T2WI, and enhanced homogenously on contrast. He underwent an emergency C2-C4 laminectomy and complete excision of the lesion. At 3-month follow-up, he was asymptomatic except for mild neck pain. MRI scan of the cervical spine done at follow-up, revealed complete excision of tumor without any residual lesion. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed a polymorphous population of sheets of bloated pale foamy histiocytes (xanthoma cells), numerous admixed mature lymphocytes and several Touton giant cells. The cells were positive for CD68, a histiocytic marker, and negative for CD1a (excludes LCH) and S-100 (excludes RDD). PMID:24535803

Konar, Subhas; Pandey, Paritosh; Yasha, T C

2014-01-01

294

Sensory Stimulation Prior to Spinal Cord Injury Induces Post-Injury Dysesthesia in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chronic pain and dysesthesias are debilitating conditions that can arise following spinal cord injury (SCI). Research studies frequently employ rodent models of SCI to better understand the underlying mechanisms and develop better treatments for these phenomena. While evoked withdrawal tests can assess hypersensitivity in these SCI models, there is little consensus over how to evaluate spontaneous sensory abnormalities that are seen in clinical SCI subjects. Overgrooming (OG) and biting after peripheral nerve injury or spinal cord excitotoxic lesions are thought to be one behavioral demonstration of spontaneous neuropathic pain or dysesthesia. However, reports of OG after contusion SCI are largely anecdotal and conditions causing this response are poorly understood. The present study investigated whether repeated application of sensory stimuli to the trunk prior to mid-thoracic contusion SCI would induce OG after SCI in mice. One week prior to SCI or laminectomy, mice were subjected either to nociceptive and mechanical stimulation, mechanical stimulation only, the testing situation without stimulation, or no treatment. They were then examined for 14 days after surgery and the sizes and locations of OG sites were recorded on anatomical maps. Mice subjected to either stimulus paradigm showed increased OG compared with unstimulated or uninjured mice. Histological analysis showed no difference in spinal cord lesion size due to sensory stimulation, or between mice that overgroomed or did not overgroom. The relationship between prior stimulation and contusion injury in mice that display OG indicates a critical interaction that may underlie one facet of spontaneous neuropathic symptoms after SCI. PMID:20121420

Hoschouer, Emily L.; Finseth, Taylor; Flinn, Sharon; Basso, D. Michele

2010-01-01

295

The impact of discrete modes of spinal cord injury on bladder muscle contractility  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies have compared the effect of spinal cord injury elicited using distinct approaches on motor and visceral function. However, the impact of such discrete modes of injury specifically on bladder muscle contractility has not been explored in detail. The goal of this study is to compare the impact of complete spinal cord transection versus clip compression at thoracic vertebra eight (T8) on bladder muscle contractility. Methods Rats underwent no treatment (Control), laminectomy (Sham, SH); complete extradural transection (TX); or cord compression with an aneurysm clip (CX). Bladders and spinal cords were harvested at 6 wk for contractility studies or histological analysis. Results Detrusor strips from TX and CX rats showed higher spontaneous activity than those from SH rats. Furthermore, the duration of the neurally-mediated contractile response was longer in TX and CX rats compared to controls and showed attenuated relaxation. No significant differences were observed between muscle strips from SH, TX or CX rats in response to KCl, ATP or phenylephrine. However, tissues from TX and CX rats showed a higher sensitivity to carbachol compared to that from SH animals. Conclusions Complete SCI in rats either by cord transection or compression elicits qualitatively similar changes in bladder muscle contractility. Whereas cord transection is arguably easier to perform experimentally, cord compression better models the situation observed clinically, such that each approach has clear advantages and limitations. PMID:23668225

2013-01-01

296

Etomidate depresses lumbar dorsal horn neuronal responses to noxious thermal stimulation in rats.  

PubMed

Etomidate is a widely used IV anesthetic, but little is known about its analgesic properties, in particular, its effects on spinal cord neuronal responses to noxious stimuli. We hypothesized that etomidate would depress lumbar neuronal responses to noxious heat. Rats (n = 15) were anesthetized with isoflurane (1.2%) and laminectomy was performed to record single unit activity. Lumbar neuronal responses to noxious thermal (52 degrees C, 12 s) stimulation of the hindpaw were recorded before and every 2 min (up to 13 min postinjection) after administration of etomidate. The responses at peak effect of etomidate (as a percentage of the control response) were 63% +/- 16%, 63% +/- 16%, 38% +/- 25%, 36% +/- 30%, and 41% +/- 26% for the 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg doses, respectively. The responses quickly recovered, usually by the 10-min period postinjection. Similar responses were obtained in decerebrate, isoflurane-free rats administered etomidate and in isoflurane-anesthetized rats administered propofol. These data demonstrate that etomidate depresses spinal cord neuronal responses to noxious stimulation and is a possible mechanism by which this drug might produce analgesia. PMID:16551918

Mitsuyo, Toshihiko; Antognini, Joseph F; Carstens, Earl

2006-04-01

297

Isoflurane can indirectly depress lumbar dorsal horn activity in the goat via action within the brain.  

PubMed

We have examined the response of lumbar dorsal horn cells to a noxious mechanical stimulus during differential delivery of isoflurane to the brain and spinal cord of goats. We hypothesized that isoflurane, acting in the brain, would depress dorsal horn neuronal responses to a noxious mechanical stimulus applied to the hindlimb. Eight goats were anaesthetized with isoflurane and neck dissections performed which allowed cranial bypass. Lumbar laminectomies were performed to allow measurements of single-unit dorsal horn neuronal activity. Isoflurane 1.3% was administered before bypass, and during differential delivery it was administered at each of the following head/torso combinations: 1.3%/1.3%, 0.8%/1.3%, 0.3%/1.3%, 1.3%/0.8%, 0.8%/0.8% and 0.3%/0.8%. When the torso isoflurane concentration was 1.3%, decreasing cranial isoflurane from 1.3% to 0.3% did not significantly affect dorsal horn responses (from mean 325 (SD 262) to 379 (412) impulses min-1; P < 0.05). However, when torso isoflurane was 0.8%, decreasing cranial isoflurane from 1.3% to 0.3% increased mean evoked dorsal horn activity by 42% (388 (359) to 551 (452) impulses min-1; P < 0.05). These data suggest that the major effect of isoflurane on dorsal horn responses to noxious stimuli is direct, but there is an indirect effect occurring via descending projections from supraspinal regions. PMID:10365002

Jinks, S; Antognini, J F; Carstens, E; Buzin, V; Simons, C

1999-02-01

298

Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis with severe obesity at a young age.  

PubMed

Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder characterized by overgrowth of fat in the extradural space. Most patients have an underlying endocrine disorder, such as Cushing's syndrome, or have taken exogenous steroids chronically. Although less common, obesity alone is thought to be a cause of spinal epidural lipomatosis, representing <25% of reported cases. Patients rarely become symptomatic before middle age without chronic exogenous steroid use. The usual clinical manifestations are similar to degenerative lumbar stenosis with neurogenic claudication, resulting in decreased walking and standing endurance with variable neurological deficits.This article describes 2 unique cases of spinal epidural lipomatosis, both in young patients with underlying morbid obesity who presented with acute progressive leg weakness and urinary retention. The patients had no underlying endocrinopathy, nor any history of exogenous steroid use. They underwent emergency laminectomy and removal of epidural fat, and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of epidural lipomatosis. Postoperatively, the patients demonstrated significant improvement.We conducted a review of the available English literature and compared the age distribution in each group. Based on our review, our 2 patients are considerably younger than those in past reports, especially in the patient group to which the steroid was not administered. In addition, few cases exist of spinal epidural lipomatosis with acute sphincter dysfunction and paraparesis. Our cases suggest that morbid obesity can lead to juvenile spinal epidural lipomatosis with acute neurological changes. PMID:21667917

Ohba, Tetsuro; Saito, Toshiki; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Maekawa, Shingo; Haro, Hirotaka

2011-06-01

299

Microendoscopic Decompression Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis via the Paramedian Approach: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a microendoscopic spinal decompression surgical technique using a novel approach for the treatment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). The following modifications were made to the conventional microendoscopic bilateral decompression via the unilateral approach: the base of the spinous process was first resected partially to secure a working space, so as not to separate the spinous process from the lamina. The tip of the tubular retractor was placed at the midline of the lamina, where laminectomy was performed microendoscopically. A total of 126 stenotic levels were decompressed in 70 patients. The mean operating time per level was 77.0 minutes, and the mean intraoperative blood loss per level was 15.0 mL. There were no dural tears or neurological injuries intraoperatively. Fracture of the spinous process was detected postoperatively in two patients, both of whom were asymptomatic. All patients could be followed up for at least 12 months. Their median Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score improved significantly from 16 points preoperatively to 27.5 points after the surgery (p?

Nomura, Kazunori; Yoshida, Munehito

2012-01-01

300

Lumbar Spinal Extradural Angiolipoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Angiolipomas in the lumbar spinal region are extremely rare. The present report describes the identification of such a tumor and its removal, and discusses the tumor characteristics and prognosis. A 74-year-old woman was presented with a 5-month history of lower back pain. Severe radiculopathy was experienced in the left leg for 5 days prior to the presentation, and there were no neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance (MR) images showed an approximately 3.5 cm heterogeneously enhanced and elongated mass at the left L5-S1 level. A portion of the mass appeared with high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and with high signal intensity on T1 fat suppression enhancement images. Resection of the tumor was approached via an L5 and S1 laminectomy. A fibrous sticky yellowish hypervascular tumor was identified. Histological study revealed the tumor as an angiolipoma. Symptoms were relieved after tumor excision, and there were no neurological sequelae. Although extremely rare, lumbar epidural angiolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lumbar spinal epidural lesions. The prognosis after surgical management of this lesion is favorable. PMID:19096690

Park, Jin Hoon; Jeon, Sang Ryong; Rhim, Seung Chul

2008-01-01

301

Spinal subdural hematoma revealing hemophilia A in a child: A case report  

PubMed Central

Background Intraspinal bleeding especially in the form of subdural hematoma is rare in hemophiliacs. In the present case, we report a neglected hemophilic A child with such a problem and discuss its management options. Case Presentation A 9-year old hemophilic A boy presented with quadriparesis, confusion and meningismus after a fall 4 days previously. There was no sign of direct trauma to his back. His CT Scan and MRI showed spinal extramedullary hematoma extended from C5 to L2. We corrected the factor VIII level, but two days later, the patient's lower limbs weakened to 1/5 proximally as well as distally. We performed a laminectomy from T11 to L2, according to the level of the maximal neurological deficit and recent deterioration course. The subdural hematoma was evacuated. The hematoma in other spinal levels was managed conservatively. In the week following the operation, the patient's neurological status approached normal. Conclusion This case calls attention to the clinical manifestation, radiological features and management options of the rarely reported intraspinal hematoma in hemophilic children. Although this case has been managed operatively for its hematoma in the thoracolumbar region, at the same time it can be considered a successful case of conservative management of intraspinal hematoma in the cervicothoracic region. Both conservative and surgical management could be an option in managing these patients considering their neurological course. PMID:12904268

Eftekhar, Behzad; Ghodsi, Mohammad; Ketabchi, Ebrahim; Bakhtiari, Abbas; Mostajabi, Pardis

2003-01-01

302

Chiropractic management of postoperative spine pain: a report of 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe chiropractic care including spinal manipulation for 3 patients with postsurgical spine pain. Clinical features Three patients with postsurgical spine pain (1 cervical fusion, 1 lumbar discectomy, and 1 lumbar laminectomy) presented for chiropractic treatment at a major US medical center. Treatment included spinal manipulation and/or flexion-distraction mobilization based on patient response to joint loading strategies. Intervention and outcomes Two patients were treated with high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation; and 1 patient was treated with flexion-distraction mobilization. Treatment frequency and duration were 4 treatments over 4 weeks for case 1, 17 treatments over 7 years for case 2, and 5 treatments over 5 weeks for case 3. Subjective improvement was noted using numeric pain scores and functional changes; and upon completion, the patients reported being “satisfied” with their overall outcome. One episode of transient benign soreness was noted by 1 patient. No additional adverse events or effects were noted. Conclusion In these 3 cases, patients with postsurgical spine pain responded positively to chiropractic care. Spinal manipulation/mobilization was tolerated without significant adverse effects. PMID:24396317

Coulis, Christopher M.; Lisi, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

303

Hydrocephalus due to Membranous Obstruction of Magendie's Foramen  

PubMed Central

We report a case of non communicating hydrocephalus due to membranous obstruction of Magendie's foramen. A 37-year-old woman presented with intracranial hypertension symptoms caused by the occlusion of Magendie's foramen by a membrane probably due to arachnoiditis. As far as the patient's past medical history is concerned, an Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis was described. Fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral papilledema. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant ventricular dilatation of all ventricles and turbulent flow of cerebelospinal fluid (CSF) in the fourth ventricle as well as back flow of CSF through the Monro's foramen to the lateral ventricles. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniotomy with C1 laminectomy. An occlusion of Magendie's foramen by a thickened membrane was recognized and it was incised and removed. We confirm the existence of hydrocephalus caused by fourth ventricle outflow obstruction by a membrane. The nature of this rare entity is difficult to demonstrate because of the complex morphology of the fourth ventricle. Treatment with surgical exploration and incision of the thickened membrane proved to be a reliable method of treatment without the necessity of endoscopic third ventriculostomy or catheter placement. PMID:25674349

Varthalitis, Dimitrios; Georgakoulias, Nikolaos; Orphanidis, Georgios

2015-01-01

304

Intraspinal leiomyoma: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Leiomyomas are benign tumors which are predominantly found in the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts. Leiomyomas in the spine are extremely rare. The current study presents a case of a 35-year-old female with intraspinal leiomyoma who presented with low back pain and weakness in the left leg of two months. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an epidural mass at the T11-12 levels. The patient underwent a T11-12 laminectomy through posterior approach, achieving total removal of the tumor with a well-demarcated dissection plane. Pathological examination demonstrated a leiomyoma. Postoperatively, the patient showed a significant improvement in neurological function. Although intraspinal leiomyoma is extremely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal lesions in females. The diagnosis is predominantly dependent on a pathological examination. Gross total resection is recommended for its treatment, however the prognosis remains poor. Post-operative hormonal therapy may be useful in controlling tumor recurrence. PMID:25120728

Yang, Tao; Wu, Liang; Deng, Xiaofeng; Yang, Chenlong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Yulun

2014-09-01

305

Development of a Rat Model of Graded Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Using a Pneumatic Impact Device  

PubMed Central

An animal model of spinal cord trauma is essential for understanding the injury mechanisms, cord regeneration, and to aid the development of new therapeutic modalities. This study focused on the development of a graded experimental contusion model for spinal cord injury (SCI) using a pneumatic impact device made in Korea. A contusive injury was made to the dorsal aspect of the cord. Three trauma groups were defined according to the impact velocity (IV). A control group (n=6), received laminectomy only. Group 1 (n=10), 2 (n=10), and 3 (n=10) had IVs of 1.5 m/sec, 2.0 m/sec, and 3.5 m/sec respectively. Functional assessments were made up to the 14th day after injury. The cord was removed at the 14th post-injury day and prepared for histopathologic examination. Significant behavioral and histopathological abnormalities were found in control and each trauma group. All trauma groups showed severe functional impairment immediately after injury but following different rates of functional recovery (Fig. 5). As the impact velocity and impulse increased, the depth of contusive lesion revealed to be profound the results show that the rat model reproduces spinal cord lesions consistently, has a distinctive value in assessing the effects of impact energy. PMID:15308850

Yeo, Sang Jun; Park, Seung Won; Kim, Young Baeg; Min, Byung Kook; Kwon, Jeong Taik; Suk, Jong Sik

2004-01-01

306

MRI findings, surgical treatment and follow-up of a myelomeningocele with tethered spinal cord syndrome in a cat.  

