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Sample records for myocardial infarction trial

  1. [Trials with ACE-inhibitors in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Dalla Volta, S

    1994-12-01

    In acute myocardial infarction, the results of the trials with ACE-inhibitors have not been always good, in contrast with what has been observed in chronic heart failure. The comparison of these compounds with the placebo has demonstrated lack of reduction of mortality in the study CONSENSUS II, favorable results on the survival as first endpoint and on the secondary endpoints, as reinfarction, heart failure and stroke in the studies SOLVD, AIRE, GISSI 3, ISIS 4, and uncertain (interim report) results in the Chinese study. Nevertheless, the analysis of the recruitment of the patients with acute infarction and the way these patients have been treated seem to be the most important cause of the conflicting results. ACE-inhibitors have proved no efficacy in acute myocardial infarction without signs of left ventricular failure (CONSENSUS II), have worsened the clinical picture and the mortality in patients in shock or with severe heart failure in the acute phase. On the reverse, in presence of mild to moderate left ventricular dysfunction and failure, the use of ACE-inhibitors has been followed by reduction of mortality in the early (AIRE, GISSI 3, ISIS 4), medium term (GISSI 3) and long-term follow-up (up to 4 years in the AIRE study). In parallel with the reduction of the primary endpoint, also secondary endpoints have been favorably influenced by the different ACE-inhibitors. No differences have been observed among the different class of compounds. ACE-inhibitors seem, therefore, to have a clear indication in acute myocardial infarction with mild or moderate signs and symptoms of heart failure. PMID:7634258

  2. Ventricular function and infarct size: the Western Washington Intravenous Streptokinase in Myocardial Infarction Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.L.; Cerqueira, M.; Maynard, C.; Davis, K.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1988-04-01

    The Western Washington Intravenous Streptokinase in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial randomized 368 patients with symptoms and signs of acute myocardial infarction of less than 6 h duration to either conventional care or 1.5 million units of intravenous streptokinase. The mean time to randomization was 209 min and 52% of patients were randomized within 3 h of symptom onset. Quantitative, tomographic thallium-201 infarct size and radionuclide ejection fraction were measured at 8.2 +/- 7.5 weeks in 207 survivors who lived within a 100 mile radius of a centralized laboratory. Overall, infarct size as a percent of the left ventricle was 19 +/- 13% for control subjects and 15 +/- 13% for treatment patients (p = 0.03). For anterior infarction in patients entered within 3 h of symptom onset, infarct size was 28 +/- 13% in the control group versus 19 +/- 15% for the treatment group (p = 0.09). Left ventricular ejection fraction was 47 +/- 15% in the control versus 51 +/- 15% in the treatment group (p = 0.08). For anterior infarction of less than 3 h duration, the ejection fraction was 38 +/- 16% in the control versus 48 +/- 20% in the treatment group (p = 0.13). By statistical analysis incorporating the nonsurvivors, p values for all of these variables were less than or equal to 0.08. There was no benefit for patients with inferior infarction or for anterior infarction of greater than 3 h duration. It is concluded that intravenous streptokinase, when given within 3 h of symptom onset to patients with anterior infarction, reduces infarct size and improves ventricular function.

  3. Controlled Trial of Psychological Intervention in Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldenburg, Brian; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared hospital-based psychological interventions for improving the physical, psychological, and life-style status of patients after myocardial infarction with routine medical and nursing care. Follow-ups showed intervention groups performed significantly better on measures of psychological and life-style functioning; they also reported fewer…

  4. Applying the results of large clinical trials in the management of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, J P; Schwartz, G G

    1996-01-01

    Mortality from acute myocardial infarction has declined in recent years, largely due to the widespread application of new pharmacologic and mechanical interventions that have been tested in large, prospective, randomized clinical trials. For practicing generalists, we review the key data from such trials that have shaped the current management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. We discuss the roles of thrombolytic therapy, coronary angioplasty, nitrates, beta- and calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, magnesium, and antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic agents. In addition, we highlight critical unanswered questions in the management of this disorder. PMID:8775936

  5. The Effects of Inhalation Aromatherapy on Anxiety in Patients With Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Zahra; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Farrokhian, Alireza; Tagharrobi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients’ quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data. Results: The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management. PMID:25389481

  6. Intravenous sodium nitrite in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial (NIAMI)

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Nishat; Neil, Christopher; Bruce, Margaret; MacLennan, Graeme; Cotton, Seonaidh; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Feelisch, Martin; Bunce, Nicholas; Lim, Pitt O.; Hildick-Smith, David; Horowitz, John; Madhani, Melanie; Boon, Nicholas; Dawson, Dana; Kaski, Juan Carlos; Frenneaux, Michael; Siddiqi, Nishat; Neil, Christopher; Bruce, Margaret; MacLennan, Graeme; Cotton, Seonaidh; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; Singh, Satnam; Schwarz, Konstantin; Jagpal, Baljit; Metcalfe, Malcolm; Stewart, Andrew; Hannah, Andrew; Awsan, Noman; Broadhurst, Paul; Hogg, Duncan; Garg, Deepak; Slattery, Elaine; Davidson, Tracey; McDonald, Alison; McPherson, Gladys; Kaski, Juan-Carlos; Lim, Pitt O; Brown, Sue; Papadopoulou, Sofia A; Gonzalvez, Fatima; Roy, David; Firoozi, Sami; Bogle, Richard; Roberts, Elved; Rhodes, Jonathan; Hildick-Smith, David; de Belder, Adam; Cooter, Nina; Bennett, Lorraine; Horowitz, John; Rajendran, Sharmalar; Dautov, Rustem; Black, Marilyn; Jansen, Else; Boon, Nicholas; Struthers, Allan; Toff, William; Dargie, Henry; Lang, Chim; Nightingale, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Aim Despite prompt revascularization of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), substantial myocardial injury may occur, in part a consequence of ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI). There has been considerable interest in therapies that may reduce IRI. In experimental models of AMI, sodium nitrite substantially reduces IRI. In this doubleblind randomized placebo controlled parallel-group trial, we investigated the effects of sodium nitrite administered immediately prior to reperfusion in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results A total of 229 patients presenting with acute STEMI were randomized to receive either an i.v. infusion of 70 μmol sodium nitrite (n = 118) or matching placebo (n = 111) over 5 min immediately before primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI). Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 6–8 days and at 6 months and serial blood sampling was performed over 72 h for the measurement of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and Troponin I. Myocardial infarct size (extent of late gadolinium enhancement at 6–8 days by CMR-the primary endpoint) did not differ between nitrite and placebo groups after adjustment for area at risk, diabetes status, and centre (effect size −0.7% 95% CI: −2.2%, +0.7%; P = 0.34). There were no significant differences in any of the secondary endpoints, including plasma troponin I and CK area under the curve, left ventricular volumes (LV), and ejection fraction (EF) measured at 6–8 days and at 6 months and final infarct size (FIS) measured at 6 months. Conclusions Sodium nitrite administered intravenously immediately prior to reperfusion in patients with acute STEMI does not reduce infarct size. PMID:24639423

  7. Clinical effects of anticoagulant therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview of randomised trials.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R.; MacMahon, S.; Flather, M.; Baigent, C.; Remvig, L.; Mortensen, S.; Appleby, P.; Godwin, J.; Yusuf, S.; Peto, R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most randomised trials of anticoagulant therapy for suspected acute myocardial infarction have been small and, in some, aspirin and fibrinolytic therapy were not used routinely. A systematic overview (meta-analysis) of their results is needed, in particular to assess the clinical effects of adding heparin to aspirin. DESIGN: Computer aided searches, scrutiny of reference lists, and inquiry of investigators and companies were used to identify potentially eligible studies. On central review, 26 studies were found to involve unconfounded randomised comparisons of anticoagulant therapy versus control in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Additional information on study design and outcome was sought by correspondence with study investigators. SUBJECTS: Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. INTERVENTIONS: No routine aspirin was used among about 5000 patients in 21 trials (including half of one small trial) that assessed heparin alone or heparin plus oral anticoagulants, and aspirin was used routinely among 68,000 patients in six trials (including the other half of one small trial) that assessed the addition of intravenous or high dose subcutaneous heparin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Death, reinfarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, and major bleeds (average follow up of about 10 days). RESULTS: In the absence of aspirin, anticoagulant therapy reduced mortality by 25% (SD 8%; 95% confidence interval 10% to 38%; 2P = 0.002), representing 35 (11) fewer deaths per 1000. There were also 10 (4) fewer strokes per 1000 (2P = 0.01), 19 (5) fewer pulmonary emboli per 1000 (2P < 0.001), and non-significantly fewer reinfarctions, with about 13 (5) extra major bleeds per 1000 (2P = 0.01). Similar sized effects were seen with the different anticoagulant regimens studied. In the presence of aspirin, however, heparin reduced mortality by only 6% (SD 3%; 0% to 10%; 2P = 0.03), representing just 5 (2) fewer deaths per 1000. There were 3 (1.3) fewer

  8. [Mortality of myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, E; Kirkorian, G

    2011-12-01

    Coronary disease is a major cause of death and disability. From 1975 to 2000, coronary mortality was reduced by half. Better treatments and reduction of risk factors are the main causes. This phenomenon is observed in most developed countries, but mortality from coronary heart disease continues to increase in developing countries. In-hospital mortality of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is in the range of 7 to 10% in registries. In infarction without ST segment elevation (NSTEMI), in-hospital mortality is around 5%. More recent studies found a similar in-hospital mortality for STEMI and NSTEMI. Because of patient selection and monitoring, mortality in clinical trials is much lower. After adjustment for the extent of coronary disease, age, risk factors, history of myocardial infarction, the excess mortality observed in women is fading. Many clinical, biological and laboratory parameters are associated with mortality in myocardial infarction. They refer to the immediate risk of death (ventricular rhythm disturbances, shock…), the extent of infarction (number of leads with ST elevation on the ECG, release of biomarkers, ejection fraction…), the presence of heart failure, the failure of reperfusion and the patient's baseline risk (age, renal function…). Risk scores, and more specifically the GRACE risk score, synthesize these different markers to predict the risk of death in a given patient. However, their use for the treatment of myocardial only concerns NSTEMI. Only a limited number of mechanical or pharmacological interventions reduces mortality of heart attack. The main benefits are observed with reperfusion by thrombolysis or primary angioplasty in STEMI, aspirin, heparin, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Some medications such as bivalirudin and fondaparinux reduce mortality by decreasing the incidence of hemorrhagic complications. The guidelines classify interventions according to their benefit and especially their ability

  9. Experimental myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Joison, Julio; Gilmour, David P.; Molokhia, Farouk A.; Pegg, C. A. S.; Hood, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The hemodynamic effects of tachycardia induced by atrial pacing were investigated in left ventricular failure of acute and healing experimental myocardial infarction in 20 intact, conscious dogs. Myocardial infarction was produced by gradual inflation of a balloon cuff device implanted around the left anterior descending coronary artery 10-15 days prior to the study. 1 hr after acute myocardial infarction, atrial pacing at a rate of 180 beats/min decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 19 to 8 mm Hg and left atrial pressure from 17 to 12 mm Hg, without change in cardiac output. In the healing phase of myocardial infarction 1 wk later, atrial pacing decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 17 to 9 mm Hg and increased the cardiac output by 37%. This was accompanied by evidence of peripheral vasodilation. In two dogs with healing anterior wall myocardial infarction, left ventricular failure was enhanced by partial occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery. Both the dogs developed pulmonary edema. Pacing improved left ventricular performance and relieved pulmonary edema in both animals. In six animals propranolol was given after acute infarction, and left ventricular function deteriorated further. However the pacing-induced augmentation of cardiac function was unaltered and, hence, is not mediated by sympathetics. The results show that the spontaneous heart rate in left ventricular failure of experimental canine myocardial infarction may be less than optimal and that maximal cardiac function may be achieved at higher heart rates. Images PMID:4395910

  10. Effect of verapamil on heart rate variability after an acute myocardial infarction. Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II.

    PubMed

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, V

    1998-07-01

    Because decreased heart rate variability measured after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been demonstrated to predict subsequent mortality and sudden death, and an efficacy analysis of the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II (DAVIT II) demonstrated that long-term postinfarction treatment with verapamil significantly reduced sudden death, the aim of the present substudy was to evaluate the effect of verapamil on heart-rate variability in the time and frequency domain, measured in two 5-minute segments during the day and night. Thirty-eight patients were examined by Holter monitoring, at 1 week, that is, before randomization, and at 1 month after infarction; 22 of the patients were examined 12-16 months after infarction as well. In both treatment groups (verapamil and placebo) no significant alteration of heart rate variability during the day-time was demonstrated from before to after 1 and 12-16 months of treatment. In accord with the known reduction of overall heart rate by verapamil, a significant increase of mean NN interval from before to after 1 (P = 0.0004) and 12-16 months (P = 0.004) of treatment was seen in the verapamil, but not in the placebo, group at night. Parameters generally interpreted as an index of parasympathetic modulation, that is, RMSSD, pNN50, and high-frequency power, increased significantly at 1 month (P = 0.04, P = 0.03, NS, respectively) and 12-16 months (P = 0.03, P = 0.04, P < 0.05) after AMI in the verapamil, but not in the placebo, group. In conclusion, the present study indicates that verapamil shifts the autonomic balance to a vagal preponderance or sympathetic attenuation in the postinfarction period. PMID:9784908

  11. Myocardial infarction and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Charles, R; Holt, S; Kirkham, N

    1979-04-01

    Myocardial infarction in the virtual absence of risk factors occurred in a 25-year old man shortly after smoking a cigarette containing marijuana. Subsequent coronary arteriography was normal. PMID:466984

  12. Relation of Left Ventricular Mass and Infarct Size in Anterior Wall ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the EMBRACE STEMI Clinical Trial).

    PubMed

    Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Weaver, W Douglas; Kloner, Robert A; Giugliano, Robert P; Carr, Jim; Neal, Brandon J; Chi, Gerald; Cochet, Madeleine; Goodell, Laura; Michalak, Nathan; Rusowicz-Orazem, Luke; Alkathery, Turky; Allaham, Haytham; Routray, Sujit; Szlosek, Donald; Jain, Purva; Gibson, C Michael

    2016-09-01

    Biomarker measures of infarct size and myocardial salvage index (MSI) are important surrogate measures of clinical outcomes after a myocardial infarction. However, there is variability in infarct size unaccounted for by conventional adjustment factors. This post hoc analysis of Evaluation of Myocardial Effects of Bendavia for Reducing Reperfusion Injury in Patients With Acute Coronary Events (EMBRACE) ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) trial evaluates the association between left ventricular (LV) mass and infarct size as assessed by areas under the curve for creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and troponin I release over the first 72 hours (CK-MB area under the curve [AUC] and troponin I [TnI] AUC) and the MSI. Patients with first anterior STEMI, occluded left anterior descending artery, and available LV mass measurement in EMBRACE STEMI trial were included (n = 100) (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01572909). MSI, end-diastolic LV mass on day 4 cardiac magnetic resonance, and CK-MB and troponin I concentrations were evaluated by a core laboratory. After saturated multivariate analysis, dominance analysis was performed to estimate the contribution of each independent variable to the predicted variance of each outcome. In multivariate models that included age, gender, body surface area, lesion location, smoking, and ischemia time, LV mass remained independently associated with biomarker measures of infarct size (CK-MB AUC p = 0.02, TnI AUC p = 0.03) and MSI (p = 0.003). Dominance analysis demonstrated that LV mass accounted for 58%, 47%, and 60% of the predicted variances for CK-MB AUC, TnI AUC, and MSI, respectively. In conclusion, LV mass accounts for approximately half of the predicted variance in biomarker measures of infarct size. It should be considered as an adjustment variable in studies evaluating infarct size. PMID:27392509

  13. Thrombus aspiration in acute myocardial infarction: concepts, clinical trials, and current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vandermolen, Sebastian; Marciniak, Maciej; Byrne, Jonathan; De Silva, Kalpa

    2016-05-01

    The pathogenesis that underlies acute myocardial infarction is complex and multifactorial. One of the most important components, however, is the role of thrombus formation following atherosclerotic plaque rupture, leading to sudden coronary occlusion and subsequent ischemia and infarction. Thrombus aspiration provides the opportunity of intracoronary clot extraction with the aim to improve coronary and myocardial perfusion, by reducing the risk of no-reflow secondary to distal embolization of thrombus. The utility of thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention has been assessed in an increasing number of observational and randomized studies. This article reviews the contemporary data and provides insights into the validity of thrombus aspiration in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:26751424

  14. Effect of additional treatment with EXenatide in patients with an Acute Myocardial Infarction (EXAMI): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction causes irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes and may lead to loss of ventricular function, morbidity and mortality. Infarct size is a major prognostic factor and reduction of infarct size has therefore been an important objective of strategies to improve outcomes. In experimental studies, glucagon-like peptide 1 and exenatide, a long acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, a novel drug introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, reduced infarct size after myocardial infarction by activating pro-survival pathways and by increasing metabolic efficiency. Methods The EXAMI trial is a multi-center, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled trial, designed to evaluate clinical outcome of exenatide infusion on top of standard treatment, in patients with an acute myocardial infarction, successfully treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 108 patients will be randomized to exenatide (5 μg bolus in 30 minutes followed by continuous infusion of 20 μg/24 h for 72 h) or placebo treatment. The primary end point of the study is myocardial infarct size (measured using magnetic resonance imaging with delayed enhancement at 4 months) as a percentage of the area at risk (measured using T2 weighted images at 3-7 days). Discussion If the current study demonstrates cardioprotective effects, exenatide may constitute a novel therapeutic option to reduce infarct size and preserve cardiac function in adjunction to reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01254123 PMID:22067476

  15. Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning on Infarct Size in Patients With ST‐Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary PCI Results of the POSTEMI (POstconditioning in ST‐Elevation Myocardial Infarction) Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Andersen, Geir Ø.; Kløw, Nils‐Einar; Abdelnoor, Michael; Hoffmann, Pavel; Eritsland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction of infarct size by ischemic postconditioning (IPost) has been reported in smaller proof‐of‐concept clinical studies, but has not been confirmed in other smaller studies. The principle needs to be evaluated in larger groups of ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients before being implemented in clinical practice. This study assessed the effect of ischemic postcoditioning (IPost) on infarct size in patients with STEMI treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results Patients with first‐time STEMI, <6 hours from symptom onset, referred to primary PCI were randomized to IPost or control groups. IPost was administered by 4 cycles of 1‐minute reocclusion and 1‐minute reperfusion, starting 1 minute after opening, followed by stenting. In the control group, stenting was performed immediately after reperfusion. The primary endpoint was infarct size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance after 4 months. A total of 272 patients were randomized. Infarct size (percent of left ventricular mass) after 4 months (median values and interquartile range) was 14.4% (7.7, 24.6) and 13.5% (8.1, 19.3) in the control group and IPost group, respectively (P=0.18). No significant impact of IPost was found when controlling for baseline risk factors of infarct size in a multivariate linear regression model (P=0.16). The effects of IPost on secondary endpoints, including markers of necrosis, myocardial salvage, and ejection fraction, as well as adverse cardiac events during follow‐up, were consistently neutral. Conclusions In contrast to several smaller trials reported previously, we found no significant effects of IPost on infarct size or secondary study outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT.No.PO1506. PMID:24760962

  16. New evidence from the CAPRICORN Trial: the role of carvedilol in high-risk, post-myocardial infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Sackner-Bernstein, Jonathan D

    2003-01-01

    The CAPRICORN (Carvedilol Post-Infarct Survival Control in Left Ventricular Dysfunction) trial established that the beta-blocker carvedilol reduces the risk of death in patients with left ventricular dysfunction post myocardial infarction, whether or not the infarct is complicated by clinical heart failure. Thus, the utility of the beta-blocker carvedilol is confirmed in the modern era as an adjunct to revascularization, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aspirin, and statins. In addition, the results prompt us to review the prior studies of beta-blockers postinfarction. Critical review of CAPRICORN and earlier beta-blocker studies suggests that specific beta-blockers should be matched to specific clinical scenarios. The COMET (Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial) study reinforces this view by establishing that beta-blockers are not simply interchangeable agents. PMID:14564231

  17. Experimental myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hood, William B.; Bianco, Jesus A.; Kumar, Raj; Whiting, Richard B.

    1970-01-01

    Compliance of the infarcted left ventricle was studied in dogs 3-5 days after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Compliance was assessed from postmortem pressure-volume curves and from pressure-length measurements (mercury-in-silastic segment length gauges) made both in vivo and postmortem. Postmortem pressure-volume curves showed reduced compliance compared to sham-operated animals. Postmortem pressure-length curves of infarcted and adjacent normal myocardium indicated that the diminished total compliance could be attributed to an increase in stiffness of the infarcted area. This was confirmed by in vivo end-diastolic pressure-length changes produced by transient aortic occlusion. The infarcted area was akinetic, showing neither contraction nor aneurysmal bulging. In addition, anesthetized dogs with infarcts, when compared with sham-operated animals, had similar left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (indicator dilution method), but higher left ventricular end-diastolic pressures. Taken with previous observations, which show that systolic aneurysmal bulging is uniformly present at the onset of ischemia, these results indicate that stiffening of the ischemic myocardium occurs during the first 5 days after infarction, and show that elevation of left ventricular filling pressure does not necessarily signify ventricular dilatation. The results also suggest a mechanism whereby ventricular performance may improve during recovery from acute myocardial infarction. Images PMID:4914678

  18. Acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rischpler, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory processes after myocardial infarction have gained major interest in recent cardiovascular research. It is believed that not only the degree of cell recruitment to the heart plays a pivotal role in the quality of wound healing after myocardial infarction, but also the balance between different types or even subtypes of cells. It is also this balance which is thought to control key processes in tissue repair, such as apoptosis and neoangiogenesis. In this paper, we aim to review imaging strategies (with a special focus on nuclear molecular imaging strategies) that target cells and processes involved in postischemic inflammation and that have a high potential to be translated into clinic or that are already being used and evaluated in humans. PMID:27225319

  19. Noninvasive risk stratification after myocardial infarction: rationale, current evidence and the need for definitive trials.

    PubMed

    Exner, Derek

    2009-06-01

    Despite advances in therapies for myocardial infarction (MI), death attributed to a cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) remains an important problem. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is effective in preventing death from VT/VF, but reliably identifying which post-MI patients would benefit from an ICD remains a major challenge. Beyond the initial post-MI period, the presence of significant left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, alone or in combination with the induction of sustained VT/VF during invasive testing, is the only proven means of selecting patients for a prophylactic ICD. However, these approaches identify only a fraction of those at risk. Furthermore, most patients with significant LV dysfunction after MI have a low, near-term risk of VT/VF. Noninvasive risk stratification tools have been developed to better identify patients likely to benefit from an ICD. To date, none of these tools has been proven useful in this regard. The factors leading to a cardiac arrest are complex, and a single test is unlikely to reliably predict risk. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac structure, conduction and repolarization along with autonomic modulation appear to be useful in predicting the risk of a cardiac arrest after MI, particularly when assessed in combination. However, randomized trials assessing the efficacy of ICD therapy in patients identified as being at risk are required. Until such data are available, significant LV dysfunction alone and in combination with the induction of VT/VF during invasive testing in the nonacute post-MI period remain the only proven methods to guide prophylactic ICD therapy. PMID:19521570

  20. Noninvasive risk stratification after myocardial infarction: Rationale, current evidence and the need for definitive trials

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Derek V

    2009-01-01

    Despite advances in therapies for myocardial infarction (MI), death attributed to a cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) remains an important problem. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is effective in preventing death from VT/VF, but reliably identifying which post-MI patients would benefit from an ICD remains a major challenge. Beyond the initial post-MI period, the presence of significant left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, alone or in combination with the induction of sustained VT/VF during invasive testing, is the only proven means of selecting patients for a prophylactic ICD. However, these approaches identify only a fraction of those at risk. Furthermore, most patients with significant LV dysfunction after MI have a low, near-term risk of VT/VF. Noninvasive risk stratification tools have been developed to better identify patients likely to benefit from an ICD. To date, none of these tools has been proven useful in this regard. The factors leading to a cardiac arrest are complex, and a single test is unlikely to reliably predict risk. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac structure, conduction and repolarization along with autonomic modulation appear to be useful in predicting the risk of a cardiac arrest after MI, particularly when assessed in combination. However, randomized trials assessing the efficacy of ICD therapy in patients identified as being at risk are required. Until such data are available, significant LV dysfunction alone and in combination with the induction of VT/VF during invasive testing in the nonacute post-MI period remain the only proven methods to guide prophylactic ICD therapy. PMID:19521570

  1. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R. B.; Niaz, M. A.; Agarwal, P.; Beegum, R.; Rastogi, S. S.; Sachan, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    In a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, the effects of the administration of oral L-carnitine (2 g/day) for 28 days were compared in the management of 51 (carnitine group) and 50 (placebo group) patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. At study entry, the extent of cardiac disease, cardiac enzymes and lipid peroxides were comparable between the groups, although both groups showed an increase in cardiac enzymes and lipid peroxides. At the end of the 28-day treatment period, the mean infarct size assessed by cardiac enzymes showed a significant reduction in the carnitine group compared to placebo. Electrocardiographic assessment of infarct size revealed that the QRS-score was significantly less in the carnitine group compared to placebo (7.4 +/- 1.2 vs 10.7 +/- 2.0), while serum aspartate transaminase and lipid peroxides showed significant reduction in the carnitine group. Lactate dehydrogenase measured on the sixth or seventh day following infarction showed a smaller rise in the carnitine group compared to placebo. Angina pectoris (17.6 vs 36.0%), New York Heart Association class III and IV heart failure plus left ventricular enlargement (23.4 vs 36.0%) and total arrhythmias (13.7 vs 28.0%) were significantly less in the carnitine group compared to placebo. Total cardiac events including cardiac deaths and nonfatal infarction were 15.6% in the carnitine group vs 26.0% in the placebo group. It is possible that L-carnitine supplementation in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction may be protective against cardiac necrosis and complications during the first 28 days. PMID:8746285

  2. [Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, L

    2015-12-01

    Although the proofs of the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation accumulate, many patients are not sent to rehabilitation units, especially younger and very elderly patients. As the length of stay in acute care units decreases, rehabilitation offers more time to fully assess the patients' conditions and needs. Meta-analyses of randomised trials suggest that mortality can be improved by as much as 20-30%. In addition, rehabilitation helps managing risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking and sedentary behaviours. Physical training also helps improving exercise capacity. Because of all of these effects, cardiac rehabilitation for post-myocardial infarction patients has been given a class IA recommendation in current guidelines. PMID:26548984

  3. Valsartan after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Güleç, Sadi

    2014-12-01

    One of the important problems of the patients undergoing acute myocardial infarction (MI) is early development of heart failure. It has been revealed in various studies that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has a significant role in this process. The studies conducted with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have resulted in decreased mortality rate. Another RAAS blocker which was discovered about ten years later than other ACE inhibitors in historical process is angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) inhibiting the efficiency of angiotensin 2 by binding to angiotensin 1 receptor. Valsartan is one of the molecules of this group, which has higher number of large-scale randomized clinical studies. In this review, following presentation of a general overview on heart failure after acute MI, the efficiency of ARBs in this patient group will be discussed. This discussion will mostly emphasize the construction, outcomes and clinical importance of VALIANT (VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion), which is the study on valsartan after acute MI heart failure. PMID:25604205

  4. Trauma Induced Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lolay, Georges A.; Abdel-Latef, Ahmed K.

    2016-01-01

    Chest Trauma in athletes is a common health problem. However, myocardial infarction secondary to coronary dissection in the setting of blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. We report a case of acute inferior wall myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma. A 32-year-old male with no relevant medical problems was transferred to our medical center for retrosternal chest pain after being elbowed in the chest during a soccer game. Few seconds later, he started experiencing sharp retrosternal chest pain that was severe to that point where he called the emergency medical service. Upon arrival to the Trauma department patient was still complaining of chest pain. ECG demonstrated ST segment elevation in the inferior leads with reciprocal changes in the lateral leads all consistent with active ischemia. After rolling out Aortic dissection, patient was loaded with ASA, ticagerlor, heparin and was emergently taken to the cardiac catheterization lab. Coronary angiography demonstrated 100% thrombotic occlusion in the distal right coronary artery with TIMI 0 flow distally. After thrombus aspiration, a focal dissection was noted on the angiogram that was successfully stented. Two days after admission patient was discharged home. Echocardiography prior to discharge showed inferior wall akinesis, normal right ventricular systolic function and normal overall ejection fraction. PMID:26490501

  5. An unusual myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Di Michele, Sara; Mirabelli, Francesca; Mankad, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Summary We present a 74-year-old male with a chondrosarcoma, who presented with chest pain. The history, electrocardiogram (ECG), and biomarkers established the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI); angiography did not show coronary atherosclerosis and, both initial transthoracic echocardiogram and chest computed tomography (CT), did not demonstrate any cardiac abnormalities. A second echocardiogram following a routine ECG showed presence of a mass involving the right ventricle and the cardiac apex that was confirmed by chest CT scan. We underline the importance of considering cardiac tumors in the clinical arena of MI management. Learning points Cardiac tumors cause ECG changes similar to ischemic heart diseases.Keep in mind cardiac tumors when performing transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) in the setting of suspected MI.TTE is the technique of choice in detecting cardiac tumors. PMID:26693309

  6. Masquerades of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Bean, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    I summarize these observations in Figure 1. It represents every person in a hypothetical population who has myocardial infarction. A large but unknown number, some believe almost half, never get help. Mobile coronary care units are reducing this group, but so far only a little. When the diagnosis is not understood the disease is not recognized. Then come discovery and popularization. Hereafter masquerades hide some cases and the diagnosis is missed. Somewhere fairly early the diagnostic fad leads to false positive diagnosis. As new techniques are discovered, perfected and mastered, false positive errors and masquerades leading to oversights diminish but still exist. All the skill and technical virtuosity in the world will not be applied if we do not think of the disease. When we think of it, even obscure cases may be resolved easily. PMID:960416

  7. Low High-Density Lipoprotein and Risk of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A; Hu, P P

    2015-01-01

    Low HDL is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. This paper reviews our current understanding of HDL, HDL structure and function, HDL subclasses, the relationship of low HDL with myocardial infarction, HDL targeted therapy, and clinical trials and studies. Furthermore potential new agents, such as alirocumab (praluent) and evolocumab (repatha) are discussed. PMID:26692765

  8. Low High-Density Lipoprotein and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, A.; Hu, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    Low HDL is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. This paper reviews our current understanding of HDL, HDL structure and function, HDL subclasses, the relationship of low HDL with myocardial infarction, HDL targeted therapy, and clinical trials and studies. Furthermore potential new agents, such as alirocumab (praluent) and evolocumab (repatha) are discussed. PMID:26692765

  9. Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Amelia; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Advances in pharmacological treatment and effective early myocardial revascularization have –in recent years- led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it has been suggested that compared to younger subjects, elderly AMI patients are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, including myocardial revascularization therapy. Several reasons have been postulated to explain this trend, including uncertainty regarding the true benefits of the interventions commonly used in this setting as well as increased risk mainly associated with comorbidities. The diagnosis, management, and post-hospitalization care of elderly patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome pose many difficulties at present. A complex interplay of variables such as comorbidities, functional and socioeconomic status, side effects associated with multiple drug administration, and individual biologic variability, all contribute to creating a complex clinical scenario. In this complex setting, clinicians are often required to extrapolate evidence-based results obtained in cardiovascular trials from which older patients are often, implicitly or explicitly, excluded. This article reviews current recommendations regarding management of AMI in the elderly. PMID:22396870

  10. Design and rationale of a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effect of vitamin D on ventricular remodelling in patients with anterior myocardial infarction: the VITamin D in Acute Myocardial Infarction (VITDAMI) trial

    PubMed Central

    Tuñón, José; González-Hernández, Ignacio; Llanos-Jiménez, Lucía; Alonso-Martín, Joaquín; Escudier-Villa, Juan M; Tarín, Nieves; Cristóbal, Carmen; Sanz, Petra; Pello, Ana M; Aceña, Álvaro; Carda, Rocío; Orejas, Miguel; Tomás, Marta; Beltrán, Paula; Calero Rueda, Marta; Marcos, Esther; Serrano-Antolín, José María; Gutiérrez-Landaluce, Carlos; Jiménez, Rosa; Cabezudo, Jorge; Curcio, Alejandro; Peces-Barba, Germán; González-Parra, Emilio; Muñoz-Siscart, Raquel; González-Casaus, María Luisa; Lorenzo, Antonio; Huelmos, Ana; Goicolea, Javier; Ibáñez, Borja; Hernández, Gonzalo; Alonso-Pulpón, Luis M; Farré, Jerónimo; Lorenzo, Óscar; Mahíllo-Fernández, Ignacio; Egido, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Decreased plasma vitamin D (VD) levels are linked to cardiovascular damage. However, clinical trials have not demonstrated a benefit of VD supplements on left ventricular (LV) remodelling. Anterior ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the best human model to study the effect of treatments on LV remodelling. We present a proof-of-concept study that aims to investigate whether VD improves LV remodelling in patients with anterior STEMI. Methods and analysis The VITamin D in Acute Myocardial Infarction (VITDAMI) trial is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 144 patients with anterior STEMI will be assigned to receive calcifediol 0.266 mg capsules (Hidroferol SGC)/15 days or placebo on a 2:1 basis during 12 months. Primary objective: to evaluate the effect of calcifediol on LV remodelling defined as an increase in LV end-diastolic volume ≥10% (MRI). Secondary objectives: change in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, ejection fraction, LV mass, diastolic function, sphericity index and size of fibrotic area; endothelial function; plasma levels of aminoterminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide, galectin-3 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; levels of calcidiol (VD metabolite) and other components of mineral metabolism (fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), the soluble form of its receptor klotho, parathormone and phosphate). Differences in the effect of VD will be investigated according to the plasma levels of FGF-23 and klotho. Treatment safety and tolerability will be assessed. This is the first study to evaluate the effect of VD on cardiac remodelling in patients with STEMI. Ethics and dissemination This trial has been approved by the corresponding Institutional Review Board (IRB) and National Competent Authority (Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS)). It will be conducted in accordance with good clinical practice (International Council for Harmonisation of

  11. Outcomes after thrombus aspiration for ST elevation myocardial infarction: 1-year follow-up of the prospective randomised TOTAL trial

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Sanjit S; Cairns, John A; Yusuf, Salim; Rokoss, Michael J; Gao, Peggy; Meeks, Brandi; Kedev, Sasko; Stankovic, Goran; Moreno, Raul; Gershlick, Anthony; Chowdhary, Saqib; Lavi, Shahar; Niemela, Kari; Bernat, Ivo; Cantor, Warren J; Cheema, Asim N; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Welsh, Robert C; Sheth, Tej; Bertrand, Olivier F; Avezum, Alvaro; Bhindi, Ravinay; Natarajan, Madhu K; Horak, David; Leung, Raymond C M; Kassam, Saleem; Rao, Sunil V; El-Omar, Magdi; Mehta, Shamir R; Velianou, James L; Pancholy, Samir; Džavík, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Two large trials have reported contradictory results at 1 year after thrombus aspiration in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In a 1-year follow-up of the largest randomised trial of thrombus aspiration, we aimed to clarify the longer-term benefits, to help guide clinical practice. Methods The trial of routine aspiration ThrOmbecTomy with PCI versus PCI ALone in Patients with STEMI (TOTAL) was a prospective, randomised, investigator-initiated trial of routine manual thrombectomy versus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) alone in 10 732 patients with STEMI. Eligible adult patients (aged ≥18 years) from 87 hospitals in 20 countries were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) within 12 h of symptom onset to receive routine manual thrombectomy with PCI or PCI alone. Permuted block randomisation (with variable block size) was done by a 24 h computerised central system, and was stratified by centre. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The trial did not show a difference at 180 days in the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or heart failure. However, the results showed improvements in the surrogate outcomes of ST segment resolution and distal embolisation, but whether or not this finding would translate into a longer term benefit remained unclear. In this longer-term follow-up of the TOTAL study, we report the results on the primary outcome (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or heart failure) and secondary outcomes at 1 year. Analyses of the primary outcome were by modified intention to treat and only included patients who underwent index PCI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01149044. Findings Between Aug 5, 2010, and July 25, 2014, 10 732 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to thrombectomy followed by PCI (n=5372) or to PCI alone (n=5360). After exclusions of patients who did not

  12. Thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Woo, K S; White, H D

    1994-07-01

    Thrombolytic therapy has revolutionized the treatment of acute myocardial infarction by reducing mortality and preserving left ventricular function. It is relatively safe and cost-effective. However, it is currently underused in most countries. Patients in whom thrombolysis is indicated include those with ST elevation on the electrocardiogram or bundle branch block pattern who present within 12 hours of myocardial infarction; the indications should be widened to include the elderly, patients who have undergone nontraumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and women during menstruation. The risk-benefit ratio should be assessed for the individual patient. Prehospital thrombolytic treatment has been shown to be feasible with the support of well-trained staff and resuscitation equipment, and may be cost-effective in communities with time delays before hospitalization greater than 1 hour. The most important strategy is to shorten the "door to needle" time in hospital. The importance of full infarct-related artery flow (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] grade 3 flow) for preservation of ventricular function and survival has been documented in the second Thrombolysis Trial of Eminase in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TEAM 2) and the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) studies. Aspirin and heparin are beneficial adjunctive regimens to thrombolytic therapy but optimal epicardial reperfusion is achieved in only about half of patients. Improved thrombolytic, adjunctive antiplatelet, and antithrombotic regimens are required to achieve early full reperfusion, which is crucial to improve survival and quality of life. PMID:7919592

  13. Viewpoint: Central adjudication of myocardial infarction in outcome-driven clinical trials--common patterns in TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO?

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; Atar, Dan

    2012-09-01

    Central adjudication in randomised controlled outcome-driven trials represents a traditional approach to maintain data integrity by applying uniformed rules for assessment of clinical events. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine the patterns of myocardial infarction (MI) adjudication in the TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO trials. We were matching centrally-adjudicated MI's (CAMI's) from the official trial publication with the site-reported MI (SRMI's) count from the Food and Drug Administration's secondary analyses for the investigational compounds prasugrel (TRITON), rosiglitazone (RECORD), and ticagrelor (PLATO). CAMI numbers showed a remarkable discrepancy to SRMI's by more than a doubling of the difference: from 72 to 145 events in TRITON favoring prasugrel (from a hazard ratio [HR]=0.76, p=0.08; to a HR=0.76, p<0.001), and from 44 to 89 events in favour of ticagrelor in PLATO (from a HR=0.94, p=0.095; to a HR=0.84, p<0.001). In contrast, in the RECORD trial, the CAMI count was less than the SRMI count (from 24 to 8 events, from a HR=1.42, p=0.93; to a HR=1.14, p=0.96), in this case diminishing cardiovascular hazards in favour of rosiglitazone. In conclusion, central adjudication in the TRITON, the RECORD, and the PLATO trial turned out to have a critical impact on study outcomes. Trial publications should in the future include site-reported major efficacy and safety endpoints to preserve data integrity. The regulatory authorities should consider independent audits when there is a major disagreement between centrally adjudicated and site reported events influencing the results of a major clinical trial. PMID:22836596

  14. [Prehospital thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Carlsson, J; Schuster, H P; Tebbe, U

    1997-10-01

    The extent of myocardial damage occurring during acute myocardial infarction is time dependent, and there is abundant evidence from most clinical trials that mortality reduction is greatest in patients treated early with thrombolytic agents, although beneficial effects have been shown with treatment initiated up to 12 h after onset of symptoms. All studies on prehospital thrombolysis have conclusively shown the practicability and safety of patient selection and administration of the thrombolytic agent. The accuracy of diagnosis in the prehospital setting was comparable to trials of in-hospital thrombolysis, e.g., in the Myocardial Infarction Triage and Intervention Project (MITI) 98% of the patients enrolled had subsequent evidence of acute myocardial infarction. With regard to time savings, all randomized studies showed positive results. The smallest time gain was observed in the MITI trial: prehospital-treated patients received thrombolytic therapy an average of 33 min earlier than those treated in hospital. In the European Myocardial Infarction Project (EMIP) the difference in time between prehospital and hospital treatment was a median of 55 min. However, none of these trials was able to show a significant short-term mortality difference between the two groups. Only a meta analysis of five randomized studies with a combined median time gain of about 60 min showed a significant 17% reduction in short-term mortality for patients who received thrombolytic therapy in the prehospital phase. In the Grampian Region Early Anistreplase Trial (GREAT), a study performed in a more rural area than other studies, the time gain by prehospital initiation of thrombolysis was a median of 130 min. GREAT was the only study to date reporting a significant mortality benefit for prehospital-treated patients after 3 months and 1 year. In conclusion, prehospital thrombolysis is feasible and safe. Patients with acute myocardial infarction can be correctly identified and treated with

  15. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills for the Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Zhang, Junhua; Yao, Chen; Liu, Baoyan; Gao, Xiumei; Ren, Ming; Cao, Hongbao; Dai, Guohua; Weng, Weiliang; Zhu, Sainan; Wang, Hui; Xu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Boli

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several types of drugs have been recommended for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). However, these conventional strategies have several limitations, such as low adherence, high cost, and side effects during long time use. Novel approaches to this problem are still needed. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness and safety of Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ), a multi-ingredient Chinese patent medicine, for the secondary prevention of MI. Methods and Findings. A total of 3505 eligible patients were randomly assigned to QSYQ group (1746 patients) or aspirin group (1759). Patients took their treatments for 12 months. The final follow-up visit took place 6 months after the end of the trial drugs. The 12-month and 18-month estimated incidences of the primary outcome were 2.98% and 3.67%, respectively, in the QSYQ group. The figures were 2.96% and 3.81% in the aspirin group. No significant difference was identified between the groups. Conclusions. This trial did not show significant difference of primary and secondary outcomes between aspirin and QSYQ in patients who have had an MI. Though inconclusive, the result suggests that QSYQ has similar effects to aspirin in the secondary prevention of MI. PMID:23935677

  16. Usefulness of serum unbound free fatty acid levels to predict death early in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] II trial).

    PubMed

    Huber, Andrew H; Kampf, J Patrick; Kwan, Thomas; Zhu, Baolong; Adams, Jesse; Kleinfeld, Alan M

    2014-01-15

    Circulating total free fatty acid (FFA) levels are elevated early in myocardial infarction (MI) and have been associated with an increase in mortality. We investigated the association of serum unbound FFA (FFAu) levels with mortality in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation MI in the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction II trial. The Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction II trial enrolled patients within 4 hours of chest pain onset. The patients were treated with a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 1 hour of enrollment. The FFAu concentration was evaluated in serum samples from 1,834 patients obtained at baseline, before therapy. The FFAu level was an independent risk factor for death as early as at 1 day of hospitalization and continued to be an independent risk factor for the >3.8 years of follow-up. When adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors, the FFAu levels in the fourth versus the first quartile remained an independent risk factor for death from MI (hazard ratio 5.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 13.0), all cardiac death (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.4), and all-cause death (hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.1). Women were twice as likely to be in the upper 2 FFAu quartiles and had approximately twice the rate of death as men. In conclusion, FFAu elevation is 1 of the earliest molecular biomarkers of mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation MI and was independent of other risk factors known to affect the outcomes after ST-segment elevation MI. PMID:24176067

  17. Myocardial infarction following bee sting.

    PubMed

    Puvanalingam, A; Karpagam, P; Sundar, C; Venkatesan, S; Ragunanthanan

    2014-08-01

    Bee stings are commonly encountered worldwide. Various manifestations after bee sting have been described. Local reactions are common. Unusually, manifestations like vomiting, diarrhoea, dyspnoea, generalised oedema, acute renal failure, hypotension and collapse may occur. Rarely vasculitis, serum sickness, neuritis and encephalitis have been described which generally develop days to weeks after a sting. Acute coronary syndromes after hymenoptera stings and other environmental exposures are referred to as the Kounis syndrome or allergic myocardial ischaemia and infarction. We report a 60 year old male who developed myocardial infarction after multiple bee stings over his body. PMID:25856951

  18. Acute care of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, M. B.; Lee, T. F.; Gin, K.; Ho, K.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with acute myocardial infarct (AMI) need rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of thrombolytic therapy. Patients with suspected cardiac ischemia must receive a coordinated team response by the emergency room staff including rapid electrocardiographic analysis and a quick but thorough history and physical examination to diagnose AMI. Thrombolysis and adjunct therapies should be administered promptly when indicated. The choice of thrombolytics is predicated by the location of the infarct. PMID:8754702

  19. Clinical trials of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) demonstrate no increase in risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death compared with placebo.

    PubMed

    Mittleman, M A; Glasser, D B; Orazem, J

    2003-09-01

    We pooled data regarding myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular death from more than 120 clinical trials of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) conducted from 1993 to 2001. During placebo-controlled trials, the rate of MI or cardiovascular death was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.52-1.48) per 100 person-years (PY) of follow-up among sildenafil-treated patients compared with 0.84 (95% CI: 0.39-1.60) per 100 PY of follow-up among placebo-treated patients. The relative risk of MI or cardiovascular death was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.45-2.77) for sildenafil compared with placebo (p = 0.88). During open-label studies, the rate of MI or cardiovascular death was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44-0.72) per 100 PY of follow-up. This analysis showed that the rates of MI and cardiovascular death were low and comparable between men treated with sildenafil and those treated with placebo. The use of sildenafil was not associated with an increase in the risk of MI or cardiovascular death. PMID:14529061

  20. Effect of Metformin Treatment on Lipoprotein Subfractions in Non-Diabetic Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Glycometabolic Intervention as Adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eppinga, Ruben N.; Hartman, Minke H. T.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Lexis, Chris P. H.; Connelly, Margery A.; Lipsic, Erik; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; van der Harst, Pim; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Metformin affects low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density (HDL) subfractions in the context of impaired glucose tolerance, but its effects in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown. We determined whether metformin administration affects lipoprotein subfractions 4 months after ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). Second, we assessed associations of lipoprotein subfractions with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size 4 months after STEMI. Methods 371 participants without known diabetes participating in the GIPS-III trial, a placebo controlled, double-blind randomized trial studying the effect of metformin (500 mg bid) during 4 months after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI were included of whom 317 completed follow-up (clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT01217307). Lipoprotein subfractions were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at presentation, 24 hours and 4 months after STEMI. (Apo)lipoprotein measures were obtained during acute STEMI and 4 months post-STEMI. LVEF and infarct size were measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results Metformin treatment slightly decreased LDL cholesterol levels (adjusted P = 0.01), whereas apoB remained unchanged. Large LDL particles and LDL size were also decreased after metformin treatment (adjusted P<0.001). After adjustment for covariates, increased small HDL particles at 24 hours after STEMI predicted higher LVEF (P = 0.005). In addition, increased medium-sized VLDL particles at the same time point predicted a smaller infarct size (P<0.001). Conclusion LDL cholesterol and large LDL particles were decreased during 4 months treatment with metformin started early after MI. Higher small HDL and medium VLDL particle concentrations are associated with favorable LVEF and infarct size. PMID:26808474

  1. Acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Domes, Trustin; Szafran, Olga; Bilous, Cheryl; Olson, Odell; Spooner, G. Richard

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of care of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a rural health region. DESIGN Clinical audit employing multiple explicit criteria of care elements for emergency department and in-hospital AMI management. The audit was conducted using retrospective chart review. SETTING Twelve acute care health centres and hospitals in the East Central Health Region, a rural health region in Alberta, where medical and surgical services are provided almost entirely by family physicians. PARTICIPANTS Hospital inpatients with a confirmed discharge diagnosis of AMI (ICD-9-CM codes 410.xx) during the period April 1, 2001, to March 31, 2002, were included (177 confirmed cases). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Quality of AMI care was assessed using guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association and the Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team and Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Quality of care indicators at three stages of patient care were assessed: at initial recognition and AMI management in the emergency department, during in-hospital AMI management, and at preparation for discharge from hospital. RESULTS In the emergency department, the quality of care was high for most procedural and therapeutic audit elements, with the exception of rapid electrocardiography, urinalysis, and provision of nitroglycerin and morphine. Average door-to-needle time for thrombolysis was 102.5 minutes. The quality of in-hospital care was high for most elements, but low for nitroglycerin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, daily electrocardiography, and counseling regarding smoking cessation and diet. Few patients received counseling for lifestyle changes at hospital discharge. Male and younger patients were treated more aggressively than female and older patients. Sites that used care protocols achieved better results in initial AMI management than sites that did not. Stress testing was not readily available in the rural

  2. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Cardioprotection in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Fumiaki, Ikeno

    2016-01-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia of 32–35℃ improved neurologic outcomes in outside hospital cardiac arrest survivor. Furthermore, in experimental studies on infarcted model and pilot studies on conscious patients with acute myocardial infarction, therapeutic hypothermia successfully reduced infarct size and microvascular resistance. Therefore, mild therapeutic hypothermia has received an attention as a promising solution for reduction of infarction size after acute myocardial infarction which are not completely solved despite of optimal reperfusion therapy. Nevertheless, the results from randomized clinical trials failed to prove the cardioprotective effects of therapeutic hypothermia or showed beneficial effects only in limited subgroups. In this article, we reviewed rationale for therapeutic hypothermia and possible mechanisms from previous studies, effective methods for clinical application to the patients with acute myocardial infarction, lessons from current clinical trials and future directions. PMID:26847278

  3. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on risk of myocardial infarction from the use of oral direct thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Artang, Ramin; Rome, Eric; Nielsen, Jørn Dalsgaard; Vidaillet, Humberto J

    2013-12-15

    Dabigatran has been associated with greater risk of myocardial infarction (MI) than warfarin. It is unknown whether the increased risk is unique to dabigatran, an adverse effect shared by other oral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs), or the result of a protective effect of warfarin against MI. To address these questions, we systematically searched MEDLINE and performed a meta-analysis on randomized trials that compared oral DTIs with warfarin for any indication with end point of MIs after randomization. We furthermore performed a secondary meta-analysis on atrial fibrillation stroke prevention trials with alternative anticoagulants compared with warfarin with end point of MIs after randomization. A total of 11 trials (39,357 patients) that compared warfarin to DTIs (dabigatran, ximelagatran, and AZD0837) were identified. In these trials, patients treated with oral DTIs were more likely to experience an MI than their counterparts treated with warfarin (285 of 23,333 vs 133 of 16,024, odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.66, p = 0.005). For secondary analysis, 8 studies (69,615 patients) were identified that compared warfarin with alternative anticoagulant including factor Xa inhibitors, DTIs, aspirin, and clopidogrel. There was no significant advantage in the rate of MIs with the use of warfarin versus comparators (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.34, p = 0.59). In conclusion, our data suggest that oral DTIs were associated with increased risk of MI. This increased risk appears to be a class effect of these agents, not a specific phenomenon unique to dabigatran or protective effect of warfarin. These findings support the need for enhanced postmarket surveillance of oral DTIs and other novel agents. PMID:24075284

  4. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  5. Thrombolysis for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Webb, John; Thompson, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Thrombolysis has an important role in the management of acute myocardial infarction. Early treatment can markedly reduce mortality and morbidity. This new standard of care requires knowledge of accepted indications and contraindications for thrombolysis as well as familiarity with available agents and regimens. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:21221398

  6. Prognostic evaluation by clinical exercise test scores in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis for acute myocardial infarction (a Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 Sub-Study).

