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1

Clinical results of cervical laminectomy and fusion for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in 58 consecutive patients  

PubMed Central

Background: There are a number of surgical treatment options for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). In this study, the authors present their clinical results with cervical laminectomy and fusion for the treatment of patients with CSM. Methods: This retrospective study included 58 consecutive patients who underwent cervical laminectomy and fusion for CSM. There were 38 males and 20 females, with a mean age of 64 (range 42-92) years. The Japanese orthopedic association score (mJOA) scale was used as the functional outcome measurement. Both the absolute increase in mJOA and the neurological recovery rate of mJOA were analyzed. The mean clinical follow-up was 17 months (range 5-52 months). Results: There was a statistically significant improvement between mean preoperative (13.2, range 7-17) and postoperative (16.1, range 11-18) mJOA scores following surgery. The average improvement in mJOA score was 2.9 points. The mean neurological recovery rate was 56.6%. Overall 85.5% of patients improved with surgery (n = 51) and the remaining 14.5% of patients had no change in their mJOA score after surgery (n = 7). Fusion was documented in all 58 patients. There was a 10.3% overall complication rate (n = 6). The most common complications were C5 nerve palsies which occurred in 6.9% of the cohort (n = 4); all completely resolved. Conclusion: Cervical laminectomy and fusion is a safe and efficacious procedure for the treatment of CSM. The clinical outcomes appear to be quite reproducible, and this technique is an important part of a spine surgeon's armamentarium.

Chang, Victor; Lu, Daniel C.; Hoffman, Haydn; Buchanan, Colin; Holly, Langston T.

2014-01-01

2

Skip laminectomy—a new treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, preserving bilateral muscular attachments to the spinous processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Techniques in current use for expansive laminoplasty operations (ELAP) on the cervical spine damage the extensor mechanisms, resulting in restriction of neck motion, loss of lordosis and persistent axial pains.Purpose: This article introduces a new surgical technique called skip laminectomy, which reduces morbidity after decompression of the cervical spinal canal. Study design\\/setting: A prospective study is presented of

Tateru Shiraishi

2002-01-01

3

Laminoplasty and Laminectomy Hybrid Decompression for the Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy with Hypertrophic Ligamentum Flavum: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the outcomes of a posterior hybrid decompression protocol for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) associated with hypertrophic ligamentum flavum (HLF). Background Laminoplasty is widely used in patients with CSM; however, for CSM patients with HLF, traditional laminoplasty does not include resection of a pathological ligamentum flavum. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed 116 CSM patients with HLF who underwent hybrid decompression with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up. The procedure consisted of reconstruction of the C4 and C6 laminae using CENTERPIECE plates with spinous process autografts, and resection of the C3, C5, and C7 laminae. Surgical outcomes were assessed using Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, recovery rate, cervical lordotic angle, cervical range of motion, spinal canal sagittal diameter, bone healing rates on both the hinge and open sides, dural sac expansion at the level of maximum compression, drift-back distance of the spinal cord, and postoperative neck pain assessed by visual analog scale. Results No hardware failure or restenosis was noted. Postoperative JOA score improved significantly, with a mean recovery rate of 65.3±15.5%. Mean cervical lordotic angle had decreased 4.9 degrees by 1 year after surgery (P<0.05). Preservation of cervical range of motion was satisfactory postoperatively. Bone healing rates 6 months after surgery were 100% on the hinge side and 92.2% on the open side. Satisfactory decompression was demonstrated by a significantly increased sagittal canal diameter and cross-sectional area of the dural sac together with a significant drift-back distance of the spinal cord. The dural sac was also adequately expanded at the time of the final follow-up visit. Conclusion Hybrid laminectomy and autograft laminoplasty decompression using Centerpiece plates may facilitate bone healing and produce a comparatively satisfactory prognosis for CSM patients with HLF.

Ding, Huairong; Xue, Yuan; Tang, Yanming; He, Dong; Li, Zhiyang; Zhao, Ying; Zong, Yaqi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Pei

2014-01-01

4

The biomechanics of decompressive laminectomy.  

PubMed

The biomechanical effect of laminectomy as a means of relieving compression of the spinal cord-meningeal complex by an anterior mass was studied in ten grossly normal human cadaver spines. The basic experimental set-up involved drilling a sagittal plane hole transversely across a vertebral body to provide direct access to the anterior aspect of the neural canal. After securing a probe and linearly variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly at each site to be tested, the probe was gently pushed into the neural canal; contact force against the tip of the probe as well as the depth of probe penetration was measured and recorded. Laminectomy did not alter the resulting contact force/anterior penetration plots at the fifth cervical, seventh thoracic, 12th thoracic, or third lumbar vertebra. Using the probe/LVDT assembly to measure anterior dural displacement and a cantilever displacement device to measure posterior dural displacement after laminectomy at the 12th thoracic vertebra, the authors found that although the anterior dura underwent gross displacement as the probe was pushed into the neural canal, the posterior dura displaced to a minimal degree. The extent of the laminectomy was not a factor. The study did not demonstrate any possible mechanism by which laminectomy could reduce the pressure exerted on the dura and neural elements by an anterior mass in a spine with otherwise normal neural canal dimensions. PMID:3686236

Allen, B L; Tencer, A F; Ferguson, R L

1987-10-01

5

Trumpet laminectomy for lumbar degenerative spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

The clinical and radiologic results of trumpet laminectomy, an improved method of extensive laminectomy preserving the facet joints (n = 35), and extensive laminectomy (n = 15) were compared in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. The results were evaluated using a rating system and serial radiographs and a follow-up of 2 to 10 1/2 years (mean, 5.2 years). The overall results corroborate the advantage of the trumpet laminectomy, demonstrating a lower incidence and lower grade of postoperative lumbar scoliosis as well as less symptom recurrence in the trumpet laminectomy group than in the extensive laminectomy group. Risk factors for postoperative spinal instability and scoliosis appear to be facet joint destruction and elderly females with a high level of physical activity. PMID:8347973

Kanamori, M; Matsui, H; Hirano, N; Kawaguchi, Y; Kitamoto, R; Tsuji, H

1993-06-01

6

Laminectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... done along with a diskectomy , foraminotomy , and spinal fusion . You will be asleep and feel no pain ( ... the spine. Your surgeon may do a spinal fusion to make sure your spinal column is stable ...

7

Arachnoiditis from myelography and laminectomy in experimental animals.  

PubMed

Clinical reports have suggested that myelography and laminectomy may produce more arachnoiditis than myelography alone. The effect of experimental lumbar myelography and laminectomy on arachnoiditis in monkeys was studied. Arachnoiditis was as severe after myelography alone as after myelography and laminectomy. Minimal arachnoiditis was found myelographically and histologically after myelography with metrizamide 300 mg l/ml, and severe arachnoiditis was found after myelography with iophendylate whether or not laminectomy was performed. Laminectomy alone produced insignificant arachnoid changes. Experimental myelography preceding laminectomy did not increase the risk of arachnoiditis. PMID:6421130

Johansen, J G; Barthelemy, C R; Haughton, V M; Lipman, B T; Ho, K C

1984-01-01

8

Multilevel decompressive laminectomy and transpedicular instrumented fusion for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: A minimum follow-up of 3 years  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cervical laminectomies with transpedicular insertion technique is known to be a biomechanically stronger method in cervical pathologies. However, its frequency of use is low in the routine practice, as the pedicle is thin and risk of neurovascular damage is high. In this study, we emphasize the results of cervical laminectomies with transpedicular fixation using fluoroscopy in degenerative cervical spine disorder. Materials and Methods: Postoperative malposition of the transpedicular screws of the 70 pedicles of the 10 patients we operated due to degenerative stenosis in the cervical region, were investigated. Fixation was performed between C3 and C7, and we used resected lamina bone chips for fusion. Clinical indicators included age, gender, neurologic status, surgical indication, and number of levels stabilized. Dominant vertebral artery of all the patients was evaluated with Doppler ultrasonography. Preoperative and postoperative Nurick grade of each patient was documented. Results: No patients experienced neurovascular injury as a result of pedicle screw placement. Two patients had screw malposition, which did not require reoperation due to minor breaking. Most patients had 32-mm screws placed. Postoperative computed tomography scanning showed no compromise of the foramen transversarium. A total of 70 pedicle screws were placed. Good bony fusion was observed in all patients. At follow-up, 9/10 (90%) patients had improved in their Nurick grades. The cases were followed-up for an average of 35.7 months (30–37 months). Conclusions: Use of the cervical pedicular fixation (CPF) provides a very strong three-column stabilization but also carries vascular injury without nerve damage. Laminectomies technique may reduce the risk of malposition due to visualization of the spinal canal. CPF can be performed in a one-stage posterior procedure. This technique yielded good fusion rate without complications and can be considered as a good alternative compared other techniques.

Kotil, Kadir; Ozyuvaci, Emine

2011-01-01

9

Neurological outcome following laminectomy in spinal metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: Retrospective outcome measurement study.Objectives: Patients suffering from malignant tumour disease and metastases to the spine develop a variety of clinical complaints including radicular symptoms and\\/or spinal cord compression syndromes. Palliative decompressive laminectomy with total or partial tumour resection is an acknowledged method of treatment, despite controversy.Setting: The Department of Neurosurgery of the University of Vienna.Method: Patients suffering from

A Schoeggl; M Reddy; C Matula

2002-01-01

10

Is posterior fusion necessary with laminectomy in the cervical spine?  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical decompressive laminectomy is a common procedure for addressing multilevel cervical spine pathology. The most common reasons for performing simultaneous posterior cervical fusion include the prevention of progressive postlaminectomy kyphotic deformity or other types of instability which can contribute to late neurological deterioration. Methods: The medical literature (Pub Med with MeSH) concerning cervical laminectomy, posterior cervical fusion, and complications of laminectomy/fusion was reviewed. Additionally, references from the articles were queried to find additional literature. Results: Multiple studies concluded that cervical laminectomy versus laminectomy and fusion produced similar short-term postoperative outcomes. Careful patient selection was warranted to minimize the complications associated with cervical laminectomy alone; these included postoperative kyphosis (6–46%) and late deterioration (10–37%). The addition of a posterior cervical fusion was associated with relatively low complication rates, and avoided the evolution of late deformity or delayed neurological deterioration. Conclusion: Although the short-term results of cervical laminectomy versus laminectomy and fusion are similar, there appear to be more complications associated with performing laminectomy alone over the long term. Here, we reviewed the pros and cons of posterior cervical decompression alone versus decompression with fusion/instrumentation to treat cervical pathology, highlighting the complications associated with each surgical alternative.

McAllister, Beck D.; Rebholz, Brandon J.; Wang, Jeffery C.

2012-01-01

11

Acute Sciatic Neuritis following Lumbar Laminectomy  

PubMed Central

It is commonly accepted that the common cause of acute/chronic pain in the distribution of the lumbosacral nerve roots is the herniation of a lumbar intervertebral disc, unless proven otherwise. The surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation is successful in radicular pain and prevents or limits neurological damage in the majority of patients. Recurrence of sciatica after a successful disc surgery can be due to many possible etiologies. In the clinical setting we believe that the term sciatica might be associated with inflammation. We report a case of acute sciatic neuritis presented with significant persistent pain shortly after a successful disc surgery. The patient is a 59-year-old female with complaint of newly onset sciatica after complete pain resolution following a successful lumbar laminectomy for acute disc extrusion. In order to manage the patient's newly onset pain, the patient had multiple pain management visits which provided minimum relief. Persistent sciatica and consistent physical examination findings urged us to perform a pelvic MRI to visualize suspected pathology, which revealed right side sciatic neuritis. She responded to the electrical neuromodulation. Review of the literature on sciatic neuritis shows this is the first case report of sciatic neuritis subsequent to lumbar laminectomy.

Hitchon, Patrick; Reddy, Chandan G.

2014-01-01

12

The management of pain following laminectomy for lumbar disc lesions.  

PubMed Central

Assessment of the results of laminectomy for lumbar disc lesions is unsatisfactory, but it seems that some degree of recurrent pain is virtually inevitable. The clinical features and incidence of the various painful syndromes seen in these patients, including one, the sacro-spinalis insertion syndrome, which has not previously been described, are outlined and the management of each is discussed with reference to two personal series, one of 98 patients consecutively undergoing laminectomy and the other of 35 patients referred because of recurrent pain following laminectomy. Finally, problems of prophylaxis are considered.

Martin, G.

1981-01-01

13

Influence of graded facetectomy and laminectomy on spinal biomechanics.  

PubMed

Facetectomy and laminectomy are techniques for decompressing lumbosacral spinal stenosis. Resections of posterior bony or ligamentous parts normally lead to a decrease in stability. The degree of instability depends on the extent of resection, the loading situation and the condition of the intervertebral discs. The correlation between these parameters is not well understood. In order to investigate how these parameters relate to one another, a three-dimensional, non-linear finite element model of the lumbosacral spine was created. Intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressures, stresses, strains and forces in the facet joints were calculated while simulating an intact spine as well as different extents of resection (left and bilateral hemifacetectomy, hemilaminectomy and bilateral laminectomy, two-level laminectomy), disc conditions (intact and degenerated) and loading situations (pure moment loads, standing and forward bending). The results of the modelling showed that a unilateral hemifacetectomy increases intersegmental rotation for the loading situation of axial rotation. Expanding the resection to bilateral hemifacetectomy increases intersegmental rotation even more, while further resection up to a bilateral laminectomy has only a minor additional effect. Hemilaminectomy and laminectomy only differ in their effect for ventriflexion and muscle-supported forward bending. Two-level laminectomy increases the intersegmental rotation only for standing. Degenerated discs result in smaller intersegmental rotations and higher disc stresses at the respective levels. Decompression procedures affect the examined biomechanical parameters less markedly in degenerated than in intact discs. Resection of posterior bony or ligamentous elements has a stronger influence on the amount than on the distribution of stresses and deformations in a disc. It has only a minor effect on the biomechanical behaviour of the adjacent region. Spinal stability is decreased after a laminectomy for forward bending, and after a two-level laminectomy for standing. For axial rotation, spinal stability is decreased even after a hemifacetectomy. Patients should therefore avoid excessive axial rotation after such a treatment. PMID:12720068

Zander, T; Rohlmann, A; Klöckner, C; Bergmann, G

2003-08-01

14

Laminectomy: effects on postoperative technetium and gallium scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Bone scans using Tc-99m diphosphonate were found to become abnormal within 2 weeks after laminectomy in less than half of patients regardless of the extent of the operation. The degree of new uptake equaled that of the sacroiliac joints in only one of 19 patients with a normal preoperative scan. However, the Ga-67 citrate scan usually became abnormal (89%) postoperatively. Thus the Tc-99m bone scan may be helpful in detecting postoperative infection.

Silberstein, E.B.; Schneider, H.J.; Khodadad, G.; DeVries, D.; Rauf, G.C.; Noll, R.

1984-06-01

15

[Multisegmental posterior cervical fusion with en bloc laminectomy - surgical technique].  

PubMed

Purpose: In patients with cervical spinal stenosis, the posterior laminectomy represents a surgical alternative to anterior procedures. Whereas the majority of surgeons prefer anterior procedures to treat mono- to three-segmental pathologies, posterior procedures have several advantages if the pathology includes four or more segments. Indication: In general, the indications for a posterior laminectomy resemble those for anterior procedures. Specifically patients with multisegmental pathologies benefit from a shorter operative time as well as reduced perioperative morbidity. Method: A midline incision is made and followed by subperiostal exposure of the cervical spine. Facet decortication and screw hole preparation can be performed if a fusion is required. The lamina is now separated from the lateral mass using a high-speed burr and elevated en bloc from the dura. The fusion can now be completed. Conclusion: The posterior en bloc laminectomy with or without fusion represents a viable alternative to anterior procedures in patients with a cervical spinal canal stenosis. It often is the technique of choice for treating more than 3 levels. PMID:24960087

Trobisch, P D

2014-06-01

16

Influence of total laminectomy on the mechanical behavior of lumbosacral spine.  

PubMed

An anatomically accurate validated three-dimensional finite element model was used to investigate the biomechanical effects of total laminectomy on the mechanical behavior of human lumbosacral spine. A total laminectomy was simulated at L4 or L5. Flexion, extension and lateral bending were applied using pure moment. Rotations were obtained under each loading mode. Maximum von Mises stresses in the annulus fibrosis under different loading were also obtained. It was found that L5 laminectomy has a greater influence on spinal column rotation. The maximum stress in the annulus increased significantly in L5 laminectomy model but not in the L4 model. PMID:19141929

Guan, Yabo; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Wang, Marjorie; Maiman, Dennis J

2008-01-01

17

Laminectomy for lumbar canal stenosis: a safe and effective treatment.  

PubMed

Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) is a common condition affecting elderly patients for which a significant number undergo surgery. The validity and safety of simple laminectomy in this condition is not fully understood. Furthermore, the presence of pre-existing spondylolisthesis is controversial with respect to the need for additional spinal stabilization. We prospectively studied a consecutive cohort of 100 patients with clinical and radiological LCS under the care of a single spinal surgeon. Outcome measures (SF-36, visual analogue scores for back and leg symptoms, and the Roland/Morris back pain scores) were assessed preoperatively, 3 months postsurgery and at long-term (median 2 years) follow-up. We have shown a significant improvement in outcome sustained in the long-term with minimal morbidity. Patients with pre-existing spondylolisthesis accounted for 23% of the cohort and, having received identical treatment, showed no significant difference in outcome compared with patients with normal alignment. PMID:17439091

Wilby, M J; Seeley, H; Laing, R J

2006-12-01

18

Topical high molecular weight hyaluronan reduces radicular pain post laminectomy in a rat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextA controversy exists about the mechanism of causation of the post-laminectomy pain syndrome. Some believe that epidural scarring, and attendant spinal nerve and nerve root scarring and tethering to the disc or pedicle at the site of surgery contributes to post-laminectomy pain in such patients. However, clinical outcome studies on this question are inconclusive and the assertion remains controversial.

Jennifer B. Massie; Aimee L. Schimizzi; Bill Huang; Choll W. Kim; Steven R. Garfin; Wayne H. Akeson

2005-01-01

19

Regional Spinal Cord Blood Flow and Energy Metabolism in Rats after Laminectomy and Acute Compression Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many data are available concerning spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) and metabolism on various models and timing after spinal cord injury, however, detailed information on their exact relationship in the same injury model is lacking. This relationship is a crucial factor in the understanding of the pathophysiology of spinal cord trauma. Rats were subjected to lumbar laminectomy or lumbar spinal

Angelika E. M. Mautes; Helmut Schröck; Amadeo C. Nacimiento; Wulf Paschen

2000-01-01

20

Design of Lamifuse: a randomised, multi-centre controlled trial comparing laminectomy without or with dorsal fusion for cervical myeloradiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background laminectomy is a valuable surgical treatment for some patients with a cervical radiculomyelopathy due to cervical spinal stenosis. More recently attention has been given to motion of the spinal cord over spondylotic spurs as a cause of myelopathic changes. Immobilisation by fusion could have a positive effect on the recovery of myelopathic signs or changes. This has never been investigated in a prospective, randomised trial. Lamifuse is an acronyme for laminectomy and fusion. Methods/Design Lamifuse is a multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing laminectomy with and without fusion in patients with a symptomatic cervical canal stenosis. The study population will be enrolled from patients that are 60 years or older with myelopathic signs and/or symptoms due to a cervical canal stenosis. A kyphotis shape of the cervical spine is an exclusion criterium. Each treatment arm needs 30 patients. Discussion This study will contribute to the discussion whether additional fusion after a cervical laminectomy results in a better clinical outcome. ISRCT number ISRCTN72800446

Bartels, Ronald HMA; Verbeek, Andre LM; Grotenhuis, J Andre

2007-01-01

21

Spinaplasty following lumbar laminectomy for multilevel lumbar spinal stenosis to prevent iatrogenic instability  

PubMed Central

Background: Iatrogenic instability following laminectomy occurs in patients with degenerative lumbar canal stenosis. Long segment fusions to obviate postoperative instability result in loss of motion of lumbar spine and predisposes to adjacent level degeneration. The best alternative would be an adequate decompressive laminectomy with a nonfusion technique of preserving the posterior ligament complex integrity. We report a retrospective analysis of multilevel lumbar canal stenosis that were operated for posterior decompression and underwent spinaplasty to preserve posterior ligament complex integrity for outcome of decompression and iatrogenic instability. Materials and Methods: 610 patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis (n=520) and development spinal canal stenosis (n=90), with a mean age 58 years (33–85 years), underwent multilevel laminectomies and spinaplasty procedure. At followup, changes in the posture while walking, increase in the walking distance, improvement in the dysesthesia in lower limb, the motor power, capability to negotiate stairs and sphincter function were assessed. Forward excursion of vertebrae more than 4 mm in flexion–extension lateral X-ray of the spine as compared to the preoperative movements was considered as the iatrogenic instability. Clinical assessment was done in standing posture regarding active flexion–extension movement, lateral bending and rotations Results: All patients were followed up from 3 to 10 years. None of the patients had neurological deterioration or pain or catch while movement. Walking distance improved by 5–10 times, with marked relief (70–90%) in neurogenic claudication and preoperative stooping posture, with improvement in sensation and motor power. There was no significant difference in the sagittal alignment as well as anterior translation. Two patients with concomitant scoliosis and one with cauda equine syndrome had incomplete recovery. Two patients who developed disc protrusion, underwent a second operation for a symptomatic disc prolapse. Conclusion: Spinaplasty following posterior decompression for multilevel lumbar canal stenosis is a simple operation, without any serious complications, retaining median structures, maintaining the tension band and the strength with least disturbance of kinematics, mobility, stability and lordosis of the lumbar spine.

Tuli, Surendra Mohan; Kapoor, Varun; Jain, Anil K; Jain, Saurabh

2011-01-01

22

Comparative study of epidural application of morphine versus gelfoam soaked in morphine for lumbar laminectomy  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidural application of morphine has been used for postoperative analgesia following spine surgery but short duration of action of single application limits its widespread use. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy were randomly allocated to two groups of 75 patients each. Anesthetic technique was standardized in both the groups. In Group I, at the completion of laminectomy, a 5 × 1-cm strip of gelfoam soaked in 5 mg morphine (1 mg/ml) was contoured to be placed in the epidural space whereas, in group II, gelfoam soaked in saline was placed in the epidural space and 5 mg morphine (1mg/ml) was instilled over the intact epidural space. Analgesic consumption for 48 hours, time-of first analgesic request, time of ambulation, time of discharge from post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and hospital and adverse effects were recorded. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Mean analgesic consumption in 48 hours was significantly less in group I (8.47 ± 3.674 mg) as compared to group II (24.80 ± 6.009 mg). Supplemental analgesia was requested at 30.03 ± 6.796 hours in Group I, vs 10.25 ± 2.243 in group II (P < 0.001). Group I patients were discharged earlier from PACU as compared to group II (P < 0.001) though time of discharge from hospital was similar in both the groups. There were no major adverse effects except pruritis, which was observed in 30.6% patients in group I and 37.3% in group II (statistically insignificant (P > 0.01)). Conclusion: Epidural application of morphine soaked in gelfoam is an effective method for prolonging the postoperative analgesia after spine surgery.

Kundra, Sandeep; Gupta, Vishnu; Bansal, Hanish; Grewal, Anju; Katyal, Sunil; Choudhary, Ashwini Kumar

2014-01-01

23

An Experimental Novel Study: Angelica sinensis Prevents Epidural Fibrosis in Laminectomy Rats via Downregulation of Hydroxyproline, IL-6, and TGF- ? 1.  

PubMed

With laminectomy being widely accepted as the treatment for lumbar disorders, epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication for both the patients and the surgeons alike. Currently, EF is thought to cause recurrent postoperative pain after laminectomy or after discectomy. Angelica sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine which has shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproliferative properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of Angelica sinensis on the prevention of post-laminectomy EF formation in a rat model. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in sixty healthy adult Wistar rats that underwent laminectomy at the L1-L2 levels. They were divided randomly into 3 groups according to the treatment method, with 20 in each group: (1) Angelica sinensis treatment group, (2) saline treatment group, and (3) sham group (laminectomy without treatment). All rats were euthanized humanely 4 weeks after laminectomy. The hydroxyproline content, Rydell score, vimentin cells density, fibroblasts density, inflammatory cells density, and inflammatory factors expressions all suggested better results in Angelica sinensis group than the other two groups. Topical application of Angelica sinensis could inhibit fibroblasts proliferation and TGF- ? 1 and IL-6 expressions and prevent epidural scar adhesion in postlaminectomy rat model. PMID:24069047

Zhang, Chao; Kong, Xiaohong; Zhou, Hengxing; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Xuechao; Zhou, Xianhu; Su, Yanhua; Sharma, Hari S; Feng, Shiqing

2013-01-01

24

Surgical decompression of a caudal vertebral disc extrusion by dorsal laminectomy.  

PubMed

A 3.5-year-old female spayed Beagle cross was presented to our emergency and referral facility for the complaint of acute onset paralysis of the tail. A full physical and neurological examination was performed which confirmed the absence of motor function in the tail. Signs of superficial and deep pain sensation to the tail remained intact. Orthogonal view survey radiographs identified mineralization superimposed over the intervertebral foramen of the first and second caudal vertebrae. A dorsal laminectomy was performed for surgical decompression of the caudal nerve roots. On the fourth postoperative day, the patient exhibited good motor function of the tail. Neurological improvement continued and 11 days postoperatively the patient demonstrated normal neurological function, free range-of-motion of the tail, and it did not exhibit any signs of pain. Follow-up examination was performed 76 days after surgery, at which time the patient exhibited normal neurological function and signs of a pain-free range-of-motion on manipulation of its tail. PMID:21976157

Potanas, C P; Grange, A; Casale, S A

2012-01-01

25

Cervical pedicle screw fixation in traumatic cervical subluxation after laminectomy using the pedicle axis view technique under fluoroscopy.  

PubMed

Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) fixation has recently been performed in patients in need of cervical reconstruction. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who was operated for traumatic cervical vertebra subluxation using CPS fixation, in whom laminectomy had been performed in the past. We performed CPS fixation using the pedicle axis view technique under fluoroscopy. The four pedicle screws were accurately inserted within the pedicles without perforating the bone cortex of the pedicles. A navigation system is useful for cervical spine surgery because it enables a surgeon to perform relatively safe and accurate surgery during transpedicular screw fixation. However, attachment of the stereotactic reference arc to the spinous process is impossible, and the application of a navigation system is limited in cases in which laminectomy has been performed in the past. We have been using the pedicle axis view technique under fluoroscopy and have found that if we take care of the entry point accurately, we can safely insert the pedicle screw in cases with fewer landmarks. PMID:23060373

Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Kanbara, Shunsuke; Morita, Daigo; Kato, Fumihiko

2012-01-01

26

Biomechanical comparison of lumbar spine instability between laminectomy and bilateral laminotomy for spinal stenosis syndrome – an experimental study in porcine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The association of lumbar spine instability between laminectomy and laminotomy has been clinically studied, but the corresponding in vitro biomechanical studies have not been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that the integrity of the posterior complex (spinous process-interspinous ligament-spinous process) plays an important role on the postoperative spinal stability in decompressive surgery. METHODS: Eight porcine lumbar spine specimens were

Ching-Lung Tai; Pang-Hsing Hsieh; Weng-Pin Chen; Lih-Huei Chen; Wen-Jer Chen; Po-Liang Lai

2008-01-01

27

Microsurgical excision of symptomatic sacral perineurial cyst with sacral recapping laminectomy : a case report in technical aspects.  

PubMed

Perineurial cysts (Tarlov cysts) are lesions of the nerve root that are often observed in the sacral area. There is debate about whether symptomatic perineurial cysts should be treated surgically. We presented three patients with symptomatic perineurial cyst who were treated surgically, and introduced sacral recapping laminectomy. Patients complained of low back pain and hypesthesia on lower extremities. We performed operations with sacral recapping technique for all three. The outcome measure was baseline visual analogue score and post operative follow up magnetic resonance images. All patients were completely relieved of symptoms after operation. Although not sufficient to address controversies, this small case series introduces successful use of a particular surgical technique to treat sacral perineural cyst, with resolution of most symptoms and no sequelae. PMID:24653808

Seo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Lee, Sang Koo; Kim, Young-Jin

2014-02-01

28

Reduction of adhesion formation and promotion of wound healing after laminectomy by pharmacological inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines: an experimental study in the rat  

PubMed Central

In a previous experiment using TNF inhibition in the rat it was accidentally found that adhesion and scar formation was reduced compared to previous experience. Wound and bone healing also seemed enhanced. The present study was conducted to assess if this observation could be verified in a controlled setting using a standardized laminectomy in the rat. Five rats received doxycycline and five other rats received saline and served as control. Macroscopic blinded evaluation 1 week after the laminectomy revealed that adhesion and scar formation was less in doxycycline-treated animals than in control animals. Wound and bone healing was found to be better in doxycycline-treated animals. The mechanisms for the observed effects cannot be fully understood but the data indicate that further research may lead to opportunities to design pharmacological modalities to reduce adhesion and scar formation, maybe in combination with suitable barriers.

2010-01-01

29

Effects of surgery on cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

The results of surgery for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were assessed 3 months (early results) and 2-8 years (late results) postoperatively in 99 patients. Extensive laminectomy as well as anterior decompression and fusion, or the two procedures at staged intervals, were used. Immediate postoperative deterioration was never seen after laminectomy performed under local anaesthesia (84 patients), while transient deterioration occurred after anterior surgery in 2 of 28 patients. Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) was found in 73% of the patients. Operative treatment for CSM also improved root symptoms, anterior surgery to a larger extent than posterior decompression. Only 10% of the patients treated with extensive laminectomy needed a second anterior operation for radiculopathy. The progression of myelopathy was arrested in 95% of the patients after surgery. Improvement was obtained in 80% both in the early and late follow-up review when compared to the preoperative functional status. The evaluation disclosed a tendency of rapid improvement during the first 3 months, subsequently followed by slow improvement in 50% and slight deterioration in 15% of the patients. The degree of improvement was in many patients not sufficient to raise the functional capability to a higher level in the employed grading system. In our opinion it is therefore important to operate patients with CSM as early as possible before neurological deficits are too pronounced. PMID:3529837

Wiberg, J

1986-01-01

30

Radiological and Clinical Results of Laminectomy and Posterior Stabilization for Severe Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture : Surgical Technique for One-Stage Operation  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to show the possibility of neural canal enlargement and restoration of bony fragments through laminectomy and minimal facetectomy without pediculectomy or an anterior approach, and also to prove the adequacy of posterior stabilization of vertebral deformities after thoracolumbar bursting fracture. Methods From January 2003 to June 2009, we experienced 45 patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures. All patients enrolled were presented with either a neural canal compromise of more than 40% with a Benzel-Larson Grade of VI, or more than 30% compromise with less than a Benzel-Larson Grade of V. Most important characteristic of our surgical procedure was repositioning retropulsed bone fragments using custom-designed instruments via laminectomy and minimal facetectomy without removing the fractured bone fragments. Beneath the dural sac, these custom-designed instruments could push the retropulsed bone fragments within the neural canal after the decompression and bone fragment repositioning. Results The mean kyphotic deformities measured preoperatively and at follow-up within 12 months were 17.7 degrees (±6.4 degrees) and 9.6 degrees (±5.2 degrees), respectively. The mean midsagittal diameter improved from 8.8 mm (±2.8 mm) before surgery to 14.2 mm (±1.6 mm) at follow-up. The mean traumatic vertebral body height before surgery was 41.3% (±12.6%). At follow-up assessment within 12 months, this score showed a statistically significant increase to 68.3% (±12.8%). Neurological improvement occurred in all patients. Conclusion Though controversy exists in the treatment of severe thoracolumbar burst fracture, we achieved effective radiological and clinical results in the cases of burst fractures causing severe canal compromise and spinal deformity by using this novel custom-designed instruments, via posterior approach alone.

Kim, Myeong-Soo; Park, Jeong-Soo

2011-01-01

31

Posterior column dysfunction in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Five patients had cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with severe prorioceptive sensory loss in the upper and lower limbs. Despite an advanced age, each recovered considerable function following cervical laminectomy, in follow-up periods of 10 to 40 months. The role of newer methods of investigation including CT scanning, somatosensory evoked responses and nuclear magnetic resonance is discussed. The cause of the proprioceptive sensory loss in these patients cannot be definitively determined, but various ischemic and compressive lesions are discussed as possible pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:6467087

MacFadyen, D J

1984-08-01

32

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Factors in Choosing the Surgical Approach  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a progressive disease and a common cause of acquired disability in the elderly. A variety of surgical interventions are available to halt or improve progression of the disease. Surgical options include anterior or posterior approaches with and without fusion. These include anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, cervical disc replacement, laminoplasty, laminectomy with and without fusion, and combined approaches. Recent investigation into the ideal approach has not found a clearly superior choice, but individual patient characteristics can guide treatment.

Yalamanchili, Praveen K.; Vives, Michael J.; Chaudhary, Saad B.

2012-01-01

33

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common progressive spinal cord disorder in patients more than 55 years old. This disease is also the most common cause of acquired spasticity in later life and may lead to progressive spasticity and neurologic decline. This article explores some of the controversies about CSM and reviews pertinent articles, specifically prospective and randomized clinical trials when possible, to obtain the cleanest and least biased data. The 4 current controversial topics that surround CSM are: (1) natural history of mild CSM; (2) surgical approach: anterior versus posterior; (3) laminoplasty or laminectomy; and (4) cervical arthroplasty for CSM. PMID:20399358

Klineberg, Eric

2010-04-01

34

Operative Techniques for Cervical Radiculopathy and Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

The surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis and resulting cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy has evolved over the past century. Surgical options for dorsal decompression of the cervical spine includes the traditional laminectomy and laminoplasty, first described in Asia in the 1970's. More recently the dorsal approch has been explored in terms of minimally invasive options including foraminotomies for nerve root descompression. Ventral decompression and fusion techniques are also described in the article, including traditional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, strut grafting and cervical disc arthroplasty. Overall, the outcome from surgery is determined by choosing the correct surgery for the correct patient and pathology and this is what we hope to explain in this brief review.

Moran, C.; Bolger, C.

2012-01-01

35

Lumbar Laminectomy and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... ANNOUNCER: During the next hour in a real-time Internet broadcast, spine specialists at Thomas Jefferson University ... in the program by sending questions at any time; just click the MDirectAccess button on the screen. ...

36

Anterior versus posterior approach for four-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the results of 2 surgical strategies for 4-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a hybrid procedure using anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) combined with segmental corpectomy versus posterior laminectomy and fixation. Between 2002 and 2010, fifty-one patients with consecutive 4-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy were treated surgically, with 27 patients undergoing the hybrid procedure and 24 undergoing posterior laminectomy and fixation. Radiologic data were compared between the 2 groups, including cervical curvature and cervical range of motion (ROM) in the sagittal plane. Pre- and postoperative neurological status was evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system and the Nurick grading system. Mean ROM at last follow-up was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P>.05). In the hybrid group, mean JOA score and Nurick grade improved from 9.6±1.4 and 2.74±0.45 respectively, preoperatively, to 13.9±1.3 and 0.86±0.38 respectively, postoperatively. In the fixation group, mean JOA score and Nurick grade improved from 9.4±1.2 and 2.81±0.42 respectively, preoperatively, to 13.1±1.5 and 1.32±0.36 respectively, postoperatively. The JOA scores and Nurick grades at last follow-up were significantly different between the 2 groups (P<.05). In patients with preoperative cervical kyphosis, preoperative JOA score and Nurick grade were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P>.05); however, JOA scores and Nurick grades at last follow-up showed better improvement in the hybrid group than in the fixation group (P<.01). In patients with preoperative cervical lordosis, the preoperative and last follow-up JOA score and Nurick grade were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P>.05). PMID:24200449

Lin, Dasheng; Zhai, Wenliang; Lian, Kejian; Kang, Liangqi; Ding, Zhenqi

2013-11-01

37

HEREDITARY MYELOPATHIES  

PubMed Central

Hereditary myelopathies are a diverse group of disorders in which major aspects of the clinical syndrome involve spinal cord structures. Hereditary myelopathic syndromes can be recognized as four clinical paradigms: (1) spinocerebellar ataxia, (2) motor neuron disorder, (3) leukodystrophy, and (4) distal motor-sensory axonopathy. This review illustrates these hereditary myelopathy paradigms with clinical examples with an emphasis on clinical recognition and differential diagnosis.

Fink, John K.

2009-01-01

38

[Myelopathies caused by dorsal spinal canal spondylotic stenosis. 3 cases and a review of the literature].  

PubMed

Thoracic spondylotic myelopathies are exceptional, only 29 observations could be found in the literature; we intend to describe three new cases here. The patients, two women and one man, 64, 69 and 72 years old, complained of weakness of the lower limbs, more marked on one side, which had been progressing slowly from several months to eight years. Examination revealed asymmetrical paraparesis with distal sensitivity deficits without thoracic sensory level. In the first case, the myelography remained virtually unchanged in front of T11, T12; in the second and third cases, there was slight extradural compression at T9 and T10 respectively. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (M.R.I.) performed in two patients was evocative of a thoracic disk herniation. A chest CT scan enabled us to establish correct diagnosis: in the three cases irregular hypertrophy of the posterior elements was evident at T11 and T12, T9 and T10, T10 and T11 respectively, with osteophytes originating in the articular process and deeply embedded in the spinal canal. Decompressive laminectomy associated with medial facetectomy resulted in the gradual improvement of walking in all three patients. Myelography and MRI are both useful in demonstrating the level compression, usually situated in the low thoracic spine, however only the CT allows differential diagnosis with other etiologies, especially anterior compression such as disk herniation. PMID:2693979

Bazin, A; Rousseaux, P; Bernard, M H; Peruzzi, P; Baudrillard, J C; Scherpereel, B

1989-01-01

39

RADIATION MYELOPATHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was made of 38 cases of radiation myelopathy with regard to ; early symptoms and signs, differential diagnosis, prognosis, nature of the ; primary lesion irradiated, and latency between irradiation and the development of ; neurological symptoms. Death occurred in 17 of these cases, 1 month to 4 yr ; after the first neurologic symptoms, as a result

CHRISTOPHER A. PALLIS; SYDNEY LOUIS; ROWLAND L. MORGAN

1961-01-01

40

Radiation myelopathy: a review  

SciTech Connect

Radiation myelopathy is a serious potential complication associated with radiation therapy to the spinal cord. Its exact cause is unknown. It represents a spectrum of syndromes, the most common of which are acute transient radiation myelopathy and chronic progressive radiation myelitis. A review of the literature indicates that cord damage is related to a number of controllable factors including dose fraction size, treatment time, total dose, length of cord irradiated, technical and clerical errors. Other less well understood factors that appear to contribute to the risk such as combined chemoradiotherapy effects and hyperthermia should also be recognized. A better awareness and understanding of these factors should ultimately lead to safer and more effective treatments. 56 references.

Goldwein, J.W.

1987-01-01

41

A novel approach to improving the safety of patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy.  

PubMed

The anesthesiology field has recently embraced the use of checklists to obviate the need for long-term memory, improve safety, and achieve goals and tasks. These checklists serve to increase safety, improve consumer satisfaction, and reduce mortality and morbidity. Spinal surgery with the patient lying prone is associated with complex morbidities when there is inattention to proper positioning technique. Problems arising from malpositioning of the patient undergoing spinal surgery are attributed to body habitus and the body's contact with specialized and complex operating room table frames. Common problems associated with the prone position are brachial plexus injury, cervical spine nerve injuries, and postoperative visual loss. The purpose of this research project was to examine the use of a checklist for nurse anesthetists who provide care for patients undergoing spinal surgery. The checklist addressed specific positioning needs as a means of decreasing mortality and morbidity. It is theorized that the use of a checklist will serve as a systematic aid to memory and enable the anesthetist to adhere to proper positioning techniques in this patient population and thereby improve outcomes. PMID:24354076

Salkind, Edward M

2013-10-01

42

[Radiation myelopathy and plexopathy].  

PubMed

Radiation myelopathy (RM) is a relatively rare disorder characterized by white matter lesions of the spinal cord resulting from irradiation. It is divided into two forms by the latent periods: transient RM and delayed RM. The delayed RM develops usually non-transverse myelopathy symptoms such as dissociated sensory disturbance, unilateral leg weakness, and gait disturbance with asymmetric steps. Spinal MRI shows initially cord swelling and long T1/T2 intramedullary lesion with enhancement, then exhibits cord atrophy. Histopathological findings of delayed RM are white matter necrosis, demyelination, venous wall thickening and hyalinization. Glial theory and vascular hypothesis have been proposed to explain its pathophysiology. Several therapies such as adrenocorticosteroid, anticoagulation and hyperbaric oxygen have been tried to this disease with variable benefits. Radiation plexopathy is classified into two major types by the location: radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (BP) and radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy (LSP). The BP initially emerges as arm and shoulder pain, whereas LSP as leg weakness. Myokymia and fasciculations are observed in both types. Electrophysiological study reveals findings of peripheral neuropathy. It is often difficult to distinguish the radiation plexopathy from cancer invasion to the plexus, but MRI is useful to differentiate between these diseases. Pathological findings are small vessel obstruction, thick fibrosis, axonal degeneration and demyelination. Its pathomechanism is presumed that radiation-induced fibrous tissue compresses the nerve root as well as microvascular obstruction of the nerve. Adrenocorticosteroid and anticoagulation are considered as the strategy for symptomatic relief. PMID:18306658

Shimazaki, Haruo; Nakano, Imaharu

2008-02-01

43

Pathology of radiation myelopathy  

PubMed Central

After nothing the rarity of papers describing the pathology of delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord, the clinical and pathological findings from four cases are presented. The main pathological features are asymmetric demyelination of the lateral columns and to a lesser degree the posterior and anterior columns of white matter, with coagulative necrosis at the level of irradiation which affected the grey matter to a lesser degree. There is ascending and descending secondary tract degeneration, and poor glial response in the lesions themselves. Vascular changes, mainly hyalilne thickening of arteriolar walls, are present, but not in degree sufficient to explain the primary lesion. The discussion of the pathogenesis of the myelopathy weighs the merits of a primary vascular lesion against those of a primary effect of the radiation on neural tissue. The latter is favoured. Images

Burns, R. J.; Jones, A. N.; Robertson, J. S.

1972-01-01

44

Canine degenerative myelopathy.  

PubMed

Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease that occurs in many breeds. The initial upper motor neuron spastic paraparesis and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs progress to a flaccid lower motor neuron tetraparesis. Recently, a missense mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene was found to be a risk factor for DM, suggesting that DM is similar to some forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This article reviews the current knowledge of canine DM with regard to its signalment, clinical spectrum, diagnostic approach, and treatment. The implications of the SOD1 mutation on both diseases are discussed, comparing pathogenic mechanisms while conveying perspectives to translational medicine. PMID:20732599

Coates, Joan R; Wininger, Fred A

2010-09-01

45

Cervical Myelopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Involvement of the cervical spine is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical presentation can be variable, and symptoms may be due to neck pain or compressive myeloradiculopathy. We discuss the pathology, grading systems, clinical presentation, indications for surgery and surgical management of cervical myelopathy related to rheumatoid arthritis in this paper. We describe our surgical technique and results. We recommend early consultation for surgical management when involvement of the cervical spine is suspected in rheumatoid arthritis. Even patients with advanced cervical myelopathy should be discussed for surgical treatment, since in our experience improvement in function after surgery is common.

Mukerji, N.; Todd, N. V.

2011-01-01

46

Arachnoiditis ossificans associated with syringomyelia: An unusual cause of myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective:?The pathophysiology of arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) and its association with syringomyelia remains a rare and poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we present a case of AO associated with syringomyelia, a review of literature, and a discussion of current understanding of disease pathophysiology. Methods:?A literature review was performed using MEDLINE (January 1900–May 2010) and Embase (January 1900–May 2010) to identify all English-language studies that described AO with syringomyelia. The current report was added to published cases. Results:?Over 50 cases of AO are reported in literature, of which only eight are associated with syringomyelia. The various presumptive etiologies of syrinx formation include abnormalities in blood circulation, ischemia, hydrodynamic alternations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, tissue damage, or incidental coexistence. Changing CSF dynamics related to decreased compliance of the subarachnoid space and subsequent paracentral dissection of the spinal cord may be implicated in the disease process. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning may identify the syrinx but fail to diagnose the calcified arachnoid. Five patients, including the current case, improved clinically following laminectomy and decompression. Conclusions:?Syringomyelia in association in AO is a rare phenomenon. A high index of suspicion is required and both MRI and computed tomography (CT) are recommended for diagnosis. The pathophysiology of syringomyelia in AO remains an area of ongoing research.

Ibrahim, George M.; Kamali-Nejad, Tara; Fehlings, Michael G.

2010-01-01

47

Extramedullary hemopoiesis with undiagnosed, early myelofibrosis causing spastic compressive myelopathy: Case report and review  

PubMed Central

Extramedullary hemopoiesis (EMH) is a common compensatory phenomenon associated with chronic hemolytic anemia. Abnormal hemopoietic tissue usually develops in sites responsible for fetal hemopoiesis, such as spleen, liver and kidney; however, other regions such as the spine may also become involved. In this study, a patient presenting with spastic paraparesis due to EMH in the dorsal spine is described. A 62-year-old man presented with paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large lesion involving the T2-L2 vertebral levels with a large extradural component causing thecal sac compression. Laminectomy with excision of mass was carried out. The histopathology revealed EMH. The patient had no known cause for EMH at the time of diagnosis but, subsequently, a bone marrow examination revealed early myelofibrosis. This case represents the rare occurrence of a large extradural extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with no known predisposing factor for hemopoiesis at the time of presentation.

Dewan, Udita; Kumari, Niraj; Jaiswal, Awadesh; Behari, Sanjay; Jain, Manoj

2010-01-01

48

Myelopathy but normal MRI: where next?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most patients presenting with a spinal cord syndrome MR scanning has become the key investigation in establishing the diagnosis. However, myelopathy with normal spinal imaging remains a common clinical conundrum. In this review we discuss the diagnoses to consider for the neurologist presented with a patient with “MR normal myelopathy”. We will illustrate this scenario with a series of

S H Wong; M Boggild; T P Enevoldson; N A Fletcher

2008-01-01

49

Reversible hepatic myelopathy: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of reversible hepatic myelopathy. A 42-year-old female patient with 3-year history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis developed spastic gait, hyperreflexia and mild somatosensory disturbance in her lower extremities. The increased level of serum ammonia and the deficits of N30 and P38 in the tibial somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) in conjunction with exclusion of the other known causes of myelopathy supported the diagnosis of her hepatic myelopathy. The ammonia lowering therapy by the oral administration of lactulose successfully improved the spastic gait accompanied with the emergence of N30 and P38 in the tibial SEP. Although liver transplantation was known to be the only therapy for hepatic myelopathy in the literatures, our case showed that the ammonia lowering therapy can be effective for the early stage of hepatic myelopathy. PMID:24705837

Hirozawa, Daisuke; Fukada, Kei; Yaegaki, Takahide; Hoshi, Taku; Sawada, Jinichi; Hazama, Takanori

2014-01-01

50

Complete paraplegia resulting from surfer's myelopathy.  

PubMed

Three patients with diagnoses of surfer's myelopathy (24-31 yrs old; two men, one woman) were admitted to our rehabilitation hospital. All three patients were novice surfers and had a typical clinical course of onset: rapid progression of paraplegia after back pain while taking surfing lessons. Despite months of rehabilitation at our hospital, in all three patients, complete paraplegia (T9-T12) and bladder-bowel dysfunction remained. Our case profiles suggest that the neurologic outcome of surfer's myelopathy is potentially catastrophic, as has been suggested in previous reports. Surfer's myelopathy has been estimated to be an ischemic thoracic myelopathy. From our case profiles and review of the literature, not only the prolonged prone hyperextended posture of paddling but also the repetitive mechanical stress caused by flexion-extension of the spinal column may be related to its pathogenesis. To prevent surfer's myelopathy and to avoid progressive deterioration of neurologic function, increased education and awareness are essential. PMID:22257974

Takakura, Tomokazu; Yokoyama, Osamu; Sakuma, Fujiko; Itoh, Ryousuke; Romero, Ray R

2013-09-01

51

Pre-emptive infiltration of levobupivacaine is superior to at-closure administration in lumbar laminectomy patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a prospective, randomized, controlled trial that compared the efficacy of different protocols of local tissue infiltration\\u000a with levobupivacaine or levobupivacaine-methylprednisolone at the surgical site for pain relief after lumbar discectomy. The\\u000a objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of preemptive wound infiltration with levobupivacaine and levobupivacaine-methylprednisolone\\u000a at the surgical site for pain relief. Patients usually suffer

Alp Gurbet; Ahmet Bekar; Hulya Bilgin; Gulsen Korfali; Selcuk Yilmazlar; Mehmet Tercan

2008-01-01

52

[Removal of multiple thoracic dumbbell tumours through combined hemi-semi laminectomy and minimal invasive paraspinal approach].  

PubMed

One third of the primary spinal tumours are neurinomas. These tumours most often located intraduraly-extramedullary, but 15-25 percent of the cases, the tumour extends to the paraspinal region through the neuroforamina. Spinal manifestation of Schwann-cell tumours, usually neurofibromas, can be seen in neurofibromatosis. 31 years old female patient, suffering from NF1 was operated on with a Th 3-6 and Th 10-11 dumbbell tumours. At the first step the tumour mass, located in the spinal canal, was resected through a partial hemilaminectomy. At the second operation the extraspinal tumour was resected through a minimal invasive paraspinal approach. The author present the combined use of minimal invasive spine surgical technics and discuss the benefits and disadvantages of these approaches, compared to the standard surgical procedures. PMID:19685705

Papp, Zoltán

2009-07-30

53

Surgical Management of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylosis is a common degenerative condition that is a significant cause of morbidity. This review discusses the pathophysiology and natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and focuses on the current literature evaluating the clinical management of these patients.

Hsu, Wesley; Dorsi, Michael J.; Witham, Timothy F.

2010-01-01

54

Spinal myoclonus following a peripheral nerve injury: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal myoclonus is a rare disorder characterized by myoclonic movements in muscles that originate from several segments of the spinal cord and usually associated with laminectomy, spinal cord injury, post-operative, lumbosacral radiculopathy, spinal extradural block, myelopathy due to demyelination, cervical spondylosis and many other diseases. On rare occasions, it can originate from the peripheral nerve lesions and be mistaken for

Feray Karaali Savrun; Derya Uluduz; Gokhan Erkol; Meral E Kiziltan

2008-01-01

55

Subacute myelopathy caused by spinal venous infarction.  

PubMed Central

A 44 year old female presented with a subacute myelopathy in association with pelvic venous thrombosis. It is inferred from the temporal relationship of these events that the patient suffered a subacute spinal venous infarction. This is discussed along with the aetiology, anatomical distribution and management of the condition. Images Figure 1

Clarke, C. E.; Cumming, W. J.

1987-01-01

56

Cervical spinous process reconstruction.  

PubMed

Posterior neck deformity with an unsightly crater-like defect may result after cervicothoracic laminectomies. The authors present a new technique, spinous process reconstruction, to address this problem. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive quadriparesis secondary to cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Previously he had undergone multiple neck surgeries including cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy. Postoperatively, he developed severe craniocervical spinal deformity and a large painful concave surgical defect in the neck. The authors performed craniocervical decompression and craniocervicothoracic instrumented stabilization. At the same time, cervicothoracic spinous process reconstruction was performed using titanium mesh to address the defect. Cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy results in varying degrees of neck defect with resulting unsightly and an often painful surgical wound defect despite an appropriate multilayer closure. The presented spinous process reconstruction is a simple technique to address this problem with good clinical outcome. PMID:24206034

Panchal, Ripul R; Duong, Huy T; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Kim, Kee D

2014-01-01

57

Anterior approach for complex cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a slowly progressive disease resulting from age-related degenerative changes in the spine that can lead to spinal cord dysfunction and significant functional disability. The degenerative changes and abnormal motion lead to vertebral body subluxation, osteophyte formation, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, and spinal canal narrowing. Repetitive movement during normal cervical motion may result in microtrauma to the spinal cord. Disease extent and location dictate the choice of surgical approach. Anterior spinal decompression and instrumented fusion is successful in preventing CSM progression and has been shown to result in functional improvement in most patients. PMID:22082628

Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Neckrysh, Sergey

2012-01-01

58

Combined optic neuropathy and myelopathy secondary to copper deficiency.  