PubMed

A 7-month-old male neutered cat was referred for paraparesis and painful sensation at the level of T13 vertebra where a dermal cyst was observed. Spine radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-encapsulated cyst communicating with the meninges and spinal cord, suggestive of hydromyelia and myelodysplasia. Dorsal laminectomy was performed and the cyst was completely removed. The day after surgery, the cat was ambulatory paraparetic. Involuntary defecation was observed for only a few days. The surgical specimen was cystic and covered by skin. Microscopic examination revealed a hollow hemispheric mass of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive neural tissue lined by ependyma and formed of glia and vascular structures consistent with myelomeningocele (MMC). Only anecdotal descriptions of MMC have been published in the veterinary literature, mainly in the lumbosacral spinal cord. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a MMC with tethered spinal cord syndrome in a cat successfully treated surgically. PMID:21439878

Ricci, Emanuele; Cherubini, Giunio B; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Aprea, Francesco; Cantile, Carlo

2011-06-01

307

Combination of lumbar kyphosis, epidural lipomatosis, and perineural cyst as a cause of neurological deficit: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe the rare simultaneous occurrence of epidural lipomatosis and a perineural cyst at the same level, lumbar kyphosis, osteoporotic vertebral fractures, and neurological deficits. A 75-year-old corticosteroid-dependent female farmer presented with severe low back pain, progressive lumbar kyphosis, and inability to stand because of numbness and muscle weakness of both legs. Plain radiographs displayed markedly decreased bone density, significant lumbar kyphosis, and vertebral compression fractures of L2, L3, and L4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine revealed a perineural cyst at the L2-3 level, extensive epidural lipomatosis, and spinal canal stenosis. Laminectomy from L3 to L5 with resection of epidural fatty tissue restored her walking ability. We postulate that the osteoporotic fractures and epidural lipomatosis were induced by corticosteroid therapy. Preexisting degenerative lumbar kyphosis of the type commonly seen in elderly farmers could have promoted osteoporotic lumbar vertebral fractures at points where bending stress had been strongly exerted. The combination of a perineural cyst and epidural lipomatosis at the same level has not been reported previously. PMID:12486480

Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Shimada, Yoichi; Murai, Hajime; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hongo, Michio; Itoi, Eiji

2002-01-01

308

Surgical resection without dural reconstruction of a lumbar meningioma in an elderly woman  

PubMed Central

Meningiomas of the spine occur in the thoracic spine in approximately 80%, followed in frequency by the cervical and lumbar regions. The treatment of spinal meningiomas is complete surgical resection. As intraspinal meningiomas are almost always adherent to the dura, extensive dural resection or diathermic treatment of the dural attachment is usually performed to prevent tumor recurrence. The authors present the case of lumbar spinal meningioma in 82-year-old woman. Successful resection with preservation of the dura mater using the technique of Saito et al. (Spine 26:1805-1808, 2001) is described: After lumbar laminectomy a small incision was made in the surface of the spinal dura. The dura mater was separated into its inner and outer layers, and the tumor was resected with inner layer alone, preserving the outer layer. The outer layer is simply closed to achieve a watertight seal. The pathologic diagnosis was metaplastic (osseous) meningioma. Almost full recovery of the neurologic deficit was attained. Neither complication nor tumor recurrence has occurred in the 5 years since surgery. Dural preservation during surgical resection of spinal meningioma obviates the need for dural reconstruction and should reduce surgical morbidity. However, the patient should be followed long-term to watch for recurrence. PMID:19219468

Takahashi, Jun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ebara, Sohei; Takahashi, Hideto

2009-01-01

309

Spinal Subdural Staphylococcus Aureus Abscess: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Only 65 cases (including our case) of spinal subdural abscesses have been reported to the literature, mostly to the lumbar spine. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial. The symptoms are not caracteristic and contrast – enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI) is the imaging method of choice. The early diagnosis is crucial for the prognosis of the patient. Case presentation We present a patient 75 years old who had a history of diabetes and suffered acute low back pain in the region of the lumbar spine for the last 4 days before his admission to the hospital. He also experienced lower leg weakness, fever and neck stiffness. After having a brain CT scan and a lumbar puncture the patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of meningitis. Five days after his admission the diagnosis of subdural abscess secured with contrast – enhanced MRI but meanwhile the condition of the patient impaired with respiratory failure and quadriplegia and he was admitted to the ICU. A laminectomy was performed eight days after his admission into the hospital but unfortunately the patient died. Conclusion Early diagnosis and treatment are very important for the good outcome in patients with subdural abscess. Although morbidity and mortality are very high, surgical and antibiotic treatment should be established as soon as possible after the diagnosis has secured. PMID:19660120

Velissaris, Dimitris; Aretha, Diamanto; Fligou, Fotini; Filos, Kriton S

2009-01-01

310

C1-C2 arthrodesis after transoral odontoidectomy and suboccipital craniectomy for ventral brain stem compression in Chiari I patients.  

PubMed

Chiari I malformations are often associated with congenital craniocervical anomalies such as platybasia, basilar invagination, and retroflexion of the odontoid process. Management of ventral brain stem compression associated with Chiari I malformations remains controversial, but several authors report a significant rate of failure with suboccipital decompression alone in the presence of pronounced ventral brain stem compression (VBSC). Treatment options described in the literature for these patients involve anterior, posterior, or combined decompressions with or without concurrent arthrodesis. A combined anterior and posterior approach provides a definitive circumferential decompression but also significantly disrupts the stability of the occipitocervical junction usually necessitating occipitocervical fixation. We describe an alternative surgical treatment for Chiari I patients with significant ventral brain stem compression where a combined anterior and posterior decompression was considered necessary. We report two patients who underwent transoral odontoidectomy with preservation of the anterior arch of the atlas and suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy followed by C1-C2 arthrodesis. Preservation of the anterior arch of the atlas in conjunction with C1-C2 arthrodesis stabilizes the occipito-atlanto-axial segments while conserving more cervical mobility as compared to an occipitocervical fusion. PMID:18629549

Hwang, Steven W; Heilman, Carl B; Riesenburger, Ron I; Kryzanski, James

2008-09-01

311

C1–C2 arthrodesis after transoral odontoidectomy and suboccipital craniectomy for ventral brain stem compression in Chiari I patients  

PubMed Central

Chiari I malformations are often associated with congenital craniocervical anomalies such as platybasia, basilar invagination, and retroflexion of the odontoid process. Management of ventral brain stem compression associated with Chiari I malformations remains controversial, but several authors report a significant rate of failure with suboccipital decompression alone in the presence of pronounced ventral brain stem compression (VBSC). Treatment options described in the literature for these patients involve anterior, posterior, or combined decompressions with or without concurrent arthrodesis. A combined anterior and posterior approach provides a definitive circumferential decompression but also significantly disrupts the stability of the occipitocervical junction usually necessitating occipitocervical fixation. We describe an alternative surgical treatment for Chiari I patients with significant ventral brain stem compression where a combined anterior and posterior decompression was considered necessary. We report two patients who underwent transoral odontoidectomy with preservation of the anterior arch of the atlas and suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy followed by C1–C2 arthrodesis. Preservation of the anterior arch of the atlas in conjunction with C1–C2 arthrodesis stabilizes the occipito–atlanto-axial segments while conserving more cervical mobility as compared to an occipitocervical fusion. PMID:18629549

Heilman, Carl B.; Riesenburger, Ron I.; Kryzanski, James

2008-01-01

312

Intraoperative magnesium infusion during carotid endarterectomy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Object Recent data from both experimental and clinical studies have supported the use of intravenous magnesium as a potential therapy in the setting of cerebral ischemia. This study assessed whether intraoperative magnesium therapy improves neuropsychometric testing (NPT) following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Methods One hundred eight patients undergoing CEA were randomly assigned to receive placebo infusion or 1 of 3 magnesium-dosing protocols. Neuropsychometric testing was performed 1 day after surgery and compared with baseline performance. Assessment was also performed on a set of 35 patients concurrently undergoing lumbar laminectomy to serve as a control group for NPT. A forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of magnesium therapy on NPT. A subgroup analysis was then performed, analyzing the impact of each intraoperative dose on NPT. Results Patients treated with intravenous magnesium infusion demonstrated less postoperative neurocognitive impairment than those treated with placebo (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10–0.74, p = 0.01). When stratified according to dosing bolus and intraoperative magnesium level, those who were treated with low-dose magnesium had less cognitive decline than those treated with placebo (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.50, p < 0.01). Those in the high-dose magnesium group demonstrated no difference from the placebo-treated group. Conclusions Low-dose intraoperative magnesium therapy protects against neurocognitive decline following CEA. PMID:19199498

Mack, William J.; Kellner, Christopher P.; Sahlein, Daniel H.; Ducruet, Andrew F.; Kim, Grace H.; Mocco, J; Zurica, Joseph; Komotar, Ricardo J.; Haque, Raqeeb; Sciacca, Robert; Quest, Donald O.; Solomon, Robert A.; Connolly, E. Sander; Heyer, Eric J.

2009-01-01

313

Primary Dumbbell-Shaped Lymphoma of the Thoracic Spine: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Primary spinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is extremely rare, and the occurrence of spinal dumbbell-shaped lymphoma is exceptional. We present a case of primary spinal dumbbell-shaped lymphoma to clarify the diagnosis and the management of these lesions. A 45-year-old man presented with sensory symptoms for 8 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine demonstrated a dumbbell-shaped lesion at the D4–D6 level with spinal cord compression and right foraminal extension at D4–D5 level. The patient underwent D4–D6 laminectomy, with a subtotal resection of the mass. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in the pathological examination. He underwent local spinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Follow-up evaluation at one year demonstrated no evidence of relapse. Although highly unusual, lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for spinal dumbbell-shaped tumours. After surgery and adjuvant therapy a long-term clinical and neuroradiological followup is mandatory. PMID:23227379

Meola, Antonio; Perrini, Paolo; Montemurro, Nicola; di Russo, Paolo; Tiezzi, Giacomo

2012-01-01

314

Neuroprotective effects of rosuvastatin against traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

Rosuvastatin, which is a potent statin, has never been studied in traumatic spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rosuvastatin treatment could protect the spinal cord after experimental spinal cord injury. Rats were randomized into the following five groups of eight animals each: control, sham, trauma, rosuvastatin, and methylprednisolone. In the control group, no surgical intervention was performed. In the sham group, only laminectomy was performed. In all the other groups, the spinal cord trauma model was created by the occlusion of the spinal cord with an aneurysm clip. In the spinal cord tissue, caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, nitric oxide levels, and superoxide dismutase levels were analyzed. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations were also performed. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined-plane test.After traumatic spinal cord injury, increases in caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels were detected. In contrast, the superoxide dismutase levels were decreased. After the administration of rosuvastatin, decreases were observed in the tissue caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels. In contrast, tissue superoxide dismutase levels were increased. Furthermore, rosuvastatin treatment showed improved results concerning the histopathological scores, the ultrastructural score and the functional tests. Biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural analysis and functional tests revealed that rosuvastatin exhibits meaningful neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury. PMID:25084223

Kahveci, Ramazan; Gökçe, Emre Cemal; Gürer, Bora; Gökçe, Aysun; Kisa, Uçler; Cemil, Duran Berker; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Kahveci, Fatih Ozan; Aksoy, Nurkan; Erdo?an, Bülent

2014-10-15

315

[Surgery of lumbar disk hernia: historical perspective].  

PubMed

Although the clinical picture of discogenic sciatica is well known already in the ancient world, it is not until 1933 that WJ Mixter and JS Barr provide the correct pathogenetic interpretation and suggest surgery as the treatment of choice. The work of the American Authors was however based on the knowledge acquired during the previous centuries starting with Domenico Cotugno, who first suggested the neurogenic nature of sciatica (1764) and later with the neurologists of the french school Valleix, Lasègue, Dejerine, Sicard who elucidated the semeiology and debated in detail the etiopathogenesis of the condition. The german pathologists Schmorl and Andrae (1927-29) are to be credited for their contribution to the pathology of intervertebral disc, recognizing the frequency and degenerative (not neoplastic) nature of nucleus pulposus herniation. Surgery of disc herniation starts with Oppenheim and Krause (1909). Mixter and Barr used laminectomy and a transdural route although a more limited approach to the spinal canal had already been proposed by the italian Bonomo (1902), unknown to many. Love, of the Mayo Clinic (1937-39) introduced the extradural/interlaminar approach while Caspar and Yasargil (1977) applied the concepts of microsurgery to the procedure. The latest advances are represented by percutaneous and endoscopic techniques. PMID:9835099

Brunori, A; De Caro, G M; Giuffrè, R

1998-01-01

316

Surgical and postpartum hereditary brachial plexus attacks and prophylactic immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surgery and childbirth can trigger attacks of hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy (HBPN), and inflammation was suggested as a component of the pathogenesis. Methods HBPN patients who underwent surgery or parturition from Jan.1,1996 to Dec.31,2009 were studied. Results Twenty-five HBPN patients underwent 48 surgeries or parturitions. Seventeen patients (68%) had attacks, including 13 periprocedural and 7 postpartum by varied anesthesia types. Three patients who had 8 earlier combined attacks (after thyroidectomy, laminectomy, and Caesarean section) were given prophylactic immunosuppressive therapy (corticosteroids ± immunoglobulin). None suffered postoperative attacks, which is uncharacteristic of their prior experience. Five had perioperative attacks as their first HBPN manifestation. Median follow-up was 11(3-48) months. Attacks occurred in the operated limb (n=6) or distant (n=7) to surgical sites. All attacks interfered with daily living, with frequent incomplete recovery. Five patients had a SEPT9 mutation. Conclusions Corticosteroid may prevent parturition and surgical HBPN attacks in some patients. Diverse surgeries, anesthesia and childbirth frequently trigger HBPN attacks. PMID:23042485

Klein, Christopher J.; Barbara, David W.; Sprung, Juraj; Dyck, Peter J.; Weingarten, Toby N.

2012-01-01

317

Spinal autofluorescent flavoprotein imaging in a rat model of nerve injury-induced pain and the effect of spinal cord stimulation.  

PubMed

Nerve injury may cause neuropathic pain, which involves hyperexcitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons. The mechanisms of action of spinal cord stimulation (SCS), an established treatment for intractable neuropathic pain, are only partially understood. We used Autofluorescent Flavoprotein Imaging (AFI) to study changes in spinal dorsal horn metabolic activity. In the Seltzer model of nerve-injury induced pain, hypersensitivity was confirmed using the von Frey and hotplate test. 14 Days after nerve-injury, rats were anesthetized, a bipolar electrode was placed around the affected sciatic nerve and the spinal cord was exposed by a laminectomy at T13. AFI recordings were obtained in neuropathic rats and a control group of naïve rats following 10 seconds of electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve at C-fiber strength, or following non-noxious palpation. Neuropathic rats were then treated with 30 minutes of SCS or sham stimulation and AFI recordings were obtained for up to 60 minutes after cessation of SCS/sham. Although AFI responses to noxious electrical stimulation were similar in neuropathic and naïve rats, only neuropathic rats demonstrated an AFI-response to palpation. Secondly, an immediate, short-lasting, but strong reduction in AFI intensity and area of excitation occurred following SCS, but not following sham stimulation. Our data confirm that AFI can be used to directly visualize changes in spinal metabolic activity following nerve injury and they imply that SCS acts through rapid modulation of nociceptive processing at the spinal level. PMID:25279562

Jongen, Joost L M; Smits, Helwin; Pederzani, Tiziana; Bechakra, Malik; Hossaini, Mehdi; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan K; Huygen, Frank J P M; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Holstege, Jan C; Joosten, Elbert A J

2014-01-01

318

Lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas interbody fusion in a patient with achondroplastic dwarfism.  

PubMed

The authors present the first reported use of the lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach for interbody arthrodesis in a patient with achondroplastic dwarfism. The inherent anatomical abnormalities of the spine present in achondroplastic dwarfism predispose these patients to an increased incidence of spinal deformity as well as neurogenic claudication and potential radicular symptoms. The risks associated with prolonged general anesthesia and intolerance of significant blood loss in these patients makes them ideal candidates for minimally invasive spinal surgery. The patient in this case was a 51-year-old man with achondroplastic dwarfism who had a history of progressive claudication and radicular pain despite previous extensive lumbar laminectomies. The lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach was used for placement of interbody cages at L1/2, L2/3, L3/4, and L4/5, followed by posterior decompression and pedicle screw instrumentation. The patient tolerated the procedure well with no complications. Postoperatively his claudicatory and radicular symptoms resolved and a CT scan revealed solid arthrodesis with no periimplant lucencies. PMID:25415482

Staub, Blake N; Holman, Paul J

2015-02-01

319

Neuroprotective effect of epidural hypothermia after spinal cord lesion in rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of epidural hypothermia in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord lesion. METHODS: Wistar rats (n?=?30) weighing 320-360 g were randomized to two groups (hypothermia and control) of 15 rats per group. A spinal cord lesion was induced by the standardized drop of a 10-g weight from a height of 2.5 cm, using the New York University Impactor, after laminectomy at the T9-10 level. Rats in the hypothermia group underwent epidural hypothermia for 20 minutes immediately after spinal cord injury. Motor function was assessed for six weeks using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan motor scores and the inclined plane test. At the end of the final week, the rats' neurological status was monitored by the motor evoked potential test and the results for the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Analysis of the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores obtained during the six-week period indicated that there were no significant differences between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the inclined plane test scores during the six-week period. Furthermore, at the end of the study, the latency and amplitude values of the motor evoked potential test were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Hypothermia did not produce a neuroprotective effect when applied at the injury level and in the epidural space immediately after induction of a spinal cord contusion in Wistar rats. PMID:25141116

Barbosa, Marcello Oliveira; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo; Ferreira, Ricardo; Marcon, Raphael Martus; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa

2014-01-01

320

Isolated extrahepatic bile duct rupture: a rare consequence of blunt abdominal trauma. Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old girl suffered blunt abdominal trauma. Clinically, a severe motor impairment with paraesthesia of the legs was found. Posterior osteosynthesis in T10-L1 with laminectomy in T10-T12 and posterolateral arthrodesis in T11-T12 was performed because of a dorsal traumatic vertebral fracture. On hospital day 7, because of an acute abdomen, surgical laparoscopic exploration showed sterile bloody fluid without any evident hemorrhagic injury. On hospital day 11, the patient was reoperated on by the laparoscopic approach for increasing abdominal pain and fever: a peritoneal biliary fluid was aspirated. After conversion to open surgery, cholecystectomy was performed. Intraoperative cholangiography was considered as normal. On arrival at our institution 13?days after injury, the patient was operated on for a biliary peritonitis. Intraoperatively, a trans-cystic cholangiography showed a biliary leakage of the common bile duct; a T-tube was placed into the common bile duct; a subhepatic drainage was placed too. On postoperative day 30, a T-tube cholangiography showed a normal biliary tree, without any leakage, and the T-tube was subsequently removed. The patient had a complete recovery. PMID:22624830

2012-01-01

321

Thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syrinx formation secondary to myelography with Myodil, 30 years previously.  

