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Sample records for myers beach offshore

  1. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL. 100.717 Section 100.717 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.717 Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand...

  2. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL. 100.717 Section 100.717 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.717 Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand...

  3. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.740 Section 100.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a) Regulated area. (1) The regulated...

  4. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.740 Section 100.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a) Regulated area. (1) The regulated...

  5. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...°58.30′ W). All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No vessel... coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved with the Fort Myers Beach... clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) All vessel traffic,...

  6. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...°58.30′ W). All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No vessel... coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved with the Fort Myers Beach... clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) All vessel traffic,...

  7. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...°58.30′ W). All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No vessel... coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved with the Fort Myers Beach... clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) All vessel traffic,...

  8. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  9. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  10. 76 FR 9278 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... held in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Sunny Isles Beach, Florida. Approximately 50 offshore...

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft, unconsolidated sediment interspersed with isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie primarily within the Shelf (continental shelf) but also partly within the Flank (basin flank or continental slope) megahabitats, primarily are composed of soft sediment interrupted by a few carbonate mounds. This homogeneous seafloor of sediment and low-relief bedrock provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  12. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°27′43″N, 81°58′22″W south to point 2: 26°27′05″N... to original point 1: 26°27′43″N, 81°58′22″W. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The spectator line is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°26′53″N, 81°58′27″W east to point 2:...

  13. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°27′43″N, 81°58′22″W south to point 2: 26°27′05″N... to original point 1: 26°27′43″N, 81°58′22″W. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The spectator line is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°26′53″N, 81°58′27″W east to point 2:...

  14. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°27′43″N, 81°58′22″W south to point 2: 26°27′05″N... to original point 1: 26°27′43″N, 81°58′22″W. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The spectator line is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°26′53″N, 81°58′27″W east to point 2:...

  15. Block glides offshore Newport Beach, Southern California continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.G.; Clarke, S.H. Jr.; Kennedy, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The continental slope offshore Newport Beach, California, is characterized by a relatively gentle (approximately 1/sup 0/) grade and is dissected by numerous channels and canyons, of which the most conspicuous is Newport Canyon. An unusual series of block-glide landslides have developed on this lope adjacent to many of these channels. Locally, secondary channels that develop along pull-apart fractures between the slide blocks may service as conduits for downslope sediment movement. A detailed seismic-reflection survey of the area shows that the slope is underlain by soft water-saturated unstable sediment of Quaternary age. The block-glides lie wholly within this sediment; displaced blocks appear to have moved only a short distance downslope and are preserved as intact masses that exhibit downward increasing internal deformation. This deformation reaches a maximum near the front of the displaced mass and in basal beds nearest the slip surface. The morphology of the blocks and their intervening channellike erosional scarps is similar to that of glacial blocks and their associated bergschrunds. The formation of new scarps and the widening of channels formed as pull-aparts by the ongoing process of block movement may contribute to headward erosion and widening of Newport Canyon and its tributaries. Slope failure might be greatly enhanced by strong ground motion associated with nearby earthquakes. The authors suspect that renewed movement occurs on these blocks during major seismic events on the nearby Newport-Inglewood fault (e.g., 1933 M/sub L/ 6.3 event).

  16. Quanta, a Learning Community at Daytona Beach Community College and the Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Jay R.

    In fall 1984, a program was implemented at Daytona Beach Community College (Florida) with the dual purpose of integrating subject material between courses and establishing a close community of learners to cooperate in the mastery of subject matter. In the fall semester, participating students enroll in a block of three courses; English I,

  17. Bacterial contamination at Huntington Beach, California - is it from a local offshore wastewater outfall?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Noble, Marlene; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    During the summers of 1999 and 2000, beaches at Huntington Beach, California, were repeatedly closed to swimming because of high bacteria levels in the surf zone. The city’s beaches are a major recreational and commercial resource, normally attracting millions of visitors each summer. One possible source of the bacterial contamination was the Orange County Sanitation District’s sewage outfall, which discharges treated wastewater 4.5 miles offshore at a depth of 200 feet. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating organizations have been investigating whether ocean currents and waves transport the wastewater to the beaches. These studies indicate that bacteria from the outfall are not a significant source of the beach contamination.

  18. A rapid compatibility analysis of potential offshore sand sources for beaches of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustain, N.; Griggs, G.; Barnard, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    The beaches of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell, which are narrow as a result of either natural and/or anthropogenic factors, may benefit from nourishment. Sand compatibility is fundamental to beach nourishment success and grain size is the parameter often used to evaluate equivalence. Only after understanding which sand sizes naturally compose beaches in a specific cell, especially the smallest size that remains on the beach, can the potential compatibility of source areas, such as offshore borrow sites, be accurately assessed. This study examines sediments on the beach and in the nearshore (5-20m depth) for the entire Santa Barbara Littoral Cell east of Point Conception. A digital bed sediment camera, the Eyeball??, and spatial autocorrelation technique were used to determine sediment grain size. Here we report on whether nearshore sediments are comparable and compatible with beach sands of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  19. Analysis of Acoustic Wave and Current Data Offshore of Mytle Beach, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, K. A.; Wren, A.

    2008-12-01

    Two bottom boundary layer (BBL) instrument frames have been deployed on the shoreface and inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina offshore of Myrtle Beach as part of a South Carolina Sea Grant funded project to measure sediment transport over two hardbottom habitats. The inshore instrument frame is located on an extensive hardbottom surface 850 meters offshore. The second instrumented frame is secured to a hardbottom surface on the inner-shelf at a distance of approximately 2.5 km offshore. The nearshore BBL observing system is composed of a downward-looking RDI/ Teledyne 1200 kHz Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, an upward-looking Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current Profiler (AWAC), and an Aquatec Acoustic Backscatter Sensor. As part of this larger study, the wave and current data from the AWAC have been analyzed. Long-term continuous time series data include wave height, wave period, directional wave spectra, and the magnitude and direction of currents in the water column. Within the data set are several wave events, including several frontal passages and Tropical Storm Hanna which hit the Myrtle Beach area in early September. Wave data have been correlated with meteorological data, and a comparison of shoreface wave characteristics during each type of event are presented.

  20. A field study of coastal dynamics on a muddy coast offshore of Cassino beach, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, K. Todd; Vinzon, Susana B.; Calliari, Lauro J.

    2009-03-01

    Mud deposits near sandy beaches, found throughout the world, are of scientific and societal interest as they form important natural sea defenses by efficiently damping storm waves. A multi-national field experiment to study these phenomena was performed offshore Cassino beach in southern Brazil starting in 2004. This experiment aimed to investigate the formation of an offshore mud deposit, to characterize wave attenuation over potentially mobile muddy bottoms, and to evaluate the performance of models for wave transformation over heterogeneous beds through the measurement of water waves, near-bottom currents, bathymetry, and changes in bottom sediment characteristics. The main instrumentation was a set of wave sensors deployed in a transect from the shoreline across sandy and muddy deposits offshore to a depth of 25 m. Additional sensors, including current meters and optical backscatter sensors, were concentrated at stations in the middle of the mud deposit and in the surf zone to document aspects of the wave boundary layer and lutocline dynamics. This fieldwork also involved the geological and geotechnical characterization of the mud deposit using seismic equipment, echo-sounders, cores, surficial sampling and an in-situ density meter. These sediment samples were subsequently analyzed for density, grain size distribution, mineralogy, rheology and sedimentary structures. In addition, video and radar monitoring equipment were installed to measure the long-term aspects of surf zone damping by fluid mud and any associated morphodynamic responses. This paper provides a summary of environmental conditions monitored during the experiment and describes the major findings of the various investigations. Although data collection was more difficult than anticipated and dramatic wave attenuation involving the onshore transport of fluid mud into the surf zone region was not observed during the instrumented interval, the new methodologies developed and comprehensive observations obtained during this effort are being used to improve our understanding of shoaling wave dynamics and sediment transport in the coastal zone in regions with significant cohesive sediment deposits.

  1. Coastal monitoring of the May 2005 dredge disposal offshore of Ocean Beach, San Francisco, Calif.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location and avoid hazardous navigation conditions at the current disposal site (SF-8), a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (COE). The objective for COE was to perform a test dredge disposal of ~230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand just offshore of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. This disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where the strong tidal currents associated with the mouth of San Francisco Bay and waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Sea Floor Mapping Lab (SFML) of California State University, Monterey Bay, monitored the initial bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region from May 2005 to November 2005. This paper reports on this monitoring effort and assesses the short-term coastal response.

  2. Unusual calcite cementing of quartz grains on Chandeleur Island Beach, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1983-09-01

    A very unusual calcite cement was found in some beachchips from an unconsolidated beach surface of Chandeleur Island offshore approximately 35 nmi (65 km) south of Mississippi in the Gulf of Mexico. The beachchips are irregularly shaped and are well cemented by this unusual calcite. This calcite crystal structure has not been reported previously as existing in a marine environment. A similar cement has been found in freshwater lake beachrock and in some travertine samples. The calcite crystals are elongate parallel to the c-optic axis, and are composed of bunches of crystallite blades. The crystallite blades of each crystal bunch are pointed and are more bladed than freshwater cement crystals. The intercrystallite pore space contains no fine calcite silt as was observed in the lake samples. Fresh water provided by rainfall may be held in the pore spaces and bounded to the quartz-grain surfaces by ionic attraction. Marine spray above and saline water concentrated underneath from a sandwich effect at the micropore level, allowing rapid growth and precipitation of these very unusual calcite crystals in a single-phase low-salinity fluid.

  3. Assessment of offshore New Jersey sources of Beach replenishment sand by diversified application of geologic and geophysical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldner, J.S.; Hall, D.W.; Uptegrove, J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ashley, G.M.; Esker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Beach replenishment serves the dual purpose of maintaining a source of tourism and recreation while protecting life and property. For New Jersey, sources for beach sand supply are increasingly found offshore. To meet present and future needs, geologic and geophysical techniques can be used to improve the identification, volume estimation, and determination of suitability, thereby making the mining and managing of this resource more effective. Current research has improved both data collection and interpretation of seismic surveys and vibracore analysis for projects investigating sand ridges offshore of New Jersey. The New Jersey Geological Survey in cooperation with Rutgers University is evaluating the capabilities of digital seismic data (in addition to analog data) to analyze sand ridges. The printing density of analog systems limits the dynamic range to about 24 dB. Digital acquisition systems with dynamic ranges above 100 dB can permit enhanced seismic profiles by trace static correction, deconvolution, automatic gain scaling, horizontal stacking and digital filtering. Problems common to analog data, such as wave-motion effects of surface sources, water-bottom reverberation, and bubble-pulse-width can be addressed by processing. More than 160 line miles of digital high-resolution continuous profiling seismic data have been collected at sand ridges off Avalon, Beach Haven, and Barnegat Inlet. Digital multichannel data collection has recently been employed to map sand resources within the Port of New York/New Jersey expanded dredge-spoil site located 3 mi offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Multichannel data processing can reduce multiples, improve signal-to-noise calculations, enable source deconvolution, and generate sediment acoustic velocities and acoustic impedance analysis. Synthetic seismograms based on empirical relationships among grain size distribution, density, and velocity from vibracores are used to calculate proxy values for density and velocity. The seismograms are then correlated to the digital seismic profile to confirm reflected events. They are particularly useful where individual reflection events cannot be detected but a waveform generated by several thin lithologic units can be recognized. Progress in application of geologic and geophysical methods provides advantages in detailed sediment analysis and volumetric estimation of offshore sand ridges. New techniques for current and ongoing beach replenishment projects not only expand our knowledge of the geologic processes involved in sand ridge origin and development, but also improve our assessment of these valuable resources. These reconnaissance studies provide extensive data to the engineer regarding the suitability and quantity of sand and can optimize placement and analysis of vibracore samples.Beach replenishment serves the dual purpose of maintaining a source of tourism and recreation while protecting life and property. Research has improved both data collection and interpretation of seismic surveys and vibracore analysis for projects investigating sand ridges offshore of New Jersey. The New Jersey Geological Survey in cooperation with Rutgers University is evaluating the capabilities of digital seismic data to analyze sand ridges. The printing density of analog systems limits the dynamic range to about 24 dB. Digital acquisition systems with dynamic ranges about 100 dB can permit enhanced seismic profiles by trace static correction, deconvolution, automatic gain scaling, horizontal stacking and digital filtering.

  4. 76 FR 24813 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... establishing a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach, Florida for the Fourth... Federal Register (76 FR 9278). We received no comments on the proposed rule. A public meeting was not... on June 17, 2011 and conclude on June 19, 2011. The boat races will be held in the Atlantic...

  5. Hydrodynamics Offshore of the North Beach of Indian River Inlet, DE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCosmo, N. R.; Puleo, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian River Inlet (IRI) on the east coast of Delaware, USA connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian River and Rehoboth Bays. Long-term and large-scale net alongshore sediment transport along this portion of coastline is from south to north. The north beach of IRI suffers from severe erosion due to interruption of the alongshore transport and current variability near the inlet. The magnitude of such erosion has increased over the past decade and questions have arisen as to the cause. The goal of this study is to quantify currents and wave patterns and estimate sediment transport rates at the north beach and near the inlet in an effort to determine the causes of persistent erosion. Data were obtained from October 2013 to March 2014 in the form of 3 separate 28-day deployments. Each deployment consisted of 4 proposed deployment sites. Data at each site were collected using a bottom mounted Nortek Aquadopp Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and 2 Campbell Scientific Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBS). Currents and OBS data were sampled every 120 s. Waves were sampled for approximately 17 minutes at the beginning of every hour. Data analysis from the deployments indicates the presence of several interesting trends in currents that can be linked to the persistent erosion. Current data are filtered to quantify typical current speed and direction for a tidal cycle (peak flood to peak flood) at each deployment site. The typical currents off of the north beach and up to 800 m north of the north jetty are mostly directed southward over the entire tidal cycle. This consistent southward flow implies: 1) there is no flow reversal based on tide, contrary to what might be expected at an inlet adjacent beach, 2) the typical current direction is opposite of the expectations for the known long-term large-scale net alongshore transport and 3) the consistency of this atypical current may be responsible for transporting sediment southward and away from the north beach. Currents and waves will be further analyzed for storm and non-storm conditions in order to more completely quantify the hydrodynamics of the area. Sediment data will also be analyzed in conjunction with the hydrodynamic data in order to better understand the sediment transport process.

  6. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the following coordinates; point 1: 26°28′08″ N, 81°59′15″ W south to point 2: 26°27′37″ N, 81°59′39...°59′15″ W. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) Air Box Area. The air box area is contained within the regulated area and is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°27′34″ N,...

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the following coordinates; point 1: 26°28′08″ N, 81°59′15″ W south to point 2: 26°27′37″ N, 81°59′39...°59′15″ W. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) Air Box Area. The air box area is contained within the regulated area and is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°27′34″ N,...

  8. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the following coordinates; point 1: 26°28′08″ N, 81°59′15″ W south to point 2: 26°27′37″ N, 81°59′39...°59′15″ W. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) Air Box Area. The air box area is contained within the regulated area and is formed by the following coordinates; point 1: 26°27′34″ N,...

  9. Offshore geology and geomorphology from Point Piedras Blancas to Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Roberts, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Sea level was approximately 120 to 130 m lower during the Last Glacial Maximum (about 21 ka). This approximate depth corresponds to the modern shelf break, a lateral change from the gently dipping (0.8 to 1.0) outer shelf to the slightly more steeply dipping (about 1.5 to 2.5) upper slope in the central and northern parts of the map area. South of Point San Luis in San Luis Bay, deltaic deposits offshore of the mouth of the Santa Maria River (11 km south of the map area) have prograded across the shelf break and now form a continuous low-angle (about 0.8) ramp that extends to water depths of more than 160 m. The shelf break defines the landward boundary of slope deposits. North of Estero Bay, the shelf break is characterized by a distinctly sharp slope break that is mapped as a landslide headscarp above landslide deposits. Multibeam imagery and seismic-reflection profiles across this part of the shelf break show evidence of slope failure, such as slumping, sliding, and soft-sediment deformation, along the entire length of the scarp. Notably, this shelf-break scarp corresponds to a west splay of the Hosgri Fault that dies out just north of the scarp, suggesting that faulting is controlling the location (and instability) of the shelf break in this area.

  10. 77 FR 3324 - Release of Airport Property: Fort Myers International Airport, Fort Myers, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property: Fort Myers International Airport, Fort Myers...: The FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties 0.55 acres at the Fort Myers International Airport, Fort Myers, FL from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions...

  11. A Comparison of Sediment Transport Measurements and a Bottom Boundary Layer Model on a Hardbottom Surface Offshore of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziraki, E.; Wren, P.

    2008-12-01

    Two instrumented bottom-mounted quadrapod frames have been deployed on the shoreface and inner- continental shelf of Long Bay, SC offshore of Myrtle Beach in an effort to measure and quantify the cross- and along-shore suspended sediment transport and examine sediment deposition dispersal on nearshore hardbottom habitats. The inshore instrument frame is located 850 meters offshore on an extensive hardbottom surface and the second instrumented frame is secured to a hardbottom surface at a distance of approximately 2.5 km offshore. The nearshore instrumentation includes a downward-looking RDI/Teledyne 1200 kHz Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (PC-ADCP), an upward-looking Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current profiler (AWAC), and a multi-frequency Aquatec Acoustic Backscatter Sensor. The inner- shelf instrumentation includes a Sontek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), a Sequoia LISST-100X, an upward looking RDI 1200 kHz ACDP with wave capabilities, and an Imaginex profiling sonar. Sediment samples have also been collected and analyzed for composition and grain size distribution. Continuous and simultaneous in-situ measurements of directional wave spectra, bottom wave and current velocities, suspended sediment concentration profiles, grain-size distributions, and seabed elevation changes have been collected since July 2008. Additionally, measured near-bottom wave orbital velocities, current velocities at 50 cmab, and sediment grain size data have been input into a bottom boundary layer model (Styles and Glenn, 2002). Model generated profiles of current speed, suspended sediment concentration, and sediment transport due to wave-current interactions have been compared to the measured current, suspended sediment concentration and transport profiles in order to calibrate and verify the bottom boundary layer model over the hardbottom surface. Measured sediment flux and direction over the hardbottom areas have been compared to the BBL model output during several sediment transport events, including Tropical Storm Hannah which made landfall just north of the study area.

  12. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  13. 14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFTRIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER AND 2ND TEE (CENTER), REFUGE BAY (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Nio event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Nia event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study period. In this paper we will exploit regional variability in physical (e.g. sediment supply) and ecological variables (e.g. % cover of exotic beach grass species and density) thought responsible for the varying rates and form of coastal advance in the region. These gradients allow us to test hypotheses regarding the relative role of the various controls on interannual- to decadal-scale coastal evolution.

  16. Myers-Perry Solution in 4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delesma, Francisco A.

    2011-10-01

    In this work it is presented a four-dimensional solution with coupled electromagnetic and scalar fields obtained by a dimensional reduction according to the Kaluza-Klein theory from the five-dimensional Myers-Perry solution, that is a 5D spinning black hole. We found that the five dimensional angular momenta in the four-dimensional solution one of them corresponds to the electromagnetic field while the other is related to the stationarity of the 4D solution.

  17. 8. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from blueprint at Fort Myer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from blueprint at Fort Myer Engineer Activity) 'Double set of Non-Commissioned Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster Generals Office, sheets 2 and 3, standard plan 23, June 1891, Lithographed on linen architectural drawing. 1 PLAN, 3 ELEVATIONS - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  18. 9. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from blueprint at Fort Myer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from blueprint at Fort Myer Engineer Activity) 'Double Set of Non-Commissioned Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster Generals Office, sheet 1 and unnumbered sheet, standard plan 23, June 1891. lithograph on linen architectural drawing 2. PLANS, 1 SECTION, 2 DETAILS - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  19. The observed relationship between wave conditions and beach response, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how sandy beaches respond to storms is critical for effective sediment management and developing successful erosion mitigation efforts. However, only limited progress has been made in relating observed beach changes to wave conditions, with one of the major limiting factors being the lack of temporally dense beach topography and nearshore wave data in most studies. This study uses temporally dense beach topographic and offshore wave data to directly link beach response and wave forcing with generally good results. Ocean Beach is an open coast high-energy sandy beach located in San Francisco, CA, USA. From April 2004 through the end of 2008, 60 three-dimensional topographic beach surveys were conducted on approximately a monthly basis, with more frequent short-term surveys during the winters of 2005-06 and 2006-07. Shoreline position data from the short-term surveys show good correlation with offshore wave height, period, and direction averaged over several days prior to the survey (mean R*=0.54 for entire beach). There is, however, considerable alongshore variation in model performance, with R- values ranging from 0.81 to 0.19 for individual sections of the beach. After wave height, the direction of wave approach was the most important factor in determining the response of the shoreline, followed by wave period. Our results indicate that an empirical predictive model of beach response to wave conditions at Ocean Beach is possible with frequent beach mapping and wave data, and that such a model could be useful to coastal managers.

  20. Beach Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two miles of beach at Cape Canaveral eroded by construction of a port and jetties was recently restored. Such work in harbors of many cities often disrupts normal flow of sand for many miles along coasts. Brevard County, FL residents now enjoy a 400 ft. wide public beach in an area in imminent danger of destructive erosion just a year previously. Before and after aerial photos show how more than two miles of beach were rebuilt with 2.7 million cubic yards of sand helping abate the erosion problem caused by construction of jetties. NASA volunteered its remote-sensing technology and instrumented aircraft to provide low-altitude color infrared photography about every three months since 1972.

  1. 18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSITION FROM WOOD BENTS TO CONCRETE BENTS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING RESTROOMS IN FOREGROUND WITH PUMPHOUSE AND TACKLE BOX BEHIND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TACKLE BOX IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. Walruses Spill Over Beach Banks onto Tundra

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Thousands of walruses gathered to rest on the shore near the Alaskan coastal community of Point Lay during September of 2013 after sea ice disappeared from their offshore foraging grounds in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Walruses clamber up on to the grassy tundra of the barrier island, once the beach b...

  5. The Different Faces of San Francisco's Ocean Beach: Analyzing Sand Size and Beach Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Labit, R.; Lui, S.; Rodriquez, I.; Yi, C.; Yu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level surveying instrument to measure beach profiles and we collected sand samples that were measured using sieves and a sieve shaker. We plotted profiles and grain-size data using Excel and Surfer software. The sediment is mostly fine sand, and the means of all samples range between 0.19-0.26 mm. There may be little variation along the beach because only small sand grains have survived the long journey from their Sierra Nevada source. Profile shape does vary along the beach. The profile at the northern end is about three times wider than the profile at the southern end. The northern profile is flatter overall, but all profiles had a steep beach face in August, when the data were collected. The differences in beach profiles may be related to position relative to the offshore bar, which appears to provide sand to the northern part of the beach. Our group will collect more data in November to see what changes have occurred after the large-wave season has begun. We will use Surfer software to compare summer and fall profiles, to see where sediment has been added and where sediment has been removed. We will also compare our results to the data collected by Dr. Patrick Barnard and his research group at the U.S. Geological Survey, who are using an All-Terrain Vehicle to measure beach profiles and a camera to measure sediment size. We will use our analysis of beach variations to make recommendations for reducing beach erosion.

  6. Greybody factors for Myers-Perry black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Chatrabhuti, Auttakit; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2014-11-01

    The Myers-Perry black holes are higher-dimensional generalizations of the usual (3+1)-dimensional rotating Kerr black hole. They are of considerable interest in Kaluza-Klein models, specifically within the context of brane-world versions thereof. In the present article, we shall consider the greybody factors associated with scalar field excitations of the Myers-Perry spacetimes, and develop some rigorous bounds on these greybody factors. These bounds are of relevance for characterizing both the higher-dimensional Hawking radiation, and the super-radiance, that is expected for these spacetimes.

  7. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where beach state changes gradually alongshore, while the post-storm embayment exhibits an extreme alongshore morphological gradient, from low-energy intermediate to a "complex multi-bar and mega-rip" state at the exposed end of the beach. Further observations are required to determine the prevalence of this high-energy state and to provide inputs to future numerical models designed to examine the dominant forcing controls involved in its formation.

  8. Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Personality Preferences and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner; Meth, Hilda

    1989-01-01

    A study to determine if there are any relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory personality preferences and academic performance in schools of pharmacy is discussed. Differences in academic performance that could be related to gender are reported. (Author/MLW)

  9. Myers-Briggs Types as Predictors of Observed Teacher Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentz, Jeffrey L.; Coker, Homer

    The relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicators (MBTI), 16 personality types, and 55 behavioral indicators of teacher competency were explored. Subjects were 103 classroom teachers, grades K-12, who were observed in regular classrooms during a two-year period using five objectively-scored, low-inference observation systems. These included

  10. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Career Obstacles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Charles C.; Woodward, Geoffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    Relationships between clients' Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores and their career obstacles were investigated. Uses of MBTI are presented briefly. Subjects (N=118) were seeking career counseling; counselors administering the tests and rating clients were blind to the hypothesis. Results of a regression analysis are presented and discussed.

  11. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  12. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  13. Rethinking communication apprehension: a Myers-Briggs perspective.

    PubMed

    Opt, S K; Loffredo, D A

    2000-09-01

    This study is an examination of relationships between Myers-Briggs personality type preferences, based on Jungian theory, and communication apprehension. Results showed that participants who preferred introversion or sensing reported significantly higher levels of communication apprehension in general and across the group, dyadic, meeting, and public contexts than did participants who preferred extraversion or intuition. In addition, participants who preferred feeling reported higher levels of communication anxiety in the public context than those who preferred thinking. Findings support the assumption that communication apprehension is biologically based, suggest that the Myers-Briggs type preference framework offers an alternative way of understanding communication apprehension, and point out the need for new approaches to understanding the phenomenon of communication apprehension. PMID:11034135

  14. Gravitational waves from complexified Myers-Perry black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretn, N.; Feinstein, A.; Lpez, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    In this contribution we complexify five dimensional stationary solutions to obtain time-dependent ones. In particular the analytic continuation of the Myers-Perry black hole is obtained; remarkably, the corresponding time-dependent solution represents a gravitational wave spacetime with boost and rotational symmetries. We also address the complexification of the Emparan-Reall black ring solution, in this case a 5D inhomogeneous closed cosmology is obtained.

  15. Stability of a very coarse-grained beach at Carmel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Monastery Beach at Carmel, California, is a pocket beach composed of very coarse to granular sediment. In profile, the beach has a well-defined berm crest; a steep foreshore; and a gently sloping, barless offshore covered by large, long-crested oscillation ripples. Carmel Submarine Canyon heads a few hundred meters offshore of the beach, and San Jose Creek, a small ephemeral steam, ponds onshore of the central part of the berm. Wave conditions vary greatly during a year because the beach lies open to the Pacific Ocean for azimuths between 270??-322??N whence come a variety of wave types. Even with a variable wave climate, Monastery Beach has maintained a swell profile for almost three years. Aperiodic beach surveys show that the beach responds little to seasonal changes in wave climate. Four survey lines maintained the same swell profile throughout the study period. The fifth line maintained a stable profile only across the foreshore; the berm was twice artificially breached during storms to prevent upstream flooding along San Jose Creek. In comparison, Carmel Beach, a nearby beach composed of medium sand, commonly alternates between swell and storm profiles. The increased stability of Monastery Beach relative to Carmel Beach is attributed to two factors: grain size differences and location within Carmel Bay. Rebuilding proceeded very slowly along the breached part of the berm at Monastery Beach. The probable cause of such a low recovery rate is that oscillation ripples trapped the sand that was carried offshore when San Jose Creek eroded the beach. The ripples, which are active under high-energy conditions, approach dormancy under low-energy conditions. Each ripple, therefore, acts like a reservoir, retaining sand during most swell conditions. ?? 1981.

  16. Myers-Perry black hole in an external gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya

    2015-03-01

    We obtain a new exact solution of the 5D Einstein equations in vacuum describing a distorted Myers-Perry black hole with a single angular momentum. Locally, the solution is interpreted as a black hole distorted by a stationary U (1 )U (1 ) symmetric distribution of external matter. Technically, the solution is constructed by applying a twofold Bcklund transformation on a 5D distorted Minkowski spacetime as a seed. The physical quantities of the solution are calculated, and a local Smarr-like relation on the black hole horizon is derived. It possesses the same form as the Smarr-like relation for the asymptotically flat Myers-Perry black hole. It is demonstrated that in contrast to the asymptotically flat Myers-Perry black hole, the ratio of the horizon angular momentum and the mass J2/M3 is unbounded, and can grow arbitrarily large. We study the properties of the ergoregion and the horizon surface. The external field does not influence the horizon topology. The horizon geometry however is distorted, and any regular axisymmetric geometry is possible.

  17. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship... Indiantown Road and Donald Ross Road, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach...

  18. 33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a line...

  19. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  20. BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

  1. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual weakening tendency from west to east, which is opposite to the trend of the wave conditions outside the breaking region. The presence of submerged shoal (Dengzhou Shoal), deep trough (Dengzhou Channel), islands and irregular topography influnces the wave climate, beach types, wave-induced current features, littoral sediment transport trends and coastline evolution patterns in the southern Bohai Strait. Human activities, such as the sand exploitation of Dengzhou Shoal and other coastal engineering projects, also influence the beach morphology and coastline evolution.

  2. Impact of erosion and accretion on the distribution of enterococci in beach sands

    PubMed Central

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Gorrell, Levi; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in coastal sediments may pose a health risk to users of beaches. Although recent work shows that beach sands harbor both indicator bacteria and potential pathogens, it is not known how deep within beach sands the organisms may persist nor if they may be exposed during natural physical processes. In this study, sand cores of approximately 1 m depth were collected at three sites across the beach face in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina before, during and after large waves from an offshore hurricane. The presence of DNA from the fecal indicator bacterium Enterococci was detected in subsamples at different depths within the cores by PCR amplification. Erosion and accretion of beach sand at the three sites also was determined for each sampling day. The results indicate that ocean beach sands with persisting enterococci signals could be exposed and redistributed when wind, waves, and currents cause beach erosion or accretion. PMID:21984862

  3. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  4. New insights into embayed beach rotation: The importance of wave exposure and cross-shore processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, M. D.; Turner, I. L.; Short, A. D.

    2015-08-01

    Although embayed beach rotation has been viewed and modeled as an alongshore sediment transport process acting on a uniform beach profile, recent research suggests a more complex response whereby alongshore variability in cross-shore sediment fluxes may be more significant. This study utilizes 5 years of fully three-dimensional beach surveys at Narrabeen-Collaroy Beach (SE Australia) to quantify the control of alongshore nonuniform wave exposure and cross-shore processes on embayed beach rotation. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the alongshore variability in subaerial beach volume/width and berm slope confirms that the dominant mode of subaerial beach variability is an onshore/offshore sediment exchange that is strongly controlled (R > 0.8) by the alongshore gradient in breaker wave height and coincides with a uniform flattening/steepening of the berm slope. A secondary rotation-like signal is observed in both the subaerial beach volume/width data and, significantly, the berm slope. This inverse flattening/steepening of the berm slope between beach extremities is most likely a proxy for differing cross-shore processes within the surf zone between the exposed and sheltered ends of the embayment, particularly with regards to dissipation of storm wave energy by offshore sandbars and beach recovery following storms. Analysis of the corresponding wave data reveals two distinct time scales of wave forcing characteristic of short-term erosion and longer-term recovery processes. A new conceptual model is presented of three differing modes of embayed beach rotation, with the newly identified beach rotation mode controlled by offshore sandbars considered of particular importance at embayments where headland sheltering of oblique waves is pronounced.