PubMed

We report two patients, both with a history of gastric surgery, who presented with progressive optic neuropathy and myelopathy. The patients' symptoms were initially attributed to vitamin B12 deficiency and/or neuromyelitis optica; however, after the neurologic deficits continued to progress with the use of conventional treatments, further evaluation was initiated, and a severe copper deficiency was revealed. Copper deficiency is a rare cause of progressive optic neuropathy and myelopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is crucial to elicit a history of gastric surgery or other risk factors for hypocupremia in those patients undergoing an evaluation for subacute or chronically progressive optic neuropathy or myelopathy. PMID:20451943

Pineles, Stacy L; Wilson, Christina A; Balcer, Laura J; Slater, Robert; Galetta, Steven L

2010-01-01

59

The Natural History and Clinical Presentation of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) refers to impaired function of the spinal cord caused by degenerative changes of the cervical spine resulting in spinal cord compression. It is the most common disorder in the United States causing dysfunction of the spinal cord. A literature review of the natural history of mild cervical myelopathy is undertaken. Clinical presentation and current concepts of pathophysiology are also discussed. While many patients with mild signs of CSM will stabilize or improve over time with conservative treatment, the clinical course of a specific individual patient cannot be predicted. Asymptomatic patients with cervical stenosis and abnormalities on electrophysiologic studies may be at higher risk for developing myelopathy.

Yarbrough, Chester K.; Murphy, Rory K. J.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Stewart, Todd J.

2012-01-01

60

The natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed Central

This is a retrospective study of twenty-two patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy who were admitted to the hospital for surgical treatment of their neurological condition. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the presenting symptoms, factors affecting the diagnosis and the course of the disease prior to surgical intervention. The earliest consistent symptom in all of our patients was a gait abnormality. The course of the disease was one of progressive deterioration. Spontaneous regression did not occur in any of the cases. The vagueness of the initial complaints led to considerable delay in the diagnosis (average of 6.3 years). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was the most useful test in confirming the diagnosis.

Sadasivan, K. K.; Reddy, R. P.; Albright, J. A.

1993-01-01

61

Acute compressive myelopathy due to vertebral haemangioma.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman with a history of anaemia presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of leg weakness. Physical examination of the bilateral lower extremities was significant for 0/5 muscle strength in all muscle groups with decreased pinprick and temperature sensation. A sensory level at the umbilicus was appreciated. Fine touch and proprioception were preserved. Bowel and bladder function were intact. CT revealed several thoracic, vertebral haemangiomatas. An MRI was suggestive of an epidural clot at the T8-T10-weighted posterior epidural space. At the level of the lesion, the cerebrospinal fluid space was completely effaced, and the flattened spinal cord exhibited signs of oedema and compressive myelopathy. The patient immediately underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord. An epidural clot and vessel conglomeration were identified. A postoperative spinal angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of vertebral haemangioma. At 1-month follow-up, the patient regained strength and sensation. PMID:24777075

Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

2014-01-01

62

Traumatic myelopathy: current concepts in imaging.  

PubMed

Traumatic myelopathy is a frequent complication after spinal trauma. The prognosis is often very poor, and the condition has important socioeconomic consequences. Knowledge of the epidemiology and imaging features is mandatory to ensure correct diagnosis and timely intervention. Imaging studies play an increasing role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this condition. Computed tomography remains the first-line investigation whenever spinal cord injury is suspected. It may indicate the presence of spinal cord lesions by visualizing vertebral lesions, but it cannot assess the spinal cord itself. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict possible spinal cord edema, hemorrhage, or transection, and it is essential in diagnosing and predicting the outcome of spinal cord injury. Follow-up should also be performed with MRI to evaluate long-term intramedullary changes. Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are promising new techniques that allow very early detection of spinal cord injury by measuring the diffusion within the spinal cord, thereby providing information on white matter integrity. However, technical limitations of these new techniques prompt further investigation to improve specificity. PMID:24896747

De Smet, Eline; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Parizel, Paul M

2014-07-01

63

Hypertrophic Posterior Arch of Atlas Causing Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical stenosis, especially of the upper cervical spine, is quite rare which can be developmental or acquired. Clefts or aplasias of anterior and posterior arches of atlas, ossification of the transverse atlantal ligament, hypertrophy of the dens and os odontoideum are rare conditions causing cervical myelopathy reported either singly or in combination. Hypertrophy of the posterior arch of atlas in the absence of any ring hypoplasia as a cause of cervical myelopathy has not been reported earlier. The authors report a case of cervical myelopathy in a 26-year-old female due to hypertrophied posterior arch of atlas which was preoperatively diagnosed as a bony tumor. Being aware of such an entity may avoid diagnostic surprises and facilitate patient prognostication and management.

Traynelis, Vincent Charles

2012-01-01

64

Hypertrophic posterior arch of atlas causing cervical myelopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical stenosis, especially of the upper cervical spine, is quite rare which can be developmental or acquired. Clefts or aplasias of anterior and posterior arches of atlas, ossification of the transverse atlantal ligament, hypertrophy of the dens and os odontoideum are rare conditions causing cervical myelopathy reported either singly or in combination. Hypertrophy of the posterior arch of atlas in the absence of any ring hypoplasia as a cause of cervical myelopathy has not been reported earlier. The authors report a case of cervical myelopathy in a 26-year-old female due to hypertrophied posterior arch of atlas which was preoperatively diagnosed as a bony tumor. Being aware of such an entity may avoid diagnostic surprises and facilitate patient prognostication and management. PMID:23275813

Kasliwal, Manish Kumar; Traynelis, Vincent Charles

2012-12-01

65

Laminoplasty Techniques for the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Laminoplasty is one surgical option for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. It was developed to avoid the significant risk of complications associated with alternative surgical options such as anterior decompression and fusion and laminectomy with or without posterior fusion. Various laminoplasty techniques have been described. All of these variations are designed to reposition the laminae and expand the spinal canal while retaining the dorsal elements to protect the dura from scar formation and to preserve postoperative cervical stability and alignment. With the right surgical indications, reliable results can be expected with laminoplasty in treating patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy.

Mitsunaga, Lance K.; Klineberg, Eric O.; Gupta, Munish C.

2012-01-01

66

Identifying Myelopathy Caused by Thoracic Syringomyelia: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Myelopathy is a form of neurological disease caused by compression of the spinal cord. Upper and lower quarter screens are commonly used in identifying myelopathy, although most of the screen components demonstrate poor or unstudied diagnostic value. The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnostic process in detecting syringomyelia, an intramedullary lesion that may cause myelopathy. The patient was a 47-year-old female with a thoracic syrinx that was discovered by spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following a complicated and delayed clinical diagnostic course. Following surgical intervention and a two-week inpatient rehabilitation stay, the patient was discharged using a rolling walker for ambulation and was performing most transfers with modified independence. A complicating pattern of signs and symptoms combined with a diagnostic process guided by poorly studied screen components demonstrates the diagnostic dilemma associated with identifying the cause of myelopathy within the thoracic spine. This also indicates the need for further investigation of individual and clustered components of the neurological screen to improve the ability to identify patients in need of complete imaging studies in a more timely fashion.

Rene Hudson, Beverly; Cook, Chad; Goode, Adam

2008-01-01

67

Urodynamic profile in myelopathies: A follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study the significance of filling cystometry in assessment and management of neurogenic bladder in myelopathies and correlate neurological recovery and bladder management in the follow up. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of reports of filling cystometry in patients with traumatic and non-traumatic myelopathy. Setting: Neuro-rehabilitation unit of a tertiary care university hospital. Methods: The study was carried out between September 2005 and June 2006 and included all subjects with myelopathy who underwent filling cystometry. ASIA impairment scale was used to assess neurological status during admission as well as in the follow up. Bladder management was advised based on the cystometric findings. Neurological recovery and mode of bladder management were correlated during the follow up after a minimum of 6 months. Results: Fifty-two subjects (38 males, 14 females), mean age 33.26 ± 14.66 years (10–80) underwent filling cystometry. Twenty patients had cervical, 24 had thoracic and 8 had lumbar myelopathy. Cystometric findings were overactive detrusor observed in 43 patients, (21 had detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), 22 without DSD) and areflexic/underactive detrusor in 9. Post-void residual (>15% of voided urine) was significant in 27 patients. Twenty-three patients (44%) reported for follow up (16 males, 7 females) after a mean duration of 9.04 ± 2.44 months (6–15 months). Neurological recovery was seen in 61% cases, while 1 patient showed deterioration. Only 26% patients reported change in bladder management during follow up. Correlation between neurological recovery and bladder management was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) using spearman correlation co-efficient. Conclusions: Filling cystometry is valuable for assessment and management of neurogenic bladder after myelopathy. No significant relationship was observed between neurological recovery and neurogenic bladder management in the follow up in the present study.

Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Thyloth, Murali

2009-01-01

68

Evidence of an Inherited Predisposition for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective population based study cross referencing a genealogic database of over 2 million Utah residents with 10 years of clinical diagnosis data from a large tertiary hospital. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the presence or absence of an inherited predisposition to the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Summary of Background Data A genetic predisposition for the development of cervical spondylosis has been discussed in the literature with low quality evidence. Families with a high incidence of disease or early onset disease in monozygotic twins have both been reported. However, these suggestions of an inherited predisposition for disease have never been rigorously studied. The purpose of this study is to determine a genetic predisposition among patients diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Methods The Utah Population Database (UPDB) combines health and genealogic data on over 2 million Utah residents. ICD-9 codes were used to identify 486 patients in the database with a diagnosis of cervical spondylosis with myelopathy (ICD9 code 721.1). The hypothesis of excessive familial clustering was tested using the Genealogical Index of Familiality (GIF) and Relative risks (RR) in relatives were estimated by comparing rates of disease in relatives with rates estimated in the relatives of 5 matched controls for each case. This methodology has been previously reported and validated for other disease conditions but not for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Results The GIF analysis for patients with CSM showed significant excess relatedness for disease (p<0.001). Relative risks were significantly elevated in both first- (RR=5.21, CI=2.1-13.2, p<0.001) and third-degree relatives (RR=1.95, CI=1.04-3.7, p<0.05). Conclusions Excess relatedness of cases and significantly elevated relative risks to both close and distant relatives supports an inherited predisposition to cervical spondylosis with myelopathy. Level of Evidence III

Patel, Alpesh A.; Spiker, William Ryan; Daubs, Michael; Brodke, Darrel S.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

69

Treatment of portosystemic shunt myelopathy with a stent graft deployed through a transjugular intrahepatic route.  

PubMed

A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft. PMID:22996588

Jain, Deepak; Arora, Ankur; Deka, Pranjal; Mukund, Amar; Bhatnagar, Shorav; Jindal, Deepti; Kumar, Niteen; Pamecha, Viniyendra

2013-08-01

70

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Surgical Techniques  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a degenerative spinal disease which may lead to significant clinical morbidity. The onset of symptoms is usually insidious, with long periods of fixed disability and episodic worsening events. Regarding the pathophysiology of CSM, the repeated injuries to the spinal cord are caused by both static and dynamic mechanical factors. The combination of these factors affects the spinal cord basically through both direct trauma and ischemia. Regarding the diagnosis, both static and dynamics X-rays, as well as magnetic resonance imaging are important for preoperative evaluation as well as individualizing surgical planning. The choice of the most appropriate technique is affected by patient's clinical condition radiologic findings, as well as surgeon's experience. In opposition to the old belief that patients presenting mild myelopathy should be treated conservatively, there has progressively been amount of evidence indicating that the clinical course of this disease is progressive deterioration and that early surgical intervention improves long-term functional recovery and neurological prognosis.

Mattei, Tobias A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Milano, Jeronimo B.; Dutra, Luis Paulo F.; Fasset, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

71

Thoracic myelopathy secondary to seizure following scoliosis surgery.  

PubMed

The incidence of spinal injuries is increased in people with epilepsy although compressive thoracic myelopathy has not been reported. We describe a 15-year-old girl with SCN1A mutation (Dravet syndrome), refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and prior posterior instrumentation and fusion for scoliosis, who presented with progressive lower extremity weakness. Junctional kyphosis with disc herniation and spinal cord compression directly rostral to the instrumentation was apparent on imaging. On history, the patient had suffered a particularly severe convulsive seizure just before developing symptoms. Surgical decompression and stabilization led to a complete neurologic recovery. This unusual presentation of myelopathy illustrates the need to consider this complication in patients with epilepsy and spinal instrumentation. PMID:22140129

Myers, Kenneth A; Payne, Eric T; Esser, Michael J; Kirton, Adam; Howard, Jason J

2012-07-01

72

Cervical Compressive Myelopathy due to Anomalous Bilateral Vertebral Artery  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of cervical compressive myelopathy by an anomalous bilateral vertebral artery (VA) entering the spinal canal at the C1 level and compressing the spinal cord. A 70-year-old woman had been suffering from progressive gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that a bilateral VA at the V4 segment had abnormal courses and caused compression to the high cervical cord. VA repositioning was performed by anchoring a suture between the artery and around the arachnoid membrane and dentate ligament, and then, microvascular decompression using a Teflon sponge was done between the VA and the spinal cord. The weakness in the patient improved in the lower extremity after the operation. Anomalous VA could be one of the rare causes of cervical compressive myelopathy. Additionally, an anchoring suture and microvascular decompression around the VA could be a sufficient and safe method to indirectly decompress the spinal canal.

Ha, Eun Jin; Lee, Soo Eon; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2013-01-01

73

MRI in the management of suspected cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and two patients with suspected cervical spondylotic myelopathy were prospectively investigated using MRI as the initial imaging technique. The aim was to discover if clinicians could manage patients with MRI alone, or if they would find a second investigation necessary. Eighty two patients were managed using MRI alone, 34 of whom were treated surgically. Twenty patients had a second investigation: a myelogram in 18 and a CT myelogram in two. This was performed in nine patients to exclude structural pathology in the thoracic or lumbar region (which was not examined with MRI), and in 11 to obtain more specific information about the cervical region. Only five of these 20 patients had surgical treatment. The diagnosis changed after the second investigation in four patients, but management was not influenced in any of these. MRI is a satisfactory alternative to myelography for most patients with suspected cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Images

Statham, P F; Hadley, D M; Macpherson, P; Johnston, R A; Bone, I; Teasdale, G M

1991-01-01

74

Myelopathy in a Previously Asymptomatic HIV1Infected Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of disorders of diverse pathogenic mechanisms can trigger spinal cord dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients.\\u000a The most common such condition is HIV-1-associated myelopathy (HM) which characteristically complicates advanced HIV-1 disease\\u000a in patients with low CD4 cell counts and previous AIDS-defining diagnoses. We describe an unusual presentation of HM in a\\u000a previously asymptomatic patient with a relatively preserved CD4

W. A. Eyer-Silva; I. Auto; J. F. C. Pinto; C. A. Morais-de-Sá

2001-01-01

75

20 CFR Appendix 3 to Part 220 - Railroad Retirement Board Occupational Disability Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lossRecommended.Post laminectomy syndrome...lumbarHistory of radicular painHighly recommended...degenerationRecommended.Post laminectomy syndrome...cervicalContinued pain post-surgeryHighly recommended...cervicalHistory of radicular pain Highly...

2009-04-01

76

Hypothesis on the pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy, dementia, and peripheral neuropathy in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain aspects of the clinical syndrome of dementia, cerebral atrophy, predominantly sensory neuropathy, and vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS resemble those seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. Pathologically, there are similarities not only in the changes in the spinal cord, but also in the brain and peripheral nerves. The pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy may be secondary to a combination of immune mediated

S V Tan; R J Guiloff

1998-01-01

77

Delayed radiation myelopathy: Differential diagnosis with positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination  

PubMed Central

Myelopathy is a rare but serious complication of radiation therapy (RT). Radiation myelopathy is white matter damage to the spinal cord developed after a certain period of application of ionizing radiation. Factors such as radiation dose and time between applications affect the occurrence as well as the severity of myelopathy. In those patients, positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination has a very important role both in the diagnosis and in the differential diagnosis of lesions. In this case report, the case of progressive paraparesis, developed in a 52-year-old female patient operated with pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma diagnosis and who received chemotherapy and RT following surgery, has been reported.

Kadir, Tufan; Sarica, Feyzi Birol; Ozgur, Kardes; Cekinmez, Melih; Nur, Altinors Mehmet

2012-01-01

78

Cervical degenerative intraspinal cyst: a case report and literature review involving 132 cases.  

PubMed

Intraspinal and extradural cysts in the cervical spine are rare disorders that may cause myelopathy or radiculopathy. A synovial cyst or ganglion derived from the facet joint and that from a ligamentum flavum have been reported. We report a surgical case of degenerative intraspinal cyst, causing cervical myelopathy. MRI of a case revealed cystic lesion at C4-5. Spinal cord was compressed by cyst and symptoms of myelopathy were also observed. The patient with cervical spinal canal stenosis underwent laminoplasty and excision of the cyst. The patient recovered well immediately after the surgery. Literature review showed that 133 patients have been reported, including the present case. Previous reports indicated that most cysts occurred in old patients and at the atlanto-axial or C7-T1 junction, and laminectomy or laminoplasty with excision of the cyst gave good results in most cases. PMID:23195823

Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Kato, Fumihiko

2012-01-01

79

Intraoperative computed tomography for cervicomedullary decompression of foramen magnum stenosis in achondroplasia: two case reports.  

PubMed

The authors report two cases of cervicomedullary decompression of foramen magnum (FM) stenosis in children with achondroplasia using intraoperative computed tomography (iCT). A 14-month-old girl with myelopathy and retarded motor development, and a 10-year-old girl who had already undergone incomplete FM decompression was presented with myelopathy. Both patients underwent decompressive sub-occipitalcraniectomy and C1 laminectomy without duraplasty using iCT. It clearly showed the extent of FM decompression during surgery, which finally enabled sufficient decompression. After the operation, their myelopathy improved. We think that iCT can provide useful information and guidance for sufficient decompression for FM stenosis in children with achondroplasia. PMID:24140778

Arishima, Hidetaka; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Kodera, Toshiaki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro

2013-01-01

80

Cervical myelopathy from calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcification of the ligamentum flavum secondary to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition may be a rare cause\\u000a of cervical myelopathy. We present a 56-year-old man with spinal stenosis secondary to CPPD disease and subacute cervical\\u000a myelopathy following minor trauma. The patient had no history of CPPD disease. Posterior C4-C6 decompression and instrumented\\u000a fusion were performed. Intraoperative findings were densely thickened

Andreas F. Mavrogenis; Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos; Demetrios S. Korres; Spyridon Pneumaticos

2010-01-01

81

Subacute progressive ascending myelopathy following spinal cord injury: MRI appearances and clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective Case Review.Objectives:To describe the clinical presentation and course of patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy (SPAM). A rare complication of spinal cord injury.Setting:National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, UK.Materials and methods:A retrospective review of the case notes and MRI studies of 11 cases with typical MRI features of ascending myelopathy presenting

A C Planner; P M Pretorius; A Graham; T M Meagher

2008-01-01

82

Abnormal subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials indicate high cervical myelopathy in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with achondroplasia may have high cervical myelopathy due to stenosis of the cranio-cervical junction resulting\\u000a in neurological disability and an increased rate of sudden death. To detect myelopathy we recorded somatosensory evoked potentials\\u000a (SEPs) after median nerve stimulation in 30 patients with achondroplasia aged 13 months to 18 years (mean 6 years). In addition\\u000a to the conventional technique of

R. Boor; G. Fricke; K. Brühl; J. Spranger

1999-01-01

83

Risk factors for development of myelopathy in patients with cervical spondylotic cord compression.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To clarify risk factors for the development of myelopathy in patients with cervical spondylotic cord compression. METHOD: The authors reviewed articles in which risk factors for the development of myelopathy in patients with cervical spondylotic cord compression were discussed. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was also reviewed as a disease which causes cervical cord compression to clarify pathomechanism of the development of myelopathy. RESULTS: Cervical motion segment disorders are considered to be multifactorial, and developmental size of the canal and foramina, pathological encroachment, biomechanical effects, and circulatory deficiencies are always present to some degree. Static and dynamic factors should be considered for the development of myelopathy. To clarify the pathomechanism of the development of myelopathy in patients with cervical spondylotic spinal cord compression, the exact natural history of CSM should be understood. CONCLUSION: Several predictable risk factors for the development of myelopathy have been proposed in CSM or OPLL studies, but they were not definitive. Further prospective population-based study is needed to clarify the mechanism. PMID:23700231

Matsunaga, Shunji; Komiya, Setsuro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

2013-05-23

84

Clinical Features and Surgical Results of Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Soft Disc Herniation  

PubMed Central

Objective There are many causes of cervical myelopathy including trauma, degenerative conditions, tumors and demyelinating disorders. However, myelopathy caused by soft disc herniation might be seen rarely than the spondylosis caused by hard disc. Here, authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and results of cervical myelopathy caused by soft disc herniation. Methods From March 2010 to December 2010, 134 patients with degenerative cervical spinal disease were treated with anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion. Among them, 21 patients with cervical myelopathy secondary to cervical soft disc herniation were analyzed. Their clinical features, preoperative and, postoperative clinical results were evaluated by Nurick Grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (JOA) retrospectively. Preoperative clinical features including duration of myelopathy, pain intensity and postoperative clinical results including improvement rate of myelopathy and radiculopathy were retrospectively analyzed by Nurick Grade and JOA scale. We also evaluated correlation between the duration of symptom, type of the disc herniation, pain intensity and clinical outcome. Results Mean age was 49.7 and male was predominant. Gait disturbance with mild to moderate pain was most common symptom in clinical features. Severe pain was shown in only 9 cases, and the other 12 cases experienced mild to moderate pain. Mean duration of myelopathy was 1.18 month. The mean JOA scores were 11.22 before surgery and 14.2 after surgery. The mean Nurick grades were 2.78 before treatment and 1.67 after treatment. Neurologic status of mild or moderate pain group on preoperative state is worse than that of severe pain group. The patients with duration of myelopathy symptom (<1 month) showed lower clinical improvement rate than the patients with myelopathy over 1 month. Patients with median type of disc herniation showed poorer neurological status than those with paramedian type of herniation in preoperative state. Conclusion Authors reviewed the clinical features and surgical outcome of the cervical myelopathy secondary to cervical soft disc herniation. We presumed that patients of more than one month of symptom duration, mild to moderate initial symptom would be related with better postoperative improvement rate.

Park, Sung Joo; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Sung Ho; Oh, In Ho

2013-01-01

85

Human neuropathological and animal model evidence supporting a role for Fas-mediated apoptosis and inflammation in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Although cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a common cause of chronic spinal cord dysfunction in humans, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the progressive neural degeneration characterized by this condition. Based on animal models of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and traumatic spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that Fas-mediated apoptosis and inflammation may play an important role in the pathobiology of human cervical spondylotic myelopathy. We further hypothesized that neutralization of the Fas ligand using a function-blocking antibody would reduce cell death, attenuate inflammation, promote axonal repair and enhance functional neurological outcomes in animal models of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. We examined molecular changes in post-mortem human spinal cord tissue from eight patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and four control cases. Complementary studies were conducted using a mouse model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (twy/twy mice that develop spontaneous cord compression at C2-C3). We observed Fas-mediated apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes and an increase in inflammatory cells in the compressed spinal cords of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Furthermore, neutralization of Fas ligand with a function-blocking antibody in twy/twy mice reduced neural inflammation at the lesion mediated by macrophages and activated microglia, glial scar formation and caspase-9 activation. It was also associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and promoted dramatic functional neurological recovery. Our data demonstrate, for the first time in humans, the potential contribution of Fas-mediated cell death and inflammation to the pathobiology of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Complementary data in a murine model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy further suggest that targeting the Fas death receptor pathway is a viable neuroprotective strategy to attenuate neural degeneration and optimize neurological recovery in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Our findings highlight the possibility of medical treatments for cervical spondylotic myelopathy that are complementary to surgical decompression. PMID:21490053

Yu, Wen Ru; Liu, Tianyi; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Fehlings, Michael G

2011-05-01

86

Correlation between the clinic and the index of cervical myelopathy Torg  

PubMed Central

Objective Cervical myelopathy is a spinal cord dysfunction related to degeneration typical of aging. Its primary pathology is related to ischemia and spinal cord compression. Patients with myelopathy present many clinical problems; more severe cases may lead to quadriplegia if not treated in a timely manner. Because the primary pathology of this disease is caused by compression, thus generating spinal cord ischemia, we believed there must be a correlation between the degree of compression and the clinical assessment of patients with cervical myelopathy, but we did not find any study in the literature that made this correlation. Because there is doubt the literature we aimed, in our study, to analyze the correlation between the degree of clinical impairment of patients with cervical myelopathy and the Torg index. Methods A prospective, descriptive study, evaluating 46 patients, in which radiographic measurements of the Torg index were performed, with clinical analysis through the Nurick and JOA scale. Results Of the 46 study patients included in the study, 100% presented a Torg score <0.8. The decrease in Torg values was directly proportional to clinical worsening on the Nurick and JOA scale. Conclusions The degree of clinical impairment in patients with cervical myelopathy is directly related to the degree of spinal canal stenosis. Level of Evidence I, Prognostic Studies - Investigating the effect of the characteristics of a patient on the outcome of the disease.

Lozorio, Agnaldo Rogerio; Borges, Mateus; Batista Junior, Jose Lucas; Chacob Junior, Charbel; Machado, Igor Cardoso; Rezende, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

87

Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the "open-neck" (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase ( < 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. PMID:9087365

Alfonso, E R; De Gregorio, M A; Mateo, P; Escó, R; Bascón, N; Morales, F; Bellosta, R; López, P; Gimeno, M; Roca, M; Villavieja, J L

1997-01-01

88

Sudden myelopathy secondary to therapeutic total-body hyperthermia after spinal-cord irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Hyperthermia is a new method of treatment receiving increasing clinical attention in cancer therapy. Its efficacy has been well demonstrated in animals, but its indications, contraindications, and appropriate place in cancer therapy have yet to be defined. We report three cases of acute myelopathy in patients undergoing hyperthermia after spinal-cord irradiation within the preceding two months. Post-mortem examination in one case revealed findings similar to those seen in myelopathy resulting from long-term irradiation. Several neurologic side effects have been reported previously with total-body hyperthermia - most commonly peripheral neuropathy, but not myelopathy. The mechanism of action of hyperthermia in cancer therapy (with or without prior irradiation) is unknown. The experience reported suggests that in some patients hyperthermia may potentiate radiation-induced damage to the spinal cord or otherwise interact to cause acute spinal-cord necrosis.

Douglas, M.A.; Parks, L.C.; Bebin, J.

1981-03-05

89

Diffusion-weighted imaging in noncompressive myelopathies: a 33-patient prospective study.  

PubMed

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is frequently used to differentiate cerebral lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of DWI and the measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in noncompressive myelopathy explorations. Thirty-three patients presenting a spinal cord syndrome due to a noncompressive myelopathy underwent spinal cord MRI between September 2005 and November 2008. For each patient, the ADC was calculated in the pathological spinal cord. ADC values were also measured in the healthy spinal cord of ten control subjects. Statistical analysis was based on the Student's t test. Twenty-one patients presented an inflammatory myelopathy: Nine patients presented multiple sclerosis, three patients presented a parainfectious myelopathy, two patients acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, one patient neuromyelitis optica, one patient systemic lupus erythematosus, and five patients a myelopathy of unknown aetiology. Six patients presented a spinal cord infarction. ADC values were significantly lower in spinal cord infarct (mean ADC = 0.81 +/- 0.08 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) than in inflammatory spinal cord lesions (mean ADC = 1.37 +/- 0.23 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and in healthy control spinal cord (mean ADC = 0.93 +/- 0.07 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s). These results are important to differentiate ischaemic from inflammatory myelopathies, especially at the acute phase when clinical presentation and extensive work-up are not able to show an aetiologic diagnosis. Although these results are similar to those described in cerebral explorations, ADC measurements remain technically limited for the moment. PMID:20425119

Marcel, Christophe; Kremer, Stéphane; Jeantroux, Jérémy; Blanc, Frédéric; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; De Sèze, Jérôme

2010-09-01

90

Cervical Myelopathy Secondary to Atlanto-occipital Assimilation: The Usefulness of the Simple Decompressive Surgery.  

PubMed

Atlanto-occipital assimilation is one of the most common osseous anomalies observed at the craniocervical junction. Most patients with atlas assimilation show no symptom, but some have neurological problems such as myelopathy that may require surgical treatment. Occipitocervical fusion may be required if atlato-occipital assimilation is accompanied by occipito-axial instability. However, in cases of symptomatic atlas assimilation with minor cord compression without instability, simple decompressive surgery may be the treatment modality. This report describes a case of successful treatment of a patient with myelopathy secondary to atlanto-occipital assimilation without instability, using posterior simple decompressive surgery. PMID:24757486

Kim, Kang Rae; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Young Zoon; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Joon Soo; Kim, Kyu Hong; Lee, In Chang

2013-09-01

91

Cervical Myelopathy Secondary to Atlanto-occipital Assimilation: The Usefulness of the Simple Decompressive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Atlanto-occipital assimilation is one of the most common osseous anomalies observed at the craniocervical junction. Most patients with atlas assimilation show no symptom, but some have neurological problems such as myelopathy that may require surgical treatment. Occipitocervical fusion may be required if atlato-occipital assimilation is accompanied by occipito-axial instability. However, in cases of symptomatic atlas assimilation with minor cord compression without instability, simple decompressive surgery may be the treatment modality. This report describes a case of successful treatment of a patient with myelopathy secondary to atlanto-occipital assimilation without instability, using posterior simple decompressive surgery.

Kim, Kang Rae; Kim, Young Zoon; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Joon Soo; Kim, Kyu Hong; Lee, In Chang

2013-01-01

92

Rehabilitation outcomes following infections causing spinal cord myelopathy.  

PubMed

Study design:Retrospective, open-cohort, consecutive case series.Objective:To describe the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcomes in patients undergoing initial in-patient rehabilitation after an infectious cause of spinal cord myelopathy.Setting:Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Admissions between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2010.Methods:The following data were recorded: aetiology of spinal cord infection, risk factors, rehabilitation length of stay (LOS), level of injury (paraplegia vs tetraplegia), complications related to spinal cord damage and discharge destination. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) and functional independence measure (FIM) were assessed at admission and at discharge.Results:Fifty-one patients were admitted (men=32, 62.7%) with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range (IQR) 52-72, range 22-89). On admission, 37 (73%) had paraplegic level of injury and most patients (n=46, 90%) had an incomplete grade of spinal damage. Infections were most commonly bacterial (n=47, 92%); the other causes were viral (n=3, 6%) and tuberculosis (n=1, 2%). The median LOS was 106 days (IQR 65-135). The most common complications were pain (n=47, 92%), urinary tract infection (n=27, 53%), spasticity (n=25, 49%) and pressure ulcer during acute hospital admission (n=19, 37%). By the time of discharge from rehabilitation, patients typically showed a significant change in their AIS grade of spinal damage (P<0.001). They also showed significant improvement (P<0.001) in their FIM motor score (at admission: median=27, IQR 20-34; at discharge: median=66, IQR 41-75).Conclusion:Most patients returned home with a good level of functioning with respect to mobility, bladder and bowel status, and their disability improved significantly. PMID:24663003

New, P W; Astrakhantseva, I

2014-06-01

93

Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization  

SciTech Connect

A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

Modi, Manish, E-mail: modim72@yahoo.co [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Bapuraj, J. Rajiv [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology (United States); Lal, Anupam [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India); Prabhakar, S. [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Khandelwal, N. [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India)

2010-12-15

94

A rare presentation of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy secondary to cement leakage in percutaneous vertebroplasty.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is used to manage osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications after vertebroplasty ranging from minor to devastatingly major ones have been described. Cement leakage into the spinal canal is one such complication. Subacute progressive ascending myelopathy is an infrequent neurologic complication after spinal cord injury, typically presenting as ascending neurologic deficit within weeks after the initial insult. The precise cause of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy still remains an enigma, considering the rarity of this disorder. The authors present the case of a 62-yr-old woman with osteoporotic vertebral fracture who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty and developed T6 complete paraplegia because of cement leakage. A few weeks later, the neurologic level ascended to higher cervical level (C3). To date, no case of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy secondary to cement leakage after percutaneous vertebroplasty has been reported. Literature is reviewed regarding subacute progressive ascending myelopathy, and the rehabilitation challenges in the management of this patient are discussed. PMID:24322431

Bhide, Rohit Prakash; Barman, Apurba; Varghese, Shiela Mary; Chatterjee, Ahana; Mammen, Suraj; George, Jacob; Thomas, Raji

2014-05-01

95

Cervical disc arthroplasty for the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy.  

PubMed

The concept of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the anterior treatment of cervical pathology has existed for approximately half a decade. In this time, multiple devices have been developed for this purpose, with the ultimate aim to provide an alternative to fusion. Fifty-five patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy underwent CDA over a 5 year period. Data was collected on 46 patients, which included Visual Analogue Scale scores for neck pain and arm pain, Neck Disability Index scores, Short Form-36 v2 (SF-36) and Nurick grades for myelopathy patients. Preoperative data and data obtained at the latest clinical follow-up (median 48 months, range, 10-76 months) were analysed to assess the intermediate term efficacy of the procedure. In patients with radiculopathy, arm pain improved by 88% (p<0.001). In those presenting with myelopathy, the Nurick grades improved from a median of 1 to 0 (p<0.001). In both groups of patients, improvements in pain and neurologic deficit were accompanied by significant improvements in multiple domains of the SF-36. Using a composite system which considered neck pain, arm pain, function and myelopathy, we arrived at an overall success rate of 73%. We concluded that CDA is an effective intervention for improving neurologic deficit, arm pain and local neck symptoms that translated into improvements in physical and social functioning in the intermediate term. PMID:23871454

Khong, Peter; Bogduk, Nikolai; Ghahreman, Ali; Davies, Mark

2013-10-01

96

Thoracic Disc Herniation of the Adjacent Segment With Acutely Progressing Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with progressing myelopathy. Her history revealed instrumented fusion from T10 to S1 for degenerative lumbar kyphosis and spinal stenosis. The plain radiographs showed narrowing of the intervertebral disc space with a gas shadow and sclerotic end-plate changes at T9-T10. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterolateral mass compressing the spinal cord at the T9-T10 level. The patient was treated with a discectomy through the posterior approach combined with posterior instrumentation. The patient's symptoms and myelopathy resolved completely after the discectomy and instrumented fusion. The thoracic disc herniation might have been caused by the increased motion and stress concentration at the adjacent segment.

Oh, In-Soo; Seo, Jun-Yeong; Kim, Yoon-Chung

2010-01-01

97

Myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia during the late 19th century.  

PubMed

Zinc-induced myeloneuropathy was recently (re)discovered and its pathophysiology elaborated as resulting from secondary copper deficiency. However, myelopathy was a recognized problem among European zinc-smelter workers in the late 19th century, although these early reports have been overlooked in recent studies and reports. The purpose of this article is to translate and review German-language reports of myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia (now southern Poland) by Schlockow from the 1870s. Disease manifestations among zinc-smelter workers developed after sustained zinc exposure over many years. The earliest symptoms were sensory and included paresthesias, dysesthesias, allodynia, and formication in the lower extremities, particularly the feet. Workers ultimately developed a clinical picture resembling subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord with a spastic-ataxic gait with prominent proprioceptive impairment, sensory disequilibrium, and rombergism. PMID:24688096

Lanska, Douglas J; Remler, Bernd

2014-04-01

98

The spinal cord in rheumatoid arthritis with clinical myelopathy: a computed myelographic study.  

PubMed Central

Thirty one patients with suspected myelopathy due to rheumatoid arthritis were examined by plain radiography and 27 had computed myelography. Clinical features and radiological findings were compared. Deformity of the spinal cord could occur in the absence of combined anterior and posterior compression and correlated closely with clinical features only when considered in combination with skeletal and adjacent soft tissue abnormalities. The best surgical results were achieved by transoral odontoidectomy. Images

Stevens, J M; Kendall, B E; Crockard, H A

1986-01-01

99

Progression of spinal cord atrophy by traumatic or inflammatory myelopathy in the pediatric patients: case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Case series.Objective:To present spinal cord atrophy in pediatric patients who had spinal cord injury developed after trauma or acute transverse myelitis, and had no motor recovery later.Setting:Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tertiary National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.Methods:Case series.Results:Two pediatric patients with paraplegia due to acute transverse myelitis and one pediatric patient with paraplegia due to traumatic myelopathy were included

M S Bang; S J Kim

2009-01-01

100

HTLV1-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis accompanied with psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two adult females developed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP) and psoriasis. Both showed chronic progressive paraparesis and sharply demarcated erythematous scaling plaques on their extremities and trunk. One patient had polymyositis while in the other anti-thyroid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies and SS-A antibody, all autoantibodies, were positive. Both patients were treated by intramuscular injections of interferon-? for 2 to 4 weeks,

Akihiro Watanabe; Masakazu Kawajiri; Koji Ikezoe; Manabu Osoegawa; Hiroyuki Murai; Hirofumi Ochi; Takayuki Taniwaki; Jun-ichi Kira

2004-01-01

101

Myelopathy and Quadriparesis due to Spinal Cord Compression of C1 Laminar Osteochondroma.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to show that osteochondromas of the cervical vertebrae can cause myelopathy and neck pain.The reported etiology, diagnosis, treatment and differential diagnosis were reviewed. Osteochondromas may present as a solitary lesion with no genetic component or as multiple lesions as a part of a genetic disorder known as hereditary multiple exostosis. Osteochondromas of the spine are rarely encountered in clinical practice. These lesions are reported more commonly with neural compression in cases associated with hereditary multiple exostosis. The authors describe a unusual clinical manifestation of a solitary osteochondroma located in the right posterior arch of the atlas. Complete removal of the tumor was performed resulting in the relief of neck pain and spastic quadriparesis. Although unusual, osteochondromas of the cervical spine must be considered in patients with persistent neck pain and progressive symptoms of myelopathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with plain radiograms is the neuroradiological modality of choice. The diagnosis and surgical excision of these tumors are important because they can cause spinal stenosis resulting in neural tissue compression and myelopathy. PMID:22439091

Er, Uygur; Sim?ek, Serkan; Yi?itkanl?, Kaz?m; Adaba?, Aysegül; Kars, Hamit Zafer

2012-03-01

102

[A case of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma associated with transverse myelopathy].  

PubMed

We present a 68-year-old man suffering from transverse myelopathy since May 2010. The spinal cord MRI showed a T2- hyperintense lesion invading the Th5 level spinal cord. Although the patient transiently responded to steroid-pulse therapy, his neurological symptoms degenerated three months after wards. On admission, he had an apparent hepatosplenomegaly, but no lymphadenopathy. A laboratory examination revealed bicytopenia and increased levels ofLDH and soluble IL-2 receptors. Histological analysis ofa skin biopsy specimen demonstrated proliferation of large atypical lymphoid cells positive for CD20 and CD79a in the small capillaries, leading to our diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma(IVLBCL). Thus, the patient's progressive myelopathy was probably caused by IVLBCL invasion. The patient responded well to Rituximab-combined CHOP therapy(R-CHOP), and his neurological symptoms improved immediately. A spinal cord MRI showed the disappearance of the abnormal signal after two courses of R -CHOP. IVLBCL often presents with neurological manifestations, including transverse myelopathy. PMID:22083204

Seki, Masanori; Sugawara, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Taro; Harigae, Hideo

2011-11-01

103

Progressive ascending myelopathy: atypical forms of multiple sclerosis or what else?  

PubMed

The spinal cord can be affected by multiple heterogeneous disorders often difficult to diagnose. We describe ten patients affected by a progressive ascending myelopathy with a poor prognosis. The patients, during the follow-up period, underwent neurological examinations, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, hematological, microbiological, auto-antibodies screening, brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroneurophysiological study. At disease onset spinal cord MRI showed ?1 myelopathic lesions extended for <2 segments and then evidenced a progressive spinal cord atrophy without any new lesion. All patients showed an increase of the visual evoked potential P100 latency. All of them showed two or more clinical recurrences of myelitis and then, after a period ranging from 3 to 5 years from the disease onset, a progressive course. Five patients became unresponsive to intravenous high-dose steroid treatments and/or intravenous immunoglobulins and to any other therapeutic attempts, developed a progressive ascending myelopathy to tetraplegia and died from respiratory failure. The other five patients are in progressive phase of the disease with an initial involvement of the upper limbs and show mild cervical spinal cord atrophy at MRI, configuring the early stage of an ascending progressive myelopathy. In our opinion, the more suitable diagnosis is an atypical form of MS although is not possible to exclude a new nosological entity that could be included in the expanding range of spinal cord diseases. PMID:21512739

Nociti, Viviana; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Luigetti, Marco; Conte, Amelia; Lorusso, Vita Santa; Roiati, Silvia; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Del Grande, Alessandra; Sabatelli, Mario

2011-11-01

104

Concomitant Occurrence of Cervical Myelopathy, Cerebral Infarction, and Peripheral Neuropathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by multiorgan involvement with diverse clinical presentations. Central nervous system involvement in neuropsychiatric syndromes of SLE (NPSLE), such as cerebrovascular disease and myelopathy, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE patients. The concomitant occurrence of myelopathy, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy in a patient with SLE has not yet been reported. We report on a 41-year-old woman with SLE who showed motor and sensory impairment with urinary retention and was diagnosed with cervical myelopathy and acute cerebral infarction by spine and brain magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral neuropathy by electrodiagnostic examination. Even though pathogenesis of NPSLE is not well elucidated, we assume that increased antibodies of anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), presence of lupus anticoagulant and hypertension are risk factors that have caused neuropsychiatric lupus in this patient.

Kim, So-Yeon; Suh, Jee-Hyun

2014-01-01

105

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and severe cervical spondylotic myelopathy in a patient with a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst: diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Distinguishing between cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ALS can be difficult, as illustrated by this report of a patient who had both disorders, as well as a relatively rare arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa. Attempts to differentiate between ALS and cervical spondylotic myelopathy must persist until diagnosis of one (or both) of the disorders is made, since both the prognosis and treatment of the two are different. Careful neurologic examination with attention to clinical details, muscle biopsy in some patients, and routine EMG will usually lead to the proper diagnosis. PMID:3423904

Lee, K S; Kelly, D L

1987-12-01

106

Evaluation of conservative treatment and timing of surgical intervention for mild forms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

The optimal management approach for patients with mild forms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) has not been well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcome of conservative treatment, identify prognostic factors and provide evidence for the timing of surgical intervention. A total of 90 patients with MCSM attending hospital between February 2007 and January 2009 were prospectively enrolled. Initially, all patients received conservative treatment and were followed up periodically. When a deterioration in myelopathy was clearly identified, surgical treatment was conducted. Clinical and radiological factors correlating with the deterioration were examined, and final clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. At the end of January 2012, follow-ups of >3 years were completed. Seventy-eight patients were available for data analysis. Only 21 patients (26.9%) deteriorated and underwent surgery thereafter (group A), while the remaining 57 patients (73.1%) were treated conservatively throughout (group B). Statistical analysis revealed that segmental instability and cervical spinal stenosis were adverse factors for the prognosis of conservative treatment. Although the JOA scores of the patients in group A declined initially, following surgical intervention, no significant differences were identified in JOA scores between the two groups at the time of the final follow-up (P=0.46). In summary, conservative treatment is effective in MCSM patients. Patients with segmental instability and cervical spinal stenosis have a tendency to deteriorate, but conservative treatment remains the recommendation for the first action. If the myelopathy deteriorates during conservative treatment, timely surgical intervention is effective.

KONG, LING-DE; MENG, LING-CHEN; WANG, LIN-FENG; SHEN, YONG; WANG, PAN; SHANG, ZI-KUN

2013-01-01

107

Computed tomographic evaluation of C5 root exit foramen in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Narrowing of the intervertebral foramen for C5 root and a larger superior articular process in myelopathic patients with postlaminoplasty motor dominant C5 radiculopathy has been reported. We investigated whether the C4-5 foraminal dimensions and surface area in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy are universally smaller than the intervertebral foramina at other cervical levels. Methods: The study population consisted of 44 consecutive patients (sex: 24 males and 20 females), averaging 55.7 years of age (range 42-84) years who presented with clinical features suggestive of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Using computed tomography (CT) imaging, we prospectively compared height, transverse diameter, and surface area of the C4-5 foramen to those of C3-4, C5-6 and C6-7 foramina of the same side in the whole study population as well as in male and female patients. Results: In the whole study population at C4-5 intervertebral foramen the mean foraminal height was 8.37 ± 1.3 mm on the right and 8.85 ± 1.16 mm on the left; and the mean foraminal transverse diameter on the right was 4.97 ± 1.35 mm and 5.14 ± 1.16 mm on the left. No statistically significant difference was found between the measurements in the whole study population at various levels, between or within male and female patient groups. Conclusion: C4-5 intervertebral foramen is not uniformly smaller in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

Hegazy, Rania M.; Abdelrahman, Ahmed Y.; Azab, Waleed A.

2014-01-01

108

Neuroimmunological aspects of human T cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.  

PubMed

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus etiologically associated with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Only approximately 0.25-4 % of infected individuals develop HAM/TSP; the majority of infected individuals remain lifelong asymptomatic carriers. Recent data suggest that immunological aspects of host-virus interactions might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. This review outlines and discusses the current understanding, ongoing developments, and future perspectives of HAM/TSP research. PMID:23943469

Saito, Mineki

2014-04-01

109

Atlas Hypoplasia and Ossification of the Transverse Atlantal Ligament: A Rare Cause of Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Myelopathy at the level of the atlas is rarely encountered by the practicing spine surgeon. Due to the region's unique anatomy, compression of the cord at this level is either caused by a large compressing lesion or an abnormally stenotic canal. We describe a rare instance of a congenitally stenotic canal due to a hypoplastic intact posterior arch of atlas, coexisting with an extremely rare ossified transverse ligament of the atlas. The coexistence of these two lesions has only been documented thrice before. We describe the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and favorable response to surgery.

Bokhari, Rakan

2012-01-01

110

Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with progressive myelopathy following spinal surgery.  

PubMed Central

Thirty one patients with insidious progressive myelopathy 2 to 8 years following surgery of the cervical spine were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 15 patients operated on for vascular malformations or intramedullary tumours, syringomyelia and cystic lesions of the spinal cord were shown. Seven of these patients also showed a combination of a recurrent tumour and spinal atrophy. Out of 16 patients who had surgery for herniated disc or spinal stenosis of the cervical spine, four had syringomyelia and 12 had spinal cord atrophy. There was no syringomyelia in the 12 patients submitted to MRI prior to surgery. Images

Avrahami, E; Tadmor, R; Cohn, D F

1989-01-01

111

Two Types of Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy at Multiple Levels  

PubMed Central

Based on the results from pathological analysis and computer simulations by means of finite element analysis that were reported before, the pathological changes of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) seem to begin at the posterolateral parts of the spinal cord, because the mechanical stress is mainly concentrated in these parts. With progression of the compression, the pathological changes become distributed to a wider area of the spinal cord. In patients with spinal canal stenosis, these changes spread to multiple levels of the cervical spine. Therefore, posterior decompression surgery at multiple levels such as cervical laminoplasty is thought to be reasonable.

Hirabayashi, Shigeru; Matsushita, Takashi

2011-01-01

112

[Lumbar radiation myelopathy. Case report on localization of lumbar radiation sequelae].  

PubMed

The case of a patient with a radiation lesion of the lumbosacral cord following prophylactic radiation therapy of the paraortic lymph nodes for seminoma is reported. Seven months after radiotherapy he suffered from a pure anterior cell syndrome, followed by a loss of pain and temperature sensation. Ten years later he developed a complete transversal syndrome at the level of L 1. This case indicates the existence of a lumbar radiation myelopathy caused by a lesion at the level of the conus medullaris. PMID:4000318

Berlit, P

1985-04-01

113

Hepatic myelopathy with spastic paraparesis: report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The present report illustrates two men aged for 59 and 43 years, respectively, who presented with slowly progressive spastic paraparesis. STUDY DESIGN: Two case reports and review of literature. METHODS: The patent's history, clinical examination, biology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and treatment are reported. We also discuss the pathogenesis and various treatment options. RESULTS: Neurologic examination showed spastic paraparesis without other neurological disorders. MRI of the spinal cord and brain were normal. Cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid from each patient was normal. Hemogram disclosed a pancytopenia. Partial thromboplastin time was prolonged. Liver function tests revealed raised serum bilirubin, normal alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, reduced total protein and albumin. Plasma ammonia was elevated. Blood vitamin B12 and folate values were in normal ranges. Serum antibodies to human T cell lymphotropic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and hepatitis C virus were absent. Hepatitis B virus antibody assay was positive. The electromyographic evaluation for second motor neuron involvement was also normal. Endoscopy revealed esophageal varices and a spleno-renal shunt. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic myelopathy remains a default diagnosis assigned only after the exclusion of other causes of spastic paraparesis and partial transverse myelopathy. An accurate history, along with appropriate imaging and laboratory findings, is crucial. PMID:23728397

Ben Amor, Sana; Saied, Mohamed Zakaria; Harzallah, Mohamed Salah; Benammou, Sofiene

2013-06-01

114

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy presenting as mechanical neck pain: A case report.  

PubMed

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM) is the most common type of myelopathy in adults over 55 years of age. In the early stages symptoms may include local neck pain and stiffness that might mimic the presentation of non-specific mechanical neck pain (NSMNP). The patient was a 79 year old male, who complained of eight weeks of neck pain. He had been referred for physiotherapy by his family physician with a diagnosis of NSMNP. Initial presentation was consistent with the referral, but further assessment by the physiotherapist revealed findings suggestive of CSM. He was referred for an urgent cervical MRI scan, which revealed myelomalacic changes at C3/4 due to spondylotic changes. The patient was unsuitable for manual therapy intervention and was referred to a spinal orthopaedic surgeon who performed a posterior decompression and stabilisation at C3-C5, 2 months after the initial presentation. This case report highlights the importance of considering CSM in adults over 55 years of age presenting with NSMNP, particularly as the prevalence of both increases with age. It demonstrates the need for health professionals to carry out detailed examination where CSM may be a potential differential diagnosis. Outcomes are less favourable for patients over the age of 70, therefore an urgent surgical opinion was required for this patient. Deterioration of symptoms whilst he awaited surgery demonstrates how missed diagnosis may lead to possible long term spinal cord damage, with potential medico-legal concerns for the therapist. PMID:24815593

Smith, Benjamin E; Diver, Claire J; Taylor, Alan J

2014-08-01

115

Minimally invasive open lumbar discectomy: An alternative to microlumbar discectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lumbar disc surgery has come a long way since its fi rst description by Dandy in 19291. Evolving through the transdural approach and a laminectomy for the removal of a disc, it now surpasses the primal technique with essentially a minimally invasive procedure, an extradural approach without laminectomy2. Objective: The objective of this study is to ascertain the effectiveness

Lohani S; Joshi RM

116

Immunopathogenesis of HTLV-1-assoaciated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).  