PubMed

Spinal arachnoiditis can rarely occur following irritation from foreign body substances, including certain oil based contrast agents used for myelography. We describe a patient with thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syringomyelia, 30 years following a myelogram with Myodil. A 62-year-old female presented with chronic thoraco-lumbar back pain, a spastic paraparesis and sphincter disturbance. She had undergone a myelogram with Myodil, 30 years previously for investigation of back pain. A MRI scan revealed evidence of arachnoiditis, thoracic syringomyelia (T6-T8) and an anteriorly placed, extramedullary, arachnoid cyst at T10-T12, compressing the cord. At surgery, T7-T10 thoracic laminectomies were carried out and syringo- and cysto-subarachnoid shunts were inserted. At 12 months follow-up, the sphincter disturbance, lower limb weakness and mobility problems had almost resolved. Although, the use of oil based contrast agents such as Myodil has been discontinued, the present case illustrates some of the rare sequelae of its use, manifesting decades later. Aggressive surgical intervention produced symptomatic benefit. PMID:16944225

Gnanalingham, Kanna K; Joshi, Shabin Man; Sabin, Ian

2006-10-01

322

Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors  

SciTech Connect

One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy.

Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.; D'Angio, G.J.; Drummond, D.S. (UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick (USA))

1990-02-01

323

Pneumomediastinum, Subcutaneous Emphysema, and Tracheal Tear in the Early Postoperative Period of Spinal Surgery in a Paraplegic Achondroplastic Dwarf  

PubMed Central

Achondroplasia was first described in 1878 and is the most common form of human skeletal dysplasia. Spinal manifestations include thoracolumbar kyphosis, foramen magnum, and spinal stenosis. Progressive kyphosis can result in spinal cord compression and paraplegia due to the reduced size of spinal canal. The deficits are typically progressive, presenting as an insidious onset of paresthesia, followed by the inability to walk and then by urinary incontinence. Paraplegia can be the result of direct pressure on the cord by bone or the injury to the anterior spinal vessels by a protruding bone. Surgical treatment consists of posterior instrumentation, fusion with total wide laminectomy at stenosis levels, and anterior interbody support. Pedicle screws are preferred for spinal instrumentation because wires and hooks may induce spinal cord injury due to the narrow spinal canal. Pedicle lengths are significantly shorter, and 20–25?mm long screws are appropriate for lower thoracic and lumbar pedicles in adult achondroplastic There is no information about the appropriate length of screws for the upper thoracic pedicles. Tracheal injury due to inappropriate pedicle screw length is a rare complication. We report an extremely rare case of tracheal tear due to posterior instrumentation and its management in the early postoperative period. PMID:24455372

Kahraman, Sinan; Enercan, Meriç; Demirhan, Özkan; ?engül, Türker; Hamzao?lu, Azmi

2013-01-01

324

Syncope caused by congenital anomaly at the craniovertebral junction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anomalies in the craniovertebral junction may be a rare cause of syncope. The mechanisms of syncope related to craniovertebral junction anomaly remain unknown. We present an extremely rare case with anomaly in the craniovertebral junction and syncope, and discuss the mechanism of the syncope. Case presentation A 10-year-old Japanese boy with a congenital anomaly in the craniovertebral junction presented with recurrent syncope. A physical examination showed generalized hyperreflexia, but motor and sensory examinations were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed basilar invagination and spinal cord compression at his craniovertebral junction. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an anomalous course of his bilateral vertebral arteries, both of which showed a persistent first intersegmental artery that entered the spinal canal at the caudal portion of the C1 posterior arch. In this case, the arteries were nearly pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of the C2. C1 laminectomy and occiput-cervical fusion (O-C2) was performed using an instrumentation system. After surgery, the syncope was not observed. Conclusions Syncope can be related to compression of extracranial arteries within the neck. In this case, transient brain ischemia caused by the anomalous course of vertebral arteries that were pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of C2 in cervical motion was the suspected cause of the syncope. PMID:25296768

2014-01-01

325

Spinal arachnoid cyst associated with arachnoiditis following subarachnoid haemorrhage in adult patients: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Objective. Arachnoiditis is an inflammatory process resulting with the fibrosis of arachnoid mater. It can vary in severity from mild thickenings to catastrophic adhesions that ruins subarachnoid space. As a result, arachnoid cysts can be formed. Arachnoid cyst induced by symptomatic spinal arachnoiditis is a rare complication of subarachnoid haemorrhages. In this article, we aimed to present a case of spinal arachnoid cyst formation following subarachnoid haemorrhage and examine similar cases in the literature. Case Report. Forty-six years old, previously healthy female patient has been treated medically for headaches due to perimesencephalic subarachnoid bleeding. Approximately two and a half months later, she started to have severe headaches and diplopia. We detected hydrocephalus and performed ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. Two months later, she started to have complaints of weakness in her lower extremities. On neurological examination, she had paraparesis and on spinal magnetic resonance imaging she had an arachnoid cyst lengthening from C7 to T2 and compressing the spinal cord posteriorly. We performed partial laminectomy, drainage of arachnoid cyst and replacement of cystopleural T tube shunt. On follow-up, her lower extremity strength has ameliorated. She was taken into a physical therapy and rehabilitation programme. Three months later she was able to walk with a crutch. Conclusion. Subarachnoiditis and associated arachnoid cyst can cause severe morbidity. This rare situation (which especially occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage of posterior fossa) should be known and physicians should keep in mind that it requires urgent surgical procedure. PMID:25365662

Basaran, Recep; Kaksi, Mustafa; Efendioglu, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Kaner, Tuncay

2014-11-01

326

Metastatic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the cauda equina.  

PubMed

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) of the cauda equina is rare, with only four reported patients in the literature. We present a 70-year-old woman with a history of left sciatic nerve MPNST that had been treated by left hemipelvectomy 4 years prior. She then presented with disabling right leg weakness that progressed over 7months. Spine imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion from L5 to S1 with compression of the cauda equina. She underwent an L3-S1 laminectomy with subtotal resection of the lesion, which was diagnosed as a metastatic MPNST. At the 3-month postoperative visit, her lower extremity strength had returned to baseline. The only notable postoperative complication was a superficial wound infection that resolved with antibiotic treatment and wet-to-dry dressing changes. Thus, although uncommon, the spinal canal and cauda equina should be considered as possible locations for metastatic MPNST in the appropriate clinical scenario. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with a metastatic MPNST to the cauda equina. PMID:21450470

Than, Khoi D; Ghori, Ahmer K; Wang, Anthony C; Pandey, Aditya S

2011-06-01

327

Arteriovenous fistula and pseudoaneurysm of the anterior spinal artery caused by an epidural needle in a 5-year-old patient.  

PubMed

Authors present the case of a 5-year-old patient with a spinal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and pseudoaneurysm of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) caused by a traumatic epidural needle stick injury. A discussion and relevant review of the literature follow. The boy had a remote history of a liver transplant and required neuraxial blockade for an unrelated abdominal surgical procedure. Initial insertion of the epidural needle at the T9-10 interspace yielded blood. A second attempt at T10-11 was successful. Delayed left leg weakness developed on postoperative Day 8, with an MR image showing a track injury through the cord and a ventral subarachnoid hematoma. Laminectomies from T-9 to T-11were performed emergently to decompress the spinal cord. The dura mater was opened, the ventral hematoma was evacuated, and brisk venous bleeding was controlled with cauterization. Postoperative spinal angiography demonstrated an AVF and pseudoaneurysm of the ASA. Repeat angiography at postoperative Week 4 demonstrated complete resolution of the AVF and pseudoaneurysm, probably due to intraoperative cauterization of the draining vein. The patient underwent a short course of rehabilitation and had no clinical or electrophysiological evidence of spinal cord damage at the 20-month follow-up. One should be cognizant of the possibility of a cord injury in a patient with new-onset neurological deficits following an interventional spine procedure. Neuroimaging is essential for prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23311385

Alnaami, Ibrahim; Lam, Fred C; Steel, Graham; Dicken, Bryan; O'Kelly, Cian J; Aronyk, Keith; Mehta, Vivek

2013-03-01

328

Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopic Analysis of the Effects of Anti-inflammatory Therapeutics on Would Healing in Laminectomized Rats  

SciTech Connect

Peridural scarring, or the excessive formation of scar tissue following spinal surgery, is one of the important contributing factors that result in persistent pain and disability in many individuals who have undergone elective back surgery. Treatment with anti-inflammatory agents following surgery may reduce oxidative stress and scarring, leading to a reduction in post-operative pain. We are using a surgical rat model to test the hypothesis that post-surgical inflammation and oxidative stress following laminectomy can be reduced by systemic administration of L: -2-oxo-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) and quercetin. OTC is a cysteine precursor required for the synthesis of glutathione, an important antioxidant. Quercetin is a flavenoid with anti-oxidant properties, found in fruits and vegetables. Synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy data has been collected on OTC, quercetin and saline (control)-treated post-surgery animals, sacrificed at 3 and 21 days (n=6 per age and treatment group). This paper presents preliminary IR results, supported by immunocytochemistry, on the heterogenous distribution of biological components present in the healing tissue. The data collected on animals sacrificed at 3 and 21 days post-surgery will be combined in the future with data from animals sacrificed 63 days after surgery (representing a third time point) to evaluate the efficacy of the different treatments. Initial statistical analysis of ED1 immunohistochemistry results indicates a decrease in the number of activated macrophages 21 days post-surgery in the OTC-treated animals compared with the saline controls.

Weins,R.; Rak, M.; Cox, N.; Abraham, S.; Juurlink, B.; Kulyk, W.; Gough, K.

2007-01-01

329

Lateral cord stimulation decreases spastic electromyographic spreading: responses in a brain-damaged pig preparation.  

PubMed

Objective.? The aim of our work was to investigate whether lateral stimulation of the spinal cord, lateral cord stimulation (LCS), results in inhibition of the spastic phenomena of upper motor lesions in an animal model. Methods.? This study was conducted using an animal model consisting of surgically brain damaged pigs subjected to unilateral cortical and subcortical brain lesions. A double laminectomy at cervical (C3-C4) and lumbar (L3-L6) was performed, and spastic thresholds of abnormal electromyographic responses, disseminated to adjacent segments, facilitated by spinal liberation, and produced by extradural electrical stimulation of the fourth lumbar root, were measured before and after cervical stimulation of the LCS. The variable studied was the minimal amount of current of LCS necessary to abolish electromyographic responses in the L7 myotome, away from the stimulated L4 nerve root. Results.? Experiments in 12 animals showed a significant increase of threshold after LCS, with a marked posteffect, signaling a less abnormal threshold. Conclusions.? This experiment demonstrated that LCS produces threshold increases to abolish abnormally propagated electromyographic evoked responses induced by the electrical stimulation of the fourth lumbar root in pigs with experimental cortical and subcortical brain lesions. PMID:22151097

Andreani, Juan Carlos M; Guma, Cristina

2008-07-01

330

Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy promotes vascular endothelial growth factor expression and improves locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Object Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is widely used for the clinical treatment of various human diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-energy ESWT upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and promotes angiogenesis and functional recovery in myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease. Many previous reports suggested that VEGF produces a neuroprotective effect to reduce secondary neural tissue damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether lowenergy ESWT promotes VEGF expression and neuroprotection and improves locomotor recovery after SCI. Methods Sixty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham group (laminectomy only), sham-SW group (low-energy ESWT applied after laminectomy), SCI group (SCI only), and SCI-SW group (low-energy ESWT applied after SCI). Thoracic spinal cord contusion injury was inflicted using an impactor. Low-energy ESWT was applied to the injured spinal cord 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Locomotor function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) Scale (open field locomotor score) at different time points over 42 days after SCI. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess neural tissue damage in the spinal cord. Neuronal loss was investigated by immunostaining for NeuN. The mRNA expressions of VEGF and its receptor, Flt-1, in the spinal cord were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunostaining for VEGF was performed to evaluate VEGF protein expression in the spinal cord. Results In both the sham and sham-SW groups, no animals showed locomotor impairment on BBB scoring. Histological analysis of H & E and NeuN stainings in the sham-SW group confirmed that no neural tissue damage was induced by the low-energy ESWT. Importantly, animals in the SCI-SW group demonstrated significantly better locomotor improvement than those in the SCI group at 7, 35, and 42 days after injury (p < 0.05). The number of NeuN-positive cells in the SCI-SW group was significantly higher than that in the SCI group at 42 days after injury (p < 0.05). In addition, mRNA expressions of VEGF and Flt-1 were significantly increased in the SCI-SW group compared with the SCI group at 7 days after injury (p < 0.05). The expression of VEGF protein in the SCI-SW group was significantly higher than that in the SCI group at 7 days (p < 0.01). Conclusions The present study showed that low-energy ESWT significantly increased expressions of VEGF and Flt-1 in the spinal cord without any detrimental effect. Furthermore, it significantly reduced neuronal loss in damaged neural tissue and improved locomotor function after SCI. These results suggested that low-energy ESWT enhances the neuroprotective effect of VEGF in reducing secondary injury and leads to better locomotor recovery following SCI. This study provides the first evidence that low-energy ESWT can be a safe and promising therapeutic strategy for SCI. PMID:25280090

Yamaya, Seiji; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Haruo; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Sekiguchi, Akira; Tateda, Satoshi; Yahata, Kenichiro; Ito, Kenta; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Itoi, Eiji

2014-12-01

331

[Simplfied technique of lumbar subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The authors have developed a simplified technique of lumbar subarachnoid peritoneal shunt in which the spinal tube is easily introduced through a puncture needle without doing a laminectomy. Seventeen cases of communicating hydrocephalus of various orgin have been treated by this procedure. In this paper, we reported our shunting system and the technique of precedures, and discussed the clinical results and some advantages of this method. The spinal tube is a custom made Silastic tube with small side holes 2 mm apart from each other at slanting tip located within the first 1.0 cm of the end. French No. 5 tube is available for older children and for adults, and French No. 3.6 tube for infants. Total length of the tube measures 30 cm with 4 black markers at 5 cm intervals from the tip for assisting in positioning. The puncture needle is a modified Touhey needle. Two needles different in size are prepared according to the size of the tube. Outer diameter of these needles is 2.1 mn & 1.8 mn. Our operative procedures are divided into following three steps. 1) Puncture of the lumbar subarachnoid space and insertion of the spinal tube through the needle. 2) Introduction and placement of the peritoneal tube into some point of the peritoneal cavity. Concerning to this point, we have the three candidates, namely into the Douglas pouch, the suprahepatic space, and the bursa omental cavity. 3) Connection of the spinal tube and the peritoneal catheter end. We used a kind of flushing device only in some exceptional cases, and recently, we feel that it is not so necessary for this shunting. We have employed this technique in a total of 17 cases. Eleven cases of them are adults and the other 6 cases are children less than 2 years of age. Postoperative follow up period varied from 13 months to 1 month, and all the cases except two had good result, suggesting the shunt system is working well with no evidence of complications such as low pressure syndrome or radicular irritation. Some troubles occurred in two children. One was a disconnection between the spinal and the peritoneal tube, and the other was an obstruction at the peritoneal tube end. The authors believe that our L-P shunt has several advantages as listed below, 1)Procedure is very simple, in other words, there is no need of laminectomy. 2) The entire system is short. 3) No need to pass the catheter into the brain tissue. 4) Obstruction of the spinal catheter end is very unusual. 5) Alteration of communicating hydrocepalus into non communicating one by secondary obstruction of aqueduct of Sylvius is less likely with this shunting system. 6) Siphon effect might be minimal, if present. 7) As compared to V-A shunt, severe complication like septicemia will not occur in the L-P shunt. With this simple method and good material, we hope that this L-P shunt is employed more widely for the patients with communicating hydrocephalus. PMID:557743

Kuwana, N; Kuwabara, T; Nakajima, F; Hosoda, H; Yamaguchi, K

1977-03-01

332

Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited higher motor score after cryogenic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has been reported to induce neuroprotective effects in several experimental models of brain injury. We aimed at investigating whether this drug could also improve locomotor recovery of rats submitted to spinal cord cryoinjury. Rats were distributed into five experimental groups. Animals were submitted to laminectomy in vertebral segment T10 followed or not by application of liquid nitrogen for 5 s into the spinal cord at the same level to cause cryoinjury. The animals received injections of vehicle or CBD (20 mg/kg) immediately before, 3 h after and daily for 6 days after surgery. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan motor evaluation test was used to assess motor function post-lesion one day before surgery and on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. The extent of injury was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin histology and FosB expression. Cryogenic lesion of the spinal cord resulted in a significant motor deficit. Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited a higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor score at the end of the first week after spinal cord injury: lesion + vehicle, day 1: zero, day 7: four, and lesion + Cannabidiol 20 mg/kg, day 1: zero, day 7: seven. Moreover, at this moment there was a significant reduction in the extent of tissue injury and FosB expression in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The present study confirmed that application of liquid nitrogen to the spinal cord induces reproducible and quantifiable spinal cord injury associated with locomotor function impairments. Cannabidiol improved locomotor functional recovery and reduced injury extent, suggesting that it could be useful in the treatment of spinal cord lesions. PMID:21915768