  5. Writing through the Labyrinth of Fears: The Legacy of Walter Dean Myers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary discusses the legacy of Walter Dean Myers in relationship to advancing writing as an intellectual tool of protection for black male teens. Multiple implications are provided for teachers who want to engage black male teens to write fearlessly to extend the legacy of Walter Dean Myers.

  6. A Technical Review of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(tm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Thomas J.

    This paper describes the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), developed by I. Myers and K. Briggs (1940s) to assess personality type. Based on Jungian theory, the MBTI has become a tool for identifying the 16 different patterns of action into which every person fits. The 16 personality types are based on patterns of: (1) extraversion-introversion;

  7. Making Connections in the Life and Works of Walter Dean Myers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greever, Ellen A.; Austin, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the life and works of acclaimed writer Walter Dean Myers. Describes his struggles growing up, his time in the army, his decision to become a writer, and the father/son relationships in his books. Discusses how Myers' concern for African-American heritage, identity, and pride led to biographies of Sarah Forbes and of Malcolm X. (SR)

  8. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Other Beach Safety Topics Beach Related Illnesses A water quality warning sign advising swimmers to avoid contact with ... a source of longer-term data about beach water quality. EPA created BEACON to provide the Agency's requirement ...

  9. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  10. 33 CFR 167.503 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. 167.503 Section 167.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is established bounded...

  11. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  12. NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY OF BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The annual Beach Survey is designed to gather information about beach water quality, standards, monitoring, and beach health advisories or closures issued during the previous year's bathing season. Each year the survey updates previously submitted beach i...

  13. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach locational data for BEACH Act. Beach locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Beach locations are coded onto region.rch (Waterbody Reach) feature of NHD to create NHD Waterbody Shapefiles...

  14. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  15. Nowcast modeling of Escherichia coli concentrations at multiple urban beaches of southern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Predictive modeling for Escherichia coli concentrations at effluent-dominated beaches may be a favorable alternative to current, routinely criticized monitoring standards. The ability to model numerous beaches simultaneously and provide real-time data decreases cost and effort associated with beach monitoring. In 2004, five Lake Michigan beaches and the nearby Little Calumet River outfall were monitored for E. coli 7 days a week; on nine occasions, samples were analyzed for coliphage to indicate a sewage source. Ambient lake, river, and weather conditions were measured or obtained from independent monitoring sources. Positive tests for coliphage analysis indicated sewage was present in the river and on bathing beaches following heavy rainfall. Models were developed separately for days with prevailing onshore and offshore winds due to the strong influence of wind direction in determining the river's impact on the beaches. Using regression modeling, it was determined that during onshore winds, E. coli could be adequately predicted using wave height, lake chlorophyll and turbidity, and river turbidity (RA?=0.635, N=94); model performance decreased for offshore winds using wave height, wave period, and precipitation (RA?=0.320, N=124). Variation was better explained at individual beaches. Overall, the models only failed to predict E. coli levels above the EPA closure limit (235 CFU/100 ml) on five of eleven occasions, indicating that the model is a more reliable alternative to the monitoring approach employed at most recreational beaches.

  16. Self-Selection Patterns of College Roommates as Identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchors, W. Scott; Hale, John, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated patterns and processes by which students (N=422) made unassisted roommate pairings within residence halls using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Results indicated introverts, intuitives, feelers, and perceivers each tended to self-select. (BL)

  17. Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.

  18. Offshore medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D

    2001-03-01

    Offshore life can be refreshing for medics who are looking for a little change of pace; however, it is not for everyone. Working offshore can be the easiest or most boring job you'll ever have. It takes a specific type of medic to fit this mold. So, if you are considering a career in the offshore field, take all of the above into consideration. You are not just making a change in jobs, but a change in lifestyle. Once you become accustomed to this lifestyle, it will be hard to go back to the everyday hustle and bustle of the streets. For more information about working offshore, contact Acadian Contract Services at 800/259-333, or visit www.acadian.com. PMID:11258303

  19. World offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Redden, J.

    1984-07-20

    An update for offshore operations in the Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina is presented. The points of discussion are exploration targets, production figures, governmental controls, and drilling programs. There is some discussion of land leases.

  20. Physical modeling of three-dimensional intermediate beach morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michallet, H.; Castelle, B.; BarthéLemy, E.; Berni, C.; Bonneton, P.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments have been performed in a large wave tank in order to study the morphodynamics of rip current systems. Both accretive and erosive shore-normal wave conditions were applied, the beach evolving through all the states within the intermediate beach classification, under the so-called down-state (accretive) and up-state (erosive) morphological transitions. Results show that any prescribed change in the wave conditions drastically increases the rate at which the morphology changes. The surf zone morphology tends toward a steady state when running a given wave climate for a long duration. We quantitatively describe a full down-state sequence characterized by the progressive evolution of an alongshore-uniform bar successively into a crescentic plan shape, a bar and rip channel morphology, and a terrace. From the analysis of a large data set of dense Eulerian measurements and bathymetric surveys, we depict several feedback mechanisms associated with wave-driven rip current circulation, wave nonlinearities and the seabed evolution. At first, a positive feedback mechanism drives a rapid increase in the rate of morphological change, beach three-dimensionality, and rip intensity. By the time the sandbar evolves into a bar and rip morphology, a negative feedback mechanism, characterized by a decaying beach change rate and an increasing beach alongshore uniformity, overwhelms the former mechanism. An erosive sequence characterized by both an overall offshore bar migration and an increase in beach three-dimensionality is also described.

  1. North beach (Nazar) sand tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Joo; Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mnica; Cascalho, Joo; Silva, Ana; Bosnic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The littoral in the vicinity of Nazar (West Portuguese coast) is characterized by two distinct coastal stretches separated by Nazar headland: a northern sector (Norte beach) characterized by a high energetic continuous sandy beach and a southern sector (Nazar bay beach) that corresponds to an embayed beach, sheltered by the Nazar headland. The bay is a geomorphological expression of the Nazar canyon head, which acts as powerful sediment sink, capturing the large longshore net southward transport at Norte beach generated by the north Atlantic high energetic swell. The northern side of the canyon head is carved on highly resistant Cretaceous limestone sustaining an underwater vertical relief that emerges on the Nazar headland, creating a unusual nearshore wave pattern. This wave pattern not only concentrates high energy levels at the Norte beach but also contributes to local complex longshore drift gradients capable of inducing beach seasonal cross-shore variations of more than 200 m. The main factors that influence local sediment budget are: (1) canyon head capturing and (2) headland sediment bypassing. To obtain a direct measure of the net longshore drift at Norte beach (upstream boundary of the system) a large scale fluorescent tracer experiment was performed. The data will be used to validate longshore transport formulas in a high energetic environment and to access Nazar canyon head sediment loss. Considering the anticipation of high transport rates, approximately 10 tonnes of native sand where coated with orange fluorescent ink using a set of concrete mixers. The experiment took place on the 9th to 15th September 2013 period and followed the continuous injection method (CIM). The CIM approach was justified by the expected high energy levels that inhibits sediment sampling across the surf zone. During the tracer injection procedure (approx. 5 hours), sediment sampling was performed at 13 sites along a rectilinear coastal stretch extended through 600 m downdrift of the injection point. Tracer was injected at a rate of 16 kg each 30 sec and collected at a frequency of 10 min at each site. Complementary sampling was performed at the inner shelf and at the beach southern of the headland. In order to follow tracer downdrift movement and headland sediment bypassing low resolution sampling was extended through three more days. Oceanographic forcing throughout the experiment was measured by an offshore wave buoy and an ADCP specifically deployed for the experiment. During the first tidal cycle, data from field observations using a hand held UV light showed a southward tracer displacement of more than 600 m. After the second tidal cycle, sediment tracer was detected in the Nazar bay beach showing headland bypassing. Further insights on the sediment transport at the Nazar canyon head system will be supported by the analysis of sediment samples collected at the beach and inner shelf using an automated image analysis system. This work was done in the framework of the PTDC/MAR/114674/2009 program, financed by FCT which the authors acknowledge gratefully.

  2. Can the gold coast beaches withstand extreme events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelle, Bruno; Le Corre, Yann; Tomlinson, Rodger

    2008-02-01

    The Gold Coast sandy beaches of Queensland (Australia) are exposed to energetic wave conditions. Storms, particularly tropical cyclones, have a high potential of destruction. The Gold Coast has not experienced excessive erosive events over the past 30 years. However, some climate indicators suggest that cyclone frequency is likely to increase in response to global climate change within the near future. Over a 2-month period in early 2006, beach surveys were undertaken with a theodolite total station at four different sites. Offshore wave conditions were provided by SWAN regional wave modelling. During this study, the Gold Coast was exposed to three major storms, the first one being the second most energetic over the past 30 years. Results show a substantial variability of the beach response to these events along the Gold Coast, and that engineering structures do not have marked effects. Easterly swells have the greatest impact on the Gold Coast sub-aerial beach morphology. When low wave-energy conditions prevail, the southern Gold Coast beaches recover more quickly than the northern ones, as they are sheltered from high SE waves and draw advantage from the artificial sand bypassing system. Nevertheless, the data show that the Gold Coast beaches are exceedingly fragile. For instance, the early March decadal event considerably weakened the beaches, which resulted in surprisingly high erosion rates all along the Gold Coast during the two following annual wave events. This study suggests that the Gold Coast beaches would not be able to withstand the impact of an increased frequency of extreme events similar in scale to those of 1967.

  3. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  4. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guillén, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The barline extraction was accomplished through an automated alongshore tracking of the intensity maxima across each beach section (Van Enckevort and Ruessink, 2001). The mean Hs during the study period was 0.71 m and the averaged peak period was 5.7 s. The wave height time series shows a cyclic behaviour, with storm periods (October-April) separated by periods of low storm activity (May-October). The two most energetic periods affecting the beaches were from October 2001 to May 2002 and from October 2003 to April 2004 (wave data were obtained from a WANA node [virtual buoy] and direct measurements of the Barcelona-Coastal buoy). Approximately 25 storm events have been identified during the study period (following Ojeda and Guillén [2008], significant storms were defined as those with Hs higher than 2.5 m during the peak of the storm and a minimum duration of 12 h with Hs greater than 1.5 m). The morphological responses of the beach to the storm action determine the morphodynamic state. These responses were grouped into five categories: shoreline advance or retreat, beach rotation, sandbar migration, formation of megacusps, and changes in the sandbar configuration (linear or crescentic shape). The intensity and frequency of these modifications were different in both beaches. Regarding the changes in the morphodynamic state of the beaches, the bar at Bogatell switched more frequently among the four intermediate morphodynamic states during the study period than the bar at La Barceloneta. The bar at La Barceloneta only underwent the complete "reset" of the nearshore morphology (i.e., abrupt change of the plan-view shape of the beach towards a Longshore Bar and Trough state) once, associated with the high-energy wave event occurring on November 2001. At this beach, the strongest storm events produced the offshore migration of the bar and a certain decrease in the bar sinuosity, but did not generate an alongshore parallel bar. Similar storms caused different effects on the two adjacent beaches and, furthermore, the effect of storms of similar characteristics at the same beach, were also different. In the final paper, we will focus on these differential behaviours in an attempt to attain a certain predictability of the beach behaviour after a storm depending on the wave characteristics and the morphodynamic configuration of the beach prior to the storm. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology within the project SEDMET (CTM2006-06919). The work of E. Ojeda and F. Ribas was partially supported by the Spanish government through the FPU and Juan de la Cierva programs, correspondingly. The authors would like to thank Dr. Gerben Ruessink for providing the BLIM software and Puertos del Estado for the wave data. REFERENCES Holman, R.A., Stanley, J., 2007. The history and technical capabilities of Argus. Coast. Eng. 54, 447-491. Ojeda, E., Guillén, J., 2008. Shoreline dynamics and beach rotation of artificial embayed beaches. Mar. Geol. 253, 51-62. Short, A.D., Masselink, G., 1999 Embayed and structurally controlled beaches, in: Short, A.D. (Ed.), Handbook of beach and shoreface morphodynamics. John Wiley & Son, Chichester, pp. 230-250. Van Enckevort, I.M.J., Ruessink, B.G., 2001. Effect of hydrodynamics and bathymetry on video estimates of nearshore sandbar position. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 16969-16979. Wright, L.D., Short, A.D., 1984. Morphodynamic variability of surf zones and beaches: a synthesis. Mar. Geol. 56, 93-118.

  5. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  6. Characteristics of atmospheric dispersion and model predictions offshore the central California coast

    SciTech Connect

    Herkhof, D.C.; Dabberdt, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of atmospheric tracer experiments was conducted off the south-central California coast under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Interior's Minerals Management Service (MMS). The purpose of these experiments was to characterize offshore dispersion and to evaluate offshore dispersion models. One tracer study was conducted in the Santa Barbara Channel near Oxnard, California. Another tracer study as conducted near Pismo Beach, California by Dabberdt et al. The data were used to evaluate models that were current. This paper describes the most important findings of the Pismo Beach tracer experiment and their significance in the development of improved offshore prediction models. It briefly summarized the observed dispersion characteristics obtained from the Pismo Beach tracer experiment; compares the performance of the OCD model with that of the CRSTER model, and presents a discussion of offshore data requirements to optimize model performance.

  7. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  8. Great Lakes Beach Health

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...

  9. Modeling the Economics of Beach Nourishment Decisions in Response to Coastal Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, M.; Ashton, A. D.; Hoagland, P.; Jin, D.; Kite-Powell, H.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2012-12-01

    Beaches are constantly moving and changing. The dynamic transformations of beaches are mostly the result of the erosion of sand, which can occur through movements alongshore caused by waves, movements off-shore due to storms, or submersion due to sea-level rise. Predicted climate change impacts include potential changes in storminess and accelerated sea-level rise, which will lead to increased coastal erosion. At the same time, the number of people residing in coastal communities is increasing. The risks from eroding beaches (increased coastal flooding, damage to infrastructure, and displaced residents) are therefore increasing in number and scale; and coastal residents are taking actions to protect their homes. One such action is beach nourishment, where sand is added to a resident's property in order to widen the beach. We have developed an economic model of beach nourishment decision-making to investigate the relationship between the optimal volume and timing of beach nourishment and factors such as property value, erosion rate, and initial beach width. In this model, waterfront property owners nourish a beach when the losses in net rental income exceed the costs incurred from nourishing the beach. (Rental income is a function of property value, which in turn depends upon the width of the beach.) It is assumed that erosion and sea-level rise are related. We examine different nourishment scenarios, including one-time nourishment in the first year; constant annual nourishment; and a myopic decision process in which the homeowner nourishes the beach if property losses from erosion over the next five years are expected to exceed the cost of nourishment. One-time nourishment delays property flooding for both constant and accelerating sea level rise; however, this delay is more substantial under constant sea level rise. With continual nourishment, the beach can be maintained under constant sea-level rise, provided that the erosion rate is comparable to the additional width from nourishment each year. In contrast, for practical nourishment volumes, erosion from accelerating sea-level rise eventually out-competes beach nourishment and inundation occurs. Under the myopic decision-making model, with both constant and accelerating sea-level rise, nourishment does not take place until a property is critically endangered. The beach slope, nourishment volume, property value, and initial beach width all are found to be important factors in determining when nourishment should start and how frequently it should occur thereafter. These models can be used by policy-makers to formulate better coastal management policies, by coastal geologists to understand human impacts on beach dynamics, and by the insurance industry to realistically anticipate human risk-taking and decision-making.

  10. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  11. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  12. A new form of the five-dimensional Myers-Perry rotating black hole metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Tehani

    2012-03-01

    Painleve'-Gullstrand coordinates are convenient for presenting the Schwarzschild solution because of their flat constant-time hypersurfaces. Generalizations of these coordinates suitable for the rotating Kerr black hole have been presented by Doran and, more recently, Natario. These coordinate systems feature a time coordinate identical to the proper time of zero-angular-momentum observers that are dropped from infinity. Here, the methods of Natario and Doran are extended to the five-dimensional rotating black hole found by Myers and Perry. The result is a new formulation of the Myers-Perry metric. The properties and physical significance of these new coordinates are discussed.

  13. Smarter offshoring.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2006-06-01

    During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future. PMID:16770896

  14. Production using steam injection moves offshore in California field

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1981-10-01

    Aminoil USA Inc. is initiating what is believed to be the oil industry's first effort to stimulate oil production with steam injection from a domestic offshore platform in California. It is part of a campaign to revitalize the Huntington Beach field, a 1920 discovery 35 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles. Aminoil's present production from the field is approximately 20,800 bpd, including approximately 19,000 bpd from the offshore portion of the field. The company hopes to boost daily production to 28,000 bpd by 1988. Aminoil and predecessor companies have been operating the Huntington Beach field since the late 1930s, producing nearly 500 million bbl of oil over that period. An equivalent amount may still remain in the ground. Aminoil is undertaking the test program, including offshore steam injection, to determine how much of that volume may be economically and technically recovered.

  15. Reconstructing the abundance of Dounreay hot particles on an adjacent public beach in Northern Scotland.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Andrew N; Scott, E Marian; Dale, Paul; Elliott, Alex T; Wilkins, Bernie T; Boddy, Keith; Toole, Joe; Cartwright, Phil

    2010-09-15

    Following the discovery of a number of hot particles in the offshore environment of Dounreay on the North Coast of Scotland in 1997, the Dounreay site operator was required to introduce rapid and extensive beach monitoring. Since the introduction of vehicular based beach monitoring in 1999 there have been two further generations of beach monitoring equipment, developed to satisfy regulatory requirements for particle detection and in response to the recommendations of the Dounreay Particles Advisory Group (DPAG). This paper reports the results of DPAG's review of beach monitoring capabilities, evaluating the factors influencing detection capability, assessing the likely monthly particle abundance and whether there has been any real change in particle arrivals with time. The incorporation of real time kinematic GPS has enabled changes in beach elevation to be mapped, and thus allowed the assessment of whether particles detected have recently arrived or may have been buried undisturbed for extended periods of time. The results focus on Sandside Beach from which, between 1984 and December 2009, 150 particles have been recovered. This is by far the largest number of particles found on a Caithness Beach with the exception of the Foreshore of the Dounreay site. The results suggested that there is no evidence for a change in the rate of particle arrivals and DPAG estimated that there is a 1 in 20 million chance of encountering a relevant particle via contact with the skin on Sandside Beach. PMID:20598347

  16. Feedback mechanisms linking barrier island transgression and storm response with beach-dune interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, C.

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the multi-scale feedback relationship of event-scale sediment exchange between beach and dune with long-term barrier island transgression. Using field and remotely sensed data from Santa Rosa Island in northwest Florida and South Padre Island in Texas, it is shown how the alongshore variation in storm washover and breaching is coherent (but in different ways) with transverse ridges that developed on the inner-shelf as the island transgressed. Model results suggest that the ridges are reinforced during tropical storms and hurricanes through the offshore transport of beach and dune sediment eroded by the storm surge. These ridges force an alongshore variation in beach and nearshore state that determines the aeolian transport potential and available sediment supplied from beach to dune. On Santa Rosa Island, dune aeolian transport and dune heights are limited by the steep beachface, such that the largest dunes are found at the crest of the transverse ridges where the beachface is more intermediate. In contrast, Aeolian transport and dune heights are shown to be supply limited on Padre Island, which has a relatively dissipative nearshore and beach. The largest dunes on Padre Island are found between transverse ridges where the profile is more intermediate and sediment is more readily supplied by inter- and supra-tidal swash bars. As a consequence, the largest storm surge and washover occurs at the transverse ridges where the dunes are small, while on Santa Rosa Island, the storm surge is greater where the dunes are larger leading to greater loss of sediment offshore. While Padre Island and Santa Rosa Island represent different beach states and exhibit different mechanisms of beach-dune interaction and storm impact, it is shown that small-scale beach-dune interaction is as much dependent on the geologic framework of the island, which developed as it transgressed, as the transgression and storm response are dependent on the exchange of sediment between beach and dune.

  17. 33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation...

  18. 33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section 167.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation...

  19. Huntington beach shoreline contamination investigation, phase III: coastal circulation and transport patterns : the likelihood of OCSD's plume impacting Huntington beach shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene; Xu, Jingping; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Robertson, George

    2003-01-01

    A consortium of agencies have conducted an extensive investigation of the coastal ocean circulation and transport pathways off Huntington Beach, with the aim of identifying any causal links that may exist between the offshore discharge of wastewater by OCSD and the significant bacterial contamination observed along the Huntington Beach shoreline. This is the third study supported by OCSD to determine possible land-based and coa Although the study identifies several possible coastal ocean pathways by which diluted wastewater may be transported to the beach, including internal tide, sea-breeze and subtidal flow features, there were no direct observations of either the high bacteria concentrations seen in the OCSD plume at the shelf break reaching the shoreline in significant levels or of an association between the existence of a coastal ocean process and beach contamination at or above AB411 levels. It is concluded that the OCSD plume is not a major cause of beach contamination; no causal links could be demonstrated. This conclusion is based on the absence of direct observation of plume-beach links, on analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline contamination and coastal ocean processes, and on the observation of higher levels of contamination at the beach than in the plume.

  20. Beach ridges and prograded beach deposits as palaeoenvironment records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Toru

    2012-09-01

    Beach ridges are landforms commonly developed on prograded coasts with beach shorelines. A sequence of beach ridges, coupled with their subsurface deposits, can be regarded as a time series of coastal evolution. Methodological advances in field surveying and chronology applicable to beach ridges have led to detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to be derived from such sequences. This paper reconsiders the basic aspects of beach ridges and deposits, which need to be properly understood for their comprehensive interpretation in a palaeo-environmental context. It also reviews case studies in which beach-ridge sequences have been used to unveil past sea-level history, catastrophic events, and climate changes. Proposed formative processes of beach ridges include: 1) progradation of sandy beach and berm formations in relation to fairweather waves, coupled with aeolian foredune accumulation; 2) building of gravel ridges by storm waves; 3) welding of longshore bars. Beach-ridge formation through sea-level oscillation is thought to be questionable and caution is suggested for this process when undertaking palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Beach deposit stratification is known to dip either landwards or seawards, but landward dips are uncommon. Seaward dipping stratification is formed in relation to beachface progradation, and is usually dissected in places by erosion surfaces resulting from episodic beach retreat. The boundary between the foreshore and the underlying shoreface is well defined only in the case that longshore bars lead to complex bedding structure relative to that of the foreshore. Reliable chronology of beach ridges can be determined by radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Radiocarbon dating of articulated shells, which are considered not to be extensively reworked, provides robust results, but OSL dating is more useful as it enables direct dating of sediment grains. It is noted that there are restrictions in chronological resolution and continuity inherent to beach ridge and beach deposits. The plan-view geomorphic expression of beach ridges typically consists of ridge sets with multi-decadal intervals, whereas their internal sedimentary structures define shorter time scales. Records of beach sedimentation and erosion are likely to be reworked by episodic high-magnitude beach retreat, and the resultant record of the net progradation is likely to be sporadic and discontinuous. The height of sandy beach ridges is often variable due to differing degrees of aeolian sand accumulation, and they are thus not used as sea-level indicators unless purely wave-built. Gravel ridge height is a relatively reliable indicator of sea level, but can vary in response to storminess fluctuations. Subsurface sediment facies boundaries are preferred as sea-level indicators, and those proposed include: boundaries of aeolian/beach, foreshore/shoreface, and upper/lower shorefaces. Catastrophic events are expressed in both erosional and depositional records. Erosion surfaces, or scarp imprints, revealed in a cross section of beach deposits, indicate storm or tsunami events. However, erosional events are likely to rework previous records of sedimentation and even other erosional events, and thus the apparent history decoded from the resultant deposits tends to be biased. Several attempts for estimating the frequency and intensity of prehistoric cyclones rely on assumed relationships between the level of coarse sand beach ridges and cyclone inundation. The formative process of coarse sand ridges remains uncertain and needs to be clarified, as it constitutes the fundamental basis of these attempts. The growth rates of beach-ridge systems are expected to reflect fluctuations in river sediment discharge to the coast and in aeolian sand flux due to onshore winds, both of which are affected by climate change. Assessment of the growth rate is potentially improved by ground-penetrating radar survey of subsurface structure and by detailed chronology. Orientation of beach ridges reflects long-term trends in wave dir

  1. Important and Unimportant Organizational Communication: Public Employee Freedom of Speech after "Connick v. Myers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wayne C.

    A review of 16 Federal Court of Appeals cases indicates the impact of the "Connick v. Myers" case on the nature of freedom of speech in public organizations. The case involved the firing of an assistant district attorney for circulating a job satisfaction survey after she was transferred to a less desirable section of the courts. Since the 1983

  2. Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) with Physicians: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, David H.

    This document reviews the research on the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), with medical students and physicians. The MBTI is a paper-and-pencil instrument based on C. G. Jung's theory of personality typology. The introductory section of the review describes the MBTI and explains its dimensions (extroverted versus introverted, sensing…

  3. 77 FR 3324 - Release of Airport Property: Page Field, Fort Myers, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...The FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties 1.52 acres at Page Field, Fort Myers, FL from the conditions, release certain properties from all terms, conditions, reservations and restrictions of a Quitclaim Deed agreement, dated June 4, 1947, between the subject airport and the Federal Aviation Administration. The release of property will allow the Lee County......

  4. Failure of the Ingard-Myers boundary condition for a lined duct: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Renou, Ygal; Aurgan, Yves

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with experimental investigation of the lined wall boundary condition in flow duct applications such as aircraft engine systems or automobile mufflers. A first experiment, based on a microphone array located in the liner test section, is carried out in order to extract the axial wavenumbers with the help of an "high-accurate" singular value decomposition Prony-like algorithm. The experimental axial wavenumbers are then used to provide the lined wall impedance for both downstream and upstream acoustic propagation by means of a straightforward impedance education method involving the classical Ingard-Myers boundary condition. The results show that the Ingard-Myers boundary condition fails to predict with accuracy the acoustic behavior in a lined duct with flow. An effective lined wall impedance, valid whatever the direction of acoustic propagation, can be suitably found from experimental axial wavenumbers and a modified version of the Ingard-Myers condition with the form inspired from a previous theoretical study [Aure?gan et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 59-64 (2001)]. In a second experiment, the scattering matrix of the liner test section is measured and is then compared to the predicted scattering matrix using the multimodal approach and the lined wall impedances previously deduced. A large discrepancy is observed between the measured and the predicted scattering coefficients that confirms the poor accuracy provided from the Ingard-Myers boundary condition widely used in lined duct applications. PMID:21786877

  5. Differences in Myers-Briggs Personality Types among High School Band, Orchestra, and Choir Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLellan, Christin Reardon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore personality type differences among high school band, string orchestra, and choir students according to ensemble membership. Participants (N = 355) were high school students who had participated in their school's band, orchestra, or choir for 1 year or more. The author administered the Myers-Briggs Type

  6. Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenk, Naomi L.

    This book provides step-by-step guidance on the administration, scoring, and interpretation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI). The book also contains assessment of the test's strengths and weaknesses, advice on its clinical applications, and several case reports. The chapters are: (1) "Overview"; (2) "How To Administer the MBTI"; (3)

  7. Teacher's Myers-Briggs Personality Profiles: Identifying Effective Teacher Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Stephen; Morgan, Jackson; Richard, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) and Beiderman Risk Taking (BRT) scale were administered to 58 teachers living in the state of Florida, USA. These teachers are considered part of prestigious group of educators who were nominated into the Florida League of Teachers by their superintendents/directors. Descriptive data includes frequency and

  8. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A Measure for Individuals and Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaulley, Mary H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Looks at history and development of the MBTI, characteristics, scores, Jung's theory of lifelong development, the dynamic interaction of the four functions measured by the MBTI, the construction of the MBTI, use with groups, how to use type tables, and use of the MBTI in career counseling. (NB)

  9. Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in the Social Work Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles, Christopher B.

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is one of the most popular measures of personality available today and has been taken by over 12 million people. The MBTI has been successfully utilized for personal and marriage counseling, conflict and stress management, and understanding learning styles. It is perfect for the social work classroom because

  10. Personality Characteristics of South Korean Students with Visual Impairments Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Sunhi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in the frequency and preference scores of personality functions and the frequency of personality types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), by gender, school level, and level of visual function, of students with visual

  11. Utilizing the Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory in Employee Assistance Program Workplace Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles, Christopher B.

    Social work educators are being called upon more often to deliver employee workplace seminars for community agencies on a variety of topics ranging from burnout and stress management to improving workplace communication and managing workplace conflicts. One tool that addresses workplace communication is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). It

  12. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability across Studies: A Meta-Analytic Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Submitted the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to a descriptive reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MBTI scores across administrations. In general the MBTI and its scales yielded scores with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. (SLD)

  13. Interpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to Help Clients in Understanding Their Strong Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Scores of 370 adults on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were correlated with General Occupational Theme (GOT) scores on the Strong Interest Inventory. Simple categorical MBTI scores were related modestly to Strong GOT scores as expected; individual continuous scores did not account for more variance in GOT than in categorical scores. (SK)

  14. Correlations between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Measures of Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Andrew D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Differential Aptitude Tests-Adaptive were completed by 122 university and community career assessment center clients; 99 high school students completed the Ball Aptitude Battery. Such factors as sex, age, and cognitive ability affected the degree to which results were in accord with their Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. (SK)

  15. Enhancing Student Team Effectiveness: Application of Myers-Briggs Personality Assessment in Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Christie H.; Amato, Louis H.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between student perceptions of team learning experience and communication style. Student group learning perceptions were evaluated and team communication style was measured using dyads derived from Myers-Briggs personality profiles. Groups containing similar personalities were classified as compatible,…

  16. No ISCOs in Charged Myers Perry Spacetimes by Measuring Lyapunov Exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2015-01-01

    By computing coordinate time Lyapunov exponent, we prove that for more than four spacetime dimensions (N ? 3), there are no Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) in charged Myers Perry blackhole spacetime.Using it, we show that the instability of equatorial circular geodesics, both massive and massless particles for such types of blackhole space-times.

  17. Gravitational stability of simply rotating Myers-Perry black holes: Tensorial perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, Hideo; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, Alexander

    2010-02-15

    We study the stability of D{>=}7 asymptotically flat black holes rotating in a single two-plane against tensor-type gravitational perturbations. The extensive search of quasinormal modes for these black holes did not indicate any presence of growing modes, implying the stability of simply rotating Myers-Perry black holes against tensor-type perturbations.

  18. Enhancing Student Team Effectiveness: Application of Myers-Briggs Personality Assessment in Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Christie H.; Amato, Louis H.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between student perceptions of team learning experience and communication style. Student group learning perceptions were evaluated and team communication style was measured using dyads derived from Myers-Briggs personality profiles. Groups containing similar personalities were classified as compatible,

  19. Opposition from Christians to Myers-Briggs Personality Typing: An Analysis and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Myers-Briggs personality typing is widely used in the Christian church as an aid to individual self-understanding and spiritual formation. However, some Christian leaders have expressed doubt about its validity in understanding human personality and also opposition to its use in nurturing spiritual growth. The aim of the work reported was to

  20. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Teaching-Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaulley, Mary H.