    PubMed

    Valeur, Nana; Clemmensen, Peter; Grande, Peer; Saunamäki, Kari

    2007-10-01

    The prognostic accuracy of exercise testing after myocardial infarction is low, and different models have been proposed to enhance the predictive value for subsequent mortality. This study tested a simple score against 3 established scores. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions were randomized in the Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 (DANAMI-2) to either primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis with predischarge exercise testing. Clinical and exercise test data were collected prospectively and were available for 1,115 patients. A simple score was derived, awarding 1 point for history or new signs of heart failure, 1 point for a left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, 1 point for age >65 years in men and age >70 years in women, and 1 point for exercise capacity <5 METs in men and exercise capacity <4 METs in women. This DANAMI score was compared with the Veterans Affairs Medical Center score, the Duke treadmill score, and the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio Della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-2 (GISSI-2) score in multivariate Cox models and receiver-operating characteristic plots. All scoring systems were predictive of adverse outcomes. The DANAMI score performed better, with greater chi-square values (142 vs 53 to 88 for the prediction of death). Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves were compared and were larger for the DANAMI score (C-statistic 0.79 vs 0.71 to 0.74 for the other tests regarding mortality). The DANAMI score stratified patients into a small high-risk group (8% of the population with 43% mortality in 6 years), an intermediate-risk group (13% with 16% mortality in 6 years), and a low-risk group (79% with 4% mortality in 6 years). In conclusion, a simple exercise test score composed of age, METs, heart failure, and a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% seems to outperform the Duke treadmill score, Veterans Affairs Medical Center score, and GISSI-2 score in risk stratifying

  7. Transient myocardial ischaemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Currie, P; Saltissi, S

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of transient myocardial ischaemia were studied in 203 patients with recent acute myocardial infarction by both early (6.4 days) and late (38 days) ambulatory monitoring of the ST segment. Transient ST segment depression was much commoner during late (32% patients) than early (14%) monitoring. Most transient ischaemia (greater than 85% episodes) was silent and 80% of patients had only silent episodes. During late monitoring painful ST depression was accompanied by greater ST depression and tended to occur at a higher heart rate. Late transient ischaemia showed a diurnal distribution, occurred at a higher initial heart rate, and was more often accompanied by a further increase in heart rate than early ischaemia. Thus in the first 2 months after myocardial infarction transient ischaemia became increasingly common and more closely associated with increased myocardial oxygen demand. Because transient ischaemic episodes during early and late ambulatory monitoring have dissimilar characteristics they may also have different pathophysiologies and prognostic implications. PMID:2245108

  8. Efficacy of stem cell in improvement of left ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction - MI3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Velu; Madan, Hemant; Sofat, Sunil; Ganguli, Prosenjit; Jacob, M.J.; Datta, Rajat; Bharadwaj, Prashant; Sarkar, R.S.; Pandit, A.J.; Nityanand, Soniya; Goel, Pravin K.; Garg, Naveen; Gambhir, Sanjay; George, Paul V.; Chandy, Sunil; Mathews, Vikram; George, Oomen K.; Talwar, K.K.; Bahl, Ajay; Marwah, Neelam; Bhatacharya, Anish; Bhargava, Balram; Airan, Balram; Mohanty, Sujata; Patel, Chetan D.; Sharma, Alka; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Mondal, A.; Jose, Jacob; Srivastava, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is characterized by irreparable and irreversible loss of cardiac myocytes. Despite major advances in the management of AMI, a large number of patients are left with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), which is a major determinant of short and long term morbidity and mortality. A review of 33 randomized control trials has shown varying improvement in left ventricular (LV) function in patients receiving stem cells compared to standard medical therapy. Most trials had small sample size and were underpowered. This phase III prospective, open labelled, randomized multicenteric trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy in improving the LVEF over a period of six months, after injecting a predefined dose of 5-10 × 108 autologous mononuclear cells (MNC) by intra-coronary route, in patients, one to three weeks post ST elevation AMI, in addition to the standard medical therapy. Methods: In this phase III prospective, multicentric trial 250 patients with AMI were included and randomized into stem cell therapy (SCT) and non SCT groups. All patients were followed up for six months. Patients with AMI having left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 20-50 per cent were included and were randomized to receive intracoronary stem cell infusion after successfully completing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Results: On intention-to-treat analysis the infusion of MNCs had no positive impact on LVEF improvement of ≥ 5 per cent. The improvement in LVEF after six months was 5.17 ± 8.90 per cent in non SCT group and 4.82 ± 10.32 per cent in SCT group. The adverse effects were comparable in both the groups. On post hoc analysis it was noted that the cell dose had a positive impact when infused in the dose of ≥ 5 × 108(n=71). This benefit was noted upto three weeks post AMI. There were 38 trial deviates in the SCT group which was a limitation of the study. Interpretation & conclusions: Infusion

  9. A Randomized Trial of Deferred Stenting Versus Immediate Stenting to Prevent No- or Slow-Reflow in Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (DEFER-STEMI)

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, David; Oldroyd, Keith G.; McEntegart, Margaret; Haig, Caroline; Petrie, Mark C.; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Owens, Colum; Watkins, Stuart; Layland, Jamie; Lindsay, Mitchell; Peat, Eileen; Rae, Alan; Behan, Miles; Sood, Arvind; Hillis, W. Stewart; Mordi, Ify; Mahrous, Ahmed; Ahmed, Nadeem; Wilson, Rebekah; Lasalle, Laura; Généreux, Philippe; Ford, Ian; Berry, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess whether deferred stenting might reduce no-reflow and salvage myocardium in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Background No-reflow is associated with adverse outcomes in STEMI. Methods This was a prospective, single-center, randomized, controlled, proof-of-concept trial in reperfused STEMI patients with ≥1 risk factors for no-reflow. Randomization was to deferred stenting with an intention-to-stent 4 to 16 h later or conventional treatment with immediate stenting. The primary outcome was the incidence of no-/slow-reflow (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction ≤2). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed 2 days and 6 months after myocardial infarction. Myocardial salvage was the final infarct size indexed to the initial area at risk. Results Of 411 STEMI patients (March 11, 2012 to November 21, 2012), 101 patients (mean age, 60 years; 69% male) were randomized (52 to the deferred stenting group, 49 to the immediate stenting). The median (interquartile range [IQR]) time to the second procedure in the deferred stenting group was 9 h (IQR: 6 to 12 h). Fewer patients in the deferred stenting group had no-/slow-reflow (14 [29%] vs. 3 [6%]; p = 0.006), no reflow (7 [14%] vs. 1 [2%]; p = 0.052) and intraprocedural thrombotic events (16 [33%] vs. 5 [10%]; p = 0.010). Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction coronary flow grades at the end of PCI were higher in the deferred stenting group (p = 0.018). Recurrent STEMI occurred in 2 patients in the deferred stenting group before the second procedure. Myocardial salvage index at 6 months was greater in the deferred stenting group (68 [IQR: 54% to 82%] vs. 56 [IQR: 31% to 72%]; p = 0.031]. Conclusions In high-risk STEMI patients, deferred stenting in primary PCI reduced no-reflow and increased myocardial salvage. (Deferred Stent Trial in STEMI; NCT01717573) PMID:24583294

  10. [Fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Bleifeld, W

    1987-10-24

    Fibrinolysis has opened up a new avenue in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In principle, the rate of reperfusion depends on the type of compound used, the mode of administration and the time between onset of symptoms and the beginning of treatment. With intracoronary streptokinase the reperfusion rate is of the order of 85%. Intravenous urokinase administered as a bolus results in a reopening rate of 50-60%; a similar rate of reperfusion is achieved with rt-PA as infusion, while i.v. streptokinase produces about 50% reopened coronary vessels. The final infarct size is decreased in 70% of patients if fibrinolysis is initiated within 2.5 hours after the onset of symptoms and followed by reopening of the occluded vessel. This results in a lowering of in-hospital mortality, which in various studies is of the order of 45-60%.- Bearing in mind the contraindications, fibrinolysis should be initiated within 3 hours. Hemodynamic improvement by a decrease of infarct size may also be achieved beyond 3 hours in large anterior myocardial infarctions and in posterior infarctions with cardiogenic shock. Early initiation of thrombolysis is of major importance in improving left ventricular function and lowering mortality following acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, prehospital thrombolytic therapy should be considered. - In the postinfarction phase coronary angiography is indicated in patients with angina at rest, stable angina of ECG signs of ischemia. In this situation transfer to a specialized cardiology division for possible percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is indicated. - Reocclusion after successful thrombolysis occurs in 20-30%, and it is therefore important to avoid reinfarction to improve the long term prognosis after AMI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3321420

  11. Infarct Artery Distribution and Clinical Outcomes in Occluded Artery Trial Subjects Presenting with Non ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (From the Long Term Follow-up of the Occluded Artery Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Venu; Ruzyllo, Witold; Carvalho, Antonio C.; Marconi, Jose; de Sousa, Almeida; Forman, Sandra A.; Jaworska, Krystyna; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Roik, Marek; Thuaire, Christophe; Turgeman, Yoav; Hochman, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that the insensitivity of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in identifying acute circumflex occlusion would result in differences in the distribution of the infarct related artery (IRA) between patients with non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) enrolled in the Occluded Artery Trial. We also sought to evaluate the impact of percutaneous intervention to the IRA on clinical outcomes for patients with NSTEMI. Overall NSTEMI subjects comprised 13% (n=283) of the trial population. The circumflex IRA was overrepresented in the NSTEMI group compared to patients enrolled with STEMI (42.5 vs. 11.2%; p<0.0001). The 7 year clinical outcomes for NSTEMI patients randomized to percutaneous intervention and optimal medical therapy versus optimal medical therapy alone were similar for the primary composite of Death, MI and Class IV Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) (22.3 vs. 20.23%, p=0.51, HR 1.20; 0.59-2.43); as well as the individual endpoints of Death (13.8 vs. 17.0%, p=0.51, HR 0.81;0.36-1.85); MI (6.1 vs. 5.1%, p=0.84, HR=1.11; 0.28-4.41); Class IV CHF (6.7 vs. 6.0%, p=0.45, HR 1.50;0.37-6.02). There was no interaction between MI type by ECG and treatment effect (p= NS). In conclusion the occluded circumflex IRA is overrepresented in the NSTEMI population. Consistent with the overall trial results, stable patients with NSTEMI and a totally occluded IRA did not benefit from randomization to PCI. PMID:23351464

  12. Solar activity and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Szczeklik, E; Mergentaler, J; Kotlarek-Haus, S; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M; Kucharczyk, J; Janus, W

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between the incidence of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, the solar activity and geomagnetism in the period 1969-1976 was studied, basing on Wrocław hospitals material registered according to WHO standards; sudden death was assumed when a person died within 24 hours after the onset of the disease. The highest number of infarctions and sudden deaths was detected for 1975, which coincided with the lowest solar activity, and the lowest one for the years 1969-1970 coinciding with the highest solar activity. Such an inverse, statistically significant correlation was not found to exist between the studied biological phenomena and geomagnetism. PMID:6851574

  13. Ventricular Aneurysm Following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M. B.

    1966-01-01

    Cineradiographic examination appears to be the best method for the study of cardiac pulsations. Fifty consecutive patients, who had sustained transmural myocardial infarction at least six months previously, were studied by this technique. Thirty-six had some abnormality of pulsation and eight had dynamic ventricular aneurysm. Six of the eight had suffered severe infarct. Functional recovery in those with aneurysm was not as complete as in the rest of the group. Two made a poor functional recovery, two a fair recovery, and four a moderately good recovery. Clinically, there were no systemic emboli in the patients with dynamic aneurysms. Five of the 50 had persistent ST-segment elevation and “coving” of the T waves; three of these patients had aneurysms. There was no good correlation between the electrocardiographic site of the infarct and the site of the abnormal pulsation. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5928534

  14. [Acute myocardial infarction during sport].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, M; Asakuma, S; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Yasutomi, N; Iwasaki, T

    1995-10-01

    Thirty patients with acute myocardial infarction which occurred during sport were investigated to identify the type of sport, prodromata, situations at the onset of disease, habit of exercise, preceding medical evaluation, coronary risk factors, and coronary angiographic findings. Infarction occurred during golf in 12 patients, bowling in 4, gateball in 4, jogging or running in 5, baseball in 2, and tennis or table tennis in 3. The majority of the patients were playing ball games. Twenty-seven patients were men (90%) and 3 were women (10%). All patients had played the same kind of sport for several years. Twenty-four patients had one or more coronary risk factors, and especially 18 patients smoked cigarettes. Nine patients had experienced anterior chest pain but only two patients had received medical evaluation. Coronary angiography was performed in 25 patients (83.3%), revealing single-vessel disease in 14, two-vessel disease in 6, three-vessel disease in 4, and disease of all left main coronary trunks in 1. The acute episode of infarction occurred mainly in spring or fall. Many patients with acute myocardial infarction occurring during sport participate in sports of low or moderate dynamic and low static exercises which are generally regarded safe. Many patients had enjoyed their sports regularly for a long time. Though many patients had coronary risk factors, only a few had received a medical check before their heart attack. PMID:7500263

  15. Impact of pre-procedural cardiopulmonary instability in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial).

    PubMed

    Brener, Sorin J; Brodie, Bruce R; Guerchicoff, Alejandra; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Guagliumi, Giulio; Xu, Ke; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-10-01

    Rapid reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves survival in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Preprocedural cardiopulmonary instability and adverse events (IAE) may delay reperfusion time and worsen prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between preprocedural cardiopulmonary IAE, door-to-balloon time (DBT), and outcomes in the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in AMI (HORIZONS-AMI) trial. Preprocedural cardiopulmonary IAE included sustained ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia or fibrillation requiring cardioversion or defibrillation, heart block or bradycardia requiring pacemaker implantation, severe hypotension requiring vasopressors or intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Three-year outcomes of patients with and without IAE according to DBT were compared. Among 3,602 patients, 159 (4.4%) had ≥1 IAE. DBT did not differ significantly in patients with and without IAE; however, patients with IAE were less likely to have Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 flow after percutaneous coronary intervention. Mortality at 3 years was significantly higher in patients with versus those without IAE (17.0% vs 6.3%, p<0.0001), and IAE was an independent predictor of mortality, whereas DBT was not. However, a significant interaction was present such that 3-year mortality was reduced in patients with DBT<99 minutes (the median) versus ≥99 minutes to a greater extent in patients with IAE (9.9% vs 20.7%, hazard ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 1.16) compared with those without IAE (5.0% vs 7.2%, hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.95) (p for interaction=0.004). In conclusion, IAE before PCI is an independent predictor of death and identifies a high-risk group in whom faster reperfusion may be particularly important to improve survival. PMID

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an independent predictor of death but not atherosclerotic events in patients with myocardial infarction: analysis of the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Nathaniel M.; Huang, Zhen; Pieper, Karen S.; Solomon, Scott D.; Kober, Lars; Velazquez, Eric J.; Swedberg, Karl; Pfeffer, Marc A.; McMurray, John J.V.; Maggioni, Aldo P.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). However, the impact on mode of death and risk of atherosclerotic events is unknown. Methods and results We assessed the risk of death and major cardiovascular (CV) events associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 14 703 patients with acute MI enrolled in the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction (VALIANT) trial. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CV outcomes. A total of 1258 (8.6%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Over a median follow-up period of 24.7 months, all-cause mortality was 30% in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, compared with 19% in those without. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.02–1.28). This reflected increased incidence of both non-CV death [HR 1.86 (1.43–2.42)] and sudden death [HR 1.26 (1.03–1.53)]. The unadjusted risk of all pre-specified CV outcomes was increased. However, after multivariate adjustment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was not an independent predictor of atherosclerotic events [MI or stroke: HR 0.98 (0.77–1.23)]. Mortality was significantly lower in patients receiving beta-blockers, irrespective of airway disease. Conclusion In high-risk patients with acute MI, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with increased mortality and non-fatal clinical events (both CV and non-CV). However, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease did not experience a higher rate of atherosclerotic events. PMID:19176539

  17. Thrombus aspiration in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Karim D; Zijlstra, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The success of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is often hampered by incomplete microvascular myocardial reperfusion owing to distal embolization of thrombus resulting in microvascular obstruction. To address this problem, thrombus aspiration devices have been developed that can be used to evacuate coronary thrombus either manually or mechanically. Thrombus aspiration has the potential to reduce the local thrombus load, minimize the need for balloon predilatation, facilitate direct stenting, prevent distal embolization, and ultimately improve myocardial reperfusion. Furthermore, thrombus aspiration has enabled us to study coronary thrombus in vivo, and has facilitated recognition of distinct mechanisms of coronary thrombosis. Clinical trials focusing on manual thrombus aspiration in primary PCI have generally shown improved myocardial reperfusion. However, in two large trials powered for clinical end points, no reduction in 1-year mortality or other adverse clinical events was observed with the use of this strategy. Moreover, one of these trials showed a marginally increased risk of stroke. Consequently, current guidelines do not recommend routine use of thrombus aspiration. Future studies should focus on the identification of subgroups of patients with STEMI who might derive benefit from manual thrombus aspiration, and establish the effect of operator performance on the efficacy and safety of the procedure. PMID:26961064

  18. The effectiveness of antioxidant vitamins C and E in reducing myocardial infarct size in patients subjected to percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PREVEC Trial): study protocol for a pilot randomized double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Oxidative stress has been involved in the ischemia-reperfusion injury in AMI. It has been suggested that reperfusion accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct, a part of the damage likely to be prevented.Therefore, we propose that antioxidant reinforcement through vitamins C and E supplementation should protect against the ischemia-reperfusion damage, thus decreasing infarct size. The PREVEC Trial (Prevention of reperfusion damage associated with percutaneous coronary angioplasty following acute myocardial infarction) seeks to evaluate whether antioxidant vitamins C and E reduce infarct size in patients subjected to percutaneous coronary angioplasty after AMI. Methods/Design This is a randomized, 1:1, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study takes place at two centers in Chile: University of Chile Clinical Hospital and San Borja Arriarán Clinical Hospital. The subjects will be 134 adults with acute myocardial infarction with indication for percutaneous coronary angioplasty. This intervention is being performed as a pilot study, involving high-dose vitamin C infusion plus oral administration of vitamin E (Vitamin-treatment group) or placebo (Control group) during the angioplasty procedure. Afterward, the Vitamin-treatment group receives oral doses of vitamins C and E, and the Control group receives placebo for 84 days after coronary angioplasty. Primary outcome is infarct size, assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), measured 6 and 84 days after coronary angioplasty. Secondary outcomes are ejection fraction, measured 6 and 84 days after coronary angioplasty with CMR, and biomarkers for oxidative stress, antioxidant status, heart damage, and inflammation, which will be measured at baseline, at the onset of reperfusion, 6 to 8 hours after revascularization, and at hospital discharge. Discussion The ischemia-reperfusion event

  19. Morphine delays and attenuates ticagrelor exposure and action in patients with myocardial infarction: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled IMPRESSION trial

    PubMed Central

    Kubica, Jacek; Adamski, Piotr; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Sikora, Joanna; Kubica, Julia Maria; Sroka, Wiktor Dariusz; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Buszko, Katarzyna; Navarese, Eliano Pio; Jilma, Bernd; Siller-Matula, Jolanta Maria; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Rość, Danuta; Koziński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Aims The currently available data indicate a drug–drug interaction between morphine and oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, when administered together. The aim of this trial was to assess the influence of infused morphine on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AR-C124910XX) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods and results In a single-centre, randomized, double-blind trial, patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenously either morphine (5 mg) or placebo, followed by a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor. Pharmacokinetics was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and ticagrelor antiplatelet effects were measured with up to three different platelet function tests: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay, multiple electrode aggregometry and VerifyNow. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment was performed in 70 patients (35 in each study group). Morphine lowered the total exposure to ticagrelor and its active metabolite by 36% (AUC(0–12): 6307 vs. 9791 ng h/mL; P = 0.003), and 37% (AUC(0–12): 1503 vs. 2388 ng h/mL; P = 0.008), respectively, with a concomitant delay in maximal plasma concentration of ticagrelor (4 vs. 2 h; P = 0.004). Multiple regression analysis showed that lower AUC(0–12) values for ticagrelor were independently associated with the administration of morphine (P = 0.004) and the presence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (P = 0.014). All three methods of platelet reactivity assessment showed a stronger antiplatelet effect in the placebo group and a greater prevalence of high platelet reactivity in patients receiving morphine. Conclusions Morphine delays and attenuates ticagrelor exposure and action in patients with myocardial infarction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02217878. PMID:26491112

  20. Informed shared decision-making programme on the prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Buhse, Susanne; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Heller, Tabitha; Kuniss, Nadine; Müller, Ulrich Alfons; Kasper, Jürgen; Lehmann, Thomas; Lenz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate an informed shared decision-making programme (ISDM-P) for people with type 2 diabetes under high fidelity conditions. Design Randomised, single-blinded trial with sham control intervention and follow-up of 6 months. Setting Single-centre diabetes clinic providing care according to the national disease management programme in Germany. Participants 154 people with type 2 diabetes without diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or stroke. Interventions The ISDM-P is executed by diabetes educators. Core component is a patient decision aid on the prevention of myocardial infarction supplemented by a 90 min group teaching session. The structurally equivalent control intervention addresses stress issues. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was risk comprehension, including realistic expectations about benefits and harms of interventions. It was assessed by a 12-item questionnaire after the teaching session when patients set and prioritise their treatment goals. Key secondary outcome was adherence to treatment goals, operationalised as achievement of individual goals and medication uptake. ISDM-P teaching sessions were video-taped to monitor intervention fidelity. Results 72 of 77 ISDM-P and 71 of 77 control patients completed the questionnaire (score 0–12). ISDM-P patients achieved higher levels of risk comprehension, mean score 8.25 vs 2.62, difference 5.63 (95% CI 4.82 to 6.44), and realistic expectations (score 0–6), 4.51 vs 0.85, 3.67 (3.23 to 4.11). More ISDM-P patients wished to take statins, 59.2% vs 30.4%, 28.7% (12.9% to 44.5%); more prioritised blood pressure control, 51.4% vs 25.7%, and fewer intensive glucose control, 33.3% vs 60%, p=0.002. More ISDM-P patients achieved their glycated haemoglobin goals, 95.8% vs 85.7%, 10.1% (0.6% to 19.5%). Achievement of prioritised goals and medication uptake were comparable between groups. Conclusions The ISDM-P on preventive measures in type 2 diabetes was effective under high fidelity

  1. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Marcelo; Nussbacher, Amit; Liberman, Alberto; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are the leading causes of death in the elderly. The suspicion and diagnosis of ACS in this age group is more difficult, since typical angina is less frequent. The morbidity and mortality is greater in older age patients presenting ACS. Despite the higher prevalence and greater risk, elderly patients are underrepresented in major clinical trials from which evidence based recommendations are formulated. The authors describe, in this article, the challenges in the diagnosis and management of ST elevation myocardial infarction in the elderly, and discuss the available evidence. PMID:22916055

  2. Impact of iodinated contrast injections on percent diameter coronary arterial stenosis and implications for trials of intracoronary pharmacotherapies in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C Michael; Buros, Jacqueline; Ciaglo, Lauren N; Southard, Matthew C; Takao, Shaun; Harrigan, Caitlin; Filopei, Jason; Lew, Michelle; Marble, Susan J; Murphy, Sabina A; Cohen, Mauricio G

    2007-07-01

    Administration of fibrinolytic, antiplatelet, and antithrombotic agents by the intracoronary route may disaggregate clot, but the potential role of the mechanical force of the injection itself in decreasing clot burden has not been studied. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were pretreated in the emergency room (ER) with unfractionated heparin and aspirin in the TITAN-TIMI 34 study were randomized to treatment with eptifibatide in the ER (n = 131) versus after diagnostic catheterization (n = 150). Quantitative coronary angiography was used to assess change in diameter stenosis from time of first contrast injection to injection before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) immediately preceding wire placement down the culprit artery in a matching view. Successful perfusion of the myocardium was assessed after PCI by the presence of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction myocardial perfusion grade of 2 or 3. In patients treated with eptifibatide in the ER, there was a 1.3% absolute improvement in diameter stenosis from the first injection to the injection before PCI (p = 0.02), whereas there was no change in diameter stenosis in patients not treated with eptifibatide in the ER (0.0%, p = NS). Each 1% improvement in percent diameter stenosis during diagnostic injections before PCI was strongly correlated with an open muscle after PCI (adjusted odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.16, p = 0.012). In conclusion, the mechanical force of a contrast injection decreases thrombotic burden in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction pretreated with eptifibatide but not with placebo. Future trials of intracoronary pharmacotherapies should include a control arm in which saline is injected to account for the potential clot disaggregation that occurs as a result of iodinated contrast injections, particularly if the patient has been pretreated with aggressive pharmacotherapy. PMID:17599433

  3. [The latest treatments for myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Ischemic heart disease and its main complication, myocardial infarction, remain the leading cause of death after the age of forty in developed countries. Myocardial infarction is the consequence of a sudden obstruction of a coronary artery by a thrombus. Thrombolysis and coronary angioplasty are the two emergency coronary artery revascularisation techniques. A medication-based treatment and adapted lifestyle aim to prevent repeat infarction. PMID:26040139

  4. Randomized controlled trial of a self-efficacy enhancement program for the cardiac rehabilitation of Thai patients with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vibulchai, Nisakorn; Thanasilp, Sureeporn; Preechawong, Sunida

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of a self-efficacy enhancement program for the cardiac rehabilitation of Thai patients who had a myocardial infarction. Sixty-six hospitalized patients of various ages and both genders were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. Participants in the experimental group took part in three individualized in-hospital education sessions and three weekly sessions of telephone counseling. The control group primarily engaged in a supervised exercise and activities of a daily living performance regimen, and received education in this regard. Self-efficacy and functional status were measured via questionnaire. Four weeks after discharge, the experimental group was found to have significantly higher total self-efficacy and functional status scores than the control group. In addition, the experimental group exhibited significantly higher subscale scores on social activity, household tasks, occupation, and exercise self-efficacy than the control group. These results indicate that the program is effective in improving the self-efficacy and functional status of Thai patients who have had a myocardial infarction. PMID:26415520

  5. Computational modeling of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sáez, P; Kuhl, E

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step toward simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size. PMID:26583449

  6. Circadian influences on myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Virag, Jitka A I; Lust, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Components of circadian rhythm maintenance, or "clock genes," are endogenous entrainable oscillations of about 24 h that regulate biological processes and are found in the suprachaismatic nucleus (SCN) and many peripheral tissues, including the heart. They are influenced by external cues, or Zeitgebers, such as light and heat, and can influence such diverse phenomena as cytokine expression immune cells, metabolic activity of cardiac myocytes, and vasodilator regulation by vascular endothelial cells. While it is known that the central master clock in the SCN synchronizes peripheral physiologic rhythms, the mechanisms by which the information is transmitted are complex and may include hormonal, metabolic, and neuronal inputs. Whether circadian patterns are causally related to the observed periodicity of events, or whether they are simply epi-phenomena is not well established, but a few studies suggest that the circadian effects likely are real in their impact on myocardial infarct incidence. Cycle disturbances may be harbingers of predisposition and subsequent response to acute and chronic cardiac injury, and identifying the complex interactions of circadian rhythms and myocardial infarction may provide insights into possible preventative and therapeutic strategies for susceptible populations. PMID:25400588

  7. Circadian influences on myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Virag, Jitka A. I.; Lust, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Components of circadian rhythm maintenance, or “clock genes,” are endogenous entrainable oscillations of about 24 h that regulate biological processes and are found in the suprachaismatic nucleus (SCN) and many peripheral tissues, including the heart. They are influenced by external cues, or Zeitgebers, such as light and heat, and can influence such diverse phenomena as cytokine expression immune cells, metabolic activity of cardiac myocytes, and vasodilator regulation by vascular endothelial cells. While it is known that the central master clock in the SCN synchronizes peripheral physiologic rhythms, the mechanisms by which the information is transmitted are complex and may include hormonal, metabolic, and neuronal inputs. Whether circadian patterns are causally related to the observed periodicity of events, or whether they are simply epi-phenomena is not well established, but a few studies suggest that the circadian effects likely are real in their impact on myocardial infarct incidence. Cycle disturbances may be harbingers of predisposition and subsequent response to acute and chronic cardiac injury, and identifying the complex interactions of circadian rhythms and myocardial infarction may provide insights into possible preventative and therapeutic strategies for susceptible populations. PMID:25400588

  8. Strategies to attenuate micro-vascular obstruction during P-PCI: the randomized reperfusion facilitated by local adjunctive therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction trial

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Sheraz A.; McCann, Gerry P.; Greenwood, John P.; Kunadian, Vijay; Khan, Jamal N.; Mahmoud, Islam Z.; Blackman, Daniel J.; Been, Martin; Abrams, Keith R.; Shipley, Lorraine; Wilcox, Robert; Adgey, A.A. Jennifer; Gershlick, Anthony H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Microvascular obstruction (MVO) following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) contributes to infarct expansion, left ventricular (LV) remodelling, and worse clinical outcomes. The REFLO-STEMI trial tested whether intra-coronary (IC) high-dose adenosine or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) reduce infarct size and/or MVO determined by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods and results REFLO-STEMI, a prospective, open-label, multi-centre trial with blinded endpoints, randomized (1:1:1) 247 STEMI patients with single vessel disease presenting within 6 h of symptom onset to IC adenosine (2–3 mg total) or SNP (500 μg total) immediately following thrombectomy and again following stenting, or to standard PPCI. The primary endpoint was infarct size % LV mass (%LVM) on CMR undertaken 24–96 h after PPCI (n = 197). Clinical follow-up was to 6 months. There was no significant difference in infarct size (%LVM, median, interquartile range, IQR) between adenosine (10.1, 4.7–16.2), SNP (10.0, 4.2–15.8), and control (8.3, 1.9–14.0), P = 0.062 and P = 0.160, respectively, vs. control. MVO (% LVM, median, IQR) was similar across groups (1.0, 0.0–3.7, P = 0.205 and 0.6, 0.0–2.4, P = 0.244 for adenosine and SNP, respectively, vs. control 0.3, 0.0–2.8). On per-protocol analysis, infarct size (%LV mass, 12.0 vs. 8.3, P = 0.031), major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio, HR, 5.39 [1.18–24.60], P = 0.04) at 30 days and 6 months (HR 6.53 [1.46–29.2], P = 0.01) were increased and ejection fraction reduced (42.5 ± 7.2% vs. 45.7 ± 8.0%, P = 0.027) in adenosine-treated patients compared with control. Conclusions High-dose IC adenosine and SNP during PPCI did not reduce infarct size or MVO measured by CMR. Furthermore, adenosine may adversely affect mid-term clinical outcome. Clinical Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01747174; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show

  9. Right Ventricular Function After Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Glycometabolic Intervention as Adjunct to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction III Trial).

    PubMed

    Gorter, Thomas M; Lexis, Chris P H; Hummel, Yoran M; Lipsic, Erik; Nijveldt, Robin; Willems, Tineke P; van der Horst, Iwan C C; van der Harst, Pim; van Melle, Joost P; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2016-08-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a powerful risk marker after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has markedly reduced myocardial damage of the left ventricle, but reliable data on RV damage using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are scarce. In a recent trial of patients with acute MI treated with primary PCI, in which the primary end point was left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction after 4 months measured with MRI, we conducted a prospectively defined substudy in which we examined RV function. RV ejection fraction (RVEF) and RV scar size were measured with MRI at 4 months. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and RV free wall longitudinal strain (FWLS) were assessed using echocardiography before discharge and at 4 months. We studied 258 patients without diabetes mellitus; their mean age was 58 ± 11 years, 79% men and mean LV ejection fraction was 54 ± 8%. Before discharge, 5.2% of patients had TAPSE <17 mm, 32% had FWLS > -20% and 11% had FWLS > -15%. During 4 months, TAPSE increased from 22.8 ± 3.6 to 25.1 ± 3.9 mm (p <0.001) and FWLS increased from -22.6 ± 5.8 to -25.9 ± 4.7% (p <0.001). After 4 months, mean RVEF on MRI was 64.1 ± 5.2% and RV scar was detected in 5 patients (2%). There was no correlation between LV scar size and RVEF (p = 0.9), TAPSE (p = 0.1), or RV FWLS (p = 0.9). In conclusion, RV dysfunction is reversible in most patients and permanent RV ischemic injury is very uncommon 4 months after acute MI treated with primary PCI. PMID:27265672

  10. Clinical benefit of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Sirker, Alex; Loke, Yoon K.; Garcia-Dorado, David; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenosine administered as an adjunct to reperfusion can reduce coronary no-reflow and limit myocardial infarct (MI) size in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Whether adjunctive adenosine therapy can improve clinical outcomes in reperfused STEMI patients is not clear and is investigated in this meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods We performed an up-to-date search for all RCTs investigating adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion in STEMI patients. We calculated pooled relative risks using a fixed-effect meta-analysis assessing the impact of adjunctive adenosine therapy on major clinical endpoint including all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Surrogate markers of reperfusion were also analyzed. Results 13 RCTs (4273 STEMI patients) were identified and divided into 2 subgroups: intracoronary adenosine versus control (8 RCTs) and intravenous adenosine versus control (5 RCTs). In patients administered intracoronary adenosine, the incidence of heart failure was significantly lower (risk ratio [RR] 0.44 [95% CI 0.25–0.78], P = 0.005) and the incidence of coronary no-reflow was reduced (RR for TIMI flow<3 postreperfusion 0.68 [95% CI 0.47–0.99], P = 0.04). There was no difference in heart failure incidence in the intravenous adenosine group but most RCTs in this subgroup were from the thrombolysis era. There was no difference in non-fatal MI or all-cause mortality in both subgroups. Conclusion We find evidence of improved clinical outcome in terms of less heart failure in STEMI patients administered intracoronary adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion. This finding will need to be confirmed in a large adequately powered prospective RCT. PMID:26402450

  11. The effect of metformin on cardiovascular risk profile in patients without diabetes presenting with acute myocardial infarction: data from the Glycometabolic Intervention as adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) trial

    PubMed Central

    Lexis, Chris P H; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N A; Lipsic, Erik; Valente, Mattia A E; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; de Boer, Rudolf A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Harst, Pim; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with diabetes mellitus, metformin treatment is associated with reduced mortality and attenuation of cardiovascular risk. As a subanalysis of the Glycometabolic Intervention as adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) study, we evaluated whether metformin treatment in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) without diabetes improves the cardiovascular risk profile. Methods A total of 379 patients, without known diabetes, presenting with STEMI were randomly allocated to receive metformin 500 mg twice daily or placebo for 4 months. Results After 4 months, the cardiovascular risk profile of patients receiving metformin (n=172) was improved compared with placebo (n=174); glycated hemoglobin (5.83% (95% CI 5.79% to 5.87%) vs 5.89% (95% CI 5.85% to 5.92%); 40.2 mmol/mol (95% CI 39.8 to 40.6) vs 40.9 mmol/mol (40.4 to 41.2), p=0.049); total cholesterol (3.85 mmol/L (95% CI 3.73 to 3.97) vs 4.02 mmol/L (95% CI 3.90 to 4.14), p=0.045); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.10 mmol/L (95% CI 1.99 to 2.20) vs 2.3 mmol/L (95% CI 2.20 to 2.40), p=0.007); body weight (83.8 kg (95% CI 83.0 to 84.7) vs 85.2 kg (95% CI 84.4 to 86.1), p=0.024); body mass index (26.8 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.5 to 27.0) vs 27.2 kg/m2 (95% CI 27.0 to 27.5), p=0.014). Levels of fasting glucose, postchallenge glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure were similar in both groups. Conclusions Among patients with STEMI without diabetes, treatment with metformin for 4 months resulted in a modest improvement of the cardiovascular risk profile compared with placebo. Trial register number NCT01217307. PMID:26688733

  12. Clinical disease registries in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Reza; Hussain, Hussain; Brisk, Robert; Boardman, Leanne; Weston, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Disease registries, containing systematic records of cases, have for nearly 100 years been valuable in exploring and understanding various aspects of cardiology. This is particularly true for myocardial infarction, where such registries have provided both epidemiological and clinical information that was not readily available from randomised controlled trials in highly-selected populations. Registries, whether mandated or voluntary, prospective or retrospective in their analysis, have at their core a common study population and common data definitions. In this review we highlight how registries have diversified to offer information on epidemiology, risk modelling, quality assurance/improvement and original research-through data mining, transnational comparisons and the facilitation of enrolment in, and follow-up during registry-based randomised clinical trials. PMID:24976913

  13. Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction by Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-25

    Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI); Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS); ST Elevation (STEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury; Non-ST Elevation (NSTEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Angina, Unstable

  14. Myocardial infarction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Egred, M; Viswanathan, G; Davis, G

    2005-01-01

    Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) hyper-coagulable states; (4) MI related to substance misuse. There is a considerable overlap between all the groups. This article reviews the literature and highlights the practical issues involved in the management of young adults with MI. PMID:16344295

  15. Myocardial infarction size: measurement and modification

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The majority of in-hospital deaths from acute myocardial infarction occur as a result of the “power failure” syndrome (severe congestive heart failure and cardiogenic shock), which results from extensive loss of myocardium. The death of myocardial cells is sequential over many hours. Surrounding the central zone of necrosis in an acute myocardial infarction is a zone of ischemic myocardium whose fate might be altered by interventions during the early phase of the infarction. ST-segment mapping, serial measurement of the serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase and myocardial imaging by means of radionuclides are being developed for the noninvasive assessment of infarct size in animals and humans. A number of interventions appear to limit infarct size in animals. There have been relatively few studies in humans to date, but preliminary results suggest that infarct size might be limited by certain interventions. The research has provided important practical benefits in terms of understanding the course of acute myocardial infarction and the potential effects of conventional therapies. For the present, interventions designed to limit infarct size remain in the realm of clinical research; routine clinical use would be inappropriate. PMID:69481

  16. Does Cardiac Rehabilitation After Myocardial Infarction Favorably Affect Prognosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses the limitations of 14 randomized controlled trials of exercise rehabilitation for patients who sustained myocardial infarction. The difficulty of sampling patients and controlling the sample size is discussed and the benefits of pooled statistical evidence are considered. (JL)

  17. A History of Streptokinase Use in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sikri, Nikhil; Bardia, Amit

    2007-01-01

    A serendipitous discovery by William Smith Tillett in 1933, followed by many years of work with his student Sol Sherry, laid a sound foundation for the use of streptokinase as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The drug found initial clinical application in combating fibrinous pleural exudates, hemothorax, and tuberculous meningitis. In 1958, Sherry and others started using streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction and changed the focus of treatment from palliation to “cure.” Initial trials that used streptokinase infusion produced conflicting results. An innovative approach of intracoronary streptokinase infusion was initiated by Rentrop and colleagues in 1979. Subsequently, larger trials of intracoronary infusion achieved reperfusion rates ranging from 70% to 90%. The need for a meticulously planned and systematically executed randomized multicenter trial was fulfilled by the Gruppo Italiano per la Sperimentazione della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI) trial in 1986, which not only validated streptokinase as an effective therapeutic method but also established a fixed protocol for its use in acute myocardial infarction. Currently, despite the wide use of tissue plasminogen activator in developed nations, streptokinase remains essential to the management of acute myocardial infarction in developing nations. PMID:17948083

  18. Cell therapy for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Yang, Han-Mo; Cho, Hyun-Jai

    2010-05-01

    Ischemic heart disease, particularly acute myocardial infarction (MI), is the worldwide health care problem and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The fundamental treatment of MI remains a major unmet medical need. Although recent tremendous advances have been made in the treatment for acute MI such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and medical and surgical therapies, myocardial cell loss after ischemia and subsequent, adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure are demanding for new therapeutic strategy. Since the first experimental studies of adult stem cell therapy into the ischemic heart were performed in the early 1990s, the identification and potential application of stem and/or progenitor cells has triggered attempts to regenerate damaged heart tissue and cell-based therapy is a promising option for treatment of MI. In this review, we would like to discuss the pathogenesis of acute MI, current standard treatments and their limitation, clinical results of recent stem or progenitor cell therapy which have shown a favorable safety profile with modest improvement in cardiac function, and putative mechanisms of benefits. PMID:24855535

  19. [Thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarct. 1].

    PubMed

    Soares-Costa, J T; Soares-Costa, T J; Gabriel, H M

    1998-05-01

    I-Rationale of thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). II-Thrombolytic drugs. III-Effects of thrombolytic therapy on mortality. IV-Studies comparing the effects of various thrombolytic agents on mortality. PMID:9951051

  20. Action of acetylstrophanthidin on experimental myocardial infarction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, G. T.; Pope, S. E.; Harrison, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental animal model with acute myocardial infarction of a size insufficient to produce profound heart failure or shock was used to study the effects of acute infarction on digitalis tolerance and the hemodynamic changes produced by moderate and large doses of acetylstrophanthidin. With acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxic arrhythmias could be precipitated with significantly lower doses of digitalis than in animals without myocardial infarction. There was no precise correlation between the size of infarction and the toxic dose of glycoside. Coronary artery ligation produced a stable but relatively depressed circulatory state, as evidenced by lowered cardiac output and stroke volume and elevated systemic vascular resistance and left atrial mean pressure. When digitalis was infused, the following significant changes were observed at nontoxic doses: (1) elevation of aortic and left ventricular pressures; (2) further decline in cardiac output; and (3) decreased left atrial mean pressure.

  1. A randomized, open-label, multicenter trial for the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Won; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Youn, Young-Jin; Ahn, Min-Soo; Kim, Jang-Young; Yoo, Byung-Su; Yoon, Junghan; Kwon, Woocheol; Hong, In-Soo; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kwan, Jun; Park, Keum Soo; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Hong, Mun K

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the intracoronary administration of bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may improve left ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, there is still argumentative for the safety and efficacy of MSCs in the AMI setting. We thus performed a randomized pilot study to investigate the safety and efficacy of MSCs in patients with AMI. Eighty patients with AMI after successful reperfusion therapy were randomly assigned and received an intracoronary administration of autologous BM-derived MSCs into the infarct related artery at 1 month. During follow-up period, 58 patients completed the trial. The primary endpoint was changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 6 month. We also evaluated treatment-related adverse events. The absolute improvement in the LVEF by SPECT at 6 month was greater in the BM-derived MSCs group than in the control group (5.9% ± 8.5% vs 1.6% ± 7.0%; P=0.037). There was no treatment-related toxicity during intracoronary administration of MSCs. No significant adverse cardiovascular events occurred during follow-up. In conclusion, the intracoronary infusion of human BM-derived MSCs at 1 month is tolerable and safe with modest improvement in LVEF at 6-month follow-up by SPECT. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01392105). PMID:24431901

  2. A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter Trial for the Safety and Efficacy of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Won; Youn, Young-Jin; Ahn, Min-Soo; Kim, Jang-Young; Yoo, Byung-Su; Yoon, Junghan; Kwon, Woocheol; Hong, In-Soo; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kwan, Jun; Park, Keum Soo; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Hong, Mun K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the intracoronary administration of bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may improve left ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, there is still argumentative for the safety and efficacy of MSCs in the AMI setting. We thus performed a randomized pilot study to investigate the safety and efficacy of MSCs in patients with AMI. Eighty patients with AMI after successful reperfusion therapy were randomly assigned and received an intracoronary administration of autologous BM-derived MSCs into the infarct related artery at 1 month. During follow-up period, 58 patients completed the trial. The primary endpoint was changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 6 month. We also evaluated treatment-related adverse events. The absolute improvement in the LVEF by SPECT at 6 month was greater in the BM-derived MSCs group than in the control group (5.9%±8.5% vs 1.6%±7.0%; P=0.037). There was no treatment-related toxicity during intracoronary administration of MSCs. No significant adverse cardiovascular events occurred during follow-up. In conclusion, the intracoronary infusion of human BM-derived MSCs at 1 month is tolerable and safe with modest improvement in LVEF at 6-month follow-up by SPECT. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01392105) PMID:24431901

  3. Coronary microvascular obstruction in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Scalone, Giancarla; Lerman, Amir; Crea, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    The success of a primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction depends on the functional and structural integrity of coronary microcirculation. Coronary microvascular dysfunction and obstruction (CMVO) occurs in up to half of patients submitted to apparently successful primary PCI and is associated to a much worse outcome. The current review summarizes the complex mechanisms responsible for CMVO, including pre-existing coronary microvascular dysfunction, and highlights the current limitations in the assessment of microvascular function. More importantly, at the light of the substantial failure of trials hitherto published on the treatment of CMVO, this review proposes a novel integrated therapeutic approach, which should overcome the limitations of previous studies. PMID:26364289

  4. [Ventricular Septal Perforation after Inferior Myocardial Infarction].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisashi; Nakayama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Hideya; Takahashi, Baku

    2016-07-01

    We report a rare case of ventricular septal perforation (VSP) after inferior myocardial infarction. Surgical repair of VSP after inferior infarction is technically difficult because of its anatomical location. An 81-year-old female presented with dyspnea on the 8th day after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute inferior myocardial infarction. Echocardiography revealed a ventricular septal perforation. Urgent operation was performed. There was a VSP around the base of the ventricular septum. The myocardial infarction extended to the adjacent muscle of the mitral valve annulus. Two bovine pericardial patches were used in the left ventricular cavity. The patches were sewn on the mitral valve annulus which was the only normal tissue in the region. The 1st patch was used to close the VSP directly, and the 2nd patch was sutured to the normal myocardium to exclude the infracted area. No residual shunt flow was observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:27365060

  5. [Occupational stress and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Consoli, Silla M

    2015-01-01

    Besides the best-known role of depressed mood, occupational stress deserves to be taken as a coronary risk factor. There are two basic models to define occupational stress: Karasek's model (high job psychological demands associated with low decision latitude, or even low social support at work) and Siegrist's model (imbalance between efforts and rewards received). The combination of the two models better reflects the coronary risk than each model alone. Occupational stress appears both as a risk factor and a prognostic factor after the occurrence of myocardial infarction. The relevance of the models is best in men or in younger age subjects. In women, role conflicts (occupational/domestic), the existence of excessive "intrinsic" efforts (job over investment) and association with marital stress provide more specific information. Burnout, particularly among health professionals, and bullying at work are also linked to cardiovascular risk. Occupational stress is a collective indicator of health at work, valuable to the employer. At an individual level, it can lead to therapeutic preventive approaches. PMID:26150284

  6. Molecular genetics of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Nishida, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Myocardial infarction (MI) is an important clinical problem because of its large contribution to mortality. The main causal and treatable risk factors for MI include hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. In addition to these risk factors, recent studies have shown the importance of genetic factors and interactions between multiple genes and environmental factors. Disease prevention is an important strategy for reducing the overall burden of MI, with the identification of markers for disease risk being key both for risk prediction and for potential intervention to lower the chance of future events. Although genetic linkage analyses of families and sib-pairs as well as candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have implicated several loci and candidate genes in predisposition to coronary heart disease (CHD) or MI, the genes that contribute to genetic susceptibility to these conditions remain to be identified definitively. In this review, we summarize both candidate loci for CHD or MI identified by linkage analyses and candidate genes examined by association studies. We also review in more detail studies that have revealed the association with MI or CHD of polymorphisms in MTHFR, LPL, and APOE by the candidate gene approach and those in LTA and at chromosomal region 9p21.3 by genome-wide scans. Such studies may provide insight into the function of implicated genes as well as into the role of genetic factors in the development of CHD and MI. PMID:18704761

  7. Risk stratification after myocardial infarction. Clinical overview

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, R.A. )

    1991-09-01

    Many patients with an acute myocardial infarction can be stratified into subgroups that are at high risk for morbidity and mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics that indicate recurrent myocardial ischemia, persistent left ventricular dysfunction, and/or recurrent cardiac arrhythmias. In patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction the assessment of symptoms, physical findings, and ECG changes during predischarge exercise testing often identifies patients at increased risk for further cardiac events. Because of the suboptimum sensitivity and specificity of the exercise ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging with 201Tl and/or assessment of global and segmental ventricular function by two-dimensional echocardiography or radionuclide cineangiography during or immediately after exercise are often added to the predischarge risk stratification.