Kwiatkoski, Marcelo; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira; Del-Bel, Elaine

2012-04-01

333

Plasmocytome solitaire osseux: expérience de l'institut national d'oncologie de Rabat (INO)  

PubMed Central

Nous évaluerons les aspects diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs du plasmocytome solitaire osseux dans notre structure. Il s'agit d'une revue rétrospective portant sur 11 patients suivis et traités dans le Service de Radiothérapie de l'Institut National d'Oncologie de Rabat pour un plasmocytome solitaire osseux entre janvier 1999 et décembre 2009. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 53 ans (19-79 ans). La douleur était le signe révélateur le plus fréquent. Le siège des lésions était rachidien dans 4cas, nasosinusien dans 2cas, orbitaire dans 1 cas, costal dans 1 cas, presternal dans 1 cas, sellaire dans 1 cas et sacré dans 1 cas. Tous les malades ont reçu une radiothérapie. Cette irradiation était délivrée seule dans 8 cas (73%) ou associée à la chirurgie (laminectomie) dans 3 cas (27%). La dose moyenne de la radiothérapie était de 44 Gy (30 à 60 Gy) et celle-ci a été délivrée par un appareil de télécobalthérapie ou un accélérateur linéaire. La durée moyenne de suivi était de 78 mois (38-118 mois). Le contrôle local, défini par une stabilité radiologique, a été obtenu chez 7 des 11 malades (87%). Un patient a évolué vers un myélome multiple après un délai de 8 mois. La radiothérapie constitue un traitement efficace du plasmocytome osseux solitaire. Le pronostic est affecté par l’évolution vers le myélome multiple, ce qui justifie une surveillance rigoureuse après traitement et suggère une réflexion sur la place exacte de la chimiothérapie. PMID:25392726

Diakité, Adama; Nouni, Karima; Bellefqih, Sara; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

2014-01-01

334

Assessment of bone graft incorporation by 18?F-fluoride positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with persisting symptoms after posterior lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Background Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is a method that allows decompression of the spinal canal and nerve roots by laminectomy combined with fusion by means of intervertebral cages filled with bone graft and pedicle screw fixation. Conventional imaging techniques, such as plain radiography and computed tomography (CT), have limitations to assess bony fusion dynamics. Methods In 16 PLIFs of 15 patients with persisting symptoms, positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT scans were made 60?min after intravenous administration of 156 to 263?MBq of 18?F-fluoride, including 1-mm sliced, high-dose, non-contrast-enhanced CT scanning. Maximal standard uptake values (SUVmax) of various regions were calculated and correlated with abnormalities on CT. Results Subsidence of the cages into the vertebral endplates was the most frequently observed abnormality on CT (in 16 of 27 or 59% of evaluable endplates). Endplate SUVmax values were significantly higher for those patients with pronounced (p?

2012-01-01

335

Central Decompressive Laminoplasty for Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis : Technique and Early Surgical Results  

PubMed Central

Objective Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common degenerative spine disease that requires surgical intervention. Currently, there is interest in minimally invasive surgery and various technical modifications of decompressive lumbar laminectomy without fusion. The purpose of this study was to present the author's surgical technique and results for decompression of spinal stenosis. Methods The author performed surgery in 57 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis between 2006 and 2010. Data were gathered retrospectively via outpatient interviews and telephone questionnaires. The operation used in this study was named central decompressive laminoplasty (CDL), which allows thorough decompression of the lumbar spinal canal and proximal two foraminal nerve roots by undercutting the lamina and facet joint. Kyphotic prone positioning on elevated curvature of the frame or occasional use of an interlaminar spreader enables sufficient interlaminar working space. Pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Surgical outcome was analyzed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Data were analyzed preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Results The interlaminar window provided by this technique allowed for unhindered access to the central canal, lateral recess, and upper/lower foraminal zone, with near-total sparing of the facet joint. The VAS scores and ODI were significantly improved at six-month follow-up compared to preoperative levels (p<0.001, respectively). Excellent pain relief (>75% of initial VAS score) of back/buttock and leg was observed in 75.0% and 76.2% of patients, respectively. Conclusion CDL is easily applied, allows good field visualization and decompression, maintains stability by sparing ligament and bony structures, and shows excellent early surgical results. PMID:25368762

2014-01-01

336

Predictors of Neurocognitive Decline after Carotid Endarterectomy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Although the incidence of stroke after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is low (1–3%), approximately 25% of patients experience subtle declines in postoperative neuropsychometric function. No studies have investigated the risk factors for this neurocognitive change. We sought to identify predictors of postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction. METHODS We enrolled 186 CEA patients, with both symptomatic and asymptomatic stenosis, to undergo a battery of neuropsychometric tests preoperatively and on postoperative Days 1 and 30. Neurocognitive dysfunction was defined as a two standard deviation decline in performance compared with a similarly aged control group of lumbar laminectomy patients. Univariate logistic regression was performed for age, sex, obesity, smoking, symptomatology, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, use of statin medication, previous myocardial infarction, previous CEA, operative side, duration of surgery, duration of carotid cross-clamp, and weight-adjusted doses of midazolam and fentanyl. Variables achieving univariate P < 0.10 were included in a multivariate analysis. Data is presented as (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, P-value). RESULTS Eighteen and 9% of CEA patients were injured on postoperative Days 1 and 30, respectively. Advanced age predicted neurocognitive dysfunction on Days 1 and 30 (1.93 per decade, 1.15–3.25, 0.01; and 2.57 per decade, 1.01–6.51, 0.049, respectively). Additionally, diabetes independently predicted injury on Day 30 (4.26, 1.15–15.79, 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Advanced age and diabetes predispose to neurocognitive dysfunction after CEA. These results are consistent with risk factors for neurocognitive dysfunction after coronary bypass and major stroke after CEA, supporting an underlying ischemic pathophysiology. Further work is necessary to determine the role these neurocognitive deficits may play in appropriately selecting patients for CEA. PMID:16639318

Mocco, J; Wilson, David A.; Komotar, Ricardo J.; Zurica, Joseph; Mack, William J.; Halazun, Hadi J.; Hatami, Raheleh; Sciacca, Robert R.; Connolly, E. Sander; Heyer, Eric J.

2008-01-01

337

Glycyrrhizin reduces secondary inflammatory process after spinal cord compression injury in mice.  

PubMed

Glycyrrhizin, a major active constituent of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), has a free radical scavenging property, and its effects were evaluated on an animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI) induced by the application of vascular clips (force of 24 g) to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, tissue damage, and apoptosis (measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end labeling staining, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression). Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a marked increase in immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine, iNOS, and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) in the spinal cord tissue. Additionally, we demonstrate that these inflammatory events were associated with the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB. In contrast, the degree of (1) spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (histological score), (2) nitrotyrosine and poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP] ribose) formation, (3) iNOS expression, (4) nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and (5) apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end labeling, Bax, and Bcl-2) was markedly reduced in spinal cord tissue obtained from mice treated with glycyrrhizin extract (10 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before and 1 and 6 h after SCI). In a separate set of experiments, we have clearly demonstrated that glycyrrhizin extract treatment significantly ameliorated the recovery of limb function (evaluated by motor recovery score). Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with glycyrrhizin extract reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma. PMID:18665052

Genovese, Tiziana; Menegazzi, Marta; Mazzon, Emanuela; Crisafulli, Concetta; Di Paola, Rosanna; Dal Bosco, Martina; Zou, Zhenzhen; Suzuki, Hisanori; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

2009-04-01

338

Blockade of IL-6 signaling by MR16-1 inhibits reduction of docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine levels in a mouse model of spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The interleukin (IL)-6 pathway plays an important role in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The anti-IL-6 receptor antibody MR16-1 has been shown to suppress inflammation after SCI and promote recovery of motor function. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of MR16-1 on the expression patterns of phospholipids in the spinal cord in a mouse model of SCI. Eight-week-old C57BL/6JJmsSlc mice were used in this study. Laminectomy was performed at the ninth and tenth thoracic levels (T9-T10), and contusion injury of the spinal cord was induced at level T10. Immediately after SCI, mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of MR16-1 (MR16-1 group) or a single dose of phosphate-buffered saline of the same volume (control group). Imaging mass spectrometry was performed to visualize phosphatidylcholine (PC) expression in the spinal cord 7 days after SCI. We found that MR16-1 treatment suppressed the infiltration of immune cells after SCI, and was able to increase the locomotor function post-injury. Phospholipid imaging revealed that the MR16-1 was able to prevent the reduction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing PC in comparison with the control group. We also observed high levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) at the site of DHA-containing PC expression in the MR16-1 group. These results suggest that MR16-1 treatment influences the DHA-containing PC composition of GFAP-positive cells at the injury site as early as 7 days post-SCI. PMID:24657456

Arima, H; Hanada, M; Hayasaka, T; Masaki, N; Omura, T; Xu, D; Hasegawa, T; Togawa, D; Yamato, Y; Kobayashi, S; Yasuda, T; Matsuyama, Y; Setou, M

2014-06-01

339

A novel vertebral stabilization method for producing contusive spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Clinically-relevant animal cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) models are essential for developing and testing potential therapies; however, producing reliable cervical SCI is difficult due to lack of satisfactory methods of vertebral stabilization. The conventional method to stabilize the spine is to suspend the rostral and caudal cervical spine via clamps attached to cervical spinous processes.  However, this method of stabilization fails to prevent tissue yielding during the contusion as the cervical spinal processes are too short to be effectively secured by the clamps (Figure 1).  Here we introduce a new method to completely stabilize the cervical vertebra at the same level of the impact injury.  This method effectively minimizes movement of the spinal column at the site of impact, which greatly improves the production of consistent SCIs.  We provide visual description of the equipment (Figure 2-4), methods, and a step-by-step protocol for the stabilization of the cervical 5 vertebra (C5) of adult rats, to perform laminectomy (Figure 5) and produce a contusive SCI thereafter.  Although we only demonstrate a cervical hemi-contusion using the NYU/MASCIS impactor device, this vertebral stabilization technique can be applied to other regions of the spinal cord, or be adapted to other SCI devices.  Improving spinal cord exposure and fixation through vertebral stabilization may be valuable for producing consistent and reliable injuries to the spinal cord.  This vertebral stabilization method can also be used for stereotactic injections of cells and tracers, and for imaging using two-photon microscopy in various neurobiological studies. PMID:25590284

Walker, Melissa J; Walker, Chandler L; Zhang, Y Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Shields, Christopher B; Xu, Xiao-Ming

2015-01-01

340

A Systematic Review of Selected Musculoskeletal Late Effects in Survivors of Childhood Cancer.  

PubMed

Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for treatment-related musculoskeletal late effects. Early detection and orthopedic intervention can help ameliorate musculoskeletal late effects and prevent subsequent complications. This systematic review summarizes the literature describing associations between cancer, its treatment, and musculoskeletal late effects. We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English language articles published between January 1970 and December 2012. The search was limited to investigations with at least 15 participants and conducted at least 2 years after completion of therapy for childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancer. Some late skeletal effects, including low bone mineral density, osteonecrosis, slipped capital femoral epiphyses, oncogenic rickets, and hormone-related growth disturbances have been previously reviewed and were excluded, as were outcomes following amputation and limb-salvage procedures. Of 2347 references identified, 30 met inclusion criteria and were retained. An additional 54 studies that met inclusion criteria were found in reference lists of retained studies. Of 84 studies, 60 focused on associations between radiotherapy, six between chemotherapy, and 18 between surgery and musculoskeletal late effects. We found that younger age, higher radiation dosage, and asymmetric or partial bone radiation volume influences the effects of radiation on the musculoskeletal system. Methotrexate and vincristine are associated with long-term muscular strength and flexibility deficits. Laminectomy and chest wall resection are associated with spinal malalignment, and enucleation is associated with orbital deformities among survivors. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are associated with musculoskeletal late effects independently and additively. Associations are additionally influenced by host and treatment characteristics. PMID:25403639

Gawade, Prasad L; Hudson, Melissa M; Kaste, Sue C; Neglia, Joseph P; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Constine, Louis S; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

2014-11-14

341

Melanotic schwannoma of the cervical spine progressing with pulmonary metastasis: case report.  

PubMed

Melanotic schwannoma (MS) is an unusual variant of nerve sheath neoplasm. Only 10% of these tumors will undergo malignant degeneration, with exceedingly rare reported metastasis. We present a 32-year-old woman with a 6-month history of cervical pain and left arm progressive weakness. Neurological examination showed a left upper limb radicular pain, with pyramidal syndrome at C5 level. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study highlighted an intradural extramedullary heterogeneous mass along the spinal cord at the C4-C5 level, slightly hyperintense with T1 and hypointense with T2-weighted sequences, invading the left neural foramen. The patient underwent C3-C5 laminectomy with total resection of a black tumor. In the postoperative period, a patent deficit of shoulder abduction ensued related to the nervous section. Microscopically, compactly fascicles of spindle-shaped cells with pleomorphic and hypercromatic nuclei, dark brown intracellular pigments, as well as some mitotic figures were seen. Immunohistochemical stains for S-100, Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45), and vimentin were positive, with Ki-67 Labelling Index (LI) of 15% compatible with MS. Six months after radiotherapy she presents local recurrence and lung metastatic dissemination of the MS. She underwent left pulmonary segmentectomy, followed by chemotherapy and radiosurgery. The patient developed a febrile neutropenia and worsening of general status, and died after 3 months due to respiratory complications. MS are rare tumors with potential for local recurrence and distal metastasis. Complete surgical resection remains as the treatment of choice, once the uncommon cases with malignant progression shows low response to chemo and radiotherapy. PMID:24077273

Faria, Mário Henrique Girão; Dória-Netto, Ricardo Henrique; Osugue, Gustavo Jun; Queiroz, Luciano de Souza; Chaddad-Neto, Feres Eduardo

2013-01-01

342

Diffusion Tensor Imaging at 3 Hours after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Predicts Long-Term Locomotor Recovery  

PubMed Central

Abstract Accurate diagnosis of spinal cord injury (SCI) severity must be achieved before highly aggressive experimental therapies can be tested responsibly in the early phases after trauma. These studies demonstrate for the first time that axial diffusivity (?||), derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) within 3?h after SCI, accurately predicts long-term locomotor behavioral recovery in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice underwent sham laminectomy or graded contusive spinal cord injuries at the T9 vertebral level (5 groups, n?=?8 for each group). In-vivo DTI examinations were performed immediately after SCI. Longitudinal measurements of hindlimb locomotor recovery were obtained using the Basso mouse scale (BMS). Injured and spared regions of ventrolateral white matter (VLWM) were reliably separated in the hyperacute phase by threshold segmentation. Measurements of ?|| were compared with histology in the hyperacute phase and 14 days after injury. The spared normal VLWM determined by hyperacute ?|| and 14-day histology correlated well (r?=?0.95). A strong correlation between hindlimb locomotor function recovery and ?||-determined spared normal VLWM was also observed. The odds of significant locomotor recovery increased by 18% with each 1% increase in normal VLWM measured in the hyperacute phase (odds ratio?=?1.18, p?=?0.037). The capability of measuring subclinical changes in spinal cord physiology and murine genetic advantages offer an early window into the basic mechanisms of SCI that was not previously possible. Although significant obstacles must still be overcome to derive similar data in human patients, the path to clinical translation is foreseeable and achievable. PMID:20001686

Kim, Joong H.; Loy, David N.; Wang, Qing; Budde, Matthew D.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Trinkaus, Kathryn

2010-01-01

343

Chiari malformation I and autism spectrum disorder: an underrecognized coexistence.  