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was developed specifically to make possible the implementation of Carl Jung's theory of type and is concerned mainly with conscious elements of the personality. It assumes that to function well, an individual must have a well-developed system for perception and a well-developed system for making decisions or

  1. Myers-Briggs Attitude Typology: The Influence of Birth Order with Other Family Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Virginia K.; Coll, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influence of birth order with parenting style, age spacing, gender, and socioeconomic status on the Myers-Briggs attitude scales of Extroversion/Introversion and Judging/Perceiving. Results indicate that age spacing interacted with birth order to influence Extroversion/Introversion scores. Parenting style and gender interacted…

  2. Threads in Our Cultural Fabric: A Conversation with Walter Dean Myers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Roger

    1994-01-01

    Presents an interview with Walter Dean Myers, the 1994 recipient of the Margaret A. Edwards Award for his novels depicting African American teenagers in urban America. Highlights include black stereotypes; writing from a black point of view; writing about a culture that's not your own; and readers identifying with characters. (LRW)

  3. Development of the barrier system at Ferry Beach, Maine--Evidence of transgressive and regressive phases

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heteren, S.; Fitzgerald, D.M. . Dept. of Geology); Fink, L.K. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Ferry Beach is part of a barrier system that borders the southern end of the Saco Embayment. This portion of the coast is characterized by mesotidal conditions and low wave energy. The beaches in this area are fronted by a low gradient sandy offshore and backed by a continuous foredune ridge. The backbarrier consists of fresh water ponds at Ferry Beach, in the central part, and salt marshes adjacent to Saco River and Goosefare Brook. New ground-penetrating radar and vibracore data, supplemented with topographic profiles, have enabled the delineation and interpretation of the major stratigraphic units present at Ferry Beach. The internal structure of the barrier lithosome and backbarrier sedimentary unit shows evidence of three phases in the late Holocene development of the study area. The first, transgressive phase is identified in the unconformity between glaciomarine clays of the Presumpscot Formation and overlying backbarrier, barrier, and shoreface units. The second, transitional phase is recognized as a distinctly outlined sandy unit with landward and southward dipping layers on top of backbarrier and shoreface deposits. The unit is inferred to be either a recurved spit deposit or part of a new barrier incompletely welded to the older beach ridges. The third, regressive phase has resulted in the present-day beach ridge system. The barrier lithosome associated with this phase is characterized by 150 m of offshore dipping layers. The evolutionary style of the Ferry Beach barrier system is likely linked to variations in rates of relative sea-level rise and sediment supply. Rapid rise of relative sea level was the determining factor during Phase 1, while offshore and longshore (notably from the Saco River) sediment supply during the Holocene sediment maximum caused the barrier expansion during Phases 2 and 3.

  4. Swash Zone Sediment Dynamics on Steep and Shallow Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, J. R.; Butt, T.; Russell, P. E.; Masselink, G.; Evans, D.; Ganderton, P.; Huntley, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    In the swash zone, high sediment concentrations and large flow velocities mean that the potential for sediment transport and beach profile change is considerable. However, our understanding of the contribution of different suspension mechanisms (e.g. velocity, acceleration, turbulence, in/exfiltration) on beaches of different slopes is limited. Furthermore, the cross-shore structure of sediment transport in the swash zone is poorly understood. Field measurements of swash hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics and profile change have therefore been made at a dissipative, fine grained beach in North Cornwall, UK (Perranporth), and at a steeper, coarser grained beach in West Cornwall (Sennen). Velocities were measured at high frequency close to the bed using a vertical array of two electromagnetic current meters and 2-D and 3-D acoustic dppler velocimeters. Suspended sediment concentrations were measured using a vertical array of miniature optical backscatter sensors. Further to this, run-up data were collected using video, pressure sensors were used to measure wave heights and pressure gradients in the bed, and surveys were taken at each low tide to establish profile change. On both beaches, large suspended sediment concentrations (200kg/m3) were measured in the initial (turbulent) part of the uprush. On the dissipative beach, secondary waves behind the initial uprush suspended an order of magnitude less sediment than the initial front. On the steep beach, the high uprush concentrations in the inner swash were well correlated with downward pressure gradients in the bed, suggesting a dominance of boundary layer thinning over sediment stabilisation. During the backwash, a second peak in concentration occurred, although backwash velocities were not as efficient at suspending sediment than uprush velocities. The net cross-shore transport from uprush and backwash was examined in relation to cross-shore position in the swash. Data from high-energy conditions showed that on both beaches, onshore transport dominated in the inner swash zone on both flood and ebb tides. A zero crossing in the cross-shore transport occurred at the mid swash zone on the flood tide on both beaches. Offshore transport occurred seaward of this point. The transport divergence point shifted landward in both cases during the ebb tide, possibly due to differences in the water table. Further detailed analysis of data is being carried out in order to examine the role of the various mechanisms of suspension, and their contribution at different cross-shore positions in the swash.

  5. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of predatory fauna such as decapods and fish, and restrict their abundance.

  6. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. PMID:23290717

  7. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  8. Exploring rippled scour depressions offshore Huntington Beach, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Eleyne L.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Dartnell, Peter; Edwards, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists used 1999 multibeam data, and 2002 lidar data collected on the inner shelf off southern California to investigate a field of (<1 m) features, termed "Rippled Scour Depressions" (RSDs). RSDs are elongate, shore-normal, and bathymetrically depressed features; their morphology was determined from multibeam and lidar bathymetry. Wavelengths of ripples seen within RSDs and on the surrounding seafloor were calculated from photography and video collected in 2004 and related to sediment samples collected in the same year. The RSDs were divided into two areas: Region I RSDs contained large (∼80 cm wavelength), straight-crested ripples with coarse-grained lag, and decreased in area between 1999 and 2002; Region II RSDs were smaller, in shallower water, closer to shore, and contained shorter (∼30 cm wavelength) ripples, and increased in area from 1999–2002. The RSDs did not display marked alongshore asymmetry.

  9. Coastal loading and transport of Escherichia coli at an embayed beach in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Z.; Nevers, M.B.; Schwab, D.J.; Whitman, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    A Chicago beach in southwest Lake Michigan was revisited to determine the influence of nearshore hydrodynamic effects on the variability of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in both knee-deep and offshore waters. Explanatory variables that could be used for identifying potential bacteria loading mechanisms, such as bed shear stress due to a combined wave-current boundary layer and wave runup on the beach surface, were derived from an existing wave and current database. The derived hydrodynamic variables, along with the actual observed E. coli concentrations in the submerged and foreshore sands, were expected to reveal bacteria loading through nearshore sediment resuspension and swash on the beach surface, respectively. Based on the observation that onshore waves tend to result in a more active hydrodynamic system at this embayed beach, multiple linear regression analysis of onshore-wave cases further indicated the significance of sediment resuspension and the interaction of swash with gull-droppings in explaining the variability of E. coli concentration in the knee-deep water. For cases with longshore currents, numerical simulations using the Princeton Ocean Model revealed current circulation patterns inside the embayment, which can effectively entrain bacteria from the swash zone into the central area of the embayed beach water and eventually release them out of the embayment. The embayed circulation patterns are consistent with the statistical results that identified that 1) the submerged sediment was an additional net source of E. coli to the offshore water and 2) variability of E. coli concentration in the knee-deep water contributed adversely to that in the offshore water for longshore-current cases. The embayed beach setting and the statistical and numerical methods used in the present study have wide applicability for analyzing recreational water quality at similar marine and freshwater sites. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Painleve-gullstrand-type Coordinates for the Five-dimensional Myers-Perry Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Tehani Kahi

    2013-01-01

    The Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates provide a convenient framework for presenting the Schwarzschild geometry because of their flat constant-time hypersurfaces, and the fact that they are free of coordinate singularities outside r=0. Generalizations of Painlev´e-Gullstrand coordinates suitable for the Kerr geometry have been presented by Doran and Nat´ario. These coordinate systems feature a time coordinate identical to the proper time of zero-angular-momentum observers that are dropped from infinity. Here, the methods of Doran and Nat´ario are extended to the five-dimensional rotating black hole found by Myers and Perry. The result is a new formulation of the Myers-Perry metric. The properties and physical significance of these new coordinates are discussed.

  11. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Carbonate beaches are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved shoreward to the beach, transport along the shore and sometimes, eventually lost offshore, often as the result of tropical storms. Comprehensive studies of the balance between the supply and loss of carbonate sediments and beach dynamics have been completed for the islands of Mauritius and Barbados. Field studies and remote sensing (Compact Airborne Spectrometry Imaging) have been applied to develop carbonate sediment production rates for a range of reef and lagoon conditions. Using GIS, these production rates have been integrated to determine sediment supply rates for different segments of the coastline. 1-D and 2-D models of waves, hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphodynamics were set-up and tested against observed beach response to storm events or a sequence of storm events. These complex deterministic models are not suitable for application over periods of decades. However, it was possible to characterize storm events by the extent of sand loss, and relate this to key descriptive factors for groups of storm events, thereby encapsulating the erosion response. A long-term predictive tool for evaluating beach erosion and accretion response, over a period of several decades, was developed by combining the supply rates for carbonate sediment and the encapsulated representation of the loss rates through physical processes. The ability of this predictive tool was successfully tested against observed long term beach evolution along sections of the coast in Barbados and Mauritius using air photo analysis in GIS for shoreline change over periods of 40 years. The long-term predictive tool for carbonate beach evolution provided valuable support to developing coastal zone management policy and actions to preserve the beaches in their natural form, minimizing the need for artificial nourishment of the beaches. Many models of sediment movement on shorelines are derived from clastic examples, and fit carbonate coastlines only with difficulty. We have combined field surveys of benthic biota, estimates of sediment production from skeletal growth and bioerosion, and sediment destruction by comminution and dissolution with dynamic models of sediment movement in the littoral zone, achieving improved understanding of coastal processes of erosion and deposition. Mauritius is fringed by shallow lagoons, often with luxuriant stands of Acropora. The offshore region is exhumed Pleistocene-all the sediment on the beaches comes from the lagoons. From surveys of coral cover, and estimates of sediment production from reef, sand and hardground areas, we produced dynamic models that faithfully hindcast shoreline dynamics for decades, and allowed identification of regions especially vulnerable to erosion. On the south coast of Barbados, one of the main issues in stabilising and rehabilitation the coastline is the balance between sediment from longshore drift and local sources. By identifying localised areas of characteristic sediment-producers (e.g., the foraminiferan Homotrema rubrum, the green alga Halimeda), we were able to determine the balance between proximal and distal sediment sources. The resulting model hindcasts the coastline through all the major hurricanes of the past 30 years.

  12. Remarks on the Myers-Perry and Einstein-Gauss Rotating Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabaln, Andres; Deruelle, Nathalie; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    The Kerr-type solutions of the five-dimensional Einstein and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet equations look pretty similar when written in Kerr-Schild form. However the Myers-Perry spacetime is circular whereas the rotating solution of the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory is not. We explore some consequences of this difference in particular regarding the (non)existence of Boyer-Lindquist-type coordinates and the extension of the manifold.

  13. Integrable models associated with Myers-Perry-AdS-dS black hole in diverse dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orekhov, Kirill

    2014-12-01

    Myers-Perry-AdS-dS black hole exhibits SO(2 , 1) U(n) symmetry in the near horizon limit in the special case that all rotation parameters are equal. We consider a massive relativistic particle propagating on such a background and reduce it to superintegrable angular mechanics with U(n) symmetry. A complete set of functionally independent u(n) generators realized in the model is given.

  14. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  15. Field evidence of beach profile evolution toward equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Yates, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    An equilibrium framework is used to describe the evolution of the cross-shore profile of five beaches (medium grain size sand) in southern California. Elevations were observed quarterly on cross-shore transects extending from the back beach to 8 m depth, for 3-10 years. Transects spaced 100 m in the alongshore direction are alongshore averaged into nineteen 700-900 m long sections. Consistent with previous observations, changes about the time average profile in many sections are captured by the first mode empirical orthogonal function (EOF). The first EOF poorly describes sections with hard substrate (less than roughly 80% sandy bottom) and also fails near the head of a submarine canyon and adjacent to an inlet. At the 12 well-described sections, the time-varying amplitude of the first EOF, the beach state A, describes the well-known seasonal sand exchange between the shoreline and offshore (roughly between 4 and 7 m depth). We show that the beach state change rate dA/dt depends on the disequilibrium between the present state A and wave conditions, consistent with the equilibrium concepts of Wright and Short (1984) and Wright et al. (1985). Empirically determined, optimal model coefficients using the framework of Yates et al. (2009a, 2011) vary between sections, but a single set of globally optimized values performs almost as well. The model implements equilibrium concepts using ad hoc assumptions and empirical parameter values. The similarity with observed profile change at five southern California beaches supports the underlying model equilibrium hypotheses, but for unknown reasons the model fails at Duck, NC.

  16. Concepts in gravel beach dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscombe, Daniel; Masselink, Gerhard

    2006-11-01

    The dominant processes in gravel beach dynamics are reviewed, highlighting some common themes which unify the various components of the gravel beach system, the repercussions of which impart on how gravel beach dynamics might be understood conceptually. In particular, gravel beach dynamics are thought to be highly dependent on the temporal and spatial variation in grain size, and the continual adjustments made by an active beach step, both of which act not only as the expression of changing morphodynamic conditions, but also as a controlling influence. Morphodynamics, the notion that the exchanges on beaches between the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and morphological change takes the form of reciprocal relationships which are mediated through feedback mechanisms (in such a way that they cannot be thought of or studied independently) is not a new one. Yet it appears that for the gravel beach, morphodynamics must be re-defined to describe conditions where variations in sediment size are thought to deserve parity, rather than as merely a sequent entity or boundary condition. 'Morpho-sedimentary-dynamics' is a phrase coined to intuit such cause and effect, detailing the co-evolution of morphology, hydro-hydraulics and sediment properties whilst acknowledging causative pluralism, feedbacks and multiplier effects. This is the recommended conceptual framework within which to crystallise thought and organise further research for the gravel beach. Essentially, it increases the minimum number of parameters needed to describe the state of the gravel beach as a physical system. Therefore, it is advised that simplicity will be most expedient in our future modelling efforts, if complexity is to be adequately encapsulated.

  17. 33 CFR 167.500 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.500 Section 167.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of...

  18. 33 CFR 167.503 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. 167.503 Section 167.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic...

  19. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePLUS

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  20. Source discrimination of fine-grained deposits occurring on marine beaches: The Calvados beaches (eastern Bay of the Seine, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrulle, C.; Lesueur, P.; Boust, D.; Dugu, O.; Poupinet, N.; Lafite, R.

    2007-03-01

    In tide-dominated systems, fine-grained deposits occur in intertidal areas of inner estuaries as loci of convergence of fluvial and marine material. Even in the vicinity of estuaries, mud deposits are rare on open sandy beaches. This study focuses on temporary occurrences of muddy sediments on marine beaches along the Calvados coastline in Normandy, adjacent to the macrotidal Seine estuary (France). Clay mineralogy, major-minor-trace elements and radionuclides were used as particulate markers to determine the provenance of the mud deposits. The fine fraction, defined here as particles <50 ?m, was analysed, in surficial muddy sediments on seven beaches between the Seine estuary and the Orne river mouth, sampled between February 2002 and June 2003. The deposits were compared to earlier Holocene relict deposits, which crop out on some beaches and on the shoreface, and to Mesozoic marls and limestones, which have detached from the coastal cliffs. The use of the three types of particulate markers revealed no significant seasonal or geographical variations between the beaches. The muddy deposits were made up of the same sedimentary pool of particles. The clay mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of these mud deposits enabled modern (i.e. present-day and earlier Holocene fine silts and clays) to be distinguished from ancient (i.e. Mesozoic) sediments. The use of radionuclides ( 60Co and 137Cs) confirmed the marine influence in the modern deposits, with a decreasing gradient along the Calvados beaches towards the east. The presence of several specific major-minor-trace elements (e.g. Ti, P) revealed that some of the fine material originated in the Seine estuary. Despite the occurrence of easily erodable rocks (i.e. clays, marls and limestones) in the coastal cliffs, this source represented a limited supply, which is only of local significance. Small rivers, such as the Orne, Dives and Touques which discharge in the study area act as secondary suppliers of fine-grained material to this system. In spite of the exposed coastal setting where strong tidal currents and waves occur, the beaches have become a distal part of the Seine estuarine system and form a temporary sink for strongly mixed fine material mainly of riverine (Seine River) and open marine (Bay of the Seine and the Central English Channel) origins. This is consistent with the infilling of the estuary, the reduction in accommodation space in its inner part, and the offshore shifting of the depocentre of the mud.

  1. 11 things a geologist thinks an engineer should know about carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    This is a review of the geological aspects of carbonate beaches that a geologist thinks may be useful for an engineer. Classical geologic problems of carbonate beaches, for example how ancient examples are recognized in rock sequences, are of little interest to engineers. Geologists not involved in engineering problems may find it difficult to know what an engineer should understand about carbonate beaches. Nevertheless, there are at least eleven topics that are potentially very useful for engineers to keep in mind. These eleven are chosen with as much thought going into what has been omitted as has been given to the eleven included topics. Some qualifications are in order: First, this paper does not discuss certain kinds of carbonate shorelines that are beyond the scope of engineering issues. For example, this review does not discuss very high-energy carbonate boulder beaches. These beaches are comprised of pieces of carbonate material ganging in size from ten centimeters to meters. Typically, these are high-energy storm deposits formed from pieces of either eroded carbonate rock or other large carbonate pieces such as pieces of large corals. This paper focuses on sand-sized (0.0625–2.0 mm) coastal carbonate deposits. Second, offshore beaches will not be discussed. There are many carbonate beaches that form on banks or shoals exposed at low tide, but our discussion is confined to what most people think of when they go to some tropical island and/or resort and walk out to lay on the beach. Third, this paper does not consider mixed carbonate/quartz sand beaches. While mixed beaches are common, only the end member of purely carbonate sand beaches is considered. Fourth, there will be no order of preference of the eleven topics. And lastly, these eleven topics are not consensus items. These are simply one geologist s thoughts about the aspects of carbonate beaches that would be useful for engineering colleagues to keep in mind. Where possible, general reference is made to textbooks that will lead the reader to extensive literature on carbonate sediments. Several of the topics are not so broad as to have had a large general treatment in texts, and in those cases some original literature is cited.

  2. Preliminary hydrodynamic results of a field experiment on a barred beach, Truc Vert beach on October 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sénéchal, N.; Dupuis, H.; Bonneton, P.

    A field experiment conducted on a sandy barred beach, situated on the southern part of the French Atlantic coastline, allowed us to investigate the impact of the intertidal bar on the wave-energy dissipation on the beach face in presence of a high-energy long-incoming swell (significant wave height of about 1.7 to 3.0 m in 56 m water depth and significant wave period about 12 s). Data were collected along three parallel cross-shore transects deployed along an intertidal ridge and runnel system. Wave heights in the inner surf zone are depth-limited, consistent with previous works, and the wave-energy dissipation in the inner surf zone appears to be relatively independent of the offshore energy level. On the other hand, the presence of the bar seems to scatter the data. In models of surf-zone hydrodynamics, wave-energy dissipation is often parameterized in terms of γ, the ratio of the sea-swell significant wave height to the local mean water depth. The observed values of γ are not constant along a cross-shore transect, and increase onshore. Furthermore, the observed γ values observed onshore the intertidal bar are higher than those observed outside the influence of the intertidal bar, and this cannot be fully explained by the different local beach slope.

  3. Understanding Variability in Beach Slope to Improve Forecasts of Storm-induced Water Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, K. S.; Stockdon, H. F.; Long, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards combines measurements of beach morphology with storm hydrodynamics to produce forecasts of coastal change during storms for the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. Wave-induced water levels are estimated using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon et al. (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. Seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of a meter in wave runup elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. Spatial variation in beach slope is accounted for through alongshore averaging, but temporal variability in beach slope is not included in the final computation of the likelihood of coastal change. Additionally, input morphology may be years old and potentially very different than the conditions present during forecast storm. In order to improve our forecasts of hurricane-induced coastal erosion hazards, the temporal variability of beach slope must be included in the final uncertainty of modeled wave-induced water levels. Frequently collected field measurements of lidar-based beach morphology are examined for study sites in Duck, North Carolina, Treasure Island, Florida, Assateague Island, Virginia, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, with some records extending over a period of 15 years. Understanding the variability of slopes at these sites will help provide estimates of associated water level uncertainty which can then be applied to other areas where lidar observations are infrequent, and improve the overall skill of future forecasts of storm-induced coastal change. Stockdon, H. F., Holman, R. A., Howd, P. A., and Sallenger Jr, A. H. (2006). Empirical parameterization of setup,swash, and runup. Coastal engineering, 53(7), 573-588.

  4. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast Orange Beach quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Orange Beach topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Wolf Bay, Perdido Bay, and Bayou St. John and adjacent areas in the vicinity of Orange Beach, Ala., and along the beaches exposed to the Gulf of Mexico, from Romar Beach, Ala., eastward to Perdido Key, in Florida. Damage from wind and tidal waves was widespread. The greatest damage occurred along Perdido Key in Alabama and Florida where many homes were destroyed and the highway was washed out in several places. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  5. Coupling alongshore variations in wave energy to beach morphologic change using the SWAN wave model at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshleman, Jodi L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal managers have faced increasing pressure to manage their resources wisely over the last century as a result of heightened development and changing environmental forcing. It is crucial to understand seasonal changes in beach volume and shape in order to identify areas vulnerable to accelerated erosion. Shepard (1950) was among the first to quantify seasonal beach cycles. Sonu and Van Beek (1971) and Wright et al. (1985) described commonly occurring beach states. Most studies utilize widest spaced 2-D cross shore profiles or shorelines extracted from aerial photographs (e.g. Winant et al. 1975; Aubrey, 1979, Aubrey and Ross, 1985; Larson and Kraus, 1994; Jimenez et al., 1977; Lacey and Peck, 1998; Guillen et al., 1999; Norcorss et al., 2002) to analyzed systematic changes in beach evolution. But with the exception of established field stations, such as Duck, NC (Birkemeier and Mason, 1984), ans Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS) in Japan (Katoh, 1997), there are very few beach change data sets with high temporal and spatial resolutions (e.g. Dail et al., 2000; Ruggiero et al., 2005; Yates et al., in press). Comprehensive sets of nearshore morphological data and local in situ measurements outside of these field stations are very rare and virtually non-existent high-energy coasts. Studied that have attempted to relate wave statistics to beach morphology change require some knowledge of the nearshore wave climate, and have had limited success using offshore measurement (Sonu and Van Beek, 1971; Dail et al., 2000). The primary objective of this study is to qualitatively compare spatially variable nearshore wave predictions to beach change measurements in order to understand the processes responsible for a persistent erosion 'hotspot' at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA. Local wave measurements are used to calibrate and validate a wave model that provides nearshore wave prediction along the beach. The model is run for thousands of binned offshore wave conditions to help isolate the effects of offshore wave direction and period on nearshore wave predictions. Alongshore varying average beach change statistics are computed at specific profile locations from topographic beach surveys and lidar data. The study area is located in the San Francisco Bight in central California. Ocean Beach is a seven kilometer long north-south trending sandy coastline located just south of the entrance to the San Francisco Bay Estuary (Figure 1). It contains an erosion hotspot in the southern part of the beach which has resulted in damage to local infrastructure and is the cause of continued concern. A wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling efforts have been focused here as part of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) San Francisco Bight Coastal Processes Study, which began in October 2003 and represents the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to very strong tidal flows, with measured currents often in excess of 1 m/s at the north end of the beach. Current profiler measurements indicate that current magnitudes are greater in the northern portion of the beach, while wave energy is greater in the southern portion where erosion problems are greatest (Barnard et al., 2007). The sub-aerial beach volume fluctuates seasonally over a maximum envelope of 400,000 m3 for the seven kilometer stretch (Barnard et al, 2007). The wave climate in the region is dominated by an abundance of low frequency energy (greater than 20 s period) and prevailing northwest incident wave angles. The application of a wave model to the region is further complicated by the presence of the Farallon Islands 40 kilometers west, and a massive ebb tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (~150 km2), which creates complicated refraction patterns as wave energy moves from offshore Ocean Beach; however the cost and threat of the energetic nearshore environment have limited the temporal and spatial resolution of these measurements. Applying numerical models to predict wave and current patterns along the beach can help supplement the filed data that exists and provide opportunities to make prediction about the impacts of changing environmental forcing.

  6. 1919: psychology and psychoanalysis, Cambridge and London - Myers, Jones and MacCurdy.

    PubMed

    Forrester, John

    2008-01-01

    Viewing the reception of psychoanalysis in Britain from Cambridge, the paper examines the intertwining histories of the post-War British Psychological Society and the founding of the British Psycho-Analytical Society, following the initiatives of the two principal psychological entrepreneurs of the era, Charles Myers and Ernest Jones, Reforms in Cambridge in which psychoanalysis played a significant part are analysed, including the foundation of a Clinic for Nervous Diseases and the establishment of a separate Department of Experimental Psychology. The career of J. T. MacCurdy, Jones's student and Lecturer in Psychopathology at Cambridge, is discussed. PMID:19618518

  7. Local energy decay of massive Dirac fields in the 5D Myers-Perry metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Thierry; Kamran, Niky

    2012-07-01

    We consider massive Dirac fields evolving in the exterior region of a five-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole and study their propagation properties. Our main result states that the local energy of such fields decays in a weak sense at late times. We obtain this result in two steps: first, using the separability of the Dirac equation, we prove the absence of a pure point spectrum for the corresponding Dirac operator; second, using a new form of the equation adapted to the local rotations of the black hole, we show by a Mourre theory argument that the spectrum is absolutely continuous. This leads directly to our main result.

  8. Small deformations of extreme five dimensional Myers-Perry black hole initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaee, Aghil; Kunduri, Hari K.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a one-parameter family of initial data for the vacuum Einstein equations in five dimensions representing small deformations of the extreme Myers-Perry black hole. This initial data set has `' symmetry and preserves the angular momenta and horizon geometry of the extreme solution. Our proof is based upon an earlier result of Dain and Gabach-Clement concerning the existence of -invariant initial data sets which preserve the geometry of extreme Kerr (at least for short times). In addition, we construct a general class of transverse, traceless symmetric rank 2 tensors in these geometries.

  9. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Oriole Beach, Garcon Point, Holley, South of Holley and Navarre quadrangles, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Marvin A.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Oriole Beach-Garcon Point-Holley-South of Holley-Navarre, Fla., topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Santa Rosa Sound and the Gulf of Mexico from Pensacola Beach eastward to the Narrows near Fort Walton Beach, Fla. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  10. 76 FR 38015 - Safety Zones; July 4th Weekend Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... fireworks events on the navigable waterways of Anna Maria, Fort Myers Beach, Longboat Key, Madeira Beach... 2, 2011. 2. Anna Maria, Florida. All waters within a 120 yard radius around the area from which the fireworks will be launched, located on the Gulf of Mexico just offshore of Sand Bar Restaurant in Anna...

  11. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects of E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking./grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. coli recovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colongy-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. coli counts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p <0.0001), and there was no significant difference between control and raking treatments (p<0.01). This study demonstrates the beach management implications related to grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  12. First Response to "The Teacher as a Service Professional," by Donald A. Myers: Don't Settle for a Booby Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John

    2008-01-01

    In this response to Donald A. Myers's "The Teacher as a Service Professional" (2008 [this issue]), the author suggests that teacher educators should not buy into Myers's concept because such would sell them short and be counterproductive to the advancement of the teaching profession. Teacher educators must not give up their struggle to advance the…

  13. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  14. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach

  15. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos

  16. Offshore yearbook, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is an annual compilation of information and articles on offshore petroleum operations. It includes an industry analysis, engineering highlights, a news review of the Western Hemisphere, and an industry outlook for 1987. It provides survey information on deepwater wells, worldwide offshore daily oil production, producing fields by country, and international offshore well count. It also contains mobile rig statistics, including rig scrappings, rig name changes, cold-stacked and for-sale units, and unit types.

  17. Wave run-up on a high-energy dissipative beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Peter; Holman, R. A.; Beach, R. A.

    2004-06-01

    Because of highly dissipative conditions and strong alongshore gradients in foreshore beach morphology, wave run-up data collected along the central Oregon coast during February 1996 stand in contrast to run-up data currently available in the literature. During a single data run lasting approximately 90 min, the significant vertical run-up elevation varied by a factor of 2 along the 1.6 km study site, ranging from 26 to 61% of the offshore significant wave height, and was found to be linearly dependent on the local foreshore beach slope that varied by a factor of 5. Run-up motions on this high-energy dissipative beach were dominated by infragravity (low frequency) energy with peak periods of approximately 230 s. Incident band energy levels were 2.5 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than the low-frequency spectral peaks and typically 96% of the run-up variance was in the infragravity band. A broad region of the run-up spectra exhibited an f-4 roll off, typical of saturation, extending to frequencies lower than observed in previous studies. The run-up spectra were dependent on beach slope with spectra for steeper foreshore slopes shifted toward higher frequencies than spectra for shallower foreshore slopes. At infragravity frequencies, run-up motions were coherent over alongshore length scales in excess of 1 km, significantly greater than decorrelation length scales on moderate to reflective beaches.

  18. Wave run-up on a high-energy dissipative beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Holman, R.A.; Beach, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because of highly dissipative conditions and strong alongshore gradients in foreshore beach morphology, wave run-up data collected along the central Oregon coast during February 1996 stand in contrast to run-up data currently available in the literature. During a single data run lasting approximately 90 min, the significant vertical run-up elevation varied by a factor of 2 along the 1.6 km study site, ranging from 26 to 61% of the offshore significant wave height, and was found to be linearly dependent on the local foreshore beach slope that varied by a factor of 5. Run-up motions on this high-energy dissipative beach were dominated by infragravity (low frequency) energy with peak periods of approximately 230 s. Incident band energy levels were 2.5 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than the low-frequency spectral peaks and typically 96% of the run-up variance was in the infragravity band. A broad region of the run-up spectra exhibited an f-4 roll off, typical of saturation, extending to frequencies lower than observed in previous studies. The run-up spectra were dependent on beach slope with spectra for steeper foreshore slopes shifted toward higher frequencies than spectra for shallower foreshore slopes. At infragravity frequencies, run-up motions were coherent over alongshore length scales in excess of 1 km, significantly greater than decorrelation length scales on moderate to reflective beaches. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will need to assess the persistence and impact of the newly formed microbial communities to the overall sandy beach ecosystems. PMID:25036744

  20. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  1. Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will need to assess the persistence and impact of the newly formed microbial communities to the overall sandy beach ecosystems. PMID:25036744

  2. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  3. The shapes of beach pebbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Chester K.

    1923-01-01

    There is much confusion in geologic literature as to the shapes of fluvial and beach pebbles and the differences between them, if differences exist. Though the contrary has been asserted, most geologists who have written on the subject appear to hold the view that beach pebbles are generally flatter than river pebbles, having discoid, lozenge-shaped, ellipsoid, or oval forms. It is asserted by some that these forms are produced by pushing of the rock fragments to and fro by the waves. Others have considered that the shapes of the original fragments and the inherent structure of the rock are dominant in determining the shapes of beach pebbles, and with this view the writer is in accord. That beach pebbles, even those composed of massive igneous rocks are commonly of a flattened oval form seems certain, as has been stated elsewhere, but this fact is probably to be attributed to the development of such forms from original flat fragments or from rocks of schistose structure or to the segregation of such forms under the peculiar action of the waves, rather than to their production by a specialized wave abrasion.