PubMed

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Only a limited percentage of infected individuals develop disease in response to the virus while the majority remain asymptomatic, and HAM/TSP is the most common clinical manifestation of the virus. HAM/TSP is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS); however, the mechanism by which HTLV-1 induces HAM/TSP is not yet clear. CD4(+) T lymphocytes are the main reservoirs of HTLV-1 in vivo and perform an important role in the immunological response to this retrovirus. This virus-host interaction may provoke changes in the immunological response, such as the enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines and the spontaneous proliferation of T CD4(+) lymphocytes, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. PMID:24704970

Fuzii, Hellen Thais; da Silva Dias, George Alberto; de Barros, Rodrigo Jose Saraiva; Falcão, Luiz Fabio Magno; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simoes

2014-05-28

117

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis accompanied with psoriasis.  

PubMed

Two adult females developed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and psoriasis. Both showed chronic progressive paraparesis and sharply demarcated erythematous scaling plaques on their extremities and trunk. One patient had polymyositis while in the other anti-thyroid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies and SS-A antibody, all autoantibodies, were positive. Both patients were treated by intramuscular injections of interferon-alpha for 2 to 4 weeks, resulting in amelioration of paraparesis. After the therapy psoriasis and polymyositis markedly improved in one patient without any additional therapy, while in the other simultaneous use of topical corticosteroids was effective. This is the first report to describe occurrences of psoriasis in HAM/TSP patients. Although there are several reports indicating interferon-alpha induces or exacerbates psoriasis, our experience suggests that psoriasis associated with HAM/TSP can be successfully managed even during interferon-alpha therapy. PMID:15178221

Watanabe, Akihiro; Kawajiri, Masakazu; Ikezoe, Koji; Osoegawa, Manabu; Murai, Hiroyuki; Ochi, Hirofumi; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Kira, Jun-ichi

2004-06-15

118

Endoscopic fenestration of posterior fossa arachnoid cyst for the treatment of presyrinx myelopathy--case report.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old man presented with an arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa manifesting as cervical syringomyelic myelopathy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated edematous enlargement and T2 prolongation of the cervical spinal cord, indicating a "presyrinx" state. MR imaging showed the inferior wall of the cyst, which disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatile movement between the intraspinal and intracranial subarachnoid spaces. The cyst wall was fenestrated with a neuroendoscope. The presyrinx state and the CSF movement improved. Posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, as well as Chiari malformation, can cause CSF flow disturbance at the craniocervical junction and syringomyelia. Endoscopic fenestration is less invasive than foramen magnum decompression and should be the procedure of choice. PMID:12416571

Nomura, Sadahiro; Akimura, Tatsuo; Imoto, Hirochika; Nishizaki, Takafumi; Suzuki, Michiyasu

2002-10-01

119

Cervical myelopathy due to atlantoaxial and subaxial subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Four patients aged 41 to 73 years, who had had rheumatoid arthritis for eight to 25 years, had signs and symptoms of cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy due to either atlantoaxial dislocation with herniation of the odontoid through the foramen magnum, or subluxation of the middle to lower cervical vertebrae. Spastic paraparesis or quadriparesis, severe nuchal immobility and pain, and flaccid paresis of the upper limbs necessitated anterior medullary decompression and posterior cervical fusion. Postmortem examination disclosed old ischemic necrosis, atrophy, and gliosis in the low medulla and cervical cord. Anterior and posterior gray horns and contiguous posterior and lateral funiculi bore the brunt of the damage. Ascending and descending wallerian degeneration and atrophy of the cervical nerve root were evident. In three cases, anterior spinal or radicular arteries demonstrated intimal fibrosis with moderate stenosis; two cases depicted chronic phlebitis or subarachnoid vessels. Previous reports have infrequently provided evidence of a vasculopathy. PMID:6687427

Manz, H J; Luessenhop, A J; Robertson, D M

1983-02-01

120

Management of surgical splenorenal shunt-related hepatic myelopathy with endovascular interventional techniques  

PubMed Central

We present a case with hepatic myelopathy (HM) due to a surgical splenorenal shunt that was successfully treated by endovascular interventional techniques. A 39-year-old man presented with progressive spastic paraparesis of his lower limbs 14 mo after a splenorenal shunt. A portal venogram identified a widened patent splenorenal shunt. We used an occlusion balloon catheter initially to occlude the shunt. Further monitoring of the patient revealed a decrease in his serum ammonia level and an improvement in leg strength. We then used an Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) to enable closure of the shunt. During the follow up period of 7 mo, the patient experienced significant clinical improvement and normalization of blood ammonia, without any complications. Occlusion of a surgically created splenorenal shunt with AVP represents an alternative therapy to surgery or coil embolization that can help to relieve shunt-induced HM symptoms.

Wang, Mao-Qiang; Liu, Feng-Yong; Duan, Feng

2012-01-01

121

Solitary Osteochondroma of the Thoracic Spine with Compressive Myelopathy; A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

A 19-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of back pain radiating to the lower extremities and paresthesis of the toes during the last year. Plain X-ray revealed a large cauliflower shaped exophytic mass at the level of T8, T9 and T10 vertebrae. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an abnormal bony mass arising from the posterior arch of T9 with protrusion to the spinal canal and marked cord compression. The cortex and medulla of the lesion had continuity with those of the T9 vertebra. Surgical en bloc resection was performed and the patient’s symptoms resolved. The histopathologic diagnosis was osteochondroma. In patients with symptoms of myelopathy, in addition to more common etiologies, one should also be aware of rare entities such as osteochondroma.

Mehrian, Payam; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Kahkuee, Shahram; Bakhshayeshkaram, Mehrdad; Ghasemikhah, Reza

2013-01-01

122

Postmortem findings in a woman with history of laminoplasty for severe cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Context We report the autopsy of a 65-year-old woman who underwent a C3–C7 laminoplasty 4 years after the diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Her sensory disturbance, spasticity, and vesicorectal disturbance, which corresponded to long tract sign, had improved after surgery. Findings Cross sections at the C4–C5 level showed a triangular shape because of atrophied ventral gray matter. Moreover, despite the scarce glial scar formation around the cystic cavity, regeneration of gray matter had not occurred. In the white matter, the posterior and lateral funiculi were shrunken including three to four segments. Conclusion Pathological change of white matter did not coincide with relief of clinical symptoms in this case. These findings indicate that it may be better to operate earlier in cases of CSM, because delay may lead to irreversible histological change.

Someya, Yukio; Koda, Masao; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Okawa, Akihiko; Masaki, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Masashi

2011-01-01

123

Degenerative spondylolisthesis does not influence surgical results of laminoplasty in elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to investigate the comorbidity of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), in elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients in our hospital, and the correlation between surgical results and preoperative DS. There are few studies on the outcome of laminoplasty for CSM with DS. A total of 49 elderly patients (>65 years old) who eventually had surgical treatment for CSM were evaluated. A slippage displacement of more than 2.5 mm at least at one level was classified to have a positive DS on flexion/extension radiographs (DS group). A slippage displacement less than 1.0 mm was considered a negative DS (non-DS group). Seventeen patients who had slippage of 1.0–2.5 mm were excluded from the study. The DS group (n = 15) included cases with DS at preoperation, while the remaining cases (n = 17) belonged to the non-DS group. The flexion/extension radiographs of the two groups were compared for range of motion and clinical results at 3 years after the operation. Of all elderly patients, 30.6% had DS. There was no significant difference between the two groups based on the clinical results. The range of motion of all cervical spines (DS group and non-DS group) was significantly limited. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. New postoperative DS appeared in four patients, of which two were from the DS group and two from the non-DS group. These data suggest that degenerative spondylolisthesis does not influence surgical results in elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients.

2010-01-01

124

An Outcome Measure of Functionality and Quality of Life in Patients With Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common cause of significant clinical morbidity. The Japanese Orthopedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) is a measure of health-related quality of life in these patients. Objectives: This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and validate the JOACMEQ in Iran. Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective clinical validation one. Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the questionnaire from English into Persian. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed in accordance with the published guidelines. A sample of patients with CSM was asked to respond to the questionnaire at two times: providing preoperative and postoperative assessments (6 months follow-up). To test the reliability, the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach ? coefficient and the validity was assessed by convergent validity. Responsiveness to change was also assessed comparing patients’ preoperative and postoperative scores. Results: All 87 patients completed the questionnaire. The Cronbach ? coefficient for the JOACMEQ at preoperative and postoperative assessments ranged from 0.71 to 0.82 indicating a good internal consistency for the questionnaire. In addition, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized subscale of the JOACMEQ showed satisfactory results suggesting that the items had a substantial association with their own subscales. Further analysis also indicated that the questionnaire was responsive to change (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In general, the findings suggest that the Persian version of the JOACMEQ is a reliable and valid measure of functionality and quality of life evaluation among Iranian patients suffered from CSM.

Azimi, Parisa; Rezaei, Omidvar; Montazeri, Ali

2014-01-01

125

Comparisons of three anterior cervical surgeries in treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) was one of the preferred treatments for degenerative cervical spondylosis. However, the motion of adjacent segment was significantly increased after operation. So cervical disc arthroplasty have been suggested to keep the motion of adjacent segment. A new implant named dynamic cervical implant (DCI) has been developed to keep the motion of adjacent segment. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 91 patients treated for single level cervical spondylotic myelopathy with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), dynamic cervical implant (DCI) and cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) between sep 2009 and Mar 2011 in our hospital. They were divided into three groups by surgical methods: ACDF group (group A, 34 cases), DCI group (group B, 25 cases), CTDR group (group C, 32 cases). Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, preoperative and postoperative JOA score and JOA recovery rate were compared among the three groups. Pre-and postoperative hyperextension and hyperflexion radiograms were observed to measure range of motion (ROM) of C2–7, operative and adjacent levels. Results There was no statistical difference in operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and JOA recovery rate (P?>?0.05) among three groups. But the differences of their postoperative JOA scores and preoperative JOA scores were of statistical significance (P??0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative ROM and postoperative ROM of upper and lower levels in group B (P?>?0.05), but had statistically significance of C2–7 and operative levels (P?myelopathy. But each group has respective advantages and disadvantages.

2014-01-01

126

[Alcoholic cerebellar degeneration with pyramidal sign--in relation to alcoholic myelopathy].  

PubMed

Two cases of alcoholic cerebellar degeneration with pyramidal sign were reported. Patient 1 with alcohol dependence syndrome was a 46-year-old woman. After the alcohol abuse of about eight years, she complained of gait disturbance. The gait disturbance progressively worsened in about two months and she could not ambulate freely by herself. Neurological examination revealed nystagmus, ataxic and spastic gait, slight weakness and spasticity of the lower extremities, hyperreflexia of the extremities, bilateral Babinski's signs, and incoordination of the lower extremities. Examination of liver function and serum B12 was normal. Cranial CT scan and MRI revealed atrophy of the cerebellar vermis and dorsal part of the cerebellum. Though neurological signs slightly improved after the admission to our hospital and the abstinence from alcohol abuse, ataxic gait and hyperreflexia of the extremities have continued. Patient 2 was a 58-year-old man. He was a heavy drinker, but was not a patient with alcohol dependence syndrome. After the heavy drinking of about 40 years, he complained of gait disturbance. The gait disturbance had progressively worsened in about four months. Neurological examination revealed ataxic gait, hyperreflexia of the lower extremities, and bilateral Babinski's signs. Laboratory examination revealed slight liver dysfunction with minimal GPT and moderate gamma-GTP elevation. Examination of serum B12 was normal. Cranial CT scan and MRI revealed atrophy of the cerebellar vermis. Though bilateral Babinski's signs disappeared after the abstinence from heavy drinking, ataxic gait and hyperreflexia of the lower extremities have continued. Alcoholic myelopathy without hepatic cirrhosis was rarely reported. In the relation of alcoholic cerebellar degeneration to alcoholic myelopathy, our cases are interesting and important. PMID:8476668

Tsuchiya, K; Watabiki, S; Shiojiri, T; Matsumoto, A; Tsukagoshi, H

1993-02-01

127

Antemortem diagnosis and successful management of noncompressive segmental myelopathy in a Siberian-Bengal mixed breed tiger.  

PubMed

A 10-yr-old female spayed mixed breed tiger presented for a 9-day history of acute and nonprogressive paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion suggestive of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy with regional spinal cord edema, decreased disk signal intensity at L2-L3, and mild intervertebral disk protrusion at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed no overt evidence of infection or neoplasia. Medical therapy was instituted, including corticosteroids and gastroprotectants as well as nursing care and physical therapy. The tiger began showing clinical improvement 2 wk after initiating treatment, progressing to the point where the animal was standing and intermittently walking. Three months after diagnosis, the tiger had regained muscle strength of its hind limbs and walked regularly with improving coordination. This case is the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful medical management of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a large exotic felid. PMID:24450082

Flower, Jennifer E; Lynch, Kate; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Welle, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Robert; Whittington, Julia K

2013-12-01

128

Is there a benefit to operating on patients (bedridden or in wheelchairs) with advanced stage cervical spondylotic myelopathy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) aims to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. Many\\u000a patients are diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, presenting severe functional disability and extensive radiologic\\u000a changes, which suggests clinical irreversibility. There are doubts about the real benefit of surgery in patients who are seriously\\u000a ill, bedridden or in a wheelchair. The

Fabrizio Borges Scardino; Leonardo Poubel Rocha; Alécio Cristino Evangelista Santos Barcelos; José Marcus Rotta; Ricardo Vieira Botelho

2010-01-01

129

Synovial chondromatosis of the lumbar spine with compressive myelopathy: a case report with review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial chondromatosis has been rarely reported to occur in the spine with only one case found in the lumbar spine. We describe\\u000a another case of synovial chondromatosis in the lumbar spine in a 41-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy.\\u000a The tumor was located in the left ventrolateral corner of the epidural space just below the L4–L5 intervertebral space. Besides

Ibrahim Fikry Abdelwahab; Daniel Contractor; Stefano Bianchi; George Hermann; Benjamin Hoch

2008-01-01

130

Anomalous vertebral artery compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction  

PubMed Central

Background: Myelopathy from ectatic vertebral artery compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction is a rare condition. Case Description: A 63-year-old female was originally diagnosed with occult hydrocephalus syndrome after presenting with symptoms of ataxia and urinary incontinence. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting induced an acute worsening of the patient?s symptoms as she immediately developed a sensory myelopathy. An MR scan demonstrated multiple congenital abnormalities including cervicomedullary stenosis with anomalous vertebral artery compression of the dorsal spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. The patient was taken to surgery for a suboccipital craniectomy, C1-2 laminectomy, vertebral artery decompression, duraplasty, and shunt ligation. Intraoperative findings confirmed preoperative radiography with ectactic vertebral arteries deforming the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord. There were no procedural complications and at a 6-month follow-up appointment, the patient had experienced a marked improvement in her preoperative signs and symptoms. Conclusion: Myelopathy from ectatic vertebral artery compression at the cervicomedullary junction is a rare disorder amenable to operative neurovascular decompression.

Ball, Bret Gene; Krueger, Bruce R; Piepgras, David G

2011-01-01

131

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy with vitamin B12 deficiency: Two case reports  

PubMed Central

Although it has been observed that a vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency may lead to defects in the nervous system, there is a lack of studies elucidating whether VB12 has a role in the pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The present study describes two cases of CSM observed in the clinic, where the patients presented with common characteristics of the typical clinical symptoms; however, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging examinations revealed that although the degree of spinal cord compression was not serious, the spinal cord exhibited significant high signal changes. At the same time, the serum VB12 levels of the two patients were lower compared with those of normal controls. The symptoms of the patients improved following anterior cervical decompression surgery and VB12 replacement therapy. The incidence of CSM in the two patients may have been correlated with a lack of VB12. Therefore, it is recommended that the serum VB12 levels are checked in cases of CSM where the standard imaging and clinical manifestations do not fully match.

XU, YAO; CHEN, WENJUN; JIANG, JIANYUAN

2013-01-01

132

Clinical predictors of surgical outcome in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: an analysis of 248 patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical predictors of surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). We reviewed a consecutive series of 248 patients (71 women and 177 men) with CSM who had undergone surgery at our institution between January 2000 and October 2010. Their mean age was 59.0 years (16 to 86). Medical records, office notes, and operative reports were reviewed for data collection. Special attention was focused on pre-operative duration and severity as well as post-operative persistence of myelopathic symptoms. Disease severity was graded according to the Nurick classification. Our multivariate logistic regression model indicated that Nurick grade 2 CSM patients have the highest chance of complete symptom resolution (p < 0.001) and improvement to normal gait (p = 0.004) following surgery. Patients who did not improve after surgery had longer duration of myelopathic symptoms than those who did improve post-operatively (17.85 months (1 to 101) vs 11.21 months (1 to 69); p = 0.002). More advanced Nurick grades were not associated with a longer duration of symptoms (p = 0.906). Our data suggest that patients with Nurick grade 2 CSM are most likely to improve from surgery. The duration of myelopathic symptoms does not have an association with disease severity but is an independent prognostic indicator of surgical outcome. PMID:23814251

Pumberger, M; Froemel, D; Aichmair, A; Hughes, A P; Sama, A A; Cammisa, F P; Girardi, F P

2013-07-01

133

Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding presented with a history of neurological signs, including incoordination in his hindlimbs, of about 7 months' duration. On initial examination, the horse exhibited ataxia and paresis in all limbs with more severe deficits in the hindlimbs. Cervical radiographs displayed severe osteoarthritis of the articular processes between C5 and C6. On subsequent cervical myelography the dorsal contrast column was reduced by 90% at the level of the intervertebral space between C5 and C6. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy, including epidural (epiduroscopy) and subarachnoid endoscopy (myeloscopy), was performed under general anaesthesia. A substantial narrowing of the subarachnoid space at the level between C6 and C7 was seen during myeloscopy, while no compression was apparent between C5 and C6. Epiduroscopy showed no abnormalities. After completion of the procedure, the horse was subjected to euthanasia and the cervical spinal cord submitted for histopathological examination. Severe myelin and axon degeneration of the white matter was diagnosed at the level of the intervertebral space between C6 and C7, with Wallerian degeneration cranially and caudally, indicating chronic spinal cord compression at this site. Myeloscopy was successfully used to identify the site of spinal cord compression in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy, while myelography results were misleading. PMID:21696435

Prange, T; Carr, E A; Stick, J A; Garcia-Pereira, F L; Patterson, J S; Derksen, F J

2012-01-01

134

Risk factors for development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: results of a systematic review.  

PubMed

Study design: ?Systematic review. Study rationale: ?Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction that may be asymptomatic or may present with severe symptoms. Since CSM has an insidious manifestation, identification of risk factors associated with this condition may aid clinicians in monitoring high-risk patients and implementing appropriate management strategies. Objective: ?To assess sociodemographic, clinical, radiographic, and genetic risk factors associated with presence of CSM in patients 18 years or older. Methods: ?A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases, and bibliographies of key articles to assess risk factors associated with CSM. Articles were reviewed by two independent reviewers based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Each article was evaluated using a predefined quality-rating scheme. Results: ?From 486 citations, eight articles met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Larger vertebral body and smaller spinal canal and Torg/Pavlov ratio were associated with CSM diagnosis, while gender was not associated with a CSM diagnosis across multiple studies. There were inconsistent reports with respect to increased age as a risk factor for CSM diagnosis. Conclusion: ?The limited data available suggests that inherent anatomical features that may contribute to congenital cervical stenosis may be associated with CSM. This systematic review is limited by the small number of high-quality studies evaluating prognostic factors for CSM. The overall strength of evidence for all risk factors evaluated is low. PMID:23526904

Singh, Anoushka; Tetreault, Lindsay; Fehlings, Michael G; Fischer, Dena J; Skelly, Andrea C

2012-08-01

135

Compressive myelopathy due to intervertebral disk extrusion in a llama (Lama glama).  

PubMed

A 12-year-old intact female llama was euthanized following acute onset of spastic tetraparesis and recumbency with inability to rise. Postmortem examination revealed caudal cervical spinal cord compression due to a mass within the ventral spinal canal arising from the C6-C7 intervertebral disk space and attached to an irregularly thickened annulus fibrosis. On histopathologic examination, the mass was composed of amorphous acellular basophilic to amphophilic material admixed with irregularly arranged collagen bundles. The amorphous material was metachromatic and contained multiple small foci of markedly vacuolated round cells, characteristic of origin from the nucleus pulposus. Severe necrosis of all white matter tracts with astrocytic reaction was present in the overlying spinal cord segment. Ascending and descending Wallerian degeneration and dissecting interstitial astrogliosis were present within white matter tracts above and below the lesion, respectively. The diagnosis was compressive myelopathy due to chronic extrusion of the nucleus pulposus of the C6-C7 intervertebral disk. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of intervertebral disk disease in a camelid. PMID:16566272

Valentine, Beth A; Saulez, Montague N; Cebra, Christopher K; Fischer, Kay A

2006-01-01

136

Systems biology approaches reveal a specific interferon-inducible signature in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong in the host. In ?4% of infected people, HTLV-1 causes a chronic disabling neuroinflammatory disease known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is unknown and treatment remains ineffective. We used gene expression microarrays followed by flow cytometric and functional assays to investigate global changes in blood transcriptional profiles of HTLV-1-infected and seronegative individuals. We found that perturbations of the p53 signaling pathway were a hallmark of HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes was over-expressed in patients with HAM/TSP but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers or patients with the clinically similar disease multiple sclerosis. The IFN-inducible signature was present in all circulating leukocytes and its intensity correlated with the clinical severity of HAM/TSP. Leukocytes from patients with HAM/TSP were primed to respond strongly to stimulation with exogenous IFN. However, while type I IFN suppressed expression of the HTLV-1 structural protein Gag it failed to suppress the highly immunogenic viral transcriptional transactivator Tax. We conclude that over-expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes in chronic HTLV-1 infection does not constitute an efficient host response but instead contributes to the development of HAM/TSP. PMID:22291590

Tattermusch, Sonja; Skinner, Jason A; Chaussabel, Damien; Banchereau, Jacques; Berry, Matthew P; McNab, Finlay W; O'Garra, Anne; Taylor, Graham P; Bangham, Charles R M

2012-01-01

137

Systems Biology Approaches Reveal a Specific Interferon-Inducible Signature in HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong in the host. In ?4% of infected people, HTLV-1 causes a chronic disabling neuroinflammatory disease known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is unknown and treatment remains ineffective. We used gene expression microarrays followed by flow cytometric and functional assays to investigate global changes in blood transcriptional profiles of HTLV-1-infected and seronegative individuals. We found that perturbations of the p53 signaling pathway were a hallmark of HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes was over-expressed in patients with HAM/TSP but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers or patients with the clinically similar disease multiple sclerosis. The IFN-inducible signature was present in all circulating leukocytes and its intensity correlated with the clinical severity of HAM/TSP. Leukocytes from patients with HAM/TSP were primed to respond strongly to stimulation with exogenous IFN. However, while type I IFN suppressed expression of the HTLV-1 structural protein Gag it failed to suppress the highly immunogenic viral transcriptional transactivator Tax. We conclude that over-expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes in chronic HTLV-1 infection does not constitute an efficient host response but instead contributes to the development of HAM/TSP.

Tattermusch, Sonja; Skinner, Jason A.; Chaussabel, Damien; Banchereau, Jacques; Berry, Matthew P.; McNab, Finlay W.; O'Garra, Anne; Taylor, Graham P.; Bangham, Charles R. M.

2012-01-01

138

The role of oligodendrocytes in the molecular pathobiology and potential molecular treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a very common and debilitating disease; however, its underlying pathocellular process remains uncertain. Attempts have been made to reproduce CSM in experimental animal models in order to deepen the knowledge on the molecular pathobiology of this disease. The up-to-date observations have established the apoptosis of oligodendrocytes (OLGs) as the principal pathocellular process of CSM. Since favorable neurological recovery cannot be obtained in afflicted patients, even after the decompression surgery, elucidation of the apoptotic cascade in OLGs may unveil possible molecular treatments which could inhibit demyelination and ameliorate the neurological deficits. Moreover, additional therapeutic benefits may include improvement of myelin self-repair capability by stimulating OLG progenitor cells to become mature and finally, myelinating OLGs. This review focuses on the factors and mechanisms of crucial importance for developing antiapoptotic treatments. Critical evaluations of the role of OLGs in molecular pathobiology of CSM as well as strategies for potential remyelination of CSM are also provided. The analyses and evaluations of the experimental findings can possibly lead to treatment of CSM as well as to development of novel biopharmacenticals. PMID:20156160

Karadimas, S K; Gialeli, C H; Klironomos, G; Tzanakakis, G N; Panagiotopoulos, E; Karamanos, N K; Gatzounis, G

2010-01-01

139

Myelopathy due to lumbar disc herniation in the presence of a tethered cord.  

PubMed

Study design:Single case report.Objectives:To present a case of lumbar disc herniation causing compression of a tethered cord that was successfully treated with lumbar decompression and fusion.Background:A tethered cord is a rare pathology associated with a congenital spinal malformation, spinal dysraphism. Furthermore, myelopathy due to lumbar disc herniation in the presence of a tethered cord is extremely rare.Methods:Single case report.Results:A 43-year-old male with a history of spina bifida presented to our clinic for an evaluation of a progressive spastic gait disturbance and numbness in the lower limbs. A neurological examination revealed muscle weakness and pyramidal tract signs in the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed disc herniation at L2-3 causing compression of a low-lying cord. Surgical intervention, including herniotomy via a posterolateral approach and instrumented posterolateral fusion, was performed, and a good outcome was achieved 1 year after the surgery.Conclusion:The potential for lumbar disc herniation in the presence of a tethered cord should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of spinal pathologies causing spastic gait disturbances. Furthermore, posterior decompression and fusion is a useful treatment option in such cases. PMID:24902642

Endo, F; Iizuka, H; Iizuka, Y; Kobayashi, R; Mieda, T; Takagishi, K

2014-06-01

140

Outcomes for combined anterior and posterior surgical approaches for patients with multisegmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Corpectomy is widely used to treat cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, when this technique alone is performed at 1 or 2 levels for a multisegmental involvement (3 or more vertebrae), the incidence of post-operative complications is high. The optimal treatment for multisegmental CSM is still debatable. The aim of this study was to assess clinical and radiological outcomes for patients with multisegmental CSM who underwent combined anterior and posterior (AP) surgical approaches. Forty adults (17 women and 23 men; age range, 41-76 y) treated at our center between 2004 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. Their neurological function was assessed at different times using the Nurick classification (Grades 0 [root symptoms only] to 5 [wheelchair- or bed-bound]). Patients' satisfaction with the surgery was evaluated using Odom's criteria (poor, fair, good, or excellent). Pre-operatively, 20% of patients were assessed as Nurick Grade 0, 60% as Grade 1, and 20% as Grade 2. At the 1-year follow-up, only 10% of patients were assessed as Grade 1. At 1 year after surgery, 85% of patients rated their satisfaction with the operation as "excellent" and 15% rated it as "good". These outcomes suggest that, when surgery is indicated and patients with multisegmental CSM are carefully selected, the combined AP approach yields symptom relief comparable to that of corpectomy alone and a lower incidence of post-operative complications. PMID:19153044

Konya, Deniz; Ozgen, Serdar; Gercek, Arzu; Pamir, M Necmettin

2009-03-01

141

Intramedullary cysticercosis.  

PubMed

In 1976 a 28-year-old Ecuadoran male suffered paraparesis after a kick to his back. Iophendylate myelography was followed by thoracic laminectomy with incomplete resolution of the paraparesis. One year later, worsening of the paraparesis was managed by further thoracic laminectomy without improvement. In 1978 a spinal cord stimulator was implanted via low thoracic laminectomy as a measure to counter his spasticity. In 1984 metrizamide myelography and computed tomography scanning were performed for increasing spastic paraparesis that disclosed an intramedullary lesion at the T-4 level. Exploration and myelotomy revealed an intramedullary cysticercal cyst, which was totally removed. PMID:3726745

Holtzman, R N; Hughes, J E; Sachdev, R K; Jarenwattananon, A

1986-08-01

142

Tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy: clinical, epidemiological, virological and therapeutic aspects.  

PubMed

In 1980, Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. HTLV-1 belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and to the deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4(+) lymphoid cells in vivo. Three molecules have been identified for binding and/or entry of HTLV-1: heparan sulfate proteoglycans, neuropilin-1, and glucose transporter 1. An efficient transfer of the virus from an infected cell to a target cell can occur through the formation of a viral synapse and/or by virofilm structure. As for all retroviruses, HTLV-1 genome possesses three major ORFs (gag, pol and env) encoding the structural and enzymatic proteins. HTLV-1 encodes also some regulatory and auxillary proteins including the tax protein with transforming activities and the HBZ protein which plays a role in the proliferation and maintenance of the leukemic cells. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world with clusters of high endemicity including mainly Southern Japan, the Caribbean region, areas in South America and in intertropical Africa. The worldwide HTLV-1 infected population is estimated to be around 10-20 million. HTLV-1 has three modes of transmission: (1): mother to child, mainly linked to prolonged breast-feeding; (2): sexual, mainly occurring from male to female and (3): contaminated blood products. HTLV-1 possesses a remarkable genetic stability. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of mainly two severe diseases: a malignant T CD4(+) cell lymphoproliferation, of very poor prognosis, named Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), and a chronic neuro-myelopathy named Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The lifetime risk among HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be around 0.25 to 3%. TSP/HAM mainly occurs in adults, with a mean age at onset of 40-50 years and it is more common in women than in men. Blood transfusion is a major risk factor for TSP/HAM development. Clinically, TSP/HAM is mainly defined as a chronic spastic paraparesis and minor sensory signs. The onset is insidious with often gait disturbance and urinary symptoms. In more than 90% of the cases, the neurological features involve: spasticity and/or hyperreflexia of the lower extremities, urinary bladder disturbance, lower extremity muscle weakness, and in around 50% of the cases, sensory disturbances with low back pain. Central functions and cranial nerves are usually spared. The clinical course is generally progressive without remission. High levels of antibodies titers directed against HTLV-1 antigens are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A high HTLV-1 proviral load is frequently observed in the blood. Mild to moderate increase of proteins may be present in the CSF. However, intrathecal production of specific HTLV-1 antibody index provides additional data to support the diagnosis. Brain white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging are frequent. A mild atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord can also be observed. Pathologically, it is characterized by a chronic inflammation with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and mild parenchymal lymphocytic infiltrates. The cells are mostly CD4(+) in early disease and mostly CD8(+) in latter disease. Pyramidal tract damage with myelin and axonal loss, mainly in the lower thoracic spinal cord are observed. TSP/HAM pathogenesis is still poorly understood and viral and host factors as the proviral load and the cellular immune response play a major role in disease progression. TSP/HAM can be associated with other HTLV-1 associated symptoms (uveitis, myositis, infective dermatitis). Therapy of TSP/HAM remains disappointing and symptomatic treatment remains still the mainstay of therapy. PMID:22405461

Gessain, A; Mahieux, R

2012-03-01

143

Long Term Results of Anterior Corpectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Results showed good clinical outcomes of anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) during a short term follow-up; however, studies assessing long term results are relatively scarce. In this study we intended to assess the long term clinical and radiographic outcomes, find out the factors that may affect the long term clinical outcome and evaluate the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Methods This is a retrospective study of 145 consecutive CSM patients on ACCF treatment with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Clinical data were collected from medical and operative records. Patients were evaluated by using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system preoperatively and during the follow-up. X-rays results of cervical spine were obtained from all patients. Correlations between the long term clinical outcome and various factors were also analyzed. Findings Ninety-three males and fifty-two females completed the follow-up. The mean age at operation was 51.0 years, and the mean follow-up period was 102.1 months. Both postoperative sagittal segmental alignment (SSA) and the sagittal alignment of the whole cervical spine (SACS) increased significantly in terms of cervical lordosis. The mean increase of JOA was 3.8±1.3 postoperatively, and the overall recovery rate was 62.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative duration of symptoms >12 months, high-intensity signal in spinal cord and preoperative JOA score ?9 were important predictors of the fair recovery rate (?50%). Repeated surgery due to ASD was performed in 7 (4.8%) cases. Conclusions ACCF with anterior plate fixation is a reliable and effective method for treating CSM in terms of JOA score and the recovery rate. The correction of cervical alignment and the repeated surgery rate for ASD are also considered to be satisfactory.

Chen, Huajiang; Liu, Yang; Liang, Lei; Yuan, Wen

2012-01-01

144

Cervical Pedicle Screw Fixation Combined with Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy with Instability  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the surgical results of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) fixation combined with laminoplasty for treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with instability. Overview of Literature Cervical fixation and spinal cord decompression are required for CSM patients with instability. However, only a few studies have reported on CPS fixation combined with posterior decompression for unstable CSM patients. Methods Thirteen patients that underwent CPS fixation combined with laminoplasty for CSM with instability were evaluated in this study. We assessed the clinical and radiological results of the surgical procedures. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system was used to evaluate the clinical results. The percentages of sli p, difference in sli p angle between maximum flexion and maximum extension of unstable intervertebrae, and perforation rate of CPS were evaluated. Results The mean JOA scores before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow-up were 9.1, 13.3, and 12.6, respectively. The mean percentages of sli p before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow-up were 9.1%, 3.2%, and 3.5%, respectively; there were significant improvements immediately after surgery and at final follow-up. The difference in sli p angle between the maximum flexion and maximum extension of the unstable intervertebrae changed from 9.0° before surgery to 1.6° at the final follow-up. The perforation rate of CPS was 10.9%. Conclusions The results suggest that CPS fixation combined with laminoplasty is an effective surgical procedure for treating CSM with instability.

Uehara, Masashi; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Shimizu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

145

Riluzole attenuates neuropathic pain and enhances functional recovery in a rodent model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the commonest cause of spinal cord impairment worldwide and despite surgical treatment, it is commonly associated with chronic neuropathic pain and neurological impairment. Based on data suggesting a key role of sodium and glutamate mediated cellular injury in models of spinal cord compression, we examined whether riluzole, a sodium channel/glutamate blocker, could improve neurobehavioral outcomes in a rat model of CSM. To produce chronic progressive compression of the cervical spinal cord, we used an established model of graded mechanical cord compromise developed in our laboratory. The chronic (8weeks) mechanical compression of the cervical spinal cord resulted in persistent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at 8weeks. Moreover, we found increased expression of phosphorylated NR1 and NR2B in the dorsal horns as well as astrogliosis and increased microglia expression in the dorsal horns after mechanical compression. Following daily systemic administration for 7weeks after the induction of compression, riluzole (8mg/kg) significantly attenuated forelimb and hindlimb mechanical allodynia and alleviated thermal hyperalgesia in the tail. Importantly, riluzole led to a decrease in swing phase duration, an increase in hind leg swing speed and an increase paw intensity in gait analysis. Riluzole also decreased the number of phosphorylated NR1 and phosphorylated NR2B positive cells in the dorsal horns and the microglia activation in the dorsal horns. Together, our results indicate that systemic riluzole administration during chronic cervical spinal cord compression is effective at protecting spinal cord tissue, preserving neurobehavioral function and alleviating neuropathic pain, possibly by decreasing NMDA receptor phosphorylation in astrocytes and by eliminating microglia activation. As such, riluzole represents a promising clinical treatment for CSM. PMID:24184328

Moon, Eun Su; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Yu, Wen-Ru; Austin, James W; Fehlings, Michael G

2014-02-01

146

Compensatory cerebral adaptations before and evolving changes after surgical decompression in cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Object The goal of this study was to compare cortical sensorimotor adaptations associated with neurological deterioration and then recovery following surgical decompression for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Eight patients with CSM underwent functional MR (fMR) imaging during wrist extension and the 3-finger pinch task, along with behavioral assessments before and 3 and 6 months after surgery. Six healthy control volunteers were scanned twice. Results Cervical spine MR imaging demonstrated successful cord decompression. The patients improved after surgery on the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score for the upper extremity, which correlated with the changes in task-associated activation in specific sensorimotor regions of interest. Pinch-related activation in sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the movement paradigm was reduced before surgery then increased toward the extent of healthy controls after surgery. Before surgery, patients showed broader activation in ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex during wrist extension than during pinch, but activations became similar to those of healthy controls after surgery. Pinch-related activation volume in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex and the magnitude of activation in the contralateral dorsal premotor cortex evolved linearly across time after surgery, along with wrist extension–related activation magnitude in the contralateral supplementary motor area. Conclusions Serial fMR imaging studies in CSM can capture the adaptations in specific sensorimotor cortices that accompany clinical deterioration and postsurgical improvement in sensorimotor function associated with damage and partial recovery of conduction in corticospinal pathways. These adaptive regions can be monitored by serial fMR imaging to detect a critical loss of supraspinal reserve in compensatory plasticity, which might augment clinical information about the need for surgical decompression.

Dong, Yun; Holly, Langston T.; Albistegui-Dubois, Richard; Yan, Xiaohong; Marehbian, Jonathan; Newton, Jennifer M.; Dobkin, Bruce H.

2014-01-01

147

Probabilities of Radiation Myelopathy Specific to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to Guide Safe Practice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.

Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States)] [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chao, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany)] [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gorgulho, Alessandra [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

2013-02-01

148

Urodynamic profile of patients with neurogenic bladder following non-traumatic myelopathies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe the urodynamic profile of the patients following non-traumatic myelopathies (NTMs) with neurogenic bladder. Setting: Neurological rehabilitation department of university tertiary research hospital. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients (44 men) with monophasic NTM, with the age range 8-65 years (31.0 ± 16.0 years), were admitted for inpatients’ rehabilitation. Length of stay in rehabilitation ranged from 6 to 120 days (32.0 ± 24.8 days). Fifty-six patients (70.9%) had spinal lesion above D10, 17 had lesion between D10 and L2 (21.5%), and 6 (7.6%) had cauda equina syndrome. All patients had neurogenic bladder with urinary complaints. Urodynamic study (UDS) was performed in all patients. Results: UDS showed 71.4% patients (40/56) had neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) with or without sphincter dyssynergy (DSD) with lesion above D10; only 52.9% patients (9/17) had NDO with or without DSD detrusor with lesion between D10 and L2; and majority (5/6 patients) had underactive detrusor in the cauda equina group. Bladder management was based on the UDS findings. No significant correlation was found (P > 0.05) between detrusor behavior and the level, severity (ASIA Impairment Scale) of spinal injury, or gender using chi-square test. Conclusions: Neurogenic bladder following NTM was observed in all patients. UDS suggested predominantly NDO in lesions above D10 and mixed pattern in between D10 and L2 lesions. No significant correlation was found between detrusor behavior and the level or severity of NTM in the study.

Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B

2013-01-01

149

Cervical myelopathy caused by atlantoaxial instability in a patient with an os odontoideum and total aplasia of the posterior arch of the atlas: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Congenital hypoplasia of the atlas has rarely been reported. Myelopathy caused by the complete absence of the posterior arch of the atlas has not been reported. This case report describes the diagnosis and successful treatment of a myelopathy due to the complete absence of the posterior arch of the atlas. Case presentation A 59-year-old Japanese man experienced pain in his nuchal region with progressive spasticity, numbness and hypesthesia in his upper and lower limbs. Deep tendon reflexes in his upper and lower limbs were increased. The complete absence of the posterior arch of the atlas and atlantoaxial instability were found in a roentgenogram. Magnetic resonance imaging detected high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in his spinal cord at the level of cervical vertebrae 1 to 2. Our patient underwent posterior occipito-C4 fixation with pedicle screws. After the operation, the pain in his nuchal region disappeared and his symptoms of myelopathy improved. Only slight numbness of his upper limbs remained. Conclusions This is the first report of myelopathy due to the complete absence of the posterior arch of the atlas.

2012-01-01

150

Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.METHODSDescription of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction

Johanna C M Oostveen; Martin A F J van de Laar; Jan A G Geelen; Ron de Graaff

1999-01-01

151

Correlation between spinal cord compression and abnormal patterns of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in compressive cervical myelopathy: Comparison of surface and epidurally recorded responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the correlation between the level of spinal cord lesion and the abnormal pattern of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), evoked spinal cord potentials (ESCPs) were also recorded from the posterior epidural space intraoperatively in 18 patients with compressive cervical myelopathy. Levels of symptomatic spinal cord compression were determined by ESCP findings. Spinal N13 potential of the SSEPs

Kazuo Kaneko; Shinya Kawai; Toshihiko Taguchi; Yasunori Fuchigami; Takashi Ito; Hideki Morita

1998-01-01

152

Noncontiguous anterior decompression and fusion for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a prospective randomized control clinical study  

PubMed Central

Anterior decompression and fusion is an established procedure in surgical treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM). However, contiguous corpectomies and fusion (CCF) often induce postoperative complications such as nonunion, graft subsidence, and loss of lordotic alignment. As an alternative, noncontiguous corpectomies or one-level corpectomy plus adjacent-level discectomy with retention of an intervening body has been developed recently. In this study, we prospectively compared noncontiguous anterior decompression and fusion (NADF) and CCF for MCSM in terms of surgical invasiveness, clinical and radiographic outcomes, and complications. From January 2005 to June 2007, 105 patients with MCSM were randomized to NADF group (n = 55) and CCF group (n = 50), and followed up for average 31.5 months (range 24–48 months). Average operative time and blood loss decreased significantly in the NADF group as compared with those in the CCF group (p < 0.05 and <0.001, respectively). For VAS, within 3 months postoperatively, there was no significant difference between the two groups. But at 6 months after surgery and final follow-up, VAS improved significantly in NADF group than that in CCF group (p < 0.05). No significant difference of JOA score was observed between the two groups at every collection time. In NADF group, all 55 cases obtained fusion at 1 year after operation (average 5.1 months). In CCF group, 48 cases achieved fusion 1 year postoperatively, but the other 2 cases were performed posterior stabilization and achieved fusion 6 months later. The differences of cervical lordosis between two groups were insignificant at the same follow-up time. But the loss of lordosis and height of fusion segments in 6 months postoperatively and final follow-up were significantly more in CFF group than in NADF group (p < 0.001). Complications were similar in both groups. But in CCF group three cases needed reoperation, one case with extradural hematoma was immediately re-operated after anterior decompression and two cases mentioned above were performed posterior stabilization at 1 year postoperatively. In conclusion, in the patients with MCSM, without developmental stenosis and continuous or combined ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments, NADF and CCF showed an identical effect of decompression. In terms of surgical time, blood loss, VAS, fusion rate and cervical alignment, NADF was superior compared with CCF.

Lian, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Zhou, Wei; Kong, Wei-Qing; Hou, Tie-Sheng

2010-01-01

153

Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of soluble CD27 in HTLV-I associated myelopathy and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Stimulation of T lymphocytes via the T cell receptor strongly enhances CD27 membrane expression and induces the release of a soluble 32 kDa form of CD27 (sCD27). CD27 is a member of the TNF receptor family, a group of molecules that have important roles in lymphocyte differentiation and survival. Raised concentrations of sCD27 have been reported in various immunopathological conditions and there is evidence that this molecule can serve as a marker of T cell activation in vivo. Concentrations of sCD27 in CSF were compared between patients with T cell mediated neurological disease and non-inflammatory controls. Also, the relation of CSF-sCD27 concentrations with clinical disease activity was investigated in patients with multiple sclerosis.?METHODS—Four groups were studied: (1) eight patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparisis (HAM)/TSP), (2) eight HTLV-I carriers, (3) 41 patients with multiple sclerosis, and (4) 43 patients with other neurological disease (OND). Concentrations of CSF-sCD27 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).?RESULTS—Quantification of CSF-sCD27 differentiates patients with HAM/TSP from HTLV-I carriers (p<0.01) and from patients with OND (p<0.001). Moreover, the multiple sclerosis patient group was different from the OND group (p<0.0001). In patients with multiple sclerosis, CSF-sCD27 concentrations were higher in 24 patients with clinically active disease than in 17 with clinically stable disease. In addition, most of the patients with multiple sclerosis with high sCD27 concentrations showed an increase in EDSS, whereas none of the patients with low sCD27 had an EDSS increase.?CONCLUSIONS—As a reliable marker of immunological disease activity in inflammatory white matter disease is still not available, it is proposed that quantification of CSF-sCD27 concentrations is a good candidate. Also, it may serve as a tool to stratify neurological diseases in inflammatory and non-inflammatory states.??

Hintzen, R.; Paty, D.; Oger, J.

1999-01-01

154

Familial Clusters of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Objective HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs) and some genetic factors are reported to be associated with the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, there are very few reports on HAM/TSP having family history. We aimed to define the clinical features and laboratory indications associated with HAM/TSP having family history. Methods Records of 784 HAM/TSP patients who were hospitalized in Kagoshima University Hospital and related hospitals from 1987 to 2012 were reviewed. Using an unmatched case-control design, 40 patients of HAM/TSP having family history (f-HAM/TSP) were compared with 124 patients suffering from sporadic HAM/TSP, who were admitted in series over the last 10 years for associated clinical features. Results Of the 784 patients, 40 (5.1%) were f-HAM/TSP cases. Compared with sporadic cases, the age of onset was earlier (41.3 vs. 51.6 years, p<0.001), motor disability grades were lower (4.0 vs. 4.9, p?=?0.043) despite longer duration of illness (14.3 vs. 10.2 years, p?=?0.026), time elapsed between onset and wheelchair use in daily life was longer (18.3 vs. 10.0 years, p?=?0.025), cases with rapid disease progression were fewer (10.0% vs. 28.2%, p?=?0.019), and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly lower in f-HAM/TSP cases (29.9 vs. 42.5 mg, p<0.001). There was no difference in HTLV-1 PVLs, anti-HTLV-1 antibody titers in serum and CSF, or cell number and neopterin levels in CSF. Furthermore, HTLV-1 PVLs were lower in cases with rapid disease progression than in those with slow progression in both f-HAM/TSP and sporadic cases. Conclusions We demonstrated that HAM/TSP aggregates in the family, with a younger age of onset and a slow rate of progression in f-HAM/TSP cases compared with sporadic cases. These data also suggested that factors other than HTLV-1 PVLs contribute to the disease course of HAM/TSP.

Nozuma, Satoshi; Matsuura, Eiji; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Watanabe, Osamu; Kubota, Ryuji; Izumo, Shuji; Takashima, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

155

Foraminotomy  

MedlinePLUS

... or laminectomy ). The surgeon may do a spinal fusion to make sure your spinal column is stable ... spine surgery. If you had foraminotomy and spinal fusion, the spinal column above and below the fusion ...

156

Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency associated with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to bowel bypass surgery.  

PubMed

We present an interesting case of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency after a history of gastric bypass surgery where symptoms improved after parenteral copper and vitamin A treatment. Gastric bypass surgery as a cause of fat soluble vitamin deficiency is generally under-reported. Copper deficiency has been reported after gastric bypass surgery. Vitamin A deficiency after gastric bypass surgery has also been reported in the literature, but the reported cases again fall below the actual figures. B12 and folate deficiencies can produce a type of myelopathy similar to that produced by copper deficiency, and differentiation on the basis of laboratory tests, neurophysiology and improvement of symptoms after replacement therapy might be the hallmark of diagnosis. Combinations of vitamin deficiencies were previously reported, but no cases of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency could be found in the literature. PMID:24781845

Abdul Jabbar Alhassany, Ali

2014-01-01

157

Alopecia areata possibly induced by autoimmune reaction in a patient with human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old female patient suffered from alopecia areata totalis followed by human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1-associated myelopathy (HAM). These two diseases have recently been considered to be related to cell-mediated autoimmune reactions. Immunohistochemistry revealed accumulation of CXCR3+ CD8+ T cells around hair bulbs in alopecic lesions. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis showed the elevated frequency of CD8+ human leukocyte antigen DR+ -activated T cells at the initial time and declined at the hair regrowth phase with HAM. CD4+ CD25+ adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells were elevated at hair loss phase and decreased after improvement of hair loss. These results suggest that autoreactive and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells induce not only alopecia areata but also HAM in ATL patients. This case highlights that the autoimmune reactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata and HAM. PMID:23668541

Ito, Taisuke; Shimada, Shinichiro; Mori, Tatsuyoshi; Tokura, Yoshiki

2013-05-01

158

Possible causes of seizure after spine surgery  

PubMed Central

Seizure after laminectomy for spinal procedure is very rare and has not been reported after lipomyelomeningocele surgery beforehand. Here, two cases of seizure following laminectomy for lipomyelomeningocele are reported. The exact etiology of the event is unknown but anesthetic material, pneumocephalus, intracranial hypotension subsequent to cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal procedures, spinal-induced seizure and the potential toxic effect of fat molecules could be considered.

Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

2010-01-01

159

Entrapped spinal nerve roots in a pseudomeningocoele as a complication of previous spinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Pseudomeningocele is a rare but well recognised complication of lumbar surgery (microdiscectomy and laminectomy). Most of\\u000a the patients tolerate the presence of the cyst well, however some present with back pain and spinal claudication, presumably\\u000a due to neural compression. We report a case who presented following three operations (microdiscectomy, laminectomy and excision\\u000a of a pseudomeningocele) with symptoms of spinal claudication

G. Pavlou; S. D. Bucur; P. T. van Hille

2006-01-01

160

Biomechanical Testing on Cadaveric Spines for Different Treatments that Affect Lumbar Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenosis is one of the most common causes for spinal surgery. Laminectomy decompression and fusion are surgical procedures prescribed for this condition. The intention of this work was to investigate the effects of a laminectomy decompression, followed by fusion, on a lumbar functional spinal unit (FSU) through in vitro dynamic (±8Nm at 0.125Hz) and quasi-static (±7.5Nm at 0.1Hz) biomechanical tests,

Sabrina Alejandra Gonzalez Blohm

2012-01-01

161

Medicolegal Corner: When minimally invasive thoracic surgery leads to paraplegia  

PubMed Central

A patient with mild cervical myelopathy due to multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) initially underwent a cervical C3-T1 laminectomy with C2-T2 fusion utilizing lateral mass screws. The patient's new postoperative right upper extremity paresis largely resolved within several postoperative months. However, approximately 6 months later, the patient developed increased paraparesis attributed to thoracic OPLL and Ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) at the T2-T5 and T10-T11 levels. The patient underwent simultaneous minimally invasive (MIS) unilateral MetRx approaches to both regions. Postoperatively, the patient was paraplegic and never recovered function. Multiple mistakes led to permanent paraplegia due to MIS MetRx decompressions for T2-T5 and T10-11 OPLL/OYL in this patient. First, both thoracic procedures should have been performed “open” utilizing a full laminectomy rather than MIS; adequate visualization would have likely averted inadvertent cord injury, and the resultant CSF leak. Second, the surgeon should have used an operating microscope. Third, the operation should have been monitored with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and EMG (electromyography). Fourth, preoperatively the patient should have received a 1-gram dose of Solumedrol for cord “protection”. Fifth, applying Gelfoam as part of the CSF leak repair is contraindicated (e.g. due to swelling in confined spaces- see insert). Sixth, if the patient had not stopped Excedrin prior to the surgery, the surgery should have been delayed to avoid the increased perioperative risk of bleeding/hematoma.

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

162

Medicolegal Corner: When minimally invasive thoracic surgery leads to paraplegia.  

PubMed

A patient with mild cervical myelopathy due to multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) initially underwent a cervical C3-T1 laminectomy with C2-T2 fusion utilizing lateral mass screws. The patient's new postoperative right upper extremity paresis largely resolved within several postoperative months. However, approximately 6 months later, the patient developed increased paraparesis attributed to thoracic OPLL and Ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) at the T2-T5 and T10-T11 levels. The patient underwent simultaneous minimally invasive (MIS) unilateral MetRx approaches to both regions. Postoperatively, the patient was paraplegic and never recovered function. Multiple mistakes led to permanent paraplegia due to MIS MetRx decompressions for T2-T5 and T10-11 OPLL/OYL in this patient. First, both thoracic procedures should have been performed "open" utilizing a full laminectomy rather than MIS; adequate visualization would have likely averted inadvertent cord injury, and the resultant CSF leak. Second, the surgeon should have used an operating microscope. Third, the operation should have been monitored with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and EMG (electromyography). Fourth, preoperatively the patient should have received a 1-gram dose of Solumedrol for cord "protection". Fifth, applying Gelfoam as part of the CSF leak repair is contraindicated (e.g. due to swelling in confined spaces- see insert). Sixth, if the patient had not stopped Excedrin prior to the surgery, the surgery should have been delayed to avoid the increased perioperative risk of bleeding/hematoma. PMID:24843811

Epstein, Nancy E

2014-01-01

163

Recurrent Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient With Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review.  