PubMed

OBJECT Patients with symptomatic Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) frequently present with headaches, neck pain, difficulty swallowing, and balance disturbances. In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosing CM-I can be a challenging task. Moreover, even if symptomatic, some patients do not undergo further evaluation or management, as their presentations are attributed to autism and its myriad symptoms. Therefore, cranial MRI findings were reviewed after evaluating and treating patients with coexisting ASD and CM-I. In this paper, the authors report on 5 children with ASD and symptomatic CM-I, including their clinical presentation, imaging studies, management, and outcomes, and discuss the likely underrecognized coexistence of these conditions. METHODS All pediatric patients with ASD and cranial MRI conducted for any reason in the period from 1999 to 2013 were considered for analysis. All cases with concomitant symptomatic CM-I were eligible for this retrospective analysis. RESULTS One hundred twenty-five pediatric patients diagnosed with ASD had undergone MRI, and 9 of them had evidence of cerebellar tonsillar herniation. Five patients were symptomatic and underwent suboccipital craniectomy, a C-1 or a C-1 and C-2 laminectomy, and duraplasty with bovine pericardium or Type I collagen allograft. There were no intraoperative complications. All patients showed symptom improvement and/or resolution of presenting symptoms, which included headache, dysphasia, speech, and irritability. CONCLUSIONS There is no identified cause of autism. Children with ASD can be difficult to assess specifically in a neurological examination. Thus, cranial MRI considered when completing a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. While cranial MRI is not a routine part of ASD evaluation, this study demonstrates that CM-I and ASD may coexist and be underrecognized. The study reinforces the importance of a comprehensive medical evaluation designed to elucidate neurological findings in children with impaired communication abilities and suggests the judicious use of neuroimaging. PMID:25396704

Jayarao, Mayur; Sohl, Kristin; Tanaka, Tomoko

2014-11-14

344

Comparison between Bilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing and Unilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing, Combined with Contralateral C2 Laminar Screwing, for Atlantoaxial Posterior Fixation  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes between bilateral C2 pedicle screwing (C2PS) and unilateral C2PS, combined with contralateral C2 laminar screwing (LS), for posterior atlantoaxial fixation. Overview of Literature Posterior fixation with C1 lateral mass screwing (C1LMS) and C2PS (C1LMS-C2PS method) is an accepted procedure for rigid atlantoaxial stabilization. However, conventional bilateral C2PS is not always allowed in this method due to anatomical variations of C2 pedicles and/or asymmetry of the vertebral artery. Although unilateral C2PS plus contralateral LS (C2PS+LS) is an alternative in such cases, the efficacy of this procedure has not been evaluated in controlled studies (i.e., with bilateral C2PS as a control). Methods Clinical and radiological records of patients who underwent the C1LMS-C2PS method, using unilateral C2PS+LS (n=9), and those treated using conventional bilateral C2PS (n=10) were compared, with a minimum two years follow-up. Results Postoperative complications related to the unilateral C2PS+LS technique included one case of spontaneous spinous process fracture of C2. A C1 anterior arch fracture occurred after a fall in one patient, who underwent bilateral C2PS and C1 laminectomy. No significant differences were seen between the groups in reduction of neck pain after surgery or improvement of neurological status, as evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. A delayed union occurred in one patient each of the groups, with the final fusion rate being 100% in both groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral C2PS+LS were comparable with those of the bilateral C2PS fixation technique for the C1LMS-C2PS method. PMID:25558320

Hongo, Michio; Kobayashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Abe, Eiji; Shimada, Yoichi

2014-01-01

345

Immobilizing Doses of Halothane, Isoflurane or Propofol, Do Not Preferentially Depress Noxious Heat-Evoked Responses of Rat Lumbar Dorsal Horn Neurons with Ascending Projections  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The spinal cord is an important site where volatile anesthetics decrease sensation and produce immobility. Beyond this knowledge, our understanding of a site of anesthetic action is limited. Previous evidence suggests that dorsal horn neurons with ascending projections may be more susceptible to depression by general anesthetics than local spinal interneurons. In this study we evaluated the effects of volatile and injectable general anesthetics on lumbar dorsal horn neurons with and without ascending projections. METHODS Thirty-seven adult male rats underwent laminectomies at C1, for placement of a stimulating electrode, and T13/L1, for extracellular recording from the spinal cord dorsal horn. Neuronal responses to heat were evaluated under two doses of halothane, isoflurane, or propofol anesthesia. RESULTS Under both halothane and isoflurane anesthesia, increasing the dose from 0.8 to 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) had no significant effect on heat-evoked responses in neurons that had ascending projections identified via antidromic stimulation (AD) or those without ascending projections (nAD). Heat responses in AD neurons 1 min after IV administration of 3 and 5 mg/kg of propofol were reduced to 60% ± 18% (mean ± se) and 39% ± 14% of control respectively. Similarly, in nAD neurons responses were reduced to 56% ± 14% and 50% ± 10% of control by 3 and 5 mg/kg propofol respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest, at peri-MAC concentrations, these general anesthetics do not preferentially depress lumbar dorsal horn neurons with ascending projections compared to those with no identifiable ascending projections. PMID:18292450

Barter, Linda S.; Mark, Laurie O.; Jinks, Steven L.; Carstens, Earl E.; Antognini, Joseph F.

2009-01-01

346

The Effects of Aromatic Anesthetics on Dorsal Horn Neuronal Responses to Noxious Stimulation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor potentiation and/or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibition might explain the anesthetic properties of fluorinated aromatic compounds. We hypothesized that depression of dorsal horn neuronal responses to noxious stimulation would correlate with the magnitude of effect of benzene (BNZ), o-difluorobenzene, and hexafluorobenzene (HFB) on NMDA receptors. METHODS: Rats were anesthetized with desflurane. A T13-L1 laminectomy allowed extracellular recording of neuronal activity from the lumbar spinal cord. After discontinuing desflurane administration, MAC for each aromatic anesthetic was determined. A 5-s noxious mechanical stimulus was then applied to the hindpaw receptive field of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons, and single-neuron responses were recorded at 0.8 and 1.2 MAC. These responses were also recorded in decerebrate rats receiving BNZ and HFB at 0–1.2 MAC. RESULTS: In intact rats, depression of responses of dorsal horn neurons to noxious stimulation by peri-MAC increases in BZN, o-difluorobenzene, and HFB correlated directly with their in vitro capacity to block NMDA receptors. In decerebrate rats, 1.2 MAC BNZ depressed nociceptive responses by 60%, with a further percentage decrease continuing from 0.8 to 1.2 MAC approximately equal to that found in intact rats. In decerebrate rats, HFB caused a progressive dose-related decrease in MAC (maximum 25%), but in intact rats, an increase from 0.8 to 1.2 neuronal response caused an (insignificant) increase in neuronal response. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in intact rats suggest that NMDA blockade contributes to the depression of dorsal horn neurons to nociceptive stimulation by fluorinated aromatic anesthetics. These results, combined with the additional findings in decerebrate rats, suggest that supraspinal effects (perhaps on ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors) may have a supraspinal facilitatory effect on nociception for HFB. PMID:18499606

Yao, Aubrey; Kim, JongBun; Atherley, Richard; Jinks, Steven L.; Carstens, Earl; Shargh, Sean; Sulger, Alana; Antognini, Joseph F.

2009-01-01

347

Central Causes of Foot Drop: Rare and Underappreciated Differential Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Peripheral causes of foot drop are well recognized. However, causes stemming from the central nervous system represent rare, important, and underappreciated differential etiologies. Methods: Two cases of foot drop stemming from central causes are described. Patients: The first patient, a 46-year-old man with a remote history of lumbar spine fracture and L4-L5 instrumentation/fusion, presented with progressive weakness and numbness of the left foot, followed within 3 months by similar symptoms in the right foot. Lumbar spine imaging failed to reveal compressive nerve root pathology. Electromyography, nerve conduction studies, and muscle and nerve biopsy suggested a preganglionic lesion and ruled out a peripheral cause. Upper spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed significant spinal stenosis at C4-C7 and T11-T12. Patient 2 was a 66-year-old man with a known left parasagittal convex meningioma diagnosed 2 years prior presented with a progressive right foot drop over 2 months. Spine imaging was normal, and serial brain MRI confirmed a slowly enlarging parasagittal meningioma. Results: Following decompressive laminectomies at C4-C7 and T11-T12, patient 1's gait improved, with marked resolution of his right foot drop and significant improvement on the left. Patient 2 underwent craniotomy for microsurgical tumor resection. At the 2-week follow-up examination, he was taking daily walks. Conclusions: Central causes, although rare, need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot drop. Central causative lesions usually occur at locations where pyramidal tract connections are condensed and specific and the function is somatotopically organized. These cases confirm that good results can be achieved when correctable central causes of foot drop are recognized. PMID:17385271

Westhout, Franklin D; Paré, Laura S; Linskey, Mark E

2007-01-01

348

Intra-Spinal Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Transplantation Inhibits the Expression of Nuclear Factor-?B in Acute Transection Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effect of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) transplantation in the expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Methods BMMNCs were isolated from tibia and femur by a density gradient centrifugation. After establishment of acute transection SCI, rats were divided into experiment (BMMNCs), experiment control (0.1 M PBS infused) and sham surgery groups (laminectomy without any SCI). Locomotor function was assessed weekly for 5 weeks post-injury using BBB locomotor score and urinary bladder function daily for 4 weeks post-injury. Activity of NF-?B in spinal cord was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results At each time point post-injury, sham surgery group had significantly higher Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan locomotor and urinary bladder function scores than experiment and experiment control group (p<0.05). At subsequent time interval there were gradual improvement in both experiment and experiment control group, but experiment group had higher score in comparison to experiment control group (p<0.05). Comparisons were also made for expression of activated NF-?B positive cells and level of NF-?B messenger RNA in spinal cord at various time points between the groups. Activated NF-?B immunoreactivity and level of NF-?B mRNA expression were significantly higher in control group in comparison to experiment and sham surgery group (p<0.05). Conclusion BMMNCs transplantation attenuates the expression of NF-?B in injured spinal cord tissue and thus helps in recovery of neurological function in rat models with SCI. PMID:25535513

Shrestha, Rajiv Prasad; Qiao, Jian min; Shen, Fu guo; Bista, Krishna bahadur; Zhao, Zhong nan

2014-01-01

349

Implanting glass spinal cord windows in adult mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in adult rodents is the standard experimental model for studying autonomic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we present a low-cost and reproducible glass window implantation protocol that is suitable for intravital microscopy and studying the dynamics of spinal cord cytoarchitecture with subcellular resolution in live adult mice with EAE. Briefly, we surgically expose the vertebrae T12-L2 and construct a chamber around the exposed vertebrae using a combination of cyanoacrylate and dental cement. A laminectomy is performed from T13 to L1, and a thin layer of transparent silicone elastomer is applied to the dorsal surface of the exposed spinal cord. A modified glass cover slip is implanted over the exposed spinal cord taking care that the glass does not directly contact the spinal cord. To reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells between the window and spinal cord, anti-inflammatory treatment is administered every 2 days (as recommended by ethics committee) for the first 10 days after implantation. EAE is induced only 2-3 weeks after the cessation of anti-inflammatory treatment. Using this approach we successfully induced EAE in 87% of animals with implanted windows and, using Thy1-CFP-23 mice (blue axons in dorsal spinal cord), quantified axonal loss throughout EAE progression. Taken together, this protocol may be useful for studying the recruitment of various cell populations as well as their interaction dynamics, with subcellular resolution and for extended periods of time. This intravital imaging modality represents a valuable tool for developing therapeutic strategies to treat autoimmune demyelinating diseases such as EAE. PMID:24378439

Fenrich, Keith K; Weber, Pascal; Rougon, Genevieve; Debarbieux, Franck

2013-01-01

350

The effects of local and general hypothermia on temperature profiles of the central nervous system following spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

Local and general hypothermia are used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as other neurological traumas. While hypothermia is known to provide significant therapeutic benefits due to its neuroprotective nature, it is unclear how the treatment may affect healthy tissues or whether it may cause undesired temperature changes in areas of the body that are not the targets of treatment. We performed 2-hour moderate general hypothermia (32°C core) or local hypothermia (30°C spinal cord) on rats that had received either a moderate contusive SCI or laminectomy (control) while monitoring temperatures at three sites: the core, spinal cord, and cortex. First, we identified that injured rats that received general hypothermia exhibited larger temperature drops at the spinal cord (-3.65°C, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] -3.72, -3.58) and cortex (-3.64°C, CIs -3.73, -3.55) than uninjured rats (spinal cord: -3.17°C, CIs -3.24, -3.10; cortex: -3.26°C, CIs -3.34, -3.17). This was found due to elevated baseline temperatures in the injured group, which could be due to inflammation. Second, both general hypothermia and local hypothermia caused a significant reduction in the cortical temperature (-3.64°C and -1.18°C, respectively), although local hypothermia caused a significantly lower drop in cortical temperature than general hypothermia (p<0.001). Lastly, the rates of rewarming of the cord were not significantly different among the methods or injury groups that were tested; the mean rate of rewarming was 0.13±0.1°C/min. In conclusion, local hypothermia may be more suitable for longer durations of hypothermia treatment for SCI to reduce temperature changes in healthy tissues, including the cortex. PMID:25019643

Bazley, Faith A; Pashai, Nikta; Kerr, Candace L; All, Angelo H

2014-09-01

351

Surgery Followed by Radiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression From Unfavorable Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Despite a previously published randomized trial, controversy exists regarding the benefit of adding surgery to radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). It is thought that patients with MSCC from relatively radioresistant tumors or tumors associated with poor functional outcome after radiotherapy alone may benefit from surgery. This study focuses on these tumors. Methods and Materials: Data from 67 patients receiving surgery plus radiotherapy (S+RT) were matched to 134 patients (1:2) receiving radiotherapy alone (RT). Groups were matched for 10 factors and compared for motor function, ambulatory status, local control, and survival. Additional separate matched-pair analyses were performed for patients receiving direct decompressive surgery plus stabilization of involved vertebrae (DDSS) and patients receiving laminectomy (LE). Results: Improvement of motor function occurred in 22% of patients after S+RT and 16% after RT (p = 0.25). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 67% and 61%, respectively (p = 0.68). Of nonambulatory patients, 29% and 19% (p = 0.53) regained ambulatory status. One-year local control rates were 85% and 89% (p = 0.87). One-year survival rates were 38% and 24% (p = 0.20). The matched-pair analysis of patients receiving LE showed no significant differences between both therapies. In the matched-pair analysis of patients receiving DDSS, improvement of motor function occurred more often after DDSS+RT than RT (28% vs. 19%, p = 0.024). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 86% and 67% (p = 0.30); 45% and 18% of patients regained ambulatory status (p = 0.29). Conclusions: Patients with MSCC from an unfavorable primary tumor appeared to benefit from DDSS but not LE when added to radiotherapy in terms of improved functional outcome.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Bajrovic, Amira [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Karstens, Johann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University Hannover (Germany); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Kazic, Nadja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

2011-12-01

352

Impact of chemokines on the properties of spinal cord-derived neural progenitor cells in a rat spinal cord lesion model.  

PubMed

The existence of endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the adult spinal cord (sc) provides the potential for tailored repair therapies after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigates the impact of inflammatory mediators on properties of NPC cultures derived from adult rats after SCI. The Infinite Horizon impactor was used to apply 200-kdyn thoracic sc lesions in adult rats. Control groups received laminectomies to equivalent sc regions. Thoracic sc segments were taken for neurosphere cell cultures. Cell proliferation was found to be significantly higher in lesion groups. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, oligodendroglia, and astroglia. Lesion cultures exhibited significantly higher amounts of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA (P?

Knerlich-Lukoschus, Friederike; Krossa, Sebastian; Krause, Jörg; Mehdorn, H Maximilian; Scheidig, Axel; Held-Feindt, Janka

2014-12-01

353

Neural and anatomical abnormalities of the gastrointestinal system resulting from contusion spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenging disorders that have not been examined experimentally using clinically relevant models. In this study, female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5/groupx4: T10-T11 contusion, laminectomy, or naïve) were fasted for 24 h before being submitted to dye recovery assays (Phenol Red solution, 1.5 ml/rat; per oral) on GI emptying/transiting at 48 h or 4 weeks postinjury (p.i.). Compared with controls, SCI significantly increased dye recovery rate (DRR, determined by spectrophotometry) in the duodenum (+84.6%) and stomach (+32.6%), but decreased it in the jejunum (-64.1% and -49.5%) and ileum (-73.6% and -70.1%) at 48 h and 4 weeks p.i., respectively (P

Kabatas, S; Yu, D; He, X D; Thatte, H S; Benedict, D; Hepgul, K T; Black, P M; Sabharwal, S; Teng, Y D

2008-07-17

354

Delamination technique together with longitudinal incisions for treatment of Chiari I/syringomyelia complex: a prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment modalities in Chiari malformation type 1(CMI) accompanied by syringomyelia have not yet been standardized. Pathologies such as a small posterior fossa and thickened dura mater have been discussed previously. Various techniques have been explored to enlarge the foramen magnum and to expand the dura. The aim of this clinical study was to explore a new technique of excision of the external dura accompanied by widening the cisterna magna and making longitudinal incisions in the internal dura, without disturbing the arachnoid. Methods Ten patients with CMI and syringomyelia, operated between 2004 and 2006, formed this prospective series. All cases underwent foramen magnum decompression of 3 × 3 cm area with C1–C2 (partial) laminectomy, resection of foramen magnum fibrous band, excision of external dura, delamination and widening of internal dura with longitudinal incisions. Results Patients were aged between 25 and 58 years and occipital headache was the most common complaint. The mean duration of preoperative symptoms was 4 years and the follow-up time was 25 months. Clinical progression was halted for all patients; eight patients completely recovered and two reported no change. In one patient, there was a transient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula that was treated with tissue adhesive. While syringomyelia persisted radiologically with radiological stability in five patients; for three patients the syringomyelic cavity decreased in size, and for the remaining two it regressed completely. Conclusion Removal of the fibrous band and the outer dural layer, at level of foramen magnum, together with the incision of inner dural layer appears to be good technique in adult CMI patients. The advantages are short operation time, no need for duraplasty, sufficient posterior fossa decompression, absence of CSF fistulas as a result of extra arachnoidal surgery, and short duration of hospitalization. Hence this surgical technique has advantages compared to other techniques. PMID:19545443

Kotil, Kadir; Ton, Tu?rul; Tari, Rabia; Savas, Yildiray

2009-01-01

355

What you need to know about ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament to optimize cervical spine surgery: A review  

PubMed Central

What are the risks, benefits, alternatives, and pitfalls for operating on cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)? To successfully diagnose OPLL, it is important to obtain Magnetic Resonance Images (MR). These studies, particularly the T2 weighted images, provide the best soft-tissue documentation of cord/root compression and intrinsic cord abnormalities (e.g. edema vs. myelomalacia) on sagittal, axial, and coronal views. Obtaining Computed Tomographic (CT) scans is also critical as they best demonstrate early OPLL, or hypertrophied posterior longitudinal ligament (HPLL: hypo-isodense with punctate ossification) or classic (frankly ossified) OPLL (hyperdense). Furthermore, CT scans reveal the “single layer” and “double layer” signs indicative of OPLL penetrating the dura. Documenting the full extent of OPLL with both MR and CT dictates whether anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery is warranted. An adequate cervical lordosis allows for posterior cervical approaches (e.g. lamionplasty, laminectomy/fusion), which may facilitate addressing multiple levels while avoiding the risks of anterior procedures. However, without lordosis and with significant kyphosis, anterior surgery may be indicated. Rarely, this requires single/multilevel anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF), as this approach typically fails to address retrovertebral OPLL; single or multilevel corpectomies are usually warranted. In short, successful OPLL surgery relies on careful patient selection (e.g. assess comorbidities), accurate MR/CT documentation of OPLL, and limiting the pros, cons, and complications of these complex procedures by choosing the optimal surgical approach. Performing OPLL surgery requires stringent anesthetic (awake intubation/positioning) and also the following intraoperative monitoring protocols: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electromyography (EMG). PMID:24843819

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

356

Brown-Séquard syndrome in a 11-year-old girl due to penetrating glass injury to the thoracic spine.  