  4. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  5. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts

  6. Comparative management of offshore posidonia residues: composting vs. energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, Claudio; Parente, Angelo; Zaccone, Claudio; Mininni, Carlo; Santamaria, Pietro; Miano, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Residues of the marine plant posidonia (Posidonia oceanica, PO) beached in tourist zones represent a great environmental, economical, social and hygienic problem in the Mediterranean Basin, in general, and in the Apulia Region in particular, because of the great disturb to the bathers and population, and the high costs that the administrations have to bear for their removal and disposal. In the present paper, Authors determined the heating values of leaves and fibres of PO, the main offshore residues found on beaches, and, meantime, composted those residues with mowing and olive pruning wood. The final composts were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, elemental composition, dynamic respiration index, phytotoxicity, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopic fingerprints. The aim of the paper was to investigate the composting and energy recovery of PO leaves and fibres in order to suggest alternative solutions to the landfill when offshore residues have to be removed from recreational beaches. The fibrous portion of PO residues showed heating values close to those of other biofuels, thus suggesting a possible utilization as source of energy. At the same time, compost obtained from both PO wastes showed high quality features on condition that the electrical conductivity and Na content are lowered by a correct management of wetting during the composting. PMID:20888211

  7. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  8. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] and Mainstream Psychology: Analysis and Evaluation of an Unresolved Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]) is widely used as a staff-development tool in the business and voluntary sectors. Its Psychological Type approach is found to be a valuable aid to understanding self and others and thus to enhancing effective team-working. This continuing and growing popularity is surprising in view of the disdain with…

  9. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a Tool to Facilitate Learning Outcomes for Team Building in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Priscilla; Wood, Cindy; Thornton, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Globalization and domestic competition are forcing businesses to rethink the human resources utilization process, and one method for considering again this challenge is creating a team culture. One key to this process for human resources development is the understanding of how to create the most successful teams. The use of the Myers-Briggs Type…

  10. Third Response to "The Teacher as a Service Professional," by Donald A. Myers: Defining "Professionalism" Does Not Make It So

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, W. Robert

    2008-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that teaching does not meet the criteria of a profession, at least as exemplified by the more mature professions of medicine and law (Abbott, 1988; Darling-Hammond & Youngs, 2002; Etzioni, 1969; Howsam, Corrigan, Denemark, & Nash, 1976). Teaching is most often referred to as a semiprofession; Myers's (2008 [this

  11. The Relationship between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Scale Scores and Advising Style Preferences of College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Joan Bell; Crawford, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzed relationship of gender, race, and age to academic advising style preferences in college freshmen (N=201). Found Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Scores on sensing-intuition and thinking-feeling, gender, and English entry level were significantly related to advising style preferences of freshmen. (Author/ABL)

  12. Incremental Validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Predicting Academic Major Selection of Undecided University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Chad A.; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a predictor of academic major choice. Undecided university students were administered the MBTI and Strong Interest Inventory (SII). Their academic major choice was recorded at the end of their fourth semester and categorized as realistic, investigative,

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Learning Style Preferences on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Learning Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Evans, Nancy J.; Forney, Deanna S.

    2006-01-01

    The stability of learning style preferences, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Learning Style Inventory (LSI), was examined using a configural frequency analysis of differences. Thirteen cohorts (222 graduate students) completed the instruments 3 times during their programs. Implications for use of learning style measures

  14. Gathering the Force Fields of Energy in Student Affairs: Staff Development Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNickle, Phyllis J.; Veltman, Gayle C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses application of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a staff development tool at Wichita State University in Kansas. Describes procedure for implementing the MBTI in staff development and presents results from MBTI use with 39 staff members. Recommends that student affairs divisions at other institutions use the MBTI in staff

  15. A Review of the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory: A Potential Training Tool for Human Services Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles, Christopher B.

    The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) can be helpful in personal, career, and marriage counseling; conflict and stress management; team building; and understanding managerial and learning styles. It has great potential to be utilized in human services organizations for training purposes because it offers a way to conceptualize employee

  16. Considering Personality Type in Adult Learning: Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Instructor Preparation at PricewaterhouseCoopers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisley, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to the

  17. Second Response to "The Teacher as a Service Professional," by Donald A. Myers: The Case of the Lost Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    This response to Myers's concept of the teacher as a service professional considers each of his positions in analogy form. With support from the literature from education and elsewhere, the article maintains that teaching is a profession and that it matters greatly to teachers and society that it be strengthened as such. Examples are offered…

  18. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a Tool to Facilitate Learning Outcomes for Team Building in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Priscilla; Wood, Cindy; Thornton, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Globalization and domestic competition are forcing businesses to rethink the human resources utilization process, and one method for considering again this challenge is creating a team culture. One key to this process for human resources development is the understanding of how to create the most successful teams. The use of the Myers-Briggs Type

  19. Harlem Connections: Teaching Walter Dean Myers'"Scorpions" with Paul Laurence Dunbar's "The Sport of the Gods."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mark I.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the author, in a course titled "Literature for Adolescents" paired Walter Dean Myers' 1988 young adult novel, "Scorpions," with Paul Laurence Dunbar's 1902 novel for adults, "The Sport of the Gods." Describes student readers' responses to the pair of books, which focus on the difficulties of growing up in Harlem. (SR)

  20. Comparing University Students and Community College Students Learning Styles and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbster, Douglas L.; And Others

    This document reports on a study to determine if there is a pattern between specific learning styles and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator preferences. The learning style inventory used for the study, "The Teaching and Learning Styles Survey for Adolescents (TLC)," is based on Jungian style preferences--thinker, feeler, sensor, and intuitor--each of

  1. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] and Mainstream Psychology: Analysis and Evaluation of an Unresolved Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]) is widely used as a staff-development tool in the business and voluntary sectors. Its Psychological Type approach is found to be a valuable aid to understanding self and others and thus to enhancing effective team-working. This continuing and growing popularity is surprising in view of the disdain with

  2. 77 FR 16227 - Frank Myers AutoMaxx, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Frank Myers AutoMaxx, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle... hereby given that the above-captioned consent agreement containing a consent order to cease and...

  3. The impact of the 2009-10 El Nio on West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Nio winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Nio in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Nio shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Nio winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Nio show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid-latitudes, the beach erosion seen in 2009-10 will become less unusual, making it critical that we continue to monitor beach morphology to provide data for coastal managers and to improve our understanding of beach dynamics. Figure 1. Yearly mean wave energy flux relative to the mean since each buoys deployment offshore of Washington (Grays Harbor), San Francisco (Point Reyes), and Santa Barbara (Harvest, Anacapa Passage).

  4. Investigating the Hydrodynamics of a Breached Barrier Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, M.; Murphy, J.

    2012-04-01

    Identifying key drivers of extreme erosion can be relatively straight forward. Severe flooding, large storms and even human interaction have all been responsible for drastically altering the coastline over short time periods. However when events such as barrier breaching occur with no obvious contributory factors, a deeper understanding of the underlying coastal processes is required. Ideally conclusions on morphological drivers should be drawn from field data collection and remote sensing over a long period of time, i.e. decades. Unfortunately when the barrier beach at Rossbeigh, County Kerry, Ireland, started to erode rapidly in the early 2000's there was no such data collection conducted. By 2008 approximately 1.5million m3 of sand had been eroded and during the winter period of that year the dune breached, resulting in the formation of a barrier island and a new tidal inlet. The initial breach length was 500m but it continued to expand to 750m and then stabilised. A research project has been ongoing at the Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre of University College Cork since the breaching event. Assessing the threat breaching presents to local infrastructure, housing and industry is part of this research brief. Topographical surveys, sediment sampling, satellite imagery analysis and numerical modelling have previously been conducted to gain an insight into the morphodynamics of Rossbeigh. An initial analysis of the breaching suggested that erosion had slowed and regeneration of the dune was occurring; however further monitoring indicated that as the breach was stabilising other areas of the barrier beach were experiencing increased erosion. As a result of this a field monitoring campaign consisting of wave and tidal data collection was undertaken in the summer of 2011 to gain a clearer understanding of the hydrodynamic processes influencing the erosion patterns. Wave gauges were deployed along the beach at low water and also 4km offshore. Tidal currents were also measured in the breach area, alongshore of Rossbeigh beach and in the vicinity of the newly formed island. The findings provide a new insight into the active processes. The magnitude of tidal currents, directionality of incident waves at high tide and presence of low frequency infragravity waves along Rossbeigh are significant findings that influence the morphology. As a result of this work existing numerical and predictive models require updating to accurately model the morphology of the barrier beach and identify future threats to the local coastline.

  5. Shadow of five-dimensional rotating Myers-Perry black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papnoi, Uma; Atamurotov, Farruh; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2014-07-01

    A black hole casts a shadow as an optical appearance because of its strong gravitational field. We study the shadow cast by the five-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole with equal rotation parameters. We demonstrate that the null geodesic equation can be integrated, which provides us an opportunity to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole. The shadow of a black hole is found to be a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. Interestingly, the shapes of the black hole shadow are more distorted and the size decreases for larger black hole spins. Interestingly, it turns out that, for fixed values of the rotation parameter, the shadow is slightly smaller and less deformed than for its four-dimensional Kerr black hole counterpart. Further, the shadow of the five-dimensional Kerr black hole is concentric deformed circles. The effect of the rotation parameter on the shape and size of a naked singularity shadow is also analyzed.

  6. Stable bound orbits in six-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igata, Takahisa

    2015-07-01

    The existence of stable bound orbits of test particles is one of the most characteristic properties in black hole spacetimes. In higher-dimensional black holes, due to the dependence of gravity on the spacetime dimensions, there is no stable bound orbit balanced by Newtonian gravitational monopole force and centrifugal force, although this balance occurs in the four-dimensional Kerr black hole. In this paper, however, the existence of stable bound orbits of massive and massless particles is shown in six-dimensional singly spinning Myers-Perry black holes with a value of the spin parameter larger than a critical value. The innermost stable bound orbits and the outermost stable bound orbits are found on the rotational axis.

  7. Perturbations of near-horizon geometries and instabilities of Myers-Perry black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Mark N.; Reall, Harvey S.

    2011-05-15

    It is shown that the equations governing linearized gravitational (or electromagnetic) perturbations of the near-horizon geometry of any known extreme vacuum black hole (allowing for a cosmological constant) can be Kaluza-Klein reduced to give the equation of motion of a charged scalar field in AdS{sub 2} with an electric field. One can define an effective Breitenloehner-Freedman bound for such a field. We conjecture that if a perturbation preserves certain symmetries then a violation of this bound should imply an instability of the full black hole solution. Evidence in favor of this conjecture is provided by the extreme Kerr solution and extreme cohomogeneity-1 Myers-Perry solution. In the latter case, we predict an instability in seven or more dimensions and, in five dimensions, we present results for operator conformal weights assuming the existence of a conformal field theory dual. We sketch a proof of our conjecture for scalar field perturbations.

  8. Bimodal score distributions and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: fact or artifact?

    PubMed

    Bess, Tammy L; Harvey, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    We examined Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) score distributions computed using item response theory (IRT) to assess the generalizability of earlier bimodality reports that have been cited in support of the "type" versus "trait" view of personality. Using the BILOG IRT program to score a sample of approximately 12,000 individuals who participated in leadership development programs, theta score distributions for the 4 dimensions of the MBTI computed using 10 (the BILOG default) versus 50 quadrature points were compared. Results indicated that past reports of bimodality were artifacts caused by BILOG's default use of a small number of quadrature points; when larger numbers of points were used, score distributions became strongly center-weighted. Although our findings are not supportive of the "type"-based hypothesis, the extremely high correlations between theta scores (rs > .996) suggest that no practical differences would be expected as a function of the number-of-quadrature-points decision. PMID:11936208

  9. Evaluation of the BEAM--BEAM effect in PEP using Myer's simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.

    1982-09-01

    The program BEAM BEAM written by Steve Myers for the LEP machine at CERN has given encouraging results in the simulation of the beam-beam effect in electron-positron storage rings. It therefore seemed worthwhile to apply the program to PEP with two main intentions. Firstly, to confirm the validity of the program by comparison with experimental data from previous PEP runs and secondly, to search for an improvement in the operating conditions of PEP. Clearly a successful prediction would also enhance the credibility of the program. The program itself has been extensively described in the literature and will not be repeated here, except for some comments of direct relevance to the present simulation. 14 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of a High-Energy Beach: Insight Gained From Over 50 High-Resolution Sub-aerial Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2008-12-01

    Since April 2004 a monitoring program of 7 km-long Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, has led to the completion of 55 Global Positioning System topographic surveys of the sub-aerial beach. The four-year timeseries contains over 1 million beach elevation measurements and documents detailed changes of the beach over a variety of spatial, temporal, and physical forcing scales. The goal of this ongoing data collection is to understand the variability in beach response as a function of wave forcing and offshore morphology which will ultimately aid in sediment management and erosion mitigation efforts. Several statistical methods are used to describe and account for the observed beach change, including empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and linear regression. Results from the EOF analysis show that the first mode, and approximately 50% of the observed variance of either the mean high water (MHW) or mean sea level (MSL) position, is explained by the seasonal movement of sediment on and offshore. The second mode, and approximately 15% of the variance, is dominated by alongshore variability, possibly corresponding to the position of cusps and embayments. Higher level modes become increasingly variable in the alongshore direction and each explain little of the observed variance. In both cases the first temporal mode is well correlated (R2~=0.7) with offshore significant wave height averaged over the previous 80 to 110 days, suggesting that seasonal wave height variations are the primary driver of intra-annual shoreline position. No other modes exhibit good correlation with offshore wave parameters regardless of the averaging time. The observed seasonal change is superimposed on a longer term trend of net annual accretion at the north end of Ocean Beach and erosion at the south end. Areas at the northern end have seen as much as 60 m of cumulative shoreline progradation since 2004, while some areas of the southern portion have retrograded nearly as much. This pattern shows an overall rotation in the shoreline position hinged on a nodal point in the middle portion of the beach. The nodal point roughly corresponds to the location where the southern lobe of a large ebb tidal delta welds to the coast, suggesting that wave conditions coupled with offshore morphologic variability is a key control on short and long-term beach evolution.

  11. Impact of sea-level rise on cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef island beaches under modal and cyclonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Baldock, T E; Golshani, A; Atkinson, A; Shimamoto, T; Wu, S; Callaghan, D P; Mumby, P J

    2015-08-15

    A one-dimensional wave model is combined with an analytical sediment transport model to investigate the likely influence of sea-level rise on net cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef and lagoon island beaches. The modelling considers if changes in the nearshore wave height and wave period in the lagoon induced by different water levels over the reef flat are likely to lead to net offshore or onshore movement of sediment. The results indicate that the effects of SLR on net sediment movement are highly variable and controlled by the bathymetry of the reef and lagoon. A significant range of reef-lagoon bathymetry, and notably shallow and narrow reefs, appears to lead hydrodynamic conditions and beaches that are likely to be stable or even accrete under SLR. Loss of reef structural complexity, particularly on the reef flat, increases the chance of sediment transport away from beaches and offshore. PMID:26093817

  12. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  13. Correlation of Sub-Aerial Beach Change with Numerical Model Derived Nearshore Wave Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P. L.; Eshleman, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Wave-induced sediment transport on and off of beaches is difficult to understand and predict without thorough knowledge of the nearshore wave conditions. Wave data is commonly provided by a buoy located offshore in deep water that measures waves prior to shoaling and refraction. Irregular bathymetry causes dissimilar refraction and shoaling and can lead to variable wave conditions in the nearshore environment. To account for wave propagation over varying bathymetry, numerical wave models are good tools for estimating the nearshore wave climate from offshore wave data. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA is an energetic, intermediately sloping beach that was the subject of frequent sub-aerial topographic surveys in 2005 and 2006, with some surveys being as close as two days apart. Sediment volume change derived from these surveys was correlated to nearshore wave heights estimated from offshore buoy measurements and the application of the numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The SWAN model was used to create a "look-up" table of nearshore wave heights from over 4500 combinations of offshore wave heights, periods, and directions. The model was run using a nested grid scheme using three separate spatial resolutions, with the finest being closest to shore. Correlations between the sub-aerial beach volume data at five morphologically different reaches of Ocean Beach and the SWAN derived wave heights from just outside of the surf zone (in 5, 7.5, or 10 m of water depending on wave height) are generally low, with R2 values less than 0.5, with the highest being 0.61. Although the coefficients of determination are low in most instances the significance exceeds 90%. The reason for the low coefficients of determination is not known but is currently being investigated; some possible reasons are improper characterization of the lengthy time series of wave data between surveys (up to 28 days), or the ignored effect of strong along-shore directed tidal currents (O(~1m/s)) on breaking waves in the surf zone.

  14. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  15. On the dispersal of leatherback turtle hatchlings from Mesoamerican nesting beaches.

    PubMed

    Shillinger, George L; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Luo, Hao; Bograd, Steven J; Hazen, Elliott L; Bailey, Helen; Spotila, James R

    2012-06-22

    So little is known about the early life history of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) from hatchling to adulthood that this period has been termed the 'lost years'. For critically endangered eastern Pacific leatherback populations, continued and rapid declines underscore the urgent need to develop conservation strategies across all life stages. We investigate leatherback hatchling dispersal from four Mesoamerican nesting beaches using passive tracer experiments within a regional ocean modelling system. The evolution of tracer distribution from each of the nesting beaches showed the strong influence of eddy transport and coastal currents. Modelled hatchlings from Playa Grande, Costa Rica, were most likely to be entrained and transported offshore by large-scale eddies coincident with the peak leatherback nesting and hatchling emergence period. These eddies potentially serve as 'hatchling highways', providing a means of rapid offshore transport away from predation and a productive refuge within which newly hatched turtles can develop. We hypothesize that the most important leatherback nesting beach remaining in the eastern Pacific (Playa Grande) has been evolutionarily selected as an optimal nesting site owing to favourable ocean currents that enhance hatchling survival. PMID:22378803

  16. Recent deep-seated coastal landsliding at San Onofre State Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR collected during the period 1998-2010 and differential GPS surveys conducted over 2008-2013 show recent reactivation and movement of a large deep-seated coastal landslide at San Onofre State Beach, San Diego County, California. The overall slide complex extends about 700 m alongshore, 150 m inland, and an unknown distance offshore. Differencing digital elevation models and tracking field monuments (benchmarks) provide time series of quantitative topographic landslide changes and new insight in to the slide motion sequences and mechanics. The slide contains several distinct primary and secondary regions moving and deforming at different rates. Primary slide motion includes slow seaward translational motion, rotational slipping, and upward offshore movement. Secondary processes of basal wave erosion and new inland cliffline failures contribute to primary landslide destabilization. The landslide exhibits lithologic and structural controls, is driven by a combination of marine and subaerial processes, influences local beach morphology, and deviates from typical southern California coastal cliff processes which mostly involve shallow landslides and topples. Large-scale, cross-shore slide rotation has recently created new nearshore reefs. Eroded cliff sediments provide a local beach sand source and probably influence local nearshore ecosystems. All known time periods of major historical landslide activity were preceded by elevated seasonal rainfall and analysis suggests elevated rainfall generated primary slide motion as opposed to wave action. As of spring 2013, landslide activity has slowed, but continued positive feedbacks including toe removal by wave activity suggest that future landsliding will probably threaten coastal infrastructure.

  17. Hydraulics and geology related to beach restoration in Lee County, Florida. [Captiva Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winton, T. (Principal Investigator); Brooks, H. K.; Degner, J.; Ruth, B.

    1981-01-01

    The erosion problem on Captiva Island is discussed. It is due to a deficit in the sand budget of the littoral drift system; a system with losses due to attrition of the particles and mass losses into the lagoons, to offshore, and to lateral transport. The effect that reopening Blind Pass would have, and the placement of sediment retaining structures in the surf zone at the northern and southern limits of the Captiva beach system, wave examined. A geological approach was used to study the origin and dynamic changes that have occurred. Through hydraulic modeling, changes that will occur by reopening and stabilizing Blind Pass are predicted. It is concluded that if the island is to be stabilized, beach nourishment with proper amounts and particle size is a necessity and that jetties adequate to restrict lateral and offshore losses are essential. It is shown that the reopening of Blind Pass would have minimal effects on the passes to the north and south, and would improve the environmental conditions in the sound with no adverse effects on the beach system.

  18. Servicing the offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    What factors are leading operators to using boat-based services vs. those that are rig-based for offshore completions, stimulations and workovers? What trends are companies experiencing in completion practices for the unconsolidated formations in the Gulf of Mexico? What are companies` most important specifications for well service boats operating near their offshore platforms? To answer these and other questions, Petroleum Engineering International asked those who should know -- the producing companies active in offshore operations in the Gulf of Mexico and worldwide.

  19. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  20. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  1. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC. (a) Regulated Area. The following regulated area is a safety zone....

  2. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC. (a) Regulated Area. The...

  3. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  4. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  5. Morphodynamic response of a meso- to macro-tidal intermediate beach based on a long-term data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sénéchal, N.; Gouriou, T.; Castelle, B.; Parisot, J.-P.; Capo, S.; Bujan, S.; Howa, H.

    2009-06-01

    Four years of bi-monthly topographic surveys have been conducted on a 350 m stretch of the meso- to macro-tidal Truc Vert beach, France. Here we study the dynamics of both the inner bar and the upper part of the beach where a berm can develop in the presence of fair weather conditions. For the inner bar, the occurrences of the different states within the intermediate classification, following that of Wright and Short (Wright, L.D., Short, A.D. 1984. Morphodynamic variability of surf zones and beaches: a synthesis. Marine Geology 56, 93-118), are presented and compared to other sites in both micro- and meso-tidal environments. The results show a similar frequency of occurrence of the Transverse Bar and Rip (TBR) state, while the more dissipative states, Rhythmic Bar and Beach (RBB) and Longshore Bar and Trough (LBT), are less regularly observed despite the high wave energy levels. The LBT and RBB states are also observed in the presence of fair weather conditions and the TBR state can persist during very energetic events. Similar results are also observed with the upper beach dynamics. Very energetic events are not necessarily associated with erosion while and low-energy events are not necessarily accompanied by accretion. The conditions given here indicate, that berm development occurs preferentially when the beach morphology exhibits a TBR or a LTT state. Apart from the control exerted by offshore wave conditions, the beach state and berm development patterns exhibited by Truc Vert beach are also discussed within the framework of possible morphological (morphodynamic) feedback and of the influence of the meso- to macrotidal range which modulates the type, intensity and duration of the wave processes operating on the cross-shore profile.

  6. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  7. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. Testing and assessment of a large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Graaf, E. R.; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P. P.; Jones, D. G.

    2007-06-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/NGD), and other companies, to test their most sensitive system. This paper presents the results of trials in a specially created test facility at UKAEA Harwell with a large BGO detector. The detector's size and weight mean that it would be suitable for vehicle deployment but would be too large and heavy to carry in areas that could not be accessed by a vehicle. However, it would be possible to use the same methodology that is described here with a smaller detector capable of being carried in a backpack, albeit with reduced sensitivity for particle detection. The approach that we present is also applicable, with modifications, to the detection of offshore particles using a towed seabed detector.

  6. Affirming Psychological Science--For Students, Teachers, and the Larger World: An Interview With David G. Myers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jr., Harold L.

    2005-01-01

    David G. Myers received a BA in chemistry, magna cum laude from Whitworth College and an MA and PhD in psychology from the University of Iowa. Since 1982 he has been the John Dirk Werkman Professor of Psychology at Hope College. He is best known for his authorship of Psychology (2004), now in its 7th edition, and Social Psychology (2005a), now in

  7. "Beach-Ball" Robotic Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic vehicles resembling large beach balls proposed for carrying scientific instruments. Conceived for use in exploring planet Mars, also useful on Earth to carry meteorological or pollution-monitoring equipment to remote locations across rough terrain and even across water. Each vehicle features approximately spherical balloonlike outer shell inflated to suitable pressure. Three diametral tethers approximately perpendicular to each other attached to shell. Control box moves itself along tethers to shift center of gravity, causing vehicle to roll. Alternatively, instead of shell, structure of approximately spherical outline made of twisted rods; of course, not suitable for traversing water or thick vegetation.

  8. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  9. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  10. Getting offshoring right.

    PubMed

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers to get that quality. PMID:16334588

  11. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of embayed and pocket beaches located at the southernmost coast of Portugal is currently a major question to coastal management of this region. In fact, several among those beaches have been artificially fed aiming to increase the width of the beach allowing people to maintain a safe distance to the unstable rocky cliffs. The sand is dredged from the offshore (ca. 2 miles from the shoreline) representing high costs for the Portuguese government. For how long will the artificial feeding solve the problem? Which beaches are worth being nourished taking into account the morphosedimentary processes? The present work is the result of a field experiment aiming to study the efficiency of the alongshore sedimentary transport between successive embayed beaches. The experiment was performed in the very indented rocky coast of the Algarve region (Southern Portugal) and comprised two field campaigns, both in 2014, during spring tides in March and November. The Algarve coast experiences a semi-diurnal meso-tidal regime ranging from 1.3 m during neap tides to 3.5 m at spring tides and the waves approach from WSW (232°) during 72% of observations along the year, almost normal to the study area shoreline. The wave and current characteristics (significant height-Hs and Period-T for waves, velocity and direction for currents) were measured during three and six tidal cycles respectively for the first and second campaign, using two pressure transducers and one electromagnetic current meter. We used sand painted with orange fluorescent dye (100 kg in March and 200 kg in November) as tracer to track the movement of the sand along the coast. The marked sand was placed on the beach face of the westernmost beach of the study area during the first low tide of each campaign. Following, hundreds of sediment samples were collected during low tide, through the monitored period, in the nodes of a georeferenced square mesh of 10 x 20 m covering three embayed beaches. Later in the laboratory, sediment was characterized concerning the grain size distribution and the marked grains (MG) which were identified and counted with the use of a black light. After statistical analysis, several maps were developed in a Geographical Information System in order to quantify and interpret the direction and velocity of the movement of the sand induced by the observed waves and currents. The results of this work showed that: (i) when the existing shore platforms between adjacent embayed beaches are exposed, their surface is topographically higher than the beach face and strongly dissected by channels (e.g., joints) and karstic cavities, and thus the transference of sand between the adjacent beaches is almost nil, (ii) when a topographic continuity was observed between the beach face and the surface of the shore platforms, the transference of sand between adjacent cells is effective. The two reported situations depend on the beach morphosedimentary processes driven by the angle between the waves and the shoreline. This work is a contribution to the PTDC/GEO-GEO/3981/2012 funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. The authors would like to thank the collaborators of the November campaign: A. Rosa; A. Portugal; A. Silva; C. Correia, J. Cunha e L. Castilho.

  12. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  13. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  14. Myers-Perry black holes with scalar hair and a mass gap: Unequal spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdeiro, Carlos; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen; Subagyo, Bintoro

    2015-09-01

    We construct rotating boson stars and Myers-Perry black holes with scalar hair (MPBHsSH) as fully non-linear solutions of five dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field. The MPBHsSH are, in general, regular on and outside the horizon, asymptotically flat, and possess angular momentum in a single rotation plane. They are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Such hairy BHs may be thought of as bound states of boson stars and singly spinning, vacuum MPBHs and inherit properties of both these building blocks. When the horizon area shrinks to zero, the solutions reduce to (in a single plane) rotating boson stars; but the extremal limit also yields a zero area horizon, as for singly spinning MPBHs. Similarly to the case of equal angular momenta, and in contrast to Kerr black holes with scalar hair, singly spinning MPBHsSH are disconnected from the vacuum black holes, due to a mass gap. We observe that for the general case, with two unequal angular momenta, the equilibrium condition for the existence of MPBHsSH is w =m1?1 +m2?2, where ?i are the horizon angular velocities in the two independent rotation planes and w ,mi, i = 1 , 2, are the scalar field's frequency and azimuthal harmonic indices.

  15. Role of Heavy Atom Tunneling in Myers-Saito Cyclization of Cyclic Enyne-Cumulene Systems.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Sharmistha; Datta, Ayan

    2016-02-11

    Direct dynamics calculation using canonical variational transtition state theory (CVT) inclusive of small curvature tunneling (SCT) reveals heavy atom tunneling in Myers-Saito cyclization of 10- and 9-membered cyclic enyne-cumulene systems like 1,6-didehydro[10]annulene and derivative of neocarzinostatin, respectively. The pure density functional theory functional, BLYP at a 6-31+G (d,p) basis set reproduce the observed reaction energies and barriers within 1.0 kcal/mol. The calculated rate constants of cyclization inclusive of heavy atom tunneling (kCVT+SCT = 3.26 10(-4) s(-1) at 222 K; t1/2 = 35 min) are in excellent agreement with experiments (t1/2 ? 21-31 min). Both primary and secondary kinetic isotope effect (KIE) become enhanced significantly upon inclusion of quantum mechanical tunneling. An Arrhenius plot of KIE shows measurable curvature at the experimental temperature of 222 K. The translation vector for the cyclization reactions in the transition-states (TS) show significant motion of primary and secondary carbon atoms explaining the origin of large KIE. PMID:26785136

  16. Myers-Perry black holes with scalar hair and a mass gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2014-12-01

    We construct a family of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon, within five dimensional Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field doublet. These solutions are supported by rotation and have no static limit. They are described by their mass M, two equal angular momenta J1 =J2 ≡ J and a conserved Noether charge Q, measuring the scalar hair. For vanishing horizon size the solutions reduce to five dimensional boson stars. In the limit of vanishing Noether charge density, the scalar field becomes point-wise arbitrarily small and the geometry becomes, locally, arbitrarily close to that of a specific set of Myers-Perry black holes (MPBHs); but there remains a global difference with respect to the latter, manifest in a finite mass gap. Thus, the scalar hair never becomes a linear perturbation of MPBHs. This is a qualitative difference when compared to Kerr black holes with scalar hair [1]. Whereas the existence of the latter can be anticipated in linear theory, from the existence of scalar bound states on the Kerr geometry (i.e. scalar clouds), the hair of these MPBHs is intrinsically non-linear.

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-090-2175, Caisson Platoon, Ft Myer, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Echt, A.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a request from an industrial hygiene technician with the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Caisson Platoon (SIC-0752), Ft. Myer, Virginia. The Caisson Platoon had 34 horses used in ceremonies. Specific concern was expressed about exposure of soldiers to air contaminants while cleaning the stables, levelling the grain bin, and working in the tack room. Exposures experienced by blacksmiths in the execution of their duties were also monitored. The author concludes that soldiers dyeing leather in the tack room were exposed to methylene-chloride (75092) and 2-ethoxyethanol (110805) above the NIOSH recommended exposure limits. Soldiers cleaning the stables were not overexposed to nuisance dust or endotoxin. Soldiers involved in levelling grain in the grain bin were exposed to grain dust for a brief period of nearly 7 times the 8 hour recommended exposure limit of 4mg/cu m. The exposures in the tack room could be reduced through the substitution of less hazardous ingredients in leather dyes, lacquers, and spray paints or through the use of local exhaust ventilation. The grain dust exposure can be controlled through the use of engineering controls, such as a vibratory shaker applied to the outside of the bin thus eliminating the need to enter the grain bin to level the grain. Local exhaust ventilation should be provided for welding operations in the blacksmith shop.

  18. Geodesic motion in equal angular momenta Myers-Perry-AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2015-10-01

    We study the geodesic motion of massive and massless test particles in the background of equally spinning Myers-Perry-anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in five dimensions. By adopting a coordinate system that makes manifest the cohomogeneity-1 property of these spacetimes, the equations of motion simplify considerably. This allows us to easily separate the radial motion from the angular part and to obtain solutions for angular trajectories in a compact closed form. For the radial motion, we focus our attention on spherical orbits. In particular, we determine the timelike innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) for these asymptotically AdS spacetimes, as well as the location of null circular orbits. We find that the ISCO dives below the ergosurface for black holes rotating close to extremality and merges with the event horizon exactly at extremality, in analogy with the four-dimensional Kerr case. For sufficiently massive black holes in AdS, there exists a spin parameter range in which the background spacetime is stable against super-radiance and the ISCO lies inside the ergoregion. Our results for massless geodesics show that there are no stable circular null orbits outside the horizon, but there exist such orbits inside the horizon, as well as around overextremal spacetimes, i.e., naked singularities. We also discuss how these orbits deform from the static to the rotating case.