  8. Therapeutic hypothermia for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction-combined analysis of the RAPID MI-ICE and the CHILL-MI trials.

    PubMed

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Noc, Marko; Lang, Irene; Holzer, Michael; Clemmensen, Peter; Jensen, Ulf; Metzler, Bernhard; James, Stefan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Omerovic, Elmir; Koul, Sasha; Engblom, Henrik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Östlund, Ollie; Wallentin, Lars; Klos, Bradley; Harnek, Jan; Olivecrona, Göran K

    2015-06-01

    In the randomized rapid intravascular cooling in myocardial infarction as adjunctive to percutaneous coronary intervention (RAPID MI-ICE) and rapid endovascular catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction CHILL-MI studies, hypothermia was rapidly induced in conscious patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. Twenty patients in RAPID MI-ICE and 120 in CHILL-MI with large STEMIs, scheduled for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within <6 hours after symptom onset were randomized to hypothermia induced by rapid infusion of 600-2000 mL cold saline combined with endovascular cooling or standard of care. Hypothermia was initiated before PCI and continued for 1-3 hours after reperfusion aiming at a target temperature of 33°C. The primary endpoint was myocardial infarct size (IS) as a percentage of myocardium at risk (IS/MaR) assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4±2 days. Patients randomized to hypothermia treatment achieved a mean core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion. Although significance was not achieved in CHILL-MI, in the pooled analysis IS/MaR was reduced in the hypothermia group, relative reduction (RR) 15% (40.5, 28.0-57.6 vs. 46.6, 36.8-63.8, p=0.046, median, interquartile range [IQR]). IS/MaR was predominantly reduced in early anterior STEMI (0-4h) in the hypothermia group, RR=31% (40.5, 28.8-51.9 vs. 59.0, 45.0-67.8, p=0.01, median, IQR). There was no mortality in either group. The incidence of heart failure was reduced in the hypothermia group (2 vs. 11, p=0.009). Patients with large MaR (>30% of the left ventricle) exhibited significantly reduced IS/MaR in the hypothermia group (40.5, 27.0-57.6 vs. 55.1, 41.1-64.4, median, IQR; hypothermia n=42 vs. control n=37, p=0.03), while patients with MaR<30% did not show effect of hypothermia (35

  9. Intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol with 80 mg versus 20 mg simvastatin daily in 12 064 survivors of myocardial infarction: a double-blind randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH) Collaborative Group

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Lowering of LDL cholesterol reduces major vascular events, but whether more intensive therapy safely produces extra benefits is uncertain. We aimed to establish efficacy and safety of more intensive statin treatment in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We undertook a double-blind randomised trial in 12 064 men and women aged 18–80 years with a history of myocardial infarction. Participants were either currently on or had clear indication for statin therapy, and had a total cholesterol concentration of at least 3·5 mmol/L if already on a statin or 4·5 mmol/L if not. Randomisation to either 80 mg or 20 mg simvastatin daily was done centrally using a minimisation algorithm. Participants were assessed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 months after randomisation and then every 6 months until final follow-up. The primary endpoint was major vascular events, defined as coronary death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or arterial revascularisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN74348595. Findings 6031 participants were allocated 80 mg simvastatin daily, and 6033 allocated 20 mg simvastatin daily. During a mean follow-up of 6·7 (SD 1·5) years, allocation to 80 mg simvastatin produced an average 0·35 (SE 0·01) mmol/L greater reduction in LDL cholesterol compared with allocation to 20 mg. Major vascular events occurred in 1477 (24·5%) participants allocated 80 mg simvastatin versus 1553 (25·7%) of those allocated 20 mg, corresponding to a 6% proportional reduction (risk ratio 0·94, 95% CI 0·88–1·01; p=0·10). There were no apparent differences in numbers of haemorrhagic strokes (24 [0·4%] vs 25 [0·4%]) or deaths attributed to vascular (565 [9·4%] vs 572 [9·5%]) or non-vascular (399 [6·6%] vs 398 [6·6%]) causes. Compared with two (0·03%) cases of myopathy in patients taking 20 mg simvastatin daily, there were 53 (0·9%) cases in the 80 mg group. Interpretation The 6% (SE 3·5%) reduction in major

  10. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in acute myocardial infarction and ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.

    1982-04-01

    Thallium-201 scintigraphy provides a sensitive and reliable method of detecting acute myocardial infarction and ischemia when imaging is performed with understanding of the temporal characteristics and accuracy of the technique. The results of scintigraphy are related to the time interval between onset of symptoms and time of imaging. During the first 6 hr after chest pain almost all patients with acute myocardial infarction and approximately 50% of the patients with unstable angina will demonstrate /sup 201/TI pefusion defects. Delayed imaging at 2-4 hr will permit distinction between ischemia and infarction. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the size of the perfusion defect accurately reflects the extent of the infarcted and/or jeopardized myocardium, which may be used for prognostic stratification. In view of the characteristics of /sup 201/TI scintigraphy, the most practical application of this technique is in patients in whom myocardial infarction has to be ruled out, and for early recognition of patients at high risk for complications.

  11. Myocardial Infarction: Symptoms and Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Liu, Min; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a term used for an event of heart attack which is due to formation of plaques in the interior walls of the arteries resulting in reduced blood flow to the heart and injuring heart muscles because of lack of oxygen supply. The symptoms of MI include chest pain, which travels from left arm to neck, shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, abnormal heart beating, anxiety, fatigue, weakness, stress, depression, and other factors. The immediate treatment of MI include, taking aspirin, which prevents blood from clotting, and nitro-glycerin to treat chest pain and oxygen. The heart attack can be prevented by taking an earlier action to lower those risks by controlling diet, fat, cholesterol, salt, smoking, nicotine, alcohol, drugs, monitoring of blood pressure every week, doing exercise every day, and loosing body weight. The treatment of MI includes, aspirin tablets, and to dissolve arterial blockage injection of thrombolytic or clot dissolving drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase or urokinase in blood within 3 h of the onset of a heart attack. The painkillers such as morphine or meperidine can be administered to relieve pain. Nitroglycerin and antihypertensive drugs such as beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors or calcium channel blockers may also be used to lower blood pressure and to improve the oxygen demand of heart. The ECG, coronary angiography and X-ray of heart and blood vessels can be performed to observe the narrowing of coronary arteries. In this article the causes, symptoms and treatments of MI are described. PMID:25638347

  12. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Michael; Behringer, Wilhelm

    2008-12-01

    About 17 million people worldwide die from cardiovascular diseases each year. Impaired neurologic function after sudden cardiac arrest is a major cause of death in these patients. Up to now, no specific post-arrest therapy was available to improve outcome. Recently, two randomized clinical trials of mild therapeutic hypothermia after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest showed improvement of neurological outcome and reduced mortality. A broad implementation of this new therapy could save thousands of lives worldwide, as only 6 patients have to be treated to get one additional patient with favourable neurological recovery. At present, myocardial reperfusion by thrombolytic therapy or primary PCI as early as possible is the most effective therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Mild therapeutic hypothermia might be a promising new therapy to prevent reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction, but its use in daily clinical routine cannot be recommended with the available evidence. PMID:19137812

  13. Repetitive Myocardial Infarctions Secondary to Delirium Tremens

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzberg, David; Shiroff, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Delirium tremens develops in a minority of patients undergoing acute alcohol withdrawal; however, that minority is vulnerable to significant morbidity and mortality. Historically, benzodiazepines are given intravenously to control withdrawal symptoms, although occasionally a more substantial medication is needed to prevent the devastating effects of delirium tremens, that is, propofol. We report a trauma patient who required propofol sedation for delirium tremens that was refractory to benzodiazepine treatment. Extubed prematurely, he suffered a non-ST segment myocardial infarction followed by an ST segment myocardial infarction requiring multiple interventions by cardiology. We hypothesize that his myocardial ischemia was secondary to an increased myocardial oxygen demand that occurred during his stress-induced catecholamine surge during the time he was undertreated for delirium tremens. This advocates for the use of propofol for refractory benzodiazepine treatment of delirium tremens and adds to the literature on the instability patients experience during withdrawal. PMID:25197580

  14. Repetitive myocardial infarctions secondary to delirium tremens.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, David; Shiroff, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Delirium tremens develops in a minority of patients undergoing acute alcohol withdrawal; however, that minority is vulnerable to significant morbidity and mortality. Historically, benzodiazepines are given intravenously to control withdrawal symptoms, although occasionally a more substantial medication is needed to prevent the devastating effects of delirium tremens, that is, propofol. We report a trauma patient who required propofol sedation for delirium tremens that was refractory to benzodiazepine treatment. Extubed prematurely, he suffered a non-ST segment myocardial infarction followed by an ST segment myocardial infarction requiring multiple interventions by cardiology. We hypothesize that his myocardial ischemia was secondary to an increased myocardial oxygen demand that occurred during his stress-induced catecholamine surge during the time he was undertreated for delirium tremens. This advocates for the use of propofol for refractory benzodiazepine treatment of delirium tremens and adds to the literature on the instability patients experience during withdrawal. PMID:25197580

  15. Primary coronary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Popma, J J; Chuang, Y C; Satler, L F; Kleiber, B; Leon, M B

    1994-01-01

    In some patients with acute myocardial infarction, thrombolytic therapy may be limited by its failure to reperfuse the occluded artery, by recurrent ischemia (despite initially successful reperfusion), and by major hemorrhagic complications. Primary coronary angioplasty may circumvent these limitations. This article reviews the results of primary angioplasty reported in patients with myocardial infarction and makes recommendations for its use. The review includes pertinent articles found in the English language literature from July 1987 to July 1993 on MEDLINE. Nonrandomized series of primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction have demonstrated high procedural success rates (86% to 99%) and infrequent recurrent ischemia (4%). Two randomized trials comparing primary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy have shown that primary angioplasty results in lower mortality, less recurrent ischemia, shorter length of hospital stay, and improved left ventricular function. Two other randomized studies have shown little benefit from primary angioplasty on myocardial salvage, recurrent ischemia, or ventricular function. One major limitation of primary angioplasty is that it requires 24-hour availability of a catheterization laboratory and experienced surgical personnel. Primary angioplasty may be the preferred approach in patients with extensive myocardial infarction who have immediate (< 120 min) access to a cardiac catheterization laboratory with experienced personnel. Patients having 1) contraindications to thrombolytic therapy, 2) cardiogenic shock, 3) prior coronary bypass surgery, or 4) "stuttering" onset of pain may also benefit from primary angioplasty. Poor candidates for this procedure are those with a small myocardial infarction, those in whom undue delays in access to a cardiac catheterization facility would be expected, or those with complex coronary anatomy, including left main coronary artery disease. PMID:8061539

  16. Recurrent myocardial infarction with patent coronary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, L. J.; Khan, A. H.; Bornheimer, J.; Finck, E.; Tatter, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two separate episodes of severe chest pain occurred several years apart in a 25-year-old male patient with typical clinical findings of acute myocardial infarction with each episode. Cardiac catheterization following the second infarction confirmed the presence of myocardial dysfunction with apical akinesis and dyskinesis. Both coronary arteries were radiologically patent; however, there was evidence of probable recanalization of the right coronary artery. Several months later, the patient developed flank pain, hematuria, progressive renal failure, and cardiac decompensation, and died with intractable arrhythmias. At autopsy, a large apical mitral thrombosis was found and was the presumptive source of multiple systemic emboli. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9195802

  17. Decreased selenium levels in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, F.J.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; de Bruijn, A.M.; Kruyssen, D.H.C.M.; de Bruin, M.; Valkenburg, H.A. )

    1989-02-24

    To study the association between selenium status and the risk of myocardial infarction, the authors compared plasma, erythrocyte, and toenail selenium levels and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase among 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 84 population controls. Mean concentrations of all selenium measurements were lower in cases than controls. The differences were statistically significant, except for the plasma selenium level. A positive trend in the risk of acute myocardial infarction from high to low toenail selenium levels was observed, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors for myocardial infarction. In contrast, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in cases than controls. Because toenail selenium level reflects blood levels up to one year before sampling, these findings suggest that a low selenium status was present before the infarction and, thus, may be of etiologic relevance. The higher glutathione peroxidase activity in the cases may be interpreted as a defense against increased oxidant stress either preceding or following the acute event.

  18. Fractional flow reserve vs. angiography in guiding management to optimize outcomes in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the British Heart Foundation FAMOUS–NSTEMI randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G.; Curzen, Nick; Sood, Arvind; Balachandran, Kanarath; Das, Raj; Junejo, Shahid; Ahmed, Nadeem; Lee, Matthew M.Y.; Shaukat, Aadil; O'Donnell, Anna; Nam, Julian; Briggs, Andrew; Henderson, Robert; McConnachie, Alex; Berry, Colin; Hannah, Andrew; Stewart, Andrew; Metcalfe, Malcolm; Norrie, John; Chowdhary, Saqib; Clark, Andrew; Henderson, Robert; Balachandran, Kanarath; Berry, Colin; Baird, Gordon; O'Donnell, Anna; Sood, Arvind; Curzen, Nick; Das, Raj; Ford, Ian; Layland, Jamie; Junejo, Shahid; Oldroyd, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Aim We assessed the management and outcomes of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients randomly assigned to fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided management or angiography-guided standard care. Methods and results We conducted a prospective, multicentre, parallel group, 1 : 1 randomized, controlled trial in 350 NSTEMI patients with ≥1 coronary stenosis ≥30% of the lumen diameter assessed visually (threshold for FFR measurement) (NCT01764334). Enrolment took place in six UK hospitals from October 2011 to May 2013. Fractional flow reserve was disclosed to the operator in the FFR-guided group (n = 176). Fractional flow reserve was measured but not disclosed in the angiography-guided group (n = 174). Fractional flow reserve ≤0.80 was an indication for revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The median (IQR) time from the index episode of myocardial ischaemia to angiography was 3 (2, 5) days. For the primary outcome, the proportion of patients treated initially by medical therapy was higher in the FFR-guided group than in the angiography-guided group [40 (22.7%) vs. 23 (13.2%), difference 95% (95% CI: 1.4%, 17.7%), P = 0.022]. Fractional flow reserve disclosure resulted in a change in treatment between medical therapy, PCI or CABG in 38 (21.6%) patients. At 12 months, revascularization remained lower in the FFR-guided group [79.0 vs. 86.8%, difference 7.8% (−0.2%, 15.8%), P = 0.054]. There were no statistically significant differences in health outcomes and quality of life between the groups. Conclusion In NSTEMI patients, angiography-guided management was associated with higher rates of coronary revascularization compared with FFR-guided management. A larger trial is necessary to assess health outcomes and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25179764

  19. Molecular Imaging of Healing After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Naresh, Nivedita K; Ben-Mordechai, Tamar; Leor, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The progression from acute myocardial infarction (MI) to heart failure continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Potential new therapies for improved infarct healing such as stem cells, gene therapy, and tissue engineering are being investigated. Noninvasive imaging plays a central role in the evaluation of MI and infarct healing, both clinically and in preclinical research. Traditionally, imaging has been used to assess cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and viability. However, new imaging methods can be used to assess biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. We review molecular imaging techniques for evaluating the biology of infarct healing and repair. Specifically, we cover recent advances in imaging the various phases of MI and infarct healing such as apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and scar formation. Significant progress has been made in preclinical molecular imaging, and future challenges include translation of these methods to clinical practice. PMID:21869911

  20. Effect of the Use and Timing of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Delivery on Left Ventricular Function After Acute Myocardial Infarction: The TIME Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Traverse, Jay H.; Henry, Timothy D.; Pepine, Carl J.; Willerson, James T.; Zhao, David X.M.; Ellis, Stephen G.; Forder, John R.; Anderson, R. David; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K.; Penn, Marc S.; Perin, Emerson C.; Chambers, Jeffrey; Baran, Kenneth W.; Raveendran, Ganesh; Lambert, Charles; Lerman, Amir; Simon, Daniel I.; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Lai, Dejian; Gee, Adrian P.; Taylor, Doris A.; Cogle, Christopher R.; Thomas, James D.; Olson, Rachel E.; Bowman, Sherry; Francescon, Judy; Geither, Carrie; Handberg, Eileen; Kappenman, Casey; Westbrook, Lynette; Piller, Linda B.; Simpson, Lara M.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Loghin, Catalin; Aguilar, David; Richman, Sara; Zierold, Claudia; Spoon, Daniel B.; Bettencourt, Judy; Sayre, Shelly L.; Vojvodic, Rachel W.; Skarlatos, Sonia I.; Gordon, David J.; Ebert, Ray F.; Kwak, Minjung; Moyé, Lemuel A.; Simari, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Context While the delivery of cell therapy following ST segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been evaluated in previous clinical trials, the influence of the timing of cell delivery on the effect on left ventricular (LV) function has not been analyzed in a trial that randomly designated the time of delivery. Objective To determine 1) the effect of intracoronary autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMC) delivery following STEMI on recovery of global and regional LV function and 2) if timing of BMC delivery (3 versus 7 days following reperfusion) influences this effect. Design, Setting, and Patients Between July 17, 2008 and November 15, 2011, 120 patients were enrolled in a randomized, 2×2 factorial, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) of patients with LV dysfunction (LV Ejection Fraction (LVEF) ≤45%) following successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of anterior STEMI. Interventions Intracoronary infusion of 150 × 106 BMCs or placebo (randomized 2:1 BMC:placebo) within 12 hours of aspiration and processing administered at Day 3 or Day 7 (randomized 1:1) post-PCI. Main Outcome Measures Co-primary endpoints were: 1) Change in global (LVEF) and regional (wall motion) LV function in infarct and border zones at 6 months measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 2) Change in LV function as affected by timing of treatment on Day 3 versus Day 7. Secondary endpoints included major adverse cardiovascular events as well as changes in LV volumes and infarct size. Results Patient mean age was 56.9±10.9 years with 87.5% male. At 6 months, LVEF increased similarly in both BMC (45.2±10.6 to 48.3±13.3 %) and placebo groups (44.5±10.8 to 47.8±13.6 %). No detectable treatment effect on regional LV function was observed in either infarct or border zones. Differences between therapy groups in the change in global LV

  1. Myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular septal rupture.

    PubMed

    Sahjian, Michael; Ventriglia, Rich; Bolton, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Transporting patients with an ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a fairly common practice for most critical care transport teams. When a STEMI is complicated by ventricular septal rupture, the care can become more challenging, especially if the rupture is not yet diagnosed. This article describes such a transport and reviews the pathophysiology of the process along with treatment options. PMID:22225564

  2. Rehabilitation of Patients Following Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, James A.; Emery, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines three behavioral strategies in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for formal treatment for physical and psychosocial sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI): exercise therapy, Type A modification, and nonspecific psychological therapies. Concludes CR improves the quality of life among post-MI patients, but does not prolong life or significantly…

  3. Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Hawes, Armani M.; Smith, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    Background The main strategy for alleviating heart disease has been to target individuals and encourage them to change their health behaviors. Though important, emphasis on individuals has diverted focus and responsibility away from neighborhood characteristics, which also strongly influence people’s behaviors. Although a growing body of research has repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between neighborhood characteristics and cardiovascular health, it has typically focused on negative neighborhood characteristics. Only a few studies have examined the potential health enhancing effects of positive neighborhood characteristics, such as perceived neighborhood social cohesion. Methods Using multiple logistic regression models, we tested whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower incidence of myocardial infarction. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study—a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50—were used to analyze 5,276 participants with no history of heart disease. Respondents were tracked for four years and analyses adjusted for relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, biological, and psychosocial factors. Results In a model that adjusted for age, gender, race, marital status, education, and total wealth, each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% reduced odds of myocardial infarction (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.63–0.94. The association between perceived neighborhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction remained even after adjusting for behavioral, biological, and psychosocial covariates. Conclusions Higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective effect against myocardial infarction. PMID:25135074

  4. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Taruttis, Adrian; Wildgruber, Moritz; Kosanke, Katja; Beziere, Nicolas; Licha, Kai; Haag, Rainer; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of a high resolution optical imaging strategy for myocardial infarction. Background Near-infrared approaches to imaging cardiovascular disease enable visualization of disease-associated biological processes in vivo. However, even at the scale of small animals, the strong scattering of light prevents high resolution imaging after the first 1–2 mm of tissue, leading to degraded signal localization. Methods Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) was used to non-invasively image myocardial infarction (MI) in a murine model of coronary artery ligation at resolutions not possible with current deep-tissue optical imaging methods. Post-MI imaging was based on resolving the spectral absorption signature of a dendritic polyglycerol sulfate-based (dPGS) near-infrared imaging agent targeted to P- and L-selectin. Results In vivo imaging succeeded in detection of the agent in the injured myocardium after intravenous injection. The high anatomic resolution (<200 μm) achieved by the described method allowed signals originating in the infarcted heart to be distinguished from uptake in adjacent regions. Histological analysis found dPGS signal in infarcted areas, originating from leukocytes and endothelial cells. Conclusions MSOT imaging of myocardial infarction provides non-invasive visualization of optical contrast with a high spatial resolution that is not degraded by the scattering of light. PMID:25327410

  5. Administration of intracoronary eptifibatide during ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Duane S; Kirtane, Ajay J; Ruocco, Nicholas A; Deibele, Albert J; Shui, Amy; Buros, Jacki; Murphy, Sabina A; Gibson, C Michael

    2005-12-01

    Distal embolization of atherothrombotic material during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion, abnormal left ventricular function, and higher mortality. At high local concentrations, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists have been demonstrated to promote clot disaggregation in vitro. Intracoronary administration of eptifibatide in vivo may increase local drug concentration by several orders of magnitude and promote clot disaggregation with a minimal increase in systemic drug concentrations. We hypothesized that intracoronary administration of eptifibatide before primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction would be safe and would be associated with high rates of normal myocardial perfusion. Clinical and angiographic data were pooled from patients who underwent primary PCI and received intracoronary eptifibatide as part of clinical practice. In-hospital adverse events were collected retrospectively. No deaths, urgent revascularizations, or reinfarctions were observed among the 59 patients who were treated with intracoronary eptifibatide. There were no Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding events. Two TIMI minor bleeding events were noted. Normal TIMI myocardial perfusion grade 3 flow after PCI was noted in 54.4% of patients. No adverse events. including arrhythmias, were noted during intracoronary eptifibatide administration. In conclusion, intracoronary eptifibatide can be administered safely during primary PCI and is associated with few adverse events. Relatively high rates of normal myocardial perfusion were observed after primary PCI with adjunctive intracoronary eptifibatide. Further prospective randomized trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intracoronary eptifibatide. PMID:16310428

  6. Cardiac rehabilitation using the Family-Centered Empowerment Model versus home-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients with myocardial infarction: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Hajiesmaieli, Mohammadreza; Kangasniemi, Mari; Alhani, Fatemah; Jelvehmoghaddam, Hosseinali; Fathi, Mohammad; Farzanegan, Behrooz; Ardehali, Seyed H; Hatamian, Sevak; Gahremani, Mehdi; Mosavinasab, Seyed M M; Rostami, Zohreh; Madani, Seyed J; Izadi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if a hybrid cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme using the Family-Centered Empowerment Model (FCEM) as compared with standard CR will improve patient quality of life, perceived stress and state anxiety of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We conducted a randomised controlled trial in which patients received either standard home CR or CR using the FCEM strategy. Patient empowerment was measured with FCEM questionnaires preintervention and postintervention for a total of 9 assessments. Quality of life, perceived stress, and state and trait anxiety were assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the 14-item Perceived Stress, and the 20-item State and 20-item Trait Anxiety questionnaires, respectively. Results 70 patients were randomised. Baseline characteristics were similar. Ejection fraction was significantly higher in the intervention group at measurements 2 (p=0.01) and 3 (p=0.001). Exercise tolerance measured as walking distance was significantly improved in the intervention group throughout the study. The quality of life results in the FCEM group showed significant improvement both within the group over time (p<0.0001) and when compared with control (p<0.0001). Similarly, the perceived stress and state anxiety results showed significant improvement both within the FCEM group over time (p<0.0001) and when compared with control (p<0.0001). No significant difference was found either within or between groups for trait anxiety. Conclusions The family-centred empowerment model may be an effective hybrid cardiac rehabilitation method for improving the physical and mental health of patients post-MI; however, further study is needed to validate these findings. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT02402582. Trial registration number NCT02402582. PMID:27110376

  7. Role of risk stratification after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kuriachan, Vikas; Exner, Derek V

    2009-02-01

    Despite advances in medical and surgical therapy for patients with heart disease, sudden cardiac death remains an important public health problem that prematurely ends the lives of more than 300,000 persons each year in North America. Many of these deaths occur in patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI). Although severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is used to identify patients at risk of sudden death after MI, most cardiac arrests occur in those with only mild LV dysfunction. Further, severe LV dysfunction is not a specific indicator for cardiac arrest. Risk stratification, to identify patients most likely to benefit from implantable defibrillator therapy after MI, is an essential area of investigation. Because the development of cardiac arrest is complex and likely requires the confluence of several factors, using a single test to predict the risk of sudden death or to guide implantable defibrillator therapy is unlikely to be successful. Tests that assess cardiac structure, including repolarization, and those that evaluate autonomic modulation and other factors have been developed with the goal of identifying patients at highest risk of cardiac arrest after MI. These tests, particularly in combination, appear to identify patients who may benefit from implantable defibrillator therapy after MI. Ongoing and planned randomized controlled trials will assess whether these tests can be used to guide implantable defibrillator therapy. Until the data from these studies are available, severe LV dysfunction remains the only proven approach to guide implantable defibrillator therapy after MI. PMID:19141257

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nakić, Dario; Vcev, Aleksandar; Jović, Albino; Patrk, Jogen; Zekanović, Drazen; Klarin, Ivo; Ivanac, Kresimir; Mrden, Anamarija; Balen, Sanja

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), determine is there a link between H. pylori infection and severity of disease. In this prospective, single centre study, were enrolled 100 patients with AMI and control group was consisted 93 healthy individuals. The results of this study showed no difference between H. pylori seropositivity distribution in the investigate and control group (29 vs. 26 %) and there was no significant difference on the severity of the disease. There was significant association in the patients with three and more risk factors, where the patients with lower blood pressure (124.4/77.4 vs. 145.9/87.7 mmHg) and better controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.1% vs. 6.9%) had greater risk for AMI if they are H. pylori seropositive. The large multicentric trials would be needed to define a precise role of H. pylori infection on the developement of AMI. PMID:22053556

  9. [Family experiences post-acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raquel Pötter; Budó, Maria de Lourdes Denardin; Simon, Bruna Sodré; Wünsch, Simone; Oliveira, Stefanie Griebeler; Barbosa, Mariane da Silva

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the family experiences post-infarction. Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research, carried out with six families of post-infarction patients. Data collection was conducted in families' homes, in the period of February to May of 2012, through observation and interviews with the family. The software Atlas Ti 6.2 was used to code the interviews and the data were explored with thematic analysis. Two categories emerged "Difficult times": immediate consequence of acute myocardial infarction for the families; and "We reeducate ourselves--we can adapt ourselves": current experience of families. The immediate post-infarction experience is permeated by several feelings, with the need for families to adapt to fit into the needs. The current experience shows changes in families due to the disease. The family is the main responsible for the care giving, although Nursing should exchange and share knowledge. PMID:24344600

  10. Outcome of the HORIZONS-AMI trial: bivalirudin enhances long-term survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashish; Feldman, Dmitriy N

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US. For patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), urgent reperfusion of the culprit arterial occlusion, often achieved via primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), reduces post-MI mortality and other major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Adjunctive antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapies are used during PCI to reduce MACE rates. Currently, a variety of antithrombotic options are available for peri-procedural use. The most commonly used agents include unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin ± glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI). These agents reduce the rates of peri-procedural ischemic and thrombotic events, though these benefits come at the cost of an increase in bleeding complications. Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor with a short half-life and linear pharmacokinetics, which results in predictable serum concentrations and anticoagulant effect. Bivalirudin has emerged as an efficacious and safe alternative to heparin plus GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in both stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome patients. In the HORIZONS-AMI trial, monotherapy with bivalirudin was compared with the combination of heparin and a GPI in a large population of patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. Bivalirudin treatment was associated with improved event-free survival at 30 days and reduced rates of major bleeding. Based on the results of the trial, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology guidelines have incorporated recommendations for bivalirudin use in the setting of STEMI. Recently, 3-year follow-up data from the HORIZONS-AMI cohort were published, demonstrating sustained benefits in patients treated with bivalirudin, including reduced rates of mortality, cardiovascular mortality, reinfarction, and major bleeding events. These results further support the use of bivalirudin in the

  11. The Nurse-Led Telephone Follow-Up on Medication and Dietary Adherence among Patients after Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Seyed Saeed; Shaabani, Maryam; Momennassab, Marzieh; Aghasadeghi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adherence to dietary and medication regimen plays an important role in successful treatment and reduces the negative complications and severity of the disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of nurse-led telephone follow-up on the level of adherence to dietary and medication regimen among patients after Myocardial Infarction (MI). Methods: This non-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 100 elderly patients with MI who had referred to the cardiovascular clinics in Shiraz. Participants were selected and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups using balanced block randomization method. The intervention group received a nurse-led telephone follow-up. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Morisky’s 8-item medication adherence questionnaire, and dietary adherence questionnaire before and three months after the intervention. Data analysis was done by the SPSS statistical software (version 21), using paired t-test for intra-group and Chi-square and t-test for between groups comparisons. Significance level was set at<0.05. Results: The results of Chi-square test showed no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups with respect to their adherence to dietary and medication regimen before the intervention (P>0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in this regard after the intervention (P<0.05). The mean differences of dietary and medication adherence scores between pre- and post-tests were significantly different between the two groups. Independent t-test showed these differences (P=0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study confirmed the positive effects of nurse-led telephone follow-up as a method of tele-nursing on improvement of adherence to dietary and medication regimen in the patients with MI. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201409148505N8 PMID:27382586

  12. Efficacy of long-term anticoagulant treatment in subgroups of patients after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, P. F.; Deckers, J. W.; Jonker, J. J.; van Domburg, R. T.; Azar, A. J.; Hofman, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the efficacy of long term oral anticoagulant treatment in subgroups of patients after myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Analysis of the effect of anticoagulant treatment in subgroups of hospital survivors of myocardial infarction based upon age, gender, history of hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, Killip class, anterior location of infarction, thrombolytic therapy, and use of beta blockers. SUBJECTS--Participants of a multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial that assessed the effect of oral anticoagulant treatment on mortality as well as cerebrovascular and cardiovascular morbidity in 3404 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The effect of anticoagulant treatment on recurrent myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, and vascular events (the composite endpoint of reinfarction, cerebrovascular event, and vascular death). RESULTS--Long term anticoagulant treatment was associated with a reduction in mortality of 10% (95% confidence interval -11% to 27%), recurrent myocardial infarction of 53% (41% to 62%), cerebrovascular events of 40% (10% to 60%) and vascular events of 35% (24% to 45%). Treatment effect with respect to recurrent myocardial infarction was comparable among all subgroups of patients. Although treatment effect appeared to be somewhat smaller in females than in males (-11% v -45%), and in patients with diabetes compared to those without (-14% v -42%) with respect to vascular events, none of these differences reached statistical significance. In multivariate analysis, more advanced age, previous myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, and heart failure during admission were independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular complications. CONCLUSIONS--The relative benefit of long term anticoagulant therapy in survivors of myocardial infarction is not modified by known prognostic factors for

  13. How reliable is myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Willerson, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphic techniques available presently allow a sensitive and relatively specific diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction when they are used correctly, although every technique has definite limitations. Small myocardial infarcts (less than 3 gm.) may be missed, and there are temporal limitations in the usefulness of the scintigraphic techniques. The development of tomographic methodology that may be used with single-photon radionuclide emitters (including technetium and /sup 201/Tl will allow the detection of relatively small abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and regions of myocardial infarction and will help to provide a more objective interpretation of the myocardial scintigrams. The use of overlay techniques allowing simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion, infarct-avid imaging, and radionuclide ventriculograms will provide insight into the relevant aspects of the extent of myocardial damage, the relationship of damage to myocardial perfusion, and the functional impact of myocardial infarction on ventricular performance.

  14. Prophylactic lidocaine in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S L; Geiderman, J M; Bernstein, I J

    1979-06-01

    The incidence of serious ventricular arrhythmias following acute myocardial infarction is highest during the first few hours after injury, and thereafter declines. Several investigations into the prophylactic use of lidocaine to prevent the development of arrhythmias have shown that lidocaine, given in therapeutic doses, is effective in preventing ventricular fibrillation and in reducing early mortality. Lidocaine was found to be effective when given either by the intravenous or by the intramuscular routes. The recommended dosage is 100 mg given as an intravenous bolus followed by 2 to 4 mg/min as an infusion, which should be given by infusion pump. Another recommendation is to use two 100 mg boluses 20 minutes apart, along with the same infusion. We recommend that lidocaine be started as soon as possible in all patients suspected of having suffered acute myocardial infarction. PMID:449144

  15. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary. PMID:26998366

  16. Painless acute myocardial infarction on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa

    2016-01-01

    An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery. PMID:26989121

  17. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Kavita; Hiremath, Shirish; Lakade, Sachin; Davakhar, Sudarshan

    2015-11-01

    A 28 year old male, known case of nephrotic syndrome since 12 years, hypertensive presented with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and accelerated hypertension. Coronary angiography revealed 100% thrombotic occlusion of mid left anterior descending artery, treated with thrombus aspiration and intracoronary tirofiban and nitroglycerine. He was stabilized within 24 hours. The pathogenesis of AMI in nephrotic syndrome has been discussed with this case report. PMID:27608787

  18. Myocardial infarction: management of the subacute period.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Michael G; Smith, Dustin K; McConnon, Michael L

    2013-11-01

    Optimal management of myocardial infarction in the subacute period focuses on improving the discharge planning process, implementing therapies early to prevent recurrent myocardial infarction, and avoiding hospital readmission. Evidence-based guidelines for the care of patients with acute coronary syndrome are not followed up to 25% of the time. Antiplatelet therapy, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, beta blockers, and statins constitute the foundation of medical therapy. Early noninvasive stress testing is an important risk assessment tool, especially in patients who do not undergo revascularization. Discharge preparation should include a review of medications, referral for exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation, activity recommendations, education about lifestyle modification and recognition of cardiac symptoms, and a clear follow-up plan. Because nonadherence to medications is common in patients after a myocardial infarction and is associated with increased mortality risk, modifiable factors associated with medication self-discontinuation should be addressed before discharge. Structured discharge processes should be used to enhance communication and facilitate the transition from the hospital to the family physician's care. PMID:24364634

  19. [Mosaic portrait method in the prognosis of myocardial infarct complications].

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, G M; Ardashev, V N; Kats, M D; Galkina, T A

    1981-06-01

    A mosaic portrait of variants of the course of myocardial infarction differing in the clinical picture of the first days of the disease was created by means of methods of Boolean algebra and electronic computers. A total of 354 patients with transmural myocardial infarction were examined., The created models allow the development of some complications of myocardial infarction to be prognosticated exact within 90%. PMID:7021950

  20. Incidence of myocardial infarction and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, Henning

    1982-08-01

    Extreme values of temperature and/or humidity in the temperate climate of Hamburg are not able to explain the influence of weather on day-to-day fluctuations of morbidity. Short term changes in weather are described by two objective classifications as deviation from the meteorological past: 1. the temperature-humidity-environment, derived from values of temperature and water vapour pressure at 07.00 h, 2. changes in the cyclonality, derived from the difference of 500 and 850 mbar vorticity values. Their suitability for human biometeorology is illustrated with a material of 1262 subjects who suffered from acute myocardial infarction. For these investigated cases it was known whether angina pectoris was already manifest before the infarction or not. The daily weather conditions have a significant effect on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction according to angina pectoris. Compared to subjects with angina pectoris those without angina pectoris show an increased susceptibility to infarction during changes in weather conditions to warmer/more humid and also during all strong changes in the cyclonality whereby the temperature-humidity-environment seems to leave only the role of an indicator too. Persons with a preceeding angina pectoris are more sensitive agains rapid changes in weather conditions.

  1. Myocardial infarction--fusion or confusion?

    PubMed

    Ardhanari, Sivakumar; Shah, Ashok J; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2009-09-01

    A patient with a dualchamber pacemaker with dynamic atrioventricular delay (AVD) experienced acute substernal chest pain. The rhythm strip in the ambulance showed intermittent ST elevation in the inferior leads. An emergent cardiac catheterization revealed nonobstructive coronary artery disease. Rate-responsive dual-chamber pacing with dynamic AVD was responsible for varying devvgrees of ventricular fusion due to competition with the patient's normal conduction. Intermittent ST elevation, evident only during ventricular fusion should have suggested secondary ventricular repolarization and not myocardial injury, but concomitant chest pain and inconspicuous bipolar pacing artifacts added to the confusion. Ventricular pacing may not only mask acute ST-T changes due to myocardial injury, but can also mimic acute myocardial infarction. PMID:19726827

  2. Type 2 myocardial infarction: the chimaera of cardiology?

    PubMed

    Collinson, Paul; Lindahl, Bertil

    2015-11-01

    The term type 2 myocardial infarction first appeared as part of the universal definition of myocardial infarction. It was introduced to cover a group of patients who had elevation of cardiac troponin but did not meet the traditional criteria for acute myocardial infarction although they were considered to have an underlying ischaemic aetiology for the myocardial damage observed. Since first inception, the term type 2 myocardial infarction has always been vague. Although attempts have been made to produce a systematic definition of what constitutes a type 2 myocardial infarction, it has been more often characterised by what it is not rather than what it is. Clinical studies that have used type 2 myocardial infarction as a diagnostic criterion have produced disparate incidence figures. The range of associated clinical conditions differs from study to study. Additionally, there are no agreed or evidence-based treatment strategies for type 2 myocardial infarction. The authors believe that the term type 2 myocardial infarction is confusing and not evidence-based. They consider that there is good reason to stop using this term and consider instead the concept of secondary myocardial injury that relates to the underlying pathophysiology of the primary clinical condition. PMID:26220812

  3. The prognostic importance of left ventricular function in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the HORIZONS-AMI trial

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Vivian G; Meller, Stephanie; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Guagliumi, Giulio; Peruga, Jan Z; Brodie, Bruce; Shah, Ruchit; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction during and after hospitalization for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with increased mortality. Whether baseline LV dysfunction impacts STEMI outcomes is not well studied. Furthermore, whether bivalirudin and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) are beneficial in patients with LV dysfunction is unknown. We studied the impact of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on outcomes of patients with STEMI in the HORIZONS-AMI trial. Methods: LVEF was determined in 2648 (73.5%) of 3602 enrolled STEMI patients, who were divided into three groups according to LV function: (1) severely impaired (LVEF <40%); (2) moderately impaired (LVEF 40–50%); and (3) normal (LVEF ≥50%). Results: Compared to patients with normal LV function, those with severely impaired LVEF had higher 1-year rates of net adverse clinical events (27.1 vs. 14.2%, p<0.0001), major adverse cardiovascular events (20.7 vs. 9.5%, p<0.0001), cardiac death (10.6 vs. 1.2%, p<0.0001), and non-coronary artery bypass graft major bleeding (12.5 vs. 6.6%, p=0.001), differences which persisted after adjustment for baseline characteristics. Among patients with LVEF <40%, treatment with bivalirudin compared to heparin+GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors resulted in reduced 1-year mortality (5.8 vs. 18.3%, p=0.007). Patients with LVEF <40% receiving PES rather than bare metal stents had lower rates of 1-year ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularization (2.9 vs. 12.6%, p=0.02) and reinfarction (4.5 vs. 14.7%, p=0.03). Conclusions: Among patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, adverse events are markedly increased in those with LVEF <40% during the index revascularization procedure. Nevertheless, these high-risk patients experience substantial clinical benefits from bivalirudin and PES. PMID:24562805

  4. Impact of a thrombolysis research trial on time to treatment for acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Boisjolie, C R; Sharkey, S W; Cannon, C P; Brunette, D; Haugland, J M; Thatcher, J L; Henry, T D

    1995-08-15

    Because time to treatment in AMI is a critical factor in long-term outcome, it is important that complex trials designed to improve reperfusion therapy do not delay the time to treatment. Participation in the TIMI 5 trial did not significantly prolong our door-to-needle time. These results indicate that, if done carefully, complex, labor-intensive studies can be performed within a reasonable time limit. Care should be taken to design protocols incorporating easy drug preparation, informed consent by the ED, and efficiency of trial initiation. PMID:7639167

  5. Dabigatran Etexilate and Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Other Cardiovascular Events, Major Bleeding, and All‐Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Douxfils, Jonathan; Buckinx, Fanny; Mullier, François; Minet, Valentine; Rabenda, Véronique; Reginster, Jean‐Yves; Hainaut, Philippe; Bruyère, Olivier; Dogné, Jean‐Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background Signals of an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have been identified with dabigatran etexilate in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods and Resules We conducted searches of the published literature and a clinical trials registry maintained by the drug manufacturer. Criteria for inclusion in our meta‐analysis included all RCTs and the availability of outcome data for MI, other cardiovascular events, major bleeding, and all‐cause mortality. Among the 501 unique references identified, 14 RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Stratification analyses by comparators and doses of dabigatran etexilate were conducted. Peto odds ratio (ORPETO) values using the fixed‐effect model (FEM) for MI, other cardiovascular events, major bleeding, and all‐cause mortality were 1.34 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.65, P=0.007), 0.93 (95%CI 0.83 to 1.06, P=0.270), 0.88 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.99, P=0.029), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00, P=0.041). When compared with warfarin, ORPETO values using FEM were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.80, P=0.005), 0.94 (95%CI 0.83 to 1.06, P=0.293), 0.85 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.96, P=0.007), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.01, P=0.061), respectively. In RCTs using the 150‐mg BID dosage, the ORPETO values using FEM were 1.45 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.91, P=0.007), 0.95 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.09, P=0.423), 0.92 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.05, P=0.228), and 0.88 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.00, P=0.045), respectively. The results of the 110‐mg BID dosage were mainly driven by the RE‐LY trial. Conclusions This meta‐analysis provides evidence that dabigatran etexilate is associated with a significantly increased risk of MI. This increased risk should be considered taking into account the overall benefit in terms of major bleeding and all‐cause mortality. PMID:24906369

  6. [Myocardial infarction: Role of new antiplatelet agents].