PubMed

Injuries in children are one of the most frequent causes of high morbidity and mortality, and they present a challenge to the treating physician. Fortunately, spinal trauma in pediatric patient is relatively rare. Brown-Séquard syndrome is a rare form of incomplete spinal cord injury consisting of ipsilateral upper motor neuron paralysis (hemiplegia) and loss of proprioception with contralateral pain and temperature sensation deficits resulting from hemisection or lateral injury to the spinal cord. A 11-year-old girl was admitted to our Pediatric Trauma Emergency Department after she had suffered a penetrating back injury. Neurological examination demonstrated left lower extremity paresis and moderate spastic paralysis of the right lower extremity. The examination showed loss of temperature sensation contralateral to and below the lesion. The examination of the pain sensation was difficult because the patient was in pain shock, but it was diminished on the side opposite to the damage. Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) demonstrated a triangular foreign body in spinal canal at the level of the Th11-Th12. After a Th11-L2 laminectomy and retrieval of foreign bodies, dura repair was performed. Patient was discharged from the hospital with partial recovery. Operative decompression of the neural elements in case of spinal canal compromise is the treatment of choice. Indication for surgical intervention in existing cerebrospinal fluid fistula includes closure of the dura and reducing neural elements compression and lowering the risk of infectious complications by removing bone or foreign body fragments. Patients with Brown-Séquard syndrome have good prognosis for functional recovery. PMID:23412183

Komarowska, M; Debek, W; Wojnar, J A; Hermanowicz, A; Rogalski, M

2013-11-01

357

Very High Resolution Ultrasound Imaging for Real-Time Quantitative Visualization of Vascular Disruption after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by vascular disruption with intramedullary hemorrhage, alterations in blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, and perilesional ischemia. A safe and easily applied imaging technique to quantify evolving intraspinal vascular changes after SCI is lacking. We evaluated the utility of very high resolution ultrasound (VHRUS) imaging to assess SCI-induced vascular disruption in a clinically relevant rodent model. The spinal cords of Wistar rats were lesioned at the 11th thoracic vertebra (Th11) by a 35?g 1-minute clip compression. Three-dimensional quantification of intraspinal hemorrhage using VHRUS (at an acute 90-min and subacute 24-h time point post-SCI) was compared with lesional hemoglobin and extravasated Evans blue dye measured spectrophotometrically. The anatomy of hemorrhage was comparatively assessed using VHRUS and histology. Time-lapse videos demonstrated the evolution of parenchymal hemorrhage. VHRUS accurately depicted the structural (gray and white matter) and vascular anatomy of the spinal cord (after laminectomy) and was safely repeated in the same animal. After SCI, a hyperechoic signal extended from the lesion epicenter. Significant correlations were found between VHRUS signal and hemorrhage in the acute (r=0.88, p<0.0001) and subacute (r=0.85, p<0.0001) phases and extravasated Evans blue (a measure of vascular disruption) in the subacute phase (r=0.94, p<0.0001). Time-lapse videos demonstrated that the expanding parenchymal hemorrhage is preceded by new perilesional hemorrhagic foci. VHRUS enables real-time quantitative live anatomical imaging of acute and subacute vascular disruption after SCI in rats. This technique has important scientific and clinical translational applications. PMID:24831774

Soubeyrand, Marc; Badner, Anna; Vawda, Reaz; Chung, Young Sun

2014-01-01

358

IL28B Gene Polymorphism SNP rs8099917 Genotype GG Is Associated with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 Carriers  

PubMed Central

Background The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) are associated with HAM/TSP. Methods The study included 229 subjects, classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (136 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers) and Group II (93 HAM/TSP patients). The proviral loads were quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System. Results A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphisms were independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome in rs12979860 genotype CT (OR?=?2.03; IC95%?=?0.96–4.27) and in rs8099917 genotype GG (OR?=?7.61; IC95%?=?1.82–31.72). Conclusion Subjects with SNP rs8099917 genotype GG and rs12979618 genotype CT may present a distinct immune response against HTLV-1 infection. So, it seems reasonable to suggest that a search for IL28B polymorphisms should be performed for all HTLV-1-infected subjects in order to monitor their risk for disease development; however, since this is the first description of such finding in the literature, we should first replicate this study with more HTLV-1-infected persons to strengthen the evidence already provided by our results. PMID:25233462

Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malta, Fernanda; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gonçalves, Fernanda de Toledo; Duarte, Alberto Jose da Silva; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva

2014-01-01

359

Polygenic Control of Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) Provirus Load and the Risk of HTLV-IAssociated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic  

E-print Network

of Immunology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St. Mary's Campus, London, and 2 Oxford Transplant Centre-in-Aid from the Research in Brain Science of The Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. a A.M.V. and A

Lloyd, Alun

360

Sclerostin Inhibition Prevents Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cancellous Bone Loss.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in rapid and extensive sublesional bone loss. Sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived glycoprotein that negatively regulates intraskeletal Wnt-signaling, is elevated after SCI and may represent a mechanism underlying this excessive bone loss. However, it remains unknown whether pharmacologic sclerostin inhibition ameliorates bone loss subsequent to SCI. Our primary purposes were to determine whether a sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) prevents hindlimb cancellous bone loss in a rodent SCI model and to compare the effects of a Scl-Ab to that of testosterone-enanthate (TE), an agent that we have previously shown prevents SCI-induced bone loss. Fifty-five (n?=?11-19/group) skeletally-mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive: (A) SHAM surgery (T8 laminectomy), (B) moderate-severe (250 kilodyne) SCI, (C) 250 kilodyne SCI?+?TE (7.0mg/week, i.m.), or (D) 250 kilodyne SCI?+?Scl-Ab (25mg/kg, twice weekly, s.c.) for three weeks. Twenty-one days post-injury, SCI animals exhibited reduced hindlimb cancellous bone volume at the proximal tibia (via µCT and histomorphometry) and distal femur (via µCT), characterized by reduced trabecular number and thickness. SCI also reduced trabecular connectivity and plate-like trabecular structures, indicating diminished structural integrity of the remaining cancellous network, and produced deficits in cortical bone (femoral diaphysis) strength. Scl-Ab and TE both prevented SCI-induced cancellous bone loss, albeit via differing mechanisms. Specifically, Scl-Ab increased osteoblast surface and bone formation, indicating direct bone anabolic effects, whereas TE reduced osteoclast surface with minimal effect on bone formation, indicating antiresorptive effects. The deleterious microarchitectural alterations in the trabecular network were also prevented in SCI?+?Scl-Ab and SCI?+?TE animals, while only Scl-Ab completely prevented the reduction in cortical bone strength. Our findings provide the first evidence indicating that sclerostin inhibition represents a viable treatment to prevent SCI-induced cancellous and cortical bone deficits and provides preliminary rationale for future clinical trials focused on evaluating whether Scl-Ab prevents osteoporosis in the SCI population. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25359699

Beggs, Luke A; Ye, Fan; Ghosh, Payal; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Balaez, Alexander; Miller, Julie R; Phillips, Ean G; Zheng, Nigel; Williams, Alyssa A; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Wronski, Thomas J; Bose, Prodip K; Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F

2014-10-31

361

Les myélopathies cervicarthrosiques: résultat clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie sur une série de 135 patients opérés au service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne  

PubMed Central

La myélopathie cervicarthrosique est un syndrome clinique en relation avec la diminution des dimensions du canal rachidien, la cervicarthrose est l’étiologie principale après 50 ans. L'objectif du traitement est de rétablir les dimensions du canal rachidien cervical. Le choix de la technique chirurgicale sera guidé par l'analyse des signes cliniques, imageries, pré opératoire en fonction de laquelle sera pratiquée soit la voie antérieure, postérieure, ou exceptionnellement la voie combinée. Notre étude a pour but dans un premier temps d’évaluer à long terme les résultats cliniques et radiologiques de la chirurgie ensuite répondre à cette préoccupation: La lordose cervicale pré opératoire et postopératoire sont t-elles des facteurs de bon pronostic? Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective entre 2000 et 2013 portant sur 135 patients opérés dans notre formation et remplissant les critères inclusions. La collecte des données s'est faite en s'aidant du dossier médical des patients (échelle d'Association des orthopédistes Japonais), Imagerie (Radio, TDM, IRM), mesure de l'angle de courbure rachidienne en pré et postopératoire, ceci dans le but d’évaluer à long terme les résultats clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie. Ont été inclus dans notre étude 135 patients, 82 Hommes (60%), 53 femmes (40%) avec un âge moyen de 52 ans, ayant consulté pour des motifs divers (Névralgies cervicobrachiales, lourdeur des membres, troubles génito-sphinctériens). Soixante cinq patients (48%) ont bénéficié d'un abord antérieur (dissectomie, cloward, somatotomie médiane), 64 patients (47%) ont été opérés par voie postérieure (laminectomie de 1 à 3 niveaux) et 6 patients (5%) ont bénéficié d'un abord combiné dans un délai moyen de 3 mois devant la persistance des symptômes. Le niveau cervical le plus touché était C5C6 suivie de C4C5. L’évolution globale de nos patients était favorable dans 58% des cas, stationnaire dans 41% des cas et 1% d'aggravation. Soixante patients ayant présentés une amélioration en postopératoire avaient une courbure rachidienne en lordose, contre 17 patients en raideur et aucun patient en cyphose (p < 0.05). En définitive, la myélopathie est une pathologie fréquente dans la pratique neurochirurgicale, le diagnostic s'est beaucoup amélioré grâce à l'avènement de IRM, plusieurs voies d'abords sont utilisées en fonction des données cliniques et d'imageries, l’évolution reste favorable si la prise en charge est précoce avant l'apparition des déformations importantes de l'alignement sagittal du rachis.

Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Nabil, Moussé; Karekezi, Claire; Diawara, Seylan; El Fatemi, Nizar; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

2014-01-01

362

Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates the early inflammatory response following spinal cord injury in mice: in-vivo and in-vitro studies  

PubMed Central

Background Two families of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), omega-3 (?-3) and omega-6 (?-6), are required for physiological functions. The long chain ?-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have significant biological effects. In particular, DHA is a major component of cell membranes in the brain. It is also involved in neurotransmission. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly devastating pathology that can lead to catastrophic dysfunction, with a significant reduction in the quality of life. Previous studies have shown that EPA and DHA can exert neuroprotective effects in SCI in mice and rats. The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanism of action of ?-3 PUFAs, such as DHA, in a mouse model of SCI, with a focus on the early pathophysiological processes. Methods In this study, SCI was induced in mice by the application of an aneurysm clip onto the dura mater via a four-level T5 to T8 laminectomy. Thirty minutes after compression, animals received a tail vein injection of DHA at a dose of 250 nmol/kg. All animals were killed at 24 h after SCI, to evaluate various parameters implicated in the spread of the injury. Results Our results in this in-vivo study clearly demonstrate that DHA treatment reduces key factors associated with spinal cord trauma. Treatment with DHA significantly reduced: (1) the degree of spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury, (2) pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNF-?), (3) nitrotyrosine formation, (4) glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, and (5) apoptosis (Fas-L, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, DHA significantly improved the recovery of limb function. Furthermore, in this study we evaluated the effect of oxidative stress on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells using a well-characterized in-vitro model. Treatment with DHA ameliorated the effects of oxidative stress on neurite length and branching. Conclusions Our results, in vivo and in vitro, clearly demonstrate that DHA treatment reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury associated with spinal cord trauma. PMID:24405628

2014-01-01

363

Testosterone dose dependently prevents bone and muscle loss in rodents after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Androgen administration protects against musculoskeletal deficits in models of sex-steroid deficiency and injury/disuse. It remains unknown, however, whether testosterone prevents bone loss accompanying spinal cord injury (SCI), a condition that results in a near universal occurrence of osteoporosis. Our primary purpose was to determine whether testosterone-enanthate (TE) attenuates hindlimb bone loss in a rodent moderate/severe contusion SCI model. Forty (n=10/group), 14 week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive: (1) Sham surgery (T9 laminectomy), (2) moderate/severe (250 kdyne) SCI, (3) SCI+Low-dose TE (2.0?mg/week), or (4) SCI+High-dose TE (7.0?mg/week). Twenty-one days post-injury, SCI animals exhibited a 77-85% reduction in hindlimb cancellous bone volume at the distal femur (measured via ?CT) and proximal tibia (measured via histomorphometry), characterized by a >70% reduction in trabecular number, 13-27% reduction in trabecular thickness, and increased trabecular separation. A 57% reduction in cancellous volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at the distal femur and a 20% reduction in vBMD at the femoral neck were also observed. TE dose dependently prevented hindlimb bone loss after SCI, with high-dose TE fully preserving cancellous bone structural characteristics and vBMD at all skeletal sites examined. Animals receiving SCI also exhibited a 35% reduction in hindlimb weight bearing (triceps surae) muscle mass and a 22% reduction in sublesional non-weight bearing (levator ani/bulbocavernosus [LABC]) muscle mass, and reduced prostate mass. Both TE doses fully preserved LABC mass, while only high-dose TE ameliorated hindlimb muscle losses. TE also dose dependently increased prostate mass. Our findings provide the first evidence indicating that high-dose TE fully prevents hindlimb cancellous bone loss and concomitantly ameliorates muscle loss after SCI, while low-dose TE produces much less profound musculoskeletal benefit. Testosterone-induced prostate enlargement, however, represents a potential barrier to the clinical implementation of high-dose TE as a means of preserving musculoskeletal tissue after SCI. PMID:24378197

Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Beggs, Luke A; Beck, Darren T; Otzel, Dana M; Balaez, Alexander; Combs, Sarah M; Miller, Julie R; Ye, Fan; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Neuville, Kathleen G; Williams, Alyssa A; Conrad, Bryan P; Gregory, Chris M; Wronski, Thomas J; Bose, Prodip K; Borst, Stephen E

2014-05-01

364

Nerve growth factor improves functional recovery by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal apoptosis in rats with spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis plays a major role in various diseases, including spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve growth factor (NGF) show neuroprotective effect and improve the recovery of SCI, but the relations of ER stress-induced apoptosis and the NGF therapeutic effect in SCI still unclear. Methods Young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats’s vertebral column was exposed and a laminectomy was done at T9 vertebrae and moderate contusion injuries were performed using a vascular clip. NGF stock solution was diluted with 0.9% NaCl and administered intravenously at a dose of 20 ?g/kg/day after SCI and then once per day until they were executed. Subsequently, the rats were executed at 1d, 3 d, 7d and 14d. The locomotor activities of SCI model rats were tested by the 21-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale, inclined plane test and footprint analysis. In addition, Western blot analysis was performed to identify the expression of ER-stress related proteins including CHOP, GRP78 and caspase-12 both in vivo and in vitro. The level of cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL in vivo and Flow cytometry in vitro. Relative downstream signals Akt/GSK-3? and ERK1/2were also analyzed with or without inhibitors in vitro. Results Our results demonstrated that ER stress-induced apoptosis was involved in the injury of SCI model rats. NGF administration improved the motor function recovery and increased the neurons survival in the spinal cord lesions of the model rats. NGF decreases neuron apoptosis which measured by TUNEL and inhibits the activation of caspase-3 cascade. The ER stress-induced apoptosis response proteins CHOP, GRP78 and caspase-12 are inhibited by NGF treatment. Meanwhile, NGF administration also increased expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43). The administration of NGF activated downstream signals Akt/GSK-3? and ERK1/2 in ER stress cell model in vitro. Conclusion The neuroprotective role of NGF in the recovery of SCI is related to the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell death via the activation of downstream signals, also suggested a new trend of NGF translational drug development in the central neural system injuries which involved in the regulation of chronic ER stress. PMID:24884850

2014-01-01

365

Syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis: A rare condition.  