  19. The association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Psychiatry as the specialty choice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, George; Durkin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Methods Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. Results The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Conclusions Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles. PMID:26851600

  20. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  1. Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and potential sand resources as part of the continuing cooperative effort between the Delaware Geological Survey and the Minerals Management Service's INTERMAR office as sand resources are identified in federal waters off Delaware. Offshore sand resources are found in the Pliocene Beaverdam Formation offshore where overlying Quaternary units have been stripped, in the tidal delta complexes of several Quaternary units likely equivalent to the onshore Omar Formation, and in late Pleistocene- and Holocene-age shoal complexes. Onshore lithostratigraphic units can be traced offshore and show another reason for continued geologic mapping both onshore and offshore.The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from cape Henlopen to Fenwick.

  2. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore volumetric changes within the domain are significantly larger than the alongshore losses. As a consequence of the adaptation process the high waterline has retreated approximately 50 m over the last 2 years. The observed changes are correlated with nearby wave data to investigate the impact of storm events. It is observed that in autumn when wave forcing is strong, the profile adaptation is accelerated. The impact of storm events is visible most clearly in the active marine zone (+1 to -4m). Higher up the profile the volume changes are much more gradual. The findings of this study show the impact of the cross shore location of a nourishment in the profile. If the man-made profile consists of steep unnatural slopes in the active marine zone, a fast cross shore adaptation can be expected.

  3. Drilling and producing offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.

  4. Ridge-Runnel and Swash Dynamics Field Experiment on a Steep Meso-Tidal Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figlus, J.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; Puleo, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ridge-runnel (RR) systems are morphological features that may form in the intermittently wet and dry zone of the beach immediately after storm events. Their onshore migration provides a natural way of recovery for an eroded beach but the detailed swash interactions and complex feedback mechanisms between wave dynamics, sediment transport and profile evolution are not well understood and challenging to measure in-situ. During a storm, elevated water levels and large waves can significantly erode the beach profile in a matter of hours through offshore-directed sediment transport. The beach recovery process, on the other hand, occurs over a much longer time period during less intense wave conditions. In the beginning of this 3-week field campaign at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, a Nor'easter, eroded significant portions of this steep, meso-tidal beach and formed a pronounced RR system which then evolved during the less energetic conditions after the storm. An extensive cross-shore array of sensors was installed immediately after the storm measuring near-bed velocity profiles (5 Nortek Vectrino Profilers) and horizontal velocities (6 Sontec Electromagnetic Current Meters; 1 side-looking Nortek Vectrino) suspended sediment concentrations (10 Optical Backscatter Sensors OBS-3+), and pressure fluctuations (7 GE Druck pressure transducers) in the swash zone. Dense topography surveys of the RR system were conducted twice a day during low tide conditions with a Leica RTK GPS rover system. In addition, sediment grab samples along the entire RR cross-section were collected daily. An offshore ADCP with surface wave tracking capability (Nortek 2MHz AWAC AST) measured directional wave spectra and current profiles at a water depth of approximately 6m. The RR system showed rapid onshore migration over the two tide cycles immediately after the storm, followed by a period of vertical ridge accretion of up to 3 ft at certain locations. A first look at the collected data and analysis results related to the feedback mechanisms between wave forcing and RR evolution is presented along with a discussion of difficulties encountered during the experiment.

  5. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  6. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a `reduced-physics' formulation with a data-driven approach through an inverse technique to form the hybrid coastal morphodynamic model. The beach considered for the demonstration of the model is the Narrabeen Beach, which is a dynamic sand beach located in New South Wales, Australia. Despite its simplicity, we find that the model is able to capture beach change at Narrabeen Beach at inter-annual timescales with root mean square error between measured and computed beach profiles less than 0.4 m on average. Even though the model is used to forecast inter-annual beach change in this study, its ability to predict beach change is not limited to that timescale but depends on the frequency of historic beach profile measurements available to determine key unknown parameters of the model. Also, the length of profile forecasts largely depends on the length of available historic measurements where longer data sets allow longer predictions within a range of beach behaviour contained in the observations. The ability of the model to reliably forecast coastal change at inter-annual and potentially at other timescales, and its high efficiency make it possible to be used in providing multiple simulations required for probabilistic coastal change forecasts which will be very useful for coastal management purposes.

  7. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  8. Offshore wave energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.; Scholten, N.C.; Soerensen, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the second phase of the off-shore wave energy experiment, taking place in the Danish part of the North Sea near Hanstholm. The wave power converter is a scale model consisting of a float 2.5 meter in diameter connected by rope to a seabed mounted piston pump installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore. The structure, installation procedure results and experience gained during the test period will be presented and compared to calculations based on a computer model.

  9. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  10. QATAR offshore oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Qatar Petroleum Producing Authority is presently operating three offshore fields - Idd al-Shargi, Maydan Mahzam and Bul Hanine. The Idd al-Shargi field consists of 14 naturally flowing wells and three suspended wells. Individual flow rates of the producing wells range from 250 to 3000 barrels per day (b/d). The Maydan Mahzam field produces from 11 naturally flowing wells. Reservoir energy in the field is maintained by water injection. Each of the wells produce oil at rates ranging from 2500 to 20,000 b/d. The Bul Hanine field comprises 10 producing wells supported by 9 dumpflooders. Production rates of the individual wells reach 29,000 b/d, making them among the world's highest. In 1978 the completion of a major acceleration project for the Bul Hanine Arab IV reservoir added more than 40,000 b/d to the production potential of the field. Total Qatari oil exports in 1978 were 91,708,000 barrels, equivalent to an average export rate of 25,000 b/d. Total production in Qatar in 1979 was 100,641,394 barrels (offshore) and 84,130,917 (onshore), an increase of 11% and a decrease of 3%, respectively, over 1978. Halal Island provides offshore storage for oil and gas berthing and loading operations. A natural gas liquids offshore complex, including a fractionation plant, is nearing completion at Umm Said. (SAC)

  11. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology and geomorphology in different time scales.

  12. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  13. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  14. Beach morphologies induced by breakwaters with different orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Armaroli, Clara; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2015-06-01

    A desired outcome in the construction of a detached emerged breakwater is the formation of an accretionary salient in its lee to augment the beach, improve beach amenity and provide an additional buffer from storm waves. The extent to which this salient forms and its morphology are strongly controlled by the breakwater geometry with respect to the original shoreline, sediment availability, and local wave climate. The purpose of this paper is to identify how breakwater geometry and orientation of gaps between individual breakwaters alter the direction of waves entering the gaps and change the asymmetry of the salients. Four distinct breakwater sites along the Emilia-Romagna coastline in Northern Italy were chosen for a detailed field and desktop study comprising three-dimensional topographic and bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling, LiDAR flights and historical shoreline mapping. The orientations of the shorelines at these four sites range over 43°, resulting in different exposures to the dominant waves. The oblique orientations of the gaps between individual breakwater segments at three of the four sites effectively create a "gap window" between breakwaters favoring the exposure of short-period waves from the north and diminishing the effect of longer waves from the dominant east. Salients can be symmetrical despite an acute angle of approach of the dominant deep water waves where refraction is enhanced by offshore topography and breakwaters are parallel to the shore. Waves approaching normal to the gap window undergo less diffraction due to their shorter length relative to the gap window width and undergo less attenuation by breaking and bottom friction if they are locally generated and have short periods. Greater breaking-wave energy on the gap-facing slope of the salient can create shoreline and morphological asymmetry. The implication is that breakwater orientations can be designed or altered to selectively dampen or facilitate wave energy to enhance sediment transport in a desired direction, provided that breakwaters are not too far offshore and sediment availability is not restricted to affect salient formation. Adjusting exposure via gap orientation can create morphologies that cannot be inferred from process-dominant conditions.

  15. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  16. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  17. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth. PMID:18834997

  18. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  19. Salinity and groundwater flow below beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. B.; Wilson, A. M.; Moore, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    High rates of exchange between seawater and fresh groundwater in beach sediments drive significant chemical reactions, but the groundwater flow that controls this is poorly understood. Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the traditional freshwater-saltwater interface by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. The lack of an upper saline plume at our study site led us to ask whether the plume exists in all beaches and what hydrogeological features control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the geometry of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude, inflow of fresh groundwater and precipitation. All models showed that a salinity gradient developed between the fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal zone, but the magnitude of the gradient was variable. The hydraulic conductivity was an important control on the development of an upper saline plume. A hydraulic conductivity of 100 m/d allowed the formation of an upper saline plume in every beach slope. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. In models using a representative hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, the upper saline plume only formed in beaches with a slope of 0.5 or greater. The salinity of brackish groundwater that discharges seaward of the upper saline plume was inversely proportional to the input of fresh groundwater. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used very small dispersivities, but we found that the upper saline plume becomes much less distinct when larger dispersivities are used. Real beaches are highly mixed environments and the appropriate magnitude of dispersivity remains unclear. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes may not form in beaches of the U.S. Southeast, which are characterized by fine-grained sediment and moderate slopes. The concentration gradient between the upper saline plume and adjacent groundwater discharge zone increased with decreasing longitudinal dispersivity.

  20. Nowcasting Beach Advisories at Ohio Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Data were collected during the recreational season of 2007 to test and refine predictive models at three Lake Erie beaches. In addition to E. coli concentrations, field personnel collected or compiled data for environmental and water-quality variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations including turbidity, wave height, water temperature, lake level, rainfall, and antecedent dry days and wet days. At Huntington (Bay Village) and Edgewater (Cleveland) during 2007, the models provided correct responses 82.7 and 82.1 percent of the time; these percentages were greater than percentages obtained using the previous day?s E. coli concentrations (current method). In contrast, at Villa Angela during 2007, the model provided correct responses only 61.3 percent of the days monitored. The data from 2007 were added to existing datasets and the larger datasets were split into two (Huntington) or three (Edgewater) segments by date based on the occurrence of false negatives and positives (named ?season 1, season 2, season 3?). Models were developed for dated segments and for combined datasets. At Huntington, the summed responses for separate best models for seasons 1 and 2 provided a greater percentage of correct responses (85.6 percent) than the one combined best model (83.1 percent). Similar results were found for Edgewater. Water resource managers will determine how to apply these models to the Internet-based ?nowcast? system for issuing water-quality advisories during 2008.

  1. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Variability in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations at Huntington Beach: Connections to Physical Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippy, M. A.; Feddersen, F.; Leichter, J.; Omand, M.; Moore, D. F.; McGee, C.; Franks, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    Two major factors determine the spatial and temporal distributions of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at a given beach: local circulation & mixing patterns, and bacterial inactivation rates. High frequency and spatial resolution bacterial sampling combined with measurements of physical processes can be used to infer inactivation rates, enabling differentiation between dilution & mortality as factors driving variability in nearshore FIB abundance. A FIB sampling experiment (HB06) took place on 16 October 2006, at Huntington State Beach, a site selected due to its persistent problems with FIB pollution. Water samples were taken at 20-minute intervals (from 6:50am to 11:50am) at ten locations; four in an alongshore transect spanning 1 km at the shoreline, and the remainder in a 300-m long cross-shore transect. All samples were analyzed for FIB concentration (Total Coliforms, E. coli & Enterococci) and, for a subset, species level Enterococcus composition was determined. As part of the HB06 experiment, currents, temperature, waves, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously in the cross-shore direction with rapid CTD casts 300 m offshore. Results indicate that E. coli and Enterococcus concentrations exhibit exponential decreases with time, with smaller decay rates associated with depth and with sites in the Talbert Marsh and Santa Ana River. FIB concentrations are also noticeably lower farther offshore (300 m). Spatio-temporal patterns in FIB concentration will be presented in conjunction with the nearshore physical data allowing the relationship between physical dynamics and biological variability to be addressed.

  3. Modelling beach profile response during a storm in Praia de Faro, Portugal: Comparison of three beach profile models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, M. I.; Almeida, L. M.; Ferreira; Karambas, T. V.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to compare three numerical models on the grounds of their performance in simulating beach profile response on a monitored storm event in the Praia de Faro, South Portugal. The discussed storm occurred on February 1st, 2009, with duration ~24 hours and WSW waves, with maximum observed significant wave height and peak period, around 5 m and 8.5 s, respectively. The event was the most intense of the year, with a 3 years return period. Three models were run: the open source XBeach, a Bussinesq model (Karambas, T.V. and Koutitas, C., 2002. J. Wat, Port, Coas. & Oc. Eng., 128 (3)) and a linear energetics-approach model (Vousdoukas et al., Cont. Shelf Res., in press). Models were run for five profiles distributed along the whole study site, with circa 500 m spacing between each other; and beachface steepness increasing westwards (ranging from ~6% to 10%). All studied profiles showed signs of berm erosion and off-shore bar formation, with the impacts of the storm becoming less prominent, from the steeper NW profiles to the milder sloped ones, found on the SE boundary. All models overestimated the berm erosion, especially on the steeper profiles for which an unrealistic erosive scarp appeared, coupled with enhanced bar formation. Such behaviour was weaker on the Bousinesq model; which was calibrated for milder avalanching and produced overall improved results (rms errors between 0.2-0.35 m), with the cost of increased computational times. The performance of the energetics approach model was comparable to the other two, despite the significantly reduced computational times (~one order of magnitude). The overall rms errors ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 m, with the higher values corresponding to the western steeper profiles. Apart from a weakness of such profile models to simulate morphological response on reflective beaches, some other factors may account for the differences between predictions and observations: e.g. longshore transport, the presence of structures at the backshore; and even preventive sand supply/rearrangement by the local authorities. The above may explain also that model performance was improved on the more remote and natural eastern profile; in which however, unrealistic berm erosion and scarp formation were also shown by the models. The preliminary results presented are part of an on-going effort to develop modelling tools for storm impact prediction/monitoring in the area and model testing/calibration, incorporating results from beach profile monitoring. Model run results comparison for the eastern, milder sloped profile of Praia de Faro

  4. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε.

    2014-08-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  5. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  6. Comparative analysis of time series of marine litter surveyed on beaches and the seafloor in the southeastern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Krone, Roland; Dederer, Gabriele; Wätjen, Kai; Matthies, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The comparative analysis of marine litter in different marine compartments has rarely been attempted. In this study, long-term time series of marine litter abundance on the seafloor and on the coast, both from the southeastern North Sea, were analyzed for temporal trends and correlations. On four beach sections of 100 m length, mean abundances of total beach litter collected four times a year from 2002 to 2008 varied between 105 and 435 items. Mean densities of total inorganic litter on the seafloor amounted to 10.6 ± 9.7 kg km(-2) in the offshore region (2001-2010) and 13.7 ± 12.6 kg km(-2) in the Wadden Sea (1998-2007), respectively. In the offshore region, there was no significant long-term trend, while in the Wadden Sea, densities of marine litter declined significantly. Correlations between time series were weak, indicating different sources and transport processes responsible for compositions of beach litter and litter on the seafloor. Decreases in inputs from fisheries and substantial export due to resuspension are discussed as reasons for the decrease in litter on the seafloor in the Wadden Sea. PMID:25778759

  7. Evaluation of the physical process controlling beach changes adjacent to nearshore dredge pits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedet, L.; List, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical modeling of a beach nourishment project is conducted to enable a detailed evaluation of the processes associated with the effects of nearshore dredge pits on nourishment evolution and formation of erosion hot spots. A process-based numerical model, Delft3D, is used for this purpose. The analysis is based on the modification of existing bathymetry to simulate "what if" scenarios with/without the bathymetric features of interest. Borrow pits dredged about 30??years ago to provide sand for the nourishment project have a significant influence on project performance and formation of erosional hot spots. It was found that the main processes controlling beach response to these offshore bathymetric features were feedbacks between wave forces (roller force or alongshore component of the radiation stress), pressure gradients due to differentials in wave set-up/set-down and bed shear stress. Modeling results also indicated that backfilling of selected borrow sites showed a net positive effect within the beach fill limits and caused a reduction in the magnitude of hot spot erosion. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impacts of Hurricane Ike on the beaches of the Bolivar Peninsula, TX, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Douglas J.; Hales, Billy U.; Potts, Michael K.; Ellis, Jean T.; Liu, Hongxing; Houser, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Hurricane Ike caused substantial beach erosion along the coast of the Bolivar Peninsula, TX. Much of the erosion was caused by the offshore (ebb) flow of the ca. 5 m storm surge that formed spatially discrete scour features. Using aerial photography and repeat LiDAR data, we identify five types of scour features and describe the alongshore distribution in four flow environments. Type 1 scours are relatively small and compact features associated mainly with flow off a wide, vegetated (grasses, shrubs, trees) surface across a wide beach. Type 2 scours are large and branching forms associated mainly with flow that was channeled by streets or gaps between structures. Type 3 scours are large and blocky features associated with flow off a marsh surface, across a highway, which removed almost all beach sands from the surface. Type 4 scours are elongated, shore perpendicular channels associated with the same flow characteristics as Type 3 scours. Type 5 scours are elongated, shore-perpendicular features, sometimes branching, associated with flow through gaps in a destroyed shore protection structure. Repeat imagery indicates that many of the features persisted for at least seven months. Recent aerial photography indicates that aspects of some features remained evident more than three years after Ike's landfall.

  9. The influence of allochthonous macroalgae on the fish communities of tropical sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrades, Ryan; Gomes, Marcelo P.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Souza-Filho, Jesser F.; Albuquerque, Cristiano Q.; Martins, Agnaldo S.

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates the hypothesis that detached macroalgae (drift algae) influence the structure of fish communities in the surf-zones of two tropical sandy beaches from the central coast of Brazil. Surf-zone seine hauls were conducted weekly during three consecutive 6-week periods according to the occurrence of drift algae - in pre-drift, drift and post-drift periods. Drift algae comprised 33 macroalgae species and likely came from offshore rhodolith beds. Fish biomass, density and species richness increased from pre-drift to drift periods, and species composition differed significantly between periods, particularly in the more sheltered of the sampled beaches. The density of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes also increased significantly from the pre-drift to drift periods, suggesting the importance of drift algae to early fish stages. The gut contents of the two most abundant species during the drift algae period, Trachinotus falcatus and Trachinotus goodei, demonstrated the importance of macrophyte-associated amphipods in their diets, suggesting that the drift algae may be used as feeding habitats for these species. Our results showed that the influx of allochthonous drift algae may structure fish communities of tropical sandy beaches and that it may also represent an important alternative resource for YOY fish by providing shelter and food during autumn and winter.

  10. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5) important assemblages were set at 50%, following other studies. 6) Finally, a target for an outstanding feature (the Alexandria dunefield) was set at 80% because of its national, international and ecological importance. The greatest shortfall in the current target-setting process is in the lack of empirical models describing the key beach processes, from which robust ecological thresholds can be derived. As for many other studies, our results illustrate that the conservation target of 10% for coastal and marine systems proposed by the Convention on Biological Diversity is too low to conserve sandy beaches and their biota.

  11. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  12. Virginia Beach Public Library System, Virginia Beach/Oceanfront Branch: A Community Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Carolyn L., Comp.; And Others

    This study provides an overview of the community and the status of the library through an examination of the city of Virginia Beach, including its demography and needs, as well as the history, organization, administration, and financial support of both the Virginia Beach Public Library System and the Oceanfront Branch Library. The information is

  13. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR...

  14. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization

  15. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  16. Undertow over a barred beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, A. F. Garcez; Thornton, E. B.; Lippmann, T. C.; Stanton, T. P.

    2000-07-01

    The spatial distribution of the mean cross-shore flow (undertow) over a barred beach is examined with field data obtained on three energetic wave days during the Duck94 experiment. The vertical structure of the undertow is modeled using a turbulent eddy viscosity closure and includes the important effects of wave breaking (described using the roller concept) and convective acceleration of the current. Other than a more realistic description of observed turbulence variations, a depth-dependent eddy viscosity (compared with a constant) does not improve the agreement between predicted and observed undertow profiles. The effect of using different boundary conditions is investigated by extending the formulations of Stive and Wind [1986] and Svendsen et al. [1987] to include random waves by ensemble averaging over the wave height distribution. The contribution of breaking wave rollers to the surface mass flux can be of the same order or greater than the contribution associated with the organized wave motion. The largest discrepancies between model predictions and observations occur over the sandbar, where the mass transport of the breaking waves appears to be underestimated.

  17. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further highlights the need to include biological interactions, the degree of human disturbance and other variables such as environmental heterogeneity and the connectivity of the individual beaches when assessing inter-beach differences in macrofaunal assemblages.

  18. Inner shelf morphologic controls on the dynamics of the beach and bar system, Fire Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Schwab, William C.; Gayes, P.; McCoy, Clay; Viso, Richard; Lentz, Erika E.

    2011-01-01

    he mechanism of sediment exchange between offshore sand ridges and the beach at Fire Island, New York is largely unknown. However, recent evidence from repeat nearshore bathymetry surveys, coupled with the complex but consistent bar morphology and patterns of shoreline change demonstrate that there is a feedback occurring between the regional geologic framework and modern processes. Analysis of bathymetric survey data provides direct confirmation that the offshore ridges are connected to the shoreface and are spatially persistent. The fixed nature of the nearshore morphology is further supported by time series camera data that indicate persistent bars with breaks that re-form in the same locations. A long-term time series of shoreline change shows distinct zones of erosion and accretion that are pervasive over time scales greater than a half-century, and their length-scales are similar to the spacing of the offshore ridge-trough system. The first-order geologic framework is responsible for the existence and locations of the ridges and troughs, which then influence the morphodynamics of the beach and bar system.

  19. Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

    2012-12-01

    Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal variations of the wave field (measured immediately offshore) are large, but shoreline changes (usually <30cm) are smaller than in Southern California. Maximum vertical variations occur just seaward of the shoreline and the nearshore bathymetry is often barred. Plant (1999) show that bar crest position at Duck has equilibrium-like behavior. We will present the results of equilibrium shoreline and profile modeling at Duck. At both sites, we diagnose sources (e.g. grain size and incident waves) of the sometimes strong observed alongshore variations in sand level change patterns. Funding was provided by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the California Department of Boating and Waterways. REFERENCES Plant, N. G., R. A. Holman, M. H. Freilich, and W. A. Birkemeier (1999), A simple model for interannual sandbar behavior, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C7), 15,755-15,776. Yates, M. L., R. T. Guza, and W. C. O'Reilly (2009), Equilibrium shoreline response: Observations and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C09014.

  20. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not been widely implemented in sandy beaches, could be a key tool for biodiversity conservation and should also facilitate spillover effects into adjacent beach habitats. Setback and zoning strategies need to be enforced through legislation, and all relevant stakeholders should be included in the design, implementation and institutionalisation of these initiatives. New perspectives for rational management of sandy beaches require paradigm shifts, by including not only basic ecosystem principles, but also incentives for effective governance and sharing of management roles between government and local stakeholders.

  1. Southwest Washington littoral drift restorationBeach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided with the complete loss of the outer bar and net loss of sediment from the study area. These data suggest that bar decay may be an important mechanism for exporting sediment from Benson Beach north to the Long Beach Peninsula. The measurements presented in this report represent one component of a broader monitoring program designed to track the movement of nourishment material on the beach and shoreface at this location, including continuous video monitoring (Argus), in situu measurements of hydrodynamics, and a physical tracer experiment. Field data from the monitoring program will be used to test numerical models of hydrodynamics and sediment transport and to improve the capability of numerical models to support regional sediment management.

  2. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  3. Climatic Signals in Beach Volume Measurements from 19 Intermediate Embayed Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, K. R.; Coco, G.; Blossier, B.; Smith, R. K.; Wood, A.

    2014-12-01

    The northeast coast of New Zealand has a range of embayed intermediate beaches whose cross-shore profiles can vary on time scales extending from individual storms to inter-decadal. Some of these beaches erode and accrete a lot whereas others can remain extraordinarily stable despite exposure to comparable wave climates. Here a profile dataset collected intermittently since 1980, and 6-weekly since 1995, on 19 northeast coast beaches (62 profiles) is used to study variability between sites. Spectral analysis of the profile data showed annual, biannual and interannual energy, with the relative magnitude varying surprisingly between sites. Wave climate information for the sites was provided by a regional SWAN model which had been forced by data extracted from the NOAA WWIII wave database. Waves were modelled from 1980-2008. The wave climate was used to cluster the beaches into those that were likely to behave in a similar way, based on the relative proportions of variability in these time scales in the significant wave height, mean period and alongshore wave energy flux extracted from model output. Beaches with a northward aspect had generally low biannual variability but higher interannual and seasonal variability. In contrast, sites exposed to easterly conditions had a greater biannual contribution. Analysis of climate indicators show that the southern oscillation index and the Pacific decadal oscillation also have variability in seasonal, biannual and interannual scales to different degrees and these are weakly but significantly correlated to beach volume variations. Overall, the degree of correlation appears directly related to beach orientation.

  4. A multi-beach study of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and enterococci in seawater and beach sand.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Kelly D; McNay, Melody; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy; Madison, Melissa; Griffith, John F

    2012-09-01

    Incidences of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have risen worldwide prompting a need to better understand routes of human exposure and whether standard bacterial water quality monitoring practices adequately account for this potential threat. Beach water and sand samples were analyzed during summer months for S. aureus, enterococci, and MRSA at three southern California beaches (Avalon, Doheny, Malibu Surfrider). S. aureus frequently was detected in samples of seawater (59%, n = 328) and beach sand (53%, n = 358). MRSA sometimes was detected in seawater (1.6%, n = 366) and sand (2.7%, n = 366) at relatively low concentrations. Site specific differences were observed, with Avalon Beach presenting the highest concentrations of S. aureus and Malibu Surfrider the lowest in both seawater and sand. S. aureus concentrations in seawater and sand were correlated to each other and to a variety of other parameters. Multiple linear regression on the combined beach data indicated that significant explanatory variables for S. aureus in seawater were S. aureus in sand, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and the number of swimmers. In sand, S. aureus concentrations were related to S. aureus in seawater, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and inversely to surf height classification. Only the correlation to water temperature held for individually analyzed beaches and for S. aureus concentrations in both seawater and sand. To provide context for these results, the prevalence of S. aureus in sand was compared to published fomite studies, and results suggested that beach prevalence was similar to that in homes. PMID:22652414

  5. Turbodrilling performance offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, L.A.; Abdulrahman, E.A.

    1983-03-01

    Until the first quarter of 1979 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation Offshore routinely rotary drilled its vertical development wells using tricone bits. Turbodrilling the 17 1/2'' and 8 1/2'' hole sections was introduced in the second quarter of 1979 followed by the 12 1/4'' hole section in the first qarter of 1980. This resulted in avoiding/minimising downhole problems and the elimination of 7'' and 4 1/2'' liners. As a result of introducing these practices a 50 percent time saving and a 30 percent cost saving has been achieved, equivalent to $550,000/well.

  6. Depositional settings of sand beaches along whitewater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vincent, K.R.; Andrews, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    The numbers and sizes of sand beaches suitable for recreation along selected whitewater rivers in the western United States depend on sand concentrations, range of discharge and the size, frequency and type of depositional settings. River-width expansions downstream from constrictions are the predominant depositional setting for sand beaches in the upper Grand Canyon and along five Wild and Scenic Rivers in Idaho, but not along other rivers. Beaches located upstream from constrictions are rare, in general, except in the Grand Canyon. Beaches found in expansions without constrictions dominate depositional sites along the Yampa and Green Rivers, are fairly common along the rivers in Idaho, but are relatively rare in the Grand Canyon. The magnitude of flow expansion is a reliable predictor of beach size. Beaches located on the inside of curves are uncommon, in general, but can be important recreation sites. The mid-channel bar setting is the least important from a recreation standpoint because that setting is rare and beaches there are typically small, and emergent only at low flow. The frequency of beaches is highly variable among rivers and the concentration of sand in transport is only partially responsible. Of the rivers studied, the unregulated Yampa River carries the highest concentrations of suspended sand and has among the most beaches (1.2 beaches km-1). Emergent sand beaches are essentially nonexistent along the Deschutes River and are rare along other Oregon rivers, yet these rivers transport some sand. Sand beaches are fairly common (0.8-1.1 beaches km-1) along the regulated Colorado River, but are comparatively rare (0.6 beaches km-1) along the unregulated Middle Fork Salmon River. The suspended sand concentrations in study reaches of these two rivers are similar, and the difference in the frequency of beaches may be largely because the processes that create beach-deposition settings are less active along the Middle Fork Salmon.

  7. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress recruitment and survival at all intertidal zones. Our results suggest use of incompatible fine fill sediments from dredging projects creates unsuitable intertidal habitat that excludes burrowing macroinvertebrates and could delay beach ecosystem recovery. Through effects on beach invertebrates that are prey for shorebirds and fish, the ecological impacts of filling with mismatched fine sediments could influence higher trophic levels and extend beyond the beach itself.

  8. An evaluation of beached bird monitoring approaches.

    PubMed

    Seys, Jan; Offringa, Henk; Van Waeyenberge, Jeroen; Meire, Patrick; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2002-04-01

    Oil-pollution monitoring at sea through beach bird surveying would undoubtedly benefit from a further standardisation of methods, enhancing the efficiency of data collection. In order to come up with useful recommendations, we evaluated various approaches of beached bird collection at the Belgian coast during seven winters (1993-1999). Data received in a passive way by one major rehabilitation centre were compared to the results of targeted beach surveys carried out at different scales by trained ornithologists: 'weekly' surveys - with a mean interval of 9 days - restricted to a fixed 16.7 km beach stretch, 'monthly' surveys over the entire coastline (62.1 km) and an annual 'international' survey in Belgium over the same distance at the end of February. Data collected through Belgian rehabilitation centres concern injured, living birds collected in a non-systematical way. Oil rates derived from these centres appear to be strongly biased to oiled auks and inshore bird species, and are hence of little use in assessing the extent of oil pollution at sea. The major asset of rehabilitation centres in terms of data collection seems to be their continuous warning function for events of mass mortality. Weekly surveys on a representative and large enough section rendered reliable data on oil rates, estimates of total number of bird victims, representation of various taxonomic groups and species-richness and were most sensitive in detecting events quickly (wrecks, oil-slicks, severe winter mortality, etc.). Monthly surveys gave comparable results, although they overlooked some important beaching events and demonstrated slightly higher oil rates, probably due to the higher chance to miss short-lasting wrecks of auks. Since the monthly surveys in Belgium were carried out by a network of volunteers and were spread over a larger beach section, they should be considered as best performing. Single 'international beached bird surveys' in February gave reliable data on total victim number (once the mean ratio between numbers in various months is known) and oil rate (provided a sufficiently large sample can be collected), but failed in tracking events. It is a particularly attractive approach because of its long tradition, resulting in invaluable long-term databases, and the uniformity in which these surveys are organised on a large scale. The minimal distance for a monthly survey amounts to 25-30 km (40-50% of Belgian coastline) up to 40 km (65%) in order to attain sound figures for oil rate and species-richness, respectively. These distances are primarily determined by the number of bird corpses that may be collected and are hence a function of beaching intensity and corpse detection rate. PMID:12139322

  9. Analyzing the Relationship of Strengths to Personality Preferences and Vocational Interests Utilizing Clifton StrengthsFinder, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Strong Interest Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Paulette M.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of vocational psychology, career counselors have constantly searched for, devised, and implemented practices and techniques to best prepare clients for the world of work. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between strengths to personality preference and vocational interests utilizing the Myers-Briggs

  10. The Relationship between Personality Type and Software Usability Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research

  11. Teaching Teams To Be Teams: An Exercise Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were

  12. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  13. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  14. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  15. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities

  17. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  19. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  20. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father offshore will be able to capture more wind energy. Currently two types of towers are considered. Cylindrical tubular structures and truss type structures. But truss type structures have less weight and flexibility in design. The construction of the offshore towers to harness the wind energy is also presented. The results will include the calculation of wind and wave forces on the tower and the design details for the tower.