PubMed

Recurrent spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder has rarely been reported in English articles. This condition may be difficult to diagnosis before a laparotomy due to acute peritonitis. Herein we describe a case of recurrent spontaneous rupture of the bladder in a 39-year-old woman with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/topical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). PMID:24719820

Feizzadeh Kerigh, Behzad; Boostani, Reza; Ghoreifi, Alireza

2014-03-01

164

Recurrent Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient With Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Recurrent spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder has rarely been reported in English articles. This condition may be difficult to diagnosis before a laparotomy due to acute peritonitis. Herein we describe a case of recurrent spontaneous rupture of the bladder in a 39-year-old woman with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/topical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

Feizzadeh Kerigh, Behzad; Boostani, Reza; Ghoreifi, Alireza

2014-01-01

165

Misdiagnosis in a case of non-compressive myelopathy due to a lumbar spinal intradural fistula supplied by the Artery of Adamkiewicz  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal vascular malformations comprise a rare but significant group of spinal disorders where clinching the diagnosis early is absolutely necessary since the morbidity increases as the time goes by. These malformations present mainly with symptoms of myelopathy with a gradually worsening course and thus early diagnosis and intervention may revert the symptoms to some extent. Owing to ignorance, sometimes the diagnosis may be missed or delayed and this delay can make a significant difference in the final outcome. Case Description: A 44-year-old male presented to us with an 8-month history of gradually worsening difficulty in walking and lower limb paraesthesias along with recent bladder complaints. Earlier, the imaging had revealed prolapsed lumbar disc and he had undergone L4-5 micro-discectomy few months back. As his symptoms worsened further, he developed paraparesis and then a more detailed analysis revealed a missed spinal arterio-venous fistula at L4-5 level causing congestive myelopathy. He was re-operated and the fistula was disconnected which led to an improvement months after surgery. Conclusion: Thus, to differentiate between compressive and non-compressive myelopathy and detailed investigation of the latter to identify the actual cause remains imperative. Misdiagnosis leading to a wrong surgery caused further deterioration which could have been avoided by careful analysis of imaging. Open surgery remains the preferred treatment for the fistulas supplied by the artery of Adamkiewicz.

Kumar, Ashish; Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E.; Mhatre, Mayur

2011-01-01

166

Prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging combined with electromyography in the surgical management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the value of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with electromyography (EMG) for predicting clinical outcome following surgical management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). A total of 94 patients with cervical compressive myelopathy were prospectively enrolled and treated with anterior, posterior and posterior-anterior united decompression between October 2007 and February 2009. Prior to surgery 1.5-T MRI and EMG were performed in all patients. The patients were classified into four types based on the presence (+) or absence (?) of an increased signal intensity (ISI) on the T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and also based on the positive (+)/negative (?) results of the EMG. The four types were as follows: Type I, MRI/EMG (?/?); Type II, MRI/EMG (+/?); Type III, MRI/EMG (?/+); and Type IV, MRI/EMG (+/+). The clinical outcome was also graded according to a modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system. Furthermore, pre- and post-operative clinical data were statistically analyzed to explore the correlation between the factors. There were 36 cases (38%) of Type I, 16 (17%) of Type II, 13 (14%) of Type III and 29 (31%) of Type IV. According to the analysis of the clinical data between the four types, there were significant differences in the disability classifications, pre-operative JOA scores and disease duration (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences in gender, age or cord compression ratios (P>0.05). Until the final follow-up, there was a significant difference in the recovery ratio between the four study groups (Hc=27.46, P<0.05). Further comparison showed that the surgical outcome was best in Type I patients and worst in Type IV patients. In conclusion, there was a distinct correlation between classification and the rate of clinical improvement. Patients who had a negative EMG and those without an ISI on T2-weight images tended to suffer only mild symptoms, a short disease duration and, most significantly, experience a good surgical outcome.

LIU, FA-JING; SUN, YA-PENG; SHEN, YONG; DING, WEN-YUAN; WANG, LIN-FENG

2013-01-01

167

Tandem spinal stenosis: a case of stenotic cauda equina syndrome following cervical decompression and fusion for spondylotic cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Tandem spinal stenosis is a clinical phenomenon which may cause a functional loss related to neurologic compression in numerous areas of the spinal cord. In this phenomenon, the second area of symptomatic neurologic insult is not revealed until the primary symptomatic area has been treated. This case describes a 71-year-old male referred to physical therapy 4 weeks following a combined anterior/posterior C3/4 decompression and fusion for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Approximately 8 weeks post-operatively (4 weeks after initiation of physical therapy), the patient began to complain of bilateral lower extremity weakness, primarily with climbing stairs. At 12 weeks post-operatively, the patient developed bowel incontinence and saddle paresthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple levels of critical stenosis of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine, which resulted in referral for surgical intervention. Following surgical decompression there was complete recovery of lower extremity strength, saddle area sensation and bowel function. This case highlights the need for the clinician to remain vigilant for concomitant pathology despite successful surgical intervention. A thorough knowledge of the presentation of various spinal disorders, as well as a thorough neurologic examination, is required to accurately recognize both candid and subtle red flags requiring immediate referral for surgical intervention.

Swanson, Brian T

2012-01-01

168

Neurological improvement associated with resolution of irradiation-induced myelopathy: serial magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography findings.  

PubMed

We document serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [(18)F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) findings in the process of improvement from delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord. A 61-year-old woman underwent radiotherapy for an oral carcinoma. Forty-six months later she developed a left-sided Brown-Séquard syndrome, suggesting incomplete cervical cord transection below the cervico-thoracic junction. Two months after starting steroid therapy, she had gradual clinical improvement, which continues 8 years after the termination of radiotherapy. Neurological improvement was associated with gradual resolution of an extensive high-intensity area within the cervico-thoracic spinal cord on MRI. Initially, the FDG-PET showed linear and uniform increase in FDG uptake throughout the cervical spinal cord with standardized uptake value of 2.68 +/- 0.16 (mean +/- SD), but it returned to normal value (1.90 +/- 0.14) at final follow-up. Considering that the normalization of FDG uptake correlated with neurological recovery, the uniform- and diffuse-increased FDG uptake noted in the initial course of myelopathy could reflect the metabolic activity of the compromised spinal cord. PMID:18681929

Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Takamura, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Baba, Hisatoshi

2009-07-01

169

Characteristics of Spondylotic Myelopathy on 3D Driven-Equilibrium Fast Spin Echo and 2D Fast Spin Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

In patients with spinal stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine can be improved by using 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences to provide a high-resolution assessment of osseous and ligamentous structures. However, it is not yet clear whether 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences adequately evaluate the spinal cord itself. As a result, they are generally supplemented by additional 2D fast spin echo sequences, adding time to the examination and potential discomfort to the patient. Here we investigate the hypothesis that in patients with spinal stenosis and spondylotic myelopathy, 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences can characterize cord lesions equally well as 2D fast spin echo sequences. We performed a retrospective analysis of 30 adult patients with spondylotic myelopathy who had been examined with both 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences and 2D fast spin echo sequences at the same scanning session. The two sequences were inspected separately for each patient, and visible cord lesions were manually traced. We found no significant differences between 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo sequences in the mean number, mean area, or mean transverse dimensions of spondylotic cord lesions. Nevertheless, the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of cord lesions was decreased on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences compared to 2D fast spin echo sequences. These findings suggest that 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences do not need supplemental 2D fast spin echo sequences for the diagnosis of spondylotic myelopathy, but they may be less well suited for quantitative signal measurements in the spinal cord.

Abdulhadi, Mike A.; Perno, Joseph R.; Melhem, Elias R.; Nucifora, Paolo G. P.

2014-01-01

170

Ciclosporin A Proof of Concept Study in Patients with Active, Progressive HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) become progressively impaired, with chronic pain, immobility and bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Tested antiretroviral therapies have not been effective and most patients are offered a short course of corticosteroids or interferon-?, physiotherapy and symptomatic management. Pathogenesis studies implicate activated T-lymphocytes and cytokines in tissue damage. We therefore tested the hypothesis that inhibition of T-cell activation with ciclosporin A would be safe and clinically beneficial in patients with early and/or clinically progressing HAM/TSP. Materials and Methods Open label, proof of concept, pilot study of 48 weeks therapy with the calcineurin antagonist, ciclosporin A (CsA), in seven patients with ‘early’ (50% deterioration in timed walk during the preceding three months) HAM/TSP. Primary outcomes were incidence of clinical failure at 48 weeks and time to clinical failure. Results All patients completed 72 weeks study participation and five showed objective evidence of clinical improvement after 3 months treatment with CsA. Two patients exhibited clinical failure over 6.4 person-years of follow-up to week 48. One patient had a >2 point deterioration in IPEC (Insituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas) disability score at weeks 8 and 12, and then stopped treatment. The other stopped treatment at week 4 because of headache and tremor and deterioration in timed walk, which occurred at week 45. Overall pain, mobility, spasticity and bladder function improved by 48 weeks. Two patients recommenced CsA during follow-up due to relapse. Conclusions These data provide initial evidence that treatment with CsA is safe and may partially reverse the clinical deterioration seen in patients with early/progressive HAM/TSP. This trial supports further investigation of this agent's safety and effectiveness in larger, randomised controlled studies in carefully selected patients with disease progression.

Martin, Fabiola; Castro, Hannah; Gabriel, Carolyn; Adonis, Adine; Fedina, Alexandra; Harrison, Linda; Brodnicki, Liz; Demontis, Maria A.; Babiker, Abdel G.; Weber, Jonathan N.; Bangham, Charles R. M.; Taylor, Graham P.

2012-01-01

171

Clinical features and surgical outcomes of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in patients aged 80 years or older: a multi-center retrospective study  

PubMed Central

With the aging of the population in developed countries, spine surgeons have recently been more likely to encounter elderly patients in need of treatment. This study investigated whether decompression surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in elderly patients aged 80 years or older would likely be a reasonable treatment. We retrospectively reviewed 605 consecutive patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent decompression surgery between 2004 and 2008. Patients with other conditions that could affect functional status or compression factors other than spondylosis were excluded from this study. Of the remaining 189 patients, 161 with CSM whose condition could be evaluated 6 months after surgery were analyzed. The patients were divided into two age groups: 80 years or older (Group A, 37 patients) and younger than 80 years of age (Group B, 124 patients). We evaluated the differences in symptom duration, clinical data, involved levels, surgical outcome, comorbidities, and postoperative complications between the two groups. The symptom duration was significantly shorter in Group A. The average JOA scores preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively were significantly lower in Group A; however, there was no significant difference in the recovery ratio. There were no significant differences in the percentages of patients with comorbidities or those with postoperative complications. Elderly patients aged 80 years or older regained approximately 40% of their function postoperatively, and the incidence of postoperative complication was similar to that in younger patients. Since this age group shows a rapid deterioration after onset, prompt decompression surgery is required.

Dokai, Toshiyuki; Hashiguchi, Hirokazu; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kameyama, Yasuhiro; Katae, Yuji; Morio, Yasuo; Morishita, Tsugutake; Murata, Masaaki; Nanjo, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tanida, Atsushi; Tanishima, Shinji; Yamane, Koji; Teshima, Ryota

2011-01-01

172

Median corpectomy in cervical spondylotic multisegmental stenosis.  

PubMed

Cervical median corpectomy as an alternative to laminoplasty and laminectomy has been suggested as an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in cases of multisegmental spondylotic stenosis. We report on our experience with this procedure with particular reference to neurological outcome and complications. Median corpectomy was performed in 17 cases (3 female, 14 male; mean age 59 yrs, (41-80 yrs.) with cervical myelopathy (CM) and radiologically diagnosed multisegmental spondylotic stenosis and spinal cord compression seen on MRI. The degree of stenosis was determined by means of the modified Pavlov's index (ratio between spinal canal width at the level of the intervertebral disc and the diameter of the vertebral body itself). 3/17 patients suffered from acute, 4/17 from subacute and 10/17 from chronic CM. Single level corpectomy was performed in 9 cases, one and a half vertebrae were removed in 2 cases and dual level corpectomy was performed in the remaining 6 cases. All patients received an autologous bone graft and AO - anterior plate stabilization or were stabilized as described by Morscher. Postoperative follow - up was possible in 16/17 cases over a mean time of 13.5 months. Myelopathy was graded according to Nurick's scale. Postoperatively, 12% with chronic CM improved by two grades, 38% (2 pts, with acute, 3 with subacute and 1 with chronic CM) improved by one grade. The other patients remained stable, none showed worsening of their myelopathy. Paresis improved in 92%, sensory deficits in 69%, spasticity in 73%, pain in 60%, and vegetative disturbances in 100% of all patients presenting these preoperative symptoms respectively. One patient died due to esophageal perforation and subsequent lethal mediastinitis caused by screw loosening 4 months following surgery and after initial neurological improvement. 4 other patients experienced screw loosening, three with acataposis, one remained clinically asymptomatic with concomitant graft displacement in two of these. One patient had to be re-operated due to a hematoma at the iliac crest and 2 suffered from a pelvic fracture of the spina iliaca at the site of graft removal. With respect to the neurological improvement, especially to the motor function and spasticity, median corpectomy can be regarded as an effective procedure in selected cases with cervical myelopathy, even when treatment related complications are taken into consideration. PMID:8779271

Burger, R; Tonn, J C; Vince, G H; Hofmann, E; Reiners, K; Roosen, K

1996-01-01

173

Measuring Surgical Outcomes in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: Assessment of Minimum Clinically Important Difference  

PubMed Central

Object The concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) has been used to measure the threshold by which the effect of a specific treatment can be considered clinically meaningful. MCID has previously been studied in surgical patients, however few studies have assessed its role in spinal surgery. The goal of this study was to assess the role of MCID in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Data was collected on 30 patients who underwent ACDF for CSM between 2007 and 2012. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual-Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Component Summary PRO scores were collected. Five distribution- and anchor-based approaches were used to calculate MCID threshold values average change, change difference, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The Health Transition Item of the SF-36 (HTI) was used as an external anchor. Results Patients had a significant improvement in all mean physical PRO scores postoperatively (p<0.01) NDI (29.24 to 14.82), VAS (5.06 to 1.72), and PCS (36.98 to 44.22). The five MCID approaches yielded a range of values for each PRO: 2.00–8.78 for PCS, 2.06–5.73 for MCS, 4.83–13.39 for NDI, and 0.36–3.11 for VAS. PCS was the most representative PRO measure, presenting the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.94). MDC values were not affected by the choice of anchor and their threshold of improvement was statistically greater than the chance of error from unimproved patients. Conclusion SF-36 PCS was the most representative PRO measure. MDC appears to be the most appropriate MCID method. When MDC was applied together with HTI anchor, the MCID thresholds were: 13.39 for NDI, 3.11 for VAS, 5.56 for PCS and 5.73 for MCS.

Auffinger, Brenda M.; Lall, Rishi R.; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Wong, Albert P.; Lam, Sandi K.; Koski, Tyler; Fessler, Richard G.; Smith, Zachary A.

2013-01-01

174

Efficacy of prosultiamine treatment in patients with human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: results from an open-label clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic myelopathy characterized by motor dysfunction of the lower extremities and urinary disturbance. Immunomodulatory treatments are the main strategy for HAM/TSP, but several issues are associated with long-term treatment. We conducted a clinical trial with prosultiamine (which has apoptotic activity against HTLV-I-infected cells) as a novel therapy in HAM/TSP patients. Methods We enrolled 24 HAM/TSP patients in this open-label clinical trial. Prosultiamine (300 mg, orally) was administered once daily for 12 weeks. We monitored changes in the motor function of the lower extremities and urinary function as well as copy numbers of the HTLV-I provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results Improvement in the motor function of the lower extremities based on a reduction in spasticity (for example, decrease in time required for walking and descending a flight of stairs) was observed. In an urodynamic study (UDS), bladder capacity and detrusor pressure and then maximum flow rate increased significantly. Detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia improved in 68.8% and 45.5% of patients observed at pretreatment, respectively. Improvement in UDS corresponded with improvements in the score of nocturia-quality of life questionnaire. HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in PBMCs decreased significantly (approximately 15.4%) compared with pretreatment levels. Conclusions These data suggest that prosultiamine can safely improve motor dysfunction of the lower extremities and urinary disturbance as well as reduce HTLV-I provirus levels in peripheral blood. It therefore has potential as a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP patients. Trial registration University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) number, UMIN000005969. Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/183.

2013-01-01

175

Hirayama disease: three cases assessed by F wave, somatosensory and motor evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging not supporting flexion myelopathy.  

PubMed

Traumatic chronic injury of the cervical spinal cord caused by neck flexion ("flexion myelopathy") is one of the suggested pathogenetic mechanisms for Hirayama disease (HD). Neurophysiological data, especially reporting particularly N13 cervical somatosensory response, are scarce and conflicting in HD. F wave, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were assessed in 3 HD male patients (aged 22, 36, and 51 years) with the aim of evaluating the functional effects of neck flexion in HD. Median and ulnar F waves, median, ulnar and posterior tibial SEP, and upper and lower limb MEP were performed bilaterally in standard conditions and during neck flexion in the patients. Cervical spinal MRI study was performed in standard position in two patients and both in standard and flexed positions in the third patient. F wave, SEP, and MEP findings did not show statistically significant differences in standard conditions and during neck flexion both in HD patients and controls. MRI with neck in standard position was normal in two patients, while in the third patient revealed cervical anterior horns signal changes and cord atrophy. In this patient, MRI with the neck in flexion showed that the spinal cord was normally located, was not compressed within the cervical canal and that there were no abnormalities of the dural sac. These findings suggest that in a complex disorder like HD no definite conclusions can be drawn from the present paper and some cases of HD without evidence of "flexion myelopathy" might have a different pathogenetic mechanism. PMID:18941932

Ammendola, Angelo; Gallo, Antonio; Iannaccone, Teresa; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

2008-10-01

176

Accuracy and reliability of MRI quantitative measurements to assess spinal cord compression in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Study type:?Reliability study Introduction:?Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common spinal cord disorder in persons more than 55 years old. Despite multiple neuroimaging approaches proposed to quantify the spinal cord compromise in CSM patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the procedure of choice by providing helpful information for clinical decision making, determining optimal subpopulations for treatment, and selecting the optimal treatment strategies. However, the validity, reliability, and accuracy of the MRI quantitative measurements have not yet been addressed. Objective:?To assess the intra- and inter-observer reliability of MRI quantitative measurements of the spinal cord compromise in CSM patients. Methods:?Seventeen CSM patients (13 male) of mean age 54.5 years old were selected from the AOSpine North America database. The patients had different combinations of stenotic levels (1–4 levels) and the clinical severity (range mJOA baseline: 8–18). Asymptomatic or previous surgically treated CSM, active infection, neoplastic disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, or concomitant lumbar stenosis were excluded. The patients underwent preoperative MRI using 1.5T (15 patients) and 3T (two patients) scanner, including mid-sagittal T1-weighted, axial and mid-sagittal T2-weighted series. MRI data were analyzed (Mango 2.0 software; Multi-Image Analysis GUI) by four blind raters in three different sessions. Four measurements were analysed: transverse area (TA) (Figure 1), compression ratio (CR) (Figure 2), maximal canal compromise (MCC), and maximal spinal cord compression (MSCC) (Figure 3). The differences for each measurement were evaluated using mixed-effect ANOVA models (ratter, session, ratter x session). The intra- and inter-rater reliability was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (Figure 4). Figure 1 Transverse area (TA) Figure 2 Compression ratio (CR?=?AP/W) Figure 3 Maximal canal compromise (MCC), and maximal spinal cord compression (MSCC). MCC(%)?=?1?[Dx/(Da+Db)/2] × 100%; MSCC(%)?=?1?[dx/(da+db)/2] × 100% Figure 4 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) Results:?The principal findings were: (i) for TA (71.48 ± 12.99mm2), the intra-rater agreement was 0.97 (95% CI, range 0.94–0.99) and the inter-rater agreement was 0.76 (95% CI, range 0.49–0.90); (ii) for CR (0.35 ± 0.04%), 0.94 (95% CI, range 0.88–0.98), and 0.79 (95% CI, range 0.57–0.91) respectively; (iii) for MCC (83.21 ± 2.08%), 0.95 (95% CI, range 0.89–0.98), and 0.64 (95% CI, range 0.28–0.85) respectively; and (iv) for MSCC (82.87 ± 1.52%), 0.93 (95% CI, range 0.86–0.97), and 0.84 (95% CI, range 0.65–0.93) respectively. Conclusions:?Our data suggest that three out of four measurements (TA, CR and MSCC) have acceptable intra- and interreliability coefficients (ICC > 0.75). However, for the maximal canal compromise measure, although the intrareliability was acceptable, the inter-rater reliability was not acceptable (0.64). Based on this study, we recommend that three MRI measures: transverse area, compression ratio and maximal spinal cord compression should be used in the imaging assessment of the spinal cord in CSM patients.

Karpova, Alina; Craciunas, Sorin; Chua, Soo-Yong; Rabin, Doron; Smith, Sean; Fehlings, Michael G.

2010-01-01

177

Accuracy and reliability of MRI quantitative measurements to assess spinal cord compression in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a prospective study.  

PubMed

Study type: ?Reliability study Introduction: ?Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common spinal cord disorder in persons more than 55 years old. Despite multiple neuroimaging approaches proposed to quantify the spinal cord compromise in CSM patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the procedure of choice by providing helpful information for clinical decision making, determining optimal subpopulations for treatment, and selecting the optimal treatment strategies. However, the validity, reliability, and accuracy of the MRI quantitative measurements have not yet been addressed. Objective: ?To assess the intra- and inter-observer reliability of MRI quantitative measurements of the spinal cord compromise in CSM patients. Methods: ?Seventeen CSM patients (13 male) of mean age 54.5 years old were selected from the AOSpine North America database. The patients had different combinations of stenotic levels (1-4 levels) and the clinical severity (range mJOA baseline: 8-18). Asymptomatic or previous surgically treated CSM, active infection, neoplastic disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, or concomitant lumbar stenosis were excluded. The patients underwent preoperative MRI using 1.5T (15 patients) and 3T (two patients) scanner, including mid-sagittal T1-weighted, axial and mid-sagittal T2-weighted series. MRI data were analyzed (Mango 2.0 software; Multi-Image Analysis GUI) by four blind raters in three different sessions. Four measurements were analysed: transverse area (TA) (Figure 1), compression ratio (CR) (Figure 2), maximal canal compromise (MCC), and maximal spinal cord compression (MSCC) (Figure 3). The differences for each measurement were evaluated using mixed-effect ANOVA models (ratter, session, ratter x session). The intra- and inter-rater reliability was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (Figure 4). Figure 1 Transverse area (TA)Figure 2 Compression ratio (CR?=?AP/W)Figure 3 Maximal canal compromise (MCC), and maximal spinal cord compression (MSCC). MCC(%)?=?1-[Dx/(Da+Db)/2] × 100%; MSCC(%)?=?1-[dx/(da+db)/2] × 100%Figure 4 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) Results: ?The principal findings were: (i) for TA (71.48 ± 12.99mm2), the intra-rater agreement was 0.97 (95% CI, range 0.94-0.99) and the inter-rater agreement was 0.76 (95% CI, range 0.49-0.90); (ii) for CR (0.35 ± 0.04%), 0.94 (95% CI, range 0.88-0.98), and 0.79 (95% CI, range 0.57-0.91) respectively; (iii) for MCC (83.21 ± 2.08%), 0.95 (95% CI, range 0.89-0.98), and 0.64 (95% CI, range 0.28-0.85) respectively; and (iv) for MSCC (82.87 ± 1.52%), 0.93 (95% CI, range 0.86-0.97), and 0.84 (95% CI, range 0.65-0.93) respectively. Conclusions: ?Our data suggest that three out of four measurements (TA, CR and MSCC) have acceptable intra- and interreliability coefficients (ICC > 0.75). However, for the maximal canal compromise measure, although the intrareliability was acceptable, the inter-rater reliability was not acceptable (0.64). Based on this study, we recommend that three MRI measures: transverse area, compression ratio and maximal spinal cord compression should be used in the imaging assessment of the spinal cord in CSM patients. PMID:23637669

Karpova, Alina; Craciunas, Sorin; Chua, Soo-Yong; Rabin, Doron; Smith, Sean; Fehlings, Michael G

2010-08-01

178

Operative Outcomes for Cervical Degenerative Disease: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

To date, several studies were conducted to find which procedure is superior to the others for the treatment of cervical myelopathy. The goal of surgical treatment should be to decompress the nerves, restore the alignment of the vertebrae, and stabilize the spine. Consequently, the treatment of cervical degenerative disease can be divided into decompression of the nerves alone, fixation of the cervical spine alone, or a combination of both. Posterior approaches have historically been considered safe and direct methods for cervical multisegment stenosis and lordotic cervical alignment. On the other hand, anterior approaches are indicated to the patients with cervical compression with anterior factors, relatively short-segment stenosis, and kyphotic cervical alignment. Recently, posterior approach is widely applied to several cervical degenerative diseases due to the development of various instruments. Even if it were posterior approach or anterior approach, each would have its complication. There is no Class I or II evidence to suggest that laminoplasty is superior to other techniques for decompression. However, Class III evidence has shown equivalency in functional improvement between laminoplasty, anterior cervical fusion, and laminectomy with arthrodesis. Nowadays, each surgeon tends to choose each method by evaluating patients' clinical conditions.

Nishizawa, Kazuya; Mori, Kanji; Saruhashi, Yasuo; Matsusue, Yoshitaka

2012-01-01

179

Synovial myxoma in the vertebral column of a dog: MRI description and surgical removal.  

PubMed

A 12 yr old castrated male mixed-breed dog presented with a 2 wk history of progressive tetraparesis. Neurologic deficits included a short-strided choppy gait in the thoracic limbs and a long-strided proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs. Withdrawal reflexes were decreased bilaterally in the thoracic limbs. Signs were consistent with a myelopathy of the caudal cervical/cranial thoracic spinal cord (i.e., the sixth cervical [C] vertebra to the second thoracic [T] vertebra). A mass associated with the C6-C7 articular facet on the left side was identified on MRI of the cervical spinal cord. The lesion was hyperintense to spinal cord parenchyma on T2-weighted images, hypointense on T1-weighted images, and there was strong homogenous contrast enhancement. Significant spinal cord compression was associated with the lesion. The mass was removed through a C6-C7 dorsal laminectomy and facetectomy. Histopathology of the mass was consistent with a synovial myxoma of the articular facet. A postoperative MRI showed complete surgical resection. Albeit rare, synovial myxomas should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for neoplasms affecting the vertebral columns in dogs. PMID:24659730

Neary, Casey P; Bush, William W; Tiches, Deena M; Durham, Amy C; Gavin, Patrick R

2014-01-01

180

Klippel-Feil syndrome associated with a craniocervico-thoracic dermoid cyst  

PubMed Central

Background: Uncommonly, Klippel–Feil syndrome (KFS) has been associated with intracranial or spinal tumors, most frequently dermoid or epidermoid cysts. Although the associated dermoid cyst (DC) is usually located in the posterior fossa, isolated upper cervical DC has been reported. Extension from the posterior fossa to the upper cervical spine (C2) has been reported once. We report a rare case of KFS in association with a posterior fossa DC that extended down to the upper thoracic spine and review the current literature. Case Description: A 47-year-old female with presented cervical myelopathy related to a cranio-cervico-thoracic DC in association with KPS-related cervicothoracic fusion (C2-T6) and thoracic kyphosis. The patient underwent complete tumor resection following sub-occipital craniectomy and C1-C4 cervical laminectomy. The patient exhibited complete resolution of symptoms with no tumor recurrence and no deformity at 6-year follow-up. Conclusion: DC should be added to the list of congenital central nervous system abnormalities, which should be sought in patients with KFS. Therefore, the presence of a cystic lesion in the posterior fossa, the craniocervical junction or the anterior cervical spine should suggest the possibility of a DC in patients with KFS. In cases of cranio-cervical DC, the tumor may extend quite far down the spinal column (reaching the thoracic spine), as demonstrated in the present case.

McLaughlin, Nancy; Weil, Alexander G.; Demers, Jacques; Shedid, Daniel

2013-01-01

181

Effect of Lamivudine on Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV1) DNA Copy Number, T-Cell Phenotype, and Anti-Tax Cytotoxic T-Cell Frequency in Patients with HTLV1Associated Myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic para- paresis (HAM\\/TSP) typically have a high HTLV-1 proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and abundant, activated HTLV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). No effective treatment for HAM\\/TSP has been described so far. We report a 10-fold reduction in viral DNA for five patients with HAM\\/TSP during treatment with

G. P. TAYLOR; S. NAVARRETE; C. A. MICHIE; R. DAVIS; A. D. WITKOVER; M. ROSSOR; M. A. NOWAK; P. RUDGE; E. MATUTES; C. R. M. BANGHAM; J. N. WEBER

1999-01-01

182

Difficult-to-wean: High index of suspicion  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 57 Final Diagnosis: Syryngomyelia • cervical Symptoms: Acute respiratory insufficiency Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Rare disease Background: Failed planned extubation occurs in a minority of patients with acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. In patients presenting with acute respiratory failure with no identifiable cardiopulmonary causes, uncommon conditions, such as cervical spondylotic myelopathy, should be considered. In very rare instances, when cervical spondylotic myelopathy and syringomyelia present concomitantly, they can be devastating. Case Report: A 57-year-old woman visited the emergency room (ER) after feeling unwell for several days. She was brought to the ER with acute respiratory distress and obtunded state with GCS of 6/15. She was hypotensive and agonally breathing. Her initial neurologic evaluation was unrevealing. Based on these findings, she was intubated. Over the next several days, she was difficult to wean from the ventilator and had persistent respiratory acidosis. After a short-lived extubation, the patient was again re-intubated. This time the neurologic evaluation showed decreased movements of all muscle groups against gravity and forces, with generalized weakness. An MRI of the brain and cervical spine demonstrated moderate degenerative disc disease and syringomyelia extending from C2 to C7 level. The patient underwent de-compression laminectomy. After failing several weaning trials, she underwent bronchoscopically-assisted tracheotomy. Conclusions: Acute cardiopulmonary and intensive care unit-acquired neuromuscular conditions have been attributed as a major cause of difficult weaning and extubation. Failure to identify and correct other rare combinations (such as cervical degenerative disc disease and syringomyelia) may cause acute respiratory failure and subsequent failure to wean and extubation, resulting in high rates of mortality and morbidity.

Gelaye, Alehegn; Patel, Brijesh; Farra, Wassim; Kole, Bruce

2014-01-01

183

Morphometric effects of acute shortening of the spine: the kinking and the sliding of the cord, response of the spinal nerves  

PubMed Central

Spinal shortening is performed for a wide spectrum of diseases. This study was designed to investigate the morphologic effects of shortening on the spinal cord, to enlighten the amount and direction of the sliding of the cord, the alteration of the angles of the roots, and to identify the appropriate laminectomy length. Total vertebrectomy of T12 was applied to ten sheep models after spinal instrumentation. Gradual shortening was applied to five sheep; then, the degree and direction of the sliding of the spinal cord and the angles of the adjacent roots were measured. On five other sheep, additional sagittal sectioning was performed via excision of the pedicles. Measurements were taken at different laminectomy lengths to record kinking of the spinal cord with gradual shortening. The mean sliding of the spinal cord was 9 mm cranially and 7.8 mm caudally. T11 spinal nerves became more vertical caudally, and T12 spinal nerves achieved an ascending position with gradual shortening. Both T11 and T12 spinal nerves were sharply bent in the foramen and on the pedicle of T13, respectively. In full-length shortening, the mean kink of the spine in the sagittal plane was 92.4° for two levels of hemi-laminectomies, 24.6° for complete laminectomy of T11 with hemilaminectomy of T13, and 20.2° for two levels of complete laminectomies. The slippage of the cord is dominant in the earlier stages and kinking is dominant in later stages of shortening. Increasing the laminectomy length by only a half or one level prevents excessive kinking and compressions at the upper and lower margins of the laminectomy. In the later stages of shortening, the spinal nerves near the vertebrectomy site are at risk because of the sharp bending of the nerves. This study describes the mechanism of the sliding and kinking of the cord due to gradual shortening of the spine, which might be useful in spinal surgery procedures. It also states that it is possible to avoid excessive kinking by planning the appropriate technique of laminectomy style in full-length shortening.

Atl?han, Dogan; Cimen, Oguzhan; K?l?nc, Cem Yal?n; Iltar, Serkan

2007-01-01

184

HLA DRB1*DQB1* haplotype in HTLV-I-associated familial infective dermatitis may predict development of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis  

SciTech Connect

A possible causal association between infective dermatitis and HTLV-I infection was reported in 1990 and confirmed in 1992. We now report familial infective dermatitis (ID) occurring in a 26-year-old mother and her 9-year-old son. The mother was first diagnosed with ID in 1969 at the age of 2 years in Dermatology Unit at the University Hospital of the West Indies (U.H.W.I.) in Jamacia. The elder of her 2 sons was diagnosed with ID at the age of 3 years, also at U.H.W.I. Both mother and son are HTLV-I-seropositive. A second, younger son, currently age 2 years, is also HTLV-I-seropositive, but without clinical evidence of ID. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), class II, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping documented a shared class II haplotype, DRB1*DQB1* (1101-0301), in the mother and her 2 sons. This same haplotype has been described among Japanese patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and has been associated with a possible pathologically heightened immune response to HTLV-I infection. The presence of this haplotype in these familial ID cases with clinical signs of HAM/TSP may have contributed to their risk for development of HAM/TSP. The unaffected, HTLV-I-seropositive, younger son requires close clinical follow-up. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

LaGrenade, L.; Miller, W.; Pate, E.; Rodgers-Johnson, P. [Univ. of the West Indies, Mona (Jamaica)] [and others] [Univ. of the West Indies, Mona (Jamaica); and others

1996-01-02

185

High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

There have been few reports describing substances related to oxidative and intermediary metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with spinal degenerative disorders. This study investigated whether the concentrations of metabolites in the CSF differed between patients with spinal degenerative disorders and controls, and whether the concentrations of these metabolites correlated with the severity of symptoms. CSF samples were obtained from 30 patients with cervical myelopathy (Group M), 30 patients with lumbar radiculopathy (Group R), and 10 volunteers (control). Metabolites in these CSF samples were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There were no differences in the concentrations of lactate, alanine, acetate, glutamate, pyruvate, or citrate between Groups M and R, between Group M and the control, or between Group R and the control. In Group M, neither symptom duration nor the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score correlated with the concentration of any metabolite. In Group R, the symptom duration positively correlated with the concentration of lactate, glutamate, and citrate in CSF. The duration of nerve root block showed a negative correlation with the concentrations of acetate in CSF of the patients in Group R. In patients with lumbar radiculopathy, there is a possibility of increased aerobic metabolic activity or decreased gluconeogenic activity in patients with shorter symptom duration, and increased aerobic metabolic activity in patients with severe inflammation around a nerve root.

Morio, Yasuo; Meshitsuka, Shunsuke; Yamane, Koji; Nanjo, Yoshiro; Teshima, Ryota

2010-01-01

186

HLA DRB1*DQB1* haplotype in HTLV-I-associated familial infective dermatitis may predict development of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.  

PubMed

A possible causal association between infective dermatitis and HTLV-I infection was reported in 1990 and confirmed in 1992. We now report familial infective dermatitis (ID) occurring in a 26-year-old mother and her 9-year-old son. The mother was first diagnosed with ID in 1969 at the age of 2 years in the Dermatology Unit at the University Hospital of the West Indies (U.H.W.I.) in Jamaica. The elder of her 2 sons was diagnosed with ID at the age of 3 years, also at U.H.W.I. Both mother and son are HTLV-I-seropositive. A second, younger son, currently age 2 years, is also HTLV-I-seropositive, but without clinical evidence of ID. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), class II, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping documented a shared class II haplotype, DRB1*DQB1* (1101-0301), in the mother and her 2 sons. This same haplotype has been described among Japanese patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and has been associated with a possible pathologically heightened immune response to HTLV-I infection. The presence of this haplotype in these familial ID cases with clinical signs of HAM/TSP may have contributed to their risk for development of HAM/TSP. The unaffected, HTLV-I-seropositive younger son requires close clinical follow-up. PMID:8741915

LaGrenade, L; Sonoda, S; Miller, W; Pate, E; Rodgers-Johnson, P; Hanchard, B; Cranston, B; Fujiyoshi, T; Yashiki, S; Blank, M; Gibbs, C J; Manns, A

1996-01-01

187

Therapeutic benefits of an oral vitamin B1 derivative for human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).  

PubMed

Prosultiamine, a vitamin B1 derivative, has long been used for beriberi neuropathy and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Based on the finding that prosultiamine induces apoptosis in human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T cells, Nakamura et al. conducted a clinical trial of prosultiamine in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). In this open-label, single arm study enrolling 24 HAM/TSP patients recently published in BMC Medicine, oral prosultiamine (300 mg/day for 12 weeks) was found to be effective by neurological, urological and virological evaluations. Notably, it increased detrusor pressure, bladder capacity and maximum flow rate, and improved detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. A significant decrease in HTLV-I copy numbers in peripheral blood following the treatment provided a rationale for using the drug. The trial has some limitations, such as the small numbers of participants, the open-label design, the lack of a placebo arm, and the short trial period. Nevertheless, the observation that such a safe, cheap drug may have excellent therapeutic effects on HAM/TSP, a chronic devastating illness occurring mainly in developing countries, provides support for future large-scale randomized controlled trials.Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/182. PMID:23945332

Kira, Jun-Ichi

2013-01-01

188

Association of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis in North-East of Iran (Mashhad)  

PubMed Central

The underlying mechanisms leading to the development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-I infected individuals are not fully understood. Host genetic factors appear to be involved as risk factors for developing HAM/TSP. We investigated the possible contribution of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as a risk factor to HAM/TSP by comparing frequencies of promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms in HTLV-I infected Iranian patients who either remained asymptomatic or developed HAM/TSP and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Healthy, uninfected individuals from the same region served as healthy controls. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of IL-10 promoter alleles and genotypes at position -819 and -592 between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls (P=0.01), and between HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls (P=0.02). The frequency of the low IL-10 producer haplotype (-1082*A, -819*T, -592*A) was significantly associated with HTLV-I carriage or HAM/TSP compared with healthy controls (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that IL-10 -819*T and -592*A alleles are significant risk factors for developing HTLLV-I infection but do not appear to convey additional risk for developing HAM/TSP.

Shirdel, Abbas; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Sahebari, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Mirfeizi, Seyedeh Zahra; Hutchinson, Ian; Ziaee, Aghigh; Rafatpanah, Houshang

2013-01-01

189

Association of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis in North-East of Iran (Mashhad).  

PubMed

The underlying mechanisms leading to the development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-I infected individuals are not fully understood. Host genetic factors appear to be involved as risk factors for developing HAM/TSP. We investigated the possible contribution of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as a risk factor to HAM/TSP by comparing frequencies of promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms in HTLV-I infected Iranian patients who either remained asymptomatic or developed HAM/TSP and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Healthy, uninfected individuals from the same region served as healthy controls. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of IL-10 promoter alleles and genotypes at position -819 and -592 between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls (P=0.01), and between HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls (P=0.02). The frequency of the low IL-10 producer haplotype (-1082*A, -819*T, -592*A) was significantly associated with HTLV-I carriage or HAM/TSP compared with healthy controls (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that IL-10 -819*T and -592*A alleles are significant risk factors for developing HTLLV-I infection but do not appear to convey additional risk for developing HAM/TSP. PMID:24470873

Shirdel, Abbas; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Sahebari, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Mirfeizi, Seyedeh Zahra; Hutchinson, Ian; Ziaee, Aghigh; Rafatpanah, Houshang

2013-03-01

190

Biomechanical analysis of cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: Effects of posterior decompression and kyphosis following decompression  

PubMed Central

Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) results in myelopathy. Conservative treatment is usually ineffective, thus, surgical treatment is required. One of the reasons for the poor surgical outcome following laminoplasty for cervical OPLL is kyphosis. In the present study, a 3-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) was used to analyze the stress distribution in preoperative, posterior decompression and kyphosis models of OPLL. The 3D-FEM spinal cord model established in this study consisted of gray and white matter, as well as pia mater. For the preoperative model, 30% anterior static compression was applied to OPLL. For the posterior decompression model, the lamina was shifted backwards and for the kyphosis model, the spinal cord was studied at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50° kyphosis. In the preoperative model, high stress distributions were observed in the spinal cord. In the posterior decompression model, stresses were lower than those observed in the preoperative model. In the kyphosis model, an increase in the angle of kyphosis resulted in augmented stress on the spinal cord. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that posterior decompression was effective, but stress distribution increased with the progression of kyphosis. In cases where kyphosis progresses following surgery, detailed follow-ups are required in case the symptoms worsen.

NISHIDA, NORIHIRO; KANCHIKU, TSUKASA; KATO, YOSHIHIKO; IMAJO, YASUAKI; YOSHIDA, YUICHIRO; KAWANO, SYUNICHI; TAGUCHI, TOSHIHIKO

2014-01-01

191

Spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula causing cervical myelopathy and acute ischemic strokes treated by endovascular balloon-assisted coiling and Onyx embolization.  

PubMed

Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are infrequent lesions characterized by abnormal communication of the extracranial vertebral artery or one of its branches to the surrounding venous plexuses, without the presence of any intervening vessels. We describe a rare occurrence of a patient with VAVF presenting with acute ischemic stroke, encephalomalacia from multiple prior embolic events, and cervical myelopathy, which was successfully treated by coil-assisted Onyx embolization (ev3 Endovascular, Plymouth, MN, USA) with balloon for flow arrest. Our patient demonstrates that point occlusion with embolization for VAVF can be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for complete obliteration of the fistula, with subsequent reduction in the volume of the intra-spinal canal venous plexus. Although it is postulated that thromboembolism is less common because of redirection of flow to the venous side of the fistula, our patient also illustrates the potential for to-fro flow in such a fistula to result in embolic injury to the distal circulation. PMID:23972561

John, Seby; Jaffari, Neda; Lu, Mei; Hussain, Muhammad S; Hui, Ferdinand

2014-01-01

192

Quantitative assessment of hsp70, IL-1? and TNF-? in the spinal cord of dogs with E40K SOD1-associated degenerative myelopathy.  

PubMed

Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disease commonly associated with an E40K missense mutation in the SOD1 gene. DM has many similarities to some familial forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and may serve as an important disease model for therapy development. Pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and heat shock protein (hsp) 70 play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS. The focus of the current work was to determine whether an inflammatory phenotype is present in canine DM as defined by IL-1?, TNF-?, and hsp70 responses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and spinal cord tissue. Concentrations of hsp70, IL-1? and TNF-? were below the limits of detection by ELISA in the CSF of both normal and DM-affected dogs. Immunohistochemical staining for hsp70 was significantly increased in ependymal cells lining the spinal cord central canal of DM-affected dogs (P?=?0.003). This was not associated with increased IL-1? or TNF-? staining, but was associated with increased CD18 staining in the gray matter of DM-affected dogs. These results suggest that hsp70 in spinal cord tissue is a potential inflammatory signature in canine DM. PMID:24662024

Lovett, M C; Coates, J R; Shu, Y; Oglesbee, M J; Fenner, W; Moore, S A

2014-05-01

193

Neuronal loss and decreased GLT-1 expression observed in the spinal cord of Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs with canine degenerative myelopathy.  

PubMed

Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is frequently found in Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs. Canine DM is potentially a spontaneous animal model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar lesions and the involvement of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. However, the ventral horn lesion in DM has not been characterized in detail. Glutamate excitotoxicity due to deficiency of the glutamine-glutamate cycle has been implicated in neuron death in ALS. Thus, we examined 5 PWC dogs with an SOD1 mutation that were affected by DM, 5 non-DM PWC dogs, and 5 Beagle dogs without neurologic signs to assess the neuronal changes and the expression levels of 2 glial excitatory amino acid transporters (glutamate transporter 1 [GLT-1] and glutamate/aspartate transporter [GLAST]). The number of neurons in the spinal ventral horns of the DM dogs was significantly decreased, whereas no change was found in the cell size. Chromatolysis, lipofuscin-laden neurons, and marked synapse loss were also observed. GLT-1 expression was strikingly decreased in DM dogs, whereas GLAST expression showed no significant change. The results indicate that excitotoxicity related to the reduced expression of GLT-1, but not GLAST, may be involved in neuron loss in DM, as in human ALS, whereas intraneuronal events may differ between the 2 diseases. PMID:23839236

Ogawa, M; Uchida, K; Yamato, O; Inaba, M; Uddin, M M; Nakayama, H

2014-05-01

194

The Impact of Immune Response on HTLV-I in HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP)  

PubMed Central

Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus which is associated with adult T cells leukaemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in a minority of HTLV-I-infected individuals. It is not clear why a minority of HTLV-I-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP and majority remains lifelong carriers. It seems that the interaction between the virus and the immune response plays an important role in HTLV-I-associated diseases. Although the role of the immune response in HTLV-I pathogenesis is not fully understood, however it seems that the efficacy of the immune response which is involved in controlling or limiting of viral persistence determines the outcome of HTLV-I-associated diseases. Here we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immune response and also the risk factors contribute to the observed differences between HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers.

Rafatpanah, Houshang; Farid Hosseini, Reza; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan

2013-01-01

195

Development and characterization of a novel rat model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: the impact of chronic cord compression on clinical, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological outcomes.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord impairment worldwide and is a risk factor for traumatic central cord syndrome. Despite advances in surgery, there are no effective neuroprotective treatments for CSM, which reflects a limited understanding of its pathophysiology. In order to develop therapeutic strategies, we have developed a novel rat model of chronic progressive cervical spinal cord compression that mimics CSM. A titanium-screw-based chronic compression device (CCD) was designed to achieve progressive cord compression at the C6 level. The CCD was fixed to the C2 and T2 spinous processes and a threaded screw was turned to induce compression. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=75) were divided into three groups: (1) sham (no compression, n=6), (2) mild compression (1.4?mm stenosis, n=27), and (3) severe compression (2.6?mm stenosis, n=42). Compression was evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The area of spared white matter, extent of cord flattening ratio, and loss of neurons were assessed. Functional deficits were characterized using sensory-evoked potential (SEP) recordings, and with neurobehavioral tests: the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, inclined plane, paw grip strength, and assessment of mechanical and thermal allodynia. Micro-CT confirmed progressive canal stenosis. The loss of intact white matter and cord flattening were significantly greater in rats with severe cord compression, and the number of neurons was reduced at the epicenter of cord compression. With chronic cord compression there was a significant decline in locomotor function, forelimb function, trunk stability/coordination, an increase in mechanical allodynia, and impaired axonal conduction. The CCD model results in chronic and precise cervical cord compression. The compression is associated with mechanical allodynia and measurable neurobehavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropathological deficits. We anticipate that the CCD model will enable the investigation of translationally-relevant therapeutic strategies for CSM. PMID:21561323

Lee, JangBo; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Fehlings, Michael G

2012-03-20

196

Posterior decompression with transforaminal interbody fusion for thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum at the same level.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and feasibility of posterior decompression with transforaminal thoracic interbody fusion (PTTIF) for thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) at the same level. Between March 2004 and December 2008, 13 patients (five men and eight women, average age: 56years, range: 39-72years) who underwent PTTIF for concurrent OLF and OPLL were studied retrospectively. The clinical efficacy, operative time, blood loss, sagittal alignment and complications were investigated. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in three patients, all of whom healed well after repair. One patient developed a urinary tract infection and one developed a wound infection, but both were cured with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Neurological symptom deterioration occurred in one patient, but she returned to her preoperative baseline after completing methylprednisolone therapy. After an average 36.8months follow up, the mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score significantly increased from 4.3±1.3 preoperatively to 7.2±1.8 at 3months after the operation and 8.5±1.7 at the final follow-up (P<0.01), with an overall recovery rate of 63.2±21.8%. Postoperative imaging demonstrated an improvement in the local kyphosis (P<0.01), and as of the final follow up no cases of spinal instability or instrument loosening had occurred. We conclude that PTTIF provides satisfactory neurological recovery and stabilises the thoracic fusion through a single posterior approach. However, this procedure is not complication free and demands advanced technical expertise on the part of practitioners, particularly to avoid catastrophic spinal cord injuries. PMID:23313526

Liu, Fa-Jing; Chai, Yi; Shen, Yong; Xu, Jia-Xin; Du, Wei; Zhang, Peng

2013-04-01

197

Ascorbic Acid Has Superior Ex Vivo Antiproliferative, Cell Death-Inducing and Immunomodulatory Effects over IFN-? in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Clear therapeutic guidelines for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) are missing due to the lack of randomized double-blind controlled clinical trials. Moderate yet similar clinical benefit has been demonstrated for IFN-? and high-dose ascorbic acid (AA) monotherapy in a large open clinical trial. However, there is a lack of in vivo and in vitro studies exploring and comparing the effects of high-dose AA and IFN-? treatment in the context of HAM/TSP. Therefore, we performed the first comparative analysis of the ex vivo and in vitro molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of IFN-? and high-dose AA in HAM/TSP. Principal Findings Through thymidine incorporation and quantification of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, we demonstrate that high-dose AA displays differential and superior antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects over IFN-? in HAM/TSP PBMCs ex vivo. In addition, high-dose AA, but not IFN-?, induced cell death in both HAM/TSP PBMCs and HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines MT-2 and MT-4. Microarray data combined with pathway analysis of MT-2 cells revealed AA-induced regulation of genes associated with cell death, including miR-155. Since miR-155 has recently been demonstrated to up-regulate IFN-?, this microRNA might represent a novel therapeutic target in HAM/TSP, as recently demonstrated in multiple sclerosis, another neuroinflammatory disease. On the other hand, IFN-? selectively up-regulated antiviral and immune-related genes. Conclusions In comparison to IFN-?, high-dose AA treatment has superior ex vivo and in vitro cell death-inducing, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory anti-HTLV-1 effects. Differential pathway activation by both drugs opens up avenues for targeted treatment in specific patient subsets.

Moens, Britta; Decanine, Daniele; Menezes, Soraya Maria; Khouri, Ricardo; Silva-Santos, Gilvaneia; Lopez, Giovanni; Alvarez, Carolina; Talledo, Michael; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; de Almeida Kruschewsky, Ramon; Galvao-Castro, Bernardo; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Weyenbergh, Johan

2012-01-01

198

Texture-based characterization of pre- and post-operative T2-weighted magnetic resonance signals of the cervical spinal cord in cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility of texture analysis regarding the provision of quantitative prognostic factors, potentially valuable to the prediction of the post-operative outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients, is investigated. The clinical sample of the study comprised six subjects, who had undergone surgical therapeutic intervention for CSM. Following a specific imaging protocol, a pair of MR images of the cervical spine, corresponding to pre- and post-operative MR scans, was obtained for each of the patients. Accordingly, 12 sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were studied. Employing custom developed software, a Region Of Interest (ROI) within the spinal cord, corresponding to the region of the high-intensity CSM MR signal, was segmented on each image, according to the region growing method. Utilizing custom developed algorithms, the following sets of textural features were generated from the segmented ROIs: (i) gradient features, (ii) mean values of features from co-occurrence matrices (co-occurrence features) and (iii) range values of co-occurrence features. Utilizing each one of these sets of features, as well as the least-squares minimum distance and the quadratic classification algorithms, pattern recognition classification schemes were implemented for the discrimination between pre-operative and post-operative MR signals. Statistical analysis revealed the existence of statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between textural features generated from pre-operative and post-operative high-intensity MR signals. The classification accuracies accomplished ranged from 75% to 100%. Textural features, descriptive of relevant properties of the high-intensity MR signal in CSM, may be considered as quantitative information of potential value for the prediction of the post-operative outcome of CSM patients.