PubMed

Spinal spondylosis is an extremely common condition that has only rarely been described as a cause of syringomyelia. We describe a case of syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis admitted at our division and treated by our institute. It is the case of a 66-year-old woman. At our observation she was affected by moderate-severe spastic tetraparesis. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an hyperintense signal within spinal cord from C3 to T1 with a more sharply defined process in the inferior cervical spinal cord. At the same level bulging discs, facets and ligamenta flava hypertrophy determined a compression towards subarachnoid space and spinal cord. Spinal cord compression was more evident in hyperextension rather than flexion. A 4-level laminectomy and subsequent posterior stabilization with intra-articular screws was executed. At 3-mo follow up there was a regression of tetraparesis but motor deficits of the lower limbs residuated. At the same follow up postoperative MRI was executed. It suggested enlargement of the syrinx. Perhaps hyperintensity within spinal cord appeared "bounded" from C3 to C7 with clearer margins. At the level of surgical decompression, subarachnoid space and spinal cord enlargement were also evident. A review of the literature was executed using PubMed database. The objective of the research was to find an etiopathological theory able to relate syringomyelia with cervical spondylosis. Only 6 articles have been found. At the origin of syringomyelia the mechanisms of compression and instability are proposed. Perhaps other studies assert the importance of subarachnoid space regard cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamic. We postulate that cervical spine instability may be the cause of multiple microtrauma towards spinal cord and consequently may damage spinal cord parenchyma generating myelomalacia and consequently syrinx. Otherwise the hemorrhage within spinal cord central canal can cause an obstruction of CSF outflow, finally generating the syrinx. On the other hand in cervical spondylosis the stenotic elements can affect subarachnoid space. These elements rubbing towards spinal cord during movements of the neck can generate arachnoiditis, subarachnoid hemorrhages and arachnoid adhesions. Analyzing the literature these "complications" of cervical spondylosis are described at the origin of syringomyelia. So surgical decompression, enlarging medullary canal prevents rubbings and contacts between the bone-ligament structures of the spine towards spinal cord and subarachnoid space therefore syringomyelia. Perhaps stabilization is also necessary to prevent instability of the cervical spine at the base of central cord syndrome or syringomyelia. Finally although patients affected by central cord syndrome are usually managed conservatively we advocate, also for them, surgical treatment in cases affected by advanced state of the symptoms and MRI. PMID:24303479

Landi, Alessandro; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Delfini, Roberto

2013-06-16

366

Clinical Outcomes and Radiologic Changes Following Microsurgical Bilateral Decompression via a Unilateral Approach in Patients With Lumbar Canal Stenosis and Grade I Degenerative Spondylolisthesis With a Minimum 3-year Follow-up.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN:: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:: To analyze the clinical outcomes and radiologic changes following microsurgical bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in patients with lumbar canal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: Satisfactory short-term results have been observed following minimally invasive decompressive procedures, but intermediate and long-term outcomes have not been assessed. It is not yet clear whether decompressive laminectomy with concomitant fusion is the optimal surgical treatment for spinal stenosis combined with mild degenerative spondylolisthesis. We therefore evaluated minimum 3-year clinical outcomes and radiologic changes in patients with lumbar canal stenosis and grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis who underwent microsurgical bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach, without fusion. METHODS:: We assessed 21 consecutive patients who underwent surgery conducted by a single surgeon of our hospital, between 2005 and 2007. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was determined preoperatively, just before discharge, and at last follow-up. Plain dynamic x-rays were used to determine slip percentages. RESULTS:: Average patient age and clinical and radiologic follow-up periods were 67 years, 49.3 months, and 18 months, respectively. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and last follow-up average ODIs were 59.52±9.00, 50.19±7.23, and 26.19±12.42, respectively. But one patient experienced aggravated symptoms and later underwent a fusion procedure. Of the 22 levels with spondylolisthesis, 15 had no sagittal motion as the difference in slip percentage on dynamic x-rays but 7 showed sagittal motion. Average slip percentages increased from 13.90±5.41% to 14.60±5.78% for levels without sagittal motion on dynamic x-ray and from 13.12±3.48% to 18.58±4.55% for levels with sagittal motion. CONCLUSIONS:: Despite small case series with retrospective design and the absence of a control group, our study suggest that bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis showed good mid-term clinical outcomes, despite an increase in slip percentage.However, more marked increases in slippage were observed in patients with sagittal motion in spondylolisthesis levels on preoperative dynamic x-ray than in patients without sagittal motion. Therefore bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach can aggravate symptom related to instability in patients with preoperative sagittal motion on dynamic x-ray and needs longer term follow-up than in our study. PMID:23073148

Jang, Jun-Won; Park, Jin-Hun; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Rhim, Seung-Chul

2012-10-15

367

Facet-sparing lumbar decompression with a minimally invasive flexible MicroBlade Shaver® versus traditional decompression: quantitative radiographic assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Laminectomy/laminotomy and foraminotomy are well established surgical techniques for treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. However, these procedures have significant limitations, including limited access to lateral and foraminal compression and postoperative instability. The purpose of this cadaver study was to compare bone, ligament, and soft tissue morphology following lumbar decompression using a minimally invasive MicroBlade Shaver® instrument versus hemilaminotomy with foraminotomy (HL). Methods The iO-Flex® system utilizes a flexible over-the-wire MicroBlade Shaver instrument designed for facet-sparing, minimally invasive “inside-out” decompression of the lumbar spine. Unilateral decompression was performed at 36 levels in nine human cadaver specimens, six with age-appropriate degenerative changes and three with radiographically confirmed multilevel stenosis. The iO-Flex system was utilized on alternating sides from L2/3 to L5/S1, and HL was performed on the opposite side at each level by the same investigator. Spinal canal, facet joint, lateral recess, and foraminal morphology were assessed using computed tomography. Results Similar increases in soft tissue canal area and decreases in ligamentum flavum area were noted in nondiseased specimens, although HL required removal of 83% more laminar area (P < 0.01) and 95% more bone resection, including the pars interarticularis and facet joints (P < 0.001), compared with the iO-Flex system. Similar increases in lateral recess diameter were noted in nondiseased specimens using each procedure. In stenotic specimens, the increase in lateral recess diameter was significantly (P = 0.02) greater following use of the iO-Flex system (43%) versus HL (7%). The iO-Flex system resulted in greater facet joint preservation in nondiseased and stenotic specimens. In stenotic specimens, the iO-Flex system resulted in a significantly greater increase in foraminal width compared with HL (24% versus 4%, P = 0.01), with facet joint preservation. Conclusion The iO-Flex system resulted in significantly better decompression of the lateral recess and foraminal areas compared with HL, while preserving posterior spinal elements, including the facet joint. PMID:22879740

Lauryssen, Carl; Berven, Sigurd; Mimran, Ronnie; Summa, Christopher; Sheinberg, Michael; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

368

Spinal osteotomy in the presence of massive lumbar epidural scarring.  

PubMed

The combination of Massive epidural scarring and spinal deformity represents the ultimate challenge for the spinal deformity surgeon. This is observed more and more as the population is aging and the number of spine surgery is increasing. In assessing the patient with spinal deformity and epidural scarring, one should carry out a thorough medical work up including Dexa scan, comorbidities, and in most cases a Myelo-CT scan that will identify the extent of the previous fusion, the fixed or semi-rigid nature of the deformity with complete anterior fusion or only bone bridges, the evaluation of the previous instrumentation (if present) with possible screw misplacement, or halo around the screws, the extent of the previous laminectomy, the spinal stenosis and possible arachnoiditis and or meningocele. Once the requirement of deformity correction has been established with specific attention to the pelvic incidence and amount of lordosis required two basic choices can be made. The first one is to perform the spine realignment outside the massive epidural scarring whether this will be performed through simple posterior osteotomies, TLIF combined with Smith-Petersen osteotomies or Pedicle subtraction osteotomies. One should not forget about all the possibilities of an anterior or lateral approach to the spine that can also judiciously realign the spine at the level or at distance of the massive epidural scarring. These anterior realignments have to be supplemented with posterior fixation and or osteotomies. The other alternative is to perform the spine osteotomy at the level of the massive epidural scarring preferably at the junction of normal dura and epidural scar. Working around the dura that will require to be thinned down before the osteotomy is performed represents another challenge where incidental durotomies are not infrequent. During the closing of the osteotomy the dura may not be as giving as a normal dura and too aggressive closure of the osteotomy may not be possible. Instead a closing/opening osteotomy may be preferable, but will require an additional anterior column support. Attention to anterior column reconstruction and solid posterior instrumentation (iliac screws, four rods) should be given to all these revisions to have a long-lasting result. PMID:25427670

Arlet, Vincent

2015-01-01

369

Highlights of anesthetic considerations for intraoperative neuromonitoring.  

PubMed

Though relatively new, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has become standard of care for many neurosurgical procedures. The use of IONM has substantially decreased the rate of paralysis after deformity surgery, and has been validated in cervical spine surgery, and thoracic and lumbar laminectomy (1) (2), (3). The main modalities are: somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and electromyography (EMGs). Each test examines a functionally separate area of the spinal cord, which test is chosen depends on the location of the surgery and the patient's preexisting injuries and deficits (6). Inhaled anesthetics decrease the waveform amplitude and increase latency, intravenous anesthetics have the same effect but to a lesser degree. Best anesthetic regimen for surgery involving intraoperative monitoring is controversial. Both inhaled and intravenous agents depress signal attainment, however for equal MAC concentrations inhaled agents cause more depression(11). While studies have shown that halogenated agents and nitrous oxide do in fact depress MEP signals more than total intravenous anesthesia, less is known on the relationship between IONM and patient characteristics. Lo's study documenting MEP attainment with 0.5 MAC was done in an otherwise healthy scoliosis population (12), and no study to date has analyzed signal attainment in correlation with patient characteristics and anesthetic technique. While it is clear that anesthetic technique is extremely important, certain patient characteristics appear to be more common in difficult to monitor patients. The identification of these characteristics would suggest to the anesthesiologist the need for a more stringent technique (TIVA) and avert surgical delay or cancellation due to inability to obtain baseline or worse- loss of intraoperative waveform and need for a Stagnara wake-up test. Our group at Mt. Sinai has retrospectively studied patient characteristics, anesthetic technique and attainment of neuromonitoring signals. Hypertension and diabetes are independent predictors of monitoring failure, and these are preferentially sensitive to inhalational agents. Age and weight are also predictors, but less significant. In summary, neurophysiologic monitoring has evolved to be a consistent part of many procedures. The anesthesiologist should strive to understand the rationale behind monitoring and the basis of its utility. IONM has many implications for anesthetic technique and need for control of the physiologic milieu. With this knowledge the anesthesiologist can work together with the neuromonitoring team and surgeon to ensure patient safety during and after surgery. PMID:20472627

Deiner, Stacie

2010-03-01

370

4(?-l-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate, a bioactive phytochemical that attenuates secondary damage in an experimental model of spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

4(?-l-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (glucomoringin isothiocyanate; GMG-ITC) is released from the precursor 4(?-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin; GMG) by myrosinase (?-thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147) catalyzed hydrolysis. GMG is an uncommon member of the glucosinolate group as it presents a unique characteristic consisting in a second glycosidic residue within the side chain. It is a typical glucosinolate found in large amounts in the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam., the most widely distributed plant of the Moringaceae family. GMG was purified from seed-cake of M. oleifera and was hydrolyzed by myrosinase at neutral pH in order to form the corresponding GMG-ITC. This bioactive phytochemical can play a key role in counteracting the inflammatory response connected to the oxidative-related mechanisms as well as in the control of the neuronal cell death process, preserving spinal cord tissues after injury in mice. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24g) for 1min., via four-level T5-T8 after laminectomy. In particular, the purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes occurring in the spinal cord after ip treatment with bioactive GMG-ITC produced 15min before use from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of GMG (10mg/kg body weight+5?l Myr mouse/day). The following parameters, such as histological damage, distribution of reticular fibers in connective tissue, nuclear factor (NF)-?B translocation and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (I?B-?) degradation, expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthases (iNOS), as well as apoptosis, were evaluated. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of bioactive GMG-ITC on the secondary damage, following spinal cord injury, through an antioxidant mechanism of neuroprotection. Therefore, the bioactive phytochemical GMG-ITC freshly produced before use by myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG, could prove to be useful in the treatment of spinal cord trauma. PMID:25497964

Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

2015-01-01

371

Correlation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1) mRNA with proviral DNA load, virus-specific CD8 T cells, and disease severity in HTLV1-associated myelopathy (HAM\\/TSP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of viral expression in individuals infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a real-time quantitative reverse transcrip- tion-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of HTLV-1 tax messenger RNA (mRNA) using ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detec- tion System was developed. Using this system, the HTLV-1 tax mRNA load was compared with HTLV-1 proviral DNA load, HTLV-1 Tax

Yoshihisa Yamano; Masahiro Nagai; Meghan Brennan; Carlos A. Mora; Samantha S Soldan; Utano Tomaru; Norihiro Takenouchi; Shuji Izumo; Mitsuhiro Osame; Steven Jacobson

2010-01-01

372

Atrophy, focal spinal cord lesions and alterations of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in asymptomatic virus carriers and patients suffering from human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).  

PubMed

In tropical spastic paraparesis, spinal cord atrophy is a well-known finding in magnetic resonance imaging. But in contrast to histological reports, focal lesions of the spinal cord have only been described in imaging reports in exceptional acute cases. Here, we looked for such focal lesions and for alterations of diffusion tensor imaging parameters of the long fibre tracts in the usual case of a long-standing and slowly progressive disease. We examined 10 symptomatic patients, 11 seropositive, but asymptomatic human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 carriers and 18 seronegative volunteers as controls. Sagittal and transversal T2-weighted images were visually assessed for atrophy and focal cord lesions. The spinal cord cross-sectional areas and the segmental cord volumes were measured at all levels. High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging was performed in sagittal planes from the bregma down to the cervical spine. For tractography and calculation of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, we used manufacturer-provided software. Two-thirds of patients showed focal lesions affecting the antero-lateral columns and in two cases also the dorsal columns. Compared to carriers and volunteers, patients presented a significant spinal cord atrophy and a reduction of fractional anisotropy (p?

Vilchez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Reinoso, Massiel; Cubbison, Caroline; Perez-Then, Eddy; Roa, Pedro; Martínez, Adriano; Foerster, Bernd; Oviedo, Jairo; Stoeter, Peter

2014-12-01

373

MRI FINDINGS AND CLINICAL OUTCOME IN 45 DIVERS WITH SPINAL CORD DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS  

E-print Network

causing obstruction of venous drainage and subsequent coagulation activation and platelet aggregation and vertebral back pain after surfacing indicate increased likelihood of severe myelopathy with incomplete

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARAN -SETOR DE CINCIAS DA SADE SIBI -BIBLIOTECA DE CINCIAS DA SADE -SD  

E-print Network

with cervical spine myelopathy. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, v.31, p.271-276, 2008 Neto et al. Observer agreement of spine stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging analysis of patients abnormalities in patients with cervical myelopathy. European Journal of Radiology, v.65, p.91-98, 2007. 2007

Paraná, Universidade Federal do

375

An intradural cervical chordoma mimicking schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor originating from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. This is an aggressive, slow growing and invasive tumor. It occurs mostly at the two ends of neuroaxis which is more frequent in the sacrococcygeal region. Chordoma in vertebral column is very rare. This tumor is extradural in origin and compresses neural tissues and makes the patient symptomatic. This tumor found extremely rare in the spinal region as an intradural tumor. The present study reports a rare case of intradural chordoma tumor as well as its clinical manifestations and treatment options. Case: The patient was a 50-year-old female presented with 9 months history of progressively worsening neck pain, cervical spine chordoma resembling neurinoma and right arm numbness. Physical examination showed no weakness in her limbs, but she had upward plantar reflex and mild hyperreflexia. In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the cervical spine there was an ill-defined enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of C2-C3 body caused cord compression more severe in right side as well as foraminal scalloping. The patient underwent surgery and after midline posterior cervical incision and paravertebral muscle stripping a laminectomy was performed from C1 through C4 using a high speed drill. Needle biopsy revealed chordoma on frozen section and all of accessible parts of tumor were excised. The gross and microscopic histopathological appearance was consistent with chordoma. Chordomas are malignant tumors that arise from remains of embryonic notochord. These ectopic rests of notochord termed “ecchordosis physaliphora “can be found in approximately 2% of autopsies. These are aggressive, slow growing, locally invasive and destructive tumors those occur in the midline of neuroaxis. They generally thought to account for 2% to 4% of all primary bone neoplasms and 1% to 4% malignant bone neoplasms. They are the most frequent primary malignant spinal tumors after plasmacytomas. The incidence has been estimated to be 0.51 cases per million. The most common location is sacrococcygeal region followed by the clivus. These two locations account for approximately 90% of chordomas. Of the tumors that do not arise in the sacrum or clivus, half occur in the cervical region, with the remainder found in the lumbar or thoracic region, in descending order of frequency. Cervical spine chordomas account for 6% of all cases. Distal metastasis most often occurs in young patients, those with sacrococcygeal or vertebral tumors, and those with atypical histological features. These tumors usually spread to contiguous anatomical structures, but they may be found in distant sites (skin, musculoskeletal system, brain, and other internal organs). Seeding of the tumor has also been reported, and the likely mechanism seems to be tumor cell of contamination during the surgical procedures. The usual radiological findings in chordomas of spine are destructive or lytic lesions with occasional sclerotic changes. They tend to lie anterolateral, rather than dorsal towards the cord, and reportedly known to invade the dura. The midline location, destructive nature, soft tissue mass formation and calcification are the radiological hallmarks of chordomas. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging modality to delineate areas of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, or mixed areas of bone destruction.Chordoma is usually known as a hypovascular tumor which grows in a lobulated manner. Septal enhancement which reflects a lobulated growth pattern is seen in both CT and MRI and even in gross examination. Other epidural tumors include neurinoma, neurofibroma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, hemangioma, lymphoma and metastases. Their differentiation from chordoma may be difficult due to the same enhancement pattern on CT and MRI. A dumbbell-shaped chordoma is a rare pathogenic condition. The dumbbell shape is a characteristic finding of neurinomas in spine but in spinal neurinomas extention to transverse foramina has not yet been reported. Although our case mimicked a