  1. Floating offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, M.; Narita, H.; Tabuchi, H.; Yashima, N.

    1985-05-28

    A floating offshore structure which is moored at a fixed position on the sea by means of mooring hawsers and anchors connected to the ends thereof respectively for conducting a submarine excavating operation from a deck of the structure. The structure includes a moorage hull part provided with a vertical through-hole formed therein for receiving an excavating drill pipe and the mooring hawsers and a movable hull part connected to the moorage hull part so as to be rotatable within a horizontal plane. The movable hull part is constituted as a hull defining the outer wall of the floating offshore structure and connected with the moorage hull part by inserting it into a moorage hull part receiving hole formed at a position closer to the bow thereof. The movable hull part has near its water plane a horizontal section with a substantially oval shape formed by a fore draft part in a substantially circular or polygonal shape, with the moorage hull part receiving hole as a center and an after draft part taperingly projecting aft from the fore draft part.

  2. Pioneering offshore excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

  3. Modelling the hydrodynamic and morphosedimentary response of an beach-headland system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, João; Oliveira, Sónia; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Future behaviour of beaches within a headland-beach system is of fundamental interest on coastal evolution since they act as a buffer between the waves' attack and the cliffs backing them. The beaches at the cliffs' foot anchored between headlands are space-limited environments to morphosedimentary processes. Additionally, headlands and shore platforms are natural barriers to the alongshore drift. Several attempts to develop numerical expressions to characterize the stability of headland-beach systems have been made based mainly on linear parameters. However, in the sandy areas occur volumetric variations of greater magnitude that changes in the shoreline position in a tidal cycle. This work aims to quantify the balance between the incoming and the lost sediment in two embayed beaches in order to improve knowledge of the sedimentary dynamics of such environments and therefore the evolution of coastal landscapes. The study area is the Algarve coastal karstic landscapes, which raises challenging questions on morphosedimentary processes because it has dozens of stacks and cavities both in the surf zone and in the nearshore that interfere with the littoral current patterns. The field campaigns were performed during spring tide conditions in February and March, 2011. The nearshore wave climate and the current's velocity and direction were measured using respectively a non-vented Level TROLL 700 Pressure Transducer (PT) and an autonomously deployable electro-magnetic current meter (EMCM) Infinity-EM with a data logger. The offshore wave data used was acquired through the Portuguese Hydrographic Institute (IH) at the Faro buoy, located 50 km southeast from the study area. The topographic surveys were performed for a total area of about 1500 m2 using two Global Navigation Satellite System receptors (GPS Trimble R6 and GPS Trimble 5800) in real-time kinematic mode (RTK) with differential global positioning system (DGPS) providing centimetric accuracy. The altimetric values ranged between -2 and +6 m (mean sea level-msl). The automatic determination of the spatial characteristics of the beach morphology results from the GIS tools. The wave and current post processing was made using the STWAVE and Bouss-2D model software. Our results showed that: (i) the shore orientation is the major factor for the height of the waves approaching the coast (considering the same offshore climate) and thus to the wave energy input to transport sediment, (ii) the shore platforms which extend up to -7 m (msl) determine a very irregular pattern of the shoaling waves and distance of the breaking point from the shoreline, (iii) as a consequence of (ii) the rip currents in the surf zone show a very complex pattern and the direction of the sedimentary transport can be opposite to the direction of the incoming waves, (iv) the pattern of the rip currents is highly variable depending on the water depth, (v) the results obtained for volumetric balances showed a negative balance (erosion higher than accretion) at the smaller embayed beach and a positive balance (accretion higher than erosion) at the larger one. This work is a contribution to the PTDC/GEO-GEO/3981/2012 funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.

  4. Observations of Intertidal Bars Welding to the Shoreline: Examining the Mechanisms of Onshore Sediment Transport and Beach Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, N.; Anderson, D. L.; Susa, T.; Ruggiero, P.; Honegger, D.; Haller, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Many coastlines throughout the world are in a net erosional state due to factors such as climate change and anthropogenic activities. While most coastal erosion occurs episodically during major storms, beaches recover during extended periods of low wave energy. Despite the importance of beach recovery on limiting coastal vulnerability, the mechanisms driving onshore sediment transport are much less well understood than those of storm-driven offshore transport. Intertidal bar (i.e., swash bar) welding to the shoreline is one proposed mechanism of sediment delivery from the nearshore to the backshore. However, studies of swash bars and their contribution to beach building have been scarce because of the sporadic nature of these events and difficulty measuring sediment fluxes in the intertidal zone. Several beaches in the US Pacific Northwest are prograding rapidly in part due to highly dissipative conditions and an abundant sediment supply. For example, at South Beach State Park (SBSP) in Newport, OR the shoreline accreted at an average of 6 m/yr from 1960 to 2002. To explore the role of intertidal bar welding on supplying sediment to this dynamic backshore, we recently completed a boutique field experiment at SBSP. Topographic and bathymetric surveys carried out over 9 months document the short term (offshore SBSP to measure waves, currents, suspended sediment concentrations, and the density structure of the water column to characterize the environmental conditions driving the observed morphologic changes. A co-located X-band marine radar and meteorological station provide information regarding spatially complex wave transformations and the forces driving aeolian sediment transport, respectively. Our observations at SBSP indicate a dynamic coastal landscape including multiple nearshore bars. During the experiment we observed onshore migration of the subtidal bars, significant changes to the swash bar system, and progradation of the subaerial beach. With this new dataset we are exploring the importance of intertidal bar welding on supplying sediment to the backshore as well as the environmental conditions and physical mechanisms that promote onshore delivery of sediment.

  5. The development of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies as a new therapeutic modality for cancer: the Bristol-Myers Squibb experience.

    PubMed

    Berman, David; Korman, Alan; Peck, Ronald; Feltquate, David; Lonberg, Nils; Canetta, Renzo

    2015-04-01

    The discovery and increased understanding of the complex interactions regulating the immune system have contributed to the pharmacologic activation of antitumor immunity. The activity of effector cells, such as T and NK cells, is regulated by an array of activating and attenuating receptors and ligands. Agents that target these molecules can modulate immune responses by exerting antagonistic or agonistic effects. Several T- or NK-cell modulators have entered clinical trials, and two have been approved for use. Ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb) and nivolumab (OPDIVO, Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd./Bristol-Myers Squibb) were approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, in March 2011 in the United States, and in July 2014 in Japan, respectively. The clinical activity of these two antibodies has not been limited to tumor types considered sensitive to immunotherapy, and promising activity has been reported in other solid and hematologic tumors. Clinical development of ipilimumab and nivolumab has presented unique challenges in terms of safety and efficacy, requiring the establishment of new evaluation criteria for adverse events and antitumor effects. Guidelines intended to help oncologists properly manage treatment in view of these non-traditional features have been implemented. The introduction of this new modality of cancer treatment, which is meant to integrate with or replace the current standards of care, requires additional efforts in terms of optimization of treatment administration, identification of biomarkers and application of new clinical trial designs. The availability of immune modulators with different mechanisms of action offers the opportunity to establish immunological combinations as new standards of care. PMID:25476108

  6. Trends in chronic marine oil pollution in Danish waters assessed using 22 years of beached bird surveys.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jørn Lennart; Durinck, Jan; Skov, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    Beached bird surveys provide an important tool for monitoring the level of oil pollution at sea, which is the most significant observable cause of death for a large number of waterbird species and pose a serious threat to wintering seabird populations. Linear regression analyses of oil rates from the Danish 22 year dataset show a decline in the oil pollution level in offshore areas of the eastern North Sea and Skagerrak and in near-shore parts of the Kattegat; but a worsening in the offshore areas of the Kattegat. These results raise concern for species such as common scoter, velvet scoter, eider and razorbill, for which the Kattegat serves as a globally important wintering area. It is recommended that surveillance for oil spills is intensified in inner Danish waters, and that action is taken to make responses towards offenders faster, and penalties for oil seepage higher. PMID:17658558

  7. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2010-01-08

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  8. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  9. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  10. Beach Erosion and Sea Turtle Nest

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image depicts a cliff-like escarpment in the sand of a Florida beach. Notice the marked turtle nest (background) and the unusual single exposed egg (right foreground). The protective stakes mark a nest from an earlier week as part of a county research program that marks and records every eighth...

  11. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  12. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  13. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest

  14. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  15. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  16. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  17. Rip channel development on nonbarred beaches: The importance of a lag in suspended-sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. Brad

    2004-04-01

    On approximately planar beaches, rip channel development is often preceded by a period in which jet-like rip currents develop in apparently random locations, and dissipate after minutes to tens of minutes. The subsequent development of sharp-edged, trough-like channels extending across the surf zone suggests that rip currents on planar beaches cause local erosion. Conversely, channels are known to cause localized offshore-directed flow, and once channels have formed on approximately planar beaches, rip currents no longer occur in apparently random locations, but are restricted to the locations of the channels. Apparently, the excavation of channels by rip currents on planar beaches triggers a positive feedback between the morphological development and the flow. However, theoretical analysis indicates that, when depth increases with distance from shore, and sediment transport is treated as a function only of local flow conditions, channel development in the vicinity of a rip current may not occur. In numerical simulations (using a "cellular" model of nonbathymetrically driven rip currents) in which sediment flux on a planar beach is driven by approximately realistic rip current velocity patterns, deposition occurs under parts of the rip currents (especially in the seaward half of the surf zone), and these "rip ridges" cause a negative feedback. In these simulations, as in most models treating surf zone sediment transport, sediment flux is assumed to be strictly a function of local hydrodynamic conditions. However, Observations of sediment-laden rip-current plumes extending well beyond the surf zone suggest that suspended sediment transport is not always in equilibrium with local conditions. Other simulations employ a treatment of suspended-sediment transport that allows for a lag in the adjustment of fluxes to the changes in local hydrodynamic conditions that the sediment is advected through. With this nonlocal sediment-transport, the flux of sediment out of the surf zone in a rip current is increased, ridges do not develop under any part of the rip currents, and the morphodynamic feedback becomes positive.

  18. Diagenesis of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation, Mobile and Baldwin Counties and offshore Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, R.L. Jr.; Benson, D.J.

    1988-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation is an important deep gas reservoir in Mobile and Baldwin Counties and offshore Alabama. The producing reservoir consists of a well-sorted fine-grained subarkose to arkose. Sedimentological studies indicate this unit was deposited on a broad desert plain in environments ranging from eolian dune and interdune to wadi and beach-shoreface. Diagenetic minerals comprise from 5 to 20% of the bulk volume of the sandstone. Porosity ranges from less than 3% to more than 25% and averages around 10%. Most of the porosity consists of hybrid solution-enlarged intergranular and intragranular pores resulting from the dissolution of cements, framework grains, and grain replacements.

  19. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  20. Coastal Processes and Geomorphology along Crissy Beach and Inside San Francisco's Golden Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. A.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P. L.; Battalio, B.; Elias, E.; Hansen, J. E.; Sheehan, L. R.; White, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Golden Gate inlet to San Francisco Bay is a highly dynamic zone for sediment transport and geomorphic patterns. The behavior of the coastline has historically not been considered during land use planning, leading to a heavily manipulated shoreline in areas such as Ocean Beach, Crissy Field and other portions of the northern shore of San Francisco. Understanding of the regional and local coastal processes is even more important for future land-use planning and habitat restoration as sea level rises. The goal of this study is to present a summary of the coastal dynamics that govern the geomorphology of Crissy Field Beach and Marsh area, and estimate the future shore response to sea level rise. The Crissy Field marsh restoration in the late 1990s marked a new stage of studying coastal processes in this area of the Golden Gate Littoral Cell. For the past decade, the USGS and ESA PWA have conducted hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and geomorphic investigations extending from Ocean Beach to Crissy Marsh. USGS work has been driven by understanding the long-term function of the marsh while ESA PWA has focused on applying science to address coastal engineering and shoreline protection issues. We present a synthesis of this body of work as an example of successful public-private collaboration on coastal sciences. Several datasets were combined to characterize the region's dynamism. The local wave climate includes short period waves generated from local winds blowing over San Francisco Bay and longer period waves (swell) that arrive at Crissy Field from distant sources through the Golden Gate entrance. Tidal current data and model simulations indicate the presence of a residual circulation cell with ebb -dominance (eastward flow) offshore of Crissy Beach and a weaker westward current in the very nearshore region. Cross-shore transects of bathymetry and topography from 1947, 1978, 1997, 2007 and 2008 suggest patterns of erosion and deposition patterns occur on decadal, annual and seasonal timescales. Variability of the shoreline was further analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) in GIS, based on decadal aerial photographs beginning in the 1920s and long-term dredging records from the San Francisco Marina located immediately east of Crissy Beach. Based on the data and numerical modeling results, an overall sediment budget was estimated to determine the trends of potential geomorphic change. The geomorphic response to sea-level rise is vital to infrastructure design at Crissy Beach. Based on compilation and analysis of USGS and ESA PWA data and model results describing historic and present conditions, the accretion patterns on the west part of the beach are not expected to continue linearly. Incorporating anticipated sea level-rise rates established for California (0.35 m by 2050, 1.40 m by 2100), ESA PWA's calculated water levels are projected to exceed estimated shoreline elevations calculated from accretion rates. Transgression of the beach upward and landward is expected, as long as space is available for managed retreat.

  1. Offshore search continues despite disappointments

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration drilling activity in Australia broke records onshore in 1984, but offshore it was a different story. A total of 373 wells were drilled, onshore and offshore, with 266 labeled as wildcats and appraisals. Out of 80 wells drilled offshore last year, 43 were exploratory compared with 49 in 1983; 48 were oil wells, seven were gas, and 25 were dusters. Offshore discoveries included the Talisman 1 off the coast of Western Australia, which tested around 6000 b/d, and Challis 1 in the Timor Sea, which flowed at 5000 b/d. The failure to establish Jabiru in the Timor Sea as a major oil province like Bass Strait was a major disappointment. However, the Challis 1 was a relief since it indicated the presence of a commercial field adjacent to Jabiru.

  2. Methane Seeps along Offshore Virginia

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Numerous distinct methane streams emanating from the seafloor at an upper slope (< 500 m water depth) cold seep site offshore Virginia. Image courtesy of NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program, 2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition....

  3. Modern sedimentation on the shoreface and inner continental shelf at wrightsville beach, North Carolina, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, R.E.; Pilkey, O.H., Jr.; Cleary, W.J.; Schwab, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    The geologic framework and surficial morphology of the shoreface and inner continental shelf off the Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, barrier island were mapped using high-resolution sidescansonar, bathyme??trie, and seismic-reflection surveying techniques, a suite of over 200 diver vibracores, and extensive seafloor observations by divers. The inner shelf is a sediment-starved, active surface of marine erosion; modern sediments, where present, form a patchy veneer over Tertiary and Quaternary units. The lithology of the underlying units exerts a primary control on the distribution, texture, and composition of surficial sediments, as well as inner-shelf bathymetry. The shoreface is dominated by a linear, cross-shore morphology of rippled scour depressions (RSDs) extending from just seaward of the surf zone onto the inner shelf. On the upper shoreface, the RSDs are incised up to l m below surrounding areas of fine sand, and have an asymmetric cross section that is steeper-sided to the north. On the inner shelf, the RSDs have a similar but more subdued cross-sectional profile. The depressions are floored primarily by shell hash and quartz gravel. Vibracore data show a thick (up to 1.5 m) sequence of RSD sediments that unconformably overlies ancient coastal lithosomes. In this sediment-starved inner shelf setting, rippled scour depressions probably form initially on preexisting coarse-sediment substrates such as modern lag deposits of paleofluvial channel lithosomes or ancient tidal inlet thalwegs. Interannual observations of seafloor morphologic change and the longer-term record contained in vibracores suggest that the present seafloor morphology is either relatively stable or represents a recurring, preferential morphologic state to which the seafloor returns after storm-induced perturbations. The apparent stability is interpreted to be the result of interactions at several scales that contribute to a repeating, self-reinforcing pattern of forcing and sedimentary response which ultimately causes the RSDs to be maintained as sediment-starved bedforms responding to both along-shore and acrossshore flows. Sediment accumulation from over 30 years of extensive beach nourishment at Wrightsville Beach appears to have exceeded the local shoreface accommodation space, resulting in the "leaking" of beach and shoreface sediment to the inner shelf. A macroscopically identifiable beach nourishment sediment on the shoreface and inner shelf was used to identify the decadal-scale pattern of sediment dispersal. The nourishment sediment is present in a seaward-thinning wedge that extends from the beach over a kilometer onto the inner shelf to waters depths of 14 m. This wedge is best developed offshore of the shoreline segment that has received the greatest volume of beach nourishment. Copyright ??2001, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary' Geology).

  4. Distribution and thickness of sedimentary facies in the coastal dune, beach and nearshore sedimentary system at Maspalomas, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontn Bouzas, Angela; Alcntara-Carri, Javier; Montoya Montes, Isabel; Barranco Ojeda, Andrs; Albarracn, Silvia; Rey Daz de Rada, Jorge; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown that most beaches and coastal dune systems of the world are currently eroding but very few have investigated the combined sediment budgets of subaerial and nearshore submarine systems. In the case of the dune field of the Maspalomas Natural Special Reserve (in the south of Gran Canaria), the adjacent Maspalomas and El Ingls beaches and the adjacent submarine platform, the sediment budgets have been severely affected by erosion over the past few decades. The objectives of this study were to investigate the availability of sand within the modern sedimentary system, including the coastal dunes, the beaches and the submerged shelf, but also to assess local sediment sinks. An isopach map generated on the basis of topo-bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles revealed that sediment thickness varies from 0-22 m in the study area. Expanses of relatively low sediment thickness were identified in the south-western sector of the coastal dune field along Maspalomas beach, and in the nearshore region to the south of this beach. These localized sediment-deficit areas earmark Maspalomas beach as the most vulnerable shore strip threatened by erosion. The shallow seismic data also revealed that the submarine platform south of Maspalomas represents a marine terrace cut into an ancient alluvial fan, thus documenting an influence of the geomorphological heritage on the present-day morphodynamics. A side-scan sonar mosaic of this nearshore platform enabled the delimitation of areas covered by rock, boulders and gravel, vegetated sand patches and a mobile sand facies, the latter including ripple and megaripple fields. The megaripple field in a valley close to the talus of the marine terrace has been identified as a major sediment sink of the Maspalomas sedimentary system. It is fed by south-westerly storm-wave events. The sediment deficit in the coastal dune field and along Maspalomas beach can therefore only be explained by a currently faster loss of sediment to an offshore sink than can be compensated by the supply of sand from outside the system.

  5. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Floridas beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  6. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  7. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the beach will be reduced and part of the beach can be replaced, and providing aesthetic and economic value to the beach in order to maintain the coastal protection programme. Acknowledgements This work was performed in the framework of the PEFYKA project within the KRIPIS Αction of the GSRT. The project is funded by Greece and the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union under the NSRF and the O.P. Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship. It has also been supported by the "Estimation of the vunlerability of coastal areas to climatic change and sea level rise. Pilot study in Crete isl. Programme for the promotion of the exchange and scientific cooperation between Greece and Germany" programme IKYDA2013.

  8. Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sands from Rizhao bathing beach, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2008-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was determined for beach sand samples collected from Rizhao bathing beach, China, using gamma ray spectrometry. The measured activity in beach sand ranges from 7.6 to 17.2, 7.8 to 25.1 and 883.4 to 1313.6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K with mean values of 12.0, 15.2 and 1079.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in beach sands are lower, while (40)K is higher than the world average. The radium equivalent activity in all beach sand samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of the external hazard index are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 59.8 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.073 mSv y(-1). PMID:18325933

  9. Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2004-06-01

    This volume discusses the role of humans in transforming the coastal landscape. The book details the many ways beaches and dunes are eliminated, altered and replaced and the differences between natural landforms and the human artefacts that replace them. Emphasis is placed on the importance of retaining naturally functioning beaches and dunes in ways that achieve natural values while accommodating development and use. The issues dealt with in this book will be of interest to practising coastal engineers and research scientists, as well as to planners and managers of coastal resources at all levels of government. It will be of particular value to investigators planning for the future of coastal development under accelerated sea level rise. The book will also be useful as a reference text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in geography, geology, ecology and other disciplines dealing with the interaction between science, technology and society.

  10. Recreational water quality response to a filtering barrier at a Great Lakes beach.

    PubMed

    Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Nevers, Meredith B; Breitenbach, Cathy; Whitman, Richard L

    2013-11-15

    Recent research has sought to determine the off- or onshore origin of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in order to improve local recreational water quality. In an effort to reduce offshore contamination, a filtering barrier (FB) was installed at Calumet Beach, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL. A horseshoe-shaped curtain (146m long, 0.18mm apparent opening size, 1.5-1.6m deepest point) was designed to exclude FIB containing or promoting debris and thus reduce the number of swimming advisories during the examination period of July through September 2012. Mean water Escherichia coli concentrations were significantly lower at southern transects (S; outside FB) than at transects within the FB (WN) and at northern transects (N; outside FB) (1.45 log (MPN)/100ml vs. 1.74 and 1.72, respectively, p<0.05, n=234). Turbidity was significantly higher at the WN transects (p<0.001, n=233), but it tended to increase throughout the sampling season within and outside the FB. E.coli in adjacent foreshore sand was significantly lower at the WN transects. A combination of factors might explain higher E.coli and turbidity within the FB including increased sediment resuspension, trapped algae, shallowing within the FB, and large lake hydrodynamic processes. This remediation approach may find better use in a different hydrodynamic setting, but the results of this experiment provide insight on sources of contamination and nearshore dynamics that may direct future beach management strategies. PMID:24041625

  11. Recreational water quality response to a filtering barrier at a Great Lakes beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Nevers, Meredith; Breitenbach, Cathy; Whitman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has sought to determine the off- or onshore origin of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in order to improve local recreational water quality. In an effort to reduce offshore contamination, a filtering barrier (FB) was installed at Calumet Beach, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL. A horseshoe-shaped curtain (146 m long, 0.18 mm apparent opening size, 1.51.6 m deepest point) was designed to exclude FIB containing or promoting debris and thus reduce the number of swimming advisories during the examination period of July through September 2012. Mean water Escherichia coli concentrations were significantly lower at southern transects (S; outside FB) than at transects within the FB (WN) and at northern transects (N; outside FB) (1.45 log (MPN)/100 ml vs. 1.74 and 1.72, respectively, p < 0.05, n = 234). Turbidity was significantly higher at the WN transects (p < 0.001, n = 233), but it tended to increase throughout the sampling season within and outside the FB. E. coli in adjacent foreshore sand was significantly lower at the WN transects. A combination of factors might explain higher E. coli and turbidity within the FB including increased sediment resuspension, trapped algae, shallowing within the FB, and large lake hydrodynamic processes. This remediation approach may find better use in a different hydrodynamic setting, but the results of this experiment provide insight on sources of contamination and nearshore dynamics that may direct future beach management strategies.

  12. Assessing shelf aggregate environmental compatibility and suitability for beach nourishment: a case study for Tuscany (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bigongiari, Nicola; Cipriani, Luigi E; Pranzini, Enzo; Renzi, Monia; Vitale, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    Beach nourishment practices are a key aspect in coastal management plans for stakeholders and communities. Stemming from a concrete case-study (Tuscany), this research analyzes: (i) principal problems of current law regulating dredging, (ii) gaps in technical guidelines, (iii) advantages of integrated approaches to the decision-making process, (iv) possible applicable nourishment options and their costs and benefits. Our results show that sand compatibility is driven mainly by grain-size stability due to the occurrence of lower pollution levels in off-shore deposits than in threatened beaches, thus current laws and guidelines should be improved to fill the evident gap in the evaluation process and to include a more complete approach to data evaluation and an integrated approach to ecotoxicity evaluation, which is relevant in cases of geochemical anomalies. The cost-benefit analysis performed indicates that only dredging intended to manage more than 1 million m(3) of aggregates would represent a real advantage for local communities. PMID:25684591

  13. Metal-Microbial Interactions in Toronto Sunnyside Beach: Impact on Water Quality and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, J. M.; Elliott, A.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public beaches. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably contaminated aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside Beach (May 13 and August 20), an urban public beach on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal contaminant concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.

  14. Offshore well support miniplatform

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.W.

    1987-07-14

    This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.

  15. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  17. Sand Beach Bacteria: Enumeration and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Khiyama, H. M.; Makemson, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  18. Investigating Storm-Induced Total Water Levels on Complex Barred Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.

    2013-12-01

    Water levels in coastal environments are not static, but rather vary from a range of factors including mean sea level, tides, storm surge, and wave runup. Cumulatively these superimposed factors determine the total water level (TWL), the extent of which has major implications for coastal erosion and inundation during periods of high energy. Storm-induced, super-elevated water levels pose a threat to low lying coastal regions, as clearly demonstrated by recent events such as Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina. For this reason, the ability to accurately predict the TWL is crucial for both emergency managers and coastal planners. While some components of TWL are well understood (e.g., tides) there is still significant uncertainty in predicting runup, a process that can be a major contributor to instantaneous TWLs. Traditionally, empirical relationships derived from observational field data have been used to estimate runup, including wave setup and both incident and infragravity swash (Stockdon et al., 2006). While these formulations have shown skill in predicting the runup extent on natural beaches, these equations consider only the most basic contributing factors - namely the mean foreshore beach slope, the offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. Not included in these empirical estimates is the role of nearshore morphology on TWLs. However, it has long been recognized that nearshore sandbars act as natural barriers to coastal erosion during storm events by dissipating wave energy far from the beach face. Nonetheless, the influence of nearshore morphology on inner surf zone processes, including wave runup, is poorly understood. Recent pioneering studies (eg., Soldini et al., 2013 and Stephens et al., 2011) have explored the role of simple nearshore features (single Gaussian bars) on swash processes. Many locations in the world, however, are characterized by more complex morphologies such as multiple barred systems. Further, in many such places, including Columbia River Littoral Cell (USA), Duck, NC (USA), Hasaki (Japan), and the Netherlands, a net offshore bar migration (NOM) cycle has been observed whereby bars migrate seaward across the surf zone and decay offshore on interannual cycles. Depending on the stage of the cycle, the number and configuration of the bars may differ widely. For example in the Columbia River Littoral Cell there are typically 2 to 4 nearshore bars. In 1999, the outermost bar crest was located in a water depth of 6.5 m (relative to MLLW) while in 2009 it was located only in 3 m of water. Such large differences in nearshore morphology clearly influence wave breaking patterns and have the potential for influencing the corresponding wave runup as well. Here we apply a numerical, short-wave averaged yet long-wave resolving, non-linear hydrodynamic model (XBeach) to investigate the role that real world (non-synthetic), complex morphologies exert on TWLs. Model simulations under moderate to extreme wave forcing conditions are being used to develop relationships between offshore wave conditions, bar configuration, and runup extent. Additionally, we are exploring how, under the same wave conditions, a particular location may be more vulnerable to flooding simply based on the stage of the NOM cycle. Comparisons with the Stockdon et al. (2006) runup equation will be made to assess traditional empirical approaches relative to model predictions.

  19. Supporting open access to clinical trial data for researchers: The Duke Clinical Research Institute-Bristol-Myers Squibb Supporting Open Access to Researchers Initiative.

    PubMed

    Pencina, Michael J; Louzao, Darcy M; McCourt, Brian J; Adams, Monique R; Tayyabkhan, Rehbar H; Ronco, Peter; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-02-01

    There are growing calls for sponsors to increase transparency by providing access to clinical trial data. In response, Bristol-Myers Squibb and the Duke Clinical Research Institute have collaborated on a new initiative, Supporting Open Access to Researchers. The aim is to facilitate open sharing of Bristol-Myers Squibb trial data with interested researchers. Key features of the Supporting Open Access to Researchers data sharing model include an independent review committee that ensures expert consideration of each proposal, stringent data deidentification/anonymization and protection of patient privacy, requirement of prespecified statistical analysis plans, and independent review of manuscripts before submission for publication. We believe that these approaches will promote open science by allowing investigators to verify trial results as well as to pursue interesting secondary uses of trial data without compromising scientific integrity. PMID:26856217

  20. Spatial distribution of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) emergences along a highly dynamic beach in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamont, Margaret M.; Houser, Chris

    2014-01-01

    As coastlines change due to sea level rise and an increasing human presence, understanding how species, such as marine turtles, respond to alterations in habitat is necessary for proper management and conservation. Survey data from a major nesting beach in the northern Gulf of Mexico, where a revetment was installed, was used to assess spatial distribution of loggerhead emergences. Through use of Quadrat analysis and piecewise linear regression with breakpoint, we present evidence to suggest that nest site selection in loggerheads is determined in the nearshore environment, and by characteristics such as wave height, alongshore currents, depth and patterns of erosion and accretion. Areas of relatively dense nesting were found in areas with relatively strong alongshore currents, relatively small waves, a steep offshore slope and the largest historical rates of erosion. Areas of relatively dense nesting also corresponded to areas of low nesting success. Both nesting and non-nesting emergences were clustered immediately adjacent to the revetment and at other eroding sites along the beach. These results suggest that alterations to the nearshore environment from activities such as construction of a jetty, dredging or installation of pilings, may impact sea turtle nest distribution alongshore. We also show that piecewise linear regression with breakpoint is a technique that can be used with geomorphological and oceanographic data to predict locations of nest clumping and may be useful for managers at other nesting beaches.

  1. Independent risk factors for beach-related injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Petronis, Kelli A; Welch, J Camille; Pruitt, Charles W

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted in a resort area during the summer tourist season to identify independent risk factors for injuries to children in a beach environment. Surveys including demographics, environmental and beach conditions, group characteristics, and hypothesized risk factors were administered to 28 cases and 105 controls. The most common injuries were lacerations and puncture wounds, followed by musculoskeletal injuries. The following environmental factors were found to significantly increase the risk for pediatric beach-related injury: rough/choppy water, cloudy weather, greater than 3 children in the group, participation by the child in water safety classes, and use of beach equipment (including boogie boards, skim boards, and kayaks). Providers who care for children can use this information to educate parents about beach safety. Targeted interventions that address these risk factors may reduce injuries sustained by children in a beach environment. PMID:19164132

  2. Shifts in the Microbial Community Composition of Gulf Coast Beaches Following Beach Oiling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Huse, Susan M.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Peake, Colin S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

  3. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

  4. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  6. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  7. The role of tides in beach cusp development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coco, Giovanni; Burnet, Tom K.; Werner, B. T.; Elgar, Steve

    2004-04-01

    Field measurements of morphology and swash flow during three episodes of beach cusp development indicate that tides modulate the height and cross-shore position of beach cusps. During rising tide, beach cusp height decreases as embayments accrete more than horns and the cross-shore extent of beach cusps decreases. During falling tide, beach cusp height increases as embayments erode more than horns and cross-shore extent increases. A numerical model for beach cusp formation based on self-organization, extended to include the effects of morphological smoothing seaward of the swash front and infiltration into the beach, reproduces the observed spacing, position, and tidal modulation. During rising tide, water particles simulating swash infiltrate, preferentially in embayments, causing enhanced deposition. During falling tide, exfiltration of water particles combined with diversion of swash from horns causes enhanced erosion in embayments. Smoothing of beach morphology in the swash zone seaward of the swash front and in the shallow surf zone accounts for most of the observed tidal modulation, even in the absence of infiltration and exfiltration. Despite the qualitative, and in some cases quantitative, agreement of the model and measurements, the model fails to reproduce observed large deviations of horn orientation from shore normal, some aspects of beach cusp shape, and deviations from the basic tidal modulation, possibly because of the simplified parameterization of cross-shore sediment transport and the neglect of the effects of sea surface gradients on flow.

  8. Quantization of the Myers-Pospelov model: The photon sector interacting with standard fermions as a perturbation of QED

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, C. M.; Urrutia, L. F.; Vergara, J. D.