    PubMed

    Silvain, Johanne; Bellemain, Anne; Ecollan, Patrick; Montalescot, Gilles; Collet, Jean-Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Thienopyridines have become the cornerstone of treatment of percutaneous coronary intervention although no survival benefit has ever been shown with clopidogrel despite increasing loading doses. Newly developed P2Y(12) inhibitors are more potent, more predictable and have a faster onset of action than clopidogrel, characteristics that make them particularly attractive for high-risk PCI. Four new P2Y(12) inhibitors have been tested each of them having particular individual properties. Prasugrel is an oral prodrug leading to irreversible blockade of the P2Y(12) receptor and is approved worldwide for ACS PCI. Ticagrelor is a direct-acting and reversible inhibitor of the P2Y(12) receptor with potentially more pleiotropic effects. Cangrelor is an intravenous direct and reversible inhibitor of the P2Y(12) receptor providing the highest level of inhibition and elinogrel is an intravenous and oral P2Y(12) antagonist with a direct and reversible action. Both prasugrel and ticagrelor, opposed to clopidogrel, have shown that stronger P2Y(12) inhibition led respectively to significant 19 % and 16 % relative risk reduction of a similar primary endpoint combining cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Both drugs showed a significant 0.6 % absolute excess of TIMI major bleeding not related to CABG surgery. The effect of these new compounds is prompt, predictable and powerful as compared to clopidogrel. Their net benefit is particularly marked in PCI for STEMI patients, in which there is no significant increase in major bleeding when compared with clopidogrel. However, because in clinical trials patients perceived to be at higher risk for bleeding usually are excluded, the risk of major and even fatal bleeding might even be higher in a "real-world" setting i.e. in the elderly patient with comorbidities. PMID:21511430

  7. No reflow phenomenon in percutaneous coronary interventions in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjiv; Gupta, Madan Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is effective in opening the infarct related artery and restoring thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow 3 (TIMI-flow 3) in large majority of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However there remain a small but significant proportion of patients, who continue to manifest diminished myocardial reperfusion despite successful opening of the obstructed epicardial artery. This phenomenon is called no-reflow. Clinically it manifests with recurrence of chest pain and dyspnea and may progress to cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, serious arrhythmias and acute heart failure. No reflow is regarded as independent predictor of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. No reflow is a multi-factorial phenomenon. However micro embolization of atherothrombotic debris during PCI remains the principal mechanism responsible for microvascular obstruction. This review summarizes the pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and the results of various recent randomized trials and studies on the prevention and management of no-reflow. PMID:27543480

  8. Intracoronary administration of anisodamine and nicorandil in individuals undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute inferior myocardial infarction: A randomized factorial trial

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHUNHONG; FU, XIANGHUA; LI, WEI; JIA, XINWEI; BAI, SHIRU; GENG, WEI; XING, KUN

    2015-01-01

    In acute inferior myocardial infarction (AIMI), numerous conventional drugs that are used to improve the myocardial microcirculation can significantly reduce blood pressure (BP) and coronary perfusion pressure, aggravate bradyarrhythmia and cause a deterioration in the hemodynamic state of the whole body, which greatly limits the application of these drugs in clinical settings. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of anisodamine and nicorandil regimens on the prevention of no-reflow (NR) and the amelioration of myocardial reperfusion in patients with AIMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 104 consecutive patients with AIMI were included in this study and randomly assigned to one of four groups: A (control group), B (anisodamine group), C (nicorandil group) and D (anisodamine and nicorandil group). Patients underwent PCI via transradial artery access and the angiographic results were evaluated. Coronary diastolic BP (DBP) and systolic and mean BPs were measured by invasive catheterization. The primary end-point was a post-PCI Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) of 3. Composite end-points (mortality + new MI + target vessel revascularization) were evaluated during the hospital stay and 30 days after discharge. Following the procedure, the proportion of patients achieving TMPG 3 was significantly higher in group D than that in the other groups (P=0.014); furthermore, the incidence of a postprocedural TIMI score of 3 was the highest in group D. Three days after the procedure, the peak creatine kinase-MB and cardiac troponin I levels were the lowest and the left ventricular ejection fraction was the highest in group D. A thrombus score of 3/4 and low DBP were the independent risk factors for poor myocardial reperfusion (expressed as TMPG <3), while 2 mg anisodamine plus 2 mg nicorandil prior to PCI was protective for optimal myocardial reperfusion following the procedure

  9. Clinical, functional, and angiographic distinctions between Q wave and non-Q wave myocardial infarction: evidence of spontaneous reperfusion and implications for intervention trials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    We prospectively evaluated 241 consecutive patients with creatine kinase (MB fraction)-confirmed acute myocardial infarction with predischarge quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy, coronary angiography, radionuclide ventriculography, and 24 hr Holter monitoring. Based on serial electrocardiograms, 154 patients had Q wave (QMI) and 87 had non-Q wave (NQMI) infarction. Despite less myocardial necrosis and better left ventricular function, the NQMI group had the same long-term survival as the QMI group. During 27 months of follow-up, patients with NQMI experienced more reinfarctions (p = .009), had a higher rate of unstable angina pectoris requiring rehospitalization (p = .034), and had a greater likelihood of subsequent bypass surgery or angioplasty (p = .018). Based on our thallium scintigraphic data, the greater clinical instability after NQMI appeared to be related to the presence of a larger residual mass of viable but jeopardized myocardium within the perfusion zone of the infarct-related vessel. Our results also indicate that the pathogenesis of NQMI may involve early spontaneous reperfusion and that patients with NQMI can experience sudden death despite well-preserved left ventricular function.

  10. An evidence-based shared decision making programme on the prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of patient involvement in decision making has been suggested as one reason for limited treatment success. Concepts such as shared decision making may contribute to high quality healthcare by supporting patients to make informed decisions together with their physicians. A multi-component shared decision making programme on the prevention of heart attack in type 2 diabetes has been developed. It aims at improving the quality of decision-making by providing evidence-based patient information, enhancing patients’ knowledge, and supporting them to actively participate in decision-making. In this study the efficacy of the programme is evaluated in the setting of a diabetes clinic. Methods/Design A single blinded randomised-controlled trial is conducted to compare the shared decision making programme with a control-intervention. The intervention consists of an evidence-based patient decision aid on the prevention of myocardial infarction and a corresponding counselling module provided by diabetes educators. Similar in duration and structure, the control-intervention targets nutrition, sports, and stress coping. A total of 154 patients between 40 and 69 years of age with type 2 diabetes and no previous diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or stroke are enrolled and allocated either to the intervention or the control-intervention. Primary outcome measure is the patients’ knowledge on benefits and harms of heart attack prevention captured by a standardised knowledge test. Key secondary outcome measure is the achievement of treatment goals prioritised by the individual patient. Treatment goals refer to statin taking, HbA1c-, blood pressure levels and smoking status. Outcomes are assessed directly after the counselling and at 6 months follow-up. Analyses will be carried out on intention-to-treat basis. Concurrent qualitative methods are used to explore intervention fidelity and to gain insight into implementation processes. Discussion Interventions to

  11. [Therapy of acute myocardial infarction in the prehospital setting].

    PubMed

    Arntz, H R

    2008-09-01

    The time period from symptom onset to hospital admission is of outstanding importance for the prognosis of a patient with an acute myocardial infarction. He is threatened by sudden cardiac death triggered by ventricular fibrillation on the one hand and on the other hand this period offers the chance for a timely decision on the optimal reperfusion strategy. A broad spectrum of therapeutic opportunities regarding thrombolysis, antiplatelets and anticoagulation has been proven to be effective in large randomised trials and registries. These results should influence the individual decision on reperfusion treatment as well as the patient's conditions, time lines, logistics and local resources. PMID:18629465

  12. The allometric model in chronic myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An allometric relationship between different electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters and infarcted ventricular mass was assessed in a myocardial infarction (MI) model in New Zealand rabbits. Methods A total of fifteen animals were used, out of which ten underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation to induce infarction (7–35% area). Myocardial infarction (MI) evolved and stabilized during a three month-period, after which, rabbits were sacrificed and the injured area was histologically confirmed. Right before sacrifice, ECGs were obtained to correlate several of its parameters to the infarcted mass. The latter was normalized after combining data from planimetry measurements and heart weight. The following ECG parameters were studied: RR and PR intervals, P-wave duration (PD), QRS duration (QRSD) and amplitude (QRSA), Q-wave (QA), R-wave (RA) and S-wave (SA) amplitudes, T-wave peak amplitude (TA), the interval from the peak to the end of the T-wave (TPE), ST-segment deviation (STA), QT interval (QT), corrected QT and JT intervals. Corrected QT was analyzed with different correction formulae, i.e., Bazett (QTB), Framingham (QTFRA), Fridericia (QTFRI), Hodge (QTHO) and Matsunaga (QTMA) and compared thereafter. The former variables and infarcted ventricular mass were then fitted to the allometric equation in terms of deviation from normality, in turn derived after ECGs in 5 healthy rabbits. Results Six variables (JT, QTB, QA, SA, TA and STA) presented statistical differences among leads. QT showed the best allometric fit (r = 0.78), followed by TA (r = 0.77), STA (r = 0.75), QTFRA (r = 0.72), TPE (r = 0.69), QTFRI (r = 0.68) and QTMA (r = 0.68). Corrected QT’s (QTFRA, QTFRI and QTMA) performed worse than the uncorrected counterpart (QT), the former scaling allometrically with similar goodness of fits. Conclusions QT, TA, STA and TPE could possibly be used to assess infarction extent in an old MI event through the

  13. Improving the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A.

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis of early myocardial infarction, especially in association with atypical clinical presentations, can be difficult to establish. Continued observation of high-risk patients, with multiple serial electrocardiographs and the use of other diagnostic modalities as available, is essential to prevent the inadvertent premature discharge of patients with evolving myocardial infarcts from the accident and emergency department. PMID:9015461

  14. Predictors of Appraisal and Coping Dimensions in Myocardial Infarction Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyong Sil; Martin, Peter

    This study attempted to identify predictors of perception and coping after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction. Sixty males and 17 females who had suffered from a myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to the research were recruited from a hospital rehabilitation program. Subjects completed the Peri-Life Events Scale, the 16-PF…

  15. Acute myocardial infarction complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, L.B.J.; Otterspoor, L.C.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Biessels, G.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. The combination of these two conditions imposes important treatment dilemmas. We describe two patients with this combination of life-threatening conditions. Patient 1 was treated with emergency percutaneous coronary intervention followed by clipping of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Six months after discharge the patient's memory and orientation had almost completely recovered. Patient 2 was treated with aspirin until coiling of the aneurysm could be performed. After successful coiling low-molecular-weight heparin was added. One week later the patient died due to a free wall rupture. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:284-7.19789696) PMID:19789696

  16. The outcomes of intra-aortic balloon pump usage in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a comprehensive meta-analysis of 33 clinical trials and 18,889 patients

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhong-Guo; Gao, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Li-Wen; Li, Xiao-Bo; Shao, Ming-Xue; Ji, Qian; Zhu, Hao; Ren, Yi-Zhi; Chen, Shao-Liang; Tian, Nai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) usage in patients with acute myocardial infarction remain controversial. This study sought to evaluate the outcomes of IABP usage in these patients. Methods Medline, EMBASE, and other internet sources were searched for relevant clinical trials. The primary efficacy endpoints (in-hospital, midterm, and long-term mortality) and secondary endpoints (reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, and new heart failure in the hospital) as well as safety endpoints (severe bleeding requiring blood transfusion and stroke in-hospital) were subsequently analyzed. Results Thirty-three clinical trials involving 18,889 patients were identified. The risk of long-term mortality in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction was significantly decreased following IABP use (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48–0.91, P=0.010). Both in-hospital and midterm mortality did not differ significantly between the IABP use group and no IABP use group (in-hospital: OR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.59–1.28, P=0.479; midterm: OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.53–2.38, P=0.768). IABP insertion was not associated with the risk reduction of reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, or new heart failure. However, IABP use increased the risk of severe bleeding requiring blood transfusion (OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.29–3.25, P=0.002) and stroke (OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.04–2.82, P=0.035). In the thrombolytic therapy and cardiogenic shock subgroups, reduced mortality rates following IABP use were observed. Conclusion IABP insertion is associated with feasible benefits with respect to long-term survival rates in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction, particularly those suffering from cardiogenic shock and receiving thrombolytic therapy, but at the cost of higher incidence of severe bleeding and stroke. PMID:27042021

  17. Home-based versus hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction or revascularisation: design and rationale of the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation Study (BRUM): a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN72884263

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Kate; Lip, Gregory YH; Sandercock, Josie; Greenfield, Sheila M; Raftery, James P; Mant, Jonathan; Taylor, Rod; Lane, Deirdre; Lee, Kaeng Wai; Stevens, AJ

    2003-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction reduces subsequent mortality, but uptake and adherence to rehabilitation programmes remains poor, particularly among women, the elderly and ethnic minority groups. Evidence of the effectiveness of home-based cardiac rehabilitation remains limited. This trial evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home-based compared to hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation. Methods/design A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of home-based compared with hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation in four hospitals serving a multi-ethnic inner city population in the United Kingdom was designed. The home programme is nurse-facilitated, manual-based using the Heart Manual. The hospital programmes offer comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation in an out-patient setting. Patients We will randomise 650 adult, English or Punjabi-speaking patients of low-medium risk following myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft who have been referred for cardiac rehabilitation. Main outcome measures Serum cholesterol, smoking cessation, blood pressure, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, distance walked on Shuttle walk-test measured at 6, 12 and 24 months. Adherence to the programmes will be estimated using patient self-reports of activity. In-depth interviews with non-attendees and non-adherers will ascertain patient views and the acceptability of the programmes and provide insights about non-attendance and aims to generate a theory of attendance at cardiac rehabilitation. The economic analysis will measure National Health Service costs using resource inputs. Patient costs will be established from the qualitative research, in particular how they affect adherence. Discussion More data are needed on the role of home-based versus hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation for patients following myocardial infarction and revascularisation, which would be provided by the Birmingham Rehabilitation

  18. Adenosine as an Adjunct Therapy in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: Myth or Truth?

    PubMed

    Kassimis, George; Davlouros, Periklis; Patel, Niket; De Maria, Gianluigi; Kallistratos, Manolis S; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Manolis, Athanasios J; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Banning, Adrian P

    2015-10-01

    Early reperfusion represents the key strategy in ST elevation myocardial infarction. However, reperfusion may induce myocardial damage due to the reperfusion myocardial injury, compromising the full potential of reperfusion therapy and accounting for unfavourable results in high risk patients. Adenosine seems to attenuate ischemia reperfusion injury, and thus represents a promising therapeutic option for treating such patients. However, previous randomized clinical trials have collectively failed to demonstrate whether adenosine can effectively reduce measures of myocardial injury and improve clinical outcome, despite its good basic evidence. The failure of such trials to show a real beneficial action may be in part related to specific factors other than adenosine's clinical efficacy. The purpose of this review is to explain the rationale for the use of adenosine as an adjunctive pharmacological cardio-protective agent following reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium, to address the weakness of previous trials and to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effect of adenosine administration on reperfusion myocardial injury in patients with myocardial infarction. Although some preclinical and clinical studies point towards the beneficial role of adenosine in the prevention and treatment of no-reflow phenomenon in myocardial infarction, many unanswered questions still remain, including the optimal clinical indication, mode, dosage, duration and timing of application, and the exact mechanisms leading to potential benefits. Clarifying these issues will depend on further properly designed, adequately powered and well conducted clinical trials, which will probably provide us with the definite answers. PMID:26150100

  19. Incidence and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction: the GISSI-3 data

    PubMed Central

    Pizzetti, F; Turazza, F; Franzosi, M; Barlera, S; Ledda, A; Maggioni, A; Santoro, L; Tognoni, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Atrial fibrillation is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment of myocardial infarction may have changed the impact of this arrhythmia.
OBJECTIVE—To assess the incidence and prognosis of atrial fibrillation complicating myocardial infarction in a large population of patients receiving optimal treatment, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
METHODS—Data were derived from the GISSI-3 trial, which included 17 944 patients within the first 24 hours after acute myocardial infarction. Atrial fibrillation was recorded during the hospital stay, and follow up visits were planned at six weeks and six months. Survival of the patients at four years was assessed through census offices.
RESULTS—The incidence of in-hospital atrial fibrillation or flutter was 7.8%. Atrial fibrillation was associated with indicators of a worse prognosis (age > 70 years, female sex, higher Killip class, previous myocardial infarction, treated hypertension, high systolic blood pressure at entry, insulin dependent diabetes, signs or symptoms of heart failure) and with some adverse clinical events (reinfarction, sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation). After adjustment for other prognostic factors, atrial fibrillation remained an independent predictor of increased in-hospital mortality: 12.6% v 5%, adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67 to 2.34. Data on long term mortality (four years after acute myocardial infarction) confirmed the persistent negative influence of atrial fibrillation (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.60 to 1.99).
CONCLUSIONS—Atrial fibrillation is an indicator of worse prognosis after acute myocardial infarction, both in the short term and in the long term, even in an unselected population.


Keywords: atrial fibrillation; acute myocardial infarction; prognosis PMID:11602545

  20. Characterization of nontransmural myocardial infarction by positron-emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Biello, D.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Roberts, R.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-04-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) performed after i.v. 11C-palmitate permits detection and characterization of nontransmural myocardial infarction. PET was performed after the i.v. injection of 11C-palmitate in 10 normal subjects, 24 patients with initial nontransmural myocardial infarction (defined electrocardiographically), and 22 patients with transmural infarction. Depressed accumulation of 11C-palmitate was detected with sagittal, coronal and transverse reconstructions, and quantified based on 14 contiguous transaxial reconstructions. Defects with homogeneously intense depression of accumulation of tracer were detected in all 22 patients with transmural infarction (100%). Abnormalities of the distribution of 11C-palmitate in the myocardium were detected in 23 patients with nontransmural infarction (96%). Thallium scintigrams were abnormal in only 11 of 18 patients with nontransmural infarction (61%). Tomographically estimated infarct size was greater among patients with transmural infarction (50.4 +/- 7.8 PET-g-Eq/m2 (+/- SEM SEM)) compared with those with nontransmural infarction (19 +/- 4 PET-g-Eq, p less than 0.01). Residual accumulation of 11C-palmitate within regions of infarction was more intensely depressed among patients with transmural compared to nontransmural infarction (33 +/- 1 vs 39 +/- 1% maximal myocardial radioactivity, p less than 0.01). Thus, PET and metabolic imaging with 11C-palmitate is a sensitive means of detecting, quantifying and characterizing nontransmural and transmural myocardial infarction.

  1. Rate of fibrinogen breakdown related to coronary patency and bleeding complications in patients with thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction--results from the PRIMI trial.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, H; Schmitz-Huebner, U; Windeler, J; Bär, F; Meyer, J; van de Loo, J

    1992-09-01

    Four hundred and one patients with acute myocardial infarction of less than 4 h duration were randomized to receive intravenous thrombolytic treatment with either 80 mg of full length unglycosylated single-chain-urokinase plasminogen activator (INN saruplase) or 1.5 million IU of streptokinase delivered over a 60 min period. Angiographic patency rates were higher at 60 min in saruplase treated patients (71.8% vs 48%; P less than 0.001), but did not differ significantly at 90 min (71.2% vs 63.9%; P = 0.15). Fibrinogen levels dropped markedly in both groups, the decrease being delayed and less pronounced with saruplase. Total fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimer values rose earlier and to higher peak values in streptokinase treated patients. In both groups marked plasminogen and alpha 2-antiplasmin consumption was observed. Lower fibrinogen levels, and in particular the faster rate of fibrinogen breakdown, were associated with higher patency rates at 90 min (P less than 0.05). Patients with bleeding complications had lower 'lowest points' and a more rapid decrease in fibrinogen (P less than 0.05). These findings were not related to the drug used. Increased heparin levels at 6 to 12 h were correlated to bleeding complications in streptokinase treated patients. It is concluded that the rate of fibrinogen breakdown during and following thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction is related to early vessel patency and bleeding complications. PMID:1396833

  2. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Charles J. Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-02-15

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine.

  3. [Recurrent myocardial infarctions: specific changes in biomarkers and in myocardial remodeling (case-control study)].

    PubMed

    Volkova, E G; Malykhina, O P; Levashov, S Iu

    2007-01-01

    Basing on a case-control study (n=81) with the use of standard methods of myocardial infarction verification, examination of hemogram, troponin T, C-reactive protein, echocardiography data it was established that markers of myocardial infarction (troponin T level) and inflammation (C reactive protein level, lymphopenia) during recurrent infarctions are less pronounced than during first infarctions. Remodeling in recurrent infarctions had the following specific characteristics: increase of left ventricular end diastolic dimension, myocardial mass index, diastolic dysfunction and stroke volume with unchanged ejection fraction. PMID:18260891

  4. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. PMID:26928914

  5. Prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction by amlodipine and Angiotensin receptor blockers: a quantitative overview.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Guang; Li, Yan; Franklin, Stanley S; Safar, Michel

    2007-07-01

    In the present quantitative overview of outcome trials, we investigated the efficacy of amlodipine or angiotensin receptor blockers in the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, or diabetic nephropathy. The analysis included 12 trials of 94 338 patients. The analysis of trials involving an amlodipine group showed that amlodipine provided more protection against stroke and myocardial infarction than other antihypertensive drugs, including angiotensin receptor blockers (-19%, P<0.0001 and -7%, P=0.03) and placebo (-37%, P=0.06 and -29%, P=0.04). The analysis of trials involving an angiotensin receptor blocker group showed contrasting results between trials versus amlodipine and trials versus other antihypertensive drugs for stroke (+19% versus -25%; P<0.0001) and myocardial infarction (+21% versus +1%; P=0.03). The results of 3 trials comparing an angiotensin receptor blocker with placebo were neutral (P> or =0.14). The within-trial between-group difference in achieved systolic pressure ranged from -1.1 to +4.7 mm Hg for trials involving an amlodipine group and from -2.8 to +4.0 mm Hg for trials involving an angiotensin receptor blocker group. The metaregression analysis correlating odds ratios with blood pressure differences showed a negative relationship (regression coefficients: -3% to -8%), which reached statistical significance (regression coefficient: -6%; P=0.01) for stroke in trials involving an amlodipine group. In conclusion, blood pressure differences largely accounted for cardiovascular outcome. PMID:17502490

  6. Thrombus aspiration in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Meneguz-Moreno, R A; Costa, R A; A, A; Ribamar Costa, J; Abizaid, A

    2015-12-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the treatment of choice in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) throughout the last years. A significant number of studies have demonstrated a morbidity and mortality benefit over thrombolysis, which has been attributed to better coronary perfusion in patients undergoing primary PCI. Even though it usually achieves normal flow in the affected epicardial vessel, myocardial reperfusion is not fully restored in a significant percentage of patients. This is commonly the result of distal thrombus embolization with subsequent impairment of myocardial microcirculation. Recognition of this has led to the development of a number of devices with different mechanisms, including thrombus aspiration catheters, in order to reduce distal embolization and therefore improve myocardial perfusion. Recent studies indeed demonstrate that the use of such devices offer additional clinical advantage in patients undergoing primary PCI in comparison to the standard PCI, whether in other trials it could not be proved. This paper focuses on general mechanisms of thrombus formation and discusses favorable and unfavorable studies towards thrombus aspiration in STEMI and its main aspects and it comes up with specific subjects that could benefit or not from the procedure of thrombus aspiration. PMID:26603617

  7. Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable stent vs. durable polymer everolimus-eluting metallic stent in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results of the randomized ABSORB ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction—TROFI II trial

    PubMed Central

    Sabaté, Manel; Windecker, Stephan; Iñiguez, Andres; Okkels-Jensen, Lisette; Cequier, Angel; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Hofma, Sjoerd H.; Räber, Lorenz; Christiansen, Evald Høi; Suttorp, Maarten; Pilgrim, Thomas; Anne van Es, Gerrit; Sotomi, Yohei; García-García, Hector M.; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) feature thrombus-rich lesions with large necrotic core, which are usually associated with delayed arterial healing and impaired stent-related outcomes. The use of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (Absorb) has the potential to overcome these limitations owing to restoration of native vessel lumen and physiology at long term. The purpose of this randomized trial was to compare the arterial healing response at short term, as a surrogate for safety and efficacy, between the Absorb and the metallic everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in patients with STEMI. Methods and results ABSORB-STEMI TROFI II was a multicentre, single-blind, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial. Patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly allocated 1:1 to treatment with the Absorb or EES. The primary endpoint was the 6-month optical frequency domain imaging healing score (HS) based on the presence of uncovered and/or malapposed stent struts and intraluminal filling defects. Main secondary endpoint included the device-oriented composite endpoint (DOCE) according to the Academic Research Consortium definition. Between 06 January 2014 and 21 September 2014, 191 patients (Absorb [n = 95] or EES [n = 96]; mean age 58.6 years old; 17.8% females) were enrolled at eight centres. At 6 months, HS was lower in the Absorb arm when compared with EES arm [1.74 (2.39) vs. 2.80 (4.44); difference (90% CI) −1.06 (−1.96, −0.16); Pnon-inferiority <0.001]. Device-oriented composite endpoint was also comparably low between groups (1.1% Absorb vs. 0% EES). One case of definite subacute stent thrombosis occurred in the Absorb arm (1.1% vs. 0% EES; P = ns). Conclusion Stenting of culprit lesions with Absorb in the setting of STEMI resulted in a nearly complete arterial healing which was comparable with that of metallic EES at 6 months. These findings provide the basis for further exploration in

  8. Effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Verani, M.S.; Tortoledo, F.E.; Batty, J.W.; Raizner, A.E.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of coronary artery recanalization by intracoronary administration of streptokinase on left ventricular function during acute myocardial infarction have received increasing attention in recent years. Although myocardial dysfunction is often more pronounced in the right ventricle than in the left ventricle in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction, the effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular dysfunction has not been previously addressed. Accordingly, in this investigation, 54 patients who participated in a prospective, controlled, randomized trial of recanalization during acute myocardial infarction were studied. Among 30 patients with inferior wall infarction, 19 had right ventricular dysfunction on admission; 11 of these 19 had positive uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the right ventricle, indicative of right ventricular infarction. Patients with successful recanalization exhibited improved right ventricular ejection fraction from admission to day 10. However, control patients and patients who did not undergo recanalization also exhibited improvement. These data indicate that the right ventricular dysfunction commonly associated with inferior wall infarction is often transient, and improvement is the rule, irrespective of early recanalization of the infarct vessel.

  9. Calpain inhibition preserves myocardial structure and function following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mani, Santhosh K; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Zavadzkas, Juozas A; Jeffords, Laura B; Rivers, William T; Zile, Michael R; Mukherjee, Rupak; Spinale, Francis G; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2009-11-01

    Cardiac pathology, such as myocardial infarction (MI), activates intracellular proteases that often trigger programmed cell death and contribute to maladaptive changes in myocardial structure and function. To test whether inhibition of calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease, would prevent these changes, we used a mouse MI model. Calpeptin, an aldehydic inhibitor of calpain, was intravenously administered at 0.5 mg/kg body wt before MI induction and then at the same dose subcutaneously once per day. Both calpeptin-treated (n = 6) and untreated (n = 6) MI mice were used to study changes in myocardial structure and function after 4 days of MI, where end-diastolic volume (EDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) were measured by echocardiography. Calpain activation and programmed cell death were measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). In MI mice, calpeptin treatment resulted in a significant improvement in EF [EF decreased from 67 + or - 2% pre-MI to 30 + or - 4% with MI only vs. 41 + or - 2% with MI + calpeptin] and attenuated the increase in EDV [EDV increased from 42 + or - 2 microl pre-MI to 73 + or - 4 microl with MI only vs. 55 + or - 4 microl with MI + calpeptin]. Furthermore, calpeptin treatment resulted in marked reduction in calpain- and caspase-3-associated changes and TUNEL staining. These studies indicate that calpain contributes to MI-induced alterations in myocardial structure and function and that it could be a potential therapeutic target in treating MI patients. PMID:19734364

  10. Protocol: does sodium nitrite administration reduce ischaemia-reperfusion injury in patients presenting with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction? Nitrites in acute myocardial infarction (NIAMI)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whilst advances in reperfusion therapies have reduced early mortality from acute myocardial infarction, heart failure remains a common complication, and may develop very early or long after the acute event. Reperfusion itself leads to further tissue damage, a process described as ischaemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI), which contributes up to 50% of the final infarct size. In experimental models nitrite administration potently protects against IRI in several organs, including the heart. In the current study we investigate whether intravenous sodium nitrite administration immediately prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction will reduce myocardial infarct size. This is a phase II, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded and multicentre trial. Methods and outcomes The aim of this trial is to determine whether a 5 minute systemic injection of sodium nitrite, administered immediately before opening of the infarct related artery, results in significant reduction of IRI in patients with first acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI). The primary clinical end point is the difference in infarct size between sodium nitrite and placebo groups measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) performed at 6–8 days following the AMI and corrected for area at risk (AAR) using the endocardial surface area technique. Secondary end points include (i) plasma creatine kinase and Troponin I measured in blood samples taken pre-injection of the study medication and over the following 72 hours; (ii) infarct size at six months; (iii) Infarct size corrected for AAR measured at 6–8 days using T2 weighted triple inversion recovery (T2-W SPAIR or STIR) CMR imaging; (iv) Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction measured by CMR at 6–8 days and six months following injection of the study medication; and (v) LV end systolic volume index at 6–8 days and six months. Funding, ethics and

  11. The importance of early patency after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Grover, A; Rihal, C S

    1995-07-01

    The importance of achieving rapid patency of the infarct-related artery during acute myocardial infarction has become well recognized. Early, sustained patency of the infarct-related vessel correlates with improved left ventricular function, better in-hospital outcomes, and lower mortality. Various strategies designed to improve early patency, including "prehospital" thrombolysis, use of an accelerated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator regimen, and immediate angioplasty have been studied. This paper reviews the importance of achieving early patency, the various strategies employed, and the evidence for their efficacy. Future directions in treatment of acute myocardial infarction are touched upon briefly. PMID:7549077

  12. Cortical laminar necrosis following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Simona; Silvestrini, Mauro; Provinciali, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    The cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) is a permanent injury characterized by the selective delayed necrosis of the cerebral cortex, mainly of the third layer, and usually greater in the depths and sides of the sulci than over the crest of the gyri. The damage involves all cellular components - either neurons, glia cells and blood vessels - and results in a focal cortical band of pan-necrosis detectable in late sub-acute or chronic stages of reduced energy supply to the brain. The CLN has been described in different conditions as hypoxia, hypoglycemia and status epilepticus. At brain CT or MR scans it appears with pathognomonic highly hyperdense or T1-hyperintense lesions following the gyral anatomy of the cerebral cortex. We reported a case of CLN associated to myocardial infarct and discussed the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27375142

  13. [Myocardial infarction and thromboembolism during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Härtel, Dirk; Sorges, Eckhard; Carlsson, Jörg; Römer, Volker; Tebbe, Ulrich

    2003-05-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a very rare event during pregnancy and bears the problem of misdiagnosis. However, about 150 cases have been published worldwide with a preponderance of anterior wall infarcts. With more women delaying childbearing until an older age and increasing prevalence of smoking in young women, it can be expected that all forms of coronary artery disease--including acute myocardial infarction--will be seen more often in the future. Among the causes of coronary artery occlusion in pregnancy are (1) rupture of very small coronary artery plaques triggered by different events, e.g., hypertension; (2) plain coronary artery disease; (3) dissection of coronary arteries; (4) coronary artery spasms with/without arterial thrombosis. Prompt diagnosis and immediate therapy are necessary to lower the high mortality of mother and fetus. The gold standard in the therapy of acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stent implantation. Application of thrombolytics (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA], r-PA, streptokinase [SK], urokinase [UK]) has been reported in single patients but should be limited to cases where acute PTCA is not available and where the infarct occurs before the 14th week of pregnancy because of possible embryopathy. If the patient is in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy, anticipation of delivery should be part of the medical planning. Consultation with an obstetrician must be obtained as soon as the patient enters the hospital. Besides bleeding complications, venous thrombosis with pulmonary embolism is among the most common causes of death during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related changes in physiology - increase in the resistance to flow from the lower extremities to the heart - and congenital coagulation abnormalities are most important to be recognized. This leads to the fact that superficial and deep venous thromboses

  14. LAD-Ligation: A Murine Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, Mandy V.V.; Meyberg, Danja; Deuse, Tobias; Tang-Quan, Karis R.; Robbins, Robert C.; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Schrepfer, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Research models of infarction and myocardial ischemia are essential to investigate the acute and chronic pathobiological and pathophysiological processes in myocardial ischemia and to develop and optimize future treatment. Two different methods of creating myocardial ischemia are performed in laboratory rodents. The first method is to create cryo infarction, a fast but inaccurate technique, where a cryo-pen is applied on the surface of the heart (1-3). Using this method the scientist can not guarantee that the cryo-scar leads to ischemia, also a vast myocardial injury is created that shows pathophysiological side effects that are not related to myocardial infarction. The second method is the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Here the LAD is ligated with one single stitch, forming an ischemia that can be seen almost immediately. By closing the LAD, no further blood flow is permitted in that area, while the surrounding myocardial tissue is nearly not affected. This surgical procedure imitates the pathobiological and pathophysiological aspects occurring in infarction-related myocardial ischemia. The method introduced in this video demonstrates the surgical procedure of a mouse infarction model by ligating the LAD. This model is convenient for pathobiological and pathophysiological as well as immunobiological studies on cardiac infarction. The shown technique provides high accuracy and correlates well with histological sections. PMID:19829290

  15. Earliest electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial infarction: implications for thrombolytic treatment. The GREAT Group.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J; Trent, R; Rawles, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence of the earliest electrocardiographic changes in patients with suspected myocardial infarction and their sensitivity and specificity for predicting the final diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Retrospective study of paired electrocardiograms recorded at home and on admission to hospital. SETTING--29 rural practices in Grampian and teaching hospitals in Aberdeen. PATIENTS--137 patients participating in the early anistreplase trial in the Grampian region, who received placebo at home and for whom paired electrocardiograms were available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Classified electrocardiographic abnormalities and diagnosis at discharge. RESULTS--Electrocardiograms were recorded immediately before injection of placebo at home and anistreplase in hospital at median times of 110 and 240 minutes after the onset of symptoms. Definite or probable myocardial infarction was later confirmed in 93 (68%) patients. Of these, 66 (71%) had the same findings on both electrocardiograms of either ST elevation, bundle branch block, or a non-specific abnormality, while 27 (29%) showed a major change of classification between home and hospital recordings; 21 (23%) had ST elevation or bundle branch block on only one of the paired recordings. Although ST elevation was the commonest abnormality in the 93 patients with myocardial infarction, in only 51 was it recorded at home (sensitivity 55%) and in 49 on admission (sensitivity 53%). Of 57 patients with ST elevation at home, six did not have infarction (specificity 86%), while of 51 with ST elevation on admission, two did not have infarction (specificity 95%). CONCLUSIONS--Elevation of the ST segment is a transient electrocardiographic abnormality that has high specificity but low sensitivity for predicting the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; it is an unsatisfactory precondition for giving thrombolytic treatment to patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. PMID:8267742

  16. Nicardipine in models of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Alps, B. J.; Calder, C.; Wilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    1 In a dog model of partial myocardial ischaemia, superimposed ST segment elevations in epicardial ECGs were inhibited by nicardipine over a cumulative i.v. dose range of 1-20 μg kg-1. 2 Over the cumulative i.v. dose range of 0.5-166.5 μg kg-1, nicardipine had little overall effect on gross cardiac conduction, at spontaneous heart rate. 3 Dogs that received oral 1-2 mg kg-1 nicardipine daily for 16 weeks and then survived 1 week occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) developed a superior coronary collateral circulation compared with untreated animals. 4 Nicardipine given by three different dosing schedules to baboons markedly limited myocardial infarction over a 6 h period of LAD occlusion. 5 Compared with a group of completely untreated dogs, there was protection of the myocardium in the animals given nicardipine that survived 3 months occlusion of the LAD. ImagesFigure 7 PMID:4027150

  17. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  18. Acute myocardial infarction due to blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, R K; Singh, Arun; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sinha, Ajay; Saurabh; Kumar, Amit

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of blunt chest injury following a road accident leading to damage of the left main and left anterior descending coronary arteries causing acute myocardial infarction in a young person. PMID:12674188

  19. Inflammatory markers in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Seropian, Ignacio M; Sonnino, Chiara; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Biasucci, Luigi M; Abbate, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    After acute myocardial infarction, ventricular remodeling is characterized by changes at the molecular, structural, geometrical and functional level that determine progression to heart failure. Inflammation plays a key role in wound healing and scar formation, affecting ventricular remodeling. Several, rather different, components of the inflammatory response were studied as biomarkers in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Widely available and inexpensive tests, such as leukocyte count at admission, as well as more sophisticated immunoassays provide powerful predictors of adverse outcome in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. We review the value of inflammatory markers in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction and their association with ventricular remodeling, heart failure and sudden death. In conclusion, the use of these biomarkers may identify subjects at greater risk of adverse events and perhaps provide an insight into the mechanisms of disease progression. PMID:25681486

  20. An Unusual Complication Following Transarterial Chemoembolization: Acute Myocardial Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Yiliang; Chang Weichou; Kuo Wuhsien; Huang Tienyu; Chu Hengcheng; Hsieh Tsaiyuan; Chang Weikuo

    2010-02-15

    Transarterial chemoembolization has been widely used to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Various complications have been reported, but they have not included acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction results mainly from coronary artery occlusion by plaques that are vulnerable to rupture or from coronary spasm, embolization, or dissection of the coronary artery. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case report that describes a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization and died subsequently of acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of this complication induced by transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. This case illustrates the need to be aware of acute myocardial infarction when transarterial chemoembolization is planned for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in patients with underlying coronary artery disease.

  1. Acute myocardial infarction and sudden death in Sioux Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Hrabovsky, S L; Welty, T K; Coulehan, J L

    1989-01-01

    While some Indian tribes have low rates of acute myocardial infarction, Northern Plains Indians, including the Sioux, have rates of morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction higher than those reported for the United States population in general. In a review of diagnosed cases of acute myocardial infarction over a 3-year period in 2 hospitals serving predominantly Sioux Indians, 8% of cases were found misclassified, and 22% failed to meet rigorous diagnostic criteria, although the patients did indeed have ischemic heart disease. Patients had high frequencies of complications and risk factors and a fatality rate of 16% within a month of admission. Sudden deaths likely due to ischemic heart disease but in persons not diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction by chart review occurred 3 times more frequently than deaths occurring within a month of clinical diagnosis. PMID:2735047

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells improve myocardial function in a swine model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Kong, Feng; Qi, Tong-Gang; Cheng, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jue; Sun, Chao; Luan, Yun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to confirm the effect and elucidate the mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AMI was induced in mini‑swine by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery, and BMSCs (1x107) were injected via a sterile microinjection into the ischemic area. Six months postoperatively, electrocardiograph‑gated single photon emission computed tomography revealed that the myocardial filling defect was reduced and the left ventricular ejection fraction was improved in the BMSC group compared with the control group (P<0.05). Histopathological examination indicated that, in the BMSC treatment group, the percentage of survived myocardial tissue and the vessel density were increased, and the percentage of apoptosis was decreased compared with controls (P<0.05). Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the expression levels of multiple inflammatory factors were significantly upregulated in the BMSC group compared with levels in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that BMSC injection significantly improved cardiac function and reduced infarct size in six months, indicating that this method may be valuable for future study in clinical trials. PMID:25060678

  3. Circulatory responses to hypoxia in experimental myocardial infarction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroll, M.; Robison, S. C.; Harrison, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    Three levels of decreased arterial oxygen saturation elicited a graded circulatory response in dogs, manifested by stepwise increases in cardiac output, left ventricular dp/dt, and stroke volume, and decreases in systemic vascular resistance. Responses to similar hypoxia challenges after experimental myocardial infarction were qualitatively similar but quantitatively less. Although the circulatory compensation for hypoxia was less effective after myocardial infarction, no further deterioration of the haemodynamics was noted.

  4. Subacute cardiac rupture complicating myocardial infarction. A case report.

    PubMed

    Rosato, G; Santomauro, M; Stanco, G; Petillo, F; Sauro, R; Chiariello, M; Spampinato, N; Rotiroti, D

    1996-02-01

    The authors have focused this study on the emergence of subacute ventricular free wall rupture in a seventy-six-year-old patient admitted to hospital for inferior acute myocardial infarction. After six days he showed clinical signs of bradycardia and hypotension evolving to electromechanical dissociation. Given an adequate pharmacologic therapy, the patient was submitted to echocardiography, which was believed to be consistent with myocardial rupture, showing a moderate to large pericardial effusion. Pericardiocentesis of 150 mL of bloody fluid resulted in a further improvement in his hemodynamics. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with repair of the myocardial rupture through a large diaphragmatic infarction by a Dacron polyester fiber graft and pacemaker placement. In conclusion the authors confirm the relevant role of clinical data such as persistent chest pain and hemodynamic instability and the value of echocardiography in identifying subacute myocardial free wall rupture after an episode of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:8595015

  5. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a 26-Year-Old Patient With Familial Hypercholesteremia.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Takeshi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Komaki, Tomo; Kuwano, Takashi; Morii, Joji; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-07-01

    A 26-year-old male suffered sustained chest pain. Electrocardiogram showed ST-segment elevation in the anteroseptal wall and reciprocal ST-segment change in the inferior wall. The troponin-I level and the white blood cell count were elevated. We gave a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. He underwent urgent coronary angiography, which revealed 90% diffuse stenosis in the middle right coronary artery and total occlusion in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Since the electrocardiogram indicated that the culprit lesion was in the proximal LAD, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention. The coronary flow in the LAD was classified as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction trial 3. His coronary risk factors were obesity, smoking, family history, hypertension and diabetes, in addition to heterozygous familial hypercholesteremia (FH). Herein, we describe the case of a young patient with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction and discuss the potential importance of controlling cholesterol levels in FH. PMID:27298669

  6. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a 26-Year-Old Patient With Familial Hypercholesteremia

    PubMed Central

    Miyayama, Takeshi; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Komaki, Tomo; Kuwano, Takashi; Morii, Joji; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old male suffered sustained chest pain. Electrocardiogram showed ST-segment elevation in the anteroseptal wall and reciprocal ST-segment change in the inferior wall. The troponin-I level and the white blood cell count were elevated. We gave a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. He underwent urgent coronary angiography, which revealed 90% diffuse stenosis in the middle right coronary artery and total occlusion in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Since the electrocardiogram indicated that the culprit lesion was in the proximal LAD, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention. The coronary flow in the LAD was classified as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction trial 3. His coronary risk factors were obesity, smoking, family history, hypertension and diabetes, in addition to heterozygous familial hypercholesteremia (FH). Herein, we describe the case of a young patient with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction and discuss the potential importance of controlling cholesterol levels in FH. PMID:27298669

  7. Early-phase myocardial infarction: Evaluation by MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tscholakoff, D.; Higgins, C.B.; McNamara, M.T.; Derugin, N.

    1986-06-01

    In vivo gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 12 dogs immediately after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and serially up to 5 hours and again between 4 and 14 days. This was done to evaluate the appearance of acute myocardial infarcts and to determine how soon after coronary artery occlusion MR imaging can demonstrate the site of acute myocardial ischemia. In nine dogs with postmortem evidence of myocardial infarction, regional increase of signal intensity of the myocardium was present by 3 hours after coronary occlusion and conformed to the site of myocardial infarct found at autopsy. The signal intensity on T2-weighted images of the infarcted on T2-weighted images of the infarcted myocardium was significantly greater than that of normal myocardium at 3, 4, and 5 hours after occlusion. The T2 (spin-spin) relaxation time was significantly prolonged in the region of myocardial infarct at 3, 4, and 5 hours post-occlusion compared with normal myocardium. Myocardial wall thinning and increased intracavitary flow signal were found in six dogs with comparable pre- and postocclusion images in late systole.

  8. Experimental model of myocardial infarction: Histopathology and reperfusion damage revisited.

    PubMed

    Kren, Leos; Meluzin, Jaroslav; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Mayer, Jiri; Kala, Petr; Groch, Ladislav; Hornacek, Ivan; Rauser, Petr; Vlasin, Michal

    2010-09-15

    The goal of this pilot study was to create an experimental model of myocardial infarction (for subsequent evaluation of the effectiveness of an alternative way of stem cell application - intracoronary cell infusion in the management of acute myocardial infarction). Four experimental animals, female pigs weighing between 30 and 40 kg, were used in the initial phase of this study to create an experimental model of acute myocardial infarction. An experimental myocardial infarction was performed via occlusion of the interventricular arm of the left coronary artery for 90 min. The hearts were examined 1 h, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after the procedure. Macroscopically, red infarction characteristic of reperfusion was found. Microscopically, the healing process with granulation tissue production/collagen deposition was remarkably accelerated compared to literature data. Repair processes in reperfused experimental myocardial infarction and/or reperfused autopsy specimens should not be evaluated on the basis of literature data only. Large collections of extracellular calcium were present. This phenomenon is not well described in the literature and probably has the potential for significantly interfering with the repair process. The histopathology of reperfused acute myoardial infarction deserves to be studied in further investigations. PMID:20451332

  9. Intracoronary Cardiosphere-Derived Cells After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Malliaras, Konstantinos; Makkar, Raj R.; Smith, Rachel R.; Cheng, Ke; Wu, Edwin; Bonow, Robert O.; Marbán, Linda; Mendizabal, Adam; Cingolani, Eugenio; Johnston, Peter V.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Schuleri, Karl H.; Lardo, Albert C.; Marbán, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to report full 1-year results, detailed magnetic resonance imaging analysis, and determinants of efficacy in the prospective, randomized, controlled CADUCEUS (CArdiosphere-Derived aUtologous stem CElls to reverse ventricUlar dySfunction) trial. Background Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) exerted regenerative effects at 6 months in the CADUCEUS trial. Complete results at the final 1-year endpoint are unknown. Methods Autologous CDCs (12.5 to 25 × 106) grown from endomyocardial biopsy specimens were infused via the intracoronary route in 17 patients with left ventricular dysfunction 1.5 to 3 months after myocardial infarction (MI) (plus 1 infused off-protocol 14 months post-MI). Eight patients were followed as routine-care control patients. Results In 13.4 months of follow-up, safety endpoints were equivalent between groups. At 1 year, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that CDC-treated patients had smaller scar size compared with control patients. Scar mass decreased and viable mass increased in CDC-treated patients but not in control patients. The single patient infused 14 months post-MI responded similarly. CDC therapy led to improved regional function of infarcted segments compared with control patients. Scar shrinkage correlated with an increase in viability and with improvement in regional function. Scar reduction correlated with baseline scar size but not with a history of temporally remote MI or time from MI to infusion. The changes in left ventricular ejection fraction in CDC-treated subjects were consistent with the natural relationship between scar size and ejection fraction post-MI. Conclusions Intracoronary administration of autologous CDCs did not raise significant safety concerns. Preliminary indications of bioactivity include decreased scar size, increased viable myocardium, and improved regional function of infarcted myocardium at 1 year post-treatment. These results, which are consistent with therapeutic regeneration

  10. Approaches to Improving Cardiac Structure and Function During and After an Acute Myocardial Infarction: Acute and Chronic Phases.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L; Shi, Jianru

    2016-07-01

    While progress has been made in improving survival following myocardial infarction, this injury remains a major source of mortality and morbidity despite modern reperfusion therapy. While one approach has been to develop therapies to reduce lethal myocardial cell reperfusion injury, this concept has not translated to the clinics, and several recent negative clinical trials raise the question of whether reperfusion injury is important in humans undergoing reperfusion for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Therapy aimed at reducing myocardial cell death while the myocytes are still ischemic is more likely to further reduce myocardial infarct size. Developing new therapies to further reduce left ventricular remodeling after the acute event is another approach to preserving structure and function of the heart after infarction. Such therapy may include chronic administration of pharmacologic agents and/or therapies developed from the field of regenerative cardiology, including cellular or non-cellular materials such as extracellular matrix. The optimal therapy will be to administer agents that both reduce myocardial infarct size in the acute phase of infarction as well as reduce adverse left ventricular remodeling during the chronic or healing phase of myocardial infarction. Such a dual approach will help optimize the preservation of both cardiac structure and function. PMID:26612091

  11. ECG findings after myocardial infarction in children after Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, T.; Takao, A.; Kondoh, C.; Nakazawa, M.; Hiroe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Standard 12-lead ECGs were evaluated in 17 children with myocardial infarction and 78 children without myocardial infarction after Kawasaki disease; sensitivity and specificity of the ECG infarction criteria were determined. The presence or absence of myocardial infarction was determined from either clinical examination results (coronary angiography, ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial imaging) or autopsy findings. Of seven patients with inferior infarction, abnormally deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF were observed in six, but the duration was greater than 0.04 second in only one (14%). The sensitivity and specificity of inferior infarction criteria based on Q wave amplitude were 86% and 97%, respectively. Of eight patients with anterior infarction, seven (88%) had abnormally deep and wide (greater than or equal to 0.04 second) Q waves in anterior chest leads. The sensitivity and specificity of the infarction criteria based on the amplitude and duration of the Q wave were 75% and 99%, respectively. Of seven patients with lateral infarction, Q waves were observed in lead I, aVL, or both in four patients, and in all of these patients Q waves were wider than 0.04 second. In two patients with both inferior and anterior infarction, Q waves were observed only in leads II, III, and aVF; in only one patient were the Q waves wider than 0.04 second. Thus deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF that are not wider than 0.04 second may indicate inferior infarction in children. Q waves in lead I, aVL, and chest leads associated with anterolateral infarction are in most instances deep and wide.

  12. Prognostic value of radionuclide exercise testing after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Schocken, D.D.

    1984-08-01

    Abnormal systolic ventricular function and persistent ischemia are sensitive indicators of poor prognosis following myocardial infarction. The use of exercise improves the utility of both radionuclide ventriculography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the identification of postinfarction patients at high risk of subsequent cardiac events. 51 references.