Samadian, Mohammad; Shafizad, Misagh

2012-01-01

376

Validation and Analysis of a Multi-site MIS Prospective Registry Through Sub-analysis of an MIS TLIF Subgroup  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective analysis of multi-site, prospectively collected database. Objective To assess the validity and utility of a prospective spine registry by sub-analysis of patients treated with MIS TLIF. Background The MIS registry is a large-scale, multi-center series of prospectively collected clinical information on outcomes, complications, and adverse events for minimally invasive spine procedures for the treatment of degenerative lumbar conditions. Methods Analysis was performed on the MIS Prospective Registry database. A subgroup of patients treated by MIS TLIF technique was identified. Statistical analyses were performed on pre and post-operative data collected using validated health related quality of life outcome tools. Missing 1-year patient follow-up data was obtained through progressive correspondence modalities. Results Data analysis was performed on 98 MIS TLIF patients (56 female, 42 male) with a median age of 64.5 years (range 25-91 years) which were extracted from a total registry population of 478 patients. The one year follow-up rate was 87%. A total of 64 single-level, 23 two-level, 3 three-level, and 3 combined TLIFs staged with an MIS lateral procedure were included. The primary surgical indications were spondylolisthesis (27%), central stenosis (25%), foraminal stenosis (14%), post-laminectomy syndrome (14%) and degenerative scoliosis (6%). The peri-operative blood transfusion rate was 3%. Complications included intraoperative dural tear (n = 3), deep wound infection (n = 2), superficial dehiscence/cellulitis (n = 2). There was a 4% re-operation rate at the 1 year post-operative time point. Half of patients were discharged within 2 days (range 1-11 days, mean 2.97 days, median 2 days). All patients that were discharged on the first post-operative day (n = 14) underwent a single-level MIS TLIF procedure and had significantly lower pre-op disability index score than those discharged on POD 3-5 (43.7 ± 15.5 vs. 56.0 ± 18.3, p = 0.04). Average ODI scores in the subgroup of patients that had reached the one year postoperative time point were 46.5 pre-op (n = 46), and 26.2 at 1 year post-op (n = 40, p = 0.0001). There was significant improvement in VAS scores: pre-operative (back = 6.7, leg = 5.4, n = 46), and 1 year post-operative (back = 3.2, leg = 1.7, n = 40, p = 0.0001). Patients with pre-operative ODI scores greater than 50 demonstrated significant improvement starting at the 6 week post-operative time point (24 point improvement, n = 46, p < 0.001). A pre-operative ODI between 35-50 showed significant improvement starting at 3 months (15.5 point improvement, n = 29, p = 0.05). Patients with a pre-operative ODI score less than 35 had an initial period of increased disability with a trend towards significant improvement by 3 months post-op (n = 20). Conclusions Initial findings of the MIS Prospective Registry show patients can be enrolled in a relatively short time period and patient based questionnaires can successfully be obtained through a combination of clinic follow-up appointments and remote correspondence. Outcomes of the MIS Registry MIS TLIF subgroup were consistent with previously published MIS TLIF studies. Sub-analysis of data collected through level-specific patient diagnosis and treatment modalities permits outcome analysis of a wide breadth of spinal conditions and interventions.

Raiszadeh, Kamshad; Raiszadeh, Ramin; Kim, Paul; Doerr, Todd; Siddiqi, Farhan; LaMotta, Ivan; Park, Paul; Templin, Cary; Gill, Sandeep; Liang, Kevin; Kim, Choll W.

2014-01-01

377

Modulation of the innate immune response during Human T-cell Leukemia Virus infection: implication for development of an oncolytic vector.  

E-print Network

??Infection with human T cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1) can cause Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) or the neurological disorder HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the… (more)

Oliere, Stéphanie

2011-01-01

378

Modulation of the innate immune response during human T-cell leukemia virus infection implications for development of an oncolytic virotherapy for ATL.  

E-print Network

??Infection with human T cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1) can cause Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) or the neurological disorder HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the… (more)

Oliere, Stéphanie

2010-01-01

379

Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

MedlinePLUS

... HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis or HAM/TSP. The HTLV-1 retrovirus is thought to ... at least 80 percent of the cases of HAM/TSP by impairing the immune system. In addition ...

380

Post-infective transverse myelitis following Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis with radiological features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report  

E-print Network

previously undocumented association with Streptococcus pneumonia meningitis. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with an acute myelopathy three days after discharge following acute Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis...

Williams, Thomas; Thorpe, John

2012-09-19

381

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 0022-538X/99/$04.00 0  

E-print Network

-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) DNA Copy Number, T-Cell Phenotype, and Anti-Tax Cytotoxic T-Cell Frequency in Patients with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy G. P. TAYLOR,1 * S. E. HALL,2 S. NAVARRETE,2 C. A. MICHIE,3 R/Accepted 4 September 1999 Patients with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy

Nowak, Martin A.

382

Adult-onset spastic paraparesis: an approach to diagnostic work-up.  

PubMed

Adult-onset, chronic progressive spastic paraparesis may be due to a large number of causes and poses a diagnostic challenge. There are no recent evidence-based guidelines or comprehensive reviews to help guide diagnostic work-up. We survey the literature on chronic progressive spastic paraparesis, with special emphasis on myelopathies, and propose a practical, MRI-based approach to facilitate the diagnostic process. Building on neuro-anatomic and radiographic conventions, we classify spinal MRI findings into six patterns: extradural; intradural/extramedullary; Intramedullary; Intramedullary-Tract specific; Spinal Cord Atrophy; and Normal Appearing Spinal Cord. A comprehensive differential diagnosis of chronic progressive myelopathy for each of the six patterns is generated. We highlight some of the more common and/or treatable causes of progressive spastic paraparesis and provide clinical pointers that may assist clinicians in arriving at the diagnosis. We outline a practical, comprehensive MRI-based algorithm to diagnosing adult-onset chronic progressive myelopathy. PMID:25263600

Zhovtis Ryerson, Lana; Herbert, Joseph; Howard, Jonathan; Kister, Ilya

2014-11-15

383

Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt presenting with paraparesis as the initial symptom.  

PubMed

An 85-year-old woman was hospitalized with rapidly progressive paraparesis without altered consciousness, although she was not definitively diagnosed. She developed acute drowsiness and disorientation several days later. An intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (IPSVS) was observed on enhanced computed tomography, and hyperammonemia suggested leakage of neurotoxins from the shunt as the etiology of the patient's symptoms. Her neurological symptoms and hyperammonemia improved following transcatheter shunt embolization. We diagnosed her with hepatic myelopathy, which is a rare complication of liver cirrhosis and portosystemic venous shunts. Hepatic myelopathy resulting from a congenital IPSVS has not been previously reported. A diagnosis of hepatic myelopathy should be ruled out in diagnostically difficult cases of paraparesis. PMID:24190148

Torigoe, Masataka; Maeshima, Keisuke; Takeshita, Yasushi

2013-01-01

384

Neuromyelitis optica associated with subacute human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection.  

PubMed

Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy, or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), is usually considered as a progressive myelopathy, a subacute variant has been described. It is unusual for optic neuritis (ON) to be associated with an HTLV-1 infection. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterised by severe attacks of acute transverse myelitis and ON of unknown aetiology. We report a 61-year-old Afro-Caribbean male patient with subacute HAM/TSP associated with bilateral ON that occurred 5years previously. To our knowledge this is the first report of recurrent NMO syndrome associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:20638847

Olindo, Stéphane; Bonnan, Mickaël; Merle, Harold; Signate, Aïssatou; Smadja, Didier; Cabre, Philippe

2010-11-01

385

Protein Profile of Tax-associated Complexes* Received for publication, September 10, 2003  

E-print Network

-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) results in adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1- associated myelopathy-cell transformation and leukemia in HTLV- 1-infected patients. Infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)1 results in adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated mye- lopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

Vertes, Akos

386

Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-infected Cells Secrete Exosomes That Contain Tax Protein*S  

E-print Network

: Exosomes may play critical roles in extracellular delivery of oncogenic material derived from HTLV-1 during HTLV-1 infection poten- tially contributes to pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia, myelopathy, or tropical spastic paraparesis. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causa- tive agent of adult

Vertes, Akos

387

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access The antisense protein of HTLV-2 positively  

E-print Network

: HTLV and Related Viruses Montreal, Canada. 26-30 June 2013 Unlike HTLV-1, HTLV-2 does not induce leukemia and has been tentatively associated with an HTLV-1-associated myelopathy-like disorder. It has, the HTLV-1 analogue, equally induced MIP-1a in unsti- mulated and stimulated Jurkat T cells. To assess

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

's personal copy Crystal Structures of Inhibitor Complexes of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-1) Protease; accepted 23 June 2010 Available online 30 June 2010 Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target

389

Non-invasive testing reveals a high prevalence of simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 antibodies in  

E-print Network

-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is associated with adult T-cell leukaemia and myelopathy (Poiesz et al., 1980 is in contrast to the mother­child transmission of HTLV-1 in humans, where breastfeeding is a high risk factor et al., 2004). In contrast, in humans, the HTLV-1 infection rate is higher in adult women than

390

Multiple sclerosis, tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV1 infection in Afro-Caribbean patients in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty four consecutive patients of Afro-Caribbean origin resident in the United Kingdom (UK) were studied, based on a provisional diagnosis of myelopathy of unknown cause, tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or multiple sclerosis (MS). Of 30 patients with progressive paraparesis 27 had serum antibodies to HTLV-1 and were classified as having TSP. Fourteen patients fulfilled the criteria for MS and none

P Rudge; A Ali; J K Cruickshank

1991-01-01

391

Highly active antiretroviral treatment against STLV-1 infection combining reverse transcriptase and HDAC inhibitors  

E-print Network

;2 ABSTRACT About three percent of all HTLV-1 infected individuals will develop a disabling inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy / Tropical Spastic Paraparesis naturally infected with STLV-1, whose PVL was equivalent to that of HTLV-1 ACs. We show that the combination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

Neurosurgery Spine Program The Spine Program continues to carry out local, investigator-  

E-print Network

Neurosurgery Spine Program Research: The Spine Program continues to carry out local, investigator of Cervical Myelopathy, a prospective study observing the gait of patients with a diagnosis of cervical on a neurosurgical spine waitlist. Several studies were conducted in partnership with the Rick Hansen Institute (RHI

Brownstone, Rob

393

Neuroscience & Medicine, 2012, 3, 101-106 doi:10.4236/nm.2012.31015 Published Online March 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/nm)  

E-print Network

, depression and bipolar disorder in another way--in relation to the universal methyl group donor, S- adenosyl, dementia, and demyelinating myelopathy [2]. 2. Bipolar Disorder and Depression 2.1. Clinical TrialsNeuroscience & Medicine, 2012, 3, 101-106 doi:10.4236/nm.2012.31015 Published Online March 2012

Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.

394

Spinal cord dose is higher than expected in head and neck radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelopathy is a feared consequence of radiation therapy. Risk factors are multifocal; therefore, total dose calculation is crucial. We evaluated the contribution of scatter radiation to obtain an accurate cumulative spinal cord dose. Twenty patients undergoing three field head and neck radiation by Cobalt or 6 MV Linac had a total cord dose calculated from direct and scatter radiation. The

Ron Allison; James Vaughan; Andrew Thurber; Michael Rajecki; Vitune Vongtama; Timothy Barry

1999-01-01

395

Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders are described, with particular reference to those resembling multiple sclerosis (MS) on clinical or MRI grounds. Patients with celiac disease can present cerebellar ataxia, progressive myoclonic ataxia, myelopathy, or cerebral, brainstem and peripheral nerve involvement. Antigliadin antibodies can be found in subjects with neurological dysfunction of unknown cause, particularly in sporadic cerebellar ataxia (\\

A. Ghezzi; M. Zaffaroni

2001-01-01

396

Diffusion tensor imaging in the cervical spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are discrepancy between MR findings and clinical presentations. The compressed cervical cord in patients of the spondylotic myelopathy may be normal on conventional MRI when it is at the earlier stage or even if patients had severe symptoms. Therefore, it is necessary to take a developed MR technique—diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)—to detect the intramedullary lesions. Prospective MR and DTI

Ting SongWen-Jun; Wen-Jun Chen; Bo Yang; Hong-Pu Zhao; Ming-Jin Cai; Tian-Fa Dong; Tang-Sheng Li

2011-01-01

397

Hirayama Disease: MR Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report the MR findings in two cases of Hirayama disease, a kind of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. In flexion MR studies, we can see the striking and pathognomonic picture of anterior shifting of posterior dura at the lower cervical spinal canal. In nonflexion studies, we find that asymmetric cord atro- phy, especially at

Chi-Jen Chen; Chiung-Mei Chen; Chia-Lun Wu; Long-Sun Ro; Sien-Tsong Chen; Tsong-Hai Lee

398

Mielopatia por deficiência de vitamina B12 apresentando-se como mielite transversa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin B12 deficiency may induce neuropathy, myelopathy, dementia and optic neuropathy. The diagnosis is established by vitamin B12, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid measurements. Myelin and axon destruction in the white matter of the spinal cord are observed. The posterior column of the cervical and thoracic level is the most common involved area. The involvement of the anterior column is restricted

Luiz Felipe Rocha Vasconcellos; Rosalie Branco Corrêa; Leila Chimelli; Fernanda Nascimento; Adriane Baptista Fonseca; Janaina Nagel; Sergio Augusto Pereira Novis; Maurice Vincent

2002-01-01

399

Ostéopœcilie : un cas clinique et revue de la littérature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteopoikilosis is an uncommon benign sclerosing bone dysplasia. Herein we present a case of osteopoikilosis with characteristic roentgenographic findings and clinical findings of cervical myelopathy. The importance of the differential diagnosis in symptomatic cases of osteopoikilosis is emphasized with the review of the literature.

Pinar Borman; Kürsat Özoran

2002-01-01

400

Osteopoikilosis: report of a clinical case and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteopoikilosis is an uncommon benign sclerosing bone dysplasia. Herein we present a case of osteopoikilosis with characteristic roentgenographic findings and clinical findings of cervical myelopathy. The importance of the differential diagnosis in symptomatic cases of osteopoikilosis is emphasized with the review of the literature.

P?nar Borman; Kür?at Özoran; ?ükrü Aydo?; Selçuk Co?kun

2002-01-01

401

Cervical spinal cord compression due to an osteochondroma in hereditary multiple exostosis: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHereditary multiple exostosis is a benign disorder characterized by multiple osteochondromas affecting long and flat bones, although occasionally vertebral column involvement can be seen. Cervical spinal cord compression in HME is a rare condition. The objective of this manuscript is to describe a rare case of cervical myelopathy due to an exostosis arising from C7 in a patient with HME

Miguel Giudicissi-Filho; Carlos Vanderlei M. de Holanda; Luis Alencar B. Borba; Aziz Rassi-Neto; Carlos Alberto A. Ribeiro; Jean Gonçalves de Oliveira

2006-01-01

402

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is very frequently observed in pediatric AIDS. Clinical manifestations include encephalopathy, cognitive deficits, acquired microcephaly, neurological signs, myelopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. Neurological complications can be related to opportunistic viral infections such as encephalitis, atypical aseptic meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and myelitis. Nonviral syndromes include: toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, candidiasis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis, and Mycobacterium avium subacute

Paola Iannetti; Paola Falconieri; Carlo Imperato

1989-01-01

403

Biomechanical Comparison of Anterior Screw Osteosynthesis for Odontoid Fractures (Type of Anderson-D'Alonzo)  

E-print Network

treatment can result in delayed neurological deterioration and myelopathy because of the repetitive trauma to the spinal cord secondary to instability, which can result in permanent structural changes in the spinal cord secondary to displacement and instablity (C, D). Guest Scholar Gang Feng ( From 2nd Affilliated Hospital

Groppe, Jinghua