    2008-12-15

    We study the quantization of the electromagnetic sector of the Myers-Pospelov model coupled to standard fermions. Our main objective, based upon experimental and observational evidence, is to construct an effective theory which is a genuine perturbation of QED, such that setting the Lorentz invariance violation parameters to zero will reproduce it. To this end we provide a physically motivated prescription, based on the effective character of the model, regarding the way in which the model should be constructed and how the QED limit should be approached. This amounts to the introduction of an additional coarse-graining physical energy scale M, under which we can trust the effective field theory formulation. The prescription is successfully tested in the calculation of the Lorentz invariance violating contributions arising from the electron self-energy. Such radiative corrections turn out to be properly scaled by very small factors for any reasonable values of the parameters and no fine-tuning problems are found. Microcausality violations are highly suppressed and occur only in a spacelike region extremely close to the light cone. The stability of the model is guaranteed by restricting to concordant frames satisfying 1-|v{sub max}|>6.5x10{sup -11}.

  9. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 86-018-1758, Robbins and Myers, Incorporated, Moyno Products Division, Springfield, Ohio. [Vitiligo

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.A.; Mathias, C.G.T.

    1986-12-01

    In response to a request from Robbins and Myers, Inc., an investigation was made of a possible health hazard at its Moyno Products Division, Springfield, Ohio. A case of vitiligo, possibly related to working with rubber products in pump manufacture was identified by a dermatologist. Uncured and cured rubber was found to contain 2,4-di-tertiary-butyl-phenol (DTBP) (0.01 to 0.03%) and para-tertiary-butyl-phenol (too low to quantitate). This class of compounds has been associated with vitiligo. Medical survey and examinations revealed four cases of active vitiligo. Its presence was significantly associated with highest exposure to rubber. Rubber department workers had a 22-fold higher risk for the condition compared to other employees. Comparing the four observed cases with an expected 1.1 cases (Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) yielded a standardized morbidity ratio of 3.6. The authors conclude that exposure to DTBP in rubber is the cause of vitiligo in these workers. Recommendations include testing rubber samples for contaminants, modification of work practices, and medical screening of exposed workers.

  10. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively utilized Santa Barbara coastal zone, including Arroyo Burro Beach Park, Leadbetter Beach, East Beach, and “Butterfly Beach.” There are ongoing coastal erosion problems associated with both development and natural processes; between 1933–1934 and 1998, cliff erosion in the map area occurred at rates of about 0.1 to 1 m/yr, the largest amount (63 m) occurring at Arroyo Burro in the western part of the map area. In addition, development of the Santa Barbara Harbor, which began in 1928, lead to shoaling west of the harbor as the initial breakwater trapped sand, as well as to coastal erosion east of the harbor. Since 1959, annual harbor dredging has mitigated at least some of the downcoast erosion problems. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Drift rates have been estimated to be about 400,000 tons/yr at Santa Barbara Harbor. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) San Ysidro Creek, Oak Creek, Montecito Creek, Sycamore Creek, Mission Creek, Arroyo Burro, and Atascadero Creek. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 40 to 50 km southeast of Santa Barbara, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.4° to 0.8°) so that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are about 45 m in the east and about 75 m in the west. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and northwest by Point Conception and from the south and southwest by offshore islands and banks. The shelf is underlain by variable amounts of upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from soft, unconsolidated sediment to hard sedimentary bedrock. This heterogeneous seafloor provides promising habitat for rockfish, groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  12. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL) that incorporate wave setup and runup, may be particularly applicable to upper intertidal biota whose distributions closely followed the high tide strand line (HTS), a feature which tracks total water level (TWL). Developing a TWL approach may also provide new insights on habitat availability for beach nesting wildlife and coastal strand vegetation. Conservation of beach ecosystems could be enhanced by incorporating sufficient beach habitat to accommodate the dynamic ecological envelopes used by mobile intertidal invertebrates and wildlife.

  13. Hydrodynamic, neotectonic and climatic control of the evolution of a barrier beach in the microtidal environment of the NE Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, Serafim E.; Ghionis, George; Verykiou, Efthymia; Roussakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Sifnioti, Dafni; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis P.; Andris, Periklis; Georgiou, Panos

    2015-02-01

    The existence of barrier beaches is crucial, as they act as a buffer zone to the associated wetlands, whilst they are sensitive to climate change. The present study offers an insight into the processes controlling the formation and evolution of the Gyra barrier beach (NW coast of the island of Lefkada) in the microtidal, tectonically very active Ionian Sea under the influence of regional climate change and human interference. Such investigations are sparse in the literature. Existing information regarding regional geology, sediment availability and human intervention is combined with the collection of geophysical data, field observations and simulations of nearshore hydro- and sediment dynamics, analysis of climatic variations with respect to offshore wind/wave patterns (including storminess), in situ measurements of recent morphometric changes (2006-2008) and historical shoreline changes (since the 1960s). The recent formation and evolution (mostly under retreat) of the Gyra barrier beach is shown to be the combined result of the regional seismotectonic setting, relative increase of sea level, coastal sediment transport patterns, as well as human impact (negative) on primarily terrestrial sediment influxes. The current erosional trend of the barrier beach is associated with a shift in the wind and wave direction (from SW to NW) of extreme storm events in the Ionian Sea since the 1980s. The regional climatic variations of the last decades are well correlated with the trend of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  14. Potential threats to offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasingly spectacular acts of terrorism have led to growing concern that terrorists will move beyond the symbols of society and directly attack its technological and industrial vulnerabilities. Offshore platforms have been frequently mentioned among the potential targets terrorists might attack. This concern, however, has not resulted in extensive research like that devoted to possible threats to nuclear facilities, which have also been frequently mentioned as possible future targets of terrorists. For one thing, offshore drilling does not invoke the fear inherent in the word nuclear, a fear that translates directly into heavy security for the nuclear industry. Neither does the construction of offshore platforms provoke anything like the kind of protest generated by the construction of nuclear facilities.

  15. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  16. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of the farm. A more thorough optimization highlighted the features of the area that would result in a minimized COE. The results showed reasonable layout designs and COE estimates that are consistent with existing offshore wind farms.

  17. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements....

  18. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  19. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  20. Campus Planning Study for Daytona Beach Junior College, Daytona Beach, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Rowlett and Scott, Architects, Houston, TX.

    Major considerations and findings are presented in regard to the updating of a long range campus plan for the development of buildings, parking areas, drives and sidewalks at Daytona Beach Junior College. Following a consideration of the background and program of the college, a site analysis is presented. Plans and recommendations are offered

  1. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... and Interference with Constitutionally Protected Property Rights. Civil Justice Reform This rule meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform, to...

  2. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Pine Beach, St. Andrews Bay and Fort Morgan quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of St. Andrews Bay, Mobile Bay, and Bon Secour Bay from Fort Morgan eastward to about four miles east of Gasque, Ala. The storm tide went completely across the land between the beach and Mobile Bay throughout much of the area. Most homes on the beach side of Alabama State Highway 180 were completely destroyed, and the highway was washed out in several places. Damage to homes and other structures on the bay side was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  3. Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

  4. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value 0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

  5. Alongshore variability in beach planform, grain-size distribution and foredune height of an embayed beach: Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Giardino, R.

    2012-12-01

    Headland-bay beaches (HBB) are common beach-types found throughout the coastlines of the world. Morphodynamics of these structurally-controlled beaches are primarily governed by geological inheritance, wave climate, tidal range and grain-size distribution, which ultimately influence sediment transport across the beach-dune system. For embayed beaches, the degree of curvature (i.e., indentation ratio) has significant implications for littoral cell circulation, which mediates both cross-shore and alongshore sediment transport. This study investigated the morphodynamic controls on longshore and cross-shore sediment transport for a macro-tidal, embayed beach in central Queensland, Australia. Freshwater Beach is a 10 km long embayed beach located in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area, ~50 km north of Yeppoon. Freshwater Beach exhibits an asymmetrical planform which is characterized by a curved "shadow zone" (adjacent to the headland), transitioning to a straight tangential segment extending to the north. The beach is subjected to a mean tidal range of 6 m and prevailing onshore-directed winds and swell from the southeast. A total of 12 topographic profiles at ~1 km spacing were taken along the entire length of the beach to characterize variation in beach slope and foredune height. Sediment samples were collected across each transect for detailed grain-size and geochemical (XRD/XRF and SEM) analysis. Additionally, ground-based LiDAR surveys were conducted along the topographic profiles and for comparison with aerial-based LiDAR surveys. Preliminary results from topographic profiles show that the largest foredunes are located in the central portion of the beach, contrary to most embayed beaches where the largest dunes are typically located downdrift of the headland. Along the exposed section, the foredunes become large (~15 m high) and are hypothesized to be supplied by onshore welded bars that act as a sediment source for the foredunes to grow. Presently the alongshore and cross-shore sediment exchange is unknown and the dynamics of surface drainage and freshwater seeps in close proximity to the outlet of Freshwater Swamp remain a priority for understanding the morphologic evolution of the beach-dune system. Ongoing research is currently in progress to address relationships between grain-size grading alongshore and foredune height to determine a sediment budget from the nearshore extending through the parabolic dunefield.

  6. 17. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BEACH & HYDE: Photocopy of May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BEACH & HYDE: Photocopy of May 1956 photograph of the turntable at Beach and Hyde Streets. View to the north. Note position of the tracks atop the turntable and details of the steel members that support the wooden decking. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins

  8. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  9. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  10. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these

  11. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  12. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  13. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  14. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  15. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  16. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  17. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  18. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  19. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  20. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  1. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  2. Pore Water Transport of Enterococci out of Beach Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reniers, Adrianus J. H. M.; Wang, John D.; Kiger, Russell T.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall. PMID:21945015

  3. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers. PMID:14667305

  4. China offshore has top priority

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    Joint venture development of offshore petroleum reserves has top priority in the mammoth effort to modernize the People's Republic of China. While the country works to overcome a critical shortage of skilled personnel, export of oil, coal, consumer goods, and metals will finance technological imports.

  5. "Sleep and native language interference affect non-native speech sound learning": Correction to Earle and Myers (2015).

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-12-01

    Reports an error in "Sleep and Native Language Interference Affect Non-Native Speech Sound Learning" by F. Sayako Earle and Emily B. Myers (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Advance online publication. August 17, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037xhp0000113). There is an error in Figure 7. Under the D Group, the line delineating Day 1 from Day 2 between the data points is incorrect. Both the B and D groups should show this line between posttests 1 and 2. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-37269-001). Adults learning a new language are faced with a significant challenge: non-native speech sounds that are perceptually similar to sounds in one's native language can be very difficult to acquire. Sleep and native language interference, 2 factors that may help to explain this difficulty in acquisition, are addressed in 3 studies. Results of Experiment 1 showed that participants trained on a non-native contrast at night improved in discrimination 24 hr after training, while those trained in the morning showed no such improvement. Experiments 2 and 3 addressed the possibility that incidental exposure to perceptually similar native language speech sounds during the day interfered with maintenance in the morning group. Taken together, results show that the ultimate success of non-native speech sound learning depends not only on the similarity of learned sounds to the native language repertoire, but also to interference from native language sounds before sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618627

  6. Probabilistic assessment of beach and dune changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.

  7. Circulation, mixing, and transport in nearshore Lake Erie in the vicinity of Villa Angela Beach and Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio, September 11-12, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    Villa Angela Beach, on the Lake Erie lakeshore near Cleveland, Ohio, is adjacent to the mouth of Euclid Creek, a small, flashy stream draining approximately 23 square miles and susceptible to periodic contamination from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) (97 and 163 CSO events in 2010 and 2011, respectively). Concerns over high concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples taken along this beach and frequent beach closures led to the collection of synoptic data in the nearshore area in an attempt to gain insights into mixing processes, circulation, and the potential for transport of bacteria and other CSO-related pollutants from various sources in Euclid Creek and along the lakefront. An integrated synoptic survey was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 11–12, 2012, during low-flow conditions on Euclid Creek, which followed rain-induced high flows in the creek on September 8–9, 2012. Data-collection methods included deployment of an autonomous underwater vehicle and use of a manned boat equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Spatial distributions of water-quality measures and nearshore currents indicated that the mixing zone encompassing the mouth of Euclid Creek and Villa Angela Beach is dynamic and highly variable in extent, but can exhibit a large zone of recirculation that can, at times, be decoupled from local wind forcing. Observed circulation patterns during September 2012 indicated that pollutants from CSOs in Euclid Creek and water discharged from three shoreline CSO points within 2,000 feet of the beach could be trapped along Villa Angela Beach by interaction of nearshore currents and shoreline structures. In spite of observed coastal downwelling, denser water from Euclid Creek is shown to mix to the surface via offshore turbulent structures that span the full depth of flow. While the southwesterly longshore currents driving the recirculation pattern along the beach front were observed during the 2011–12 synoptic surveys, longshore currents with a southwesterly component capable of establishing the recirculation only occurred about 30 percent of the time from June 7 to October 6, 2012, based on continuous velocity data collected near Villa Angela Beach.

  8. THE VISUAL BEACH NUMERICAL MODEL: A DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC MODELING APPROACH TO ACHIEVING US BEACHES AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the BEACH Act of 2000, EPA has committed to a program to monitor beach water quality and develop strategies, including modeling, for timely notification of the public when bacterial contamination poses a risk to bathers. EPA's goal is to manage 100% of significant public be...

  9. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSINGS TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  10. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  11. The relationship between sandy beach nematodes and environmental characteristics in two Brazilian sandy beaches (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro).

    PubMed

    Maria, Tatiana F; Paiva, Paulo; Vanreusel, Ann; Esteves, Andr M

    2013-03-01

    We investigated if the differences in density and nematode communities of intertidal sediments from two Brazilian sheltered sandy beaches were related to environmental characteristics. The upper tide level (UTL) and the low tide level (LTL) of both beaches were surveyed in January (austral summer) and June 2001 (austral winter) during low-spring tides, by collecting samples of nematodes and sediments. Differences in density between beaches, tidal level and seasons, and nematode community structure were investigated. Sediments from both beaches were composed of medium to very coarse sand. The highest nematode densities were found at the UTL, and significant differences between beaches, tidal levels and months were found. A total of 54 genera were found and the genera composition on both sheltered beaches was similar to other exposed worldwide sandy beaches. The density and structure of the nematode community at both beaches clearly varied along the spatial and temporal scales. Gravel percentage was the most important variable explaining the spatial distribution of the nematodes, determining the four sub-communities; this suggests that the sediment characteristics influence the nematode community, rather than physical hydrodynamic forces. Temperature and salinity were suggested to be important variables affecting the temporal variation. PMID:23460426

  12. 75 FR 77010 - Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Draft Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... the Maximum Reactor Power Level In accordance with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR... Florida Power & Light (FPL) Energy (the licensee) (now NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC (NextEra)) for a license amendment to increase the maximum thermal power at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (PBNP), Units...

  13. 76 FR 22928 - Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental... amendment for Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, issued to NextEra Energy Point... the Federal Register on December 10, 2010 (75 FR 77010). Comments were received on the draft EA...

  14. A Simple Model for Predicting Shoreline Position on a High-Energy Sandy Beach at Monthly to Multi-Year Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    A shoreline prediction model is presented for 7 km long Ocean Beach, a high-energy sandy beach located in San Francisco, California, USA. The model combines the observed pattern of seasonal onshore/offshore movement of the shoreline and the trend of shoreline rotation using two separate linear regression models. Monthly and more frequent surveys since April 2004 were used to determine the mean high water (MHW) line as a shoreline proxy. The five year time-series of shoreline positions shows that seasonal scale variations in position dominate the data set and are due to changes in offshore wave height. However, the seasonal movement is superimposed on a multi-year trend of shoreline rotation, where the northern end of the beach is accreting while the south erodes. The trend of shoreline rotation is well characterized by a simple linear regression model while the seasonal movement of the shoreline is described well by the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) temporal mode, whose amplitude is well correlated (R2 ~0.85) with the offshore wave height averaged over the 90 days prior to each survey (Fig 1). A hindcast comparison was conducted using the first four years of surveys to initialize the model, and predicted shoreline positions then were compared to observations at 100 transects spaced 50 m in the alongshore over the following year (Fig. 2). Results show that the model performs well at predicting the position of the MHW shoreline, with R2 values ranging from 0.11 to 0.91 with a mean R2 of 0.7 for all 13 fifth-year surveys. The model performed worst during the winter months when the shoreline position is impacted significantly by shorter-term variations in wave height. This model has potentially broad applicability at seasonally-dominated beaches worldwide where offshore wave data is available. The linear model to predict temporal amplitudes. Predicted and actual shoreline positions for four of the fifth-year surveys. The prediction error (position difference) also is plotted and normalized to the standard deviation of shoreline positions at each profile.

  15. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  16. A Comparison between XBeach and Terrestrial Laser Measurements of Surf-Zone Hydrodynamics and Beach Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, K. L.; Long, J. W.; Slocum, R.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate predictions of beach evolution and coastal inundation during both storms and quiescent times require numerical models which correctly handle wave runup and inner surf-zone processes, the principle drivers of sediment exchange between the beach and surf-zone. Field validation of models is often restricted to analyzing elevation change between surveys conducted "pre" and "post" storm, but lack the hydrodynamic and morphologic data throughout the duration of the storm event needed to assess the modeled physical processes. Even fewer data sets exist that provide continuous observations during quiescent time periods (weeks-months) when much of the beach is re-built after storms. Using an automated terrestrial laser scanner mounted in the dune at the Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck, NC, we collected hourly 20-minute measurements of the elevation of the beach and inner surf-zone free-surface profile. These data enable simultaneous analysis of foreshore morphologic evolution, wave runup, and inner-surf zone wave and water level characteristics. The laser data is collected along a narrow profile in line with the FRF's cross-shore array of wave gauges which provide observations in 2-23m of water depth. Roughly 700 hours of semi-continuous laser observations from 26 Aug through 29 Sep 2011 (including the landfall of Hurricane Irene and offshore swell from Hurricane Katia and Tropical Storm Maria), and from 26 Oct through 13 Nov 2011 (during the arrival of multiple Nor'Easters), are used to analyze wave runup statistics and beach morphology change and are compared to model predictions from XBeach. Initial analysis of observational data revealed a strong tidal signal in de-tided runup statistics, such that the 2% exceedence runup elevation and mean swash elevation is higher at high tide than at low tide for a given wave condition. This was similar to the significant incident band wave height (HsIN) at the base of the foreshore (defined as the 98% exceedence elevation), which also showed a strong tidal dependence. Our results suggest that particularly during quiescent time periods, mean swash elevation (setup) and incident band swash scale best with HsIN, though correlations are slightly improved when beach foreshore slope is included (r^2 = 0.74 vs 0.71). These data suggest that increased or decreased breaking over the sandbar at low and high tides respectively may filter the amount of energy left in the incident band to be transferred to runup at the shoreline. Observed incident and infragravity band swash and wave statistics from the laser and nearshore wave gauges will be compared to modeled hydrodynamics from XBeach. Assessments of the modeled physics are performed during quiescent and storm time periods and we focus on the role that under/overpredicting these hydrodynamic quantities has in making accurate predictions of profile change.

  17. Offshore and onshore liquefaction at Moss Landing spit, central California, - result of the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake, liquefaction of the fluvial, estuarine, eolian, and beach sediments under a sand spit destroyed the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and damaged other structures and utilities. Detailed offshore investigations indicate that liquefaction occurred over a large area (max. 8 km2) during or shortly after the earthquake with movement of unconsolidated sediment toward and into the head of Monterey submarine canyon. Many distinct lobate features were identified on the shallow shelf. These features almost certainly were the result of the October 17 earthquake; they were subsequently destroyed by winter storms. -from Authors

  18. 77 FR 26229 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach... the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) units, both land and waterside. The facility has one of the...

  19. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  20. Effects of Super Strom Sandy on Depositional Environments Offshore Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; McHugh, C. M.; Christensen, B. A.; Dutton, J.; Brownawell, B.; Gurung, D.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy's landfall affected the coastlines over a broad swath of mid-Atlantic including New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The effects included breaching, overwash and erosion of barrier islands, some of which are heavily populated and sustained extensive damage. The peak storm-tide elevation produced by Hurricane Sandy measured by USGS stations in Jamaica Bay was about 3.5 m, 1.4 m more than the historical peak-water level elevations in the same area. As part of a National Science Foundation RAPID response we sampled the sediment in West Bay, Middle Bay, East Bay, Jones Inlet and Reynolds Channel of Long Island, New York from the R/V Pritchard. The sediment sampling took place 4 months after the storm and prior to any similar large storms. The sampling strategy was designed to characterize the post-storm sedimentation in distinct depositional environments. In this survey 156 grab samples were recovered from areas, many of which had been sampled prior to the storm. The samples were analyzed for grain size variability, short-lived radioisotopes and x-ray fluorescence elemental analyses. Google Earth images from before and after the storm reveal moderate to severe erosion and overwash of the dunes in Jones inlet, and Middle and East Bays. The Long Beach barrier island tidal marshes were submerged for several days post Sandy and underwent severe erosion. The storm surge brought from offshore a layer of coarse sand that was deposited over mussel beds. Most of the mussels were dead indicative of the strength of the waves. Be-7 concentrations allowed tracking the path of the storm from the bays and inlets, to the offshore. Some of the highest Be-7 concentrations ever detected in the local estuaries: 5,329, 4,955 and 4,553 pCi/kg were measured in West Bay and Middle Bay Channels. Additionally, unusually high Be-7 concentrations of 2,130 pCi/kg were recorded ~5.24 km offshore from Long Beach barrier island four months after the storm. Si and Ca weight percentages range up to 33.9 and 2.47 respectively and correlate with the amount of sand in the samples. Previous studies have shown that Al is an indication of fine grain sediments. We found higher Al concentrations in the Bays and offshore but not in Jones inlet suggestive of rapid transport of fine grains offshore. The heavy elements Cu and Pb have very high concentrations up to 247.6 ppm and 185.8 ppm, respectively. The highest are near the Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant and offshore. These very high concentrations may have resulted from sewage overflow. The Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant was down for about 44 days after Sandy Storm. In addition, Zn up to 314.9 ppm measured in the Middle Bay and Jones inlet, could have resulted from urban-runoff caused by the storm. Sandy was catastrophic and resulted in significant erosion and beach overwash. The storm surge brought coarse sediment inland modifying channel and inlet depth. But most damaging was the seaward surge that brought contaminants offshore. The storm lasted a couple of days but its damaging effects to depositional environments persisted for at least four months after the event.

  1. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. PMID:23103149

  2. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  3. Beach boundary layer: a framework for addressing recreational water quality impairment at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stanley B; Sanders, Brett F

    2010-12-01

    Nearshore waters in bays, harbors, and estuaries are frequently contaminated with human pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. Tracking down and mitigating this contamination is complicated by the many point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution that can degrade water quality along the shore. From a survey of the published literature, we propose a conceptual and mathematical framework, the "beach boundary layer model", for understanding and quantifying the relative impact of beach-side and bay-side sources of fecal pollution on nearshore water quality. In the model, bacterial concentration in ankle depth water C(ankle) [bacteria L(-3)] depends on the flux m'' [bacteria L(-2) T(-1)] of fecal bacteria from beach-side sources (bather shedding, bird and dog feces, tidal washing of sediments, decaying vegetation, runoff from small drains, and shallow groundwater discharge), a cross-shore mass transfer velocity k [L T(-1)] that accounts for the physics of nearshore transport and mixing, and a background concentration C(bay) [bacteria L(-3)] attributable to bay-side sources of pollution that impact water quality over large regions (sewage outfalls, creeks and rivers): C(ankle) = m''/k + C(bay). We demonstrate the utility of the model for identifying risk factors and pollution sources likely to impact shoreline water quality, and evaluate the model's underlying assumptions using computational fluid dynamic simulations of flow, turbulence, and mass transport in a trapezoidal channel. PMID:20949912

  4. Kennedy Space Center ocean beach erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural beach maintaining processes.

  5. Two offshore Australian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-09

    Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.

  6. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  7. Offshore sand and gravel mining

    SciTech Connect

    Pandan, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reviews the status of mining offshore for sand and gravel on a world-wide basis. It discusses the technology for exploration and evaluation of sea floor mineral targets, as well as mining, transportation, and processing. Large operations in Japan and Europe are described, based upon personal observations of the author. The U.S. situation is outlined and opinions offered as to the outlook for the future.

  8. Offshore platform system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, R.T.

    1983-03-29

    An offshore platform structure and a system for transport and for reversible erection is disclosed. The light weight, semimobile structure; has negative buoyancy; is free standing on the ocean floor; has fixed guylines below interference depth and quickly positioned upper guylines for storm conditions; the structure may contain suitable tanks in the base for production of marginal crude oil wells or other fluid storage; a special tender to furnish buoyancy during transport.

  9. Pipelaying in artic offshore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C. G.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for constructing pipelines in Arctic offshore waters by a directional drilling technique, thereby minimizing exposure to ice gouging and eliminating the hazards associated with unstable permafrost. A special drilling-pipe-line construction vessel is also provided which has a conical shape with reinforced outer walls to resist ice forces, which vessel includes means to install deep underground pipeline segments and means to connect and protect the pipe ends.

  10. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

  11. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  12. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches.

    PubMed

    Kleinheinz, Gregory T; McDermott, Colleen M; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5 mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water. PMID:20182543

  13. 18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF REFRESHMENT STAND Photocopy of 1930-1940 photograph - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  14. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  15. General view looking to intersection of Beach Drive and Hume ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking to intersection of Beach Drive and Hume Drive - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  16. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. Measuring the effects of stormwater mitigation on beach attendance.

    PubMed

    Atiyah, Perla; Pendleton, Linwood; Vaughn, Ryan; Lessem, Neil

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have used valuation techniques to predict the potential effect of environmental improvements on human use of coastal areas, but there is a lack of post hoc empirical evidence that these policies indeed affect the way people use coastal areas. A panel data approach is developed to statistically determine how storm drain diversions affected attendance at 26 beaches in Southern California. This study uses a 10-year time series of data to conduct a statistical analysis of attendance at beaches with and without diversions and before and after the diversions were installed, while controlling for all observable, confounding factors. Results indicate that beach attendance increased at beaches with diversions compared to those that did not have diversions (between 350,000 and 860,000 visits annually at a 95% confidence interval). Establishing this link between mitigation policies and human use patterns can lead to better management of coastal areas. PMID:23711842

  18. 24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural Resources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown MAP OF SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. 7. Alternate view of collapsed Panama Mount on beach. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Alternate view of collapsed Panama Mount on beach. Note concrete ring, metal rail and exposed rebar. Looking 320 NW. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Vessel movement influences offshore communications system design

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, S.R.; Burger, S.D.

    1996-05-27

    Communications links for the Liuhua 11-1 oil production project, offshore China, required a system that would function with vessel movement under typhoon conditions of heavy rainfall and extreme wave action. The system includes a microwave path between two floating production facilities and a satellite connection between the offshore facilities and onshore China. The system provides multiple local-area-network (LAN) linkages, and voice with fax in English and Chinese. The satellite link has a geostabilized platform offshore and a China National Offshore Oil Corp. master earth station onshore. System operations started in mid-1995. This paper reviews the design and performance of this communications network.

  1. 1991 worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book is the information source-book for the international offshore oil industry. Within this single convenient reference you'll find addresses, phone numbers, telex, fax and cable listings for more than 3,500 companies and their key personnel in the drilling, workover, construction, service/supply/manufacturers, geophysical, diving and transportation segments of the offshore industry. Along with this vital contact information, the authors include such pertinent data as rig specifications, ownership, an equipment index, a company index and a current survey of offshore production systems from Offshore Incorporating the Oilman.

  2. Geographic variation in sandy beach macrofauna community and functional traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodil, I. F.; Compton, T. J.; Lastra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beaches are a common ocean-dominated ecosystem along the north coast of Spain. We conducted field surveys at 39 beaches distributed between 1 and 9W, ca. 2000 km along this geographic region to document broad patterns of macrobenthic communities, and to describe their association with variables characterising both the beach environment and the characteristics of the adjacent ocean waters. Macrofaunal functional traits are considered to be an informative measure that can be useful for many ecosystem-level questions, as they are based on what organisms do (i.e., their ecological function) rather than on their identification alone. Boosted regression-trees analysis showed that the occurrence of the main taxonomic groups and feeding guilds were differentially associated with the prevailing beach features along this coastline. The occurrence (presence/absence) of molluscs was best explained by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and wave exposure whereas those of crustaceans and polychaetes were best explained by an ensemble of variables including beach slope, sea surface temperature and grain size. A comparison of the feeding guilds demonstrated that the occurrence of suspension feeders was best explained by chlorophyll-a and wave exposure, whereas the occurrence of deposit feeders was best explained by beach slope, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of predators and scavengers was best explained by sea surface temperature and beach slope. Based on the patterns presented here, we confirm that the upwelling events that occur regularly on this coastline are a structuring agent for beach communities. Future work needs to examine the role of the oceanographic conditions of the region for they might represent the driving forces behind large-scale shifts in macrofauna communities.

  3. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future, be widely used in beach surveying.

  4. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in this vastly under-studied area. PMID:25383070

  5. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in this vastly under-studied area. PMID:25383070

  6. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the diurnal and high frequency bands also contained a substantial fraction of total variance. The bottom cross-shore baroclinic current served as a proxy for shoreward internal wave propagation and was positively correlated with phosphate concentration in both years, silicate in 2005, and fecal indicator bacteria measurements in 2006. The results suggest internal waves are an important transport mechanism of nutrient-rich sub-thermocline water to the very near shore in the Southern California Bight, and may facilitate the transport of FIB into the surf zone or enhance persistence of land-derived FIB.

  7. Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Reich, C.D.; Spechler, R.M.; Kindinger, J.L.; Moore, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    A spectacular submarine spring is located about 4 km east of Crescent Beach, FL, in the Atlantic Ocean. The single vent feature of Crescent Beach Spring provides a unique opportunity to examine onshore-offshore hydrogeologic processes, as well as point source submarine ground water discharge. The Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida consists of Tertiary interspersed limestone and dolomite strata. Impermeable beds confine the water-bearing zones under artesian pressure. Miocene and younger confining strata have been eroded away at the vent feature, enabling direct hydrologic communication of Eocene ground water with coastal bottom waters. The spring water had a salinity of 6.02, which was immediately diluted by ambient seawater during advection/mixing. The concentration of major solutes in spring water and onshore well waters confirm a generalized easterly flow direction of artesian ground water. Nutrient concentrations were generally low in the reducing vent samples, and the majority of the total nitrogen species existed as NH3. The submarine ground water tracers, Rn-222 (1174 dpm I-1, dpm), methane (232 nM) and barium (294.5 nM) were all highly enriched in the spring water relative to ambient seawater. The concentrations of the reverse redox elements U, V and Mo were expectedly low in the submarine waters. The strontium isotope ratio of the vent water (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70798) suggests that the spring water contain an integrated signature indicative of Floridan aquifer system ground water. Additional Sr isotopic ratios from a series of surficial and Lower Floridan well samples suggest dynamic ground water mixing, and do not provide clear evidence for a single hydrogeologic water source at the spring vent. In this karst-dominated aquifer, such energetic mixing at the vent feature is expected, and would be facilitated by conduit and fractured flow. Radium isotope activities were utilized to estimate flow-path trajectories and to provide information on potential travel times between an onshore well and the spring. Using either 223Ra and 224Ra or 228Ra, and qualifying this approach with several key assumptions, estimates of water mass travel times from an upper Floridan well in Crescent Beach to the submarine vent feature (distance =4050 m) are in the order of ??? 0.01-0.1 m min-1. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental release of dioxins from reservoir sources during beach nourishment programs.