  13. Myocardial Hemorrhage After Acute Reperfused ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Ahmed, Nadeem; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C.; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, M. Mitchell; Davie, Andrew; Mahrous, Ahmed; Mordi, Ify; Rauhalammi, Samuli; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ford, Ian; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The success of coronary reperfusion therapy in ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly limited by failure to restore microvascular perfusion. Methods and Results— We performed a prospective cohort study in patients with reperfused ST-segment–elevation MI who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance 2 days (n=286) and 6 months (n=228) post MI. A serial imaging time-course study was also performed (n=30 participants; 4 cardiac magnetic resonance scans): 4 to 12 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 7 months post reperfusion. Myocardial hemorrhage was taken to represent a hypointense infarct core with a T2* value of <20 ms. Microvascular obstruction was assessed with late gadolinium enhancement. Adverse remodeling was defined as an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume ≥20% at 6 months. Cardiovascular death or heart failure events post discharge were assessed during follow-up. Two hundred forty-five patients had evaluable T2* data (mean±age, 58 [11] years; 76% men). Myocardial hemorrhage 2 days post MI was associated with clinical characteristics indicative of MI severity and inflammation. Myocardial hemorrhage was a multivariable associate of adverse remodeling (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.64 [1.07–6.49]; P=0.035). Ten (4%) patients had a cardiovascular cause of death or experienced a heart failure event post discharge, and myocardial hemorrhage, but not microvascular obstruction, was associated with this composite adverse outcome (hazard ratio, 5.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.25–27.74; P=0.025), including after adjustment for baseline left ventricular end-diastolic volume. In the serial imaging time-course study, myocardial hemorrhage occurred in 7 (23%), 13 (43%), 11 (33%), and 4 (13%) patients 4 to 12 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 7 months post reperfusion. The amount of hemorrhage (median [interquartile range], 7.0 [4.9–7.5]; % left ventricular mass) peaked on day 2 (P<0.001), whereas microvascular

  14. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  15. [Myocardial infarct immediately after a normal exercise test].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Jaume, A; González-Hermosillo, J A; Iturralde, P; Romero, L; Colín, L; Villarreal, A

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of myocardial infarction immediately following a normal stress testing, are described. The incidence and possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed. In one of the patients it was difficult to establish the pathophysiological mechanism which was the cause of the ischemic event. In the other, the coronary arteriography revealed only minimal obstructive disease. Therefore, coronary vasospasm with thrombus formation as a cause of the infarction ia an interesting speculative possibility in view of the angiographic findings. Acute myocardial infarction after a normal electrocardiographic response to maximal exercise testing is extremely rare, and the precise pathophysiologic mechanism that leads to his complication is not clear. PMID:2344228

  16. Use of thallium 201 myocardial imaging to exclude myocardial infarction after dissection in congenital coarctation of the aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Halon, D.A.; Weiss, A.T.; Tzivoni, D.; Atlan, H.; Gotsman, M.S.

    1981-10-01

    The use of a mobile gamma camera with thallium 201 myocardial imaging is described to exclude myocardial infarction in a patient admitted to the coronary care unit in shock and with clinical, enzyme, and ECG changes consistent with infarction. The patient suffered from acute aortic dissection associated with congenital coarctation of the aorta. The myocardial scan excluded transmural myocardial injury.

  17. Nitroglycerin Use in Myocardial Infarction Patients: Risks and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2012-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction and its sequelae are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nitroglycerin remains a first-line treatment for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction. Nitroglycerin achieves its benefit by giving rise to nitric oxide, which causes vasodilation and increases blood flow to the myocardium. However, continuous delivery of nitroglycerin results in tolerance, limiting the use of this drug. Nitroglycerin tolerance is due, at least in part, to inactivation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an enzyme that converts nitroglycerin to the vasodilator, nitric oxide. We have recently found that, in addition to nitroglycerin’s effect on the vasculature, sustained treatment with nitroglycerin negatively affects cardiomyocyte viability following ischemia, thus resulting in increased infarct size in a myocardial infarction model in animals. Co-administration of Alda-1, an activator of ALDH2, with nitroglycerin improves metabolism of reactive aldehyde adducts and prevents the nitroglycerin-induced increase in cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms associated with the benefits and risks of nitroglycerin administration in myocardial infarction. (167 of 200). PMID:22040938

  18. Improved survival with simendan after experimental myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Levijoki, J; Pollesello, P; Kaheinen, P; Haikala, H

    2001-05-11

    This study compared the effects of simendan, a calcium sensitizer, with those of milrinone and enalapril on survival of rats with healed myocardial infarction. Seven days after ligation-induced myocardial infarction, the rats were randomized to control, milrinone, enalapril, or simendan groups. All compounds were administered via the drinking water for 312 days, at which time there was 80% mortality in the control group--the study's primary endpoint. The infarct sizes were similar across all groups. At endpoint, the mortality rates were: 63% (milrinone), 56% (enalapril) and 53% (simendan); the risk reductions were 25% (P = 0.04 vs. control) and 28% (P = 0.02 vs. control) with enalapril and simendan, respectively. Milrinone had no statistically significant effect on the survival rate. These findings suggest that, like enalapril, simendan improved survival in rats with healed myocardial infarction. PMID:11426847

  19. Exercise test in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hsi, W L; Lai, J S

    1996-01-01

    Although maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and oxygen consumption at anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) were used to measure cardiac function, the clinical significance in acute myocardial infarction (MI) has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare VO2max and VO2AT between post-MI patients and healthy men and to correlate the parameters to other clinical measures. Forty-three active healthy men, 44 sedentary healthy men, and 43 post-MI patients were studied using incremental cycle exercise test. Their work rates, oxygen consumption, heart rates, oxygen pulses, ventilation, and other parameters at VO2max and VO2AT were determined with spirometer, gas concentration analyzer, and electrocardiograph. Anaerobic threshold was determined by analyzing the ventilatory parameters. Most of the exercise test parameters at VO2max were greatest in the active men, intermediate in the sedentary men, and least in the post-MI patients (P < 0.01) whereas the rate-pressure products of the active men and sedentary men were not significantly different from each other and were greater than those of the post-MI patients (P < 0.01). In the post-MI patients, VO2max was inversely correlated to the peak serum level of creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (P < 0.01) and associated with extensive infarction (P < 0.05). Most of the parameters at VO2AT were greater in the active men than in the sedentary men (P < 0.01) but not significantly different between the sedentary men and post-MI patients. In the post-MI patients, VO2AT was significantly correlated to left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.01) and associated with heart failure (P < 0.05). The results revealed that VO2max and VO2AT had different clinical significance in post-MI patients; VO2max was related to the infarct size, and VO2AT was related to the pumping function of heart. PMID:8777021

  20. Copeptin Testing in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ready for Routine Use?

    PubMed Central

    Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Klug, Gert; Metzler, Bernhard; Mair, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Suspected acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency departments. In the last decade, biomarkers revolutionized the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Besides their pivotal assistance in timely diagnosis, biomarkers provide additional information for risk stratification. Cardiac troponins I and T are the most sensitive and specific markers of acute myocardial injury. Nonetheless, in order to overcome the remaining limitations of these markers, novel candidate biomarkers sensitive to early stage of disease are being extensively investigated. Among them, copeptin, a stable peptide derived from the precursor of vasopressin, emerged as a promising biomarker for the evaluation of suspected acute myocardial infarction. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence for the usefulness of copeptin in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction in comparison with routine biomarkers. PMID:25960596

  1. Thrombolytic treatment for myocardial infarction: an examination of practice in 39 United Kingdom hospitals. Myocardial Infarction Audit Group.

    PubMed Central

    Birkhead, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine use of thrombolytic drugs for myocardial infarction and use of contraindications to treatment in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Observational study, based on a continuing audit. SETTING: 39 hospitals in the United Kingdom. PATIENTS: 30,029 patients admitted between November 1992 and June 1995 with suspected myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Of 13,628 patients with a final diagnosis of definite myocardial infarction 10,316 (75.7%) were considered eligible for thrombolytic treatment on the basis of typical cardiographic changes or new left bundle branch block. Of these, 8139 (59.7%) were diagnosed at admission to hospital and 6991 (85.9%) were administered thrombolytic drugs; 14.1% were considered too late for treatment or had a clinical contraindication. In 2177 patients (16% of 13,628)-thrombolytic treatment was given in the absence of contraindications and after the diagnosis of infarction had been confirmed by further electrocardiographic evidence. A further 591 (4.3%) with a final diagnosis of definite infarction without typical cardiographic changes also received thrombolytic treatment as did 1018 patients without a final diagnosis of definite infarction. In total, 9459 of 13,628 patients (71.6%) received thrombolytic treatment. The range of use of treatment between hospitals for a final diagnosis of infarction was 49.1-85.4%. This variation reflected differences in the frequency with which a diagnosis of definite myocardial infarction was made at admission, and the subsequent use of clinical contraindications to thrombolytic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: 75.7% of patients with a final diagnosis of definite myocardial infarction were eligible for thrombolytic treatment on the basis of cardiographic changes. Differences between hospitals in the frequency with which a diagnosis of infarction was made on admission, and differences in subsequent use of thrombolytic drugs, results in wide variation in treatment rates. Differences in use of thrombolytic

  2. Hypertension and acute myocardial infarction: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pedrinelli, Roberto; Ballo, Piercarlo; Fiorentini, Cesare; Denti, Silvia; Galderisi, Maurizio; Ganau, Antonello; Germanò, Giuseppe; Innelli, Pasquale; Paini, Anna; Perlini, Stefano; Salvetti, Massimo; Zacà, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    History of hypertension is a frequent finding in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and its recurring association with female sex, diabetes, older age, less frequent smoking and more frequent vascular comorbidities composes a risk profile quite distinctive from the normotensive ischemic counterpart.Antecedent hypertension associates with higher rates of death and morbid events both during the early and long-term course of AMI, particularly if complicated by left ventricular dysfunction and/or congestive heart failure. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade, through either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, angiotensin II receptor blockade or aldosterone antagonism, exerts particular benefits in that high-risk hypertensive subgroup.In contrast to the negative implications carried by antecedent hypertension, higher systolic pressure at the onset of chest pain associates with lower mortality within 1 year from coronary occlusion, whereas increased blood pressure recorded after hemodynamic stabilization from the acute ischemic event bears inconsistent relationships with recurring coronary events in the long-term follow-up.Whether antihypertensive treatment in post-AMI hypertensive patients prevents ischemic relapses is uncertain. As a matter of fact, excessive diastolic pressure drops may jeopardize coronary perfusion and predispose to new acute coronary events, although the precise cause-effect mechanisms underlying this phenomenon need further evaluation. PMID:22317927

  3. Spirituality in survivors of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Momennasab, Marzieh; Moattari, Marzieh; Abbaszade, Abbas; Shamshiri, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Life-threatening and stressful events, such as myocardial infarction (MI) can lead to an actual crisis, which affects the patients spiritually as well as physically, psychologically, and socially. However, the focus of health care providers is on physical needs. Furthermore, the spirituality of the patients experiencing heart attack in the light of our cultural context is not well addressed in the literature. This study is aimed at exploring the spiritual experiences of the survivors of the MI. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research a grounded theory approach was used. Key informants were 9 MI patients hospitalized in the coronary care units of 3 hospitals in Shiraz. In addition, 7 nurses participated in the study. In-depth interviews and a focus group were used to generate data. Data analysis was done based on Strauss and Corbin method. Constant comparison analysis was performed until data saturation. Results: Five main categories emerged from the data, including perceived threat, seeking spiritual support, referring to religious values, increasing faith, and realization. The latter with its 3 subcategories was recognized as core category and represents a deep understanding beyond knowing. At the time of encountering MI, spirituality provided hope, strength, and peace for the participants. Conclusion: Based on the results we can conclude that connecting to God, religious values, and interconnectedness to others are the essential components of the participants’ spiritual experience during the occurrence of MI. Spirituality helps patients to overcome this stressful life-threatening situation. PMID:23853646

  4. Reducing myocardial infarct size: challenges and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Despite prompt reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), the mortality and morbidity of patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remain significant with 9% death and 10% heart failure at 1 year. In these patients, one important neglected therapeutic target is ‘myocardial reperfusion injury’, a term given to the cardiomyocyte death and microvascular dysfunction which occurs on reperfusing ischaemic myocardium. A number of cardioprotective therapies (both mechanical and pharmacological), which are known to target myocardial reperfusion injury, have been shown to reduce myocardial infarct (MI) size in small proof-of-concept clinical studies—however, being able to demonstrate improved clinical outcomes has been elusive. In this article, we review the challenges facing clinical cardioprotection research, and highlight future therapies for reducing MI size and preventing heart failure in patients presenting with STEMI at risk of myocardial reperfusion injury. PMID:26674987

  5. [Quantitative evaluation of acute myocardial infarction by In-111 antimyosin Fab myocardial imaging].

    PubMed

    Naruse, H; Morita, M; Itano, M; Yamamoto, J; Kawamoto, H; Fukutake, N; Ohyanagi, M; Iwasaki, T; Fukuchi, M

    1991-11-01

    For quantitative evaluation of acute myocardial infarction, In-111 antimyosin Fab myocardial imaging (InAM) was performed in 17 patients with myocardial infarction who underwent Tl-201 (TL) and Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) myocardial imaging in acute phase. For calculating the infarct size, voxel counter method was used for analysis in PYP and InAM, and extent and severity score were used on bull's-eye polar map in TL. The most appropriate cut-off level ranged from 65 to 80% by the fundamental experiment using cardiac phantom. The cut-off level of 0.70 (InAM) and 0.65 (PYP) were used for clinical application of voxel counter analysis. The infarct size calculated by InAM and PYP was compared with wall motion abnormality index by echocardiography (WMAI), TL extent score, TL severity score, peak CK and sigma CK. Infarct size by InAM showed the following correlations with other indices. PYP: r = 0.26 (ns), TL extent score: r = 0.72 (p less than 0.01), TL severity score: r = 0.65 (p less than 0.05), WMAI: r = 0.69 (p less than 0.05). The infarct size by PYP did not show any correlations with these indices. Therefore, the infarct size by InAM showed better correlations with TL and WMAI than that of PYP. So InAM was considered superior to PYP for quantitative evaluation of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:1770642

  6. Value of positive myocardial infarction imaging in coronary care units.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, S P; Pereira-Prestes, A V; Ell, P J; Donaldson, R; Somerville, W; Emanuel, R W

    1979-01-01

    Positive myocardial imaging was undertaken on 120 unselected patients admitted to a coronary care unit with clinical suspicion of acute myocardial infarction. Multipurpose mobile gamma-cameras were used for serial imaging after administration of 99mtechnetium-labelled imidodiphosphonate, a low-cost radiopharmaceutical that is 97% specific for myocardial necrosis, with myocardial uptake and blood clearance most suitable for myocardial imaging. The sensitivty of detection was 94% for patients whose infarction was unequivocal on the ECG; when the presence of raised enzyme concentrations was also used as a criterion for myocardial necrosis, the overall sensitivity for all 120 patients remained 94%. In 73 patients (61%), whose ECGs were unhelpful or difficult to interpret, scintigraphy allowed infarction to be diagnosed in 11 (15%) and to be excluded in five (7%). In 32 (44%) of this group whose ECGs were totally uninterpretable due to previous myocardial damage or disorders of electrical activation, scintigraphy provided confirmation of a diagnosis that otherwise rested only on whether enzyme concentrations were raised. Myocardial imaging is thus a useful technique that permits more definite diagnosis in patients for whom ECG and enzyme data are uncertain. PMID:761017

  7. Prediction of functional recovery and prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction by 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial single photon emission computed tomography: a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, T; Nishimura, S; Kajiya, T; Sugihara, H; Kitahara, K; Imai, K; Muramatsu, T; Takahashi, N; Yoshida, H; Osada, T; Terada, K; Ito, T; Naruse, H; Iwabuchi, M

    1998-10-01

    123I-BMIPP [15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid] was developed for metabolic imaging with SPECT. A multicenter collaborative study was conducted on a large patient series to determine whether 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial SPECT are of use in predicting the prognosis and ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients with uncomplicated first AMI underwent resting 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial SPECT in the subacute phase after the onset of AMI. Of these, 167 patients who had been followed up for an average of 22 months were retrospectively reviewed to predict serious cardiac events and recurrent ischemia. In addition, the association between changes in radionuclide parameters and recurrent ischemia was investigated in Subgroup A (58 patients) who had repeated SPECT in the chronic phase. Furthermore, prediction of the ejection fraction (EF) was investigated in Subgroup B (94 patients) and Subgroup C (76 patients) in whom left ventriculography was performed at the time of discharge and 90 days or more after the onset, respectively. The prognosis was generally favorable, with 4 cases of cardiac death (2%), 3 of heart failure (2%), 4 of nonfatal reMI (2%), and 25 of recurrent ischemia (15%). The results of Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed a high probability of serious cardiac events in patients who were elderly (p = 0.04), who had 90% or more residual stenosis of the infarct-related artery (p = 0.09), and who had a high BMIPP defect score (p = 0.17). There was a high probability of recurrent ischemia in elderly patients (p = 0.10) who had multi-vessel disease (p = 0.03), but no association was found with radionuclide parameters in the subacute phase. In Subgroup A, however, the probability of recurrent ischemia tended to be high in patients with a large mismatch scorebetween 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl in the subacute to chronic phase. An important observation was that the extent of BMIPP defect was more strongly

  8. Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy--I: Prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the effects of "prolonged" antiplatelet therapy (that is, given for one month or more) on "vascular events" (non-fatal myocardial infarctions, non-fatal strokes, or vascular deaths) in various categories of patients. DESIGN--Overviews of 145 randomised trials of "prolonged" antiplatelet therapy versus control and 29 randomised comparisons between such antiplatelet regimens. SETTING--Randomised trials that could have been available by March 1990. SUBJECTS--Trials of antiplatelet therapy versus control included about 70,000 "high risk" patients (that is, with some vascular disease or other condition implying an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease) and 30,000 "low risk" subjects from the general population. Direct comparisons of different antiplatelet regimens involved about 10,000 high risk patients. RESULTS--In each of four main high risk categories of patients antiplatelet therapy was definitely protective. The percentages of patients suffering a vascular event among those allocated antiplatelet therapy versus appropriately adjusted control percentages (and mean scheduled treatment durations and net absolute benefits) were: (a) among about 20,000 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 10% antiplatelet therapy v 14% control (one month benefit about 40 vascular events avoided per 1000 patients treated (2P < 0.00001)); (b) among about 20,000 patients with a past history of myocardial infarction, 13% antiplatelet therapy v 17% control (two year benefit about 40/1000 (2P < 0.00001)); (c) among about 10,000 patients with a past history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, 18% antiplatelet therapy v 22% control (three year benefit about 40/1000 (2P < 0.00001)); (d) among about 20,000 patients with some other relevant medical history (unstable angina, stable angina, vascular surgery, angioplasty, atrial fibrillation, valvular disease, peripheral vascular disease, etc), 9% v 14% in 4000 patients with unstable angina (six month

  9. Human Umbilical Cord Blood for Transplantation Therapy in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Sandra A; Franzese, Nick; Staples, Meaghan; Weinbren, Nathan L.; Babilonia, Monica; Patel, Jason; Merchant, Neil; Simancas, Alejandra Jacotte; Slakter, Adam; Caputo, Mathew; Patel, Milan; Franyuti, Giorgio; Franzblau, Max H.; Suarez, Lyanne; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Diamandis, Theo; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Tajiri, Naoki; Sanberg, Paul R.; Kaneko, Yuji; Miller, Leslie W.; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising therapy for myocardial infarction. Endogenous repair of the heart muscle after myocardial infarction is a challenge because adult cardiomyocytes have a limited capacity to proliferate and replace damaged cells. Pre-clinical and clinical evidence has shown that cell based therapy may promote revascularization and replacement of damaged myocytes after myocardial infarction. Adult stem cells can be harvested from different sources including bone marrow, skeletal myoblast, and human umbilical cord blood cells. The use of these cells for the repair of myocardial infarction presents various advantages over other sources of stem cells. Among these are easy harvesting, unlimited differentiation capability, and robust angiogenic potential. In this review, we discuss the milestone findings and the most recent evidence demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with gene therapy, highlighting the importance of optimizing the timing, dose and delivery methods, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of action that will guide the clinical entry of this innovative treatment for ischemic disorders, specifically myocardial infarction. PMID:24307973

  10. Quantitation of Acute Necrosis After Experimental Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Xin-Yi; Dehn, Shirley; Adelman, Jeremy; Lipsitz, Jeremy; Thorp, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is death and necrosis of myocardial tissue secondary to ischemia. MI is associated with adverse cardiac remodeling, progressive heart chamber dilation, ventricular wall thinning, and loss of cardiac function. Myocardial necrosis can be experimentally induced in rodents to simulate human MI by surgical occlusion of coronary arteries. When induced in knockout or transgenic mice, this model is useful for the identification of molecular modulators of cell death, cardiac remodeling, and preclinical therapeutic potential. Herein we outline in tandem, methods for microsurgical ligation of the left anterior descending artery followed by quantitation of myocardial necrosis. Necrosis is quantified after staining the heart with triphenyltetrazolium chloride. PMID:23733573

  11. Myocardial infarction and intramyocardial injection models in swine

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Frederic C; Telukuntla, Kartik S; Karantalis, Vasileios; Suncion, Viky Y; Heldman, Alan W; Mushtaq, Muzammil; Williams, Adam R; Hare, Joshua M

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable and reproducible large animal models that closely replicate the clinical sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI) are important for the translation of basic science research into bedside medicine. Swine are well accepted by the scientific community for cardiovascular research, and they represent an established animal model for preclinical trials for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of novel therapies. Here we present a protocol for using porcine models of MI created with a closed-chest coronary artery occlusion-reperfusion technique. This creates a model of MI encompassing the anteroapical, lateral and septal walls of the left ventricle. This model infarction can be easily adapted to suit individual study design and enables the investigation of a variety of possible interventions. This model is therefore a useful tool for translational research into the pathophysiology of ventricular remodeling and is an ideal testing platform for novel biological approaches targeting regenerative medicine. This model can be created in approximately 8–10 h. PMID:22790084

  12. The high-risk myocardial infarction database initiative.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, Kenneth; Bebchuk, Judith; Wittes, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Four randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trials--VALIANT, EPHESUS, OPTIMAAL, and CAPRICORN evaluated pharmacologic intervention in a total of 28,771 high-risk patients following acute MI complicated with signs of heart failure or evidence of left ventricular dysfunction. The demographic profiles of the 4 study cohorts were similar. The High-Risk MI Database Initiative constructed a common database by merging the data captured by these 4 large trials. The merged data set did not contain the randomized study treatment, so no comparisons could be made between the agents investigated. A total of more than 17,600 subjects experienced a cardiovascular end point. Approximately 5100 deaths occurred, and more than 15,700 subjects experienced a hospitalization. The primary objectives of this initiative were to use this large database to define more precisely the prognostic profile of this high-risk population, to perform rigorous, adequately-sized, subset analyses, to provide epidemiologic information and event rate estimation based on baseline demographics. The methodological challenges and limitations of such an analyses are discussed. It is proposed that some thoughtful foresight and planning could enable us to use the large number of clinical events that accrue during randomized clinical trials to address questions of scientific and clinical interest. PMID:22226005

  13. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

    1989-07-18

    Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Ticagrelor overcomes high platelet reactivity in patients with acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery in-stent restenosis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Yang, Yawei; Chen, Tao; Liu, Yu; Cao, Ailin; Liu, Junmei; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Xianxian; Qin, Yongwen; Ma, Liping

    2015-01-01

    High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is accompanied by an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Direct comparison of the antiplatelet effects between ticagrelor and high-dose clopidogrel has not yet been reported in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) patients with HTPR. Consecutive patients with AMI or coronary artery ISR treated with standard-dose clopidogrel (75 mg/day) were screened with the VerifyNow assay, defining HTPR as P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) >208. Of the 102 screened patients, 48 (47.06%) patients with HTPR were randomly assigned to either ticagrelor (180 mg/90 mg twice daily) or high-dose clopidogrel (150 mg/day) for 24 hours. Baseline characteristics and mean PRUs were similar in both groups. After 24 hours, ticagrelor was associated with a significantly lower platelet reactivity than high-dose clopidogrel (44.38 ± 40.26  vs. 212.58 ± 52.34 PRU, P < 0.05). No patient receiving ticagrelor exhibited HTPR, whereas 15 (62.50%) patients after treatment with high-dose clopidogrel remained HTPR (P < 0.05). During the follow-up (mean, 138.42 ± 53.59 days), no patient exhibited a major bleeding event in either treatment group. In conclusion, in patients with AMI or coronary artery ISR exhibiting HTPR after standard clopidogrel treatment, ticagrelor is significantly more effective compared with high-dose clopidogrel in overcoming HTPR. PMID:26350388

  15. Ticagrelor overcomes high platelet reactivity in patients with acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery in-stent restenosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Yang, Yawei; Chen, Tao; Liu, Yu; Cao, Ailin; Liu, Junmei; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Xianxian; Qin, Yongwen; Ma, Liping

    2015-01-01

    High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is accompanied by an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Direct comparison of the antiplatelet effects between ticagrelor and high-dose clopidogrel has not yet been reported in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) patients with HTPR. Consecutive patients with AMI or coronary artery ISR treated with standard-dose clopidogrel (75 mg/day) were screened with the VerifyNow assay, defining HTPR as P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs)>208. Of the 102 screened patients, 48 (47.06%) patients with HTPR were randomly assigned to either ticagrelor (180 mg/90 mg twice daily) or high-dose clopidogrel (150 mg/day) for 24 hours. Baseline characteristics and mean PRUs were similar in both groups. After 24 hours, ticagrelor was associated with a significantly lower platelet reactivity than high-dose clopidogrel (44.38±40.26  vs. 212.58±52.34 PRU, P<0.05). No patient receiving ticagrelor exhibited HTPR, whereas 15 (62.50%) patients after treatment with high-dose clopidogrel remained HTPR (P<0.05). During the follow-up (mean, 138.42±53.59 days), no patient exhibited a major bleeding event in either treatment group. In conclusion, in patients with AMI or coronary artery ISR exhibiting HTPR after standard clopidogrel treatment, ticagrelor is significantly more effective compared with high-dose clopidogrel in overcoming HTPR. PMID:26350388

  16. Long-term clinical outcome of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with and without diabetes mellitus in the Zwolle trial

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, J.R.; van der Horst, I.C.C.; Henriques, J.P.S.; Thomas, K.; Bilo, H.J.G.; Hoorntje, J.C.A.; de Boer, M.J.; Suryapranata, H.; Zijlstra, F.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives We sought to compare long-term survival after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolytic therapy. Background DM is an adverse prognostic factor after STEMI. However, there is only limited information about long-term clinical outcome in STEMI patients with DM treated with PCI or thrombolysis. Methods Patients with STEMI (n=395) were randomised to treatment either with intravenous streptokinase or PCI. Mean follow-up was 8±2 years. We studied long-term mortality of patients with DM (n=32) and without DM (n=363) and the interaction with the treatment regimen. Results After eight years, a total of 17 patients with DM (53%) died compared with 88 (24%) patients without DM (OR 3.5, p<0.001). Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after STEMI was more often present in patients with DM compared with patients without DM (31% vs. 15%, p=0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that DM (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.7, p=0.002), reduced LVEF (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.8, p<0.001) and age ≥60 years (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.8, p<0.001) were independent risk factors for long-term mortality. Patients with DM treated with PCI had less LVEF (13% vs. 53%, p=0.01) and lower long-term mortality rates (38% vs. 69%, p=0.08) compared with treatment with thrombolysis. Conclusions STEMI patients with DM are a high-risk group with higher long-term mortality rates compared with patients without DM. PCI is the treatment of choice, particularly in DM patients. PMID:25696147

  17. Impact of percutaneous coronary intervention on biomarker levels in patients in the subacute phase following myocardial infarction: the Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) biomarker ancillary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) Biomarker substudy was to evaluate the impact of infarct related artery (IRA) revascularization on serial levels of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and dynamics of other biomarkers related to left ventricular remodeling, fibrosis and angiogenesis. Methods Patients were eligible for OAT-Biomarker based on the main OAT criteria. Of 70 patients (age 60.8 ± 8.8, 25% women) enrolled in the substudy, 37 were randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 33 to optimal medical therapy alone. Baseline serum samples were obtained prior to OAT randomization with follow up samples taken at one year. The primary outcome was percent change of NT-proBNP from baseline to 1 year. The secondary outcomes were respective changes of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and Galectin-3. Results Paired (baseline and one-year) serum samples were obtained in 62 subjects. Baseline median NT-proBNP level was 944.8 (455.3, 1533) ng/L and decreased by 69% during follow-up (p < 0.0001). Baseline MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (p = 0.034, and p = 0.027 respectively), while MMP-9 level decreased from baseline (p = 0.038). Levels of VEGF and Galectin-3 remained stable at one year (p = NS for both). No impact of IRA revascularization on any biomarker dynamics were noted. Conclusions There were significant changes in measured biomarkers related to LV remodeling, stress, and fibrosis following MI between 0 and 12 month. Establishing infarct vessel patency utilizing stenting 24 hours-28 days post MI did not however influence the biomarkers’ release. PMID:24156746

  18. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction management in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Marco; Sonia Petronio, Anna

    2009-10-01

    The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction varies between European countries, as does total mortality as a result of acute myocardial infarction. These differences arise partly because of differences between countries in the time delay from symptom onset to first medical contact, and from first medical contact to reperfusion with thrombolysis or PCI. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines emphasize the importance of early reperfusion therapy. There are, however, often logistical delays in transport of the patient, in diagnosis of myocardial infarction and in preparation of medical teams to be available to perform PCI. Studies have shown that door-to-balloon time may improve with an integrated approach coordinating systems, procedures and institutions, and steps such as including prehospital triage and prehospital electrocardiogram transmission can dramatically reduce door-to-balloon time. Early transfer to PCI is associated with fewer ischaemic complications. PMID:19851218

  19. Recurrent myocardial infarction secondary to Prinzmetal’s variant angina

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Dale; Dhillon, Priyanka; Niranjan, Selvanayagam

    2015-01-01

    Prinzmetal’s variant angina describes chest pain secondary to reversible coronary artery vasospasm in the context of both diseased and non-diseased coronary arteries. Symptoms typically occur when the patient is at rest and are associated with transient ST-segment elevation. Acute episodes respond to glyceryl trinitrate, but myocardial infarction and other potentially fatal complications can occur, and long-term management can be challenging. Although it is not well understood, the underlying mechanism appears to involve a combination of endothelial damage and vasoactive mediators. In this case, a 35-year-old woman with myocardial infarction secondary to coronary artery vasospasm experienced recurrent chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed severe focal stenosis in the mid left anterior descending artery, which completely resolved after administration of intracoronary glyceryl trinitrate. The patient was discharged on nitrates and calcium channel blockers. The patient re-presented with another myocardial infarction, requiring up-titration of medical therapy. PMID:26034323

  20. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Perez-Downes, Julio; Hritani, Abdulwahab; Baldeo, Candice; Antoun, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient's choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions. PMID:27516911

  1. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hritani, Abdulwahab; Antoun, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient's choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions. PMID:27516911

  2. Cardiovascular collapse after myocardial infarction due to centipede bite.

    PubMed

    Üreyen, Çağin Mustafa; Arslan, Şakir; Baş, Cem Yunus

    2015-07-01

    Centipede bites have been reported to cause localized and/or systemic symptoms including local pain, erythema and edema, nausea and vomiting, palpitations, headache, lymphadenopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. However, acute myocardial infarction due to centipede envenomation is reported in only three cases in English medical literature.We present a case of 31-year-old male bitten by a golden colored centipede leading to myocardial infarction and cardiopulmonary arrest which is seen very rarely. The patient was admitted to emergency department with a swollen and painful right foot. However, typical chest pain became the major complaint and cardiopulmonary arrest developed while electrocardiography was being obtained. The patient was resuscitated successfully for 5 min and acute infero-posterolateral myocardial infarction was detected on electrocardiography. PMID:25994876

  3. Myocardial repair/remodelling following infarction: roles of local factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure is a global health problem, appearing most commonly in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac remodelling, particularly fibrosis, seen in both the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium is recognized to be a major determinant of the development of impaired ventricular function, leading to a poor prognosis. Elucidating cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of extracellular matrix is essential for designing cardioprotective and reparative strategies that could regress fibrosis after infarction. Multiple factors contribute to left ventricular remodelling at different stages post-MI. This review will discuss the role of oxidative stress and locally produced angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of myocardial repair/remodelling after MI. PMID:19050008

  4. Estimating the size of myocardial infarction by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, L W; Ridgway, J P; Nicoll, J J; Bell, D; Best, J J; Muir, A L

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To develop a method to measure myocardial infarct size by magnetic resonance imaging and to compare the results with pyrophosphate scanning by single photon emission computed tomography. DESIGN--All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and pyrophosphate scanning 5-7 days after the onset of symptoms. Both measurements of infarct size were compared with the release of creatine kinase MB and with ventricular performance estimated by radionuclide ventriculography. PATIENTS--19 patients (age 40-68 years) who had sustained their first uncomplicated myocardial infarction and who had not been treated with thrombolytic therapy. RESULTS--The site of infarction was clearly shown by both imaging techniques and was identical in each patient. The volume of infarcted tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging agreed well with the infarct size measured by single photon emission tomography (mean difference 2.7 cm3). Correlations of both imaging techniques with the release of creatine kinase MB were best when total release rather than peak release was used. Both imaging techniques correlated closely with the subsequent ventricular performance. CONCLUSIONS--Magnetic resonance imaging after acute infarction allows measurement of infarct size and this may prove useful in assessing new treatments designed to salvage myocardium. Images PMID:1836135

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition after myocardial infarction: a new approach to prevent heart failure?

    PubMed

    Creemers, E E; Cleutjens, J P; Smits, J F; Daemen, M J

    2001-08-01

    Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in numerous disease processes, including tumor growth and metastasis, arthritis, and periodontal disease. It is now becoming increasingly clear that extracellular matrix degradation by MMPs is also involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocardial infarction. Administration of synthetic MMP inhibitors in experimental animal models of these cardiovascular diseases significantly inhibits the progression of, respectively, atherosclerotic lesion formation, neointima formation, left ventricular remodeling, pump dysfunction, and infarct healing. This review focuses on the role of MMPs in cardiovascular disease, in particular myocardial infarction and the subsequent progression to heart failure. MMPs, which are present in the myocardium and capable of degrading all the matrix components of the heart, are the driving force behind myocardial matrix remodeling. The recent finding that acute pharmacological inhibition of MMPs or deficiency in MMP-9 attenuates left ventricular dilatation in the infarcted mouse heart led to the proposal that MMP inhibitors could be used as a potential therapy for patients at risk for the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Although these promising results encourage the design of clinical trials with MMP inhibitors, there are still several unresolved issues. This review describes the biology of MMPs and discusses new insights into the role of MMPs in several cardiovascular diseases. Attention will be paid to the central role of the plasminogen system as an important activator of MMPs in the remodeling process after myocardial infarction. Finally, we speculate on the use of MMP inhibitors as potential therapy for heart failure. PMID:11485970

  6. Asymptomatic myocardial infarction in Kawasaki disease: Long-term prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, I.; Onouchi, Z.; Hayano, T.; Hamaoka, K.; Kiyosawa, N. )

    1991-04-01

    Eight patients with Kawasaki disease who had sustained asymptomatic myocardial infarction 8-15 years ago (mean, 13.1 years) were reexamined by various noninvasive cardiac function tests to assess long-term prognosis. At present, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are normal in six patients. However, all eight patients had a prolonged preejection period (PEP) to left ventricular ejection time (LVET) ratio 30 s after amylnitrate (AN) inhalation. Six patients had perfusion defects by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and two patients developed ST segment depression in treadmill exercise testing. These patients are symptom-free even though their physical activity has not been restricted. Yet they proved to have serious abnormalities suggesting sequelae of myocardial infarction or existing myocardial ischemia. Judging from the results of noninvasive cardiac function tests and recently performed coronary angiography, five of the eight patients require coronary bypass surgery.

  7. Imaging Macrophage Development and Fate in Atherosclerosis and Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are central regulators of disease progression in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. In atherosclerosis, macrophages are the dominant leukocyte population that influences lesional development. In myocardial infarction, which is caused by atherosclerosis, macrophages accumulate readily and play important roles in inflammation and healing. Molecular imaging has grown considerably as a field and can reveal biological process at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels. Here we explore how various imaging modalities, from intravital microscopy in mice to organ-level imaging in patients, are contributing to our understanding of macrophages and their progenitors in cardiovascular disease. PMID:23207281

  8. Myocardial infarct death, the population at risk, and temperature habituation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, David B.; Auliciems, Andris

    1993-03-01

    Daily myocardial infarct deaths from Brisbane, 29°28' S, and Montreal, 45°30' N, were used to derive a “pool of susceptible individuals”. Pool size had no effect on the minimum death temperature but large pools increased the value of the acceleration temperature in Brisbane and the maximum death temperature in Montreal. Moderately sized pools in Montreal appeared to produce reduced death rates in cold conditions from both cold avoidance and habituation. A generalized relationship between temperature and myocardial infarct death is postulated.

  9. Evaluating variable selection methods for diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dreiseitl, S; Ohno-Machado, L; Vinterbo, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates the variable selection performed by several machine-learning techniques on a myocardial infarction data set. The focus of this work is to determine which of 43 input variables are considered relevant for prediction of myocardial infarction. The algorithms investigated were logistic regression (with stepwise, forward, and backward selection), backpropagation for multilayer perceptrons (input relevance determination), Bayesian neural networks (automatic relevance determination), and rough sets. An independent method (self-organizing maps) was then used to evaluate and visualize the different subsets of predictor variables. Results show good agreement on some predictors, but also variability among different methods; only one variable was selected by all models. PMID:10566358

  10. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults: causes and management

    PubMed Central

    Osula, S; Bell, G; Hornung, R

    2002-01-01

    The case report in this review illustrates an acute myocardial infarction in a young adult probably due to arterial thrombosis that can be attributed to a hypercoagulable state resulting from the nephrotic syndrome. Although rare, acute myocardial infarction should be considered in young adults presenting with chest pain. A detailed clinical history may help to identify the aetiology, and guide subsequent management, but diagnostic coronary angiography is essential. Careful risk factor modification and treatment of the underlying cause should reduce the incidence of recurrent cardiac events. PMID:11796868

  11. Paradoxical coronary artery embolism - a rare cause of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Fayaz A; Kransdorf, Evan P; Abudiab, Muaz M; Sweeney, John P

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical coronary artery embolism is a rare, but often an underdiagnosed cause of acute myocardial infarction. It should be considered in patient who presents with chest pain and otherwise having a low risk profile for atherosclerosis coronary artery disease. We describe a case of paradoxical coronary artery embolism causing ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with upper extremity venous thrombosis. Echocardiography demonstrated a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with bidirectional shunt. In addition to treatment of acute coronary event closure of the PFO should be considered to prevent a recurrence. PMID:25774255

  12. Paradoxical Coronary Artery Embolism - A Rare Cause of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Fayaz A.; Kransdorf, Evan P.; Abudiab, Muaz M.; Sweeney, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical coronary artery embolism is a rare, but often an underdiagnosed cause of acute myocardial infarction. It should be considered in patient who presents with chest pain and otherwise having a low risk profile for atherosclerosis coronary artery disease. We describe a case of paradoxical coronary artery embolism causing ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with upper extremity venous thrombosis. Echocardiography demonstrated a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with bidirectional shunt. In addition to treatment of acute coronary event closure of the PFO should be considered to prevent a recurrence. PMID:25774255

  13. Preoperative myocardial ischaemia: its relation to perioperative infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, H; Davies, G; Westaby, S; Prendiville, O F; Sapsford, R N; Oakley, C M

    1987-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly allocated to a preoperative (24 h) intravenous infusion of isosorbide dinitrate (1.5-15 mg/hr) (50 patients) or to placebo (50 patients). The characteristics of the two groups were similar. Evidence of acute myocardial ischaemia was sought by continuous electrocardiographic Holter recordings and acute myocardial infarction by the appearance of new Q waves and increased activity of the creatine kinase MB isoenzyme. Episodes of acute myocardial ischaemia were found in 18% of patients in the control group and in none of those who received isosorbide dinitrate. None the less, the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction was similar (22% and 18% respectively) in the two groups. Perioperative infarction was significantly more common in women, in patients with unstable angina or poor left ventricular function, in those who had coronary endarterectomy, and in those in whom the aortic clamping time was greater than 50 minutes. These factors may have obscured any effect that prevention of preoperative ischaemia had on perioperative infarction. Preoperative infusion of isosorbide dinitrate eliminated preoperative ischaemia but did not influence the occurrence of perioperative infarction. The probable benefits of prevention of preoperative ischaemia on postoperative left ventricular function, which is a determinant of long term survival, remain to be established. PMID:3304371

  14. Myocardial Infarction in Neonatal Mice, A Model of Cardiac Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jessica N; Lu, Xiangru; Arnold, Paul; Feng, Qingping

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction induced by coronary artery ligation has been used in many animal models as a tool to study the mechanisms of cardiac repair and regeneration, and to define new targets for therapeutics. For decades, models of complete heart regeneration existed in amphibians and fish, but a mammalian counterpart was not available. The recent discovery of a postnatal window during which mice possess regenerative capabilities has led to the establishment of a mammalian model of cardiac regeneration. A surgical model of mammalian cardiac regeneration in the neonatal mouse is presented herein. Briefly, postnatal day 1 (P1) mice are anesthetized by isoflurane and placed on an ice pad to induce hypothermia. After the chest is opened, and the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is visualized, a suture is placed around the LAD to inflict myocardial ischemia in the left ventricle. The surgical procedure takes 10-15 min. Visualizing the coronary artery is crucial for accurate suture placement and reproducibility. Myocardial infarction and cardiac dysfunction are confirmed by triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and echocardiography, respectively. Complete regeneration 21 days post myocardial infarction is verified by histology. This protocol can be used to as a tool to elucidate mechanisms of mammalian cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction. PMID:27286473

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intracoronary application of a novel bioabsorbable cardiac matrix for the prevention of ventricular remodeling after large ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Rationale and design of the PRESERVATION I trial.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sunil V; Zeymer, Uwe; Douglas, Pamela S; Al-Khalidi, Hussein; Liu, Jingyu; Gibson, C Michael; Harrison, Robert W; Joseph, Diane S; Heyrman, Reinilde; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2015-11-01

    Postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling can result in chronic heart failure and functional impairment. Although pharmacological strategies for established heart failure can be beneficial, preventing remodeling remains a challenge. Injectable bioabsorbable alginate or "bioabsorbable cardiac matrix" (BCM), composed of an aqueous mixture of sodium alginate and calcium gluconate, is a sterile colorless liquid that is a polysaccharide polymer produced from brown seaweed. When exposed to excess ionized calcium present in infarcted myocardium, BCM assembles to form a flexible gel, structurally resembling extracellular matrix, which provides temporary structural support to the infarct zone through and beyond the time needed for mature fibrotic tissue to develop. The PRESERVATION I trial is an early phase randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing intracoronary application of 4 mL of BCM with saline control in patients who develop large infarctions after successful reperfusion of large ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Subjects will be randomized 2:1 to either BCM or saline control and will have the study device deployed through an intracoronary microcatheter in the infarct-related artery 2 to 5 days after index ST-segment elevation MI treated with successful primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary effectiveness end point is the absolute change in LV diastolic volume index as measured by 3-dimensional echocardiography from baseline to 6 months after BCM deployment. Secondary effectiveness end points include clinical outcomes, patient-reported quality of life, additional echocardiographic measures, and functional status measures. In summary, the PRESERVATION I trial is a randomized double-blind trial evaluating the effectiveness and safety of the novel device BCM in preventing LV remodeling patients who have large MIs despite undergoing successful primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID

  16. Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Valle, L.; Uruchurtu, E.; Medel, A.; García-Mayen, F.; Serrano-Luna, G.

    2003-09-01

    Healing of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with inflammatory response, which promotes healing and scar formation. Activation of a local inflammatory response in patients with sequel of AMI could have an important role to enhance angiogenesis and regeneration of hibernating myocardial tissue. Chronic arterial leg ulcers have a similar etiology, and healing has been promoted by exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF). We report the evolution of three AMI patients with sequel of AMI that were exposed to ELF.

  17. Spatial analysis of myocardial infarction in Iran: National report from the Iranian myocardial infarction registry

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Etemad, Koorosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Iran. No spatial analysis of MI has been conducted to date. The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of MI incidence and to identify the associated factors in Iran by province. Materials and Methods: This study has two parts. One part is prospective and hospital-based, and the other part is an ecological study. In this study, the data of 20,750 new MI cases registered in Iranian Myocardial Infarction Registry in 2012 were used. For spatial analysis in global and local, spatial autocorrelation, Moran's I, Getis-Ord, and logistic regression models were used. Data were analyzed by Stata software and ArcGIS 9.3. Results: Based on autocorrelation coefficient, a specific pattern was observed in the distribution of MI incidence in different provinces (Moran's I: 0.75, P < 0.001). Spatial pattern of incidence was approximately the same in men and women. MI incidence was clustering in six provinces (North Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Semnan, Golestan, and Mazandaran). Out of the associated factors with clustered MI in six provinces, temperature, humidity, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) could be mentioned. Hypertension, smoking, and BMI contributed to clustering with, respectively, 2.36, 1.31, and 1.31 odds ratio. Conclusion: Addressing the place-based pattern of incidence and clarifying their epidemiologic dimension, including spatial analysis, has not yet been implemented in Iran. Report on MI incidence rate by place and formal borders is useful and is used in the planning and prioritization in different levels of health system. PMID:26487871

  18. Current trend of acute myocardial infarction in Korea (from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from 2006 to 2013).

    PubMed

    Kook, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Oh, Sangeun; Yoo, Sung-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Ju Han; Chai, Leem Soon; Kim, Young Jo; Kim, Chong Jin; Chan Cho, Myeong

    2014-12-15

    Although the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea has been rapidly changed because of westernization of diet, lifestyle, and aging of the population, the recent trend of the myocardial infarction have not been reported by classification. We investigated recent trends in the incidence and mortality associated with the 2 major types of AMI. We reviewed 39,978 patients registered in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry for either ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from 2006 to 2013. When the rate for AMI were investigated according to each year, the incidence rates of STEMI decreased markedly from 60.5% in 2006 to 48.1% in 2013 (p <0.001). In contrast, a gradual increase in the incidence rates of NSTEMI was observed from 39.5% in 2006 to 51.9% in 2013 (p <0.001). As risk factors, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were much more common in patients with NSTEMI than STEMI. Among medical treatments, the use of β blockers, angiotensin receptor blocker, and statin were increased from 2006 to 2013 in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. Patients with STEMI and NSTEMI were more inclined to be increasingly treated by invasive treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the trend of myocardial infarction has been changed rapidly in the aspect of risk factors, ratio of STEMI versus NSTEMI, and therapeutic strategies during the recent 8 years in Korea. PMID:25438907

  19. Stem Cell Therapy for Myocardial Infarction 2001-2013 Revisited.

    PubMed

    Edlinger, Christoph; Schreiber, Catharina; Wernly, Bernhard; Anker, Alexandra; Ruzicka, Katja; Jung, Christian; Hoppe, Uta C; Lichtenauer, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell therapy for ischemic heart disease was an emerging concept in the early 2000s. First hopes were largely overshadowed by rather inconsistent results in human trials conducted in the middle of the decade. We aimed at investigating how the field of stem cell research expanded worldwide over the years using scientometric methods. We performed a PubMed inquiry and screened a total of 2609 publications dealing with stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction in the years 2001-2013. Density equalizing maps were used to visualize important centres of stem cell research worldwide. This systematic bibliometric study revealed an increasing research interest in the field of stem cell research in the context of ischemic heart disease over the last decade. Though some of the large human trials failed to show significant effects of stem cell therapy, especially basic science represents an ever growing field that evolved promising new concepts over the last couple of years. The scientific principle of protective paracrine mediators released from transplanted stem cells seems to bear great potential for future cell-free therapeutic use. However, further mechanistic insights are needed before transition from bench to bedside should be attempted, taking the lessons learned from previous studies into account. PMID:26105665

  20. Holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey

    1994-07-01

    Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.