Boniatis, Ioannis; Klironomos, George; Gatzounis, George; Panayiotakis, George

2009-10-01

199

Effects of robot-driven gait orthosis treadmill training on the autonomic response in rehabilitation-responsive stroke and cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients.  

PubMed

Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) assisted with a robotic-driven gait orthosis is utilized in rehabilitation of individuals with lost motor skills. A typical rehabilitation session included: sitting, standing, suspension, robotic-assisted walking at 1.5 and 2.5km/h, respectively with 50% body weight support and recovery. While the effects of robotic-assisted BWSTT on motor performances were deeply studied, the influences on the cardiovascular control are still unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate in stroke (ST) and cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients: (1) the autonomic response during a traditional robotic-assisted BWSTT session of motor rehabilitation; (2) the effects of 30 daily sessions of BWSTT on cardiovascular regulation. The autonomic response was assessed through symbolic analysis of short-term heart rate variability in 11 pathologic subjects (5 ST and 6 CSM patients) whose motor skills were improved as a result of the rehabilitation therapy. Results showed variable individual responses to the rehabilitation session in ST patients at the beginning of the therapy. At the end of the rehabilitation process, the responses of ST patients were less variable and more similar to those previously observed in healthy subjects. CSM patients exhibited an exaggerated vagal response to the fastest walking phase during the first rehabilitative session. This abnormal response was limited after the last rehabilitative session. We conclude that robotic-assisted BWSTT is helpful in restoring cardiovascular control in rehabilitation-responsive ST patients and limiting vagal responses in rehabilitation-responsive CSM patients. PMID:20510612

Magagnin, Valentina; Bo, Ivano; Turiel, Maurizio; Fornari, Maurizio; Caiani, Enrico G; Porta, Alberto

2010-06-01

200

Intradural spinal arachnoid cyst in a dog.  

PubMed Central

An 8-month-old, spayed female dog was presented with signs localizing a neurologic lesion between the 3rd thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. An arachnoid cyst was diagnosed by myelography, and a dorsal laminectomy with durotomy was performed. The dog continues to do well 1-1/2 year after surgery. Images Figure 1.

Webb, A A

1999-01-01

201

Unusual Case of Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Truly reversible pulmonary hypertension is rare. Acquired systemic arteriovenous (A-V) fistulas following spinal surgery (laminectomy) are a less recognized cause of secondary pulmonary hypertension. We describe a patient who presented with symptoms and clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension and underwent endovascular correction of an acquired A-V fistula, which led to improvement according to clinical and noninvasive hemodynamic criteria.

L. Kolilekas; P. Gallis; N. Liasis; G. K. Anagnostopoulos; I. Eleftheriadis

2006-01-01

202

Posterior approaches in the management of cervical spondylosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIf the cervical lordotic curvature has been well preserved, spondylostenosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, with or without instability, may be approached posteriorly in selected older patients (over 65 years of age). Posterior surgical alternatives include the laminectomy with or without fusion, or laminoplasty. However, in younger patients or in geriatric patients with predominantly anterior disease with kyphosis,

Nancy Epstein

2002-01-01

203

Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement  

PubMed Central

Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra.

Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.

2014-01-01

204

Midline lumbar ganglion/synovial cyst mimicking an epidural tumor: case report and review of pathogenesis.  

PubMed

A case of a midline lumbar extradural ganglion/synovial cyst causing lumbar canal stenosis and mimicking an epidural tumor is presented. The lesion was demonstrated by a magnetic resonance imaging study, and relief of symptoms was achieved with decompressive laminectomy and total removal of the mass. The pathogenesis of lumbar ganglion/synovial cyst is reviewed. PMID:2972941

Azzam, C J

1988-08-01

205

Ruptured spinal dermoid cyst with chemical arachnoiditis and disseminated intracranial lipid droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 33-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of gradually progressive leg weakness. Spinal MRI and myelography with CT demonstrated an extensive intradural abnormality suggesting a diffuse inflammatory or neoplastic process. Only after cranial CT and MRI demonstrated lipid droplets was the diagnosis of a ruptured spinal dermoid cyst suggested. Subsequent laminectomy revealed a ruptured intradural dermoid cyst in the

M. B. Roeder; C. Bazan; J. R. Jinkins

1995-01-01

206

Effect of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage on Wound Healing in Flap Surgery: Histological Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find out the effect of CSF leakage on wound healing after flap surgery. Sixteen male Wistar rats were used. The superiorly based rectangular dorsal skin flap 3 × 3 cm was elevated at the interscapular region. Through this opening, paraspinal muscle dissection and three-level bilateral laminectomy were done. Finally, a dura defect with

Orhan Babuccu; Irfan Peksoy; Ferda Cagavi

2004-01-01

207

Giant anterior sacral meningocele and posterior sagittal approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object Anterior sacral meningocele (ASM) is a rare congenital malformation. Often while still asymptomatic, ASM may achieve a considerably size, to the extent of exerting a mass effect on the pelvic structures. Spontaneous rupture with subsequent septic meningitis is the most frequent and dangerous complication. The meningocelic sac is usually isolated by a surgical procedure that requires a sacral laminectomy

Luca Massimi; Alessandro Calisti; Michalis Koutzoglou; Concezio Di Rocco

2003-01-01

208

Utility of the MMPI Pain Assessment Index in Predicting Outcome After Lumbar Surgery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the ability of the Pain Assesment Index, determined from presurgery Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores, to predict outcome subsequent to lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. The PAI was found to have good ability to identify patients who were doing well after surgery, but low power in predicting which patients would have…

Turner, Judith; And Others

1986-01-01

209

Delayed segmental axial dystonia of the trunk on standing after lumbar disk operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report four patients with various degrees of chronic, tonic, mildly painful, or non-painful, kyphoscolioses in orthostatism, which developed weeks, or months, after one or several laminectomies for lumbar disk hernia, in the absence of recurring radicular pain or acute lumbar pain. No family history or personal antecedent, of focal or generalized dystonia was found and the dystonia was not

J Ghika; B Nater; J Henderson; J Bogousslavsky; F Regli

1997-01-01

210

Cerebral Palsy Spasticity. Selective Posterior Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed selective posterior rhizotomies on 60 children with cerebral palsy. The procedure involves lumbar laminectomy with stimulation of the rootlets (fascicles) of the second lumbar to the first sacral posterior roots bilaterally; those rootlets associated with an abnormal motor response, as evidenced by sustained or diffused muscular contraction, are divided leaving intact rootlets associated with a brief localized

Warwick J. Peacock; Leila J. Arens; Barbara Berman

1987-01-01

211

Successful staged surgical correction of congenital segmental spinal dysgenesis and complete rotary subluxation of the thoracolumbar spine in an infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital segmental spinal dysgenesis is a rare lesion that usually is associated with neurological deficits. Affected infants who are neurologically intact may suffer progressive kyphosis and subsequent neurological deterioration. Results of external casting, laminectomy with spinal fixation, or bone grafting of the defect have been disappointing. The authors present a successful staged surgical management scheme consisting of complete resection of

Edward G Ford; Bruce A Jaufmann; Sue C Kaste; Lawrence J Foody; Thomas E Kuivila

1996-01-01

212

Weakness of the neck extensors, possible causes and relation to adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical kyphosis may be congenital, or occur as a result of laminectomy, post-traumatic deformity, infection, neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophies, motor neuron disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, tumor, and inflammation such as ankylosing spondylitis. Furthermore, adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis was defined as cervical kyphotic deformity of adolescent patient without any cause such as those previously described. As no

Shen Xiaolong; Zhou Xuhui; Chen Jian; Tian Ye; Yuan Wen

2011-01-01

213

Unusual case of pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Truly reversible pulmonary hypertension is rare. Acquired systemic arteriovenous (A-V) fistulas following spinal surgery (laminectomy) are a less recognized cause of secondary pulmonary hypertension. We describe a patient who presented with symptoms and clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension and underwent endovascular correction of an acquired A-V fistula, which led to improvement according to clinical and noninvasive hemodynamic criteria. PMID:16043955

Kolilekas, L; Gallis, P; Liasis, N; Anagnostopoulos, G K; Eleftheriadis, I

2006-01-01

214

Increased expression of OX40 is associated with progressive disease in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Background OX40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that is expressed primarily on activated CD4+ T cells and promotes the development of effector and memory T cells. Although OX40 has been reported to be a target gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) viral transactivator Tax and is overexpressed in vivo in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells, an association between OX40 and HTLV-1-associated inflammatory disorders, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), has not yet been established. Moreover, because abrogation of OX40 signals ameliorates chronic inflammation in animal models of autoimmune disease, novel monoclonal antibodies against OX40 may offer a potential treatment for HTLV-1-associated diseases such as ATL and HAM/TSP. Results In this study, we showed that OX40 was specifically expressed in CD4+ T cells naturally infected with HTLV-1 that have the potential to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines along with Tax expression. We also showed that OX40 was overexpressed in spinal cord infiltrating mononuclear cells in a clinically progressive HAM/TSP patient with a short duration of illness. The levels of the soluble form of OX40 (sOX40) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from chronic progressive HAM/TSP patients or from patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (OINDs) were not different. In contrast, sOX40 levels in the CSF of rapidly progressing HAM/TSP patients were higher than those in the CSF from patients with OINDs, and these patients showed higher sOX40 levels in the CSF than in the plasma. When our newly produced monoclonal antibody against OX40 was added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture, HTLV-1-infected T cells were specifically removed by a mechanism that depends on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Conclusions Our study identified OX40 as a key molecule and biomarker for rapid progression of HAM/TSP. Furthermore, blocking OX40 may have potential in therapeutic intervention for HAM/TSP.

2013-01-01

215

Comparative Study of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion via Unilateral and Bilateral Approaches in Patients with Unilateral Leg Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the clinical and radiological advantages of unilateral laminectomy in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedure comparing with bilateral laminectomy, under the same procedural condition including bilateral instrumentation and insertion of two cages, in patients with degenerative lumbar disease with unilateral leg symptoms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 124 consecutive cases of PLIF via unilateral or bilateral approach between January 2006 and April 2010. In 80 cases (bilateral group), two cages were inserted via bilateral laminectomy, and in 44 cases (unilateral group), via unilateral laminectomy. The average follow-up duration was 29.5 months. The clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The fusion rates and disc space heights were determined by dynamic standing radiographs and/or computed tomography. Operative times, intra-operative and post-operative blood losses and hospitalization periods were also evaluated. Results In clinical evaluation, the VAS and ODI scores showed excellent outcomes in both groups. There were no significant differences in term of fusion rate, but the perioperative blood loss and the operative time of the unilateral group were lower than that of the bilateral group. Conclusion Unilateral laminectomy can minimize the operative time and perioperative blood loss in PLIF procedure. However, the different preoperative disc height between two groups is a limitation of this study. Despite this limitation, solid fusion and satisfactory symptomatic improvement could be achieved uniquely by our surgical method. This surgical method can be an alternative surgical technique in patients with unilateral leg pain.

Lee, Jong-Won; Kwon, Ki-Young; Rhee, Jong-Joo; Hur, Jin-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Koo

2011-01-01

216

Cervical spondylosis. An update.  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylosis is caused by degenerative disc disease and usually produces intermittent neck pain in middle-aged and elderly patients. This pain usually responds to activity modification, neck immobilization, isometric exercises, and medication. Neurologic symptoms occur infrequently, usually in patients with congenital spinal stenosis. For these patients, magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred initial diagnostic study. Because involvement of neurologic structures on imaging studies may be asymptomatic, consultation with a neurologist is advised to rule out other neurologic diseases. In most cases of spondylotic radiculopathy, the results of conservative treatment are so favorable that surgical intervention is not considered unless pain persists or unless there is progressive neurologic deficit. If indicated, a surgical procedure may be done through the anterior or posterior cervical spine; results are gratifying, with long-term improvement in 70% to 80% of patients. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is the most serious and disabling condition of this disease. Because many patients have nonprogressive minor impairment, neck immobilization is a reasonable treatment in patients presenting with minor neurologic findings or in whom an operation is contraindicated. This simple remedy will result in improvement in 30% to 50% of patients. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients presenting with severe or progressive neurologic deficits. Anterior cervical approaches are generally preferred, although there are still indications for laminectomy. Surgical results are modest, with good initial results expected in about 70% of patients. Functional outcome noticeably declines with long-term follow-up, which raises the question of whether, and how much, surgical treatment affects the natural course of the disease. Prospective randomized studies are needed to answer these questions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.

McCormack, B M; Weinstein, P R

1996-01-01

217

Neck Pain Following Cervical Laminoplasty: Does Preservation of the C2 Muscle Attachments and/or C7 Matter?  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Systematic review. Objective?In patients aged 18 years or older, with cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), does sparing the C2 muscle attachments and/or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty lead to reduced postoperative axial pain compared with conventional C3 to C7 laminoplasty? Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Methods?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and August 17, 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating C2/C3- or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?We identified 11 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. Only the randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed no significant difference in late axial pain (at 12 months) when C7 spinous muscle preservation was compared with no preservation. However, seven other retrospective cohort studies showed significant pain relief in the preserved group compared with the nonpreserved group. The preservation group included those with preservation of the C7 spinous process and/or attached muscles, the deep extensor muscles, or C2 muscle attachment and/or C3 laminectomy (as opposed to laminoplasty). One study that included preservation of either the C2 or C7 posterior paraspinal muscles found that only preservation of the muscles attached to C2 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Another study that included preservation of either the C7 spinous process or the deep extensor muscles found that only preservation of C7 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Conclusion?Although there is conflicting data regarding the importance of preserving C7 and/or the semispinalis cervicis muscle attachments to C2, there is enough evidence to suggest that surgeons should make every attempt to preserve these structures whenever possible since there appears to be little downside to doing so, unless it compromises the neurologic decompression.

Riew, K. Daniel; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Heller, John G.

2013-01-01

218

Temporal lesions and widespread involvement of white matter associated with multi-organ inflammatory disease in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).  

PubMed

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord, characterized by spastic paraparesis, back pain, and sphincter disorders. Involvement of multiple organs and encephalopathy are uncommon in HAM/TSP. Nonspecific small white matter lesions of unknown etiology, mainly in the periventricular and subcortical regions, have been found on brain magnetic resonance imaging of HAM/TSP patients. Bitemporal lesions have rarely been described. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with HAM/TSP who presented subclinical cognitive deficits associated with bitemporal and widespread white matter lesions. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was inflammatory (blood-CSF barrier dysfunction, intrathecal synthesis of total and HTLV-1 IgG). The proviral load was higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The neurological picture was complicated by multi-organ inflammatory disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, uveitis, anemia, and chronic renal failure). This case highlights the potential multisystem inflammatory nature of HTLV-1 infection, with a wide spectrum of manifestations. In cases of HAM/TSP with multi-organ inflammatory disease, encephalic involvement should be investigated, even in the absence of clinical manifestations. Also bitemporal lesions can be the consequence of intense and diffuse inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:24815740

Mendes, Gustavo B; Kalil, Rosangela S; Rosadas, Carolina; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

2014-08-01

219

Genes related to antiviral activity, cell migration, and lysis are differentially expressed in CD4(+) T cells in human t cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.  

PubMed

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4(+) T cells and these cells play a central role in HTLV-1 infection. In this study, we investigated the global gene expression profile of circulating CD4(+) T cells from the distinct clinical status of HTLV-1-infected individuals in regard to TAX expression levels. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier (HAC) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients in order to identify genes involved in HAM/TSP development using a microarray technique. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that healthy control (CT) and HTLV-1-infected samples clustered separately. We also observed that the HAC and HAM/TSP groups clustered separately regardless of TAX expression. The gene expression profile of CD4(+) T cells was compared among the CT, HAC, and HAM/TSP groups. The paxillin (Pxn), chemokine (C-X-C motif?) receptor 4 (Cxcr4), interleukin 27 (IL27), and granzyme A (Gzma) genes were differentially expressed between the HAC and HAM/TSP groups, regardless of TAX expression. The perforin 1 (Prf1) and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) genes were increased in the HAM/TSP group and presented a positive correlation to the expression of TAX and the proviral load (PVL). The frequency of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) was higher in HTLV-1-infected individuals. Foxp3 gene expression was positively correlated with cell lysis-related genes (Gzma, Gzmb, and Prf1). These findings suggest that CD4(+) T cell activity is distinct between the HAC and HAM/TSP groups. PMID:24041428

Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Malmegrim de Farias, Kelen Cristina Ribeiro; Sousa, Alessandra De Paula; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone

2014-06-01

220

Tax posttranslational modifications and interaction with calreticulin in MT-2 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.  

PubMed

The human retrovirus human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Axonal degeneration in HAM/TSP patients occurs without neuron infection, with the secreted viral Tax protein proposed to be involved. We previously found that Tax secreted into the culture medium of MT-2 cells (HTLV-1-infected cell line) produced neurite retraction in neuroblastoma cells differentiated to neuronal type. To assess the relevance of Tax posttranslational modifications on this effect, we addressed the question of whether Tax secreted by MT-2 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HTLV-1-infected subjects is modified. The interaction of Tax with calreticulin (CRT) that modulates intracellular Tax localization and secretion has been described. We studied Tax localization and modifications in MT-2 cells and its interaction with CRT. Intracellular Tax in MT-2 cells was assessed by flow cytometry, corresponding mainly to a 71-kDa protein followed by western blot. This protein reported as a chimera with gp21 viral protein-confirmed by mass spectrometry-showed no ubiquitination or SUMOylation. The Tax-CRT interaction was determined by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation. Extracellular Tax from HAM/TSP PBMCs is ubiquitinated according to western blot, and its interaction with CRT was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. A positive correlation between Tax and CRT secretion was observed in HAM/TSP PBMCs and asymptomatic carriers. For both proteins inhibitors and activators of secretion showed secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex. Tax, present in PBMC culture medium, produced neurite retraction in differentiated neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that Tax, whether ubiquitinated or not, is active for neurite retraction. PMID:24321043

Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastian; Alberti, Carolina; Barriga, Andres; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Ramírez, Eugenio; Ferreira, Arturo; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, Maria Antonieta

2014-04-01

221

Differential patterns of serum biomarkers of immune activation in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.  

PubMed

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) are associated with differing patterns of immune dysfunction. Biomarkers of immune activation may correlate with perturbations of immune function associated with these diseases. We conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to assess four candidate biomarkers of immune activation. beta 2-microglobulin, neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine levels were assayed in stored sera from asymptomatic, human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTL V-I)-seronegative (HTLV-I-) and HTLV-I-seropositive (HTLV-I+) individuals, and ATL and HAM/TSP patients previously enrolled in seroepidemiological studies in Jamaica. Mean levels of beta 2-microglobulin, neopterin, and kynurenine were significantly elevated among ATL patients compared to the other study groups. Mean tryptophan levels were significantly lower among ATL and HAM/TSP patients than HTLV-I- and HTLV-I+ groups. No significant differences in biomarkers were found between the HTLV-I- and HTLV-I+ groups. Among HAM/TSP patients, a significant association was found between elevated neopterin levels and symptoms of less than 4 years duration. In Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, neopterin and tryptophan were found to be independent predictors of survival among ATL patients. This study demonstrates a differential pattern of biomarkers of immune activation among ATL and HAM/TSP patients compared to HTLV-I- and HTLV-I+ individuals. Neopterin and tryptophan may be useful clinical indicators of disease severity and prognosis among HAM/TSP and ATL patients. PMID:8877061

Giusti, R M; Maloney, E M; Hanchard, B; Morgan, O S; Steinberg, S M; Wachter, H; Williams, E; Cranston, B; Fuchs, D; Manns, A

1996-09-01

222

Minimally invasive lumbar decompression for the treatment of spinal stenosis of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common degenerative diseases of the elderly population, and a major cause of debilitating pain and decreased function. Lumbar spinal stenosis is almost always associated with neurogenic claudication characterized as pain worsened by standing or walking and relieved by lumbar flexion or sitting. While initial treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may involve conservative therapies, as patients become more symptomatic the traditional treatment path has generally led to open laminectomy and other invasive, potentially destabilizing, procedures. More recently, less invasive alternatives to wide laminectomy have been developed. This article describes a new method of percutaneous lumbar decompression for treatment of neurogenic claudication secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis, the minimally invasive lumbar decompression procedure. We review the steps of successfully decompressing the hypertrophic ligamentum flavum and lamina, thereby alleviating pressure on neural structures. This is a major innovation in patient care and a step to reduce risks while minimizing costs. PMID:24645862

Deer, Timothy

2012-09-01

223

Exercise Tests and BBB Method for Evaluation of Motor Disorders in Rats after Contusion Spinal Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contusion spinal injury of different severity was induced by the weight drop method in male rats by dropping standard weight\\u000a from the heights of 6.5, 12.5, 25, and 50 mm on the spine after laminectomy at the Th9 level. The dynamics of recovery of\\u000a voluntary movements was evaluated over 8 weeks after the operation by comparing the traditional semiquantitative BBB score\\u000a with

S. V. Lebedev; S. V. Timofeyev; A. V. Zharkov; V. G. Schipilov; J. A. Chelyshev; G. A. Masgutova; V. P. Chekhonin

2008-01-01

224

Results of Cervical Recapping Laminoplasty: Gross Anatomical Changes, Biomechanical Evaluation at Different Time Points and Degrees of Level Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Recapping laminoplasty has become the frequently-used approach to the spinal canal when bone decompression of the vertebral canal is not the goal. However, what changes will occur after surgery, and whether recapping laminoplasty can actually reduce the risk of delayed deformities remains unknown. Methodology We designed an animal experiment using a caprine model, and partitioned the animals into in vitro and in vivo surgical groups. We performed recapping laminoplasty on one group and laminectomy on another group. These animals were sacrificed six months after operating, cervical spines removed, biomechanically tested, and these data were compared to determine whether the recapping laminoplasty technique leads to subsequent differences in range of motion. Image data were also obtained before the surgery and when the animals were killed. Besides, we investigated the initial differences in kinetics between recapping laminoplasty and laminectomy. We did this by comparing data obtained from biomechanical testing of in vitro-performed recapping laminoplasty and laminectomy. Finally, we investigated the effect that longitudinal distance has on cervical mechanics. This was determined by performing a two-level recapping laminoplasty, and then extending the laminoplasty to the next level and repeating the mechanical testing at each step. Principal Findings There were three mainly morphological changes at the six months after laminoplasty: volume reduction and bone nonunion of the recapping laminae, irregular fibrosis formation around the facet joints and re-implanted lamina-ligamentous complex. In the biomechanical test, comparing with laminectomy, recapping laminoplasty didn’t show significant differences in the immediate postoperative comparison, while recapping laminoplasty demonstrated significantly decreased motion in flexion/extension six months later. Inclusion of additional levels in the laminotomy procedure didn’t lead to changes in immediate biomechanics. Conclusions Recapping laminoplasty can’t fully restore the posterior structure, but still reduced the risk of delayed cervical instability in a caprine model.

Si, Yu; Wang, Zhenyu; Yu, Tao; Lin, Guo zhong; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yuan chao

2014-01-01

225

Cervical synovial cyst: case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts, typically observed in the lumbar spine eventually associated with degenerative changes of the facet joints, only rarely present in the cervical spine. Up to now, only 28 symptomatic cases are described in literature. Typically, the treatment of these cases is a decompressive laminectomy followed by complete surgical removal of the lesion. The authors present the case of an 84-year-old man with a symptomatic synovial cyst involving the space between C7 and T1.

Menghetti, Claudia; Cardia, Andrea; Fornari, Maurizio; Ortolina, Alessandro

2009-01-01

226

Morphometric effects of acute shortening of the spine: the kinking and the sliding of the cord, response of the spinal nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal shortening is performed for a wide spectrum of diseases. This study was designed to investigate the morphologic effects\\u000a of shortening on the spinal cord, to enlighten the amount and direction of the sliding of the cord, the alteration of the\\u000a angles of the roots, and to identify the appropriate laminectomy length. Total vertebrectomy of T12 was applied to ten

Kadir Bahad?r Alemdaro?lu; Do?an Atl?han; O?uzhan Çimen; Cem Yal?n K?l?nç; Serkan ?ltar

2007-01-01

227

A rare case of complete C2–C3 dislocation with mild neurological symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a rare case of complete C2–C3 dislocation with unexpectedly mild neurological symptoms in a 57 year old\\u000a man involved in a motor vehicle accident, who had previously undergone posterior laminectomy from C3 through C7. A retrospective\\u000a chart analysis and a thorough radiographic review were performed. X-rays and CT of the cervical spine demonstrated a complete\\u000a dislocation at the

Theofilos G. Machinis; Kostas N. Fountas; E. Z. Kapsalaki; I. Kapsalakis; A. A. Grigorian

2006-01-01

228

Asymmetric lumbosacral transitional vertebra and subsequent disc protrusion in a cocker spaniel  

PubMed Central

A 10-year-old cocker spaniel bitch presented with severe lumbosacral pain and acute onset left pelvic limb lameness. A diagnosis of asymmetric lumbosacral transitional vertebra with disc protrusion at L6-L7 was made by computed tomography. The cauda equina and left L6 nerve root were surgically decompressed with a dorsal laminectomy and lateral foraminotomy, which led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs.

Archer, Rebecca; Sissener, Thomas; Connery, Neil; Spotswood, Tim

2010-01-01

229

Surgical strategies for managing foraminal nerve sheath tumors: the emerging role of CyberKnife ablation.  

PubMed

Sixteen Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC) patients with foraminal nerve sheath tumors had charts reviewed. CyberKnife radiosurgery was innovative in management. Parameters were evaluated for 16 foraminal nerve sheath tumors undergoing surgery, some with CyberKnife. Three neurofibromas had associated neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Eleven patients had one resection; others had CyberKnife after one (two) and two (three) operations. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) had prior field-radiation and adds another case. Approaches included laminotomy and laminectomies with partial (three) or total (two) facetectomies/fusions. Two cases each had supraclavicular, lateral extracavitary, retroperitoneal and Wiltze and costotransversectomy/thoracotomy procedures. Two underwent a laminectomy/partial facetectomy, then CyberKnife. Pre-CyberKnife, one of two others had a laminectomy/partial facetectomy, then total facetectomy/fusion and the other, two supraclavicular approaches. The MPNST had a hemi-laminotomy then laminectomy/total facetectomy/fusion, followed by CyberKnife. Roots were preserved, except in two. Of 11 single-operation-peripheral nerve sheath tumors, the asymptomatic case remained stable, nine (92%) improved and one (9%) worsened. Examinations remained intact in three (27%) and improved in seven (64%). Two having a single operation then CyberKnife had improvement after both. Of two undergoing two operations, one had symptom resolution post-operatively, worsened 4 years post-CyberKnife then has remained unchanged after re-operation. The other such patient improved post-operatively, had no change after re-operation and improved post-CyberKnife. The MPNST had presentation improvement after the first operation, worsened and after the second surgery \\and CyberKnife, the patient expired from tumor spread. In conclusion, surgery is beneficial for pain relief and function preservation in foraminal nerve sheath tumors. Open surgery with CyberKnife is an innovation in these tumors' management. PMID:19798517

Murovic, Judith A; Charles Cho, S; Park, Jon

2010-02-01

230

Fracture of the anterior arch of atlas after minor trauma of the immature spine postlaminectomy.  

PubMed

Torticollis is a common complaint in the pediatric emergency department. Here, we report what we believe to be the first example in a young child of a fracture of the anterior arch of the atlas associated with an acquired, postsurgical defect of the posterior arch. A brief review of pediatric cervical spine injuries and fractures is presented. Atlas laminectomy may predispose patients to isolated atlas fractures even with minor trauma. Those fractures, however, are stable and treated by hard cervical orthosis. PMID:24786989

Baghdassarian, Aline; Piatt, Joseph H; Giordano, Katie

2014-05-01

231

Dermal sinus with dermoid cyst in the upper cervical spine: case note  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 5 year-old girl who had a skin dimple of the back of her upper neck. MRI showed a dermal sinus tract in the\\u000a upper cervical spine, associated with an intramedullary dermoid cyst at C 2–3, and spina bifida. A laminectomy was performed,\\u000a the dermoid cyst and the sinus tract were completely removed. This congenital complex is very

W. C. Shen; T.-L. Chiou; T. Y. Lin

2000-01-01

232

Effects of methylprednisolone and dextromethorphan on lipid peroxidation in an experimental model of spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Objective. This study examines the effects of agents purported to improve recovery following spinal cord trauma, methylprednisolone\\u000a sodium succinate, dextromethorphan, and the combination of both, on the post-traumatic alterations of membrane lipid metabolism.\\u000a Methods. After sparing ten rats for a control group (G1) and performing T3–T6 laminectomies in 150 rats, spinal cord injuries were\\u000a accomplished in 120 of 150

Cahide Topsakal; Fatih S. Erol; Faik M. Ozveren; Nejat Yilmaz; Nevin Ilhan

2002-01-01

233

[Spinal epidural cavernous angioma. Apropos of 2 cases. Review of the literature].  

PubMed

We report 2 cases of spinal epidural cavernous angiomas revealed by paraplegia, and present the main cases reported in the literature since 1895. The diagnosis of this uncommon affection seems to be difficult to establish only upon clinical and radiological features. In spite of recent advances in neuroradiological imaging, these kinds of angiomas still remain an operative and histopathological discovery. A laminectomy was performed revealing a vascular lesion which was totally extirpated. Functional recovery was achieved in both cases. PMID:9161537

Yettou, H; Vinikoff, L; Baylac, F; Marchal, J C

1996-01-01

234

Efficacy of treatment with verbascoside, biotechnologically produced by Syringa vulgaris plant cell cultures in an experimental mice model of spinal cord trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluated the effect of glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside (VB), isolated from cultured cells of the\\u000a medicinal plant Syringa vulgaris (Oleaceae) in experimental animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI was induced by the application of vascular clips\\u000a to the dura via a four-level T5–T8 laminectomy. SCI in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, tissue

Tiziana Genovese; Irene Paterniti; Emanuela Mazzon; Emanuela Esposito; Rosanna Di Paola; Maria Galuppo; Placido Bramanti; Salvatore Cuzzocrea

2010-01-01

235

Intramedullary tumors in children  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord account for 35-40% of intraspinal tumors in children. The biological behavior of these tumors is of slow progression, and hence aggressive surgery has been advocated. Surgical adjuncts include use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, preoperative ultrasound, microsurgical techniques and ultrasonic suction devices. Osteoplastic laminoplasty approaches avoid post-laminectomy deformities in younger children. Postoperative radiotherapy and more recently chemotherapy regimes have been proposed for incompletely resected tumors.

Chatterjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Uttara

2011-01-01

236

Effect of topical application of mitomycin-C on wound healing in a postlaminectomy rat model: an experimental study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of topical application mitomycin-C (MMC) on wound healing after laminectomy. 60 adult male SD rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups. Laminectomy was performed at the level of L1 in all rats. After hemostasis was achieved, cotton pads soaked with saline and MMC (0.1mg/ml, 0.3mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml and 0.7mg/ml) were directly subjected to the exposed dura for 5min in each group. Two weeks after laminectomy all the rats were killed. The vertebral column including the back scar tissue and muscles was obtained to make paraffin sections. The hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining were performed with the obtained paraffin sections. The number of the fibroblast and the capillary density were counted by the hematoxylin-eosin staining slice. The extent of epidural fibrosis and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were evaluated by the immunohistochemical slice through a computer image analysis system. Our data showed that the number of fibroblast, capillary density and fibrotic tissue in the 0.5 and 0.7mg/ml MMC groups was significantly lower than the control, 0.1 and 0.3mg/ml MMC groups; while the expression of VEGF in control and 0.1mg/ml MMC groups was notably higher than 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7mg/ml MMC groups. Topical application of MMC above the concentration of 0.3mg/ml could affect all steps of the wound healing process via inhibiting the angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation, thus delayed the wound healing after laminectomy. PMID:22056834

Su, Changhui; Sui, Tao; Zhang, Xishan; Zhang, Hui; Cao, Xiaojian

2012-01-01

237

Rapidly progressive foot drop: an uncommon and underappreciated cause of Chiari I malformation and holocord syrinx.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a 16-year-old boy presented with rapidly progressive right foot drop without any predisposing illness or antecedent events. Nerve conduction study was non-contributory and needle electromyography localised proximal lesion which prompted spine neuroimaging. MRI of whole spine and brain revealed Chiari I malformation along with holocord syringomyelia. The patient underwent suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy with duroplasty decompressing the foramen magnum. He responded to surgical intervention without further complications. PMID:23897377

Panda, Akhila Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet

2013-01-01

238

Thoracic epidural lipomatosis with associated syrinx: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 54-year-old black male with a 15-year history progressive lower extremity weakness was evaluated with a thoracic MRI that revealed epidural lipomatosis extending from T1-T10 with an associated syrinx at T1–3. He was neither overweight nor taking steroids. A multilevel thoracic laminectomy with resection of lipoma was performed without directly addressing the syrinx. Postoperatively, his symptoms improved and an MRI

Jonathan S Citow; Leonard Kranzler

2000-01-01

239

Can antidromic stimulation of rat muscle afferents modulate the sensitivity of muscle spindles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of muscle spindles in gastrocnemius-soleus (GS) muscles following dorsal root (DR) antidromic stimulation (ASt) was investigated in anesthetized rats, in which the hindleg was totally denervated except the GS muscle, ventral roots from L3 to S1 and DRs from L4 to L6, which were severed after laminectomy. The peripheral end of a teased DR filament with single unit

Tzer-Bin Lin; Tsu-Ching Fu

1998-01-01

240

Acute postoperative diverticulitis.  

PubMed

Acute diverticulitis following surgery is a severe condition reported previously only after heart surgery. Four cases of diverticulitis in the early postoperative period are presented, three of them after non-cardiac procedures (tracheostomy, inguinal hernia repair and laminectomy). Advanced age, administration of morphine, treatment with steroids, postoperative constipation and intestinal mucosal ischaemia are discussed as possible aetiological factors leading to diverticular perforation. Although the diagnosis is often difficult, early treatment offers the best chance of survival. PMID:2671209

Badia-Pèrez, J M; Valverde-Sintas, J; Franch-Arcas, G; Pla-Comos, J; Sitges-Serra, A

1989-08-01

241

Spinal deformity after multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilevel laminectomy in children has a significant rate of postoperative spinal deformity. To decrease the incidence of\\u000a this complication, the use of osteoplastic laminotomy is advocated to minimise the risk of spinal deformity by preserving\\u000a the normal architecture of the spine. In this retrospective study, a 10-year series of a paediatric population undergoing\\u000a multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy is reviewed to determine

Peter Raab; Krauss Juergen; Harald Gloger; Nils Soerensen; Alexander Wild

2008-01-01

242

Application of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation in thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effects of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation on patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, following laminectomy. Thirteen patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors underwent total lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation and repair of the supraspinous ligaments, following laminectomy and tumor enucleation. To investigate the clinical effect of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation, pre- and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were determined, and pre- and postoperative X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were conducted. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were also included in the follow-up. No complications were observed pre- or postoperatively. The VAS and ODI results 2 weeks following surgery and at the final follow-up examination demonstrated a significant improvement compared with the corresponding preoperative results. The X-ray examination results indicated a satisfactory internal fixation location, without any characteristics of a fracture, lumbar scoliosis, kyphosis or instability. Following the surgery, the CT and MRI examination results demonstrated that healing of the lamina bone and repair of the supraspinous ligament had occurred without tumor recurrence or spinal epidural scar recompression. Two of the 13 cases were lost to follow-up. The results indicated that in patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation following total laminectomy is effective and provides thoracolumbar stability. Furthermore, this has been identified to be an effective technique for preventing intraspinal scar proliferation.

ZHOU, DONG; NONG, LU-MING; GAO, GONG-MIN; JIANG, YU-QIN; XU, NAN-WEI

2013-01-01

243

Long-term results of selective dorsal rhizotomy for hereditary spastic paraparesis.  

PubMed

Pure hereditary spastic paraparesis usually presents with progressive weakness and spasticity of the legs, which is similar to spastic cerebral palsy. In this study selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) was performed to improve the spasticity of pure hereditary spastic paraparesis and the long-term results were followed. A series of four patients with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team received SDR. The dorsal rootlets from the L2 to S1 levels were selectively resected under electrophysiological monitoring. The patients were followed up for more than 2 years to evaluate the outcome of surgery. There was a significant reduction in muscular spasm after SDR. Standing and walking stability were improved in all patients which led to improvement in walking posture and longer walking distance without assistance. No urinary retention, cerebrospinal fluid leak, surgical infection or kyphosis occurred. For severe pure hereditary spastic paraparesis, SDR can reduce muscle spasm and improve standing and walking stability. These results were stable throughout follow-up. SDR performed at the level of the conus medullaris through a laminectomy from T12 to L1 or L1 to L2 requires a shorter incision, laminectomy of fewer segments, and has a shorter operation time than the usual method (laminectomy from L2 to S1). Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is helpful to discriminate abnormal rootlets and protect sphincter function. PMID:24153323

Kai, Ma; Yongjie, Li; Ping, Zhuang

2014-01-01

244

Royal jelly can diminish secondary neuronal damage after experimental spinal cord injury in rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Royal jelly (RJ) on traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-one New Zealand male rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.0 kg were divided into three groups: Sham (no drug or operation, n = 7), Control (laminectomy+single dose of 1 ml/kg saline orally, after trauma; n = 7) and RJ (laminectomy+100mg/kg RJ, orally, after trauma, n = 7). Laminectomy was perfor med at T10 and balloon catheter was applied extradurally for traumatic SCI. Four and 24h after surgery, rabbits were evaluated according to the Tarlov scoring system. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid and tissue sample from spinal cord were taken for measurements of antioxidant status or detection of apoptosis. Four hours after SCI, all animals in control or RJ treated groups became paraparesic. Significant improvement was observed in RJ treated group, 24h after SCI, with respect to control. Traumatic SCI led to increase in the lipid peroxidation and decrease enzymic or non-enzymic endogenous antioxidative defense systems, and increase in apoptotic cell numbers. RJ treatment mostly prevented lipid peroxidation and also augmented endogenous enzymic or non-enzymic antioxidative defense systems. Again, RJ treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell number induced by SCI. PMID:22538080

Aslan, Adem; Cemek, Mustafa; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Altunbas, Korhan; Bas, Orhan; Yurumez, Yusuf

2012-07-01

245

Single-Stage Removal of Thoracic Dumbbell Tumors from a Posterior Approach Only with Costotransversectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Thoracic dumbbell tumors are relatively rare, usually arising from neurogenic elements. Methods for surgical removal thereof remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical results of a single-stage posterior approach with laminectomy and costotransversectomy only for the management of thoracic dumbbell tumors. Materials and Methods Eight cases of thoracic large dumbbell tumor were analyzed retrospectively: seven men and one woman (mean age, 49 years). Pathologic findings included schwannoma in five patients, neurofibroma in two patients (Recklinghausen in one patient), and ganglioneuroma in one patient. All patients underwent single-stage removal of dumbbell tumors by a posterior approach followed by laminectomy and costotransversectomy combined with instrumentation. Clinical and radiologic outcomes were reviewed, thereafter. Results Operative time ranged from 185 to 420 minutes (mean, 313 minutes), with estimated blood loss ranging from 71 to 1830 mL (mean, 658 mL). Postoperative complications included atelectasis in one case. All patients had tumors successfully removed with no neurological deterioration. Spinal deformities were not observed in any patients at the last follow-up (mean, 52 months), with instrumentation. Conclusion Single-stage surgery with laminectomy and costotransversectomy may be useful for removing thoracic dumbbell tumors without a combined anterior approach.

Imagama, Shiro; Wakao, Norimitsu; Hirano, Kenichi; Tauchii, Ryoji; Muramoto, Akio; Matsui, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

2012-01-01

246

Evaluation of Anterior Cervical Reconstruction with Titanium Mesh Cages versus Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Polyamide66 Cages after 1- or 2-Level Corpectomy for Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Retrospective Study of 117 Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To retrospectively compare the efficacy of the titanium mesh cage (TMC) and the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cage (n-HA/PA66 cage) for 1- or 2-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM). Methods A total of 117 consecutive patients with MCSM who underwent 1- or 2-level ACCF using a TMC or an n-HA/PA66 cage were studied retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 45.28±12.83 months. The patients were divided into four groups according to the level of corpectomy (1- or 2-level corpectomy) and cage type used (TMC or n-HA/PA66 cage). Clinical and radiological parameters were used to evaluate outcomes. Results At the one-year follow-up, the fusion rate in the n-HA/PA66 group was higher, albeit non-significantly, than that in the TMC group for both 1- and 2-level ACCF, but the fusion rates of the procedures were almost equal at the final follow-up. The incidence of cage subsidence at the final follow-up was significantly higher in the TMC group than in the n-HA/PA66 group for the 1-level ACCF (24% vs. 4%, p?=?0.01), and the difference was greater for the 2-level ACCF between the TMC group and the n-HA/PA66 group (38% vs. 5%, p?=?0.01). Meanwhile, a much greater loss of fused height was observed in the TMC group compared with the n-HA/PA66 group for both the 1- and 2-level ACCF. All four groups demonstrated increases in C2-C7 Cobb angle and JOA scores and decreases in VAS at the final follow-up compared with preoperative values. Conclusion The lower incidence of cage subsidence, better maintenance of the height of the fused segment and similar excellent bony fusion indicate that the n-HA/PA66 cage may be a superior alternative to the TMC for cervical reconstruction after cervical corpectomy, in particular for 2-level ACCF.

Zhang, Yuan; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Luo, Xiaoji; Tang, Ke; Li, Jie; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Dianming

2014-01-01

247

Operative Techniques for Cervical Radiculopathy and Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylosis is a common problem encountered in modern orthopaedic practice. It is associated with significant patient morbidity related to the consequent radiculopathic and myelopathic symptoms. Operative intervention for this condition is generally indicated if conservative measures fail; however there are some circumstances in which urgent surgical intervention is necessary. Planning any surgical intervention must take into account a number of variables including, but not limited to, the nature, location and extent of the pathology, a history of previous operative interventions, and patient co-morbidities. There are many different surgical options and a multitude of different procedures have been described using both the anterior and posterior approaches to the cervical spine. The use of autograft to achieve cervical fusion is still the gold standard with allograft showing similar results; however fusion techniques are constantly evolving with novel synthetic bone graft substitutes now widely available.

Kavanagh, R. G.; Butler, J. S.; O'Byrne, J. M.; Poynton, A. R.

2012-01-01

248

Thoracic myelopathy caused by calcified ligamentum flavum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcification of the ligamentum flavum is a rare manifestation of the calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD).In CPPD deposition disease, spinal involvement is rare. Until now, thoracic spine CPPD causing thoracic cord compression has been reported in only sporadic cases. We report a new case of thoracic calcification of the ligamentum flavum. In our case, similar to the other reported

Marco Giulioni; Mino Zucchelli; Stefania Damiani

2007-01-01

249

Efficacy of posterior cervical fusions utilizing an artificial bone graft expander, beta tricalcium phosphate  

PubMed Central

Background: Several cervical laminectomies and instrumented posterior cervical fusions utilize iliac autograft supplemented with demineralized bone matrix, or bone morphogenetic protein, but few utilize artificial bone graft expanders. Here we analyzed whether posterior cervical fusions could effectively utilize iliac autograft supplemented with an artificial bone graft expander, Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [B-TCP] Materials and Methods: Fifty-three severely myelopathic patients [average Nurick Score 4.1], averaging 65.3 years of age, underwent posterior cervical laminectomies [average 2.3 levels] and multilevel instrumented fusions [average 7.5 levels] utilizing iliac crest autograft and B-TCP. Pathology addressed included multilevel spondylosis accompanied by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament [24 patients], ossification of the yellow ligament [27 patients], and instability [53 patients]. Fusion rates [dynamic X-ray, two-dimensional computerized axial tomography (2D-CT) and outcomes [Nurick Grades, Odom's Criteria, SF-36] were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Results: Fusion was confirmed by two independent neuroradiologists utilizing dynamic X-ray studies [100% of patients] and 2D-CT studies [86.8% of patients] an average of 5.4 months postoperatively. Although there were no symptomatic pseudarthroses, three smokers exhibited delayed fusions [8 postoperative months]. Within 1 postoperative year, patients improved an average of 2.7 Nurick Grades [Nurick Score 1.4], Odom's criteria revealed 48 good/excellent, and 5 fair/poor outcomes, and improvement on all 8 SF-36 Health Scales [maximal on Bodily Pain [+21.96]. Conclusions: High fusion rates and improved neurological outcomes were achieved within one year for 53 patients undergoing multilevel level cervical laminectomies with posterior instrumented fusions utilizing iliac autograft supplemented with B-TCP.

Epstein, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

250

Spinal deformity after multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy  

PubMed Central

Multilevel laminectomy in children has a significant rate of postoperative spinal deformity. To decrease the incidence of this complication, the use of osteoplastic laminotomy is advocated to minimise the risk of spinal deformity by preserving the normal architecture of the spine. In this retrospective study, a 10-year series of a paediatric population undergoing multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy is reviewed to determine the incidence, especially in contrast to laminectomies, and to identify factors that affect the occurrence of spinal column deformity. Seventy patients (mean age 4.2 years) underwent multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy for congenital anomalies or removal of spinal tumours. All patients had a clinical and radiographic examination preoperatively, 12 months postoperatively and at follow-up. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years (range 3–12.6 years). Nineteen patients (27%) had a new or progressive spinal deformity. There was an increased incidence in patients who had surgery for spinal tumours (P?laminectomy (n?=?330), the incidence of spinal deformity found a significantly higher (46%) compared to our study group. This study demonstrates that osteoplastic laminotomy was found to be very effective in decreasing the incidence of spinal deformities after spinal-canal surgery for spinal-cord tumours or congenital anomalies in children and adolescents. The choice of an anatomical reconstructive surgical technique such as osteoplastic laminotomy seems to be essential to minimise secondary problems due to the surgical technique itself. Nevertheless, growing patients should be followed up for several years after the initial operation for early detection and consequent management of any possible deformity of the spinal column.

Juergen, Krauss; Gloger, Harald; Soerensen, Nils; Wild, Alexander

2007-01-01

251

Evaluation of the results of operative management of lumbar spinal canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Lumber spinal canal stenosis is an important cause of low back pain and it frequently presents with low backache with neurogenic claudication. Operative management of lumbar spinal canal stenosis by decompression surgery is an effective method. This prospective interventional (quasi experimental) study was performed in patient having history of characteristic clinical features like low backache with radicular pain, neurogenic claudication, signs of root compression, positive MRI findings attending in the department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery, Dhaka Medical College Hospital and NITOR. Dhaka, from July 2008 to June 2010. Thirty patients were evaluated among those 18(60%) were 50 years and above. Male to female ratio was roughly 9:1. About 87% of the patients had sensory deficit and 50% had neurogenic claudication. Majority (83.3%) of the patients at presentation had a suffering of 12 or >12 months. Diagnosis shows that 3.5% of patients had L4 lesion, 60% L5, 6.5% patients had L4 & L5 and 30% S1. Laminectomy was done in 43.3% of patients, laminectomy and disectomy in 30% and laminectomy, discectomy & foraminal decompression in 26.7% of patients. Relief of symptoms occurred in 25(83.5%) of patients. Over three-quarter (76.7%) of patients exhibited minimal disability and 23.3% moderate disability based on Oswestry Disability Index, while by MacNab criteria, most (80%) of patients was excellent, 10% good and another 10% fair. Repeated measure ANOVA statistics showed that mean Oswestry score decreased significantly from 54.5% at baseline to 22% at the end of 1 year (p<0.001). PMID:24292296

Islam, M S; Ara, R; Salam, M A; Rahman, M W; Alam, M J; Karim, M R; Rahman, M; Alam, M N; Hussain, M F

2013-10-01

252

Few patients with neurodegenerative disorders require spinal surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Few patients with neurodegenerative disorders (ND) (e.g., Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Postpolio Syndrome (PPS)) require spinal surgery. Typically, their neurological symptoms and signs reflect their underlying neurologic disorders rather than structural spinal pathology reported on magnetic resonance images (MR) or computed tomographic scans (CT). Methods: The first author, a neurosurgeon, reviewed 437 spinal consultations performed over a 20-month period. Of 254 patients seen in first opinion (e.g., had not been seen by a spinal surgeon), 9 had MS, while 2 had ALS. Of 183 patients seen in second opinion (e.g., prior spinal surgeons recommended surgery), 4 had MS, 2 had ALS, and 1 had PPS. We performed this study to establish how often patients with ND, seen in first or second opinion, require spinal surgery. We focused on whether second opinions from spinal surgeons would limit the number of operations offered to these patients. Results: Two of 11 patients with ND seen in first opinion required surgery. The first patient required a C5-7 laminectomy/C2-T2 fusion, followed by a L2-S1 laminectomy/L5S1 fusion. The second patient required a L2-L3 laminectomy/diskectomy/fusion. However, none of the seven patients seen in second opinion, who were previously told by outside surgeons they needed spinal surgery, required operations. Conclusions: Few patients with neurodegenerative syndromes (MS, ALS, PPS) and reported “significant” spondyloitic spinal disease interpreted on MR/CT studies required surgery. Great caution should be exercised in offering patients with ND spinal surgery, and second opinions should be encouraged to limit “unnecessary” procedures.

Epstein, Nancy E.; Gottesman, Malcolm

2014-01-01

253

Intraoperative Pontine Infarction: A Hidden Challenge  

PubMed Central

Apneusis, or apneustic respirations, is characterized by an abnormal breathing pattern involving gasping and the inability to fully expire. A loss of gag reflex and other cranial nerve deficits are also often accompanied with these respiratory changes. In neurological intensive care units (NICUs), these respiratory and airway changes are not uncommon and have been well documented (Lee et al. 1976). These clinical changes are often associated with pontine trauma as it is the core pneumotaxic center in the brain stem. We describe the airway management of a patient with an acute, occult pontine infarct status post craniectomy and cervical laminectomy for decompression of known Chiari malformation in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU).

Marcanthony, Nicholas; Farag, Ehab

2012-01-01

254

Surgery for thoracic disc disease. Complication avoidance: overview and management.  

PubMed

The operative approach for discectomy in the treatment of thoracic disc disease has changed from standard laminectomy to a variety of dorsolateral and ventral approaches. The procedure-related complications have been reported in numerous clinical studies over the last seven decades: death, neurological deterioration, postoperative vertebral column instability, incomplete disc resection, cerebrospinal fluid leak and fistula, infection, misdiagnosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and intercostal neuralgia. The authors conducted a Medline search to identify series reporting clinical data related to thoracic discectomy. They analyzed the morbidity and mortality resulting from the various surgical approaches for thoracic disc disease, with special attention to the avoidance and management of surgery-related complications. PMID:16833243

McCormick, W E; Will, S F; Benzel, E C

2000-01-01

255

Cavernous angioma of the cauda equina: case report.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of cavernous angioma of the cauda equina and review the eleven cases available in the literature. A 44-year-old woman presented with low back pain and sciatica associated with bowel and bladder dysfunction and motor weakness of the lower extremity. The MRI revealed an enhancing, heterogeneous and hyperintense intradural lesion compressing the cauda equina roots at the L4 level. Laminectomy at L3-L4 and total removal of the tumor were performed without additional neurological deficit. Pathology revealed a cavernous angioma. The literature, clinical presentation, technical examinations, and treatment are reviewed. PMID:15273858

Falavigna, Asdrubal; Righesso Neto, Orlando; dos Santos, José Augusto Nasser; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani

2004-06-01

256

Glossopharyngeal Nerve Schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Complete resection with conservation of cranial nerves is the primary goal of contemporary surgery for lower cranial nerve tumors. We describe the case of a patient with a schwannoma of the left glossopharyngeal nerve, operated on in our Neurosurgical Unit. The far lateral approach combined with laminectomy of the posterior arch of C1 was done in two steps. The procedure allowed total tumor resection and was found to be better than classic unilateral suboccipital or combined supra- and infratentorial approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of the far lateral transcondylar approach, compared to the other more common approaches, are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

Puzzilli, F.; Mastronardi, L.; Agrillo, U.; Nardi, P.