    PubMed

    Tondeur, Yves; Vining, Bryan; Mace, Kimberly; Mills, William; Hart, Jerry

    2012-07-01

    In late 1990s, USEPA/FDA made an important connection regarding the presence of elevated levels of dioxins (e.g., 1500 ng kg(-1) TEQ) in ball clays mined in Mississippi (USA) from a geological deposit dated to ~40 million years (Mississippi Embayment) that stretches over several states (northern part of Mississippi to Kentucky) and levels of dioxins in selected animal food sources. Following a recent beach nourishment program along the mid-Atlantic coast of the US, a number of dark gray, blue tinted nuggets of varying sizes were found on beach strands and near the shoreline. Using the presence of these balls of clay (shape, color, and knowledge regarding their use in pottery) on the beach, together with our direct experience analyzing ball clays for dioxins, we made a possible association between these clays and elevated dioxins. Concerns regarding the potential of nourishment programs to cause severe damage to our beaches drove us to test the dioxin content of nourishment exposed clays. A number of the nuggets, along with freshly dredged and deposited sand (collected the morning after nourishment) with the same coloration, and others (sun-bleached), collected approximately 2 weeks after the completion of the nourishment efforts, were analyzed for the presence of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and selected semi-volatile chlorinated organics. The clay PCDD/F WHO2005-TEQs (dry weight; ND=DL; EMPC=EMPC) ranged from 0.41 to 5.78 ng kg(-1) with an average of 2.64 ng kg(-1), whereas the sand sample's TEQs ranged from 0.18 to 0.31 ng kg(-1) PCDD/F WHO-2005, with an average of 0.22 ng kg(-1). The average total tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin concentration was 2700 ng kg(-1) (with a maximum of 5800 ng kg(-1)) for the clays and 8.5 ng kg(-1) (with a maximum of 16.8 ng kg(-1)) for the sand samples. The congener 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TEF=1) was detected in half of the clay samples (0.11-0.77 ng kg(-1)). All of the clay and sand samples displayed an unambiguous and dominating 1,4,6,9-chlorination pattern across homolog groups. No other chlorinated aromatics were detected above background levels. The observations, along with the absence or an extremely low level of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, together with the mineralogical analysis, supports the conclusion that off-shore dredging activities are reaching reservoir sources containing dioxin-tainted, smectic/kaolinite clay minerals. Subsequent beach erosion provides additional environmental releases over time, as buried balls of clay from previous nourishment efforts become exposed. PMID:22534200

  9. Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cludia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assuno

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dend (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dend were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches. PMID:18256899

  10. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  11. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the worlds ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  12. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  13. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  14. Geochemical characterization of tarballs on beaches along the California coast. Part I - Shallow seepage impacting the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Dougherty, J.

    2004-01-01

    Tarballs are common along the southern California coastline. This study investigates tarballs from beaches along this coastline, with a focus on Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miquel Islands in the Santa Barbara Channel. The tarballs were fingerprinted using biomarker and stable carbon isotope parameters, and then grouped according to genetic similarities. The data show that the tarballs are of natural and not anthropogenic origin and that all originate from source rock within the Miocene Monterey Formation via shallow seeps offshore. Sterane biomarker parameters were found to vary widely in the sample set. Biodegradation, especially of the regular steranes, is the primary process impacting the biomarker distributions in a large group of samples. The most common tarball occurrences appear to come from offshore seepage near the west end of Santa Cruz Island. Another major group most likely was transported north from near Santa Monica Bay. Several individual occurrences of some of these tarball groups also were found on beaches as far north as Pt. Reyes and as far south as San Diego, indicating significant long-distance dispersal by ocean currents. This study begins a library of tarball fingerprints to be used as a database to help distinguish between natural and anthropogenic tar occurrences all along the California coast, and to compare shallow seepage with future samples of deeper production oils from the same area.

  15. Anatomy of sand beach ridges: Evidence from severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi and its predecessors, northeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Sloss, Craig; Riggs, Naomi

    2013-09-01

    Four well-identified tropical cyclones over the past century have been responsible for depositing distinct units of predominantly quartzose sand and gravel to form the most seaward beach ridge at several locations along the wet tropical coast of northeast Queensland, Australia. These units deposited by tropical cyclones display a key sedimentary signature characterized by a sharp basal erosional contact, a coarser grain size than the underlying facies and a coarse-skewed trend toward the base. Coarse-skewed distributions with minimal change in mean grain size also characterize the upper levels of the high-energy deposited units at locations within the zone of maximum onshore winds during the tropical cyclone. These same coarse skew distributions are not apparent in sediments deposited at locations where predominantly offshore winds occurred during the cyclone, which in the case of northeast Australia is north of the eye-crossing location. These sedimentary signatures, along with the geochemical indicators and the degraded nature of the microfossil assemblages, have proven to be useful proxies to identify storm-deposited units within the study site and can also provide useful proxies in older beach ridges where advanced pedogenesis has obscured visual stratigraphic markers. As a consequence, more detailed long-term histories of storms and tropical cyclones can now be developed.

  16. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ..., ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants [regarding Point Beach... environment. Accordingly, the NRC has determined not to prepare an environmental impact statement for the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  17. Neural network hindcasting of hydrodynamic boundary conditions for the analysis of medium-term morphodynamics of barred beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyns, J.; de Maeyer, P.; de Wulf, A.

    2009-04-01

    The hindcasting of wave characteristics is of primordial importance to relate beach behaviour to external hydrodynamic forcing. Often, datasets of beach profiles covering several years are available, but nearshore wave buoy data in the immediate vicinity of the study area during the observation period are lacking. In the past, several methods were presented to derive wave characteristics at a certain location, as a function of observed parameters at nearby locations. One of the best known examples is numerical modeling of nearshore wave propagation using the SWAN model. Recently, soft computing methods, and notably Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), have gained some popularity as a means for wave forecasting and hindcasting, as they are computationally less demanding and easier to set up than traditional numerical models. In this paper, we use a multi-layer feed-forward ANN for hindcasting hourly wave characteristics at the Westdiep swale in the nearshore zone of the Belgian West Coast. The input for the model are directional wave data from a buoy some 30 kilometer offshore, tides from the nearby port of Nieuwpoort and local wind characteristics at Koksijde. The network is trained and validated based on one year (2007) of observations at the prediction location using the back-propagation algorithm. This period is considered to be long enough to include all the typical patterns of storms and calms. The resulting model is then used to perform a wave characteristics hindcast from 1985 until 1995. For this period, a dataset of nearly monthly beach profiles is available from 4 locations between the French border and the port of Nieuwpoort. The influence of storm intensity, storm chronology, nearshore morphology and human interference on the evolution of the intertidal bars are evaluated, using the wave database as a boundary condition.

  18. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which Californias beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Surveys National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  19. Seismic assessment for offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Blaker, F.; Nadim, F.

    1995-12-31

    An international consensus on seismic design criteria for onshore pipelines has been established during the last thirty years. The need to assess seismic design for offshore pipelines has not been similarly recognized. In this paper, the geotechnical hazard for a pipeline routed across steep slopes and irregular terrains affected by earthquakes, is discussed. The integrity of both natural and artificial load bearing supports is assessed.d The response of the pipeline to direct excitation from soil or through discontinuous, sparsely distributed natural or artificial supports, is commented.

  20. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  1. Did life begin on the beach?

    PubMed

    Bywater, Robert P; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian

    2005-08-01

    Water is one of the prerequisites of life. Further requirements are the existence of a system of interacting organic molecules capable of capturing and converting the supply of external energy and elaborating the replicating function that is needed for propagation. None of this would be possible without the existence of some means of concentrating, selecting, and then containing these mutually interacting substances in proximity to one another, i.e., a primitive cell. Starting from this hypothesis we propose a model for the development of life on Earth. Our model embodies the following new features: (1) rapid cycles of catalysis and transport of material, (2) desegregation (separation by tidal action and degradation by catalysis) as well as segregation (by chromatography on tidal beaches), (3) cross-catalysis instead of auto-catalysis, as well as (4) compartmentalization, although the latter idea is of course not new. But our "lipid first" model, in contrast to earlier "peptide first" or "RNA first" models, provides for the compartments needed to act as a cradle for the subsequent development of information- rich molecules like peptides and RNA. If anything, the earliest information-rich molecules were probably membrane-spanning peptides/proteins. PMID:16078873

  2. What is on those Titan Beaches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, P.; Cable, M.; Hodyss, R.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T.; Malaska, M.

    2014-04-01

    Benzene is found on Titan and is a likely constituent of the putative evaporite deposits formed around the hydrocarbon lakes. We have recently demonstrated the formation of a benzene-ethane co-crystal under Titan-like surface condition as a function of temperature. We show that the formation process would reach completion under Titan surface conditions in ~18 hours, and that benzene precipitates from liquid ethane as the co-crystal. This suggests that evaporite basins rich in benzene may not contain just pure crystalline materials, but instead the beaches or basins may be replete with co-crystals of various forms. These new structures may influence evaporite characteristics, such as particle size and infrared spectral properties. This co-crystalline form of benzene with ethane represents a new class of materials for Titan's surface, analogous to hydrated minerals on Earth. This work is being extended to explore the interaction of benzene with methane and propane at Titan temperatures. We are also investigating other molecules such as acetylene and pyridine to determine if co-crystal formation can occur in these systems as well.

  3. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.

  4. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  5. 1986 Offshore Contractors and Equipment Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The 1986 Offshore Contractors and Equipment Directory contains 3,000 listings of companies in the offshore drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturing and transportation industries. Complete information about each business is given, including its affiliates, subsidiaries, divisions and branch offices as well as the correct address, phone, cable and telex numbers and the names of key personnel.

  6. U.S. Offshore Wind Port Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    C. Elkinton, A. Blatiak, H. Ameen

    2013-10-13

    This study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations.

  7. Heart Rate and Motion Analysis by GPS in Beach Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David

    2010-01-01

    Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 0.5 years; height 1.80 0.08 m; weight 78.2 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 kmh-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax. PMID:24149392

  8. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late Pleistocene landscape change and human occupation on the western Iberian margin.

  9. Underbalanced drilling benefits now available offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniak, J.P.; Cuthbertson, B.; Nessa, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    Offshore underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a reality. Applications in older, partially depleted fields and new fields are being considered. However, low productivity reservoirs and fields with sub normal pressures causing drilling problems are currently the main targets for offshore UBD. With proper planning and the correct technique, both jointed pipe and coiled tubing UBD drilling operations have been carried out offshore with success. The main concerns for offshore UBD have been altered drilling practices and surface production system operation. These issues have been examined and equipment has been designed and tested to address them. Environmental, safety and health issues are paramount and have been studied carefully. Detailed well planning, engineering, and flow modeling have proven critical for successful offshore UBD operations. Examples are given from oil and gas fields.

  10. Offshore wind measurements using Doppler aerosol wind lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2014-06-01

    The latest flight demonstration of Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is presented. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the improvement of DAWN system since the previous flight campaign in 2012 and the capabilities of DAWN and the latest airborne wind profiling algorithm APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) developed at LaRC. The comparisons of APOLO and another algorithm are discussed utilizing two and five line-of-sights (LOSs), respectively. Wind parameters from DAWN were compared with ground-based radar measurements for validation purposes. The campaign period was June - July in 2013 and the flight altitude was 8 km in inland toward Charlotte, NC, and offshores in Virginia Beach, VA and Ocean City, MD. The DAWN system was integrated into a UC12B with two operators onboard during the campaign.

  11. Offshore Wind Measurements Using Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The latest flight demonstration of Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is presented. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the improvement of DAWN system since the previous flight campaign in 2012 and the capabilities of DAWN and the latest airborne wind profiling algorithm APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) developed at LaRC. The comparisons of APOLO and another algorithm are discussed utilizing two and five line-of-sights (LOSs), respectively. Wind parameters from DAWN were compared with ground-based radar measurements for validation purposes. The campaign period was June - July in 2013 and the flight altitude was 8 km in inland toward Charlotte, NC, and offshores in Virginia Beach, VA and Ocean City, MD. The DAWN system was integrated into a UC12B with two operators onboard during the campaign.

  12. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are provided as attached xml files for all geographic information system (GIS) layers.

  13. Macrofaunal sediment selectivity considerations for beach nourishment programmes.

    PubMed

    Van Tomme, J; Vanden Eede, S; Speybroeck, J; Degraer, S; Vincx, M

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, beach nourishment is widely considered as a better alternative compared to the construction of hard structures to protect a sandy coast against detrimental erosive effects, both from an ecological and an engineering perspective. The rare studies conducted on the ecological impact of beach nourishment are short-term, post hoc monitoring investigations of the benthic macrofauna. Little is known of the biological processes during and after nourishment. To allow swift recolonization after nourishment, the characteristics of the nourished beach have to match the habitat demands of the benthic macrofauna. The sediment preference of the key intertidal species Scolelepis squamata, Eurydice pulchra, Bathyporeia pilosa and Bathyporeia sarsi, which dominate many West European sandy beaches, was investigated through laboratory experiments, both in single-species as well as combined-species treatments. While the former aimed at developing guidelines for impact mitigation of beach nourishment, the latter aimed at elucidating the role of biotic interactions in sediment preference. Results of the experiments indicated that B.pilosa and E.pulchra prefer the finest sediment, while B.sarsi had a broader preference and also occurred in medium-coarse sediments. However, the sediment preference of E.pulchra for fine sediments was not confirmed by other field and experimental studies. The polychaete S.squamata had the broadest preference and even showed a high occurrence in coarse sediments that are not naturally occurring on the sandy beaches where the animals were caught for this experiment. However, this polychaete is a cosmopolitan species, not only occurring on fine-grained beaches, but also on coarse-grained beaches worldwide. The preferences imply that beach nourishment with coarse sediment will have a major effect on B.pilosa while effects of coarse sediments on S.squamata will be minor. Finally, interspecific competition with the sympatrically occurring amphipod B.sarsi was found to change the sediment selection of the amphipod B.pilosa towards the coarser sediments where B.sarsi occurred in lower frequencies. PMID:23182894

  14. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the results obtained. One factor that may explain why certain species are missing could be lack of recruitment, due to Malta's geographical isolation from the European and African mainlands.

  15. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

  16. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

  17. Natural Reworking of Tsunami Evidence in Chandipur Beach, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, T.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2010-12-01

    In a particular tide- or wave- dominated environment the flow energy is best understood by the size of the sand grains deposited at the respective bar or beach or the depositional platform. Though the flow energy is generally fluctuating in this kind of dynamic environment, the overall set up can represent a particular domain of energy regime. A particular range of grain size is supposed to be deposited laterally and vertically as well. A specific trend of variation in grain size is also expected and can be estimated from both the hydrodynamic and aerodynamic interplay or in combination. Hence, whenever any stratum with an extra ordinary grain size is observed, that usually stimulates to think about some sudden and extraordinary energy regime, indicate a catastrophic event. In the year 2005, on Chandipur beach (Orissa, India) such a stratum found with an unusual grain size, which was much coarser than the usual grains extended along the beach and outer flank of the main bar, exhibited many unusual features in its morphology and mineralogy indicated a possible deposit due to the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004. In the contrary, the same deposit is exhibiting the definite reworking due to the normal beach process in 2008. Its a definite signature of gap of information in a dynamic environment and a challenge for the palaeo-tsunami researchers. Key words: Tsunami deposit; Beach dynamics; Natural reworking

  18. New beach ridge type: severely limited fetch, very shallow water

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F.; Demirpolat, S.

    1988-09-01

    The southern end of Laguna Madre (Texas) north of the Rio Grande mouth is marked by very shallow water, wide tidal flats, lunettes, islands made of beach ridges, and lesser features. The number and variety of islands in the lagoon is remarkable. The lunettes (clay dunes) are made primarily of quartz sand and coarse silt. They are common 5-10 m high, irregular in shape, and steep sided. They were deposited from wind transport and did not migrate. Those that are islands in the lagoon predate present position of sea level. Islands made of beach ridges were built from the lagoon side. Photoanalysis, field work, and granulometry all show that this sand was not moved into these ridges by Gulf of Mexico waves. Trenches in 12 beach ridges showed horizontal bedding but neither low-angle nor steep cross-bedding (quite unlike swash-built beach ridges). The ridges were built by wind-tide lag effects, not from the swash. Therefore, these beach ridges are a new type, in addition to swash-built, eolian, and storm-surge ridges. Growth of the ridges appears to be completed.

  19. History of monitoring beaches around Dounreay, and some future work.

    PubMed

    Toole, Joe

    2007-09-01

    Since the first finds of radioactive particles on beaches in north Caithness in the early 1980s, a programme of beach monitoring has been and continues to be undertaken by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, UKAEA. This programme has evolved over the years: gradually more intensive monitoring has been required by the site regulator, the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), while UKAEA have managed the deployment of increasingly more sophisticated radiation detection technology to meet or exceed regulatory expectations. This paper provides an overview of the beach monitoring programmes, and summarises how many particles have been detected, where they have been found, and how radioactive they are. The large number of in situ measurements typically recorded during surveys and the large areas of beach sands monitored are illustrated by reference to survey data acquired in the first half of 2005. Finally, the implications of the detection of a small particle at a large public beach some 23 km east of the Dounreay site are briefly discussed, as is the nature of some future work related to this environmental legacy. PMID:17768314

  20. Beach groin acts as barrier to longshore transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The Bergen Avenue Groin in Harvey Cedars, N.J., a storm protection structure that confines alongshore-moving sediment to create wider beaches, has been found to act as a barrier to longshore sediment transport according to Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. Using a wave transformation-shoreline evolution model, Bruno examined the effectiveness of an existing stone groin on a commercially and historically valuable beach. His findings were summarized at the 21st Union of Panamerican Engineers meeting hosted by the American Association of Engineering Societies held in Washington, D.C., August 19-24.Groins are low, narrow jetties made of timber, stone, concrete, or steel that extend roughly perpendicular to the shoreline. They are designed to protect the shore from erosion by currents, tides or waves, or to trap sand and littoral drift to build up or make a beach. The advantage of a groin is that it is a permanent solution to beach erosion, as opposed to the continuing process of beach replenishment required in nonstructural processes such as beachfills. This same permanence, however, is often the downfall of structural solutions because of the long-term deleterious consequences associated with such devices.

  1. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    PubMed

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong. PMID:26837834

  2. Separability of the massive Dirac equation in 5-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole geometry and its relation to a rank-three Killing-Yano tensor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Shuangqing

    2008-09-15

    The Dirac equation for the electron around a five-dimensional rotating black hole with two different angular momenta is separated into purely radial and purely angular equations. The general solution is expressed as a superposition of solutions derived from these two decoupled ordinary differential equations. By separating variables for the massive Klein-Gordon equation in the same spacetime background, I derive a simple and elegant form for the Staeckel-Killing tensor, which can be easily written as the square of a rank-three Killing-Yano tensor. I have also explicitly constructed a symmetry operator that commutes with the scalar Laplacian by using the Staeckel-Killing tensor, and the one with the Dirac operator by the Killing-Yano tensor admitted by the five-dimensional Myers-Perry metric, respectively.

  3. Role of wave forcing, storms and NAO in outer bar dynamics on a high-energy, macro-tidal beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masselink, Gerd; Austin, Martin; Scott, Tim; Poate, Tim; Russell, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Outer sand bar dynamics on a high-energy macro-tidal beach were investigated using long-term (multi-year) field datasets of intertidal morphology and offshore bathymetry. Utilising a 15-year time-series of Argus video images, five distinct outer bar types were identified: Mega Rip, Longshore, Crescentic, Crescentic Attached and Welded. The most common classification was Crescentic Attached, with the outer bar oscillations being out of phase with the inner bar oscillations, as would be expected for the shore-normal wave approach at this site. The outer bar had a typical amplitude of 0.5-1 m and a longshore wavelength of 600 m. Changes in outer bar morphology were related to measured and modelled nearshore wave data. However, the outer bar morphology changed over a much longer timescale (monthly-to-annual) than the daily-to-weekly variations in wave height and period. An extended duration of energetic wave action was required to bring about an upstate bar transition to the Longshore or Mega Rip state, where the bar then remained arrested for a significant amount of time, requiring several months of low wave conditions to induce a down state transition through Crescentic to Welded. This slow morphological response is explained by extended relaxation times attributed to the large tidal range at the study site where the outer bar morphology is only active for part of the tidal cycle (several hours around low tide). The configuration and position of the outer bar were related: the more upstate (downstate) bar types being associated with a more offshore (onshore) bar position. The detrended outer bar position was significantly related to a forcing term based on wave power and disequilibrium of the dimensionless fall velocity with offshore (onshore) bar migration occurring when wave conditions were more (less) energetic that the antecedent conditions. The upstate end-member (Longshore or Mega Rip) was attained sometime during the winter months for 14 out of the 16 years of monitoring; the outer bar remained attached to the low tide shoreline over the winter 2005/2006 and 2010/2011. These two winters, with incomplete upstate cycles, were characterised by the lowest winter wave conditions and negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices, suggesting that the winter NAO is correlated with both beach state and nearshore bar configuration.

  4. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  5. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. PMID:26892203

  6. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  7. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  8. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquern Beach, Puerto Rico...

  9. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  10. Image processing in offshore engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.V.R.; A. Oliveira, M. de; Almeida, M.E.T. de; Lorenzoni, C.; Ferrante, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    The technological progress which has taken place during the last decade introduced a totally new outlook regarding the professional computational environment in general, and regarding the engineering profession in particular. During many years engineering computing was performed based on large computer centers, getting bigger and bigger all the time, going from mainframes to super computers, essentially producing numerical results on paper media. Lately, however, it has been realized that a much more productive computational environment can be implemented using an open architecture of client/server type, based on smaller lower cost equipment including workstations and PC`s, and considering engineering information in a broader sense. This papers reports briefly the experience of the Production Department of Petrobras in transforming its centralized, mainframe based, computational environment into a open distributed client/server computational environment, focusing on the problem of handling technical graphics information regarding its more than 70 fixed offshore platforms.

  11. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

  12. Industrial plastic on the southern beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the western beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Khordagui, H K; Abu-Hilal, A H

    1994-01-01

    The increasing production and use of plastic in the Arabian Gulf combined with shipping and waste disposal practices, have increased the concentration of plastic particles on the sea's surface and beaches. The objective of this investigation was to provide an assessment of the abundance, distribution, potential sources and significance of industrial plastic on the western beaches of the United Arab Emirates on the Arabian Gulf and on the eastern beaches on the Gulf of Oman. The abundance of stranded plastic pellets was highly uneven. By early 1992 alarming levels of fresh plastic pellets were noticed on the Arabian Gulf beaches of the UAE. Large numbers of 25 kg sacks of white plastic spherules manufactured by (SABIC) in Jubail, Saudi Arabia were washed ashore. When compared to the west coast on the Arabian Gulf, the east coast on the Gulf of Oman exhibited much lower levels of plastic pellets. When compared to other parts of the world, the beaches of the UAE on the Arabian Gulf are considered to be heavily polluted with industrial plastic. PMID:15091703

  13. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a morphodynamical continuum of macrotidal, low tide bar/rip and ultra-dissipative sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraer, S.; Volckaert, A.; Vincx, M.

    2003-03-01

    The species composition, densities, biomass and zonation patterns of the macrobenthos of sandy beaches are greatly influenced by the morphodynamics and morphology of the beaches. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a small-scale morphodynamic gradient, comprising eight Belgian beach sites, were investigated. By taking into account the dimensionless fall velocity ( ?) and the relative tidal range, the beach sites were ordered along the gradient from the ultra-dissipative beach type (UD) to the low tide bar/rip beach type (LTBR). The resulting beach state index varied between 1.8 and 4.2 and the beach profiles were related with the beaches' morphodynamic state. In total 35 macrobenthic species, mainly polychaetes and crustaceans, were encountered, varying between 19 and 23 species per beach site. The species composition was quite similar among beach sites, with Scolelepis squamata being abundant at all eight sites. Furthermore, the macrobenthic distribution patterns were mainly related to elevation at all beach sites. Some remarkable difference in metrics, largely related to the beach morphodynamics and the consequent hydrodynamics, were found. At the hydrodynamically benign and consequently macrobenthos-rich UD beaches, the highest macrobenthic densities and biomass occurred on the upper beach, while at the hydrodynamically harsh and thus macrobenthos-poor LTBR beaches, the maximum densities and biomass occurred lower on the beach. Species, typically occurring on the upper UD beaches, such as Eurydice pulchra, S. squamata, and Bathyporeia sarsi, were restricted to the sub-optimal middle and lower beach zone at LTBR beaches. Only Bathyporeia pilosa was found on the upper beach of both UD and LTBR beaches. The more robust polychaete Ophelia rathkei and the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria were exclusively found in the hydrodynamically harsh conditions of the middle LTBR beach zone.

  14. Worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book provides nearly 3,000 listings of companies and personnel in the drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturinig, and transportation industries. Complete information includes addresses, phone numbers, telex and cable, and the names of key personnel in the offshore marketplace. Naval architecture, marine engineering, offshore pipelaying, design and fabrication of platforms, mobile drilling units and other offshore oil structures are included among the many other services and products presented in this directory. A completely revised and greatly expanded service/supply/manufacturing section provides much more extensive information on backup suppliers, price and delivery. Locations and personnel of thousands of branch offices and outlets are compiled.

  15. 1987 worldwide offshore contractor and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Within this reference source there are nearly 3,000 listings of companies and personnel in the drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturing, and transportation industries. Complete and updated information includes addresses, phone numbers, telex and cable, and the names of key personnel in the offshore marketplace. In addition, the directory supplies a company index, the 1986 Marine Transportation Survey from Offshore Magazine, the current Worldwide Survey of Offshore Production Systems from the same publication, and the new, complete Mobile Rig Survey prepared by Electronic Rig Stats.

  16. Offshore drilling to increase in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A mid-year report presents a worldwide overview of offshore drilling operations. The Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are posting substantial gains as companies rush to drill the millions of acres acquired in those sectors both last year and in previous offerings. The Middle East, Latin America and the Asia/Pacific offshore theaters will see only slight increases. The Mediterranean and African regions are expected to sustain declines. A region-by-region summary of the 1984 offshore forecast is presented showing exploration and appraisal activities, as well as development for all of these areas.

  17. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2011-04-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach.

  18. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  20. Offshore medicine: Medical care of employees in the offshore oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.A.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book is specifically designed to help the doctor who has to provide medical care for the expanding offshore oil industry. It describes the pattern of work offshore and the medical problems which it generates. The special features of offshore medical care are described along with the training of medics, the design of hospital facilities, and the provision of back-up services to cope with them. These are special chapters on diving, hygiene, and catering, dentistry, and legal aspects.

  1. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been... area. This action also updates the geographic coordinates of the airport. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited...

  2. 75 FR 65581 - Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non- Directional Beacon (NDB... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to amend Class E airspace designated as surface area to remove any... to Class D surface area to eliminate controlled airspace not required for the new SIAPs developed...

  3. 75 FR 52549 - Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General Conservation Plan; Fort Morgan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General... Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan (ABM GCP) Project. We are preparing the ABM GCP under the... are included in the plan: Alabama beach mouse (ABM) (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates), Loggerhead...

  4. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General... endangered Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) in Baldwin County, Alabama. The GCP analyzes... availability of the proposed GCP and the dEIS. These documents analyze the take of the Alabama beach...

  5. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  6. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC and Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice..., mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC, and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear... 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear...

  7. 76 FR 16297 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA... of the Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA... Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of 37 feet...

  8. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W...

  9. 77 FR 27624 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA.... Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA. The deviation is necessary to... Drawbridge, mile 4.9, over Cerritos Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides...

  10. Hydrocarbons and trace metals in mussels in the Macaé coast: Preliminary assessment for a coastal zone under influence of offshore oil field exploration in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Igor U; Molisani, Mauricio M; Nudi, Adriana H; Scofield, Artur L; Wagener, Angela de L R; Limaverde Filho, Aricelso M

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of PAHs and metals were obtained from mussels collected in beaches, coastal island and estuary of the Macaé coast, the main operational basin for offshore oil exploration in Brazil. This survey provides reference levels for scenarios of increasing exploration, as well as for other areas of the coast undergoing urbanization to support exploration. As expected, urban areas such as the Macaé river estuary presented high concentrations of PAHs, although unsuspected sites such the island also presented signs of contamination. PAH in mussels originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Metals were typical of non-contaminated coastal environments, although Cr concentrations were above Brazilian Reference Levels. PMID:26763324

  11. Coniacian-Turonian Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, I.; Moody, R.; Sandman, R.

    1995-08-01

    The R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia are of Coniacian-Turonian age. These ages are constrained by several biostratigraphic events including a rapid increase in ostracod diversity at the base of the overlying Aleg Formation and the occurrence of several diagnostic benthonic foraminifera including Rotalia algeriana. The indication is that the R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates are the lateral equivalents, in part, of the Douleb Formation which is a known reservoir, onshore Tunisia. During the Coniacian-Turonian the area of the Miskar Field was subject to regional extension with the opening of several major North-South trending fractures. These culminate in the contemporaneous outpouring of submarine serpentinized volcanics during deposition of the R1 Superior/Aleg Formation. The R1 lithologies are deposited in a shallow water regime and consist of rudist buildup and debraic carbonates overlain by lagoonal facies in the North with an increase in beach/sabkha facies to the South. The indication is for a shallowing upward sequence and a general progradation of lithofacies northwards across a tilted block. In contrast the R1 Superior is indicative of a flooding event with relative sea-level changes reflected in variations of both lithofacies and biofacies. Overall the lithofacies are dominated by calcispheric/bioclastic wackestone-packstones probably deposited in a mid-platform setting. The diagenetic history of the R1 is the more complex of the two carbonate sequences reflecting several phases of fluid movement through the constituent lithologies. Original depositional characteristics and subsequent diagenetic meditation result in the development of highly variable reservoir properties.

  12. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  13. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  14. Requirements for construction of offshore concrete platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Pollard, N.

    1994-12-31

    For development of offshore fields, the operator must select production concepts. As several options like subsea templates, floating production and storage concepts, semisubmersibles and steel platforms etc. are available, this paper will review the specifics of one of the possible concepts, the concrete platform. The application of offshore concrete platforms is gaining renewed interest world wide. Several operators are presently carrying out comparisons between offshore concrete structures and jacket support structures. This evaluation includes considerations related to constructability incorporating studies of potential construction sites, and infrastructures as well as availability of materials. This paper summarizes requirements for carrying out an offshore concrete platform construction project and will be useful to those interested in concrete projects.

  15. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in the northern and southern parts of the map area are the result of right-lateral motion on strands of the San Gregorio Fault system. In the south, headlands near Pescadero Point have been uplifted by motion along the west strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Frijoles Fault), which separates rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation south of the fault from rocks of the Purisima Formation north of the fault. The regional uplift in this map area has caused relatively shallow water depths within California's State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed offshore in the central part of the map area, in the shelter of the headlands north of the east strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Coastways Fault) around Miramontes Point (about 5 km north of the map area) and also on the outer half of the California's State Waters shelf in the south where depths exceed 40 m. Sediment in the outer shelf of California's State Waters is rippled, indicating some mobility. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the "Oregonian province" or the "northern California ecoregion." This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 350 km south of the map area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off of central California has experienced a warming over the last 50 years that is driving an ecosystem shift away from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment. Seafloor habitats in the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, which lies within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from significant rocky outcrops that support kelp-forest communities nearshore to rocky-reef communities in deep water. Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports diverse populations of sea birds such as Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin's Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. In addition, an observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of "bull kelp," which is well adapted for high wave-energy environments. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  17. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  18. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  19. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  20. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.