  1. Altered filtrability of white blood cells after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bogár, L; Mikita, J; Nash, G B; Smith, M J; Dormandy, J A; Tekeres, M

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal white blood cell rheological behaviour has been implicated as a cause of blood flow disturbances under conditions of ischaemia and reduced perfusion pressure. Accordingly, we have tested the mechanical properties of white cells following myocardial infarction by measuring the rate at which suspension of these cells cause plugging of Nuclepore filters. The number of clogging particles in a standard white cell suspension increased by the third day after infarction but subsequently decreased to the control levels. Since white cells can cause blockage of narrow blood vessels, it is assumed that such changes in cellular properties may influence the eventual extent of infarction. PMID:2812961

  2. Interrater reliability of a national acute myocardial infarction register

    PubMed Central

    Govatsmark, Ragna Elise Støre; Sneeggen, Sylvi; Karlsaune, Hanne; Slørdahl, Stig Arild; Bønaa, Kaare Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease-specific registers may be used for measuring and improving healthcare and patient outcomes, and for disease surveillance and research, provided they contain valid and reliable data. The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of all variables in a national myocardial infarction register. Methods We randomly selected 280 patients who had been enrolled from 14 hospitals to the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Register during the year 2013. Experienced audit nurses, who were blinded to the data about the 280 patients already in the register, completed the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction paper forms for 240 patients by review of medical records. We then extracted all registered data on the same patients from the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Register. To compare the interrater reliability between the register and the audit nurses, we calculated intraclass correlations coefficient for continuous variables, Cohen’s kappa and Gwet’s first agreement coefficient (AC1) for nominal variables, and quadratic weighted Cohen’s kappa and Gwet’s second AC for ordinal variables. Results We found excellent (AC1 >0.80) or good (AC1 0.61–0.80) agreement for most variables, including date and time variables, medical history, investigations and treatments during hospitalization, medication at discharge, and ST-segment elevation or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, only moderate agreement (AC1 0.41–0.60) was found for family history of coronary heart disease, diagnostic electrocardiography, and complications during hospitalization, whereas fair agreement (AC1 0.21–0.40) was found for acute myocardial infarction location. A high percentage of missing data was found for symptom onset, family history, body mass index, infarction location, and new Q-wave. Conclusion Most variables in Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Register had excellent or good reliability. However, some important variables had lower

  3. Serum estrogen levels in men with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Haffajee, C I; Hochman, J S; Sacks, G M; Dalen, J E

    1982-12-01

    Serum estradiol and serum estrone levels were assessed in 29 men in 14 men in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out; in 12 men without apparent coronary heart disease but hospitalized in an intensive care unit; and in 28 men who were not hospitalized and who acted as control subjects. (The 12 men who were hospitalized but who did not have coronary heart disease were included to control for physical and emotional stress of a severe medical illness.) Ages ranged from 21 to 56 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly among groups. Blood samples were obtained in the patient groups on each of the first three days of hospitalization. The serum estrone level was significantly elevated in all four patient groups when compared with that in the control group. Estrone level, then, did not differentiate patients with and without coronary heart disease. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in the groups with myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and in the group in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out. However, estradiol levels were not significantly elevated in the group in the intensive care unit without coronary heart disease when compared to the level in the normal control group. Serum estradiol levels, then, were elevated in men with confirmed or suspected coronary heart disease but were not elevated in men without coronary heart disease even under the stressful conditions found in an intensive care unit. Serum estradiol levels were significantly and positively correlated (p less than 0.03) with serum total creatine phosphokinase levels in the patients with myocardial infarction. The five patients with myocardial infarction who died within 10 days of admission had markedly elevated serum estradiol levels. The potential significance of these serum estradiol elevations is discussed in terms of estradiol's ability to enhance adrenergic neural activity and the resultant increase in myocardial oxygen demand. PMID:7148879

  4. Spontaneous changes in /sup 201/Tl myocardial perfusion imaging after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Buda, A.J.; Dubbin, J.D.; MacDonald, I.L.; Strauss, H.D.; Orr, S.A.; Meindok, H.

    1982-12-01

    To examine regional myocardial perfusion after myocardial infarction, 26 patients underwent exercise electrocardiographic testing with /sup 201/Tl myocardial perfusion imaging 3 weeks and 3 months after infarction. At 3 weeks, 9 of 26 patients (35%) had myocardial ischemia by exercise electrocardiographic testing, whereas 18 of 26 (69%) had ischemia by /sup 201/Tl imaging. The /sup 201/Tl scintigrams were scored by dividing each image, in 3 views, into 5 segments, using a 5-point scoring scheme. The exercise /sup 201/Tl score was 44.3 +/- 1.2 and increased to 47.3 +/- 1.2 in the redistribution study (p less than 0.001). Three months after infarction, although there was a significantly greater rate-pressure product which would predict a larger ischemic defect and a decrease in the stress /sup 201/Tl score, the stress score was improved (48.3 +/- 1.1, p less than 0.001). The redistribution score was similar, that is, 48.9 +/- 1.0. The improvement in /sup 201/Tl myocardial perfusion was associated with a loss of stress-induced ischemia in 8 patients (30%). These results indicate that spontaneous improvements in /sup 201/Tl myocardial perfusion imaging may occur after myocardial infarction.

  5. Space weather and myocardial infarction diseases at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey; Kleimenova, Natalia; Petrova, Palmira

    The relationship of the number of calls for the emergency medical care in Yakutsk (subauroral latitudes) in connection with myocardial infarction diseases during years near the maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) of the 11-year geomagnetic disturbance cycle to space weather parameters has been studied. It is found that at subauroral latitudes, the increase of geomagnetic activity, namely, the occurrence of night magnetospheric substorms, plays the important role in the exacerbation of myocardial infarctions. Substorms are accompanied by Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations with periods of (0.5-3.0) Hz, coinciding with heart rhythms of a human being, thus, these waves can be a biotropic factor negatively influencing on the occurrence of myocardial infarctions. The comparison of seasonal change of the number of calls for emergency medical care to patients at subauroral latitudes with a simultaneous seasonal change of fatal endings because of an infarction at low latitudes (Bulgaria) has shown their essential difference. Thus, in Bulgaria the maximum of infarctions have been marked in winter, and minimum - in summer, and in Yakutsk a few maxima coinciding with the sharp and considerable increases of the level of the planetary geomagnetic disturbances have been observed. In this case, in Bulgaria the infarctions could be connected with availability of the Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations. Thus, the stable quasi-sinusoidal Pc1 pulsations can be a biotropic factor influencing on the development of myocardial infarctions at middle latitudes and the Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations, which do not propagate to the lower latitudes, could be a biotropic factor at subauroral latitudes.

  6. Atrial myocardial infarction: A tale of the forgotten chamber.

    PubMed

    Lu, Marvin Louis Roy; De Venecia, Toni; Patnaik, Soumya; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    It has been almost a century since atrial infarction was first described, yet data describing its significance remain limited. To date, there are still no universally accepted criteria for the diagnosis of atrial infarction. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of atrial infarction but it has also been described in cor pulmonale and pulmonary hypertension. Atrial infarction almost always occurs concomitantly with ventricular infarction. Its clinical presentation depends largely on the extent and site of ventricular involvement. Atrial infarction can present with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria for diagnosing atrial infarction have been described but none have yet to be validated by prospective studies. Atrial ECG patterns include abnormal P-wave morphologies, PR-segment deviations, as well as transient rhythm abnormalities, including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, wandering atrial pacemaker (WAP) and atrioventricular (AV) blocks. Complications of atrial infarction include thromboembolic events and cardiogenic shock. There are no specific additional recommendations in the management of myocardial infarction with suspected involvement of the atria. The primary goal remains coronary reperfusion and maintenance of, or conversion to, sinus rhythm. PMID:26485186

  7. When to consider an implantable cardioverter defibrillator following myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Szwejkowski, Benjamin R; Wright, Gary A; Connelly, Derek T; Gardner, Roy S

    2015-12-01

    After reading this article the reader should be familiar with: Current guidelines for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) use post myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Primary prevention ICD guidelines. Secondary prevention ICD guidelines. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients post MI and the use of ICDs. Programming ICDs. PMID:26526420

  8. THE THROMBOLYSIS IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION STUDY (TIMI II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compares the following two treatment strategies in patients with acute myocardial infarction: (1) routine coronary arteriography performed 18 to 48 hours after the administration of rt-PA, followed by prophylactic PTCA (or CABG) if arteriography demonstrated that the anatomy was ...

  9. Adaptation to a Myocardial Infarction from a Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Explored the interactional effect between victims' (N=30) adult developmental stage and their coping and emotional reactions following a myocardial infarction (MI). The findings point to the usefulness of adult developmental psychology in understanding the divergent emotional and coping reactions of MI patients across the life-cycle. (Author/JAC)

  10. Group Counseling Approaches with Persons Who Have Sustained Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch; Sherwood-Hawes, Ardis

    1993-01-01

    Presents group counseling strategies for working with clients who have sustained myocardial infarctions, or heart attacks. MI victims can be assisted with transition from hospital, readjustment to daily life, coping with fears and frustrations of life and the illness. Advantages of counseling, primary goals, and common topics are discussed.…

  11. Modeling Myocardial Infarction in Mice: Methodology, Monitoring, Pathomorphology

    PubMed Central

    Ovsepyan, A.A.; Panchenkov, D.N.; Prokhortchouk, E.B.; Telegin, G.B.; Zhigalova, N.A.; Golubev, E.P.; Sviridova, T.E.; Matskeplishvili, S.T.; Skryabin, K.G.; Buziashvili, U.I.

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is one of the most serious and widespread diseases in the world. In this work, a minimally invasive method for simulating myocardial infarction in mice is described in the Russian Federation for the very first time; the procedure is carried out by ligation of the coronary heart artery or by controlled electrocoagulation. As a part of the methodology, a series of anesthetic, microsurgical and revival protocols are designed, owing to which a decrease in the postoperational mortality from the initial 94.6 to 13.6% is achieved. ECG confirms the development of large-focal or surface myocardial infarction. Postmortal histological examination confirms the presence of necrosis foci in the heart muscles of 87.5% of animals. Altogether, the medical data allow us to conclude that an adequate mouse model for myocardial infarction was generated. A further study is focused on the standardization of the experimental procedure and the use of genetically modified mouse strains, with the purpose of finding the most efficient therapeutic approaches for this disease. PMID:22649679

  12. Phaeochromocytoma presenting with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed A; Abdullah, Abdullah Sayied; Kiernan, Thomas John

    2016-01-01

    Phaeochromocytoma is a rare endocrine disorder with different cardiovascular presentations. In this brief report, we discuss a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction secondary to phaeochromocytoma. Coronary angiogram showed non-obstructive coronary artery disease. PMID:26857585

  13. RNA interference targeting SHP-1 attenuates myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Masahiro; Tsuchida, Keiko; Hata, Tomoji; Makino, Naoki

    2005-12-01

    The Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) plays a key role in apoptosis and decreases phosphorylation of Akt. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes is thought to contribute to the increased area of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and Akt activation exerts a powerful cardioprotective effect after ischemia. Thus, a therapeutic strategy designed to inhibit expression of SHP-1 would be beneficial in AMI. Here we report that siRNA targeting SHP-1 reduced infarct size in a rat model of AMI. Upon injection into the ischemic left ventricular wall, the vector-based siRNA significantly suppressed the increase in the SHP-1 mRNA and the SHP-1 protein levels. The siRNA vector also significantly reduced the SHP-1 that bound to Fas-R. The SHP-1 siRNA vector increased phospho-Akt and reduced DNA fragmentation and caspase activity compared with the scramble siRNA vector. Finally, the area of myocardial infarction was significantly smaller with the SHP-1 siRNA vector than with the scramble siRNA vector at 2 days after LCA ligation. In conclusion, SHP-1 in the heart increased from the early stage of AMI, and this increase was thought to contribute to the increased area of myocardial infarction. Suppression of SHP-1 with the SHP-1 siRNA vector markedly reduced the infarct size in AMI. PMID:16223786

  14. Invasive surgery reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function in a porcine model of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    van Hout, Gerardus PJ; Teuben, Michel PJ; Heeres, Marjolein; de Maat, Steven; de Jong, Renate; Maas, Coen; Kouwenberg, Lisanne HJA; Koenderman, Leo; van Solinge, Wouter W; de Jager, Saskia CA; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Hoefer, Imo E

    2015-01-01

    Reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction (MI) increases infarct size (IS) and deteriorates cardiac function. Cardioprotective strategies in large animal MI models often failed in clinical trials, suggesting translational failure. Experimentally, MI is induced artificially and the effect of the experimental procedures may influence outcome and thus clinical applicability. The aim of this study was to investigate if invasive surgery, as in the common open chest MI model affects IS and cardiac function. Twenty female landrace pigs were subjected to MI by transluminal balloon occlusion. In 10 of 20 pigs, balloon occlusion was preceded by invasive surgery (medial sternotomy). After 72 hrs, pigs were subjected to echocardiography and Evans blue/triphenyl tetrazoliumchloride double staining to determine IS and area at risk. Quantification of IS showed a significant IS reduction in the open chest group compared to the closed chest group (IS versus area at risk: 50.9 ± 5.4% versus 69.9 ± 3.4%, P = 0.007). End systolic LV volume and LV ejection fraction measured by echocardiography at follow-up differed significantly between both groups (51 ± 5 ml versus 65 ± 3 ml, P = 0.033; 47.5 ± 2.6% versus 38.8 ± 1.2%, P = 0.005). The inflammatory response in the damaged myocardium did not differ between groups. This study indicates that invasive surgery reduces IS and preserves cardiac function in a porcine MI model. Future studies need to elucidate the effect of infarct induction technique on the efficacy of pharmacological therapies in large animal cardioprotection studies. PMID:26282710

  15. Regional left ventricular myocardial contractility and stress in a finite element model of posterobasal myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Jonathan F; Sun, Kay; Zhang, Zhihong; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Ge, Liang; Saloner, David; Wallace, Arthur W; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M

    2011-04-01

    Recently, a noninvasive method for determining regional myocardial contractility, using an animal-specific finite element (FE) model-based optimization, was developed to study a sheep with anteroapical infarction (Sun et al., 2009, "A Computationally Efficient Formal Optimization of Regional Myocardial Contractility in a Sheep With Left Ventricular Aneurysm," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(11), p. 111001). Using the methodology developed in the previous study (Sun et al., 2009, "A Computationally Efficient Formal Optimization of Regional Myocardial Contractility in a Sheep With Left Ventricular Aneurysm," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(11), p. 111001), which incorporates tagged magnetic resonance images, three-dimensional myocardial strains, left ventricular (LV) volumes, and LV cardiac catheterization pressures, the regional myocardial contractility and stress distribution of a sheep with posterobasal infarction were investigated. Active material parameters in the noninfarcted border zone (BZ) myocardium adjacent to the infarct (T(max_B)), in the myocardium remote from the infarct (T(max_R)), and in the infarct (T(max_I)) were estimated by minimizing the errors between FE model-predicted and experimentally measured systolic strains and LV volumes using the previously developed optimization scheme. The optimized T(max_B) was found to be significantly depressed relative to T(max_R), while T(max_I) was found to be zero. The myofiber stress in the BZ was found to be elevated, relative to the remote region. This could cause further damage to the contracting myocytes, leading to heart failure. PMID:21428685

  16. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M.; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y.; Soward, Alan

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health. PMID:27226918

  17. Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicating Active Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitraki, Eva D.; Ahamed, Mubarak; Bunce, Nicholas H.

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but can involve extraintestinal organs including musculoskeletal system and skin. The most frequent cardiac manifestations of UC are pericarditis and myocarditis. Patients display an increased risk for venous thromboembolic complications and mesenteric ischemia, but the association with ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction is uncertain. We present the case of a 27-year-old man with anti-PRIII ANCA-positive ulcerative colitis and increased factor VIII activity who presented with an acute myocardial infarction. We discuss possible causative links between these clinical entities and demonstrate the role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with underlying inflammatory conditions who present with chest pain and evidence of myocardial damage. PMID:24826231

  18. 131Cs myocardial scintigraphy. Application to assessment of anterior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Burguet, W; Merchie, G; Kulbertus, H

    1975-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that caesium-131 is a good myocardial scanning agent for the demonstration of anterior infarcts. One hundred and ten patients with documented anterior myocardial infarction were studied by 131Cs myocardial scintigraphy. An anterior area of decreased uptake of caesium was noted in all but 3 subjects whose necrotic zone was likely to be of small dimensions. In 20 cases, the scintigram showed a definite, sometimes very large, cold area whereas the electrocardiogram failed to display any diagnostic feature of myocardial necrosis. In most of the latter instances, the electrocardiographic diagnosis was obscured by the presence of intraventricular conduction disturbances. In order to visualize the intracardiac cavities, the 131Cs investigation was usually completed by a 113mIn scintigram, which allowed recognition of a parietal aneurysm in 12 of the 18 patients with extensive anterior lesions. In each case, an index of necrosis was computed from planimetric measurements of the infarcted area as compared to the total left ventricular surfact in both the anteroposterior and left anterior oblique projections. This index was shown to correlate with the incidence of major complications developing after the acute episode of coronary occlusion. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the method are briefly discussed. It is felt that myocardial scintigraphy represents a sound approach to the semiquantitative assessment of anterior myocardial infarction; the clinical usefulness of the technique seems sufficiently demonstrated to prompt further research in this field. Images PMID:1191417

  19. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; P<0.00001) and 39% relative reduction in MACE (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45–0.83; P = 0.002). The benefit of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin

  20. Depression Increases Sympathetic Activity and Exacerbates Myocardial Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction: Evidence from an Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoran; Ruan, Bing; Sun, Lifang; Tang, Yanhong; Yang, Bo; Hu, Dan; Huang, Congxin

    2014-01-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Excessive sympathetic activation and serious myocardial remodeling may contribute to this association. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of depression on sympathetic activity and myocardial remodeling after MI. Wild-type (WT) rats were divided into a sham group (Sham), a myocardial infarction group (MI), a depression group (D), and a myocardial infarction plus depression group (MI+D). Compared with controls, the MI+D animals displayed depression-like behaviors and attenuated body weight gain. The evaluation of sympathetic activity showed an increased level in plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine and higher expression of myocardial tyrosine hydroxylase in the MI+D group than the control groups (p<0.05 for all). Cardiac function and morphologic analyses revealed a decreased fractional shortening accompanied by increased left ventricular dimensions, thinning myocardium wall, and reduced collagen repair in the MI+D group compared with the MI group (p<0.05 for all). Frequent premature ventricular contractions, prolonged QT duration and ventricular repolarization duration, shorted effective refractory period, and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia were displayed in MI+D rats. These results indicate that sympathetic hyperactivation and exacerbated myocardial remodeling may be a plausible mechanism linking depression to an adverse prognosis after MI. PMID:25036781

  1. Role of myocardial perfusion imaging in evaluating thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, G.A.

    1987-03-01

    Myocardial thallium-201 scintigraphy is being increasingly employed as a method for assessing the efficacy of coronary reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction. New thallium uptake after intracoronary tracer administration after successful recanalization indicates that nutrient blood flow has been successfully restored. One may also presume that some myocardial salvage occurred if thallium administered in this manner is transported intracellularly by myocytes with intact sarcolemmal membranes. However, if one injects thallium by way of the intracoronary route immediately after reperfusion, the initial uptake of thallium in reperfused myocardium may predominantly represent hyperemic flow and regional thallium counts measured may not be proportional to the mass of viable myocytes. When thallium is injected intravenously during the occlusion phase the degree of redistribution after thrombolysis is proportional to the degree of flow restoration and myocardial viability. When thallium is injected for the first time intravenously immediately after reperfusion, an overestimation of myocardial salvage may occur because of excess thallium uptake in the infarct zone consequent to significant hyperemia. Another approach to myocardial thallium scintigraphy in patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy is to administer two separate intravenous injections before and 24 hours or later after treatment. Finally, patients with acute myocardial infarction who receive intravenous thrombolytic therapy are candidates for predischarge exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy for risk stratification and detection of residual ischemia.

  2. [Antithrombotic therapy after myocardial infarction: arguments for the use of acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives].

    PubMed

    Waskowsky, W M; Brouwer, A; Verheugt, F W A

    2005-01-01

    Patients who survived myocardial infarction and who are being treated with the current optimal therapy (antithrombotics, statins and beta-blockers), have a 10-20% chance of death, re-infarction and stroke within in the first year. A possible explanation for this could be an increased activation and generation ofthrombin for at least 6 months following the cardiovascular event preceding preventative therapy. Acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel do not affect activation by thrombin of the platelet aggregation and the clotting cascade. The additional use of cumarin derivatives could therefore reduce the chance of recurring thrombotic events, and subsequently improve prognosis. Since the nineteen-nineties several randomised trials have been conducted to study the clinical relevance ofcumarin derivatives both with and without acetylsalicylic acid, in patients who had had a myocardial infarction. The conclusions of these studies were not unambiguous. If the international normalized ratio (INR) was kept > 2 for a long period, by means of frequent check-ups and effective dosage adjustment, the chance of death, recurrent myocardial infarction or stroke was 30-50% lower than when acetylsalicylic acid only was used. The risk of bleeding was raised by 2-4 times, but there were no life-threatening episodes of bleeding. In view of the recent development of anticoagulant agents, for which monitoring seems to be becoming unnecessary, identification of patients who would benefit most from a combined antithrombotic strategy is warranted. PMID:15688836

  3. Pathological observation of acute myocardial infarction in Chinese miniswine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuang; Wang, Shao-Xin; Dong, Ping-Shuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Duan, Na-Na; Wang, Yan-Yu; Wang, Ke; Li, Zhuan-Zhen; Wei, Li-Juan; Meng, Ya-Li; Cheng, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in Chinese miniswine was built by percutaneous coronary artery occlusion. Pathological observation of AMI was performed, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infarct sites was detected at different days after modeling in Chinese miniswine. The experimental findings may be used as the basis for blood flow reconstruction and intervention after AMI. Seven experimental Chinese miniswine were subjected to general anesthesia and Seldinger right femoral artery puncture. After coronary angiography, the gelfoam was injected via the microtube to occlude the obtuse marginal branch (OM branch). At 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d, 14 d and 17 d after modeling, hetatoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe the pathological changes and to detect the expression of TNF-α in the myocardial tissues. Cytoplasmic acidophilia of the necrotic myocardial tissues at 1 d after modeling was enhanced, and cytoplasmic granules were formed; at 3 d, the margins of the necrotic myocardial tissues were infiltrated by a large number of inflammatory cells; at 5 d, the nuclei of the necrotic myocardial cells were fragmented; at 7 d, extensive granulation tissues were formed at the margin of the necrotic myocardial tissues; at 10 d, part of the granulation tissues were replaced by fibrous scar tissues; at 14-17 d, all granulation tissues were replaced by fibrous scar tissues. Immunohistochemical detection indicated that no TNF-α expression in normal myocardial tissues. The TNF-α expression was first detected at 3 d in the necrotic myocardial tissues and then increased at 5 d and 7 d. After reaching the peak at 10 d, the expression began to decrease at 14 d and the decrease continued at 17 d. Coronary angiography showed the disappearance of blood flow at the distal end of OM branch occluded by gelfoam, indicating that AMI model was constructed successfully. The repair of the infarcted myocardium began at 10-17 d after

  4. Prognostic significance of infarct core pathology revealed by quantitative non-contrast in comparison with contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction survivors

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Rauhalammi, Sam; Ahmed, Nadeem; Mordi, Ify; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C.; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, Mitchell; Mahrous, Ahmed; Ford, Ian; Tzemos, Niko; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Oldroyd, Keith G.; Berry, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the prognostic significance of infarct core tissue characteristics using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in survivors of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results We performed an observational prospective single centre cohort study in 300 reperfused STEMI patients (mean ± SD age 59 ± 12 years, 74% male) who underwent CMR 2 days and 6 months post-myocardial infarction (n = 267). Native T1 was measured in myocardial regions of interest (n = 288). Adverse remodelling was defined as an increase in left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume ≥20% at 6 months. All-cause death or first heart failure hospitalization was a pre-specified outcome that was assessed during follow-up (median duration 845 days). One hundred and sixty (56%) patients had a hypo-intense infarct core disclosed by native T1. In multivariable regression, infarct core native T1 was inversely associated with adverse remodelling [odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)] per 10 ms reduction in native T1: 0.91 (0.82, 0.00); P = 0.061). Thirty (10.4%) of 288 patients died or experienced a heart failure event and 13 of these events occurred post-discharge. Native T1 values (ms) within the hypo-intense infarct core (n = 160 STEMI patients) were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause death or first hospitalization for heart failure post-discharge (for a 10 ms increase in native T1: hazard ratio 0.730, 95% CI 0.617, 0.863; P < 0.001) including after adjustment for left ventricular ejection fraction, infarct core T2 and myocardial haemorrhage. The prognostic results for microvascular obstruction were similar. Conclusion Infarct core native T1 represents a novel non-contrast CMR biomarker with potential for infarct characterization and prognostication in STEMI survivors. Confirmatory studies are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02072850. PMID:26261290

  5. Protein Therapeutics for Cardiac Regeneration after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Vincent F.M.; Lee, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    Although most medicines have historically been small molecules, many newly approved drugs are derived from proteins. Protein therapies have been developed for treatment of diseases in almost every organ system, including the heart. Great excitement has now arisen in the field of regenerative medicine, particularly for cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction. Every year, millions of people suffer from acute myocardial infarction, but the adult mammalian myocardium has limited regeneration potential. Regeneration of the heart after myocardium infarction is therefore an exciting target for protein therapeutics. In this review, we discuss different classes of proteins that have therapeutic potential to regenerate the heart after myocardial infarction. Protein candidates have been described that induce angiogenesis, including fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors, although thus far clinical development has been disappointing. Chemotactic factors that attract stem cells, e.g. hepatocyte growth factor and stromal cell derived factor-1, may also be useful. Finally, neuregulins and periostin are proteins that induce cell cycle reentry of cardiomyocytes, and growth factors like IGF-1 can induce growth and differentiation of stem cells. As our knowledge of the biology of regenerative processes and the role of specific proteins in these processes increases, the use of proteins as regenerative drugs could develop as a cardiac therapy. PMID:20607468

  6. Suspected acute myocardial infarction in a dystrophin-deficient dog.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sarah Morar; Coleman, Amanda Erickson; Guo, Lee-Jae; Tou, Sandra; Keene, Bruce W; Kornegay, Joe N

    2016-06-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a model for the genetically homologous human disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Unlike the mildly affected mdx mouse, GRMD recapitulates the severe DMD phenotype. In addition to skeletal muscle involvement, DMD boys develop cardiomyopathy. While the cardiomyopathy of DMD is typically slowly progressive, rare early episodes of acute cardiac decompensation, compatible with myocardial infarction, have been described. We report here a 7-month-old GRMD dog with an apparent analogous episode of myocardial infarction. The dog presented with acute signs of cardiac disease, including tachyarrhythmia, supraventricular premature complexes, and femoral pulse deficits. Serum cardiac biomarkers, cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), were markedly increased. Echocardiography showed areas of hyperechoic myocardial enhancement, typical of GRMD cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular dyskinesis and elevated cTnI were suggestive of acute myocardial damage/infarction. Over a 3-year period, progression to a severe dilated phenotype was observed. PMID:27105608

  7. Transient myocardial ischaemia after acute myocardial infarction does not induce ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    Currie, P; Saltissi, S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether transient myocardial ischaemia on ambulatory monitoring after myocardial infarction is associated with ventricular arrhythmias. DESIGN--A prospective study. SETTING--The coronary care unit, general medical wards, and cardiorespiratory department of a major teaching hospital. PATIENTS--203 consecutive patients without specific exclusion criteria admitted with acute myocardial infarction. INTERVENTIONS--24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring for ventricular arrhythmias and ST depression both early (mean 6.3 days after infarction, n = 201) and late (mean 38 days, n = 177). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Episodes of myocardial ischaemia were identified during ambulatory monitoring by transient ST depression of > or = 1.0 mm lasting for > or = 30 s. Ventricular arrhythmias were single extrasystoles, couplets, or ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS--All ventricular arrhythmias were significantly more frequent in late than early monitoring. The arrhythmias included couplets (in 83/174 (48%) v 49/200 (25%) of patients, p = 0.0000028) and ventricular tachycardia (29/174 (17%) v 15/199 (8%), p = 0.0064). Patients with ST depression (29 early; 56 late), compared with those without ischaemia, did not experience a significant increase in single extrasystoles, couplets (31% v 23% early; 47% v 48% late), or ventricular tachycardia (3% v 8% early; 18% v 16% late). Even patients with frequent (> or = 3 episodes), and deep (> or = 1.5 mm) or prolonged (> or = 20 min) ST depression had no increase in arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS--Ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction are not associated with transient myocardial ischaemia during daily activities. This study does not support the belief that to abolish silent ischaemia would reduce the incidence of sudden death due to uncontrollable ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. PMID:8489860

  8. Thrombolytic-related complication in a case of misdiagnosed myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Irivbogbe, Osereme; Mirrer, Brooks; Loarte, Pablo; Gale, Michael; Cohen, Ronny

    2014-06-01

    The importance of early thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction has been highlighted in several large trials. The clinical decision is often taken by physicians who need to take a rapid action with the risk of misdiagnosing non-coronary events that mimic myocardial infarction. Here we describe a case of acute pericarditis in a 37-year-old man whom received thrombolysis and developed a sudden hemorrhagic pericardial effusion that evolved rapidly into a cardiac tamponade. These errors leading to lethal thrombolysis complications have been surprisingly rare; but a correct diagnosis of aortic dissection or hemorrhagic pericarditis needs to be stressed because even after obtaining the correct diagnosis, the prolonged disturbance of hemostasis prevents a rapid therapy being instigated. PMID:24749992

  9. Long-term antithrombotic pharmacotherapy following ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Buccheri, Sergio; Capodanno, Davide

    2016-06-01

    The selection and optimal duration of pharmacological agents to counteract thrombotic processes activated in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) still remain a debated issue in current clinical practice. Recently published trials have highlighted the potential benefits of dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) extended beyond the currently recommended 12-months term. Anticoagulation with non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in addition to DAPT has also been explored. Importantly, benefits of prolonged antithrombotic management strategies could be offset by harms following bleeding complications, therefore careful assessment of a patient benefit-risk profile must be used to drive individualized medical decisions. Appraising current available evidence is useful to inform clinical practice and to optimize the pharmacological management of patients with STEMI. Accordingly, we provide an overview of the literature focusing on long-term antithrombotic management strategies in patients with a recent or prior myocardial infarction, with a primary focus on STEMI. PMID:26934659

  10. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effects of VEGF165 gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Methods Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF165 treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. Results There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF165. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF165, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. Conclusion The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF165 seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct. PMID:25993074

  11. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2013-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6C(hi) monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell-selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

  12. Serum cholesterol and acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study from the GISSI-2 trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto-Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'Infarto Miocardico Investigators.

    PubMed Central

    Nobili, A.; D'Avanzo, B.; Santoro, L.; Ventura, G.; Todesco, P.; La Vecchia, C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the role of serum cholesterol in acute myocardial infarction in a population of patients with no history of coronary heart disease and to establish the nature of this association, the degree of risk, and the possible interaction between serum cholesterol and other major risk factors for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--90 hospitals in northern, central, and southern Italy. PATIENTS--916 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed acute myocardial infarction and 1106 hospital controls admitted to hospital with acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for coronary heart disease. DATA COLLECTION--Data were collected with a structured questionnaire and blood samples were taken by venepuncture as soon as possible after admission to hospital from cases and controls. Blood cholesterol concentrations were available for 614 cases and 792 controls. RESULTS--After adjustment by logistic regression for sex, age, education, geographical area, smoking status, body mass index, history of diabetes and hypertension, and family history of coronary heart disease the estimated relative risks of acute myocardial infarction for quintiles of serum cholesterol (from lowest to highest) were 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 3.4), 3.1 (95% CI 2.1 to 4.6), 4.1 (95% CI 2.8 to 6.0), and 5.2 (95% CI 3.5 to 7.7). The estimated relative risk across selected covariates increased from the lowest to the highest quintile of serum cholesterol particularly for men, patients under 55 years of age, and smokers. When the possible interaction of known risk factors with serum cholesterol was examined, smoking habits, diabetes, and hypertension had approximately multiplicative effects on relative risk. CONCLUSIONS--This study indicates that serum cholesterol was an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. This association was linear, with no threshold level. Moreover, there was a multiplicative effect between

  13. [Acute myocardial infarction after blunt polytrauma -- successful coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Mauser, M; Schwenk, M; Schmelzeisen, H; Fleischmann, D; Fösel, T

    2003-02-01

    Acute myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma is a well reported but rare finding. Especially in severely injured patients the optimal therapy of the myocardial infarction is not well established, since anticoagulants, platelet aggregation inhibitors or thrombolytics are frequently contraindicated under these conditions. We report a case of a 41-year-old man, who presented with an acute myocardial infarction in combination with a severe polytrauma (multiple rib fractures, hematothorax, pelvic bone fractures, multiple injuries of intestinal organs) after a motorcycle accident with a blunt chest and abdominal trauma. After surgical treatment of the injuries of the bones and the intestinal organs a coronary angiography was immediately performed. The left anterior descending and the circumflex coronary artery were occluded in the mid-portion of the vessels. Coronary recanalization by PTCA and the implantation of coronary stents were successful in both vessels. Despite of a non-optimal blood flow after recanalization and stenting in one vessel (LAD TIMI II flow after recanalization), and a non-optimal accompanying medical therapy, during and after intervention (intravenous heparin starting 8 hours after the coronary intervention and platelet inhibitors starting 4 days after the intervention) the coronary angiogram after 2 months documented both vessels patent without a reocclusion or a restenosis. The case report documents, that in traumatic myocardial infarctions the treating of both, the attending injuries and the myocardial ischemia, is feasible. Early coronary angiography and coronary interventions, with or without stent-implantation, are indicated, even in cases in which an adequate accompanying medical therapy with heparin and platelet inhibitors is contraindicated. PMID:12557122

  14. Management of acute perioperative myocardial infarction: a case report of concomitant acute myocardial infarction and tumor bleeding in the transverse colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qian; Li, Yuan-Xin; Feng, Quan-Zhou; Zhu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction complicated by bleeding colon tumor is problematic with regard to management, and appropriate balance of antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis or surgery is crucial for effective treatment. Here, we present a case of concomitant acute myocardial infarction and bleeding tumor in the transverse colon, and share our experience of successfully balancing anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis. PMID:26937182

  15. Heart Rate Turbulence as Risk-Predictor after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zuern, Christine S.; Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is the baroreflex-mediated short-term oscillation of cardiac cycle lengths after spontaneous ventricular premature complexes. HRT is composed of a brief heart rate acceleration followed by a gradual heart rate deceleration. In high risk patients after myocardial infarction (MI) HRT is blunted or diminished. Since its first description in 1999 HRT emerged as one of the most potent risk factors after MI. Predictive power of HRT has been studied in more than 10,000 post-infarction patients. This review is intended to provide an overview of HRT as risk-predictor after MI. PMID:22180744

  16. Management of ventricular septal rupture in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M M; Patterson, G C; O'Kane, H O; Adgey, A A

    1980-01-01

    Four patients with rupture of the interventricular septum after myocardial infarction are described. This condition carries a grave prognosis. Surgical repair of the septum is almost always urgently required if the left-to-right shunt is large (QP/WS > 3). Results are better if surgery can be deferred for six weeks to allow the infarcted area to heal and the tissues to be come firmer. This delay may be achieved by using a combination of agents to reduce afterload and to exert a positive inotropic effect. The timing of surgical intervention was an important factor in the survival of three of the four patients. PMID:7437199

  17. [Painless anterior acute myocardial infarction in a transplanted heart].

    PubMed

    Poyet, R; Capilla, E; Tortat, A V; Brocq, F X; Pons, F; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Cellarier, G R

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the major determinant of long-term survival in patients after heart transplantation. Clinical presentations are congestive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare presentation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy due to myocardial denervation. We present the case of a 31-year-old patient, who had undergone heart transplantation 6 months earlier and who developed a painless anterior myocardial infarction revealed by syncope. He was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention with drug eluting stent implantation. PMID:26472502

  18. Cocaine use and delayed myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Kee Wei; Wood, Alice

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman was admitted into the coronary care unit following chest pain after using cocaine. She was found to have significant myocardial ischaemia on blood and ECG investigations despite a recent coronary angiogram that had not demonstrated flow-limiting coronary disease. This case report summarises the risks of myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction for patients taking cocaine and the pathophysiology behind it, focusing in particular on the risks of delayed reaction some time after cocaine ingestion. PMID:25201873

  19. Aggressive Surgical Management of Post-Infarction Angina: Results of Myocardial Revascularization Early After Transmural Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Disesa, Verdi J.; O'Neil, Anne C.; Bitran, Dani; Cohn, Lawrence H.; Shemin, Richard J.; Collins, John J.

    1985-01-01

    In our Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery between 1970 and 1982, 110 patients (88 males and 22 females) had coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) performed for unstable angina pectoris after acute transmural myocardial infarction. Fifty-one patients (mean age 59 years) had CABG within 2 weeks of myocardial infarction (Group 1); and 59 patients (mean age 56 years) (p = NS) within 6 weeks of myocardial infarction (Group 2). The incidence of preoperative arrhythmias, left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic pressure, and the number of vessels diseased were similar in Groups 1 and 2. The incidence of cardiogenic shock was higher in Group 1 (16/51, 31% vs 2/59, 3% [p < 0.001]). This was also the case with the use of the intraaortic balloon (32/51, 63% vs 12/59, 20% [p < 0.001]), and the need for emergency operation (29/51, 57% vs 4/59, 7% [p < 0.001]). The mean number of grafts was 2.8 in Group 1 and 3.0 in Group 2 (p = NS). Operative mortality was 20% (10/51) in Group 1 and 7% (4/59) in Group 2 (p < 0.01). Excluding patients in cardiogenic shock, operative mortality was 0% (0/35) in Group 1 and 5% (3/57) in Group 2 (p = NS). Incidences of late death, recurrent angina, and permanent disability were similar during mean follow-up times of 3.2 years in Group 1 and 4.1 years in Group 2. Actuarial probability of survival was 96% at 1 year and 83% at 5 years. Myocardial revascularization early after transmural myocardial infarction has a low risk, especially in the absence of cardiogenic shock. These results justify an aggressive approach to unstable angina, including patients within 2 weeks of transmural infarction. PMID:15226989

  20. Complete versus culprit-only revascularization in ST-elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Filippini, Elisa; Pavesi, Pier Camillo; Tortorici, Gianfranco; Casella, Gianni; Sangiorgio, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    In 30-60 % of patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), significant stenoses are present in one or more non-infarct-related arteries (IRA). This correlates with an increased risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Current guidelines, do not recommend revascularization of non-culprit lesions unless complicated by cardiogenic shock or persistent ischemia after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prior observational and small randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the optimal revascularization strategy in STEMI patients with multivessel disease. Recently, randomized studies (PRAMI, CvLPRIT, and DANAMI 3-PRIMULTI) provide encouraging data that suggest potential benefit with complete revascularization in STEMI patients with obstructive non-culprit lesions. Differently, in the PRAGUE-13 trial there were no differences in MACE between complete revascularization and culprit-only PCI. Several meta-analyses were recently published including randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, showing different results depending on the included trials. In conclusion, the current available evidence from the randomized clinical trials, with a total sample size of only 2000 patients, is not robust enough to firmly recommend complete revascularization in STEMI patients. This uncertainty lends support to the continuation of the COMPLETE trial. This ongoing trial is anticipated to enroll 3900 patients with STEMI from across the world, and will be powered for the hard outcomes of death and myocardial infarction. Until the results of the COMPLETE trial are reported, physicians need to individualize care regarding the opportunity and the timing of the non-IRA PCI. PMID:26951188

  1. A Case of Post Myocardial Infarction Papillary Muscle Rupture.

    PubMed

    Anuwatworn, Amornpol; Milnes, Christopher; Kumar, Vishesh; Raizada, Amol; Nykamp, Verlyn; Stys, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Papillary muscle rupture is a rare, life-threatening post myocardial infarction mechanical complication. Without surgical intervention, prognosis is very poor. Clinicians need to recognize this complication early, as prompt therapy is crucial. We present a case of inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated by posteromedial papillary muscle rupture resulting in severe acute mitral regurgitation (flail anterior mitral leaflet), acute pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. In our patient, a new mitral regurgitation murmur suggested this mechanical complication. Complete disruption of papillary muscle was visualized by transesophageal echocardiography. This case illustrates the importance of good physical examination for early diagnosis of papillary muscle rupture, so that life-saving treatment can be administered without delay. PMID:27443107

  2. Scorpion envenomation-induced acute thrombotic inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Baykan, Ahmet Oytun; Gür, Mustafa; Acele, Armağan; Şeker, Taner; Çaylı, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a serious cardiac emergency following scorpion envenomation has rarely been reported and, when so, mostly presented as non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or myocarditis. Possible mechanisms include imbalance in blood pressure and coronary vasospasm caused by the combination of sympathetic excitation, scorpion venom-induced release of catecholamines, and the direct effect of the toxin on the myocardium. We report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI) within 2 h of being stung by a scorpion. Coronary angiogram revealed total thrombotic occlusion of the left circumflex artery, which was treated successfully with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, thrombus aspiration, antivenom serum, and supportive therapy. Therefore, life-threatening MI can complicate the clinical course during some types of scorpion envenomation and should be managed as an acute coronary syndrome. PMID:26875137

  3. Polycythemia vera presenting as acute myocardial infarction: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bahbahani, Hussain; Aljenaee, Khaled; Bella, Abdelhaleem

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is usually seen in the setting of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors. Myocardial infarction in the young poses a particular challenge, as the disease is less likely, due to atherosclerosis. We report the case of a 37-year-old female patient who presented with ST segment elevation anterolateral AMI. The only abnormality on routine blood investigation was raised hemoglobin and hematocrit. After further testing, she was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria with polycythemia vera. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing polycythemia vera as an important cause of thrombosis, which can present initially as AMI, and to emphasize the early recognition of the disease in order to initiate appropriate management strategies. PMID:25544823

  4. Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy: A clinical checkmate

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Rashid, Mahjabeen; Balek, Mark; Park, Chong

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Management of these patients can be challenging as little is known about the optimal management strategy. Medications routinely used may have harmful effects on the pregnancy outcome. In addition, AMI could occur in the absence of atherosclerotic disease. We describe optimal management strategy by eliciting the management of a 45-year-old female with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. We recommend early use of coronary angiography to define the pathology in such cases. Radial artery assess should be preferred. Pregnant patients with AMI due to atherosclerotic disease should be given a 325 mg of aspirin and 600 mg of clopidogrel and either balloon angioplasty or bare metal stent should be used for revascularization. Percutaneous coronary intervention with heparin is preferred over bivalirudin and later should be reserved for patients with severe heparin allergy. PMID:23993012

  5. Assessment of diagnostic value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in 80 patients with possible acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, W F; Karunaratne, H B; Resnekov, L; Fill, H R; Harper, P V

    1977-01-01

    The diagnostic value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-pyrophosphate) myocardial scintigraphy was determined in 80 consecutive patients who had been admitted to the coronary care unit in order to rule out an acute myocardial infarction. Scintigraphic findings obtained within 5 days of admission were correlated with the final cardiac diagnosis determined for each patient. Significant myocardial uptake of Tc-pyrophosphate (positive scans) occurred in 13 of 22 patients (59%) who had enzyme and/or electrocardiographic proven acute myocardial infarct: 3 out of 5 with transmural myocardial infarct, 9 of 16 with nontransmural myocardial infarct, and 1 patient with left bundle-branch block. Of 58 patients who showed no evidence of acute myocardial infarction, positive scans occurred in 14 of 33 patients who had unstable angina pectoris (42%), 0 of 6 who had congestive heart failure, 6 of 9 who had other acute cardiac syndromes, and in 0 of 10 who had noncardiac chest pain. In the patients with unstable angina pectoris positive scans could not be predicted on the basis of the history, electrocardiographic findings or the arteriographically determined severity of the coronary artery disease. Blood levels of Tc-99m activity measured in 21 cardiac patients and in 6 volunteers did not correlate with the uptake intensity of Tc-pyrophosphate. These findings suggest caution in the use of this imaging method for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarct in patients admitted with 'rule out myocardial infarction'. Images PMID:907776

  6. Significance of U wave polarities in previous anterior myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanemoto, N.; Imaoka, C.; Suzuki, Y. )

    1991-04-01

    The significance of the polarity of U waves in left precordial leads was evaluated in relation to myocardial perfusion (T1 201 myocardial scintigraphy) and left ventricular function (99m Tc radionuclide ventriculography) in 63 patients with clinical and electrocardiographic evidence of a previous anterior myocardial infarction. Patients were divided into three groups according to the polarity of the U waves: positive U waves, flat U waves, and negative U waves. Twelve matched patients served as normal controls. The following parameters were analyzed: (1) total number of abnormal Q waves; (2) total myocardial perfusion index and regional myocardial perfusion index; (3) global ejection fraction; (4) regional ejection fraction; and (5) number of diseased coronary arteries. The total myocardial perfusion index values were 43.9 {plus minus} 1.0 in controls, 40.8 {plus minus} 3.4 in the positive U wave group, 33.4 {plus minus} 3.5 in the flat U wave group, and 30.3 {plus minus} 4.4 in the patients with negative U waves. Global ejection fractions in these groups were, respectively, 63.9 {plus minus} 8.6%, 65.0 {plus minus} 11.8%, 53.6 {plus minus} 8.1%, and 36.5 {plus minus} 13.6%. The sensitivity of negative U waves suggesting a global ejection fraction of less than 45% was 91.6%, and the specificity was 82.1%. Therefore the size of myocardial infarction increased and left ventricular function decreased, in order, from patients with positive U waves, to those with flat U waves, to those with negative U waves, with statistically significant differences.

  7. Prognostic implications of cardiac scintigraphic parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, A.; Matsushima, H.; Satoh, A.; Hayashi, H.; Sotobata, I.

    1988-06-01

    A cohort of 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction was studied with infarct-avid scan, radionuclide ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Infarct area, left ventricular ejection fraction, and defect score were calculated as radionuclide indices of the extent of myocardial infarction. The correlation was studied between these indices and cardiac events (death, congestive heart failure, postinfarction angina, and recurrence of myocardial infarction) in the first postinfarction year. High-risk patients (nonsurvivors and patients who developed heart failure) had a larger infarct area, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and a larger defect score than the others. Univariate linear discriminant analysis was done to determine the optimal threshold of these parameters for distinguishing high-risk patients from others. Radionuclide parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction were useful for detecting both patients with grave complications and those with poor late prognosis during a mean follow-up period of 2.6 years.

  8. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  9. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  10. [Echocardiography in superacute phase of myocardial infarction: an experimental study].

    PubMed

    Komasa, N; Tanimoto, M; Kimura, S; Yasutomi, N; Saito, Y; Yamamoto, T; Ikeoka, K; Makihata, S; Kawai, Y; Iwasaki, T

    1982-12-01

    The significance and usefulness of two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in the evaluation of superacute phase of myocardial infarction were studied in 13 dogs with coronary occlusion, and 2DE findings were compared with the hemodynamic indices. Myocardial infarction was produced by the occlusion of anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery in 13 anesthetized adult mongrel dogs. In 6 dogs, the end-diastolic area and percent fractional shortening (%FS) in each short-axis view of the left ventricle at the level of the mitral valve, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, low papillary muscles and apex were measured during 60 minutes, and end-diastolic wall thickness of infarct area situated in the transitional zone between the septum and the anterior wall were compared with that of non-infarct area immediately and subsequent 60 minutes after occlusion. Positive dP/dt/P, time constant T and cardiac output were measured simultaneously with an echocardiographic study. Severe enlargement and expansion of the left ventricular cavity (ballooning) and a decrease of %FS and thinning of the left ventricular wall perfused by the occluded artery occurred immediately after occlusion and persisted during subsequent 60 minutes. Time constant T was significantly prolonged, while positive dP/dt/P and cardiac output were decreased immediately and continued up to 60 minutes after occlusion. 2DE findings corresponded well with the changes of cardiac function and hemodynamics determined simultaneously. We concluded that the detection of the left ventricular ballooning is important in the diagnosis of superacute phase of myocardial infarction in dogs. PMID:7186011

  11. Incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients with exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Assey, M.E.; Walters, G.L.; Hendrix, G.H.; Carabello, B.A.; Usher, B.W.; Spann, J.F. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-five patients with angiographically proved coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent Bruce protocol exercise stress testing with thallium-201 imaging. Twenty-seven patients (group I) showed myocardial hypoperfusion without angina pectoris during stress, which normalized at rest, and 28 patients (group II) had a similar pattern of reversible myocardial hypoperfusion but also had angina during stress. Patients were followed for at least 30 months. Six patients in group I had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 3 of whom died, and only 1 patient in group II had an AMI (p = 0.05), and did not die. Silent myocardial ischemia uncovered during exercise stress thallium testing may predispose to subsequent AMI. The presence of silent myocardial ischemia identified in this manner is of prognostic value, independent of angiographic variables such as extent of CAD and left ventricular ejection fraction.