1999-01-01

257

Transverse sacral fractures and concomitant late-diagnosed cauda equina syndrome.  

PubMed

Transverse sacral fractures in young patients occur with high-energy mechanisms. Because of the drawbacks in radiographic and neurologic evaluations of the sacral area in polytrauma patients, misdiagnosis is quite common. In this study, we aimed to report our clinical results in three patients with displaced transverse sacral fractures compromising the sacral canal and concomitant late-diagnosed (at least 48 hours) cauda equina syndrome. Bilateral lumbopelvic fixation, followed by sacral laminectomy and decompression, was performed in all patients. Despite the late- diagnosed cauda equina syndrome, we observed that surgical decompression and lumbopelvic fixation had positive effects on neurologic recovery, pain relief and early unsupported mobilization. PMID:24639321

Bekmez, Senol; Demirk?ran, Gökhan; Caglar, Omür; Akel, Ibrahim; Acaro?lu, Emre

2014-01-01

258

Does dexmedetomidine reduce secondary damage after spinal cord injury? An experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the possible protective effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on traumatic\\u000a spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-two New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: sham (no drug or operation, n = 6), Control [SCI + single dose of 1 mL saline intraperitoneally (i.p), after trauma; n = 8] and DEX (SCI + 1 ?g\\/kg dexmedetomidine in 1 mL, i.p, after trauma, n = 8). Laminectomy was

Adem Aslan; Mustafa Cemek; Olcay Eser; Korhan Altunba?; Mehmet Emin Buyukokuroglu; Murat Cosar; Orhan Ba?; Yuksel Ela; Huseyin Fidan

2009-01-01

259

Risk factors and prognosis of surgery for spinal metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the risk factors and prognosis of surgery for spinal metastasis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective analysis was performed for 63 patients with spinal metastasis who underwent surgical treatment between June\\u000a 1992 and June 2002. Forty-one patients underwent anterior en-bloc or partial resection, decompression and reconstruction with\\u000a internal fixation of the spine. Laminectomy and decompression with internal fixation were done in 8

Huimin Tao; Zhengming Yang; Zhaoming Ye; Disheng Yang; Weixu Li

2004-01-01

260

Epidural hematoma after thoracic epidural analgesia in a patient treated with ketorolac, mefenamic acid, and naftazone: a case report  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old male undergoing thoracotomy and bleeding control received a preoperative thoracic epidural for postoperative analgesia. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred and urgent magnetic resonance imaging showed massive anterior epidural hematoma. During laminectomy and decompression, platelet dysfunction was diagnosed and preoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs medications were supposed to the cause of platelet dysfunction. After infusion of ten units of platelet concentrate, coagulopathy was improved. We should be more careful to drugs with antiplatelet effect when using regional analgesia.

Jeon, Dae Geun; Kim, Seok-Kon; Kim, Juri

2014-01-01

261

A contrast-enhancing lumbar ligamentum flavum haematoma.  

PubMed

We present a case of lower back pain with lumbar nerve compromise due to a ligamentum flavum haematoma which was successfully treated surgically. A 62-year-old man was evaluated for lower back pain with associated leg pain and early signs of cauda equina syndrome. MRI of the lumbar spine demonstrated a contrast-enhancing mass adjacent to the lamina of L3 which was causing severe canal stenosis. Surgical excision of the lesion was recommended. The patient underwent an L3 laminectomy with excision of the epidural lesion. Histopathology showed it to be a haematoma of the ligamentum flavum with no untoward features. The patient recovered without complication. PMID:24642178

Ghent, Finn; Ye, Xuan; Yan, Max; Mobbs, Ralph J

2014-01-01

262

Chronic spontaneous cervicothoracic epidural hematoma in an 8-month-old infant  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is an uncommon cause of cord compression in children, especially in infants. An 8-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital for a 40-day history of paraparesis in the lower extremities. This rapidly progressed to paraparesis with an inability to move the lower extremities. MRI of the cervicothoracic spine revealed an epidural mass with compression of the spinal cord. The infant underwent C7-T3 total laminectomies. The pathology and postoperative MRI confirmed spinal epidural hematoma from a vascular malformation. We present the case to highlight the significance of recognizing this chronic spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma and discuss the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis.

Min, Shaoxiong; Duan, Yang; Jin, Anmin; Zhang, Li

2011-01-01

263

Diagnosis and surgical management of a fractured atlas in a cat.  

PubMed

A 6-month-old male-castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented shortly after being bitten on the neck by a large breed dog. On presentation the cat was non-ambulatory tetraparetic with preserved deep pain perception. Plain radiographs of the neck did not show any abnormalities. Computed tomography was performed and showed a right-sided depressed fracture of the dorsal lamina of the atlas. A partial dorsal laminectomy was performed to alleviate the spinal cord compression. The cat made a full recovery within 12 weeks of surgery. PMID:21237684

Bali, Monty S

2011-04-01

264

[Percutaneous stabilization of thoracolumbar fractures. Techniques of fracture reduction and spinal cord decompression].  

PubMed

Minimally invasive percutaneous instrumentations are increasingly being used for stabilization of thoracolumbar fractures, mainly due to the advantages of reduced soft tissue damage. While percutaneous instrumentation can be generally used in less displaced fractures, it remains controversial whether such techniques should also be performed in patients with severe fracture dislocation. This includes patients with severe traumatic kyphosis and/or dislocation in the coronar plane, particularly in concomitant neurological deficits that require additional decompression surgery. Here we show the different indirect fracture reduction techniques in three cases with severe fracture dislocation and discuss the use of percutaneous stabilization techniques in combination with an additional midline approach for decompressing laminectomy. PMID:23149881

Gühring, T; Raible, C; Matschke, S

2013-08-01

265

Giant pseudomeningocele after spinal surgery: A case report  

PubMed Central

Very few reports have described giant pseudomeningoceles ? 8 cm in diameter. We report this case of the biggest giant pseudomeningocele at the unusual cervicothoracic level. A 59 year old man who underwent cervicothoracic laminectomy had a giant pseudomeningocele detected and the lesion gradually grew to about 15 cm in diameter by 2 years postoperatively. Cerebrospinal fluid leak closure was performed and the postoperative course was favorable. We present this case, review the literature and discuss the size and portion, mechanism of formation, symptoms and treatments of giant pseudomeningocele.

Srilomsak, Prepram; Okuno, Kazuma; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Wang, Zhuo; Kasai, Yuichi

2012-01-01

266

Clear Cell Ependymoma Occurring in the Cauda Equina  

PubMed Central

The authors present a rare case of clear cell ependymoma that developed in the cauda equina. A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital with intermittent lower back pain. A neurological examination conducted on admission revealed no sensory or motor disturbance. Deep tendon reflexes in both lower extremities were normal. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a 1.0 cm-sized intradural mass at the filum terminale. Gross total resection was performed via total laminectomy of L1 and L2. The tumor was confirmed to be clear cell ependymoma by histopathologic examination. His symptom was relieved after surgery.

Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Yoonjung; Park, Kwan Ho

2010-01-01

267

Cortical blindness following posterior lumbar decompression and fusion.  

PubMed

Perioperative vision loss following non-ocular surgery is a well-documented phenomenon. In particular, perioperative vision loss has been frequently cited following spinal surgery. Although the rate of vision compromise in spinal surgery is relatively low, the consequences can be quite severe and devastating for the patient. We report a 60-year-old woman who initially presented with back and left leg pain as well as paraparesis. Imaging studies of the lumbar spine showed bony erosion consistent with tumor infiltration of the L3 and L4 spinal segments. Laminectomy at the L2-L4 levels for decompression of the intraspinal tumor was performed. Pathology of the resected bone was consistent with metastatic adenocarincoma. Postoperatively, the patient suffered severe anemia and bilateral infarctions of the posterior cerebral arteries and occipital lobes resulting in vision compromise. Although a definitive pathogenesis remains unknown, preoperative cardiovascular issues and intraoperative hemodynamic instabilities have typically been implicated as high risk factors. High risk factors for this novel clinical presentation of visual compromise following posterior lumbar laminectomy with decompression for an intraspinal tumor are reported. PMID:23791834

Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Goldstein, Ira M

2014-01-01

268

Posterior Instrumentation for Occipitocervical Fusion  

PubMed Central

Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability.

Sapkas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Segkos, Dimitrios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsakotos, George; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-01-01

269

Pathogenesis, presentation, and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis associated with coronal or sagittal spinal deformities.  

PubMed

Sagittal- or coronal-plane deformity considerably complicates the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Although decompressive laminectomy remains the standard operative treatment for uncomplicated lumbar spinal stenosis, the management of stenosis with concurrent deformity may require osteotomy, laminectomy, and spinal fusion with or without instrumentation. Broadly stated, the surgery-related goals in complex stenosis are neural decompression and a well-balanced sagittal and coronal fusion. Deformities that may present with concurrent stenosis are scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, and flatback deformity. The presentation and management of lumbar spinal stenosis associated with concurrent coronal or sagittal deformities depends on the type and extent of deformity as well as its impact on neural compression. Generally, clinical outcomes in complex stenosis are optimized by decompression combined with spinal fusion. The need for instrumentation is clear in cases of significant scoliosis or flatback deformity but is controversial in spondylolisthesis. With appropriate selection of technique for deformity correction, a surgeon may profoundly improve pain, quality of life, and functional capacity. The decision to undertake surgery entails weighing risk factors such as age, comorbidities, and preoperative functional status against potential benefits of improved neurological function, decreased pain, and reduced risk of disease progression. The purpose of this paper is to review the pathogenesis, presentation, and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis complicated by scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, or flatback deformity. Specific attention is paid to surgery-related goals, decision making, techniques, and outcomes. PMID:15766223

Fraser, Justin F; Huang, Russel C; Girardi, Federico P; Cammisa, Frank P

2003-01-15

270

Symptomatic progression of degenerative scoliosis after decompression and limited fusion surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Significant degenerative scoliosis together with lumbar spinal stenosis increases the complexity of planning a surgical intervention for iatrogenic instability may be introduced by decompression in the midst of the curve, especially at or near the curve apex, that may lead to more rapid progression of a deformity, especially if surgery is at, or is near, the apex of the curve and a listhesis is present. Surgical options include simple laminectomy, a laminectomy with limited fusion, or an extensive fusion that addresses the overall curve, but there is no consensus as to the best approach. There is scant information in the literature about specific instances of failure of a limited surgical approach from which any instructive lessons may be learned. We report a surgical failure in a 59-year-old woman with degenerative lumbar stenosis and scoliosis from L3-5 and L3-4 disc herniation treated with a simple hemilaminectomy and discectomy, a subsequent fusion for symptomatic progression of deformity, and a third surgery to fuse the entire scoliotic curve after development of severe deformity, pain, and neurological deficits. We conclude that surgical decision-making should take into consideration any risk factors for deformity progression as well as overall sagittal and coronal balance and advise that similar patients be followed for a lengthy period following surgery to monitor for stability. PMID:23274034

Houten, John K; Nasser, Rani

2013-04-01

271

Intervertebral Disc Rehydration after Lumbar Dynamic Stabilization: Magnetic Resonance Image Evaluation with a Mean Followup of Four Years  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients of different ages who underwent the Dynesys stabilization. Methods. This retrospective study included 72 patients (mean age 61.4 years) with one- or two-level lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent laminectomy and the Dynesys (Zimmer Spine, Minneapolis) dynamic stabilization system. Thirty-seven patients were younger than 65-year old while the other 35 were older. Mean followup was 46.7 months. Pre- and postoperative radiographic and clinical evaluations were analyzed. Results. The mean calibrated disc signal (CDS) at the index level was significantly improved from 60.2 ± 25.2 preoperatively to 66.9 ± 26.0 postoperatively (P > 0.001). Screw loosening occurred in 22.2% of patients and 5.1% of screws. The improvement in CDS at index level was seen to be significant in younger patients but not in older patients. Overall, the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) of back pain, VAS of leg pain, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores improved significantly after operation. There were no significant differences in pre- and postoperative VAS and ODI and screw loosening rates between the younger and older patients. Conclusions. There is significant clinical improvement after laminectomy and dynamic stabilization for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Intervertebral disc rehydration was seen in younger patients.

Fay, Li-Yu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Tsai, Tzu-Yun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

2013-01-01

272

The Change of Adjacent Segment and Sagittal Balance after Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize perioperative biomechanical changes after thoracic spine surgery. Methods Fifty-eight patients underwent spinal instrumented fusions and simple laminectomies on the thoracolumbar spine from April 2003 to October 2008. Patients were allocated to three groups; namely, the laminectomy without fusion group (group I, n = 17), the thoracolumbar fusion group (group II, n = 27), and the thoracic spine fusion group (group III, n = 14). Sagittal (ADS) and coronal (ADC) angles for adjacent segments were measured from two disc spaces above lesions at the upper margins, to two disc spaces below lesions at the lower margins. Sagittal (TLS) and coronal (TLC) angles of the thoracolumbar junction were measured from the lower margin of the 11th thoracic vertebra body to the upper margin of the 2nd lumbar vertebra body on plane radiographs. Adjacent segment disc heights and disc signal changes were determined using simple spinal examinations and by magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical outcome indices were determined using a visual analog scale. Results The three groups demonstrated statistically significant differences in terms of angle changes by ANOVA (p < 0.05). All angles in group I showed significantly smaller angles changes than in groups II and III by Turkey's multiple comparison analysis. Coronal Cobb's angles of the thoracolumbar spine (TLC) were not significantly different in the three groups. Conclusion Postoperative sagittal balance is expected to change in the adjacent and thoracolumbar areas after thoracic spine fusion. However, its prevalence seems to be higher when the thoracolumbar spine is included in instrumented fusion.

Kim, Kang San; Jeong, Je Hoon; Moon, Seung Myung; Choi, Sun Kil; Kim, Sung Min

2009-01-01

273

A prospective randomized multi-center study for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with the X STOP interspinous implant: 1-year results.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from neurogenic intermittent claudication secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis have historically been limited to a choice between a decompressive laminectomy with or without fusion or a regimen of non-operative therapies. The X STOP Interspinous Process Distraction System (St. Francis Medical Technologies, Concord, Calif.), a new interspinous implant for patients whose symptoms are exacerbated in extension and relieved in flexion, has been available in Europe since June 2002. This study reports the results from a prospective, randomized trial of the X STOP conducted at nine centers in the U.S. Two hundred patients were enrolled in the study and 191 were treated; 100 received the X STOP and 91 received non-operative therapy (NON OP) as a control. The Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) was the primary outcomes measurement. Validated for lumbar spinal stenosis patients, the ZCQ measures physical function, symptom severity, and patient satisfaction. Patients completed the ZCQ upon enrollment and at follow-up periods of 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Using the ZCQ criteria, at 6 weeks the success rate was 52% for X STOP patients and 10% for NON OP patients. At 6 months, the success rates were 52 and 9%, respectively, and at 1 year, 59 and 12%. The results of this prospective study indicate that the X STOP offers a significant improvement over non-operative therapies at 1 year with a success rate comparable to published reports for decompressive laminectomy, but with considerably lower morbidity. PMID:14685830

Zucherman, J F; Hsu, K Y; Hartjen, C A; Mehalic, T F; Implicito, D A; Martin, M J; Johnson, D R; Skidmore, G A; Vessa, P P; Dwyer, J W; Puccio, S; Cauthen, J C; Ozuna, R M

2004-02-01

274

Mini-open transpedicular lumbar vertebrectomy reconstructed with double cages and short segment fixation  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using dual expandable cages plus short segment posterior fixation for reconstruction of vertebral bodies following a mini-open transpedicular approach. Methods: A single posterior incision was used to perform a laminectomy of L2, a partial laminectomy of L1 and bilateral transpedicular approaches for a piecemeal vertebrectomy in a patient with spinal compression secondary to metastatic cancer. Subsequently, bilateral cages were placed through the transpedicular corridors and percutaneous pedicle screws were inserted a single level above and below the level of the vertebral column resection. Results: The bilateral transpedicular approach facilitated the use of a mini-open incision (6.0 cm) compared with the extensive dissection normally employed for a lateral extracavitary type approach in the lumbar region. The bilateral transpedicular approach at L2 allowed for a vertebrectomy and complete decompression of neurological elements. The use of expandable cages allowed the nerve roots to be preserved. Placement of the cages in the lateral position was straightforward despite minimal exposure. The reconstruction with double expandable cages appeared robust. Conclusions: In select patients requiring circumferential decompression of the lumbar spine, dual cage reconstruction decreases the technical difficulty of the operation and facilitates a mini-open approach. The durability of this construct will need biomechanical assessment and long-term clinical follow-up.

Jandial, Rahul; Chen, Mike Yue

2012-01-01

275

Positron emission tomography for serial imaging of the contused adult rat spinal cord.  

PubMed

We investigated whether small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) could be used in combination with computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques for longitudinal monitoring of the injured spinal cord. In adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6), the ninth thoracic (T9) spinal cord segment was exposed by laminectomy and subsequently contused using the Infinite Horizon impactor (Precision System and Instrumentation, Lexington, KY) at 225 kDyn. In control rats (n = 4), the T9 spinal cord was exposed by laminectomy but not contused. At 0.5 hours and 3, 7, and 21 days postinjury, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) was given intravenously followed 1 hour later by sequential PET and CT. Regions of interest (ROIs) at T9 (contused) and T6 (uninjured) spinal cord segments were manually defined on CT images and aided by fiduciary markers superimposed onto the coregistered PET images. Monte Carlo simulation revealed that about 33% of the activity in the ROIs was due to spillover from adjacent hot areas. A simulation-based partial-volume compensation (PVC) method was developed and used to correct for this spillover effect. With PET-CT, combined with PVC, we were able to serially measure standardized uptake values of the T9 and T6 spinal cord segments and reveal small, but significant, differences. This approach may become a tool to assess the efficacy of spinal cord repair strategies. PMID:20236603

Nandoe Tewarie, Rishi D S; Yu, Jianhua; Seidel, Jurgen; Rahiem, Sahar T; Hurtado, Andres; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Grotenhuis, J Andre; Pomper, Martin G; Oudega, Martin

2010-04-01

276

Intradural spinal endoscopy in children.  

PubMed

Intracranial endoscopy in the treatment of hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, or brain tumors has gained wide acceptance, but the use of endoscopy for intradural navigation in the pediatric spine has received much less attention. The aim of the authors' present study was to analyze their experience in using spinal endoscopy to treat various pathologies of the spinal canal. The authors performed a retrospective review of intradural spinal endoscopic cases at their institution. They describe 4 representative cases, including an arachnoid cyst, intrinsic spinal cord tumor, holocord syrinx, and split cord malformation. Intradural spinal endoscopy was useful in treating the aforementioned lesions. It resulted in a more limited laminectomy and myelotomy, and it assisted in identifying a residual spinal cord tumor. It was also useful in the fenestration of a multilevel arachnoid cyst and in confirming communication of fluid spaces in the setting of a complex holocord syrinx. Endoscopy aided in the visualization of the spinal cord to ensure the absence of tethering in the case of a long-length Type II split spinal cord malformation. Conclusions Based on their experience, the authors found intradural endoscopy to be a useful surgical adjunct and one that helped to decrease morbidity through reduced laminectomy and myelotomy. With advances in technology, the authors believe that intradural endoscopy will begin to be used by more neurosurgeons for treating diseases of this anatomical region. PMID:21721897

Chern, Joshua J; Gordon, Amber S; Naftel, Robert P; Tubbs, R Shane; Oakes, W Jerry; Wellons, John C

2011-07-01

277

Systemic hypothermia following spinal cord compression injury in the rat: an immunohistochemical study on MAP 2 with special reference to dendrite changes.  

PubMed

Systemic hypothermia has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental ischemic CNS models caused by vascular occlusions. The present study addresses the question as to whether systemic hypothermia has similar neuroprotective qualities following severe spinal cord compression trauma using microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunohistochemistry combined with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method as marker to identify neuronal and dendritic lesions. Fifteen rats were randomized into three equally sized groups. One group sustained thoracic laminectomy, the others severe spinal cord compression trauma of the T8-9 segment. The control group contained laminectomized animals submitted to a hypothermic procedure in which the esophageal temperature was reduced from 38 degrees C to 30 degrees C. The two trauma groups were either submitted to the same hypothermic procedure or kept normothermic during the corresponding time. All animals were sacrificed 24 h following the surgical procedure. The MAP2 immunostaining in the normothermic trauma group indicated marked reductions in MAP2 antigen in the cranial and caudal peri-injury zones (T7 and T10, respectively). This reduction was much less pronounced in the hypothermic trauma group. In fact, the MAP2 antigen was present in almost equally sized areas in both the hypothermic groups independent of previous laminectomy alone or the addition of trauma. Our study thus indicates that hypothermia has a neuroprotective effect on dendrites of rat spinal cords subjected to compression trauma. PMID:11045677

Yu, W R; Westergren, H; Farooque, M; Holtz, A; Olsson, Y

2000-11-01

278

Midterm outcome after unilateral approach for bilateral decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis: 5-year prospective study  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study is to evaluate the results and effectiveness of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We have conducted a prospective study to compare the midterm outcome of unilateral laminotomy with unilateral laminectomy. One hundred patients with 269 levels of lumbar stenosis without instability were randomized to two treatment groups: unilateral laminectomy (Group 1), and laminotomy (Group 2). Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form–36 Health Survey (SF-36). Spinal canal size was measured pre- and postoperatively. The spinal canal was increased to 4–6.1-fold (mean 5.1 ± SD 0.8-fold) the preoperative size in Group 1, and 3.3–5.9-fold (mean 4.7 ± SD 1.1-fold) the preoperative size in Group 2. The mean follow-up time was 5.4 years (range 4–7 years). The ODI scores decreased significantly in both early and late follow-up evaluations and the SF-36 scores demonstrated significant improvement in late follow-up results in our series. Analysis of clinical outcome showed no statistical differences between two groups. For degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis unilateral approaches allowed sufficient and safe decompression of the neural structures and adequate preservation of vertebral stability, resulted in a highly significant reduction of symptoms and disability, and improved health-related quality of life.

Kaya, Ramazan Alper; Turkmenoglu, Osman Nuri; Tuncer, Cengiz; Colak, Ibrahim; Ayd?n, Yunus

2007-01-01

279

Motor evoked potential study suggesting L5 radiculopathy caused by l1-2 disc herniation: case report.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old male was referred because of pain in the left 5th lumbar (L5) root territory. Physical examination found moderate motor weakness in the left extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and the left tibialis anterior muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging found no stenotic lesion between L4-L5, but disc herniation was observed on the left between L1-L2. An L5 nerve root block provided temporary relief of the pain but the left foot weakness was exacerbated. Therefore, surgery was performed. Partial laminectomy and left herniotomy were performed at L1-L2, L2-L3, and L3-L4 with motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring. The MEP amplitude of the left EHL muscle increased immediately after L1-L2 herniotomy. The MEP amplitude of the right EHL muscle also increased after both laminectomy and herniotomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. The left leg pain and motor weakness disappeared. The patient has been doing fine without recurrence for 12 months. Since the MEP of both left and right EHL muscles improved after the L1-2 herniotomy, circulatory insufficiency might have caused the L5 symptoms. Monitoring of the MEP during the surgery was useful for confirming the responsible lesion and also for predicting the postoperative course. PMID:21441749

Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Nakura, Takahiro; Kamiya, Taeko; Takayasu, Masakazu

2011-01-01

280

Post irradiation myelopathy: from the physiatrists' point of view.  

PubMed

We describe two patients who developed a severe spinal cord damage long time after cessation of irradiation therapy. The various and unique rehabilitation medicine aspects are discussed and the literature is surveyed. PMID:24728796

Ohry, Avi; Heruti, Rafi; Bluvshtein, Vadim; Aidinoff, Elena; Catz, Amiram

2014-01-01

281

Progressive myelopathy and neuropathy in New Zealand Huntaway dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate the nature and cause of a progressive ataxia in three 20-month-old Huntaway dogs that were litter mates.Methods: Affected dogs were examined before they were humanely killed and submitted to necropsy. Selected formalin-fixed tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy.Results: The lesions were those of axon and myelin degeneration within sensory, proprioceptive and motor tracts of the

R. D. Jolly; H. M. Burbidge; M. R. Alley; R. J. Pack; M. S. Wilson

2000-01-01

282

Surgical Treatment of Spinal Stenosis with and without Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Cost-Effectiveness after 2 Years  

PubMed Central

Background The SPORT (Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial) reported favorable surgery outcomes over 2 years among patients with stenosis with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis, but the economic value of these surgeries is uncertain. Objective To assess the short-term cost-effectiveness of spine surgery relative to nonoperative care for stenosis alone and for stenosis with spondylolisthesis. Design Prospective cohort study. Data Sources Resource utilization, productivity, and EuroQol EQ-5D score measured at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment among SPORT participants. Target Population Patients with image-confirmed spinal stenosis, with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis. Time Horizon 2 years. Perspective Societal. Intervention Nonoperative care or surgery (primarily decompressive laminectomy for stenosis and decompressive laminectomy with fusion for stenosis associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis). Outcome Measures Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Among 634 patients with stenosis, 394 (62%) had surgery, most often decompressive laminectomy (320 of 394 [81%]). Stenosis surgeries improved health to a greater extent than nonoperative care (QALY gain, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.22]) at a cost of $77 600 (CI, $49 600 to $120 000) per QALY gained. Among 601 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 368 (61%) had surgery, most including fusion (344 of 368 [93%]) and most with instrumentation (269 of 344 [78%]). Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgeries significantly improved health versus non-operative care (QALY gain, 0.23 [CI, 0.19 to 0.27]), at a cost of $115 600 (CI, $90 800 to $144 900) per QALY gained. Result of Sensitivity Analysis Surgery cost markedly affected the value of surgery. Limitation The study used self-reported utilization data, 2-year time horizon, and as-treated analysis to address treatment non-adherence among randomly assigned participants. Conclusion The economic value of spinal stenosis surgery at 2 years compares favorably with many health interventions. Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgery is not highly cost-effective over 2 years but could show value over a longer time horizon.

Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Herkowitz, Harry; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Bridwell, Keith; Longley, Michael; Andersson, Gunnar B.; Blood, Emily A.; Grove, Margaret R.; Weinstein, James N.

2009-01-01

283

Immunohistochemical analysis of activin A expression in spinal cords of rats with clip compression injuries.  

PubMed

Activin A, a member of the TGF-? superfamily, plays roles in neuroprotection and immunomodulation. In the present study, activin A expression was investigated on days 1, 4 and 7 post-injury in female adult Sprague-Dawley rats with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The spinal cord was compressed with a vascular clip for 1min following laminectomy at T9/T10. Western blot analysis showed that activin A levels peaked in SCI core lesions 4 days post-injury (p<0.01) and fell thereafter until day 7. Immunohistochemically, activin A was constitutively expressed in vascular endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons of sham-operated controls, and in macrophages and reactive astrocytes of lesional cores and peripheries. As activin A plays an immunomodulatory role in the early stages of SCI and facilitates behavioral improvement, we postulate that transient upregulation of activin A in SCI tissue may contribute to modulation of inflammation development during SCI, thus leading to neuroprotection. PMID:24529943

Jeong, Jinwoo; Ahn, Meejung; Sim, Ki-Bum; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

2014-06-01

284

[A case of spinal tuberculosis in a young Filipino man].  

PubMed

A 19-year-old Filipino man was admitted to our hospital because of persisting fever and back pain. He had recognized his symptoms 6 months previously, but a definite diagnosis was not made. Image testing demonstrated a compressed fracture of the thoracic vertebrae accompanied with a perivertebral abscess. A biopsy specimen revealed granuloma compatible with tuberculosis (TB). Anti-TB drugs were initiated, and his clinical symptoms steadily improved. However, he developed neuropathic symptoms due to exacerbation of the abscess two months after starting the anti-TB drugs. An immediate laminectomy was performed resulting in symptom relief; however severe kyphosis remained. Polymerase chain reaction testing of the abscess collected during the operation was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, confirming the diagnosis of spinal TB. The diagnosis of spinal TB has been a challenge world-wide. Clinicians should be aware of the demographic background as well as the clinical and laboratory features of spinal tuberculosis, facilitating earlier diagnosis. PMID:24665589

Morioka, Hiroshi; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Sekiya, Noritaka; Suganuma, Akihiko; Imamura, Akifumi; Ajisawa, Atsushi

2014-01-01

285

Ruptured conus medullaris dermoid cyst with fat droplets in the central canal [corrected].  

PubMed

Spinal dermoid tumors are rare, benign, slow growing tumors. These tumors may become acutely symptomatic after rupture or infection. Excision of the lesion with long term close follow-up studies is required for the management of these lesions. We present a very rare case of ruptured conus medullaris dermoid cyst in a 22-year-old male presented with urinary retention and low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging scan with contrast reveals a lesion in the cauda equina inseparable from conus medullaris with fat droplets within the central spinal canal extending up to the medulla. Patient was operated with laminectomy and near complete excision of the lesion was done. Patient's low back pain was relieved following surgery. However patient had persistent urinary incontinence and on clean intermittent self-catheterization. Histopathology was suggestive of dermoid cyst. PMID:23508636

Sharma, Mayur; Mally, Rahul; Velho, Vernon

2013-03-01

286

Ruptured Conus Medullaris Dermoid Cyst with Fat Droplets in the Central  

PubMed Central

Spinal dermoid tumors are rare, benign, slow growing tumors. These tumors may become acutely symptomatic after rupture or infection. Excision of the lesion with long term close follow-up studies is required for the management of these lesions. We present a very rare case of ruptured conus medullaris dermoid cyst in a 22-year-old male presented with urinary retention and low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging scan with contrast reveals a lesion in the cauda equina inseparable from conus medullaris with fat droplets within the central spinal canal extending up to the medulla. Patient was operated with laminectomy and near complete excision of the lesion was done. Patient's low back pain was relieved following surgery. However patient had persistent urinary incontinence and on clean intermittent self-catheterization. Histopathology was suggestive of dermoid cyst.

Mally, Rahul; Velho, Vernon

2013-01-01

287

Holmium:YAG laser discectomy in dogs: a pilot project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives of our project were to determine the affects of Ho:YAG laser energy on canine intervertebral (IV) discs by thermography, and histology. Multiple IV discs in three cadaveric nonchondrodystrophoid spines were treated with 20 J to 180 J of energy and evaluated by thermography and histology. Histologic evaluation revealed thermal affects at all doses including potential acoustic wave affects, increased eosinophilia, carbonization, and in some cases a large defect due to laser irradiation. Laser affects were confined only to the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus with adjacent structures unaffected. In an acute study, two nonchondrodystrophoid dogs were sacrificed after IV discs were treated with 20 - 180 J of Ho:YAG laser radiation, following an extensive dorsal laminectomy to allow placement of thermoprobes in spinal and spinal cord structures. Heating occurred in only the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus with minimal temperature changes in the adjacent structures including the spinal cord.

Fry, Thomas R.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Henry, George A.; Schafer, Steven A.; Stair, E. L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Powell, Richard C.

1994-09-01

288

Abscess or tumour? Lumbar spinal abscess mimicking a filum terminale tumour.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of central lower backache and a 2-week history of progressive bilateral leg weakness. She also complained of numbness on her left thigh and gluteal region, associated with urinary hesitancy and constipation. On examination, she had bilateral partial foot drop, absent knee and ankle reflexes and a negative Babinski's reflex and associated hyperaesthesia in L3 distribution bilaterally with decreased anal tone. Laboratory results revealed normal inflammatory markers. MRI scan demonstrated a large uniformly enhancing lesion in the filum terminale suggestive of a lumbar spinal tumour. An emergency spinal laminectomy from L3 to S2 was performed. Per operatively, the duramater was thickened and hyperaemic. The histopathology report suggested inflammation with no evidence of malignancy. Tissue specimen of cultured Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to flucloxacillin. A final diagnosis of lumbar spinal abscess was made and subsequent antibiotic treatment led to good clinical recovery. PMID:22669871

Sajjad, Jahangir; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O'Sullivan, Michael

2012-01-01

289

Endodermal cyst of the cranio-cervical junction.  

PubMed

We reviewed 36 patients with endodermal cysts occurring at the craniocervical junction. They were aged between 3 and 66 years. Headache, motor weakness, and neck pain were commonly observed symptoms. Radiographically, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the tumours demonstrated a hypointense, isointense, or hyperintense signal according to the cystic content. In most cases, the cyst walls did not enhance after gadolinium administration. Histologically, the cysts were found to be lined by a single layer of epithelium. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies showed that almost all were reactive to periodic acid schiff stain, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcino-embryonic antigen, but negative to glial fibrillary acidic protein. Mainly, the suboccipital approach with or without a laminectomy, or the trans-oral approach were selected for surgical excision of these tumours. In 17 of the 36 patients, total or gross total resections were performed, and subtotal resections were achieved in sixteen. Three patients developed recurrences. PMID:18213442

Ohba, S; Akiyama, T; Kanai, R; Onozuka, S; Kawase, T

2008-03-01

290

Long-term disseminated recurrence in spinal hydatid cyst: a case report.  

PubMed

The spinal column is rarely affected by hydatid cyst; however, when involved, it has higher rates of recurrence particularly in case of osseous and paravertebral extensions. We report a 36-year-old patient. The patient was operated previously for hydatid cyst through laminectomy 13 years ago. After 13 years of surgery, the patient was admitted to our clinic with progressive paraparesis. Radiological evaluation revealed multicystic lesions affecting T4 and T5 vertebrae as well as the posterior thoracic wall and paravertebral musculature. Serological findings were also compatible with a hydatid cyst. The patient underwent surgical treatment; the cystic lesions were removed, and vertebral stabilization was provided. The treatment of hydatid cyst in the spine is challenging. Particularly in cases with vertebral involvement, spinal instability and recurrence are the main handicap. Preoperative and postoperative antihelminthic treatment as well as close clinical, radiological and serological follow up in postoperative period is important to avoid recurrence risk. PMID:24535797

Somay, Hakan; Ayan, Erdogan; Turk, Cezmi Cagri; Emon, Selin Tural; Berkman, Mehmet Zafer

2014-01-01

291

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in an untreated hypertensive patient after spinal surgery under general anesthesia -A case report-  

PubMed Central

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an unfamiliar term to anesthesiologists, and this is characterized by neurologic symptoms that include mental change, headache, seizure and visual disturbance and also abnormal neuroimaging finding. A 71-year-old female patient was operated on for posterior decompression and total laminectomy under general anesthesia for the spinal stenosis. After the operation, she developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure and a stuporous mentality in the recovery room. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed swelling and increased signal intensity at the deep gray nuclei, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. After one week, she returned to an alert mentality and then she was diagnosed with PRES. She was discharged without any neurologic deficit on postoperative day 20. This report describes our experience with PRES after spinal surgery was performed under general anesthesia on a suspected untreated hypertensive patient.

Yi, Ji Hwan; Ha, Sang Hee; Kim, Yong Kook

2011-01-01

292

Tapia Syndrome after Cervical Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Tapia syndrome is a rare entity characterized by unilateral paralysis of the tongue and vocal cord caused by Xth and XIIth cranial nerve lesions. However, there has been no report of Tapia syndrome immediately following spine surgery. A 47-year-old man underwent posterior decompressive laminectomy for cervical stenosis. The surgery took about 117 minutes and it was uneventful. Postoperatively he developed hoarseness of voice during speech, with deviation of tongue protrusion. On laryngoscopic examination, paralysis of the left side of the tongue and the soft palate was found and complete palsy of the left vocal cord was noted. After excluding surgical cause and craniocervical lesion, a clinical diagnosis of Tapia syndrome was made. Here we report a rare case of Tapia syndrome developed after posterior approach for cervical spine surgery and discuss the possible mechanisms of this uncommon syndrome.

Kang, Jung Hoon; Kim, Dong Min

2013-01-01

293

Salvage treatment of an irradiated, infected lumbosacral wound.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old male with lumbosacral multiple myeloma received 5100 cGy of external-beam radiation, thalidomide, and Decadron. He subsequently underwent excision of the epidural tumor, decompressive L4, L5, and S1 laminectomies, and bilateral L4-5 and L5-S1 medial facetectomies. The patient developed osteoradionecrosis, cerebrospinal fluid leak, wound infection, and sepsis. Debridement and bilateral V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement flaps failed. Pedicled omental transposition flap through a Petit triangle tunnel was successfully performed. Omental transposition provides a safe option for salvage treatment of irradiated, infected lumbosacral wounds. The plastic and trophic qualities of the omentum make it an excellent choice to fill poorly vascularized wounds. In addition to its immunologic and neoangiogenic properties, the omentum has a dense lymphatic network with tremendous absorptive potential. Its biologic advantages must be weighed against the need for celiotomy and available local options according to circumstances. PMID:16258309

Schmidek, Alexandra K; Warren, Stephen M; Tantillo, Michael B; Morris, Donald J

2005-11-01

294

Schwannoma originating in lateral recess of the fourth ventricle  

PubMed Central

Intracranial schwannomas most commonly occur in relation to vestibular nerves followed by trigeminal nerves. Authors describe a very unusual case of schwannomas originating in lateral recess of the fourth ventricle. Tumor was completely excised micro-surgically via midline suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. Dissection of the surgical specimen revealed that the tumor was completely free from surrounding structures and just hanging in the fourth ventricle. It was not attached to any cranial nerves, brain parenchyma, and blood vessel or to the dura mater. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. To our knowledge, no such case has been reported so far from this extremely rare location. Relevant literature is reviewed and hypothesis for ectopic location of these tumors has been highlighted.

Kachhara, Rajneesh; Raje, Prakash; Pauranik, Apoorva

2012-01-01

295

X-STOP surgical implant for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical practice recommendations for neurosurgical nurse practitioners.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common condition that affects the aging population because of the natural degenerative changes the spine undergoes during the aging process. The symptoms cause decreased functionality and quality of life. Traditional surgical treatment has been a decompressive laminectomy with or without a fusion. However, a newer less-invasive surgical technique called X-STOP interspinous process device is available for the treatment of neurogenic intermittent claudication because of lumbar spinal stenosis. The main goal of this procedure is to allow the patient to restore functional ability and improve quality of life, which bears significant importance in the aging population. Knowledge of the X-STOP interspinous process device can assist neurosurgical advanced practice nurses in providing optimum care for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis when nonsurgical therapies have failed. PMID:23291871

Nielsen, Magan

2013-02-01

296

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is caused by mechanical factors and/or biochemical alterations within the intervertebral disk that lead to disk space collapse, facet joint hypertrophy, soft-tissue infolding, and osteophyte formation, which narrows the space available for the thecal sac and exiting nerve roots. The clinical consequence of this compression is neurogenic claudication and varying degrees of leg and back pain. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is a major cause of pain and impaired quality of life in the elderly. The natural history of this condition varies; however, it has not been shown to worsen progressively. Nonsurgical management consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and epidural steroid injections. If nonsurgical management is unsuccessful and neurologic decline persists or progresses, surgical treatment, most commonly laminectomy, is indicated. Recent prospective randomized studies have demonstrated that surgery is superior to nonsurgical management in terms of controlling pain and improving function in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:22855855

Issack, Paul S; Cunningham, Matthew E; Pumberger, Matthias; Hughes, Alexander P; Cammisa, Frank P

2012-08-01

297

Subdural and Cerebellar Hematomas Which Developed after Spinal Surgery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Cerebellar hemorrhage following a spinal surgery is extremely rare; however, considering the localization, it can cause major clinical manifestations. While it is considered that these types of bleedings occur secondary to a venous infarct, the pathogenesis is still unclear. A 57-year-old male patient who underwent a laminectomy by exposing T12-L5 and had pedicle screws placed for ankylosing spondylitis developed a CSF leak due to a 2?mm dural tear. A hemorrhage with parallel streaks on the left cerebellar hemisphere was seen in CT scan, and a thin subdural hematoma at right frontotemporal region was seen on cranial MRI, performed after the patient developed intense headache, nausea, vomiting, and stiff neck in the early postoperative period. In this paper, a case of cerebellar and subdural hematomas following a spinal surgery is discussed with its clinical and radiologic findings.

Utku, Ufuk; Guler, Sibel; Yaln?z, Erol; Unlu, Ercument

2013-01-01

298

Back pain caused by a pseudo-tumorous vertebral collapse: atypical presentation of primary vertebral hydatidosis  

PubMed Central

Hydatidosis, also known as echinococcosis, is a rare but serious parasitic disease in endemic areas. Primary spinal location is extremely rare. This case report describes a rare instance of hydatid cyst that caused severe and progressive low-back pain and neurologic dysfunction. Spine MRI showed a unique vertebral collapse of Th12 body with multicystic lesions filling the spinal canal. In addition, hydatidosis serodiagnostic test was positive at 1/725. Treatment depended on the actual surgical removal of the cysts. Surgery consisted in excision and extirpation of the cysts, associated with decompressive laminectomy. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of histological results. No coincidental hydatid visceral involvement was found. Antihelminthic drugs (Albendazole) were promptly given before surgery for a long period. The outcome was satisfactorily marked by total regression of the motor deficit and sphincter disorders.

Mrabet, D; Rekik, S; Khiari, H; Mizouni, H; Meddeb, N; Cheour, I; Elleuch, M; Mnif, E; Mrabet, A; Sahli, H; Sellami, S

2011-01-01

299

Treatment of urinary voiding dysfunction syndromes with spinal cord stimulation.  

PubMed

This case report presents the use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in a patient with urinary incontinence who had previously undergone trial and implantation of InterStim therapy (Medtronic Neurological, Minneapolis, MN). The patient also experienced bilateral lower extremity pain and low back pain related to post-laminectomy syndrome. Having failed all conservative treatment, the patient underwent SCS trial and subsequent implantation. In the postoperative period using SCS therapy, the patient had excellent relief of urinary incontinence symptoms, along with relief of low back pain and bilateral lower extremity pain and was able to discontinue use of InterStim therapy. For this patient, SCS was effective in controlling the urinary voiding dysfunction symptoms, bilateral lower extremity pain and back pain. The use of SCS to treat urinary incontinence problems deserves further study to explore its therapeutic potentials. PMID:20305146

Yakovlev, Alexander E; Resch, Beth E

2010-03-01

300

Large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Presence of an arachnoid cyst at craniospinal junction is not very common. This is a very rare anatomic site, with only seven other cases reported in the literature. We report a case of large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and cranial nerve palsy. A 39-year-old male presented with 8-month history of neck pain, headache, vomiting, visual disturbances, diminished taste sensation, and numbness of face. He had bilateral papilledema on ophthalmoscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst extending down to the lower border of C5 vertebra. Posterior decompression was done through C5 laminectomy. He made a full recovery and was asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up examination. The clinical features, diagnosis, and management of these rare craniospinal arachnoid cysts are discussed.

Panigrahi, Souvagya; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Das, Srikant; Patra, Sunil Kumar; Satpathy, Pratap Chandra

2012-01-01

301

Large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst: A case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Presence of an arachnoid cyst at craniospinal junction is not very common. This is a very rare anatomic site, with only seven other cases reported in the literature. We report a case of large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and cranial nerve palsy. A 39-year-old male presented with 8-month history of neck pain, headache, vomiting, visual disturbances, diminished taste sensation, and numbness of face. He had bilateral papilledema on ophthalmoscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst extending down to the lower border of C5 vertebra. Posterior decompression was done through C5 laminectomy. He made a full recovery and was asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up examination. The clinical features, diagnosis, and management of these rare craniospinal arachnoid cysts are discussed. PMID:23741124

Panigrahi, Souvagya; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Das, Srikant; Patra, Sunil Kumar; Satpathy, Pratap Chandra

2012-01-01

302

Intraspinal Lipomas Without Associated Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of this study was to report surgical strategies and clinical outcomes for thoraco-lumbar intradural lipomas. Intraspinal lipomas are rare congenital histologically benign neoplasms, which account for less than 1% of all spinal cord tumors. These tumors are most frequently found in the lumbosacral area as components of a dysraphic state, however, intramedullary lipomas are not associated with spina bifida or cutaneous malformations and have only been described as isolated cases among spinal lipomas, where the thoracolumbar region is rarely affected. Case Presentation: Three patients with thoracolumbar intradural lipomas were admitted to our clinic at different points of time. Partial resections and debulking of the tumors were achieved with the guidance of an operating microscope. We performed laminectomies or laminoplasties, for tumor resections. Discussion: Postoperatively, the patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements. In this manuscript we presented our surgical experiences for intraspinal lipomas.

Arslan, Erhan; Kuzeyli, Kayhan; Acar Arslan, Elif

2014-01-01

303

Dorsal Extradural Lumbar Disc Herniation Causing Cauda Equina Syndrome : A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old male presented with a rare dorsally sequestrated lumbar disc herniation manifesting as severe radiating pain in both leg, progressively worsening weakness in both lower extremities, and urinary incontinence, suggesting cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested the sequestrated disc fragment located in the extradural space at the L4-L5 level had surrounded and compressed the dural sac from the lateral to dorsal sides. A bilateral decompressive laminectomy was performed under an operating microscope. A large extruded disc was found to have migrated from the ventral aspect, around the thecal sac, and into the dorsal aspect, which compressed the sac to the right. After removal of the disc fragment, his sciatica was relieved and the patient felt strength of lower extremity improved.

Lee, Sang-Ho; Arbatti, Nikhil J.

2010-01-01

304

Occult lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-eight patients presenting with low back pain, associated with sciatic or femoral neuropathy, were found to have lateral recess stenosis occurring as a result of hypertrophy of the facet joints, with preservation within normal limits of the sagittal AP diameter of the lumbar canal. Pathology was believed to be traumatic in origin, and the variable nature of the adhesions suggested recurrent inflammation; the hypertrophy of the facet joints may have been the result of traumatic inflammatory hyperaemia. Radiological investigations were unhelpful. The diagnosis of the condition was made at the time of surgical exploration by the findings of alteration of the facet joints, adhesions and fixity of the nerve roots, normal sagittal AP diameter of the canal, and absence of other significant lesions. Gratifying results were obtained with decompression by wide laminectomy with excision of overhanging facet joints and release of adhesions.

Choudhury, A R; Taylor, J C

1977-01-01

305

Partial cauda equina compromise: result of sacral stenosis.  

PubMed

Although partial or complete cauda equina compromise due to lumbar stenosis is a recognized entity, cauda equina compromise due to sacral stenosis is extremely uncommon. We present a patient with a three-week history of right thigh and buttock pain who developed right scrotal and buttock numbness, urinary retention, and difficulty with bowel evacuation. The patient had diminished sensation to right buttock and anus pinprick with decreased anal sphincter tone and absent bulbocavernosus reflex. Lumbosacral spine films revealed only minimal degenerative changes, while lumbar myelogram showed L4-L5 and L5-S1 ventral extradural defects. Only a drop of pantopaque descended caudally below the level of the L5-S1 interspace. Operatively, significant stenosis and thickening of the posterior sacrum with compromise of the lower sacral nerve roots was noted. Bilateral sacral laminectomy was performed and the symptoms resolved postoperatively. This case illustrates an unusual clinical entity: partial cauda equina compromise due to sacral stenosis. PMID:4074117

Buszek, M C; Ellenberg, M; Friedman, P

1985-12-01

306

Transverse sacral fractures with anterior displacement  

PubMed Central

Transverse fractures of the sacrum with anterior displacement are the rarest type of transverse sacral fractures. They usually occur at the S1–S2 region in suicide jumpers. A clinical study was performed to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and outcome of transverse sacral fractures with anterior displacement. We present six patients with a transverse fracture of the sacrum with anterior displacement. All patients presented with bowel and bladder dysfunction, perineal anesthesia, sensory and motor deficits at the lower extremities. Prompt diagnosis of the sacral fracture was obtained in five of the six patients. Operative treatment including lumbosacral laminectomies, spine instrumentation and fusion was done in all patients. Neurological recovery was almost complete in one patient, incomplete in four patients, and none in one patient. Although reduction of the fracture was not ideal in many of these patients, long-term clinical and radiographic follow-up, and neurological improvement were rewarding.

Sapkas, George S.; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.

2007-01-01

307

Spondylolisthesis caused by extreme pedicle elongation in osteogenesis imperfecta  

PubMed Central

Although osteogenesis imperfecta is a well-known skeletal disorder, reports of spondylolisthesis in osteogenesis imperfecta are rare. Only very few cases of spondylolisthesis caused by elongation of lumbar pedicles have been described in the literature. Here we report three patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta showing a severe form of hyperlordosis caused by lumbar pedicle elongation and consecutive spondylolisthesis. Radiographs in the course of childhood and adolescence show a rapid progression of pedicle elongation and hyperlordosis with increased mechanical loads. The treatment strategy consists of physiotherapy, medical treatment with bisphosphonates, and orthopedic surgery and is preferably conservative. In the three patients reported here, one patient was treated with laminectomy and postero-lateral fusion, whereas in the other two patients surgery is currently not considered as necessary.

Fuerderer, Sebastian; Eysel, Peer

2007-01-01

308

[2 cases of vertebral hydatidosis treated by the association of surgery and mebendazole].  

PubMed

Two cases of vertebral hydatidosis were diagnosed only at the time of operation. The first one, a lumbar localisation treated as a tuberculosis, by posterior graft and chemotherapy went to a large vertebral destruction with paraplegia. An anterior approach revealed the hydatids. A large excision associated with graft and osteosynthesis gave only a temporary improvement, but the treatment by Mebendazol cured the neurological symptoms. The second case, with a large destruction of L5 and S1, was also treated as a tuberculosis even after a decompressive laminectomy and recognized at a second operation on the sacrum. A left paralysis, incompletely improved by a decompression, appeared as favourably influenced by Mebendazol. Epidemiologic conditions of hydatosis, difficulties of diagnosis of the rare bony localizations, are recalled. The great problem of treatment, especially in the most frequent vertebral lesions, where complete excision is impossible, appears as hopefully improved by Mebendazol. PMID:6222434

Cardona, J M; Giné, J; Flores, X; Algara, C; Ballester, J

1983-01-01

309

Giant cell tumor of upper thoracic spine.  

PubMed

Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the spine is a rare benign tumor, but can be aggressive and can exhibit a high local recurrence rate. Furthermore, GCT of the upper thoracic spine may pose diagnostic and management difficulties. Here, we report a rare case of GCT of the upper thoracic spine with soft tissue extension to the spinal canal. The patient was managed by decompressive laminectomy and posterolateral fusion followed by an injection of polymethylmethacrylate into the vertebral lesion. The patient recovered clinically and showed radiological improvement after surgical treatment without tumor recurrence at his last follow-up of postoperative 7 years. We present this unusual case of GCT and include a review of the literature. PMID:24851155

Lee, Chul Gab; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Dong Min; Kim, Seok Won

2014-03-01

310

Jarcho-Levin syndrome with diastematomyelia: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Jarcho–Levin syndrome (JLS) is a type of segmental costovertebral malformation. It is a congenital disorder characterized by a variety of vertebral and costal anomalies. Only four cases of Jarcho–Levin syndrome with diastematomyelia have been reported in the literature. We report the fifth case of Jarcho–Levin syndrome with diastematomyelia and review the literature. A one-and-half-year-old male child born of full-term normal delivery was brought with complaints of progressively increasing weakness in lower limbs with inability to stand since 1 month. Radiological examination revealed irregular fusion of ribs, spina bifida, and diastematomyelia at L2–L3 vertebral level. The patient underwent L1 to L3 laminectomy. A large bony spur was identified and excised with microrongeurs. Spondylocostal dysplasia may be associated with diastematomyelia or other surgically correctable occult intraspinal anomalies which may be diagnosed in early asymptomatic stage by magnetic resonance image screening of spine.