  12. Myocardial Infarction as a Rare Cause of Otalgia

    PubMed Central

    Dundar, Riza; Kulduk, Erkan; Kemal Soy, Fatih; Sengul, Ersin; Ertas, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To present a case referred to our clinic with severe right ear pain but without any abnormal finding during otological examination and diagnosed as myocardial infarction and also to draw attention to otalgia which can occur secondary to myocardial infarction. Case Report. An 87-year-old female admitted with right ear pain lasting for nearly 12 hours and sweating on the head and neck region. On otolaryngologic examination, any pathological finding was not encountered. Her electrocardiogram revealed findings consistent with myocardial infarction. Her troponin values were 0.175 ng/L at 1 hour, and 0.574 ng/L at 3 hours. The patient was diagnosed as non-ST MI, and her required initial therapies were performed. On cardiac angiography, very severe coronary artery stenosis was detected, and surgical treatment was recommended for the patient. The patient who rejected surgical treatment was discharged with prescription of medical treatment. Conclusion. Especially in elderly patients with complaints of ear pain but without any abnormal finding on otoscopic examination, cardiac pathologies should be conceived. PMID:25478270

  13. Acute Myocardial Infarction Quality of Care: The Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Best, Lyle G.; Butt, Amir; Conroy, Britt; Devereux, Richard B.; Galloway, James M.; Jolly, Stacey; Lee, Elisa T.; Silverman, Angela; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Welty, Thomas K.; Kedan, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the quality of care provided patients with acute myocardial infarction and compare with similar national and regional data. Design Case series. Setting The Strong Heart Study has extensive population-based data related to cardiovascular events among American Indians living in three rural regions of the United States. Participants Acute myocardial infarction cases (72) occurring between 1/1/2001 and 12/31/2006 were identified from a cohort of 4549 participants. Outcome measures The proportion of cases that were provided standard quality of care therapy, as defined by the Healthcare Financing Administration and other national organizations. Results The provision of quality services, such as administration of aspirin on admission and at discharge, reperfusion therapy within 24 hours, prescription of beta blocker medication at discharge, and smoking cessation counseling were found to be 94%, 91%, 92%, 86% and 71%, respectively. The unadjusted, 30 day mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion Despite considerable challenges posed by geographic isolation and small facilities, process measures of the quality of acute myocardial infarction care for participants in this American Indian cohort were comparable to that reported for Medicare beneficiaries nationally and within the resident states of this cohort. PMID:21942161

  14. Multifunctional MR monitoring of the healing process after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bönner, Florian; Jacoby, Christoph; Temme, Sebastian; Borg, Nadine; Ding, Zhaoping; Schrader, Jürgen; Flögel, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Healing of the myocardium after infarction comprises a variety of local adaptive processes which contribute to the functional outcome after the insult. Therefore, we aimed to establish a setting for concomitant assessment of regional alterations in contractile function, morphology, and immunological state to gain prognostic information on cardiac recovery after infarction. For this, mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and monitored for 28 days by cine MRI, T2 mapping, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and (19)F MRI. T2 values were calculated from gated multi-echo sequences. (19)F-loaded nanoparticles were injected intravenously for labelling circulating monocytes and making them detectable by (19)F MRI. In-house developed software was used for regional analysis of cine loops, T2 maps, LGE, and (19)F images to correlate local wall movement, tissue damage as well as monocyte recruitment over up to 200 sectors covering the left ventricle. This enabled us to evaluate simultaneously zonal cardiac necrosis, oedema, and inflammation patterns together with sectional fractional shortening (FS) and global myocardial function. Oedema, indicated by a rise in T2, showed a slightly better correlation with FS than LGE. Regional T2 values increased from 19 ms to above 30 ms after I/R. In the course of the healing process oedema resolved within 28 days, while myocardial function recovered. Infiltrating monocytes could be quantitatively tracked by (19)F MRI, as validated by flow cytometry. Furthermore, (19)F MRI proved to yield valuable insight on the outcome of myocardial infarction in a transgenic mouse model. In conclusion, our approach permits a comprehensive surveillance of key processes involved in myocardial healing providing independent and complementary information for individual prognosis. PMID:25098936

  15. Gemella Endocarditis Presenting as an ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sunit-Preet; Stockwell, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction from septic embolization is a rare initial presentation of endocarditis. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with acute chest pain, in whom emergency cardiac catheterization revealed findings that suggested coronary embolism. The patient was found to have Gemella endocarditis, with its initial presentation an embolic acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We suggest that endocarditis be considered among the potential causes of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27303246

  16. Early hospital discharge after direct angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, J T; Combs, D T; McLellan, B A; Railsback, L; Haugen, S

    1995-07-01

    To determine the feasibility and safety of early hospital discharge after myocardial infarction, we reviewed a 3-yr experience with direct angioplasty: 204 patients had direct angioplasty with in-hospital mortality of 3.4%. Of these patients, 125 were discharged < 5 days after infarction and 98% of these were available for 30-day follow-up. There was one early death (0.8% mortality), two early readmissions without complications, and three late readmissions. Thus early hospital discharge a mean of 3.4 days after infarction can be achieved in > 60% of patients undergoing direct angioplasty with no significant early complications and excellent 30-day survival (99.2%). PMID:7553817

  17. Combined assessment of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade, myocardial perfusion grade, and ST-segment resolution to evaluate epicardial and myocardial reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Robert P; Sabatine, Marc S; Gibson, C Michael; Roe, Matthew T; Harrington, Robert A; Murphy, Sabina A; Morrow, David A; Antman, Elliott M; Braunwald, Eugene

    2004-06-01

    The restoration of epicardial and myocardial flow remains the primary goal of reperfusion therapy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, but the optimal method to assess this goal has not been defined. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade (TFG), myocardial perfusion grade (MPG), and ST-segment resolution (STRes) were combined to formulate a new measure of successful reperfusion in 649 patients who received pharmacologic reperfusion therapy in 3 recent phase II clinical trials of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiograms and electrocardiograms were analyzed at 60 minutes (before any intervention) after the initiation of reperfusion therapy. The complete restoration of perfusion, or the "trifecta," defined as the presence of TFG 3, MPG 3, and complete (> or =70%) STRes, occurred in 117 patients (18%). The achievement of this trifecta was associated with low rates of 30-day mortality (0% vs 3.9%, p = 0.02), congestive heart failure (CHF) (0.9% vs 7.1%, p = 0.01), and the combination of death or CHF (0.9% vs 10.7%, p = 0.001). When the results were stratified with respect to subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 60 to 120 minutes, attainment of the trifecta at 60 minutes remained a strong predictor of better clinical outcomes, particularly in those patients who underwent early PCI. The achievement of TFG 3, MPG 3, and complete STRes at 60 minutes after fibrinolytic therapy and before PCI occurred in only 18% of patients but was associated with very low rates of death and CHF at 30 days. This new end point is proposed to evaluate the success of reperfusion therapy in patients who undergo early angiography. PMID:15165915

  18. [Myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome: definitions, classification, and diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Mishnev, O D; Kakturskiĭ, L V

    2014-01-01

    The review gives the definitions and classification of and diagnostic criteria for myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome in accordance with the "The third universal definition of myocardial infarction" adopted in 2012 (Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction, 2012). It also discusses the clinical and morphological comparisons of and the problems in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction as a nosological entity within coronary heart disease with other coronarogenic and non-coronarogenic necroses of the myocardium. PMID:25842920

  19. Emergency coronary bypass grafting for evolving myocardial infarction. Effects on infarct size and left ventricular function

    SciTech Connect

    Flameng, W.; Sergeant, P.; Vanhaecke, J.; Suy, R.

    1987-07-01

    Emergency aorta-coronary bypass grafting was performed early in the course of evolving myocardial infarction in 48 patients. The time interval between the onset of symptoms and reperfusion was 169 +/- 80 minutes. Quantitative assessment of postoperative thallium 201 myocardial scans in 19 patients revealed a significant salvage of myocardium after surgical reperfusion: The size of the residual infarction was less than 50% of that in a matched, medically treated, prospective control group (n = 39) (p less than 0.05). Postoperative equilibrium-gated radionuclide blood pool studies (technetium 99m) showed an enhanced recovery of regional and global ejection fraction after operation as compared to after medical treatment (p less than 0.05). Ultrastructural evaluation of biopsy specimens obtained during the operation delineated subendocardial necrosis in the majority of cases (72%), but subepicardial necrosis was found in only 6% of instances. Q-wave abnormalities were observed on the postoperative electrocardiogram in 50% of cases. Operative mortality was 0% in low-risk patients (i.e., hemodynamically stable condition, n = 26) and 18% in high-risk patients (i.e., cardiogenic shock including total electromechanical dysfunction, n = 22). Survival rate at 18 months was 92% +/- 4%, and 95% +/- 4% of the survivors were event free. It is concluded that early surgical reperfusion of evolving myocardial infarction limits infarct size significantly, enhances functional recovery, and may be a lifesaving operation in patients having cardiogenic shock associated with unsuccessful resuscitation.

  20. [Cognitive structure and risk of myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Günther, C; Günther, R; Reinhardt, F; Meissner, D; Dresler, F; Guhr, R; Hubl, W; Keil, J; Schüttig, R

    1990-08-01

    In a psychophysiological experiment with 18 patients with cardiovascular disorders but without infarction we proved the influence of habituallized cognitive structures on reactivity under mental load. We used the concepts of different causal attribution (Explanatory style: Peterson and Seligman) and psychic regulation of activity and action (Activity style: Günther). It can be shown that patients with pessimistic explanatory style as well as with diffuse psychic activity control show coronary-prone reaction patterns under load (indicators: cortisol and triglycerids in serum). PMID:2267852

  1. Decreased sulfhydryl groups in the reperfused myocardial tissue of a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, H; Manaka, K; Yamakawa, K; Ogawa, K; Iizuka, M

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether myocardial injury resulting from temporary ischemia followed by reperfusion can be measured by assaying sulfhydryl groups in the affected tissue of a rat model of myocardial infarction. We studied 3 groups: a control group (n = 6), which underwent surgery without left coronary artery (LCA) ligation; group NoR (n = 9), in which the LCA was ligated for 3 h; and group I + R (n = 7), in which 30 min LCA ligation was followed by 3 h reperfusion. The sulfhydryl group content of myocardial tissue was assayed by measuring the fluorescence produced by incubating heart sections with N-(7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-3-coumarinyl) maleimide (DACM), which binds sulfhydryl groups. The fluorescence intensity (FI) of normal and infarcted myocardium was quantified by our computerized system of microscopic fluorophotometry. Indices such as sulfhydryl group content, the size of the low-FI area [% AREA(lower FI)] and the relative decrease in FI [%FI(decrease)]) in the infarct zone were calculated. Both %AREA(lower FI) and %FI(decrease) were significantly higher in the infarcted zone of animals in NoR and I + R groups than in control animals. Both indices were higher in infarct tissue from animals in the I + R group than in the NoR group. These changes suggest that sulfhydryl group content is significantly reduced in tissue that has been subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. Microscopic fluorophotometry, as defined by DACM staining of myocardial tissue, may help to delineate areas of myocardial reperfusion injury. PMID:9070971

  2. Innate immune response after acute myocardial infarction and pharmacomodulatory action of tacrolimus in reducing infarct size and preserving myocardial integrity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the association between innate immune reaction and myocardial damage after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and anti-inflammatory role of tacrolimus in reducing infarct size. Male mini-pigs (n=18) were equally categorized into sham control (SC), untreated AMI (by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery), and AMI-Tacrolimus (AMI-Tac) (0.5 mg intra-coronary injection 30 minutes post-AMI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at post-AMI days 2, 5 and 21 before sacrificing the animals. Results By post-AMI day 21, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was lowest in untreated AMI animals, significantly higher in SC than in AMI-Tac group (all p<0.003). Infarct areas at basal, middle, and apical levels, numbers of CD14+ and iNOS+ cells in infarct area (IA) and peri-IA, and protein expression of CD14, CD68, and Ly6g from circulating inflammatory cells showed an opposite pattern compared with that of LVEF in all groups (all p<0.005). Protein expressions of MCP-1, MIP-1, TNF-α, NF-κB, iNOS, and IL-12 in IA and peri-IA exhibited an identical pattern compared to that of CD14, CD68, and Ly6g from circulating inflammatory cells (all p<0.01). Expressions of myocardial damage biomarkers in IA and peri-IA [γ-H2AX, β-myosin heavy chain (MHC), Smad3, TGF-β] were highest in AMI and higher in AMI-Tac than in SC, whereas expressions of myocardial integrity biomarkers (connexin43, mitochondrial cytochrome-C, α-MHC, BMP-2, Smad1/5) were opposite to those of damage biomarkers (all p<0.001). Conclusion Innate immune responses were markedly augmented and LVEF was significantly reduced after AMI but were remarkably improved after tacrolimus treatment. PMID:24165293

  3. Bivalirudin is superior to heparins alone with bailout GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction transported emergently for primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a pre-specified analysis from the EUROMAX trial

    PubMed Central

    Zeymer, Uwe; van 't Hof, Arnoud; Adgey, Jennifer; Nibbe, Lutz; Clemmensen, Peter; Cavallini, Claudio; ten Berg, Jurrien; Coste, Pierre; Huber, Kurt; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Day, Jonathan; Bernstein, Debra; Goldstein, Patrick; Hamm, Christian; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Aims In the HORIZONS trial, in-hospital treatment with bivalirudin reduced bleeding and mortality in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with heparin and routine glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI). It is unknown whether this advantage of bivalirudin is observed in comparison with heparins only with GPI used as bailout. Methods and results In the EUROMAX study, 2198 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were randomized during transport for primary PCI to bivalirudin or to heparins with optional GPI. Primary and principal outcome was the composites of death or non-CABG-related major bleeding at 30 days. This pre-specified analysis compared patients receiving bivalirudin (n = 1089) with those receiving heparins with routine upstream GPI (n = 649) and those receiving heparins only with GPI use restricted to bailout (n = 460). The primary outcome death and major bleeding occurred in 5.1% with bivalirudin, 7.6% with heparin plus routine GPI (HR 0.67 and 95% CI 0.46–0.97, P = 0.034), and 9.8% with heparins plus bailout GPI (HR 0.52 and 95% CI 0.35–0.75, P = 0.006). Following adjustment by logistic regression, bivalirudin was still associated with significantly lower rates of the primary outcome (odds ratio 0.53, 95% CI 0.33–0.87) and major bleeding (odds ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.82) compared with heparins alone with bailout GPI. Rates of stent thrombosis were higher with bivalirudin (1.6 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.4%, P = 0.09 and 0.09). Conclusion Bivalirudin, started during transport for primary PCI, reduces major bleeding compared with both patients treated with heparin only plus bailout GPI and patients treated with heparin and routine GPI, but increased stent thrombosis. PMID:24849104

  4. Mean platelet volume and cardiovascular outcomes in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ranjith, Mangalachulli Pottammal; DivyaRaj, Rajendran; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the association between MPV and the risk of death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with MI. Methods We studied consecutive patients with MI admitted to a tertiary-care hospital during a period of 1 year. MPV was measured at admission and at third month. Patients were followed up for 1-year primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, stroke, fatal or non-fatal MI and cardiac failure. Patients were classified according to tertile of baseline MPV. Results A total of 1206 patients with MI, including 934 men (77.4%) and 272 women (22.6%) were studied. The mean age of the study population was 56 years. At 1-year follow-up, 292 (28.57%) primary outcome occurred: cardiovascular mortality 78 (7.6%), fatal or non-fatal MI 153 (15.0%), stroke 30 (2.9%) and cardiac failure 128 (12.52%). Patients with the highest tertile MPV had higher primary outcome as compared with those with MPV in the lowest tertile (adjusted OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.60 to 3.35; p<0.001). Total mortality was also more in high-MPV group (adjusted OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.47 to 4.70; p<0.001). There were no significant changes in mean MPV values at admission from those at third month interval (9.15, (SD 0.99) vs 9.19 (SD 0.94); p=0.2). Conclusions Elevated MPV was associated with worse outcome in patients with acute MI. Elevated MPV in these patients may be due to inherently large platelets. Trial registration number http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/rmaindet.php?trialid=5485&EncHid=98036.61144&modid=1&compid=19; CTRI/2012/12/003222.

  5. Experimental acute myocardial infarction: telocytes involvement in neo-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manole, C G; Cismaşiu, V; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used rat experimental myocardial infarction to study the ultrastructural recovery, especially neo-angiogenesis in the infarction border zone. We were interested in the possible role(s) of telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cell very recently discovered in myocardim (see http://www.telocytes.com). Electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and analysis of several proangiogenic microRNAs provided evidence for TC involvement in neo-angiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Electron microscopy showed the close spatial association of TCs with neoangiogenetic elements. Higher resolution images provided the following information: (a) the intercellular space between the abluminal face of endothelium and its surrounding TCs is frequently less than 50 nm; (b) TCs establish multiple direct nanocontacts with endothelial cells, where the extracellular space seems obliterated; such nanocontacts have a length of 0.4–1.5 μm; (c) the absence of basal membrane on the abluminal face of endothelial cell. Besides the physical contacts (either nanoscopic or microscopic) TCs presumably contribute to neo-angiognesis via paracrine secretion (as shown by immunocytochemistry for VEGF or NOS2). Last but not least, TCs contain measurable quantities of angiogenic microRNAs (e.g. let-7e, 10a, 21, 27b, 100, 126-3p, 130a, 143, 155, 503). Taken together, the direct (physical) contact of TCs with endothelial tubes, as well as the indirect (chemical) positive influence within the ‘angiogenic zones’, suggests an important participation of TCs in neo-angiogenesis during the late stage of myocardial infarction. PMID:21895968

  6. Surgery for Post-Myocardial Infarct Ventricular Septal Defect

    PubMed Central

    Daggett, Willard M.; Guyton, Robert A.; Mundth, Eldred D.; Buckley, Mortimer J.; McEnany, M. Terry; Gold, Herman K.; Leinbach, Robert C.; Austen, W. Gerald

    1977-01-01

    Forty-three patients (mean age 62 ± 1 years) were treated for ventricular septal defect (VSD) secondary to myocardial infarction. Whenever possible, operation was postponed until six weeks post-onset chest pain. However, hemodynamic instability, evidenced by cardiogenic shock, refractory pulmonary edema, or a rising blood urea nitrogen (BUN) forced operation in 21 patients within 21 days post-infarct (Group I). In seven patients operation was performed three to six weeks post-infarct (Group II). In only eight patients could operation be delayed beyond six weeks post-infarct (Group III). Clinical deterioration, once begun, progressed rapidly, and could be reversed only temporarily by intra-aortic balloon pumping, used in 26 patients for safe conduct of cardiac catheterization and for peri-operative hemodynamic support. Hospital survival was achieved in 24 of the 36 operated patients (66%). In Group I patients, ten of 21 survived. In Group II, six of seven survived. In Group III, eight of eight patients survived. There have been five late deaths with a mean follow-up of 41 months in survivors. Improved survival has been achieved recently by the greater use of prosthetic material to replace necrotic muscle and by a transinfarct incision regardless of infarct location. Operative mortality before 1973 was 47%; mortality after 1973 was only 18%, with a concomitant reduction of mortality (30%) even in Group I patients. ImagesFig. 7c. PMID:302110

  7. Apelin-13 protects against myocardial infarction-induced myocardial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemin; Hu, Wenyu; Feng, Feng; Xu, Jian; Wu, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial infarction is a serious health threat. Apelin is an endogenous ligand of angiotensin II receptor-like 1 (APJ) and the apelin/APJ system is associated with various types of heart disease. However, whether apelin protects against myocardial infarction‑induced myocardial fibrosis remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the function of apelin‑13 during myocardial infarction‑induced myocardial fibrosis, and to determine the mechanism underlying the effects of apelin‑13. Apelin‑13 was demonstrated to improve left ventricular function and results of hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining and western blotting showed that apelin‑13 attenuated myocardial fibrosis. Further mechanistic investigation was performed by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The results demonstrated that apelin‑13 inhibited the activation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling in vitro and in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that apelin‑13 may attenuate myocardial infarction‑induced myocardial fibrosis, and that this protective function may be mediated by inhibition of NF‑κB signaling. The present study suggests a theoretical basis for the effects of apelin‑13 and provides insight into the potential clinical application of apelin-13. PMID:27109054

  8. [The reduction of stroke risk, risk of myocardial infarction and death by healthy diet and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Droste, D W; Keipes, M

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that a healthy diet and regular physical activity improve risk factors for cerebro-cardio-vascular disease and death. However, there is less evidence from prospective randomised controlled trials that they also reduce the actual risk of stroke, myocardial infarction and death. The only evidence from randomised controlled trials is, that a mediterranean diet with nuts and/or native olive oil considerably reduces stroke risk by 47% respectively 31%, however not the risk of myocardial infarction and death. A low-fat diet, a low-salt diet, and the addition of omega-3 fatty acids have no influence. In case of severe obesity with a BMI of > 34-38 kg/m2, weight reduction is the priority, if necessary by means of bariatric surgery. In longitudinal studies mortality (-29%), stroke (-34%), and myocardial infarction (-29%) could thus be reduced. Regular physical activity, whether endurance or more intense activity, leads to weight loss and improved vascular risk factors. An independent impact on stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality has not yet been demonstrated in prospective studies (double-blinding being impossible). Nevertheless, several epidemiological meta-analyses with observation durations of 4 to 28 years using data of up to 880 000 persons, indicate that there is a 2-3 fold risk reduction of cerebro-cardio-vascular death and global mortality in people with regular physical activity versus sedentary behaviour. PMID:24437075

  9. Acute myocardial infarction in the obstetric patient

    PubMed Central

    Firoz, Tabassum; Magee, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Acute myocardial infraction (AMI) in the obstetric patient is a rare event, although the incidence is rising due to advancing maternal age and pre-existing cardiac risk factors and medical co-morbidities. While atherosclerotic disease is the leading cause of AMI, coronary artery dissection is an important consideration in pregnancy and in the postpartum period. The physiological changes of pregnancy as well as pregnancy-specific risk factors can predispose the obstetric patient to AMI. Diagnosis of AMI can be challenging as symptoms may be atypical. Furthermore, diagnostic tests must be interpreted in the context of pregnancy. While the overall management of the obstetric patient with AMI is similar to that outside of pregnancy, drug therapy requires modification as some medications may be contraindicated in pregnancy and breastfeeding. There is limited information about prognosis and risk stratification but it is anticipated that future studies will address this issue.

  10. Prognostic significance of ST-T segment alterations in patients with non-Q wave myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Ramires, J. A.; Serrano, C. V.; Solimene, M. C.; Moffa, P. J.; Caramelli, B.; Pileggi, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, among patients with non-Q wave myocardial infarction, the characteristics of the segment ST-T shifts at presentation in the diagnostic electrocardiogram can identify those with more severe coronary artery disease and predict a poor clinical outcome. DESIGN: Prospective controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Primary referral medical centre. PATIENTS: 93 patients (mean (SD) 62.0 (7.5) years) were studied: 41 with non-Q wave myocardial infarction and T wave inversion and 52 with ST segment depression. Cardiac events and mortality rates were assessed over 42 months. Age, sex, risk factors, creatinine kinase MB isoenzyme peak, and left ventricular function were comparable. RESULTS: 31 patients with T wave inversion myocardial infarction (94.6%) had total occlusion of the infarct related artery, compared with 12 patients with ST segment depression myocardial infarction (26.7%) (P < 0.05). When compared with patients with T wave inversion, patients with ST segment depression had a higher incidence of cardiac events during the first month and in the 41 subsequent months: 9.6% and 30.8% v 0% (P < 0.01) and 9.8% (P < 0.02), respectively. For the same observation periods, the mortality rates in patients with T wave inversion were 4.9% and 7.3%, and in patients with ST segment depression they were 5.8% and 9.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that during a non-Q wave myocardial infarction the presence of ST segment depression is related to higher rates of short and long term cardiac events when compared with T wave inversion--possibly because of a higher incidence of residual stenosis of the infarct related artery. PMID:8697161

  11. Thallium-201 versus technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging in detection and evaluation of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, B.; Thrall, J.H.

    1980-12-18

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging is of value in the early detection and evaluation of patients with suspected acute infarction. Thallium imaging may have a special value in characterizing patients with cardiogenic shock and in detecting patients at risk for subsequent infarction or death or death or both, before hospital discharge. Approximately 95 percent of pateints with transmural or nontransmural myocardial infarction can be detected with technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging if the imaging is performed 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Pyrophosphate imaging may have an important role in the evaluation of patients during the early follow-up period after hospital discharge from an episode of acute infarction. The finding of a persistently positive pyrophosphate image suggests a poor prognosis and is associated with a relatively large incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction and death.

  12. Vorapaxar: A novel agent to be considered in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kehinde, Obamiro; Kunle, Rotimi

    2016-01-01

    Patients receiving therapy for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) are still at high risk of a major cardiovascular event or death despite the use of currently available treatment strategy. Vorapaxar, an oral protease-activated receptor antagonist, is a novel antiplatelet drug that has been recently approved to provide further risk reduction. The results of two Phase III trials (thrombin receptor antagonists for clinical event reduction and the TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) have showed that vorapaxar, in addition to standard of care therapy, has the potential to provide further risk reduction in patients with prior MI. A search was made on PubMed on articles related to clinical trials and clinical consideration with the use of vorapaxar. This review article summarizes the results of Phase II trials, Phase III trials, subgroup analysis, precautions, and drug interaction with the use of vorapaxar. PMID:27134460

  13. Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Petriz, João Luiz Fernandes; Gomes, Bruno Ferraz de Oliveira; Rua, Braulio Santos; Azevedo, Clério Francisco; Hadlich, Marcelo Souza; Mussi, Henrique Thadeu Periard; Taets, Gunnar de Cunto; do Nascimento, Emília Matos; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; e Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Objective To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. Methods A total of 1959 reports of “infarct size” were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors – left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named “MET-AMI”. The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. Results The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%). Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005) and infarcted size (p = 0.0005); the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003). Conclusion The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long-term mortality, especially for

  14. Holmium:YAG laser angioplasty: treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On

    1993-06-01

    We report our clinical experience with a group of 14 patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction. A holmium:YAG laser was applied to the infarct-related artery. This laser emits 250 - 600 mJ per pulse, with a pulse length of 250 microseconds and repetition rate of 5 Hz. Potential benefits of acute thrombolysis by lasers include the absence of systemic lytic state; a shortened thrombus clearing time relative to using thrombolytics; safe removal of the intracoronary thrombus and facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty. Potential clinical difficulties include targeting the obstructive clot and plaque, creation of debris and distal emboli and laser-tissue damage. It is conceivable that holmium:YAG laser can be a successful thrombolytic device as its wave length (2.1 microns) coincides with strong water absorption peaks. Since it is common to find an atherosclerotic plaque located under or distal to the thrombotic occlusion, this laser can also be applied for plaque ablation, and the patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction can clearly benefit from the combined function of this laser system.

  15. Impact of Aldosterone Antagonists on Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention in Heart Failure and Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hai-Ha; El-Khatib, Chadia; Mombled, Margaux; Guitarian, Frédéric; Al-Gobari, Muaamar; Fall, Mor; Janiaud, Perrine; Marchant, Ivanny; Cucherat, Michel; Bejan-Angoulvant, Théodora; Gueyffier, François

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a severe burden of modern medicine. Aldosterone antagonist is publicized as effective in reducing mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) or post myocardial infarction (MI). Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of AAs on mortality including SCD, hospitalization admission and several common adverse effects. Methods We searched Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library and clinicaltrial.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assigning AAs in patients with HF or post MI through May 2015. The comparator included standard medication or placebo, or both. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Event rates were compared using a random effects model. Prospective RCTs of AAs with durations of at least 8 weeks were selected if they included at least one of the following outcomes: SCD, all-cause/cardiovascular mortality, all-cause/cardiovascular hospitalization and common side effects (hyperkalemia, renal function degradation and gynecomastia). Results Data from 19,333 patients enrolled in 25 trials were included. In patients with HF, this treatment significantly reduced the risk of SCD by 19% (RR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.98; p = 0.03); all-cause mortality by 19% (RR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74–0.88, p<0.00001) and cardiovascular death by 21% (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70–0.89, p<0.00001). In patients with post-MI, the matching reduced risks were 20% (RR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66–0.98; p = 0.03), 15% (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76–0.95, p = 0.003) and 17% (RR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74–0.94, p = 0.003), respectively. Concerning both subgroups, the relative risks respectively decreased by 19% (RR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71–0.92; p = 0.002) for SCD, 18% (RR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.77–0.88, p < 0.0001) for all-cause mortality and 20% (RR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74–0.87, p < 0.0001) for cardiovascular mortality in patients treated with AAs. As well, hospitalizations were significantly reduced

  16. Risk stratification after acute myocardial infarction in the reperfusion era.

    PubMed

    Michaels, A D; Goldschlager, N

    2000-01-01

    Historically, risk stratification for survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has centered on 3 principles: assessment of left ventricular function, detection of residual myocardial ischemia, and estimation of the risk for sudden cardiac death. Although these factors still have important prognostic implications for these patients, our ability to predict adverse cardiac events has significantly improved over the last several years. Recent studies have identified powerful predictors of adverse cardiac events available from the patient history, physical examination, initial electrocardiogram, and blood testing early in the evaluation of patients with AMI. Numerous studies performed in patients receiving early reperfusion therapy with either thrombolysis or primary angioplasty have emphasized the importance of a patent infarct related artery for long-term survival. The predictive value of a variety of noninvasive and invasive tests to predict myocardial electrical instability have been under active investigation in patients receiving early reperfusion therapy. The current understanding of the clinically important predictors of clinical outcomes in survivors of AMI is reviewed in this article. PMID:10661780

  17. Altered phosphate metabolism in myocardial infarction: P-31 MR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, P.A.; Herfkens, R.J.; Smith, L.S.; Bashore, T.M.

    1987-12-01

    The high-energy myocardial phosphate metabolism of four patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction after coronary angioplasty and drug therapy was evaluated with cardiac-gated phosphorus magnetic resonance (MR) depth-resolved surface coil spectroscopy (DRESS) 5-9 days after the onset of symptoms. Significant reductions (about threefold) in the phosphocreatine (PCr) to inorganic phosphate (Pi) ratio and elevations in the Pi to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio were observed in endocardially or transmurally derived MR spectra when compared with values from epicardially displaced spectra and values from seven healthy volunteers (P less than .05). High-energy phosphate metabolites and Pi ratios did not vary significantly during the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers. However, contamination of Pi resonances by phosphomonoester components, including blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, precluded accurate spectral quantification of Pi and pH. The results indicate that localized P-31 MR spectroscopy may be used to directly assess cellular energy reserve in clinical myocardial infarction and to evaluate metabolic response to interventions.

  18. Prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia after first acute myocardial infarction: five year follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Mickley, H.; Nielsen, J. R.; Berning, J.; Junker, A.; Møller, M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the five year prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia on ambulatory monitoring after a first acute myocardial infarction, and to compare the diagnostic and long term prognostic value of ambulatory ST segment monitoring, maximal exercise testing, and echocardiography in patients with documented ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Cardiology department of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS--123 consecutive men aged under 70 who were able to perform predischarge maximal exercise testing. INTERVENTIONS--Echocardiography two days before discharge (left ventricular ejection fraction), maximal bicycle ergometric testing one day before discharge (ST segment depression, angina, blood pressure, heart rate), and ambulatory ST segment monitoring (transient myocardial ischaemia) started at hospital discharge a mean of 11 (SD 5) days after infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relation of ambulatory ST segment depression, exercise test variables, and left ventricular ejection fraction to subsequent objective (cardiac death or myocardial infarction) or subjective (need for coronary revascularisation) events. RESULTS--23 of the 123 patients had episodes of transient ST segment depression, of which 98% were silent. Over a mean of 5 (range 4 to 6) years of follow up, patients with ambulatory ischaemia were no more likely to have objective end points than patients without ischaemic episodes. If, however, subjective events were included an association between transient ST segment depression and an adverse long term outcome was found (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P = 0.004). The presence of exercise induced angina identified a similar proportion of patients with a poor prognosis (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P < 0.004). Both exertional angina and ambulatory ST segment depression had high specificity but poor sensitivity. The presence of exercise induced ST segment depression was of no value in predicting combined cardiac events. Indeed

  19. [Cochrane Corner: Intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with cardiogenic shock following myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Daniel; Pereira, Hélder; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2016-04-01

    Improvement of hemodynamic parameters is the rationale for the use of intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation (IABP) in patients with cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction (MI). This Cochrane systematic review evaluated the impact of this intervention in reducing mortality. Seven randomized controlled trials with a total of 790 patients were included (four using medical therapy as a comparator, and three comparing IABP with other ventricular assist devices). IABP did not reduce mortality in either the short or long term. Therefore, the systematic use of IABP in patients with cardiogenic shock following MI cannot be recommended. PMID:26992744

  20. No-Reflow Phoenomenon by Intracoronary Thrombus in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, percutaneous coronary intervention has been the treatment of choice in most acute myocardial infarction cases. Although the results of percutaneous coronary interventions have ben good, the no-reflow phenomenon and distal embolization of intracoronary thrombus are still major problems even after successful interventions. In this article, we will briefly review the deleterious effects of no-reflow and distal embolization of intracoronary thrombus during percutaneous coronary interventions. The current trials focused on the prevention and treatment of the no-reflow phenomenon and intracoronary thrombus. PMID:26865998

  1. Weather fronts and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kveton, Vit

    1991-03-01

    Some methodological aspects are discussed of the investigation of acute infarct myocarditis (AIM) in relation to weather fronts. Results of a new method of analysis are given. Data were analysed from about the hour of the onset of symptoms, and led to the diagnosis of AIM either immediately or within a few hours or days (3019 cases observed over 4.5 years during 1982 1986 in Plzen, Czechoslovakia). Weather classification was based on three factors (the type of the foregoing front, the type of the subsequent front, the time section of the time interval demarcated by the passage of the surfaces of the fronts). AIM occurrence increased in particular types of weather fronts: (i) by 30% during 7 12 h after a warm front, if the time span between fronts exceeded 24 h; (ii) by 10% in time at least 36 h distant from the foregoing cold or occlusion front and from the succeeding warm or occlusion front; (iii) by 20% during 0 2 h before the passage of the front, provided the foregoing front was not warm and the interval between fronts exceeded 5 h. AIM occurrence decreased by 15% 20% for time span between fronts > 24 h at times 6 11, 6 23 and 6 35 h before a coming warm or occlusion front (for interfrontal intervals 25 48, 49 72 and possibly > 72 h), and also at 12 23 and possibly 12 35 h before a cold front (for intervals 49 72 and possibly > 72 h), if the foregoing front was cold or an occlusion front.

  2. Multiscale Characterization of Impact of Infarct Size on Myocardial Remodeling in an Ovine Infarct Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Li, Tielou; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2015-01-01

    The surviving myocardium initially compensates the loss of injured myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI) and gradually becomes progressively dysfunctional. There have been limited studies of the influence of infarct size on temporal and spatial alteration of myocardium during progressive myocardial remodeling. MI with three infarct sizes (15%, 25% and 35% of left ventricular wall) was created in an ovine infarction model. The progressive LV remodeling over a 12 week period was studied. Echocardiography, sonomicrometry, histological and molecular analyses were carried out to evaluate cardiac function, regional tissue contractile function and structural remodeling, and regional cardiomycyte hypertrophy and calcium handling proteins. The 15%, 25% and 35% MI groups at 12 weeks after MI had normalized LV end diastole volumes of 1.4±0.2, 1.7±0.3 and 2.0±0.4 mL/Kg, normalized end systole volumes of 1.0±0.1, 1.0±0.2 and 1.3±0.3 mL/Kg and LV ejection fractions of 43%±3%, 42%±6% and 34%±4%, respectively. They all differed from a sham group (p<0.05). All the three MI groups exhibited larger wall areal expansion (remodeling strain), larger cardiomyocyte size and altered expression of calcium handing proteins in the adjacent myocardium compared to the remote counterpart from the infarct. Significant correlation was found between myocardiocyte size and remodeling strain in the adjacent zone. A comparative analysis among the three MI groups showed that a larger infarct size (35% vs. 15% MI) was associated with larger remodeling strain, impairment severity of cellular structure and composition, and regional contractile function at regional tissue level and LV cardiac function at organ level. PMID:26540290

  3. Multiple bee stings resulting in ST elevation myocardial infarction (the Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Pelli, Joseph R.; Firozgary, Bahrom; Montalvo, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Kounis syndrome consists of angina pectoris or myocardial infarction that is triggered by the release of inflammatory mediators in the setting of an allergic reaction. We present the case of a 61-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with anaphylaxis after being stung by >100 bees. During resuscitation, he subsequently developed ST elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:27365877

  4. [A myocardial infarction during pregnancy treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent implantation. Case report].

    PubMed

    Dubois, N; de Muylder, X; Foading, B

    2007-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is an un-frequent event during pregnancy. It clearly causes an increase in both maternal and fetal mortality. We describe a case of pregnancy complicated during the second trimester by an acute myocardial infarction witch was treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty combined with stenting. The challenge involved in managing this condition during pregnancy is briefly discussed. PMID:17567523

  5. The Chinese version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS): Mokken scaling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hierarchical scales are very useful in clinical practice due to their ability to discriminate precisely between individuals, and the original English version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale has been shown to contain a hierarchy of items. The purpose of this study was to analyse a Mandarin Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale for a hierarchy of items according to the criteria of Mokken scaling. Data from 180 Chinese participants who completed the Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure and the 'R' statistical programme using the diagnostics available in these programmes. Correlation between Mandarin Chinese items and a Chinese translation of the Short Form (36) Health Survey was also analysed. Findings Fifteen items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were retained in a strong and reliable Mokken scale; invariant item ordering was not evident and the Mokken scaled items of the Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale correlated with the Short Form (36) Health Survey. Conclusions Items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale form a Mokken scale and this offers further insight into how the items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale relate to the measurement of health-related quality of life people with a myocardial infarction. PMID:22221696

  6. Multiple bee stings resulting in ST elevation myocardial infarction (the Kounis syndrome).

    PubMed

    Pelli, Joseph R; Wieters, J Scott; Firozgary, Bahrom; Montalvo, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    Kounis syndrome consists of angina pectoris or myocardial infarction that is triggered by the release of inflammatory mediators in the setting of an allergic reaction. We present the case of a 61-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with anaphylaxis after being stung by >100 bees. During resuscitation, he subsequently developed ST elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:27365877

  7. Genotype/allelic combinations as potential predictors of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nasibullin, Timur R; Timasheva, Yanina R; Sadikova, Regina I; Tuktarova, Ilsiyar A; Erdman, Vera V; Nikolaeva, Irina E; Sabo, Jan; Kruzliak, Peter; Mustafina, Olga E

    2016-01-01

    In order to find new informative predictors of myocardial infarction, we performed an analysis of genotype frequencies of polymorphic markers of SELE (rs2076059, 3832T > C), SELP (rs6131, S290 N), SELL (rs1131498, F206L), ICAM1 (rs5498, K469E), VCAM1 (rs3917010, c.928 + 420A > C), PECAM1 (rs668, V125L), VEGFA (rs35569394, -2549(18)I/D), CCL2 (rs1024611, -2518A > G), NOS3 (rs1799983, E298D), and DDAH1 (rs669173, c.303 + 30998A > G) genes in the group of Russian men with myocardial infarction (N = 315) and the control group of corresponding ethnicity, gender, and age (N = 286). Using Markov chain Monte-Carlo method (APSampler), we found genotype combinations associated with increased and decreased risk of myocardial infarction. The most significant associations were detected for PECAM1*V/V + DDAH1*C (OR = 4.17 CI 1.56-11.15 Pperm = 0.005) SELE*C + VEGFA*I + CCL2*G + VCAM1*A + NOS3*D (OR = 2.74 CI 1.66-4.52 Pperm = 2.09 × 10(-5)), and VEGFA*D/D + CCL2*A + DDAH1*C (OR = 0.44 CI 0.28-0.7 Pperm = 7.89 × 10(-5)) genotype combinations. PMID:26662939

  8. Relation Between Myocardial Infarction Deaths and Solar Activity in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Sandoval, R.

    2002-05-01

    We study the daily incidence of myocardial infarction deaths in Mexico for 4 years (1996-99) with a total of 129 917 cases in all the country, collected at the General Directorate of Epidemiology (National Ministry of Health). We divided the cases by sex and age and perform two kinds of analysis. First, we did an spectral analysis using the Maximum Entropy Method, considering the complete period, and minimum and maximum epochs of solar activity. The results show that the most persistent periodicity at higher frequencies in the myocardial infarction death occurrence is that of seven days. Considering the solar cycle phases, we found that during solar minimum times some frequencies are not detectable compared with solar maximum epochs, particularly that of seven days. Biological rhythms close to seven days, the circaseptans, are in general thought to be only the result of the social organization of life. However, this cannot be the only explanation, because the 7-days periodicity has been encountered in lower organisms not related with our rhythms of life. Thus, it has been proposed that biological rhythms could be evolutionary adaptations to environmental conditions, particularly, solar activity. In the second analysis we compared two solar activity-related phenomena: the Forbush decreases of cosmic rays and the geomagnetic index Ap for various levels of geomagnetic perturbations. The results show that during decreases of cosmic ray fluxes, for most cases there is a higher average myocardial infarction deaths occurrence, compared with the average incidence in days of no decreases. For geomagnetic activity we find the same situation in most cases. Furthermore, this behavior is more pronounced as the level of the perturbation increases and in times of maximum solar activity.

  9. Reperfusion strategies in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Stiermaier, T; Desch, S; Schuler, G; Thiele, H; Eitel, I

    2013-08-01

    ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Emergent reperfusion of the infarct related artery is the cornerstone of STEMI treatment in order to salvage myocardium and improve cardiovascular outcome. Basically, reperfusion strategies include fibrinolysis, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or the combination of both methods. Clinical studies indicate that primary PCI is superior to fibrinolytic therapy when performed rapidly at experienced centers. However, physicians are often faced with the decision to either accept PCI-related delays due to transfer or to administer fibrinolysis immediately. A well structured regional system of STEMI care helps to select the appropriate reperfusion strategy and guarantee timely restoration of coronary blood flow. This article reviews the evidence behind the respective reperfusion therapies and summarizes current guidelines for STEMI management. PMID:24008602

  10. Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Yanagawa, Bobby; Tanaka, Koichi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Ishino, Kozo; Ishida, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Kangawa, Kenji; Sano, Shunji; Okano, Teruo; Kitamura, Soichiro; Mori, Hidezo

    2006-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that can differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Here we show, using cell sheet technology, that monolayered mesenchymal stem cells have multipotent and self-propagating properties after transplantation into infarcted rat hearts. We cultured adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells characterized by flow cytometry using temperature-responsive culture dishes. Four weeks after coronary ligation, we transplanted the monolayered mesenchymal stem cells onto the scarred myocardium. After transplantation, the engrafted sheet gradually grew to form a thick stratum that included newly formed vessels, undifferentiated cells and few cardiomyocytes. The mesenchymal stem cell sheet also acted through paracrine pathways to trigger angiogenesis. Unlike a fibroblast cell sheet, the monolayered mesenchymal stem cells reversed wall thinning in the scar area and improved cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. Thus, transplantation of monolayered mesenchymal stem cells may be a new therapeutic strategy for cardiac tissue regeneration. PMID:16582917

  11. Strategies for recruitment of stem cells to treat myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Muhammad; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jung, Youngmee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the most prominent causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI) are responsible for 29% of deaths worldwide. MI results in obstruction of the blood supply to the heart and scar formation, and causes substantial death of cardiomyocytes in the infarct zone followed by an inflammatory response. Current treatment methodologies of MI and heart failure include organ transplantation, coronary artery bypass grafting, ventricular remodeling, cardiomyoplasty, and cellular therapy. Each of these methodologies has associated risks and benefits. Cellular cardiomyoplasty is a viable option to decrease the fibrosis of infarct scars, adverse post-ischemic remodeling, and improve heart function. However, the low rate of cell survival, shortage of cell sources and donors, tumorigenesis, and ethical issues hamper full exploitation of cell therapy for MI treatment. Consequently, the mobilization and recruitment of endogenous stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow, peripheral circulation, and cardiac tissues has immense potential through harnessing the host's own reparative capacities that result from interplay among cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. Therapeutic treatments to enhance the mobilization and homing of stem cells are under development. In this review, we present state-of-the-art approaches that are being pursued for stem cell mobilization and recruitment to regenerate infarcted myocardium. Potential therapeutic interventions and delivery strategies are discussed in detail. PMID:25594408

  12. [Acute inferior myocardial infarction after injection of etofenamate].