Kansal, Ritesh; Mahore, Amit; Kukreja, Sanjay

2011-01-01

311

Thoracic congenital dermal sinus associated with intramedullary spinal dermoid cyst.  

PubMed

Dorsal dermal sinus is a rare, congenital lesion found most frequently in the lumbosacral followed by the occipital regions. It is rarely localized at the thoracic level. We report a rare case of thoracic congenital dermal sinus (CDS) associated with an intramedullary dermoid cyst in a 2-year-old male child, who presented with a 3 month history of motor weakness of both the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine showed an intramedullary dermoid cyst extending from the lower border of T4 to upper border of T7, which was connected with the skin dimple along the sinus tract. Total excision of the dermoid cyst and the sinus tract with T5-7 laminectomy resulted in good functional recovery. PMID:24891899

Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Panigrahi, Souvagya

2014-01-01

312

Acquired epidermoid cysts of the cauda equina.  

PubMed

Intradural extramedullary epidermoid (EC) cysts are uncommon (0.2-1%). Acquired tumors appear more frequently as a late complication of lumbar punctures (40%). The authors present three cases of epidermoid cysts of the cauda equina which were surgically treated in their department during the past five years. All three had suffered lumbar punctures for rachianesthesia 6-9 years prior to their presentation. The patients' ages ranged between 19 and 31. Surgical treatment was deemed necessary because of the space-occupying nature of this slow-growing lesion, and this indication was supported by the MRI findings. Two-level laminectomy and microsurgical total tumor ablation were performed in all three cases. There were no postoperative complications. PMID:22567058

Nica, D A; Strambu, V E D; Ro?ca, T; Cioti, D; Copaciu, R; Stroi, M; Ciurea, A V; Popa, F

2011-08-15

313

Acquired Epidermoid Cysts of the Cauda Equina  

PubMed Central

Intradural extramedullary epidermoid (EC) cysts are uncommon (0,2–1%). Acquired tumors appear more frequently as a late complication of lumbar punctures (40%). The authors present three cases of epidermoid cysts of the cauda equina which were surgically treated in their department during the past five years. All three had suffered lumbar punctures for rachianesthesia 6–9 years prior to their presentation. The patients' ages ranged between 19 and 31. Surgical treatment was deemed necessary because of the space–occupying nature of this slow–growing lesion, and this indication was supported by the MRI findings. Two–level laminectomy and microsurgical total tumor ablation were performed in all three cases. There were no postoperative complications.

Strambu, VED; Rosca, T; Cioti, D; Copaciu, R; Stroi, M; Ciurea, AV; Popa, F

2011-01-01

314

Acute spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma mimicking cerebral stroke: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma (SCEDH) is a rare disease, but can cause severe neurologic impairment. We report a case of a 68-year-old female who presented with sudden onset, posterior neck pain, right shoulder pain, and progressive right hemiparesis mimicking stroke with no trauma history. Initial brain CT and diffusion MRI performed to rule out brain lesion did not show any positive findings. Laboratory examination presented only severe thrombocytopenia (45,000/mm(3)). Subsequent cervical MRI revealed a cervical epidural mass lesion. We confirmed that it was pure hematoma through C5 unilateral total laminectomy and C6 partial hemilaminectomy. She achieved complete neurologic recovery with active rehabilitation. Early surgical decompression for SCEDH with neurologic impairment should be recommended for better outcome. PMID:24757481

Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Tae Hong; Park, Sang Keun; Hwang, Yong Soon; Shin, Hyung Shik; Shin, Jun Jae

2013-09-01

315

Paraplegia following epidural analgesia: A potentially avoidable cause?  

PubMed Central

Neurological deficit is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of epidural anesthesia. Epidural hematomas and abscesses are the most common causes of such neurological deficit. We report the case of a patient with renal cell carcinoma with lumbar vertebral metastasis who developed paraplegia after receiving thoracic epidural anesthesia for a nephrectomy. Subsequently, on histo-pathological examination of the laminectomy specimen, the patient was found to have previously undiagnosed thoracic vertebral metastases which led to a thoracic epidural hematoma. In addition, delayed reporting of symptoms of neurological deficit by the patient may have impacted his outcome. Careful pre-operative investigation, consideration to using alternative modalities of analgesia, detailed patient counseling and stringent monitoring of patients receiving central neuraxial blockade is essential to prevent such complications.

Doctor, Jeson R.; Ranganathan, Priya; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.

2014-01-01

316

Whole Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication.

Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook

2014-01-01

317

Giant Cell Tumor of Upper Thoracic Spine  

PubMed Central

Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the spine is a rare benign tumor, but can be aggressive and can exhibit a high local recurrence rate. Furthermore, GCT of the upper thoracic spine may pose diagnostic and management difficulties. Here, we report a rare case of GCT of the upper thoracic spine with soft tissue extension to the spinal canal. The patient was managed by decompressive laminectomy and posterolateral fusion followed by an injection of polymethylmethacrylate into the vertebral lesion. The patient recovered clinically and showed radiological improvement after surgical treatment without tumor recurrence at his last follow-up of postoperative 7 years. We present this unusual case of GCT and include a review of the literature.

Lee, Chul Gab; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Dong Min

2014-01-01

318

Giant, completely calcified lumbar juxtafacet cyst: report of an unusual case.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case report. Objective?To report the case of one patient who developed a giant, completely calcified, juxtafacet cyst. Methods?A 57-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressively worsening lower back pain, left leg pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Imaging showed a giant, completely calcified mass arising from the left L5-S1 facet joint, with coexisting grade I L5 on S1 anterolisthesis. The patient was treated with laminectomy, excision of the mass, and L5-S1 fixation and fusion. Results?The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and had complete resolution of her symptoms as of 1-year follow-up. Conclusions?When presented with a solid-appearing, calcified mass arising from the facet joint, a completely calcified juxtafacet cyst should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25083359

Huang, Kevin T; Owens, Timothy R; Wang, Teresa S; Moreno, Jessica R; Bagley, Jacob H; Bagley, Carlos A

2014-08-01

319

Spinal giant cell tumor in tuberous sclerosis: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Patients affected by tuberous sclerosis (TS) have a greater incidence of tumors than the healthy population. Spinal tumours in TS are reported very rarely and consist mainly of sacrococcygeal and cervical chordomas. Method Case report. Findings A 21-year-old man, affected by TS, presented a spinal dorsal T2 tumor that caused medullary compression. He underwent decompressive laminectomy and microsurgical excision of a giant cell tumor and an associated aneurysmal bone cyst. Postoperative hypofractionated radiotherapy was performed on the surgical field. At 2.4 years of follow-up the patient reported total recovery of neurological deficits and was free from tumor recurrence. Conclusion Considering this association, which is the first reported in the literature, spinal magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium should be performed at the onset of spinal pain in patients affected by TS.

Fraioli, Mario Francesco; Lecce, Mario; Fraioli, Chiara; Paolo, Curatolo

2013-01-01

320

Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord  

PubMed Central

In vivo imaging of white matter is important for the mechanistic understanding of demyelination and evaluation of remyelination therapies. Although white matter can be visualized by a strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal from axonal myelin, in vivo repetitive CARS imaging of the spinal cord remains a challenge due to complexities induced by the laminectomy surgery. We present a careful experimental design that enabled longitudinal CARS imaging of de- and remyelination at single axon level in live rats. In vivo CARS imaging of secretory phospholipase A2 induced myelin vesiculation, macrophage uptake of myelin debris, and spontaneous remyelination by Schwann cells are sequentially monitored over a 3 week period. Longitudinal visualization of de- and remyelination at a single axon level provides a novel platform for rational design of therapies aimed at promoting myelin plasticity and repair.

Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Delong; Huff, Terry B.; Wang, Xiaofei; Shi, Riyi; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

2011-01-01

321

Primary lumbar epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum diagnosed by 16S rRNA PCR.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 71-year-old woman who presented a primary spinal epidural abscess caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. This is the second report in the medical literature to associate this organism with a primary spinal epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis. After treatment with emergency laminectomy followed by 8 weeks of antibiotic treatment the patient was cured. Oral metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h) was the definitive choice of treatment. F. necrophorum spinal epidural abscess is rare, although samples for anaerobic culture should be collected in order to improve detection of anaerobic spinal infections. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA permits early diagnosis in anaerobic infections. PMID:23845584

Sanmillán, Jose Luis; Pelegrín, Iván; Rodríguez, David; Ardanuy, Carmen; Cabellos, Carmen

2013-10-01

322

The influence of etiology on the results of coccygectomy.  

PubMed

The results of coccygectomy for coccygodynia seem not to have been correlated with etiologic factors and were investigated in 48 cases (10 men and 38 women) with an average follow-up period of seven years. The following four etiologic groups were designated: I, direct trauma; II, spontaneous in origin; III, coccygodynia associated with spinal surgery; and IV, postpartum. Groups I and IV had a 75% recovery rate from pain and Group II had a 58% recovery rate. No satisfactory results were obtained in Group III. The incidence of infection was 16.6%. Few satisfactory results were obtained in cases of deep infection. While this operation is effective in many cases, it is seldom successful for pain associated with lumbar disc disease requiring lumbar laminectomy and spine fusion. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is clearly indicated. PMID:6488643

Bayne, O; Bateman, J E; Cameron, H U

1984-11-01

323

Lumbosacral intradural tumours simulating disc disease.  

PubMed

Twelve patients with symptoms and signs simulating lumbar disc disease were found to have intradural tumours in the lumbosacral area. Of the nine patients with a neurofibroma, two had previously had a laminectomy for an erroneous diagnosis of disc herniation and one had three separate tumours which were excised in two successive operations. One of the three patients with an ependymoma had a coccygectomy before the correct diagnosis was made. Only one patient who had an ependymoma showed radiographic abnormalities suggesting a neoplastic lesion, but eight of the ten cases in which the cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed had a protein content of 50 mg per 100 ml. Myelography provided the correct diagnosis in all cases. Excision of the tumour resulted in full clinical recovery except for one patient with an ependymoma. PMID:6804401

Postacchini, F; Urso, S; Tovaglia, V

1981-01-01

324

Solitary Xanthogranuloma of the Upper Cervical Spine in a Male Adult  

PubMed Central

We present the rare case of solitary xanthogranuloma in the upper cervical column mimicking a Brown-Sequard syndrome. A 29-year-old man complained with right hemiparesis and left hypoesthesia after a car accident. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a lobulated homogenously well-enhancing mass in between posterior arch of the atlas (C1) and spinous process of the axis (C2) resulting in a marked spinal canal narrowing with cortical erosions. The patient was managed by complete resection of the tumor with partial laminectomy with lower half of C1 posterior arch and upper half of C2 spinous process. The authors advise complete removal of the xanthogranuloma and consideration as a differential diagnosis of lesions among upper cervical lesions.

Lee, Sun Joo; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Sung Min

2012-01-01

325

Brown-Sequard syndrome associated with Horner's syndrome following a penetrating drill bit injury to the cervical spine.  

PubMed

We report a 41-year-old male who presented with a partial Brown-Sequard syndrome and Horner's syndrome following a penetrating drill bit injury to his mid cervical spine. As the injury was not a complete hemisection of the spinal cord, the patient presented with ipsilateral motor deficit and hyperesthesia and diminished contralateral fine touch sensation; however, proprioception, vibration and temperature were all initially intact. A cervical CT and MRI scan showed a damaged spinal cord at the C5/6 level with posterior cord compression secondary to haematoma. A decompressive laminectomy and evacuation of the haematoma was performed. Over the following 5 days the patient's right-sided motor deficit improved daily; however, he developed a contralateral deficit to pain and temperature upon wakening from the operation which did not resolve. The right-sided Horner's syndrome also persisted. PMID:19386500

Russell, Jeremy H; Joseph, Samuel J; Snell, Broughton J; Jithoo, Rondhir

2009-07-01

326

Solitary xanthogranuloma of the upper cervical spine in a male adult.  

PubMed

We present the rare case of solitary xanthogranuloma in the upper cervical column mimicking a Brown-Sequard syndrome. A 29-year-old man complained with right hemiparesis and left hypoesthesia after a car accident. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a lobulated homogenously well-enhancing mass in between posterior arch of the atlas (C1) and spinous process of the axis (C2) resulting in a marked spinal canal narrowing with cortical erosions. The patient was managed by complete resection of the tumor with partial laminectomy with lower half of C1 posterior arch and upper half of C2 spinous process. The authors advise complete removal of the xanthogranuloma and consideration as a differential diagnosis of lesions among upper cervical lesions. PMID:22396846

Lee, Sun Joo; Jo, Dae Jean; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Sung Min

2012-01-01

327

Left Second Rib Exostosis, Spinal Cord Compression and Left Upper Thoracic Scoliosis: A Rare Triad  

PubMed Central

Exostosis of the rib with neural foraminal extension as a cause of spinal cord compression and scoliosis has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We describe a young male with hereditary multiple exostosis who presented with a spastic gait, lower limb weakness and a deformity of the upper back. Radiographic imaging revealed a lesion arising from the left second rib which was encroaching the spinal canal and a scoliotic deformity of the upper thoracic spine. Through a single T shaped posterior approach he underwent a decompressive laminectomy of T1 and T2 vertebra and excision of the lesion. The diagnosis of osteochondroma was confirmed by histopathological studies. He was followed up at one year when his neurological condition had returned to normal however the scoliosis had increased.

Venkatesh, Krishnan; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

2012-01-01

328

Lumbar Spinal Chondroma Presenting with Acute Sciatica  

PubMed Central

A 47-year-old woman visited with lumbago and severe left leg pain that had been presented for 1 week. The patient complained of severe radiating pain on left L3 sensory dermatome area and reported aggravation of leg pain at 20 degrees of hip flexion by straight leg raising test (SLRT). However, there was no motor weakness on neurological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated contrast enhancing spinal extradural mass at L2-3 level that was iso-signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted images (WI), hypo-SI on T2WI. She was not able to walk and sleep due to incapacitating pain. Thus, surgical removal was performed via left partial laminectomy. Postoperatively, the radiating pain was relieved completely. Histopathologic examination revealed that the tumor consisted of chondroma, which had mature hyaline cartilage with nests of benign-appearing cells and calcium deposits in lacunae.

Kim, Dong Hwan; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Choi, Byung Kwan

2013-01-01

329

Anterior Cervical Arachnoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome.

Sharifi, Give

2013-01-01

330

Primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare. We will discuss the clinical features and treatment of primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this paper, a 30-year-old male patient who presented with spinal epidural tumor at the T9–11 level is reported. Subtotal resection of the tumor was performed and the histological examination of the tumor specimen revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma. All other examinations were negative for an occult disease. Six courses of chemotheraphy containing adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine were given to the patient. Surgery is the first therapeutic approach in malignancies compressing the spinal cord. Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very chemo- and radio-sensitive tumor. The indications for surgery were reduced and limited to laminectomy or even biopsy only, leaving the major role to chemo- and radiotheraphy.

Yaman, Onur; Ozdemir, Nail; Sevin, Ismail Ertan; Ozer, Fusun Demircivi; Unluoglu, Saime

2013-01-01

331

Case study of a spinal epidural capillary hemangioma: a 4-year postoperative follow-up.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case study. Objectives?We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man, who presented with a 4-month history of increasing low back pain and gait difficulty. Objective neurologic examination revealed a severe paraparetic symptomatology without any sphincter involvement. Methods?Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extradural mass formation situated dorsally at the level of thoracic vertebrae T2 to T4. Results?A laminectomy was performed with total removal of the mass; histology suggested a highly vascularized lesion with lobular architecture, which seems a very rare case, compatible with a capillary hemangioma. Conclusions?A careful follow-up for the next 4 years, including control MRIs every postoperative year, showed a very good neurologic condition of the patient and no recurrence on imaging findings. PMID:24494182

Seferi, Arsen; Alimehmeti, Ridvan; Vyshka, Gentian; Bushati, Teona; Petrela, Mentor

2014-02-01

332

Interventional spinal procedures in the presence of a Chiari malformation: a potential contraindication.  

PubMed

Although Chiari malformations are much more prevalent than once believed, no study has described treatment with an interventional spinal procedure. The purpose of this report was to discuss the clinical course of a patient who was diagnosed with a Chiari malformation and treated with three cervical epidural injections. In 2012, a 50-yr-old woman presented to a neurology clinic with chronic suboccipital headaches, diplopia, and increasing numbness/tingling in her upper extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a type I Chiari malformation and a cervical syrinx. The patient was treated with three cervical epidural injections, after which her symptoms exacerbated. Consequently, a posterior fossa suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy and excision of extradural and intradural adhesions was performed. After surgical intervention, notable neurologic improvements were observed. Given the marked worsening of symptoms, the present report suggests that interventional spinal procedures may be a contraindication in the presence of a Chiari malformation with a syrinx. PMID:24743463

Smith, Jason A; Cuccurullo, Sara J; Protzman, Nicole M; Kooch, Jason E

2014-08-01

333

Thoracic congenital dermal sinus associated with intramedullary spinal dermoid cyst  

PubMed Central

Dorsal dermal sinus is a rare, congenital lesion found most frequently in the lumbosacral followed by the occipital regions. It is rarely localized at the thoracic level. We report a rare case of thoracic congenital dermal sinus (CDS) associated with an intramedullary dermoid cyst in a 2-year-old male child, who presented with a 3 month history of motor weakness of both the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine showed an intramedullary dermoid cyst extending from the lower border of T4 to upper border of T7, which was connected with the skin dimple along the sinus tract. Total excision of the dermoid cyst and the sinus tract with T5–7 laminectomy resulted in good functional recovery.

Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Panigrahi, Souvagya

2014-01-01

334

Treatment strategy in a child with a retained bullet in the cerebellomedullary cistern.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old girl was admitted to our emergency room because of a gunshot wound in the posterior craniocervical junction. On admission, she was alert, but left hemiplegia and right hemiparesis were noted. Cranial CT scanning showed a retained bullet in the cerebellomedullary cistern without bone destruction. Moreover, fourth ventricle hemorrhage was observed. There were no signs of acute hydrocephalus. The patient underwent suboccipital craniectomy and C-1 laminectomy for bullet removal. Postoperatively, the patient experienced significant neurological improvement. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of a patient with a retained bullet in the cerebellomedullary cistern. The management strategies in such a unique case are discussed. PMID:22793164

de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcílio Diogo; de Bellis, Thiago; Pousa, Marcelo Sampaio; da Silva, Rodrigo Sodré Calheiros; Garcia, Flávio Assad; Acioly, Marcus André

2012-09-01

335

Acute Hydrocephalus Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drowsiness with dilatation of the right pupil. Findings on brain computed tomography revealed acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebellomedullary cistern, therefore, extraventricular drainage was performed immediately. Acute hydrocephalus as a complication of cervical spine trauma is rare, however, it should be considered if the patient shows deterioration of neurologic symptoms.

Son, Seong; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung

2013-01-01

336

Decompression alone versus decompression with limited fusion for treatment of degenerative lumbar scoliosis in the elderly patient.  

PubMed

Study design: ?Retrospective cohort study. Objective: ?To analyze the surgical results of a group of patients older than 65 years treated for mild degenerative lumbar scoliosis (<30°) with stenosis, treated with decompression alone or decompression and limited fusion. Methods: ?We evaluated 55 patients, all older than 65 years from our prospectively collected database with mild degenerative scoliosis (<30°) and stenosis who underwent surgery. Laminectomy alone was performed in 16 patients, and laminectomy and limited fusion in 39 patients. Mean follow-up was 4.6 years in the decompression group and 5.0 years in the fusion group. Clinical results were graded by patients' self-reported satisfaction and length of symptom-free period to recurrence. Results: ?In the decompression alone group, 6 (37%) of 16 patients developed recurrent stenosis at the previously decompressed level and five developed recurrence within 6 months postoperatively versus the decompression and fusion group where 3 (8%) of 39 (P?=?.0476) developed symptomatic stenosis supra adjacent to the fusion. Of 16 patients in the decompression alone group, 12 (75%) had recurrence of symptoms by the 5-year follow-up period versus only 14 (36%) patients in the decompression and fusion group (P?=?.016). Adjacent segment degenerative changes were common in the fusion group, but only 7% developed symptomatic stenosis. Conclusions: ?Decompression with limited fusion prevents early return of stenotic symptoms compared with decompression alone in the setting of mild degenerative scoliosis (<30°) and symptomatic stenosis in patients 65 years and older. [Table: see text] The definiton of the different classes of evidence is available on page 67. PMID:23531707

Daubs, Michael D; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; Cheh, Gene; Kim, Yongjung J; Stobbs, Georgia

2012-11-01

337

Adjacent Segment Degeneration after Single-Level PLIF: Comparison between Spondylolytic Spondylolisthesis, Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To comparatively investigated the rate of the adjacent segment degeneration and the clinical outcomes in patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis or degenerative spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature There have been few studies reported on the adjacent segment degeneration following posterior lumbar interbody fusion(PLIF). Many risk factors for the adjacent segment degeneration following PLIF have been proposed. The range of decompression has been presented as one of the risk factors, yet controversial. Methods This study enrolled sixty-three patients who had been treated with single-level PLIF and who were followed up for more than two years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the preoperative diagnosis. We analyzed the difference between the preoperative and postoperative intervertebral disc heights of the superior adjacent segments. The incidence rates of instability and the clinical outcomes were comparatively analyzed between each group. Results The average age of the patients was 55.8 years in the spondylolytic spondylolisthesis group, 65.9 years in the degenerative spondylolisthesis group and 60.4 years in the spinal stenosis group. The average follow-up period was 44 months, 43 months and 42 months, respectively. At the last follow-up, compared to the preoperative period, the intervertebral disc height decreased in all three groups. A statistically significant decrease (p < 0.01) was observed only in the spondylolytic spondylolisthesis group and no significant difference was observed between each group (p = 0.41). The incidence rate of instability and the clinical outcome were not significantly different between each group. Conclusions Spondylolytic spondylolisthesis with total laminectomy and single-level PLIF showed no significant difference in the superior adjacent segment degeneration and instability, and the clinical outcome as compared to that of partial laminectomy with single-level PLIF for treating degenerative spondylolisthesis or spinal stenosis.

Yu, Chang Hun; Lee, Jung Eun; Yang, Jae Jun; Lee, Choon-Ki

2011-01-01

338

Effect of treatment with 21-aminosteroid U-74389G and glucocorticoid steroid methylprednisolone on somatosensory evoked potentials in rat spinal cord during mild compression.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of treatment with glucocorticoid steroid methylprednisolone (MP) and the 21-aminosteroid U-74389G on the conduction of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) during experimental spinal cord compression. Forty-five adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and a laminectomy performed at the Th9-Th10 level. Animals with the same SEP patterns prior to and after laminectomy were randomly allocated to one of three groups (15 rats in each). A 14.8-g weight was applied to the dural surface of the spinal cord for 60 min. The SEPs were continually recorded during compression. The rats received a single intravenous bolus dose of three different agents two minutes after the start of compression. Animals in the first group received 0.5 ml of 0.9% NaCl, the second group received 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone and the third group received 3 mg/kg U-74389G. Following drug infusion the time period required for the SEPs to be completely suppressed was assessed. If the SEPs were not fully suppressed, the amplitude of the most stable and significant component of the SEPs was measured. The time taken to complete the SEPs suppression was significantly shorter in the control group (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon) than in the groups with either MP or U-74389G. However, the time taken to achieve full suppression was not significantly different between the MP and U-74389G groups. The proportional reduction of amplitude N1P1 was significantly different between the control and MP groups as well as between the control and U-74389G groups. The proportional reduction of amplitude N1P1 was not significant between the MP and the U-74389G groups. The present data indicate that both the glucocorticoid steroid MP and the 21-aminosteroid U-74389G protect spinal cord function to a similar extent during mild compression. PMID:10098963

Harat, M; Kochanowski, J

1999-02-01

339

Evaluation of hemilaminectomy use in microsurgical resection of intradural extramedullary tumors  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the microsurgical techniques of hemilaminectomy, used in the excision of intradural extramedullary (IDEM) tumors, and to illustrate its clinical effects. Clinical data obtained from 16 patients (seven males, nine females) with IDEM tumors, which were treated at the China-Japan Union Hospital between January 2009 and December 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age of patients was 49 years, ranging from 34–72 years. The IDEM tumors were located cervically in three patients, thoracically in four patients and at the thoracico-lumbar level in nine patients. Fourteen patients underwent hemilaminectomy, while two patients were treated with laminectomy during surgery. The clinical effect of hemilaminectomy was evaluated based on Frankel grade. The mean bleeding volume was 300 ml (range, 150–500 ml) and the mean duration of surgery was 140 min (range, 90–200 min). The maximum and minimum tumor volumes were 4×1.5×1.5 cm and 1.5×1.0×1.0 cm, respectively. Neurinoma was evident in 11 patients, meningioma in four cases and neurofibroma in one case. Three cases improved from Frankel grade B to C, five cases improved from grade C to D and seven cases improved from grade D to grade E. All patients were followed up for a period of 6–40 months, with a mean follow-up time of 23.7 months. None of the patients exhibited tumor recurrence or spinal instability. The mean bleeding volume of patients that underwent hemilaminectomy and laminectomy was 275 and 475 ml, respectively. The advantages of hemilaminectomy are minor invasion, less bleeding and retention of spinal stability. In general, hemilaminectomy for the excision of IDEM tumors has a satisfactory outcome.

GU, RUI; LIU, JIA-BEI; XIA, PENG; LI, CHEN; LIU, GUANG-YAO; WANG, JIN-CHENG

2014-01-01

340

Holospinal epidural abscess of the spinal axis: two illustrative cases with review of treatment strategies and surgical techniques.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing prevalence of spinal infections, the subcategory of holospinal epidural abscesses (HEAs) is extremely infrequent and requires unique management. Panspinal imaging (preferably MRI), modern aggressive antibiotic therapy, and prompt surgical intervention remain the standard of care for all spinal axis infections including HEAs; however, the surgical decision making on timing and extent of the procedure still remain ill defined for HEAs. Decompression including skip laminectomies or laminoplasties is described, with varied clinical outcomes. In this review the authors present the illustrative cases of 2 patients with HEAs who were treated using skip laminectomies and epidural catheter irrigation techniques. The discussion highlights different management strategies including the role of conservative (nonsurgical) management in these lesions, especially with an already identified pathogen and the absence of mass effect on MRI or significant neurological defects. Among fewer than 25 case reports of HEA published in the past 25 years, the most important aspect in deciding a role for surgery is the neurological examination. Nearly 20% were treated successfully with medical therapy alone if neurologically intact. None of the reported cases had an associated cranial infection with HEA, because the dural adhesion around the foramen magnum prevented rostral spread of infection. Traditionally a posterior approach to the epidural space with irrigation is performed, unless an extensive focal ventral collection is causing cord compression. Surgical intervention for HEA should be an adjuvant treatment strategy for all acutely deteriorating patients, whereas aspiration of other infected sites like a psoas abscess can determine an infective pathogen, and appropriate antibiotic treatment may avoid surgical intervention in the neurologically intact patient. PMID:25081960

Smith, Gabriel A; Kochar, Arshneel S; Manjila, Sunil; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Geertman, Robert T; Anderson, James S; Steinmetz, Michael P

2014-08-01

341

Motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord: slowed conduction in multiple sclerosis and radiation myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the central nervous system was used to measure motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord in 21 subjects aged 22 to 75 years (mean 55 years), none of whom had neurological disease. The motor conduction velocity between the sixth cervical (C6) and first lumbar (L1) vertebral levels was 67.4 +\\/- 9.1 m\\/s. This probably represents

S J Snooks; M Swash

1985-01-01

342

Posterior atlantoaxial subluxation due to os odontoideum combined with cervical spondylotic myelopathy : a case report  

PubMed Central

In patients with os odontoideum and posterior atlantoaxial subluxation are extremely rare. No reports have described posterior atlantoaxial subluxation associated with os odontoideum combined with cervical spondylotic canal stenosis, both of which require surgical treatment. We report one case of a 75-year-old female who underwent arthrodesis between the occiput and C3 using a hook-and-rod system and also a double-door laminoplasty from levels C3 to C7. The claw mechanism was applied between the C2 lamina and the C3 inferior articular process. The posterior atlantoaxial subluxation was completely reduced by the method that the rod gradually pushed the posterior arch of C1 anteriorly during connection to the occiput. Twelve months after surgery, the patient showed improvement in preoperative clumsiness and gait disturbance, and the latest plain radiographs showed solid osseous fusion, with no loss of correction or instrumentation failure.

Hirabayashi, Shigeru; Yamada, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Yousuke; Sekiya, Shigeki; Sakai, Hiroya

2007-01-01

343

Cervical myelopathy caused by soft-tissue mass in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis  

PubMed Central

A rare case of cervical spinal cord compression in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH or Forestier’s Disease) caused by a craniocervical mass of soft-tissue is reported. The objective is to describe an uncommon mechanism of spinal cord compression in DISH. Three weeks after a cardiac infarction a 69-year-old man slowly developed spastic tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance tomography showed a craniocervical tumor compressing the spinal cord and a massive DISH of the cervical spine. An extended mass of yellowish amorphous material was removed from between the dura, the posterior odontoid process and the posterior aspect of vertebral body C2 reaching to the upper part of C3.The histologic appearance indicated connective tissue and cell-degenerated cartilaginous tissue. There was no inflammatory component and no evidence of neoplasia. No ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was found. After removal and craniocervical stabilization the patient’s neurologic function improved remarkably. The increase of mechanical stress on the atlantoaxial segment and enhanced proliferation reaction of the connective tissue in DISH are suggested as the underlying pathomechanisms in the formation of this soft-tissue mass.

Hubbe, Ulrich; Glocker, Franz Xaver

2007-01-01

344

Posterior atlantoaxial subluxation due to os odontoideum combined with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a case report.  

PubMed

In patients with os odontoideum and posterior atlantoaxial subluxation are extremely rare. No reports have described posterior atlantoaxial subluxation associated with os odontoideum combined with cervical spondylotic canal stenosis, both of which require surgical treatment. We report one case of a 75-year-old female who underwent arthrodesis between the occiput and C3 using a hook-and-rod system and also a double-door laminoplasty from levels C3 to C7. The claw mechanism was applied between the C2 lamina and the C3 inferior articular process. The posterior atlantoaxial subluxation was completely reduced by the method that the rod gradually pushed the posterior arch of C1 anteriorly during connection to the occiput. Twelve months after surgery, the patient showed improvement in preoperative clumsiness and gait disturbance, and the latest plain radiographs showed solid osseous fusion, with no loss of correction or instrumentation failure. PMID:18097691

Motosuneya, Takao; Hirabayashi, Shigeru; Yamada, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Yousuke; Sekiya, Shigeki; Sakai, Hiroya

2008-09-01

345

Sarcoidosis Presenting as “Corset-like” Myelopathy: A Description of Six Cases and Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcoidosis of the spinal cord is rare, even more so as the initial presentation of the disease. We describe six cases of\\u000a spinal cord sarcoidosis and delineate a distinguishing feature which may allow for a timely diagnosis. All patients were admitted\\u000a with complaints of a “corset-like” pressure in the lower chest and later developed cranial nerve palsies (two patients), parasthesias\\/paraparesis

Merav Lidar; Amir Dori; Yair Levy; Zvi Lidar; Joab Chapman; Pnina Langevitz

2010-01-01

346

Myelopathy and polyneuropathy caused by nitrous oxide toxicity: a case report.  

PubMed

A 19-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of progressive 4-limb numbness and gait imbalance. Physical examination revealed mild general muscular weakness, areflexia, and wide-based, ataxic, steppage gait. Sensory tests showed diminished superficial sensation below the level of the cervical-thoracic junction and a glove-and-stocking pattern of sensory loss at the 4 extremities. An initial magnetic resonance imaging examination of the cervical spine revealed an increased bilateral signal from the posterior and anterior columns on T(2)-weighted images. Nerve conduction velocity and electromyographic tests revealed polyneuropathy. On further inquiry, the patient admitted to chronic recreational use of nitrous oxide. The final diagnosis was nitrous oxide-induced neurotoxicity. The patient was treated for 5 days with injections of 1000 ?g/day vitamin B(12), followed by an additional 2-month treatment at a dose of 1000 ?g/week. The numbness resolved after the first week, but there remained a mild sensory ataxic gait. The patient recovered fully after 2 months of treatment and nitrous oxide abstinence. We recommend an investigation of the patient's history of nitrous oxide exposure in cases where an individual presents to the emergency department or outpatient department with acute numbness characterized by megaloblastic red blood cells and symmetric neurologic deficits. PMID:22169583

Hsu, Chih-Kang; Chen, Yue-Quen; Lung, Vei-Zen; His, Sheng-Chuan; Lo, Huan-Chu; Shyu, Hann-Yeh

2012-07-01

347

Sprengel deformity and Klippel-Feil syndrome leading to cervical myelopathy presentation in old age  

PubMed Central

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the congenital fusion of two of the seventh cervical vertebrae. A 50-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of neck pain and ataxia for 1 year. She had not urinary incontinence. She was referred to a neurosurgeon by a neurologist because of her progressive gait ataxia. Risk for brachial plexus injury because of compression or stretching by the clavicle accelerate with age. Therefore, the surgical approach of adults’ patients with Sprengel's deformity can intend suitable surgical conclusions.

Mirhosseini, Seyyed Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Bidaki, Reza; Boshrabadi, Ahmad Pourrashidi

2013-01-01

348

Neuronal vacuolation, myelopathy and laryngeal neuropathy in a mixed-breed dog.  

PubMed

A bilateral and symmetrical neuronal vacuolation associated with spinal cord white matter degeneration and laryngeal neuropathy was observed in a 12-week-old male mixed-breed dog with a history of progressive pelvic limbs ataxia. On clinical examination, signs included inspiratory stridor, spinal ataxia, tetraparesis, and proprioceptive deficits more severe in the pelvic limbs. Examination of the larynx showed bilateral laryngeal paralysis and electromyography revealed fibrillation potentials restricted to the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Clinical and pathological findings resembled the syndrome of neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration described in Rottweiler dogs. This is the first report of a similar disorder in a dog different from Rottweiler. PMID:17877588

Salvadori, C; Tartarelli, C L; Baroni, M; Arispici, M; Cantile, C

2007-10-01

349

The Significance of Removing Ruptured Intervertebral Discs for Interbody Fusion in Treating Thoracic or Lumbar Type B and C Spinal Injuries through a One-Stage Posterior Approach  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the negative effect on treatment results of reserving damaged intervertebral discs when treating type B and type C spinal fracture-dislocations through a one-stage posterior approach. Methods This is a retrospective review of 53 consecutive patients who were treated in our spine surgery center from January 2005 to May 2012 due to severe thoracolumbar spinal fracture-dislocation. The patients in Group A (24 patients) underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression. In Group B (29 patients), the patients underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression evacuating of the ruptured disc and inserting of a bone graft into the evacuated disc space for interbody fusion. The mean time between injury and operation was 4.1 days (range 2–15 days). The clinical, radiologic and complication outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results Periodic follow-ups were carried out until an affirmative union or treatment failure took place. A progressive kyphosis angle larger than 10°, loss of disc height, pseudoarthrosis, recurrence of dislocation or subluxation, or instrument failure before fusion were considered treatment failures. Treatment failures were detected in 13 cases in Group A (failure rate was 54.2%). In Group B, there were 28 cases in which definitive bone fusion was demonstrated on CT scans, and CT scans of the other cases demonstrated undefined pseudoarthrosis without hardware failure. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (p<0.001 chi-square test). The neurologic recoveries, assessed by the ASIA scoring system, were not satisfactory for the neural deficit patients in either group, indicating there was no significant difference with regard to neurologic recovery between the two groups (p>0.05 Fisher's exact test). Conclusion Intervertebral disc damage is a common characteristic in type B and C spinal fracture-dislocation injuries. The damaged intervertebral disc should be removed and substituted with a bone graft because reserving the damaged disc in situ increases the risk of treatment failure.

Zhang, Qian-Shi; Lu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Li, Jing

2014-01-01

350

Cervical chondroid chordoma in a standard dachshund: a case report.  

PubMed

A ten-year-old male standard dachshund was presented with a history of neck pain and progressive gait disturbances. Following a neurological examination and diagnostic imaging, including CT, a neoplastic lesion involving the third and fourth cervical vertebrae was suspected. The lesion included an extradural mass on the right side of the spinal canal causing a local compression of the cervical cord. Surgery, using a modified dorsal laminectomy procedure, was performed in order to decompress the cervical spinal cord. Histopathological examination of the extradural mass indicated that the tumour was a chondroid chordoma. Following discharge, the quality of life for the dog was very good for a sustained period, but clinical signs recurred at 22 months. The dog was euthanased 25 months post-surgery. On post-mortem examination, a regrowth of neoplastic tissue was found to have infiltrated the bone and spinal cord at C3-C4. This is the first report to show that palliative surgery can offer successful long-lasting treatment of chondroid chordoma of the cervical spine in the dog. PMID:22017812

Stigen, Øyvind; Ottesen, Nina; Gamlem, Hans; Åkesson, Caroline P

2011-01-01

351

Pneumomediastinum, Subcutaneous Emphysema, and Tracheal Tear in the Early Postoperative Period of Spinal Surgery in a Paraplegic Achondroplastic Dwarf  

PubMed Central

Achondroplasia was first described in 1878 and is the most common form of human skeletal dysplasia. Spinal manifestations include thoracolumbar kyphosis, foramen magnum, and spinal stenosis. Progressive kyphosis can result in spinal cord compression and paraplegia due to the reduced size of spinal canal. The deficits are typically progressive, presenting as an insidious onset of paresthesia, followed by the inability to walk and then by urinary incontinence. Paraplegia can be the result of direct pressure on the cord by bone or the injury to the anterior spinal vessels by a protruding bone. Surgical treatment consists of posterior instrumentation, fusion with total wide laminectomy at stenosis levels, and anterior interbody support. Pedicle screws are preferred for spinal instrumentation because wires and hooks may induce spinal cord injury due to the narrow spinal canal. Pedicle lengths are significantly shorter, and 20–25?mm long screws are appropriate for lower thoracic and lumbar pedicles in adult achondroplastic There is no information about the appropriate length of screws for the upper thoracic pedicles. Tracheal injury due to inappropriate pedicle screw length is a rare complication. We report an extremely rare case of tracheal tear due to posterior instrumentation and its management in the early postoperative period.

Kahraman, Sinan; Enercan, Meric; Demirhan, Ozkan; Sengul, Turker; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

2013-01-01

352

Eosinophilia and bone lesion as clinical manifestations of aggressive systemic mastocytosis.  

PubMed

We report a patient with aggressive systemic mastocytosis (SM), who exhibited eosinophilia and unusual destructive bone lesions. A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital because of a vertebral compression fracture, multiple lytic bone lesions, and eosinophilia in February 2011. A diagnosis of aggressive SM was made on the basis of abnormal mast cells in the bone marrow, high serum tryptase levels, and multiple lytic bone lesions including vertebral compression fractures. Polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing of its products to identify mutations of c-kit yielded negative results and imatinib mesylate failed to improve the SM of the patient. She was then treated with interferon-?, with considerable improvement of the disease, although severe myelosuppression prevented the continued administration of a sufficient dose of this agent. In August 2011, the patient suddenly developed paraplegia of the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated epidural mass lesions at the levels from Th9 to Th11, compressing the spinal cord. Emergent laminectomy and subsequent irradiation of the tumors were performed without improvement of the paraplegia. Histopathologic examination of the epidural tumors, from samples obtained intraoperatively, confirmed the diagnosis of SM. She was further treated with dasatinib and then cladribine without obvious improvement, although the latter reduced the eosinophilia to some extent ; however, she died of sepsis in September 2011. PMID:24369222

Sakane-Ishikawa, Emiko; Kodaka, Taiichi; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Itoh, Kiminari; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Kusama, Toshiyuki; Imaizumi, Kisako; Taketomi, Masanori; Sada, Akiko; Katayama, Yoshio; Itoh, Tomoo; Takahashi, Takayuki

2013-01-01

353

Intradural extramedullary primary hydatid cyst of the spine: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Primary intradural extramedullary hydatid cyst is a rare form of parasitic infection, causing focal neurological signs, commonly observed in sheep-raising areas of the world. We report a rare case of intradural, extramedullary spinal cyst, which we had misdiagnosis in the first surgery, because of rarity of the case. A 55-year-old man presented to our hospital in August 2008. He was admitted to our clinic because of lumbar pain of increasing severity and progressive difficulty with walking and stiffness of both lower limbs, which had lasted for 1 month. On the basis of imaging results, arachnoid cyst of the lumbar spine was diagnosed. Due to rapid progression of the patient's symptoms toward spastic paraplegia, he underwent an emergency surgical decompression procedure. The patient underwent exploratory surgery using a posterior approach. A L1-L2 laminectomy was performed. After opening the dura, an intradural extramedullary cystic mass was determined. The surgical specimen measured 6 × 2 cm and was described as a whitish, pearl-like, semitranslucent, cystic material, which was thought to be parasitic. Surgery has to be followed by albendazole therapy. PMID:22706667

Lotfinia, Iraj; Sayyahmelli, Sima; Mahdkhah, Ata; Shoja, M M

2013-05-01

354

Nonsurgical and surgical management of lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

The symptoms associated with lumbar spinal stenosis can decrease quality of life and may cause patients to seek treatment. Except in rare cases of rapid neurologic progression or cauda equina syndrome, nonsurgical modalities should be the initial treatment choice. Activity modification, a variety of medications, epidural steroid injections, and other methods are recommended for pain reduction. A formal physical therapy program, which focuses on flexion-based exercises, may lead to improved patientfunction. Surgery is indicated in patients who remain symptomatic despite a course of nonsurgical therapy and who have advanced imaging studies that correspond to existing .symptoms. Adequate decompression of the neural elements and maintenance of bony stability are necessary for a good surgical outcome for patients with spinal stenosis. Laminectomy has long been the method of choice for thorough lumbar decompression. Preserving at least the lateral half of the facet joints bilaterally and bone in the area of the pars interarticularis minimizes the potential for iatrogenic instability. Numerous other decompression techniques have been described, including multilevel laminotomies, fenestration, distraction laminoplasty, and microscopic decompression. Arthrodesis, either with or without instrumentation, is also indicated in some patients. Several studies report that surgical treatment produces better outcomes than nonsurgical treatment in the short term; however, the results tend to deteriorate with time. Lumbar decompressive surgery can be complicated by epidural hematoma, deep venous thrombosis, dural tear, infection, nerve root injury, and recurrence of symptoms. PMID:15948458

Yuan, Philip S; Booth, Robert E; Albert, Todd J

2005-01-01

355

Quality of life before and after microsurgical decompression in lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Twenty consecutive patients (10 men and 10 women; median age, 68 years) with lumbar spinal stenosis were studied before and after microsurgical decompression without laminectomy. Fourteen of the patients had pure stenosis symptoms, whereas six had intercurrent diseases that could exacerbate the symptoms of stenosis. The mean duration of symptoms was 4.5 years (range, 1 to 15 years). All patients were interviewed before operation, and an assessment form based on and modified from the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire was completed. The ability to perform physical activities including house work, gardening, going to the post office, and so forth was markedly reduced before operation for nearly all patients, and social life such as traveling, meeting friends, and participating in hobbies was similarly restricted. Sleeping was also greatly affected before operation, as were psychological parameters including irritability, depression, infirmity, energy, patience, and concentration. At follow-up 2.8 years after surgery, 13 of the 14 patients with pure stenosis evaluated their quality of life as much improved and principally normal. Among the patients with intercurrent diseases, only two of six judged the quality of their lives as much improved. PMID:10872762

Schillberg, B; Nyström, B

2000-06-01

356

Coma from wall suction-induced CSF leak complicating spinal surgery.  

PubMed

A 72-year-old woman was admitted for elective L4/L5 laminectomy. The operative procedure was extradural, and a Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain was placed in the tissue bed and set to wall suction during skin closure. During closure, the patient developed a 15 s period of asystole. The patient was haemodynamically stable, but was comatose for 3 days postoperatively. Cardiac enzymes and EEG were unrevealing. Head CT showed traces of subarachnoid haemorrhage and signs suggestive of cerebral anoxia. JP drain at the incision produced 170-210 mL/day of fluid, positive for ?-2 transferrin, indicating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient fully returned to baseline on hospital day 10. MRI on hospital day 8 normalised. The reversible coma and radiographic findings were most consistent with acute intracranial hypotension relating to acute loss of CSF. Because radiographic findings can mimic hypoxic-ischaemic injury, acute intracranial hypotension should be considered in the differential diagnosis of postoperative coma after cranial or spinal surgery. PMID:24623547

Fehnel, Corey R; Razmara, Ali; Feske, Steven K

2014-01-01

357

[Tethered spinal cord syndrome: report of 2 cases].  

PubMed

The tethered spinal cord syndrome is a disease that is part of the group of spinal dysraphisms, that was recently recognized as an individualized nosological entity, yet not frequently diagnosed among us. It is characterized by shortening and thickening of the filum terminale which prevents the ascent of the spinal cord into spinal canal, the conus medularis abnormally remaining in a low place. It is associated in all cases with spina bifida. The diagnosis is simple, once the disease is suspected. It is manifested by progressive motor or sensory deficit in the legs, urinary incontinence, scoliosis and leg or back pain, specially in young children. The plain lumbosacral RX always shows spina bifida. Myelography makes the diagnostic. It shows, basically, the negative image of the thickened filum terminale and the low placed conus medularis. Other exams which can help are the computerized tomography and the ultra-sound of the spinal cord. The surgical treatment is very simple and heals without sequels if done in due time. It consists in a sectioning of the filum terminale through laminectomy. Two cases diagnosed and treated at Hospital da Baleia, from Fundação Benjamin Guimarãcs, Belo Horizonte, are reported in this paper. PMID:3541862

Machado, M A; Lemos, S; De Morais, J V

1986-06-01

358

Spinal compression due to atlantal vertebral malformation in two African lions (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

Two young (14-mo-old and 6-mo-old), unrelated, male African lions (Panthera leo) were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospitals of Oklahoma State University and Kansas State University with progressive ambulatory difficulty. In both cases, limited neurologic evaluation demonstrated pelvic limb paresis and ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits. Spinal imaging showed nearly identical lesions in both cases. Radiography and myelography demonstrated cervical stenosis secondary to atlantal (C1) malformation producing a dorsoventral deformity of the laminar arch with atlantoaxial spinal cord compression between the ventrally displaced laminar arch of the atlas and the underlying odontoid process of C2. Computed tomography of the atlanto-axial junction confirmed cervical stenosis and cord compression, showing flattening of the spinal cord between the laminar arch of C1 and the dens of C2. Decompressive surgery consisting of dorsal laminectomy of C1 was performed. Each lion demonstrated progressive improvement of neurologic status to recovery of normal ambulation after surgical intervention. Neurologic disease in large captive felids is rare; atlanto-axial spondylomyelopathy has not been reported previously. PMID:12462492

Galloway, David S; Coke, Rob L; Rochat, Mark C; Radinsky, Mary Anne G; Hoover, John P; Carpenter, James W; Hubbard, Jennifer J; Ketz-Riley, Cornelia J

2002-09-01

359

Therapy of Acute and Delayed Spinal Infections after Spinal Surgery Treated with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Adult Patients  

PubMed Central

We present the results of the treatment of infected primary or delayed spine wounds after spinal surgery using negative pressure wound therapy. In our institution (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland) nine patients (three women and six men; mean age 68.6, range 43-87 years) were treated in the period between January to December 2011 for non-healing spinal wounds. The treatment consisted of repeated debridements, irrigation and temporary closure with negative pressure wound therapy system. Three patients were admitted with a spinal epidural abscess; two with osteoporotic lumbar fracture; two with pathologic vertebra fracture and spinal cord compression, and two with vertebra fracture after trauma. All nine patients have been treated with antibiotic therapy. In one case the hardware has been removed, in three patients laminectomy was performed without instrumentation, in five patients there was no need to remove the hardware. The average hospital stay was 16.6 days (range 11-30). The average follow-up was 3.8, range 0.5-14 months. The average number of negative pressure wound therapy procedures was three, with the range 1-11. Our retrospective study focuses on the clinical problems faced by the spinal surgeon, clinical outcomes after spinal surgery followed by wound infection, and negative pressure wound therapy. Moreover, we would like to emphasize the importance for the patients and their relatives to be fully informed about the increased complications of surgery and about the limitations of treatment of these wounds with negative pressure wound therapy.

Zwolak, Pawel; Konig, Matthias Alexander; Osterhoff, Georg; Wilzeck, Verena; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Jukema, Gerrolt Nico

2013-01-01

360

Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in a 22-Month-Old Child in Arizona: First Report in the United States and a Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

A 22-month-old girl presented with neck pain and stiffness and magnetic resonance imaging showed an extradural mass extending from C2 through the C4 level with moderate to severe compression of the cord. A left unilateral C2–C4 laminectomy was performed revealing an extradural rubbery tumor; a small biopsy was obtained. Examination of stained tissue revealed the presence of a parasitic worm that was identified as a gravid female Onchocerca lupi. A magnetic resonance imaging at 7 weeks follow-up showed a significantly decreased size of the enhancing lesion and the patient's symptoms gradually resolved. This is the first report of zoonotic O. lupi in the United States. The parasite has been reported in dogs and cats in the western United States, and from people in four cases reported from Europe. A great deal more needs to be learned, including full host range and geographic distribution, before we fully understand O. lupi infections in animals and man.

Eberhard, Mark L.; Ostovar, Gholamabbas Amin; Chundu, Kote; Hobohm, Dan; Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Mathison, Blaine A.; Bishop, Henry S.; Cantey, Paul T.

2013-01-01

361

Post-surgical thoracic pseudomeningocele causing spinal cord compression.  

PubMed

Pseudomeningoceles are extradural cerebrospinal fluid collections categorized into three groups: traumatic, congenital, and iatrogenic. Iatrogenic pseudomeningoceles occur after durotomy, usually after cervical or lumbar spine surgery. Although many remain asymptomatic, pseudomeningoceles can compress or herniate the spinal cord and nerve roots. We present a 57-year-old woman who had a thoracic laminectomy and discectomy. Two weeks after surgery, she presented with lower extremity weakness and gait difficulty. Physical examination revealed hyperreflexia and a T11 sensory level. MRI revealed a pseudomeningocele compressing the thoracic spinal cord. The patient underwent surgical drainage of the cyst. On follow-up, she had complete resolution of her symptoms, and MRI did not show a residual lesion. To our knowledge, this is the second documented post-operative pseudomeningocele causing symptomatic spinal cord compression of the thoracic spine. In this article, a review of the literature is presented, including four reported patients with post-traumatic pseudomeningocele causing myelopathic symptoms and 20 patients with iatrogenic pseudomeningocele that resulted in neurological decline due to herniation or compression of neural tissue. Treatment options for these lesions include conservative management, epidural blood patch, lumbar subarachnoid drainage, and lumbo-peritoneal shunt placement. Surgical repair, usually by primary dural closure, remains the definitive treatment modality for iatrogenic symptomatic pseudomeningoceles. PMID:24210805

Macki, Mohamed; Lo, Sheng-fu L; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

2014-03-01

362

Effects of Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, on improvement of Locomotor Function in Rat Spinal Cord Injury Based on Epigenetic Science  

PubMed Central

Background: The primary phase of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) starts by a complex local inflammatory reaction such as secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from microglia and injured cells that substantially contribute to exacerbating pathogenic events in secondary phase. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Acetylation of histones is critical to cellular inflammatory and repair processes. Methods: In this study, rats were randomly assigned to five experimental groups (laminectomy, untreated, and three VPA-treated groups). For SCI, severe contusion was used. In treated groups, VPA was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg daily three hours after injury for 7 days. To compare locomotor improvement among experimental groups, behavioral assessments were performed by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale. The expression of neurotrophins was evaluated by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Results: VPA administration increased regional brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels. Local inflammation and the expression of the lysosomal marker ED1 by activated macrophages/microglial cells were reduced by VPA and immunoreactivity of acetylated histone and microtubule-associated protein were increased. Conclusion: The results showed a reduction in the development of secondary damage in rat spinal cord trauma with an improvement in the open field test (BBB scale) with rapid recovery.

Abdanipour, Alireza; Schluesener, Hermann J.; Tiraihi, Taki

2012-01-01

363

Screw driver: an unusual cause of cervical spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Non-missile penetrating spinal injuries are rare. Screw driver injury, more especially to the cervical spine, represents an even rarer subset. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case from West Africa of cervical spinal cord injury from a screw driver. A middle-aged man was stabbed from the back with a screw driver. He presented with right-sided C4 Brown-Sequard syndrome with the impaling object in situ. Cervical spine x-rays showed the screw driver to have gone into the spine between the spinous processes of C4 and C5, traversing the spinal canal and lodged in the anterior part of the C4/5 intervertebral disc space. C4 and C5 laminectomies were performed and the screw driver removed under vision. The object was found to have traversed the right side of the cervical spinal cord. The dural tear was repaired. He had some neurologic improvement initially, but later declined. He died from severe pulmonary complications 2 weeks postinjury. Screw driver represents an unusual cause of non-missile penetrating cervical spinal injury. Its neurological effects and complications of the cord injury lead to significant morbidity and mortality.

Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Aremu, Abayomi Adeniran; Amao, Olusegun Adetunji; Awoleke, Jacob Olumuyiwa

2011-01-01

364

Image-guided facet joint injection  

PubMed Central

Chronic spine pain poses a peculiar diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to multiple pain sources, overlapping clinical features and nonspecific radiological findings. Facet joint injection is an interventional pain management tool for facet-related spinal pain that can be effectively administered by a radiologist. This technique is the gold standard for identifying facet joints as the source of spinal pain. The major indications for facet injections include strong clinical suspicion of the facet syndrome, focal tenderness over the facet joints, low back pain with normal radiological findings, post-laminectomy syndrome with no evidence of arachnoiditis or recurrent disc disease, and persistent low back pain after spinal fusion. The contraindications are more ancillary, with none being absolute. Like any synovial joint degeneration, inflammation and injury can lead to pain on motion, initiating a vicious cycle of physical deconditioning, irritation of facet innervations and muscle spasm. Image-guided injection of local anesthetic and steroid into or around the facet joint aims to break this vicious cycle and thereby provide pain relief. This outpatient procedure has high diagnostic accuracy, safety and reproducibility but the therapeutic outcome is variable.

Peh, WCG

2011-01-01

365

Extreme lateral transcondylar approach to the skull base.  

PubMed

In this study, the authors present their experience of using extreme later transcondylar approach (ELTC) for treating 7 patients with lesions in the anterolateral foramen magnum, upper cervical spine and cerebellopontine angle reaching upto jugular foramen. The tumours included meningiomas, neurofibromas (2 cases each), chondrosarcoma, epidermoid and aneurysmal bone cyst (one case each). The approach was used alone, in combination with retrolabyrinthine presigmoid approach in a patient with lower cranial nerve neurofibroma extending extracranially through the jugular foramen, or in combination with partial C1-C3 laminectomy in two patients with meningiomas situated anterolateral to the cord from the foramen magnum to C3. In two patients with extradural vertebral artery (VA) entrapment by a chondrosarcoma and aneurysmal bone cyst respectively, the vertebral artery was ligated distal to the tumour. The tumours were totally excised in five cases and partially in two. There was no preoperative mortality. The major complications included cerebrospinal fluid leak from the wound (3 cases) and increase in lower cranial nerve paresis (2 cases). At follow up, ranging from 6 months to 2 years, 5 patients showed no tumour recurrence. There was improvement in neurological status. One patient, with a partially excised aneurysmal bone cyst, showed no added deficits or increase in the tumour size. However, there was a massive regrowth in the patient with chondrosarcoma after 6 months. This technique provided a wide surgical exposure with direct visualization of the tumour-anterior cord interface, early proximal control of the VA and preservation of lower cranial nerves. PMID:10339704

Banerji, D; Behari, S; Jain, V K; Pandey, T; Chhabra, D K

1999-03-01

366

The Retrospective Analysis of Posterior Short-Segment Pedicle Instrumentation without Fusion for Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture with Neurological Deficit  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the efficacy of posterior short-segment pedicle instrumentation without fusion in curing thoracolumbar burst fracture. All of the 53 patients were treated with short-segment pedicle instrumentation and laminectomy without fusion, and the restoration of retropulsed bone fragments was conducted by a novel custom-designed repositor (RRBF). The mean operation time and blood loss during surgery were analyzed; the radiological index and neurological status were compared before and after the operation. The mean operation time was 93?min (range: 62–110?min) and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 452?mL in all cases. The average canal encroachment was 50.04% and 10.92% prior to the surgery and at last followup, respectively (P < 0.01). The preoperative kyphotic angle was 17.2 degree (±6.87 degrees), whereas it decreased to 8.42 degree (±4.99 degrees) at last followup (P < 0.01). Besides, the mean vertebral body height increased from 40.15% (±9.40%) before surgery to 72.34% (±12.32%) at last followup (P < 0.01). 45 patients showed 1-2 grades improvement in Frankel's scale at last followup. This technique allows for satisfactory canal clearance and restoration of vertebral body height and kyphotic angle, and it may promote the recovery of neurological function. However, further research is still necessary to confirm the efficacy of this treatment.

Zou, Hui; Ping, Ansong; Wang, Yongzhi; Ai, Qiyong

2014-01-01

367

[Surgery of lumbar disk hernia: historical perspective].  

PubMed

Although the clinical picture of discogenic sciatica is well known already in the ancient world, it is not until 1933 that WJ Mixter and JS Barr provide the correct pathogenetic interpretation and suggest surgery as the treatment of choice. The work of the American Authors was however based on the knowledge acquired during the previous centuries starting with Domenico Cotugno, who first suggested the neurogenic nature of sciatica (1764) and later with the neurologists of the french school Valleix, Lasègue, Dejerine, Sicard who elucidated the semeiology and debated in detail the etiopathogenesis of the condition. The german pathologists Schmorl and Andrae (1927-29) are to be credited for their contribution to the pathology of intervertebral disc, recognizing the frequency and degenerative (not neoplastic) nature of nucleus pulposus herniation. Surgery of disc herniation starts with Oppenheim and Krause (1909). Mixter and Barr used laminectomy and a transdural route although a more limited approach to the spinal canal had already been proposed by the italian Bonomo (1902), unknown to many. Love, of the Mayo Clinic (1937-39) introduced the extradural/interlaminar approach while Caspar and Yasargil (1977) applied the concepts of microsurgery to the procedure. The latest advances are represented by percutaneous and endoscopic techniques. PMID:9835099

Brunori, A; De Caro, G M; Giuffrè, R

1998-01-01

368

Interspinous distractor devices for the management of lumbar spinal stenosis: a miracle cure for a common problem?  

PubMed

Neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis is the commonest cause of back and leg pain in the elderly. It consumes large amounts of healthcare resource and is a common reason for GP consultations. Surgical management by decompressive laminectomy is the traditional method used for those patients in whom conservative management has failed. However, the advent of minimally invasive interspinous distraction devices, which are designed to alleviate symptoms of neurogenic intermittent claudication without subjecting the patient to a major operation, has potentially revolutionised the management of lumbar spinal stenosis. This review describes the principles of interspinous distraction devices, the rationale for their use in the management of lumbar spinal stenosis, indications and predictors of outcome. Published data on the safety and efficacy of the various devices available is encouraging but long term results are awaited. The superiority of interspinous distraction devices over conservative treatment has already been established, however, the precise indication for this new technology and whether the implants can replace conventional decompressive surgery in some situations has not been clearly defined. PMID:22582741

Borg, Anouk; Nurboja, Besnik; Timothy, Jake; Choi, David

2012-08-01

369

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine--pathological considerations and surgical strategy.  

PubMed

Symptomatic lumbar synovial cysts (LSCs) are a rare cause of degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal, with thecal sac or nerve root compression. True synovial cysts have a thick wall lined by synovial cells, containing granulation tissue, numerous histiocytes, and giant cells. In contrast, pseudo-cysts lack specialized epithelium, have a collagenous capsule filled with myxoid material, and may be classified into ganglion cysts, originating from periarticular fibrous tissues, and ligamentous cysts, arising from the ligamentum flavum or even from the posterior longitudinal ligament. Here we present the surgical series of the Chair of Neurosurgery at the University of Cagliari (Italy) including a total of 17 LSCs. Surgical technique consisted of facet sparing excision of LSC, achieved by simple hemilaminectomy/laminectomy, and diagnosis was always confirmed by histological specimen examination, which detected the typical synovial epithelium, the intracystic presence of hemosiderin, histiocytes, and calcifications. Further immunohistochemical investigation revealed positive staining for cytokeratin: CK5, CK6, and AE1/AE3. Clinically, our cohort experienced rapid and complete resolution of symptoms, without perioperative complications, or recurrence of cysts or vertebral instability at a median follow up of 28 months, when the MacNab score was generally excellent. A review of the literature, retrieving articles published from 1973, collected a total of 101 articles concerning all the cases of LSC scientifically described to date. Both clinical and histological findings described in our study support the theory of degenerative microtraumatic pathogenesis of synovial cysts. PMID:23438660

Ganau, Mario; Ennas, Franco; Bellisano, Giulia; Ganau, Laura; Ambu, Rossano; Faa, Gavino; Maleci, Alberto

2013-01-01

370

An In Vitro Protocol for Recording From Spinal Motoneurons of Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

In vitro slice preparations of CNS tissue are invaluable for studying neuronal function. However, up to now, slice protocols for adult mammal spinal motoneurons—the final common pathway for motor behaviors—have been available for only limited portions of the spinal cord. In most cases, these preparations have not been productive due to the poor viability of motoneurons in vitro. This report describes and validates a new slice protocol that for the first time provides reliable intracellular recordings from lumbar motoneurons of adult rats. The key features of this protocol are: preexposure to 100% oxygen; laminectomy prior to perfusion; anesthesia with ketamine/xylazine; embedding the spinal cord in agar prior to slicing; and, most important, brief incubation of spinal cord slices in a 30% solution of polyethylene glycol to promote resealing of the many motoneuron dendrites cut during sectioning. Together, these new features produce successful recordings in 76% of the experiments and an average action potential amplitude of 76 mV. Motoneuron properties measured in this new slice preparation (i.e., voltage and current thresholds for action potential initiation, input resistance, afterhyperpolarization size and duration, and onset and offset firing rates during current ramps) are comparable to those recorded in vivo. Given the mechanical stability and precise control over the extracellular environment afforded by an in vitro preparation, this new protocol can greatly facilitate electrophysiological and pharmacological study of these uniquely important neurons and other delicate neuronal populations in adult mammals.

Carp, Jonathan S.; Tennissen, Ann M.; Mongeluzi, Donna L.; Dudek, Christopher J.; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

2008-01-01

371

In vivo microdialysis of glutamate in ventroposterolateral nucleus of thalamus following electrolytic lesion of spinothalamic tract in rats.  

PubMed

Central pain is one of the most important complications after spinal cord injury (SCI), and thereby, its treatment raises many challenges. After SCI, in a cascade of molecular events, a marked increase in glutamate at the injury site results in secondary changes which may impact on supraspinal regions, mainly ventroposterolateral (VPL). There is little information about the changes in glutamate metabolism in the VPL and whether it contributes to SCI-related central pain. The present study was performed to evaluate glutamate release in the VPL following electrolytic lesion of spinothalamic tract (STT). A laminectomy was performed at spinal segments of T9-T10 in male rats, and then, unilateral electrolytic lesions were made in the STT. Glutamate concentrations in ipsilateral VPL dialysate were measured by HPLC method at days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-injury. Tactile pain and motor activity were also examined. Glutamate levels were significantly increased in ipsilateral VPL of spinal-cord-injured rats 2 weeks after SCI and remained high up to day 28 post-surgery. The STT lesions had no marked effect on our measures of motor activity, but there was a significant decrease in paw withdrawal threshold in the hind paws at day 14 post-SCI. These findings suggest that an increased release of glutamate in VPL plays a role in secondary pathologic changes, leading to neuronal hyperexcitation and neuropathic pain after SCI. PMID:24186197

Ghanbari, A; Asgari, A R; Kaka, G R; Falahatpishe, H R; Naderi, A; Jorjani, M

2014-02-01

372

A Comparison of the Clinical Outcomes of Decompression Alone and Fusion in Elderly Patients with Two-Level or More Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective We compared the results of two surgical techniques by retrospective study of 60 elderly patients (65 years or older) who underwent either decompression alone or fusion for the treatment of two-level or more lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods During the period of 2003 and 2008, two-level or more decompression alone or fusion was performed for lumbar spinal stenosis by three surgeons at our institution. Patients were allocated to two groups by surgical modality, namely, to a decompression group (31 patients) or a fusion group (29 patients). Overall mean age was 71.1 years (range, 65-84) and mean follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 3-9). A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and surgical data was conducted. Results No significant difference between the two groups was found with respect to age, follow-up period, surgical levels, or preoperative condition. At the last follow-up, correction of lumbar lordotic angle (determined radiologically) was better in the fusion group. However, clinical outcomes including visual analogue scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and the Odom's criteria were not significantly different in the two groups. On the other hand, surgical outcomes, such as, operation time, estimated blood loss, and surgical complications were significantly better in the decompression alone group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that decompressive laminectomy alone achieves good outcomes in patients with two-level or more lumbar spinal stenosis, associated with an advanced age, poor general condition, or osteoporosis.

Son, Seong; Lee, Sang Gu; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Keun

2013-01-01

373

Computer tomography assessment of pedicle screw placement in lumbar and sacral spine: comparison between free-hand and O-arm based navigation techniques.  

PubMed

Transpedicular screw fixation has been accepted worldwide since Harrington et al. first placed pedicle screws through the isthmus. In vivo and in vitro studies indicated that pedicle screw insertion accuracy could be significantly improved with image-assisted systems compared with conventional approaches. The O-arm is a new generation intraoperative imaging system designed without compromise to address the needs of a modern OR like no other system currently available. The aim of our study was to check the accuracy of O-arm based and S7-navigated pedicle screw implants in comparison to free-hand technique described by Roy-Camille at the lumbar and sacral spine using CT scans. The material of this study was divided into two groups, free-hand group (group I) (30 patients; 152 screws) and O-arm group (37 patients; 187 screws). The patients were operated upon from January to September 2009. Screw implantation was performed during PLIF or TLIF mainly for spondylolisthesis, osteochondritis and post-laminectomy syndrome. The accuracy rate in our work was 94.1% in the free-hand group compared to 99% in the O-arm navigated group. Thus it was concluded that free-hand technique will only be safe and accurate when it is in the hands of an experienced surgeon and the accuracy of screw placement with O-arm can reach 100%. PMID:21253780

Silbermann, J; Riese, F; Allam, Y; Reichert, T; Koeppert, H; Gutberlet, M

2011-06-01

374

[Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of the thoracic spine. A case study and review of the literature].  

PubMed

Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of the thoracic spine is extremely rare and considered a benign disease. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman admitted to the emergency department for subacute paraplegia. The spinal X-ray showed a spontaneous fracture at the T4-T5 level. The CT scan revealed a tumor infiltration of the vertebral body responsible for lysis. Spinal MRI confirmed the neoplasia also located in the epidural space with spinal cord compression. The patient underwent an emergency laminectomy associated with transpedicular screw fixation between the T2 and T6 levels. At 2 months, she had evolved to a normal gait. In the second session, a transthoracic approach was used for a bone-graft-assisted fusion procedure to achieve long-term stabilization. At 4 years, the bone fusion was excellent and the patient was able to resume socioprofessional activities. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia is usually made histologically on surgical biopsy but MRI and CT scan sometimes provide a preliminary indication. Although a consensus for management of this disease has not been achieved, the authors recommend radical removal of all involved tissues accompanied by internal fixation and bone-graft-assisted fusion. PMID:19577779

Ould Slimane, M; Foulongne, E; Derrey, S; Fréger, P; Proust, F

2009-12-01

375

Arachnoid cyst resulting in tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia in a patient with achondroplasia. Case report.  

PubMed

Achondroplasia has been associated with varying degrees of cervicomedullary and spinal compression, although usually in the pediatric population. Large arachnoid cysts have also been found to result in tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia. The authors present the case of a patient with achondroplasia who presented with symptoms of foramen magnum compression and syringomyelia, and who was subsequently found to have a large posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. This 38-year-old woman with achondroplasia presented with an 8-month history of headache and numbness of the hands and fingers. Admission magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head and spine revealed a large arachnoid cyst in the posterior cranial fossa, a 6-mm tonsillar herniation consistent with an acquired Chiari malformation, and a large cervicothoracic syrinx. The patient was treated using suboccipital craniectomy, C-1 laminectomy, fenestration of the arachnoid cyst, and decompression of the acquired Chiari malformation with duraplasty. Surgical decompression resulted in improvement of the presenting symptoms, adequate decompression of crowding at the foramen magnum, and resolution of the syrinx. Although there was only partial reduction in the retrocerebellar cisternal space on follow-up MR imaging, no residual symptoms were related to this. PMID:16398464

Bauer, Andrew M; Mueller, Diane M; Oró, John J

2005-11-01

376

Syringo-Subarachnoid-Peritoneal Shunt Using T-Tube for Treatment of Post-Traumatic Syringomyelia  

PubMed Central

Various surgical procedures for the treatment of post-traumatic syringomyelia have been introduced recently, but most surgical strategies have been unreliable. We introduce the concept and technique of a new shunting procedure, syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt. A 54-year-old patient presented to our hospital with a progressive impairment of motion and position sense on the right side. Sixteen years before this admission, he had been treated by decompressive laminectomy for a burst fracture of L1. On his recent admission, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the whole spine revealed the presence of a huge syrinx extending from the medulla to the L1 vertebral level. We performed a syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt, including insertion of a T-tube into the syrinx, subarachnoid space and peritoneal cavity. Clinical manifestations and radiological findings improved after the operation. The syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt has several advantages. First, fluid can communicate freely between the syrinx, the subarachnoid space, and the peritoneal cavity. Secondly, we can prevent shunt catheter from migrating because dural anchoring of the T-tube is easy. Finally, we can perform shunt revision easily, because only one arm of the T-tube is inserted into the intraspinal syringx cavity. We think that this procedure is the most beneficial method among the various shunting procedures.

Kim, Seon-Hwan; Youm, Jin-Young; Kwon, Hyon-Jo

2012-01-01

377

[Chiari type 1 malformation and magnetic resonance imaging].  

PubMed

The Chiari type 1 malformation is common. Unlike the Chiari type 2 and 3 malformations, it may remain latent for a long time, becoming symptomatic only in adulthood. The introduction of MRI has resulted in an increased number of diagnoses of this malformation in pediatric patients. It appears to be related to underdevelopment of the posterior cranial fossa. It must be differentiated from acquired tonsillar herniation, particularly when herniation results from intracranial hypotension; these cases are sometimes reported as acquired Chiari I malformation with spontaneous resolution. Tonsillar ectopia may cause symptoms by its direct effect on any or all of the medulla and the cerebellar and upper spinal cord. The most suggestive of the oculomotor disturbances is oscillopsia with downbeat nystagmus. Dysphonia and dysphagia are common. Potentially serious autonomic disturbances are also frequent: sleep apnea, respiratory failure, syncope and even sudden death. Another risk is syrinx formation, resulting from obstruction of CSF circulation in the cisterna magna. Syringomyelia is detected in 32 to 74% of patients with Chiari I malformation. Treatment is surgical. Posterior fossa decompression is achieved by suboccipital craniectomy combined with laminectomy of the upper cervical segments. Surgical intervention is indicated when the malformation is symptomatic and there is no doubt that it is the cause of the symptoms. When a Chiari I malformation is identified fortuitously on MRI, long-term monitoring is essential. The risk of developing symptoms increases over time. Patients should be advised not to participate in contact sports. PMID:16327707

Masson, C; Colombani, J-M

2005-12-01

378

Anesthetic management during Cesarean section in a woman with residual Arnold-Chiari malformation Type I, cervical kyphosis, and syringomyelia  

PubMed Central

Background: Type I Arnold–Chiari malformation (ACM) has an adult onset and consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and the medulla through the foramen magnum. There is paucity of literature on the anesthetic management during pregnancy of residual ACM Type I, with cervical xyphosis and persistent syringomyelia. Case Description: A 34-year-old woman with surgically corrected ACM Type I presented for Cesarean delivery. A recent MRI demonstrated worsening of cervical xyphosis after several laminectomies and residual syringomyelia besides syringopleural shunt. Awake fiberoptic intubation was performed under generous topical anesthesia to minimize head and neck movement during endotracheal intubation. We used a multimodal general anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. The neck was maintained in a neutral position. Following delivery, the patient completely recovered in post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), with no headache and no exacerbation or worsening of neurological function. Conclusions: The present case demonstrates that patients with partially corrected ACM, syringomyelia, cervical kyphosis, and difficult intubation undergoing Cesarean delivery require an interdisciplinary team approach, diligent preparation, and skilled physicians.

Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Candido, Kenneth D.; Sauer, Ruben; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

2012-01-01

379

Microsurgical approach to lumbar synovial cysts. Technical notes.  

PubMed

Intraspinal extradural synovial cysts are quite common in the lumbar spine. With respect to clinical presentation and surgical treatment, juxta-facet cysts (ganglion and synovial cysts) share identical characteristics and results. Nowadays, current treatment strategies of intraspinal juxta-facet cysts continue to inspire controversy regarding appropriate surgical approaches, and include many technical options. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the advantage of minimally invasive approaches in 3 cases of lumbar synovial cysts. We performed a small flavectomy in the 1st case, a transarticular partial facectomy, followed by etherologous bone graft fusion in the 2nd case, and a flavectomy and partial facectomy in the 3rd case. In our cases, a microsurgical approach to lumbar synovial cysts yielded to complete excision of the lesions and excellent pain relief, with early mobilization and hospital discharge of the patients. In our opinion, minimally invasive approaches and microsurgical excision of lumbar juxta-facet cysts are advantageous over conventional lumbar laminectomy because they reduce later development of segmental instability at the operative level, and therefore a less invasive strategy for intraspinal synovial cysts removal should be recommended. PMID:15257263

Cipri, S; Cafarelli, F; Ielo, A; Gambardella, G

2004-03-01

380

Thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syrinx formation secondary to myelography with Myodil, 30 years previously.  

PubMed

Spinal arachnoiditis can rarely occur following irritation from foreign body substances, including certain oil based contrast agents used for myelography. We describe a patient with thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syringomyelia, 30 years following a myelogram with Myodil. A 62-year-old female presented with chronic thoraco-lumbar back pain, a spastic paraparesis and sphincter disturbance. She had undergone a myelogram with Myodil, 30 years previously for investigation of back pain. A MRI scan revealed evidence of arachnoiditis, thoracic syringomyelia (T6-T8) and an anteriorly placed, extramedullary, arachnoid cyst at T10-T12, compressing the cord. At surgery, T7-T10 thoracic laminectomies were carried out and syringo- and cysto-subarachnoid shunts were inserted. At 12 months follow-up, the sphincter disturbance, lower limb weakness and mobility problems had almost resolved. Although, the use of oil based contrast agents such as Myodil has been discontinued, the present case illustrates some of the rare sequelae of its use, manifesting decades later. Aggressive surgical intervention produced symptomatic benefit. PMID:16944225

Gnanalingham, Kanna K; Joshi, Shabin Man; Sabin, Ian

2006-10-01

381

Failed back surgery syndrome: problems, pitfalls and prevention.  

PubMed

Several basic and fundamental principles remain prime considerations in lumbar spine surgery, so a review of these is appropriate in view of the current headlong rush into the use of new and developing technology for lumbar spine surgery. Eighteen hundred and sixty-one laminectomy procedures are reviewed, the majority of these for simple lumbar disc protrusion and spinal canal stenosis but also 204 cases where patients required a surgical procedure for failed back surgery syndrome. Surgical technique and technology will fail when an inappropriate patient is selected for surgical intervention; failure also occurs particularly in lumbar disc protrusion if lateral recess stenosis is undiagnosed and untreated at the time of surgery. The patient's motivation status also has a significant effect on surgical outcome and the optimum patient to submit to surgery for failed back surgery syndrome has sciatica, more severe than backache, a recurrent or residual disc protrusion associated with the stenosis and excellent motivation which is not affected by workers' compensation or other insurance claims or benefit. PMID:8215191

Yaksich, I

1993-05-01

382

The effects of a polyphenol present in olive oil, oleuropein aglycone, in an experimental model of spinal cord injury in mice.  

PubMed

Several olive oil phenolic compounds, such us oleuropein have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant activity, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of oleuropein aglycone, a hydrolysis product of oleuropein, in the inflammatory response, in particular in the secondary injury associated with the mouse model of spinal cord trauma. The injury was induced by application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy in mice. Oleuropein aglycone was administered in mice (100 ?g/kg, 40 ?g/kg, 20 ?g/kg, 10% ethanol, i.p.) 1h and 6h after the trauma. The treatment with oleuropein aglycone significantly decreased: (1) histological damage, (2) motor recovery, (3) nuclear factor (NF)-?B expression and IKB-? degradation, (4) protein kinase A (PKA) activity and expression, (5) pro-inflammatory cytokines production such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), 6) inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, (7) neutrophil infiltration, (8) lipid peroxidation, (9) nitrotyrosine and poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) formation, (10) glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels, (11) apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand expression, Caspase 3, Bax and Bcl-2 expression). Thus, we propose that olive oil phenolic constituents such as oleuropein aglycone may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:22342994

Impellizzeri, Daniela; Esposito, Emanuela; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Di Paola, Rosanna; Bramanti, Placido; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Procopio, Antonio; Perri, Enzo; Britti, Domenico; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

2012-05-15

383

Iatrogenic Intradural Lumbosacral Cyst Following Epiduroscopy  

PubMed Central

We report a rare complication of iatrogenic spinal intradural following minimally invasive extradural endoscopic procedues in the lumbo-sacral spines. To our knowledge, intradural cyst following epiduroscopy has not been reported in the literature. A 65-year-old woman with back pain related with previous lumbar disc surgery underwent endoscopic epidural neuroplasty and nerve block, but her back pain much aggravated after this procedure. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large intradural cyst from S1-2 to L2-3 displacing the nerve roots anteriorly. On T1 and T2-weighted image, the signal within the cyst had the same intensity as cerebrospinal fluid. The patient underwent partial laminectomy of L5 and intradural exploration, and fenestration of the cystic wall was accomplished. During operation, the communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was not identified, and the content of the cyst was the same as that of cerebrospinal fluid. Postoperatively, the pain attenuated immediately. Incidental durotomy which occurred during advancing the endoscope through epidural space may be the cause of formation of the intradural cyst. Intrdural cyst should be considered, if a patient complains of new symptoms such as aggravation of back pain after epiduroscopy. Surgical treatment, simple fenestration of the cyst may lead to improved outcome. All the procedures using epiduroscopy should be performed with caution.

Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Rathi, Nitesh Kumar; Kim, Geol

2012-01-01

384

Efficacy of treatment with verbascoside, biotechnologically produced by Syringa vulgaris plant cell cultures in an experimental mice model of spinal cord trauma.  

PubMed

In this study we evaluated the effect of glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside (VB), isolated from cultured cells of the medicinal plant Syringa vulgaris (Oleaceae) in experimental animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI was induced by the application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. SCI in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, tissue damage, and apoptosis. At 1 and 6 h after injury, the mice were treated with VB extract, administered at the dose of 2 mg/kg with intraperitoneal administration. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a marked increase on expression for nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, poly(ADP-ribose), and apoptosis events (increase of Bax and Bcl-2 expression) in the spinal cord tissue. Additionally, we demonstrate that these inflammatory events were associated with the cytokines expression (TNF-? and IL-1?), neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase), and activation of NF-?B. In contrast, all of these parameters of inflammation were attenuated by treatment with VB. In a separate set of experiment, we have clearly demonstrated that VB treatment significantly ameliorated the recovery of function (evaluated by motor recovery score). Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with VB extract reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma. PMID:20799028

Genovese, Tiziana; Paterniti, Irene; Mazzon, Emanuela; Esposito, Emanuela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Galuppo, Maria; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

2010-10-01

385

Rapidly progressive quadriparesis heralding disseminated coccidioidomycosis in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

Coccidioides species are dimorphic fungi endemic to southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is rare with an estimated incidence of 1% in affected individuals and usually presents as meningitis when the central nervous system is involved. Spinal involvement with coccidioidomycosis, though not uncommon, predominantly manifests as osseous involvement leading to osteomyelitis and epidural abscess formation. Progressive quadriparesis as a presenting symptom secondary to intramedullary spinal cord coccidioidomycosis is very unusual and to our knowledge has not been described. We report a patient with disseminated coccidioidomycosis who presented with rapidly progressive quadriparesis due to cervical intramedullary spinal cord involvement. The absence of known coccidioidomycosis with atypical clinical presentation made the diagnosis elusive, requiring emergent cervical laminectomies with dural biopsy for decompression of the spinal cord and confirmation of the diagnosis. The patient eventually succumbed to the progressive course of the disease. Although rare, disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present as new, rapidly progressing quadriparesis in patients who have traveled to endemic areas. A high index of suspicion in such patients with appropriately directed laboratory investigations and consideration of early biopsy might unravel the diagnosis facilitating early antifungal treatment with the potential to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with disseminated coccidioidomycosis. PMID:24321458

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Nag, Sukriti; O'Toole, John E; Traynelis, Vincent C

2014-06-01

386

[Cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle--case report].  

PubMed

The patient, a 25-year-old male, was admitted with a 2-year history of double vision and recurrent suboccipital headache. Neurological findings on admission revealed nystagmus, double vision in the far field, bilateral abducense palsy, weakness in the bilateral legs, hypalgesia and hypesthesia under the L5 level, gait disturbance and hypotonia of the anal sphincter. Plain skull X-ray showed marked digital impression and disappearance of the posterior clinoid process and the dorsum sella. Myelography disclosed a filling defect dorsal to upper and midcervical cord. Intraventricular injection of metrizamide outline cystic dilatation and caudal migration of the fourth ventricle. Occipital craniectomy and laminectomy from C1 to C6 was performed. Operative findings showed thickened arachnoid membranes and cystic expansion of the fourth ventricle lying dorsal to the cervical cord. Caudal portion of the ventricle was removed, and V-P shunt was placed into the fourth ventricle to maintain decompression of the cystic part of the fourth ventricle. This patient is considered to represent a case of cystic dilatation (or ventricular diverticulum) of the fourth ventricle in Arnold-Chiari malformation. We stress that posterior decompression with V-P shunting procedure is recommended as the treatment of choice for such Arnold-Chiari type II malformation. PMID:1799525

Hida, K; Iwasaki, Y; Abe, H

1991-12-01

387

Management of spontaneous extramedullary spinal haematomas: results in eight patients after MRI diagnosis and surgical decompression.  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord compression due to extradural and subdural haemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency. Differences in clinical presentation in relation to localisation of the haematoma, value of MRI as a diagnostic tool, surgical treatment, and prognosis were investigated in a retrospective case series of eight patients with extradural (n = four) and subdural (n = four) haematomas. Results of MRI were compared with operative findings and proved to be of high sensitivity in defining the type of bleeding and delineating craniocaudal extension and ventrodorsal location. Surgical treatment by decompressive laminectomy, haematoma evacuation, and postoperative high dose corticosteroids resulted in resolution of symptoms in five patients and improvement in the clinical situation in two patients. One patient with a chronic subdural haematoma had a second operation because of arachnoidal adhesions. One patient presented with a complete cord transection syndrome due to an acute subdural haematoma and remained paraplegic. It is concluded that prompt, reliable, and non-invasive diagnosis by MRI leads to efficient surgical treatment and a favourable outcome in this rare condition. Images

Langmayr, J J; Ortler, M; Dessl, A; Twerdy, K; Aichner, F; Felber, S

1995-01-01

388

Time-related effects of general functional training in spinal cord-injured rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, experimental study with rats aimed to investigate the influence of general treatment strategies on the motor recovery of Wistar rats with moderate contusive spinal cord injury. METHODS: A total of 51 Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: control, maze, ramp, runway, and sham (laminectomy only). The rats underwent spinal cord injury at the T9-T10 levels using the NYU-Impactor. Each group was trained for 12 minutes twice a week for two weeks before and five weeks after the spinal cord injury, except for the control group. Functional motor recovery was assessed with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Scale on the first postoperative day and then once a week for five weeks. The animals were euthanized, and the spinal cords were collected for histological analysis. RESULTS: Ramp and maze groups showed an earlier and greater functional improvement effect than the control and runway groups. However, over time, unexpectedly, all of the groups showed similar effects as the control group, with spontaneous recovery. There were no histological differences in the injured area between the trained and control groups. CONCLUSION: Short-term benefits can be associated with a specific training regime; however, the same training was ineffective at maintaining superior long-term recovery. These results might support new considerations before hospital discharge of patients with spinal cord injuries.

Miranda, Taisa Amoroso Bortolato; Vicente, Juliana Mendes Yule; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; Morya, Edgard; do Valle, Angela Cristina

2012-01-01

389

The impact of discrete modes of spinal cord injury on bladder muscle contractility  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies have compared the effect of spinal cord injury elicited using distinct approaches on motor and visceral function. However, the impact of such discrete modes of injury specifically on bladder muscle contractility has not been explored in detail. The goal of this study is to compare the impact of complete spinal cord transection versus clip compression at thoracic vertebra eight (T8) on bladder muscle contractility. Methods Rats underwent no treatment (Control), laminectomy (Sham, SH); complete extradural transection (TX); or cord compression with an aneurysm clip (CX). Bladders and spinal cords were harvested at 6 wk for contractility studies or histological analysis. Results Detrusor strips from TX and CX rats showed higher spontaneous activity than those from SH rats. Furthermore, the duration of the neurally-mediated contractile response was longer in TX and CX rats compared to controls and showed attenuated relaxation. No significant differences were observed between muscle strips from SH, TX or CX rats in response to KCl, ATP or phenylephrine. However, tissues from TX and CX rats showed a higher sensitivity to carbachol compared to that from SH animals. Conclusions Complete SCI in rats either by cord transection or compression elicits qualitatively similar changes in bladder muscle contractility. Whereas cord transection is arguably easier to perform experimentally, cord compression better models the situation observed clinically, such that each approach has clear advantages and limitations.

2013-01-01

390

Another option to treat K?mmell's disease with cord compression  

PubMed Central

The efficiency of short-segment fixation with transpedicle body augmenter (a titanium spacer with bone-ingrowth porous surface, TpBA) to treat Kümmell’s disease with cord compression (stage III) was retrospectively evaluated. No laminectomy or instrumentation reduction was done. Inclusion criteria included Frankel CDE, single-level within T10–L2. FU rate was 88%, i.e. 21 cases were included. Frankel function classification was 6E9D6C. Mean age was 72±8 years. F:M was 16:5. FU period was 48 M (range, 30–76 M). The hospitalization was 4.5±2.2 days; operation time, 70.4±17.2 min; blood loss, 150±72 cc. Final Frankel class was 20E1D. Complications included two superficial infection and one pneumonia. Body height and kyphosis were all corrected significantly and well preserved at the final visit. No TpBA dislodgement or implant failure was noted; however, three cases developed new compression fractures. The clinical outcome showed 81% with P1 or P2 by Denis pain scale. This method can decompress spinal canal, maintain kyphosis correction and vertebral restoration, prevent implant failure, and attain good clinical results.

Li, Anna F-Y; Hsieh, Ching-Hsiang; Liao, Ting-Hua; Chen, Chih-Hung

2006-01-01

391

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma in cervical spine: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) in the spinal column is extremely rare. Here, we report and characterize the case of xanthogranuloma of the upper cervical spine. A 18-year-old male presented with neck pain for 3 months, along with progressive quadriparesis and sensory loss of 2 months duration with urinary retention. Motor examination revealed spastic quadriparesis with power of 2/5 in all the 4 limbs. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) spine with contrast showed a dorsally placed intradural extramedullary lesion at the level of C2-C4 vertebral body. The lesion, measuring 2.9x1.7x1.4 cm, was isointense on T1WI, hypointense on T2WI, and enhanced homogenously on contrast. He underwent an emergency C2-C4 laminectomy and complete excision of the lesion. At 3-month follow-up, he was asymptomatic except for mild neck pain. MRI scan of the cervical spine done at follow-up, revealed complete excision of tumor without any residual lesion. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed a polymorphous population of sheets of bloated pale foamy histiocytes (xanthoma cells), numerous admixed mature lymphocytes and several Touton giant cells. The cells were positive for CD68, a histiocytic marker, and negative for CD1a (excludes LCH) and S-100 (excludes RDD). PMID:24535803

Konar, Subhas; Pandey, Paritosh; Yasha, T C

2014-01-01

392

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

393

Syringomyelia without hindbrain herniation: tight cisterna magna. Report of four cases and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Idiopathic syringomyelia, which is not associated with any definite pathogenic lesions, has been treated mainly by shunting of the syrinx and rarely by craniocervical decompression. The authors report four cases of syringomyelia thought to be idiopathic syringomyelia but treated by craniocervical decompression with favorable results. Syringomyelia was present without hindbrain herniation. In such cases, the subarachnoid space anterior to the brainstem at the level of the foramen magnum is usually open but the cisterna magna is impacted by the tonsils, a condition the authors term "tight cisterna magna." All patients underwent foramen magnum decompression and C-1 laminectomy, and the outer layer of the dura was peeled off. Further intradural exploration was performed when outflow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the fourth ventricle was deemed to be insufficient. Postoperatively, improvement in symptoms and a reduction in syrinx size were demonstrated in three patients, and a reduction in ventricle size was shown in two. Syringomyelia associated with tight cisterna magna should not be classified as idiopathic syringomyelia; rather, it belongs to the category of organic syringomyelia such as Chiari malformation. A possible pathogenesis of cavitation is obstruction of the CSF outflow from the foramen of Magendie, and the cavity may be a communicating dilation of the central canal. Ventricular dilation may depend on the extent to which CSF drainage is impaired from the foramina of Luschka. These cavities may respond to craniocervical decompression if it results in sufficient CSF outflow from the foramen of Magendie, even in cases with concomitant hydrocephalus. PMID:12450289

Kyoshima, Kazuhiko; Kuroyanagi, Takayuki; Oya, Fusakazu; Kamijo, Yukihiro; El-Noamany, Hossam; Kobayashi, Shigeaki

2002-03-01

394

Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors  

SciTech Connect

One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy.

Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.; D'Angio, G.J.; Drummond, D.S. (UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick (USA))

1990-02-01

395

RS-Glucoraphanin bioactivated with myrosinase treatment counteracts proinflammatory cascade and apoptosis associated to spinal cord injury in an experimental mouse model.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly debilitating pathology. Although innovative medical care has been improved, drug therapies to counteract neuronal damage and promote regeneration are limited. An experimental mouse model of SCI was designed to examine the possible neuroprotective role of the glucosinolate (RS)-glucoraphanin (RS-GRA), bioactivated with myrosinase enzyme (MYR-activated RS-GRA). Methodologically, the injury was induced by application of an aneurysm clip (force of 24 g) for 1 min via four-level T5-T8 after laminectomy. MYR-activated RS-GRA was administered in mice (10mg/kg i.p.) 1 and 6h after the trauma, identified as the therapeutic intervention window. The treatment with MYR-activated RS-GRA significantly decreased histological damage resulted by proinflammatory events as well as by apoptosis cascade. Overall, by quantitative analysis of immunohistochemical images, the neuroprotection has been quite evident. MYR-activated RS-GRA has given a histological quantification around zero in all determinations. Particularly, looking at the strongest data obtained, regarding the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), result the high tissue localization of this damage marker mediated by astrocyte activity, estimated as about 80% of positive staining, was shot down by MYR-activated RS-GRA treatment. Taken together, our results show that MYR-activated RS-GRA could represent an interesting approach for the management of secondary damage following SCI. PMID:23992921

Galuppo, Maria; Giacoppo, Sabrina; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Mazzon, Emanuela; Bramanti, Placido

2013-11-15

396

Biomechanical changes of spinous process osteotomy with different amounts of facetectomy using finite element model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical changes after Spinous Process Osteotomy (SPO) with different amounts of facetectomy of the lumbar spine and to compare the models with SPO and intact models using finite element models. Intact spine models and one decompression models (L3-4) with SPO were developed. SPO models included three different amounts of facetectomy (25%, 50%, and 75%). After validation of the models, finite element analyses were performed to investigate the ranges of motion and disc stresses at each corresponding level among three SPO models and intact lumbar spine models. The ranges of motion in the SPO models were increased more than the intact models. According to increase of amounts of facetectomy, ranges of motion were also increased. Similar to range of motion, the von Mises stress of disc in the SPO models was higher than that of intact models. Moreover, with the increase of amount of facetectomy, the disc stress increased at each segments under various moments. The decompression procedures using spinous process osteotomy has been reported to provide better postoperative stability compared to the conventional laminectomy. However, facetectomy over 50 % is likely to attenuate this advantage.

Kang, K.-T.; Kim, K.-Y.; Jung, H.-J.; Lee, H.-Y.; Chun, H.-J.; Lee, H.-M.; Moon, S.-H.; Kim, H.-J.

2009-12-01

397

Does dexmedetomidine reduce secondary damage after spinal cord injury? An experimental study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the possible protective effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-two New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: sham (no drug or operation, n = 6), Control [SCI + single dose of 1 mL saline intraperitoneally (i.p), after trauma; n = 8] and DEX (SCI + 1 ?g/kg dexmedetomidine in 1 mL, i.p, after trauma, n = 8). Laminectomy was performed at T10 and balloon angioplasty catheter was applied extradurally. Four and 24 h after surgery, rabbits were evaluated by an independent observer according to the Tarlov scoring system. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tissue samples from spinal cord were taken for biochemical and histopathological evaluations. After 4 h of SCI, all animals in control or DEX treated groups became paraparesic. On the other hand, 24 h after SCI, partial improvements were observed in both control and DEX treated groups. Traumatic SCI leads to increase in the lipid peroxidation and decreases enzymatic or nonenzymatic endogenous antioxidative defense systems. Again, SCI leads to apoptosis in spinal cord. DEX treatment slightly prevented lipid peroxidation and augmented endogenous antioxidative defense systems in CSF or spinal cord tissue, but failed to prevent apoptosis or neurodeficit after traumatic SCI. Therefore, it could be suggested that treatment with dexmedetomidine does not produce beneficial results in SCI.

Cemek, Mustafa; Eser, Olcay; Altunbas, Korhan; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Cosar, Murat; Bas, Orhan; Ela, Yuksel; Fidan, Huseyin

2009-01-01

398

Dantrolene can reduce secondary damage after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the possible protective effects of dantrolene on traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: Sham (no drug or operation, n = 8), Control (SCI + 1 mL saline intraperitoneally (i.p.), n = 8), and DNT (SCI + 10 mg/kg dantrolene in 1 mL, i.p., n = 8). Laminectomy was performed at T10 and balloon catheter was applied extradurally. Four and 24 h after surgery, rabbits were evaluated according to the Tarlov scoring system. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid and tissue sample from spinal cord were taken for measurements of antioxidant status or detection of apoptosis. After 4 h SCI, all animals in control or DNT-treated groups became paraparesic. Significant improvement was observed in DNT-treated group, 24 h after SCI, with respect to control. Traumatic SCI led to an increase in the lipid peroxidation and a decrease in enzymic or non-enzymic endogenous antioxidative defense systems, and increase in apoptotic cell numbers. DNT treatment prevented lipid peroxidation and augmented endogenous enzymic or non-enzymic antioxidative defense systems. Again, DNT treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell number induced by SCI. In conclusion, experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with dantrolene possess potential benefits for traumatic SCI.

Cemek, Mustafa; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Altunbas, Korhan; Bas, Orhan; Yurumez, Yusuf; Cosar, Murat

2009-01-01

399

Intradural Migration of a Sequestrated Lumbar Disc Fragment Masquerading as a Spinal Intradural Tumor  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is a quite rare pathology, and isolated intradural lumbar disc herniation is even more rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not be able to reveal ILDHs, especially if MRI findings show an intact lumbar disc annulus and posterior longitudinal ligament. Here, we present an exceedingly rare case of an isolated IDLH that we initially misidentified as a spinal intradural tumor, in a 54-year-old man hospitalized with a 2-month history of back pain and right sciatica. Neurologic examination revealed a positive straight leg raise test on the right side, but he presented no other sensory, motor, or sphincter disturbances. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed what we believed to be an intradural extramedullary tumor compressing the cauda equina leftward in the thecal sac, at the L2 vertebral level. The patient underwent total L2 laminectomy, and we extirpated the intradural mass under microscopic guidance. Histologic examination of the mass revealed a degenerated nucleus pulposus.

Kim, Hyeong-Suk; Park, Jung-Soo

2012-01-01

400

Intradural migration of a sequestrated lumbar disc fragment masquerading as a spinal intradural tumor.  

PubMed

Intervertebral intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is a quite rare pathology, and isolated intradural lumbar disc herniation is even more rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not be able to reveal ILDHs, especially if MRI findings show an intact lumbar disc annulus and posterior longitudinal ligament. Here, we present an exceedingly rare case of an isolated IDLH that we initially misidentified as a spinal intradural tumor, in a 54-year-old man hospitalized with a 2-month history of back pain and right sciatica. Neurologic examination revealed a positive straight leg raise test on the right side, but he presented no other sensory, motor, or sphincter disturbances. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed what we believed to be an intradural extramedullary tumor compressing the cauda equina leftward in the thecal sac, at the L2 vertebral level. The patient underwent total L2 laminectomy, and we extirpated the intradural mass under microscopic guidance. Histologic examination of the mass revealed a degenerated nucleus pulposus. PMID:23091677

Kim, Hyeong-Suk; Eun, Jong-Pil; Park, Jung-Soo

2012-08-01

401

Microsurgical anatomy of the lower cervical spine and cord.  

PubMed

The authors dissected the cervical spine and its surrounding structures from 40 adult cadavers under a surgical microscope. The anterior part of the spine and spinal cord was examined after vertebrectomy. The posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) consists of two layers; the anterior one is termed the deep layer, and the posterior one is termed the superficial layer. These two layers adhered together loosely. In the lateral portion of the spinal canal, the superficial layer joined the periradicular sheath at the level of the intervertebral disc spaces and joined the dura mater at the level of the vertebral bodies. After the removal of the deep layer, the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus was seen on top of the lateral part of the superficial layer. The venous plexus was embedded between the double-layered PLLs, was not located in the epidural space, and was not seen in the medial part of the PLL. The PLL without venous channels on top of it was about 10 mm in width at the levels of the intervertebral disc and about 5 mm at the levels of the vertebral body. The anterior root exit zone (AREZ) was an elliptical shape; the transverse length of the AREZ was about 2 mm, and the longitudinal length was 10 to 15 mm. The average number of anterior rootlets on the AREZ was 17 to 25 and tended to decrease in the lower cervical spinal cord. The posterior structures were examined after en bloc laminectomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8052389

Kubo, Y; Waga, S; Kojima, T; Matsubara, T; Kuga, Y; Nakagawa, Y

1994-05-01

402

Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and tracheal tear in the early postoperative period of spinal surgery in a paraplegic achondroplastic dwarf.  

PubMed

Achondroplasia was first described in 1878 and is the most common form of human skeletal dysplasia. Spinal manifestations include thoracolumbar kyphosis, foramen magnum, and spinal stenosis. Progressive kyphosis can result in spinal cord compression and paraplegia due to the reduced size of spinal canal. The deficits are typically progressive, presenting as an insidious onset of paresthesia, followed by the inability to walk and then by urinary incontinence. Paraplegia can be the result of direct pressure on the cord by bone or the injury to the anterior spinal vessels by a protruding bone. Surgical treatment consists of posterior instrumentation, fusion with total wide laminectomy at stenosis levels, and anterior interbody support. Pedicle screws are preferred for spinal instrumentation because wires and hooks may induce spinal cord injury due to the narrow spinal canal. Pedicle lengths are significantly shorter, and 20-25?mm long screws are appropriate for lower thoracic and lumbar pedicles in adult achondroplastic There is no information about the appropriate length of screws for the upper thoracic pedicles. Tracheal injury due to inappropriate pedicle screw length is a rare complication. We report an extremely rare case of tracheal tear due to posterior instrumentation and its management in the early postoperative period. PMID:24455372

Kahraman, Sinan; Enercan, Meriç; Demirhan, Ozkan; Sengül, Türker; Dalar, Levent; Hamzao?lu, Azmi

2013-01-01

403

Herpes simplex encephalitis following spinal ependymoma resection: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of neurosurgical procedures but must be considered in early deterioration of the postoperative patient. This is the first report of HSE following spinal cord tumor resection. A 65-year-old woman had C2-C5 laminectomy for subtotal resection of intramedullary ependymoma. Six days postoperatively she developed fever, vomiting and rapid decline in mental status. Brain MRI revealed enhancement of left insular cortex. Polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) identified herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as the causal agent. Twenty-one days of acyclovir led to improvement. Three subsequent admissions to neurological intensive care unit were required for deterioration in mental status, including pneumonia, hydrocephalus and deep vein thromboses. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS), tracheotomy, percutaneous intravenous central catheter (PICC) line and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) were placed. She was discharged to skilled nursing home care. Acyclovir is effective therapy against HSV, though outcomes may be poor even in optimally treated cases. Empiric treatment must be started even in the absence of serologic evidence of HSV infection if suspicion for HSE is high. PMID:20941525

Raper, Daniel M S; Wong, Alvin; McCormick, Paul C; Lewis, Linda D

2011-07-01

404

Relative effectiveness of radiation therapy, corticosteroids, and surgery in the management of melanoma metastatic to the central nervous system. [/sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

The records of all patients who received radiotherapy for melanoma metastatic to brain (63 patients) and epidural space (9 patients) at the American Oncologic Hospital from January 1971, through March 1980, were reviewed. Patients were evaluated according to the type of therapy received (corticosteroids, radiotherapy, surgery) and whether their brain metastases were radiographically solitary (60%) or multiple (40%). Forty-nine patients with brain metastases received corticosteroid therapy for 2 to 7 days or more before radiotherapy. Fifty-two percent of the patients with solitary and 30% of those with multiple brain metastases responded to radiotherapy. The use of large doses (greater than or equal to 500 rad) per fraction produced a significantly higher response rate than did the use of low doses (less than or equal to 400 rad) per fraction (P < .02), but only for those patients with solitary brain metastases. Patients with cord compression undergoing decompressive laminectomy had relief of neurologic symptoms, whereas those not paralyzed who received radiotherapy alone did not respond. Surgical excision with postoperative irradiation is recommended for the management of solitary brain metastases from melanoma. Surgical decompression is recommended for the management of epidural cord compression.

Katz, H.R.

1981-07-01

405

Epidural catheter with integrated light guides for spectroscopic tissue characterization.  

PubMed

Epidural catheters are used to deliver anesthetics and opioids for managing pain in many clinical scenarios. Currently, epidural catheter insertion is performed without information about the tissues that are directly ahead of the catheter. As a result, the catheter can be incorrectly positioned within a blood vessel, which can cause toxicity. Recent studies have shown that optical reflectance spectroscopy could be beneficial for guiding needles that are used to insert catheters. In this study, we investigate the whether this technique could benefit the placement of catheters within the epidural space