    PubMed

    Tekin, Yusuf Kenan; Tekin, Gülaçan

    2012-12-01

    Allergic symptoms accompanied by myocardial ischemic symptoms are defined as Kounis syndrome. Etofenamate is a safe and effective non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug that has widespread utilization. We hereby present a 71-year-old man with Kounis syndrome. Following intramuscular 1 g etofenamate injection, the clinical presentation when admitted to the emergency department (ED) was erythematous rash, pruritus, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, diaphoresis, and chest pain resulting in cardiopulmonary arrest. After 10 minutes of successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the electrocardiogram revealed acute inferior myocardial infarction. Patients who admit to the ED with allergic symptoms accompanied by chest pain should consider Kounis syndrome for prompt management. Electrocardiographic examination should be an essential part of the initial evaluation in such patients. PMID:23518891

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostics of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kociemba, Anna; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna; Siniawski, Andrzej; Łanocha, Magdalena; Janus, Magdalena; Stajgis, Marek; Grajek, Stefan; Pyda, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has a growing application in the diagnostics of myocardial infarction (MI). It is a non-invasive method that can be used regardless of the shape of patient’s body. A single study allows assessment of the morphology and function of the cardiac muscle. It visualizes many pathophysiologic changes such as edema, microvascular obstruction (MVO) or necrosis, and complications of MI, like myocardial hemorrhage (MH) or thrombus, which are very difficult to diagnose using other methods. An obvious advantage of CMR is the possibility to differentiate an acute MI from the chronic one and to identify the etiology of fibrosis. All the aforementioned features of CMR have made it a useful tool in planning the treatment and assessing the prognosis of patients after MI. PMID:22802842

  14. Recognizing Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Campo, Debra L

    2016-09-01

    : The author presents the case of a 52-year-old woman who experienced symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI) over many months; neither her clinicians nor the patient-herself a nurse-recognized them. The author discusses the signs and symptoms of MI in women and highlights how failure to recognize them may lead to misdiagnosis and even death. This case illustrates how important it is that health care providers consider the possibility of heart disease in any woman whose symptoms could be cardiac in origin, even when the cause appears to be something else. PMID:27560338

  15. Remote Zone Extracellular Volume and Left Ventricular Remodeling in Survivors of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Carberry, Jaclyn; Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Rauhalammi, Samuli M.; Ahmed, Nadeem; Mordi, Ify; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C.; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, Mitchell; Davie, Andrew; Mahrous, Ahmed; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    The natural history and pathophysiological significance of tissue remodeling in the myocardial remote zone after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is incompletely understood. Extracellular volume (ECV) in myocardial regions of interest can now be measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients who sustained an acute STEMI were enrolled in a cohort study (BHF MR-MI [British Heart Foundation Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction study]). Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed at 1.5 Tesla at 2 days and 6 months post STEMI. T1 modified Look-Locker inversion recovery mapping was performed before and 15 minutes after contrast (0.15 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine) in 140 patients at 2 days post STEMI (mean age: 59 years, 76% male) and in 131 patients at 6 months post STEMI. Remote zone ECV was lower than infarct zone ECV (25.6±2.8% versus 51.4±8.9%; P<0.001). In multivariable regression, left ventricular ejection fraction was inversely associated with remote zone ECV (P<0.001), and diabetes mellitus was positively associated with remote zone ECV (P=0.010). No ST-segment resolution (P=0.034) and extent of ischemic area at risk (P<0.001) were multivariable associates of the change in remote zone ECV at 6 months (ΔECV). ΔECV was a multivariable associate of the change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume at 6 months (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval]: 1.43 (0.10–2.76); P=0.036). ΔECV is implicated in the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodeling post STEMI, but because the effect size is small, ΔECV has limited use as a clinical biomarker of remodeling. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02072850. PMID:27354423

  16. Myocardial infarction with an initially normal electrocardiogram--angiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Caceres, L; Cooke, D; Zalenski, R; Rydman, R; Lakier, J B

    1995-10-01

    To analyze the paradox of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with an initially normal electrocardiogram (ECG), we reviewed the records of 732 patients discharged with a final diagnosis of AMI over a 2-year period. Twenty-one patient were identified whose initial ECG was normal and who underwent coronary arteriography during the index hospitalization. According to the ECG evolution, three distinct groups were identified: Group 1: those who subsequently developed ST elevation or Q waves (n = 7), Group 2: those who developed ST depression or T-wave inversion (n = 8), and Group 3: those whose ECG remained normal ( n = 6). Peak creatine kinase (CK), timing of the first ECG change, life-threatening complications, and location of the infarct-related coronary lesion were recorded. Infarct-related coronary lesions were also classified into those in a major coronary trunk versus those in secondary branches. The incidence of AMI with a normal ECG was 3.7%. There was no difference in the frequency of coronary artery involvement in the groups studied: left anterior descending (33%), right coronary artery (38%), and circumflex (28%). All ECG changes developed within the first 48 h of hospitalization; 17 +/- 15 in Group 1, and 24 +/- 12 h in Group 2. All six patients who had a persistently normal ECG (Group 3) had lesions in branch vessels (p < 0.05 when compared with Group 1 plus Group 2). Patients who developed ST elevation or Q waves (Group 1) always had a major artery trunk involved (p < 0.05 when compared with Group 2 plus Group 3). Patients in Group 3 had less myocardial damage and fewer complications compared with the other two groups. Myocardial infarction with an initial normal ECG is uncommon and may result from involvement of any of the three coronary arteries. Electrocardiographic evolution usually occurs within the first 48 h of hospitalization. Patients whose ECGs remain normal appear to have culprit lesions in coronary branches, smaller infarctions, and fewer in

  17. Activated platelet chemiluminescence and presence of CD45+ platelets in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gabbasov, Zufar; Ivanova, Oxana; Kogan-Yasny, Victor; Ryzhkova, Evgeniya; Saburova, Olga; Vorobyeva, Inna; Vasilieva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that in 15% of acute myocardial infarction patients' platelets generate reactive oxygen species that can be detected with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of platelet-rich plasma within 8-10 days after acute myocardial infarction. This increase in generate reactive oxygen species production coincides with the emergence of CD45(+) platelets. The ability of platelets to carry surface leukocyte antigen implies their participation in exchange of specific proteins in the course of acute myocardial infarction. Future studies of CD45(+) platelets in peripheral blood of acute myocardial infarction patients in association with generate reactive oxygen species production may provide a new insight into the complex mechanisms of cell-cell interactions associated with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24102264

  18. Cellular cardiomyoplasty for myocardial infarction: a 2014 evidence-based update.

    PubMed

    Nursalim, Alvin; Katili, Puspita A; Santoso, Teguh

    2014-04-01

    Myocardial infarction is one of the main cause of mortality in many countries. Therefore, an effective therapy for myocardial infarction is required. Reperfusion and other conventional therapy have been the mainstay therapy for myocardial infarction. However, many patients remain refractory to this therapy. Cellular cardiomyoplasty is considered a novel therapy, in which stem cells are used for cardiac repair. Stem cells are potential therapeutic approach that could be the ultimate solution for salvaging damaged cardiomyocyte. Based on current studies, stem cells are a promising therapeutic approach for myocardial infarction. However, some challenges need to be answered by future studies before this novel therapy can be widely applied. As we advance our understanding, all questions behind stem cell therapy would finally be revealed, and eventually provide the ultimate solution for ischaemic cardiac repair. This paper provide an overview of the latest progress in stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction. PMID:25053690

  19. [A comprehensive analysis of incidence of myocardial infarction in Vladikavkaz depending on solar and geomagnetic activity].

    PubMed

    Botoeva, N K; Khetarugova, l G; Rapoport, S I

    2013-01-01

    The data on myocardial infarction morbidity in Vladikavkaz for 2007-2010 were analysed with reference to solar and geomagnetic activity. Time series of morbidity in men and women were constructed and their seasonal constituent was distinguished. It was found that the number of myocardial infarctions increases on day with enhanced geomagnetic activity especially among subjects aged 50-69 years. Regression analysis of the relationship between the number of sunspots and myocardial infarctions yielded the equation of piecewise linear regression showing that 42% of the cases were due to the changes in the number of sunspots. Medium strength negative correlation was found between the number of myocardial infarctions and the recurrence index of Bz-component of the interplanetary magnetic field. It suggests an important role of chaotic dynamics of external factors in the development of myocardial infarction. PMID:25696947

  20. Bronchogenic Carcinoma with Cardiac Invasion Simulating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anirban; Das, Sibes K.; Pandit, Sudipta; Karmakar, Rathindra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac metastases in bronchogenic carcinoma may occur due to retrograde lymphatic spread or by hematogenous dissemination of tumour cells, but direct invasion of heart by adjacent malignant lung mass is very uncommon. Pericardium is frequently involved in direct cardiac invasion by adjacent lung cancer. Pericardial effusion, pericarditis, and tamponade are common and life threatening presentation in such cases. But direct invasion of myocardium and endocardium is very uncommon. Left atrial endocardium is most commonly involved in such cases due to anatomical contiguity with pulmonary hilum through pulmonary veins, and in most cases left atrial involvement is asymptomatic. But myocardial compression and invasion by adjacent lung mass may result in myocardial ischemia and may present with retrosternal, oppressive chest pain which clinically may simulate with the acute myocardial infarction (AMI). As a result, it leads to misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Here we report a case of non-small-cell carcinoma of right lung which was presented with asymptomatic invasion in left atrium and retrosternal chest pain simulating AMI due to myocardial compression by adjacent lung mass, in a seventy-four-year-old male smoker. PMID:27042370

  1. Short-term pretreatment with atorvastatin attenuates left ventricular dysfunction, reduces infarct size and apoptosis in acute myocardial infarction rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tie-Long; Zhu, Guang-Li; He, Xiao-Long; Wang, Jian-An; Wang, Yu; Qi, Guo-An

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atorvastatin showed a number of cardiovascular benefits, however, the role and underlying molecular mechanisms of short-term atorvastatin-mediated protection remain unclear. Methods: 30 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group, acute myocardial infarction model group and atorvastatin group. The rats of acute myocardial infarction model were established by ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary arteries. Before surgery, rats in the atorvastatin group received 20 mg/kg/d atorvastatin for 7 days in atorvastatin group. After 4 hours of model established, changes in hemodynamics parameters were recorded and myocardial infarct size was achieved by Evans blue-TTC staining. Myocardium apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL. The expression of FAS, FAS-L, Bcl-2, Bax, p-BAD, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 in myocardium were examined by Western blot. Results: In the atorvastatin group, left ventricular function was elevated and infarct size was decreased compared with the model group. Moreover, in the atorvastatin group, the cell apoptosis index was reduced in response to myocardial infarction. The expressions of Bcl-2 were increased and Bax, p-BAD, Fas, Fas-L, caspase-8 and caspase-3 in myocardium were decreased in atorvastatin group. Conclusions: Short-term atorvastatin pretreatment restored left ventricular function and limited infarct size in acute myocardial infarction, which were associated with reduction of the apoptosis in myocardium through Bcl-2 and Fas pathway. PMID:25663976

  2. Fractional flow reserve-guided management in stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Colin; Corcoran, David; Hennigan, Barry; Watkins, Stuart; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of CAD can reduce the health and economic burden of this condition. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an evidence-based diagnostic test of the physiological significance of a coronary artery stenosis. Fractional flow reserve is a pressure-derived index of the maximal achievable myocardial blood flow in the presence of an epicardial coronary stenosis as a ratio to maximum achievable flow if that artery were normal. When compared with standard angiography-guided management, FFR disclosure is impactful on the decision for revascularization and clinical outcomes. In this article, we review recent developments with FFR in patients with stable CAD and recent myocardial infarction. Specifically, we review novel developments in our understanding of CAD pathophysiology, diagnostic applications, prognostic studies, clinical trials, and clinical guidelines. PMID:26038588

  3. Efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Tyler, J.L.; Kulkarni, M.V.

    1983-03-01

    We studied the efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal evidence of acute myocardial infarction. Only patients with positive enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had scans with greater than or equal to 2+ focal uptake. None of 26 patients with negative or equivocal enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had greater than 2+ diffuse uptake. These results support the contention that infarct-avid imaging has little clinical utility in patients with equivocal evidence of myocardial infarction.

  4. A Multidisciplinary Assessment of Remote Myocardial Fibrosis After Reperfused Myocardial Infarction in Swine and Patients.

    PubMed

    Hervas, Arantxa; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Gavara, Jose; Monmeneu, Jose V; de Dios, Elena; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Perez-Sole, Nerea; Perez, Itziar; Monleon, Daniel; Morales, Jose M; Minana, Gema; Nunez, Julio; Bonanad, Clara; Diaz, Ana; Vila, Jose M; Chorro, Francisco J; Bodi, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    In extensive nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI), remote fibrosis has been documented. Early reperfusion by primary angioplasty represents the gold standard method to minimize the extension of the infarction. We aimed to ascertain whether fibrosis also affects remote regions in reperfused MI in swine and patients. Swine were subjected to a transient occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by 1-week or 1-month reperfusion. Collagen content in the remote area macroscopically, microscopically, by magnetic resonance microimaging, and at the molecular level was similar to controls. In patients with previous MI, samples from autopsies displayed a significant increase in collagen content only in the infarct region. In patients with previous MI submitted to cardiac magnetic resonance-T1 mapping, the extracellular volume fraction in remote segments was similar to that for controls. In all scenarios, the remote region did not show a significant increase of collagen content in comparison with controls. PMID:27250723

  5. Assessment of myocardial blood perfusion improved by CD151 in a pig myocardial infarction model

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Hou-juan; Liu, Zheng-xiang; Liu, Xiao-chun; Yang, Jun; Liu, Tao; Wen, Sha; Wang, Dao-wen; Zhang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To appraise the efficacy of CD151-induced myocardial therapeutic angiogenesis in a pig myocardial infarction model. Methods: CD151 and anti-CD151 were constructed into the recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector. All 26 pigs were subjected to coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Eight weeks after coronary artery ligation, the expression of CD151 was measured by Western blot and immunostaining. Capillary density was evaluated using immunostaining for von Willebrand factor (vWF). 13N-labeled NH3 positron emission computed tomography ([13N]NH3 PET) was measured to assess regional myocardial perfusion and the defect area. Results: CD151 gene delivery could increase the expression of CD151 at protein level. Over-expression of CD151 increased the density of total capillaries in the ischemic myocardium, significantly improved the blood perfusion and reduced the defect area percentage. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the rAAV-mediated CD151 gene delivery promoted efficient neovascularization and increased the blood perfusion after myocardial infarction in pigs. PMID:19079294

  6. [A case of stunned myocardium: dual SPECT findings similar to acute myocardial infarction (AMI)].

    PubMed

    Itho, K; Kohno, Y; Sudo, Y; Azuma, A; Sugihara, H; Asayama, J; Katsume, H; Nakagawa, M

    1993-02-01

    Emergent cardiac catheterization was performed on a 70-year-old female patient who was admitted for further evaluation of acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography didn't reveal any significant stenotic lesion, but levogram showed extensively abnormal contractility around the center of the apex region. On the second hospital day, 99mTc-PYP/201TlCl dual SPECT gave findings similar to those found in acute myocardial infarction, but myocardium--released enzyme stayed within the normal range. Two weeks after, 201TlCl myocardial scintigraphy showed disappearance of the perfusion defect, and normal contractility was observed on the levogram of the chronic phase. Since this case was clinically denied to be myocardial infarction, it was considered a typical case of stunned myocardium which showed prolonged left ventricular abnormal contractility with transient myocardial ischemia. This is a case suggestive for estimations of myocardial reversibility in patients with myocardial perfusion and metabolic disorder in dual SPECT. PMID:8434179

  7. Environmental temperature and mortality from acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, Joseph A.; Washburn, Richard A.

    1989-03-01

    Mortality from acute myocardial infarction (MI) over the 5 year period 1982 1987 in Brown County, Wisconsin, was analyzed to assess the relationship with environmental temperature. Deaths occurrring on the day of and the day following a significant snowfall as well as deaths occuring in health care facilities were eliminated from consideration because the focus was upon temperature, not snowfall or events within a hospital. These criteria resulted in the inclusion of 1,802 days and 926 cases of acute MI. The mean temperature on the day of death was obtained from climatological data and were grouped into six categories covering a range of temperatures from<-17.8°C (0°F) to 16.1°C (61°F). The number of deaths in each category was tabulated. The effect of temperature, sex, and age were analyzed by regression analysis. The results indicated a linear increase in mortality as mean daily temperature decreased over the temperature range. The inverse temperature effect was most pronounced in males over the age of 60. These results indicate that cold temperatures appear to be associated with an increased mortality from myocardial infarction.

  8. [Acute myocardial infarction in the postoperative period following pneumonectomy].

    PubMed

    López Alvarez, S; Bonome González, C; Izquierdo Villarroya, B; Barbeito Vilariño, M J; Etxainz Alvarez, A; Alvarez Refojo, F

    2002-11-01

    A 72-year-old man, smoker, with insuline-dependent diabetes and dislipemia underwent left pneumonectomy. Several episodes of intraoperative hemodynamic instability associated with electrocardiographic ST segment alterations were attributed to surgical manipulation; ischemia was not suspected. Cardiorespiratory failure, related to extensive anterior infarction, developed a few minutes after admission to the postoperative intensive care unit (PICU). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mechanical ventilation were required. The patient responded to treatment with beta blockers, platelet antiaggregants and statins. Tube was removed a few hours later and the patient was discharged from the PICU on the fifth day. Pneumonectomy has a high rate of morbidity and mortality, with complications mainly arising in the lung and heart. Risk from anesthesia is considered to be great in this procedure, and for that reason it is essential to identify intraoperative myocardial ischemia so that it can be treated aggressively. In patients at high cardiovascular risk who undergo lung resection, intraoperative episodes of myocardial ischemia are associated with a high incidence of postoperative miocardial infarction. Therefore, careful postoperative monitoring is needed and measures should be taken to prevent angina. Early extubation should be avoided. PMID:12516493

  9. Approach to chest pain and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pandie, S; Hellenberg, D; Hellig, F; Ntsekhe, M

    2016-03-01

    Patient history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers are key components of an effective chest pain assessment. The first priority is excluding serious chest pain syndromes, namely acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, cardiac tamponade and tension pneumothorax. On history, the mnemonic SOCRATES (Site Onset Character Radiation Association Time Exacerbating/relieving factor and Severity) helps differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac pain. On examination, evaluation of vital signs, evidence of murmurs, rubs, heart failure, tension pneumothoraces and chest infections are important. A 12-lead ECG should be interpreted within 10 minutes of first medical contact, specifically to identify ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). High-sensitivity troponins improve the rapid rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI) and confirmation of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI). ACS (STEMI and NSTEMI/unstable anginapectoris (UAP)) result from acute destabilisation of coronary atheroma with resultant complete (STEMI) or subtotal (NSTEMI/UAP) thrombotic coronary occlusion. The management of STEMI patients includes providing urgent reperfusion: primary percutaneous coronary intervention(PPCI) if available, deliverable within 60 - 120 minutes, and fibrinolysis if PPCI is not available. Essential adjunctive therapies include antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitors), anticoagulation (heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin) and cardiac monitoring. PMID:27303759

  10. Arrhythmic death and ICD implantation after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    LOMBARDI, FEDERICO

    2006-01-01

    Arrhythmic death remains one of the most important causes of mortality after an acute myocardial infarction also in the revascularization era. As a consequence, identification of patients at risk should be performed before discharge. Unfortunately, in the clinical practice, this evaluation is mainly based on detection of a depressed left ventricular ejection. This approach, however, cannot adequately distinguish arrhythmic versus non-arrhythmic risk. This issue is of critical relevance when considering that arrhythmic death can be significantly reduced by appropriate interventions of implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Available evidence, however, indicates that in the first month after myocardial infarction, device implantation does not significantly reduce cardiac mortality: it seems that the reduction of arrhythmic death is counterbalanced by an increase in rate of death from non arrhythmic cause. It is therefore to be hoped that, in the future, arrhythmic risk evaluation will be based not only on the extent of left ventricular dysfunction but also on the analysis of other risk markers such as those reflecting autonomic dysfunction, cardiac electrical instability and presence of subclinical inflammation. PMID:21977246

  11. Exosomes Mediate the Intercellular Communication after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ming-Jie; Maghsoudi, Taneen; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI) are complicated and not well-understood currently. It is known that exosomes are released from most cells, recognized as new candidates with important roles in intercellular and tissue-level communication. Cells can package proteins and RNA messages into exosome and secret to recipient cells, which regulate gene expression in recipient cells. The research on exosomes in cardiovascular disease is just emerging. It is well-known that exosomes from cardiomyocyte can transfect endothelial cells, stem cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells to induce cellular changes. After myocardial infarction (MI), the exosomes play important roles in local and distant microcommunication. Nowadays, exosomal microRNAs transportation has been found to deliver signals to mediate cardiac repair after MI. However, the exosomes quality and quantities are variable under different pathological conditions. Therefore, we speculate that the monitoring of the quality and quantity of exosomes may serve as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers of MI, and the study of exosomes will provide insights for the new therapeutics to cardiac remodeling after MI. PMID:26941569

  12. The diagnosis and treatment of the no-reflow phenomenon in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ramjane, Khalill; Han, Lei; Jin, Chang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the diagnosis and treatment available for myocardial infarction patients having no-reflow in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). DATA SOURCES Data for the present review were obtained from searches in PubMed (1997 to 2007) using the following key terms: “acute myocardial infarction”, “no-reflow phenomenon”, “myocardial contrast echocardiography”, “coronary angiography” and “cardioprotection devices”. STUDY SELECTION Mainly original articles and critical reviews written by major research pioneers in interventional cardiology were selected. RESULTS Despite a fully patent coronary artery post-PCI for myocardial infarction, patients may experience inadequate myocardial perfusion through a given segment of the coronary circulation without angiographic evidence of mechanical vessel obstruction. This phenomenon is defined as no-reflow and is a growing problem in the field of interventional cardiology. Although voluminous clinical trial data are available, the exact mechanisms involved and which treatment should be administered as first-line therapy are currently unknown. The different techniques used to diagnose no-reflow also have their pros and cons; myocardial contrast echocardiography and coronary angiography are the most reliable techniques. In cases when no-reflow was successfully reversed, patient recovery was associated with favourable left ventricular remodelling and increased left ventricular ejection fraction, even in the absence of significant improvement in regional contractile function. CONCLUSION Based on the trials in the literature, myocardial contrast echocardiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of no-reflow. If no-reflow occurs following PCI, treatment with intracoronary adenosine or verapamil should be administered, because this form of therapy is inexpensive and safe, improves flow in the target vessel and may reduce infarct size. PMID:19343126

  13. Survival of non-surgical patients with mild angina or myocardial infarction without angina.

    PubMed Central

    Proudfit, W L; Kramer, J R; Bott-Silverman, C; Goormastic, M

    1986-01-01

    A group of 408 catheterised patients who had mild angina or myocardial infarction without angina was selected in conformity with the criteria for entry into a previously reported randomised trial. Medical treatment had been chosen initially by the cardiologist, referring physician, or the patient, although 27% had late operation. Five year survival rates were 91% and 72% for mild angina with high or low ejection fractions and 85% for those who had myocardial infarction without subsequent angina. Survival rates were 95%, 88%, and 80% for one, two, and three artery disease respectively. For patients who had ejection fractions of at least 0.50, five year survivals were 95%, 89%, and 83% for one, two, and three artery involvement respectively. Good left ventricular function, single artery disease, and a short history were favourable prognostic variables in multivariate analysis of patients who had angina pectoris. Statistical methods of dealing with patients who had late operation influenced calculated survival, especially for patients at relatively high risk. The lower survival rates for the whole group and most subsets compared with survival rates in the randomised trial may be of clinical importance. PMID:3756038

  14. Measurement of myocardial perfusion and infarction size using computer-aided diagnosis system for myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo-Qing; Xue, Jing-Yi; Guo, Yanhui; Chen, Shuang; Du, Pei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zong, Li-Qiu; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Proper evaluation of myocardial microvascular perfusion and assessment of infarct size is critical for clinicians. We have developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to measure myocardial perfusion and infarct size. Rabbits underwent 15 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group I, n = 15) or 60 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group II, n = 15). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed before and 7 d after ischemia/reperfusion, and images were analyzed with the CAD system on the basis of eliminating particle swarm optimization clustering analysis. The myocardium was quickly and accurately detected using contrast-enhanced images, myocardial perfusion was quantitatively calibrated and a color-coded map calibrated by contrast intensity and automatically produced by the CAD system was used to outline the infarction region. Calibrated contrast intensity was significantly lower in infarct regions than in non-infarct regions, allowing differentiation of abnormal and normal myocardial perfusion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis documented that -54-pixel contrast intensity was an optimal cutoff point for the identification of infarcted myocardium with a sensitivity of 95.45% and specificity of 87.50%. Infarct sizes obtained using myocardial perfusion defect analysis of original contrast images and the contrast intensity-based color-coded map in computerized images were compared with infarct sizes measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Use of the proposed CAD approach provided observers with more information. The infarct sizes obtained with myocardial perfusion defect analysis, the contrast intensity-based color-coded map and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were 23.72 ± 8.41%, 21.77 ± 7.8% and 18.21 ± 4.40% (% left ventricle) respectively (p > 0.05), indicating that computerized myocardial contrast echocardiography can

  15. Impaired Insulin Signaling Accelerates Cardiac Mitochondrial Dysfunction After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Sandra; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Dongfang; Wang, Xiaohui; Wayment, Benjamin; Olsen, Curtis; Avelar, Erick; Abel, E. Dale; Litwin, Sheldon E

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes increases mortality and accelerates left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following myocardial infarction (MI). This study sought to determine the impact of impaired myocardial insulin signaling, in the absence of diabetes, on the development of LV dysfunction following MI. Mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted knock out of the insulin receptor (CIRKO) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to proximal left coronary artery ligation (MI) and followed for 14 days. Despite equivalent infarct size, mortality was increased in CIRKO-MI vs. WT-MI mice (68 % vs. 40 %, respectively). In surviving mice, LV ejection fraction and dP/dt were reduced by > 40% in CIRKO-MI vs. WT-MI. Relative to shams, isometric developed tension in LV papillary muscles increased in WT-MI but not in CIRKO-MI. Time to peak tension and relaxation times were prolonged in CIRKO-MI vs. WT-MI suggesting impaired, load-independent myocardial contractile function. To elucidate mechanisms for impaired LV contractility, mitochondrial function was examined in permeabilized cardiac fibers. Whereas maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial O2 consumption rates (VADP) with palmitoyl carnitine were unchanged in WT-MI mice relative to sham-operated animals, VADP was significantly reduced in CIRKO-MI (13.17 ± 0.94 vs. 9.14 ± 0.88 nmol O2/min/mgdw, p<0.05). Relative to WT-MI, expression levels of GLUT4, PPAR-α, SERCA2, and the FA-Oxidation genes MCAD, LCAD, CPT2 and the electron transfer flavoprotein ETFDH were repressed in CIRKO-MI. Thus reduced insulin action in cardiac myocytes accelerates post-MI LV dysfunction, due in part to a rapid decline in mitochondrial FA oxidative capacity, which combined with limited glucose transport capacity may reduce substrate utilization and availability. PMID:19249310

  16. Acute myocardial infarction after heart irradiation in young patients with Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Joensuu, H.

    1989-02-01

    Forty-seven patients younger than 40 years at the time of the diagnosis, and irradiated to the mediastinum for Hodgkin's disease at Turku University Central Hospital from 1977 to 1982, were regularly followed for 56 to 127 months after therapy. Two patients developed an acute myocardial infarction ten and 50 months after cardiac irradiation at the age of only 28 and 24 years, respectively. None of the patients died from lymphoma within five years from the diagnosis, but one of the infarctions was eventually fatal. Since acute myocardial infarction is rare in this age group, the result suggests strongly that prior cardiac irradiation is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. The possibility of radiation-induced myocardial infarction should be taken into account both in treatment planning and follow-up of patients with Hodgkin's disease.

  17. Serum Fatty Acids, Traditional Risk Factors, and Comorbidity as Related to Myocardial Injury in an Elderly Population with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Schmidt, Erik B.; Myhre, Peder; Tveit, Arnljot; Arnesen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological and randomized clinical trials indicate that marine polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may have cardioprotective effects. Aim. Evaluate the associations between serum fatty acid profile, traditional risk factors, the presence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and peak Troponin T (TnT) levels in elderly patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods. Patients (n = 299) consecutively included in the ongoing Omega-3 fatty acids in elderly patients with myocardial infarction (OMEMI) trial were investigated. Peak TnT was registered during the hospital stay. Serum fatty acid analysis was performed 2–8 weeks later. Results. No significant correlations between peak TnT levels and any of the n-3 PUFAs were observed. However, patients with a history of atrial fibrillation had significantly lower docosahexaenoic acid levels than patients without. Significantly lower peak TnT levels were observed in patients with a history of hyperlipidemia, angina, MI, atrial fibrillation, intermittent claudication, and previous revascularization (all p < 0.02). Conclusions. In an elderly population with AMI, no association between individual serum fatty acids and estimated myocardial infarct size could be demonstrated. However, a history of hyperlipidemia and the presence of CVD were associated with lower peak TnT levels, possibly because of treatment with cardioprotective medications. PMID:26989512

  18. Serum Fatty Acids, Traditional Risk Factors, and Comorbidity as Related to Myocardial Injury in an Elderly Population with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Laake, Kristian; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Schmidt, Erik B; Myhre, Peder; Tveit, Arnljot; Arnesen, Harald; Solheim, Svein

    2016-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological and randomized clinical trials indicate that marine polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may have cardioprotective effects. Aim. Evaluate the associations between serum fatty acid profile, traditional risk factors, the presence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and peak Troponin T (TnT) levels in elderly patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods. Patients (n = 299) consecutively included in the ongoing Omega-3 fatty acids in elderly patients with myocardial infarction (OMEMI) trial were investigated. Peak TnT was registered during the hospital stay. Serum fatty acid analysis was performed 2-8 weeks later. Results. No significant correlations between peak TnT levels and any of the n-3 PUFAs were observed. However, patients with a history of atrial fibrillation had significantly lower docosahexaenoic acid levels than patients without. Significantly lower peak TnT levels were observed in patients with a history of hyperlipidemia, angina, MI, atrial fibrillation, intermittent claudication, and previous revascularization (all p < 0.02). Conclusions. In an elderly population with AMI, no association between individual serum fatty acids and estimated myocardial infarct size could be demonstrated. However, a history of hyperlipidemia and the presence of CVD were associated with lower peak TnT levels, possibly because of treatment with cardioprotective medications. PMID:26989512

  19. Early radionuclide scans for risk assessment in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, S. L.; Haywood, L. J.; Sobel, E.; Hung, G. L.; deGuzman, M.; Siegel, M.

    1997-01-01

    First-day thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scans and technetium-99m RBC gated scintiangiography were performed during the initial clinical and prognostic evaluation of 69 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Patients were monitored for clinical course, diagnosis confirmation, and use of specialty services (cardiac catheterization, percutaneous balloon angioplasty, and cardiac surgery) during hospitalization. Myocardial infarction, confirmed in 20 patients, was associated with significantly more left ventricular dilatation, lower ejection fractions, lower peak left ventricular filling rates, wall motion abnormalities, and thallium-201 perfusion defects than nonmyocardial infarction patients. Among all patients, left ventricular dilatation carried a relative risk of myocardial infarction of 5.8; low ejection fraction and right ventricular dilatation were strongly associated with myocardial infarction. A logistic model for congestive heart failure included: left ventricular dilation, lower mean left ventricular filling rates and time to peak filling rates, and abnormal thallium-201 lung:heart uptakes. Among nonmyocardial infarction patients, subsequent cardiac catheterization was predicted by the presence of anterior thallium-201 perfusion defects, Killip functional class II-III, and ischemia on ECG. These findings suggest that early detection of myocardial perfusion defects and cardiac dysfunction by radionuclide scans enhances initial evaluation of suspected acute myocardial infarction patients. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:9433058

  20. Assessment, significance and mechanism of ventricular electrical instability after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Richards, David A B; Denniss, A Robert

    2007-06-01

    The mechanism of reentrant tachycardia was established nearly a century ago, but the relationships between myocardial infarction and predisposition to sudden death were not unravelled until much later. In the latter half of the twentieth century many studies sought to ascertain what variables were predictive of death following myocardial infarction. Approximately one half of all deaths during the year following myocardial infarction are sudden and due to ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). We aimed to utilise non-invasive signal-averaging, along with programmed electrical stimulation of the heart, to determine whether one could predict spontaneous ventricular tachycardia and sudden death late after myocardial infarction. The sensitivity of ventricular electrical instablility (inducible ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation) as a predictor of instantaneous death or spontaneous VT was 86%, and the specificity was 83%. When other variables (delayed ventricular activation at signal-averaging, ejection fraction at gated heart pool scan, ventricular ectopic activity at ambulatory monitoring and exercise testing) were taken into account, inducible VT at electrophysiological study was the single best predictor of spontaneous VT and sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction. The Westmead studies of Uther et al. in the decade or so from 1980 established programmed stimulation as the best predictor of sudden death after myocardial infarction. Subsequent studies by others have demonstrated a survival advantage of defibrillator implantation in patients with low ejection fraction (and inducible ventricular tachycardia) after myocardial infarction. PMID:17446130

  1. Circadian Dependence of Infarct Size and Acute Heart Failure in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Anju; Carvalho, Leonardo P.; Chua, Terrance; Koh, Tian-Hai; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Foo, David; Tong, Khim-Leng; Ong, Hean-Yee; Richards, A. Mark; Yew, Chow Khuan; Chan, Mark Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There are conflicting data on the relationship between the time of symptom onset during the 24-hour cycle (circadian dependence) and infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Moreover, the impact of this circadian pattern of infarct size on clinical outcomes is unknown. We sought to study the circadian dependence of infarct size and its impact on clinical outcomes in STEMI. Methods We studied 6,710 consecutive patients hospitalized for STEMI from 2006 to 2009 in a tropical climate with non-varying day-night cycles. We categorized the time of symptom onset into four 6-hour intervals: midnight–6:00 A.M., 6:00 A.M.–noon, noon–6:00 P.M. and 6:00 P.M.–midnight. We used peak creatine kinase as a surrogate marker of infarct size. Results Midnight–6:00 A.M patients had the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.03), more commonly presented with anterior MI (P = 0.03) and received percutaneous coronary intervention less frequently, as compared with other time intervals (P = 0.03). Adjusted mean peak creatine kinase was highest among midnight–6:00 A.M. patients and lowest among 6:00 A.M.–noon patients (2,590.8±2,839.1 IU/L and 2,336.3±2,386.6 IU/L, respectively, P = 0.04). Midnight–6:00 A.M patients were at greatest risk of acute heart failure (P<0.001), 30-day mortality (P = 0.03) and 1-year mortality (P = 0.03), while the converse was observed in 6:00 A.M.–noon patients. After adjusting for diabetes, infarct location and performance of percutaneous coronary intervention, circadian variations in acute heart failure incidence remained strongly significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion We observed a circadian peak and nadir in infarct size during STEMI onset from midnight–6:00A.M and 6:00A.M.–noon respectively. The peak and nadir incidence of acute heart failure paralleled this circadian pattern. Differences in diabetes prevalence, infarct location and mechanical reperfusion may account partly for the observed circadian

  2. QT dispersion as a risk factor for sudden cardiac death and fatal myocardial infarction in a coronary risk population.

    PubMed Central

    Mänttäri, M.; Oikarinen, L.; Manninen, V.; Viitasalo, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test in a prospective study the hypothesis that increased QT dispersion in resting 12-lead ECG is a predictor of sudden cardiac death. DESIGN: A nested case-control study during a mean (SD) follow up time of 6.5 (2.8) years. SETTING: A prospective, placebo controlled, coronary prevention trial with gemfibrozil among dyslipidaemic middle aged men in primary (occupational) health care units: the Helsinki heart study. PATIENTS: 24 victims of fatal myocardial infarction, 48 victims of sudden cardiac death without acute myocardial infarction, and their matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: QT dispersion in baseline and pre-event electrocardiograms. RESULTS: At study baseline, QT dispersion was similar in all victims and controls. When estimated from the pre-event ECG on average 14 months before death, the risk of sudden cardiac death in the highest QTPEAK (up to the peak of the T wave) dispersion tertile (> or = 50 ms) was 6.2-fold (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 23.5) compared with the risk in the lowest tertile (< or = 30 ms), and 4.9-fold (1.2 to 19.5) after adjustment for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, while QTPEAK dispersion could not predict fatal myocardial infarction. QTEND dispersion (up to the end of the T wave) in pre-event ECGs could not discriminate victims of either sudden cardiac death or fatal myocardial infarction from their matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: In middle aged men with a normal conventional QT interval in 12-lead resting ECG, increased QTPEAK dispersion is an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death, but not for fatal myocardial infarction. PMID:9391289

  3. Effect of Wenxin Granule on Ventricular Remodeling and Myocardial Apoptosis in Rats with Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Aiming; Zhai, Jianying; Zhang, Dongmei; Lou, Lixia; Zhu, Haiyan; Gao, Yonghong; Chai, Limin; Xing, Yanwei; Lv, Xiying; Zhu, Lingqun; Zhao, Mingjing; Wang, Shuoren

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the effect of a Chinese herbal compound named Wenxin Granule on ventricular remodeling and myocardial apoptosis in rats with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control group, the model group, the metoprolol group, and the Wenxin Granule group (WXKL group) with sample size (n) of 7 rats in each group. An MI model was established in all rats by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (the control group was without occlusion). Wenxin Granule (1.35 g/kg/day), metoprolol (12 mg/kg/day), and distilled water (5 mL/kg/day for the control and model groups) were administered orally for 4 weeks. Ultrasonic echocardiography was used to examine cardiac structural and functional parameters. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) dyeing. Myocardial apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Serum angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. It was found that Wenxin Granule could partially reverse ventricular remodeling, improve heart function, alleviate the histopathological damage, inhibit myocardial apoptosis, and reduce Ang II concentration in rats with MI. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest that Wenxin Granule may be a potential alternative and complementary medicine for the treatment of MI. PMID:23997803

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unstable angina: comparison with acute myocardial infarction and normals

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M.; Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Fawcett, H.D.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1988-09-01

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging in characterizing normal, ischemic and infarcted segments of myocardium was examined in 8 patients with unstable angina, 11 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 7 patients with stable angina. Eleven normal volunteers were imaged for comparison. Myocardial segments in short axis magnetic resonance images were classified as normal or abnormal on the basis of perfusion changes observed in thallium-201 images in 22 patients and according to the electrocariographic localization of infarction in 4 patients. T2 relaxation time was measured in 57 myocardial segments with abnormal perfusion (24 with reversible and 33 with irreversible perfusion changes) and in 25 normally perfused segments. T2 measurements in normally perfused segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and stable angina were within normal range derived from T2 measurements in 48 myocardial segments of 11 normal volunteers (42 +/- 10 ms). T2 in abnormal myocardial segments of patients with stable angina also was not significantly different from normal. T2 of abnormal segments in patients with unstable angina (64 +/- 14 in reversibly ischemic and 67 +/- 21 in the irreversibly ischemic segments) was prolonged when compared to normal (p less than 0.0001) and was not significantly different from T2 in abnormal segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction (62 +/- 18 for reversibly and 66 +/- 11 for irreversibly ischemic segments). The data indicate that T2 prolongation is not specific for acute myocardial infarction and may be observed in abnormally perfused segments of patients with unstable angina.

  5. [The content of selen in blood plasma in patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, E N; Nizov, A A; Ivanova, A Yu; Sidorova, Yu S

    2015-01-01

    The level of blood plasma selenium was analyzed by microfluorimetric method in in-patients and out-patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST-elevation resulting in acute Q-wave myocardial infarction. 72 patients, 40-75 years old, with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction were followed during a month. The initial decreased concentration of blood plasma selenium was recorded in most patients in the acute period of the myocardial infarction: deficiency of the microelement (< 90 mcg/l) was found in 30 subjects, the critical ranges (< 70 mcg/l) were stated in 33 patients. Just 2 patients had optimal concentration and 7 patients had a suboptimal one (90-114 mcg/l). Blood plasma level of the microelement increased in 2 weeks after myocardial infarction (in subacute stage) but it was still within deficient or critical levels. No difference was detected in selen concentration depending on gender, age, location on myocardial infarction, accompanying diseases, presence of some risk factors (smoking, alcohol abuse, hereditary predisposition to coronary artery disease). At the same time we revealed a significant Spearman rank correlation in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction between basal level of blood serum selenium on the one hand, and electrocardiography indices (reflecting the rate of myocardial lesion and necrosis), echocardiography. data (which characterize myocardium reparation processes and remodeling), CPK (a prognostic marker of the myocardial necrosis), HDL-cholesterol (lipid profile index), blood potassium level and BMI on the other. PMID:26863808

  6. Prognostic significance of nonfatal myocardial reinfarction in survivors of a first infarction

    PubMed Central

    van Domburg, R.T.; Deckers, J.W.; van Bergen, P.F.M.M.; Azar, A.J.; Jonker, J.J.C.; Simoons, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Background Patients who develop a reinfarction are at increased risk for subsequent reinfarctions and death. However, follow-up studies in these patients are rare. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of mortality after a first myocardial reinfarction and to determine the independent contribution of nonfatal reinfarction to the risk of subsequent mortality. Methods The prognostic value of nonfatal reinfarction was assessed in a large series (n=3097) of patients with a first myocardial infarction who participated in the ASPECT trial, comparing coumarin or matching placebo. Results A second myocardial infarction was documented in 299 patients (82% Q-wave infarctions), 45 (15%) of which were fatal. Of the 254 nonfatal reinfarctions, 31 patients (12%) died during subsequent follow-up. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, the relative risks of nonfatal reinfarction for subsequent cardiac mortality at one month were: 2.90 (1.49-5.64), at one year: 2.50 (1.47-4.23) and at three years: 2.71 (1.77-4.17). Rates of death or a second reinfarction in patients who did not undergo a revascularisation procedure after a first reinfarction were almost three times higher than in patients who did have PTCA or bypass surgery after a reinfarction (38% versus 14%; p<0.0001). Conclusion This study population with three-year follow-up confirms that nonfatal reinfarction carries a strong and independent risk for recurrent reinfarction and subsequent mortality. Thus, prevention of reinfarction by intensive treatment might contribute in reduction of mortality. PMID:25696720

  7. Effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A on myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M X; Fu, J H; Zhang, Q; Wang, J Q

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A (HSYA) on myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats. We randomly divided 170 male Wistar rats into 6 groups (N = 23): normal control, sham, control, SY (90 mg/kg), HSYA high-dose (HSYA-H, 40 mg/kg), and HSYA low-dose groups (HSYA-L, 20 mg/kg). Myocardial ischemic injury was induced by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery, and the degree of myocardial ischemia was evaluated using electrocardiography and nitroblue tetrazolium staining. Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in the ischemic myocardium were determined using immunohistochemical analysis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression in the myocardium of rats with AMI was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Compared to rats in the control group, those in the HYSA-H, HSYA-L, and SY groups showed a decrease in the elevated ST segments and an increase in the infarct size. The rats in the drug-treated groups showed a significantly lower percentage of Bax-positive cells and a significantly higher percentage of Bcl-2-positive cells than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, mRNA expression of PPAR-γ in the ischemic myocardium of rats in the SY, HSYA-L, and HSYA-H groups was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Thus, HSYA and SY can attenuate myocardial ischemia in rats, possibly by increasing the level of Bcl-2/Bax, and PPAR-γ may be not a necessary link in this process. PMID:25966078

  8. Myocardial uptake of indium-111-labeled antimyosin in acute subendocardial infarction: Clinical, histochemical, and autoradiographic correlation of myocardial necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, R.C.; McSherry, B.A.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Indium-111-labeled antimyosin has been utilized in the diagnosis and localization of acute transmural myocardial infarction. The present report describes a patient who presented with a massive subendocardial infarction. Two days after the injection of antimyosin, the patient's clinical status markedly deteriorated and he expired. Postmortem examination demonstrated severe three-vessel coronary artery disease with extensive myocyte death in the endocardium. Autoradiography and histochemical staining of the prosected heart demonstrated high correlation for myocardial necrosis and corresponded to clinical evidence for diffuse subendocardial infarction.

  9. Acute myocardial infarction and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: a comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Satwat; Al-Salam, Suhail

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) denotes the death of cardiac myocytes due to extended ischemia. Myocardial reperfusion is the restoration of coronary blood flow after a period of coronary occlusion. Reperfusion has the potential to salvage ischemic myocardium but paradoxically can cause injury, a phenomenon called as ‘reperfusion injury’ (IR). Standard histologic, immunohistochemical and Elisa techniques were used to study the histopathologic, oxidative, apoptotic and inflammatory changes in MI and IR. The IL-6 levels in the LV of the MI group were significantly raised as compared to the IR group (P=0.0008). Plasma IL-6 was also significantly increased in the MI group as compared to the IR group (P=0.031). MI model was also associated with increase in the neutrophil polymorphs number in the infarction related myocardium as compared to the re-perfused myocardium. A significant increase in troponin I level in the MI group as compared to the IR group is also seen (P=0.0001). Our IR model showed enhanced pro-apoptotic mediators like cleaved caspase-3 (P=0.005) and cytochrome c in the myocardium as compared to the MI model. In conclusion, myocardial damage in MI is mainly due to ischemic necrosis and inflammatory mechanisms while apoptosis is the main mechanism of cell death in IR in addition to limited ischemic necrosis. PMID:26464621

  10. Kounis syndrome: inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction following a bumblebee sting.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Gregoriana; Fontanella, Benedetta; Racheli, Marco; Bortolotti, Monica; Pasini, Gian Franco

    2013-08-01

    The Kounis syndrome was first described in 1991 as'the allergic angina syndrome'which could progress to acute myocardial infarction which was named'allergic myocardial infarction. There are several causes underlying this syndrome including drugs, various conditions and a variety of environmental exposure factors such as animal stings. Hymenoptera stings can induce Kounis syndrome because hymenoptera venom contains allergenic proteins and peptides. The following case report describes a patient who experienced an anaphylactic shock associated with coronary artery ischaemia (inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) after a bumblebee sting. PMID:24187772

  11. Percutaneous repair of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect: current approaches and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baldasare, Maria D; Polyakov, Mark; Laub, Glenn W; Costic, Joseph T; McCormick, Daniel J; Goldberg, Sheldon

    2014-12-01

    Post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect is a devastating complication of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Although surgical intervention is considered the gold standard for treatment, it carries high morbidity and mortality rates. We present 2 cases that illustrate the application of percutaneous closure of a post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect: the first in a patient who had undergone prior surgical closure and then developed a new shunt, and the second as a bridge to definitive surgery in a critically ill patient. PMID:25593526

  12. Percutaneous Repair of Post-Myocardial Infarction Ventricular Septal Defect: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Baldasare, Maria D.; Polyakov, Mark; Laub, Glenn W.; Costic, Joseph T.; McCormick, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect is a devastating complication of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Although surgical intervention is considered the gold standard for treatment, it carries high morbidity and mortality rates. We present 2 cases that illustrate the application of percutaneous closure of a post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect: the first in a patient who had undergone prior surgical closure and then developed a new shunt, and the second as a bridge to definitive surgery in a critically ill patient. PMID:25593526

  13. Role of iodinated contrast material in the evaluation of myocardial infarction by computerized transmission tomography.

    PubMed

    Higgins, C B; Siemers, P T; Newell, J D; Schmidt, W

    1980-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that areas of myocardial infarctions can be delineated on CT scans after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast material to dogs with experimental myocardial infarctions. Within the first minute after intravenous administration of contrast material (initial myocardial perfusion phase), the infarct appears an as area of decreased x-ray attenuation (cold spot image). Studies using radiolabeled microspheres indicate that the relative attenuation numbers throughout the myocardium in this phase reflect myocardial perfusion (Hessel et al, 1978). Delayed scans obtained at 5 minutes and later showed a reversal in the attenuation values of normal and infarcted myocardium with the infarct appearing as an area of homogeneous or mottled increase in x-ray density compared to normal myocardium. (Siemers et al, 1978; Carlsson et al, 1977; Higgins et al, 1979). This phenomenon of delayed contrast enhancement of myocardial infarctions ensues as early as 8 hours after coronary occlusion (Higgins et al, 1979) and is present in evolved infarcts as old as 51 days (Newell et al, 1979). Direct measurements of iodine concentration in infarcts, normal myocardium, and organs surrounding the heart were performed in dogs with 48-hour-old myocardial infarctions using fluorescent excitation analysis (Higgins et al, 1978, 1979). These measurements of iodine concentration in tissue samples obtained at 10-180 minutes after intravenous administration of contrast material indicated that the highest iodine concentration in the infarct was at 10 minutes, but the highest ratio of iodine concentration of the infarct to normal myocardium was at 180 minutes. At all time intervals, the concentration of iodine within the infarct was fivefold greater than in the normal myocardium. PMID:7203920

  14. [Coronary artery disease, myocardial perfusion and ventricular function in Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarcts].

    PubMed

    Macieira-Coelho, E; Garcia-Alves, M; da Costa, B; Cantinho, G; Pedro, P; Dionisio, I; Gouveia, A; de Padua, F

    1997-04-01

    Controversy remains in considering non-Q wave myocardial infarction (NQMI) a distinct pathophysiological entity of Q wave myocardial infarction (QMI). In order to analyze the severity of coronary artery disease, extension of myocardial scar or myocardial ischemia and ventricular function, 78 consecutive patients with QMI and 32 with NQMI, mean age 55.4 +/- 8.5, not submitted to thrombolytic therapy, were studied. Coronary angiography, exercise thallium scintigraphy and radionuclide ventriculography were performed in all at least within 3 months of a prior myocardial infarction. In the present study the occurrence of QMI was significantly more frequent in older patients than NQMI. There was no prevalence of occlusion either in the right, left circumflex or left anterior descending coronary arteries in both groups. Ejection fraction, degree of occlusion and presence of collateral circulation showed an equal prevalence in QMI and NQMI patients. A higher incidence of multivessel disease was found in NQMI that had less necrosis than QMI patients. The prevalence of exercise induced thallium-201 redistribution defects within the infarct zone was substantially higher and involved more scar segments in NQMI patients. Physiological and clinical consequences of coronary thrombosis depends on the size and the number of diseased arteries, the approach the pathophysiologic consequences of coronary disease in terms of fractal structure has been suggested. A pronounced heterogeneity in regional myocardial blood flow in a fractal branching arterial network may be responsible for the pathophysiologic differences of coronary thrombosis between Q-wave and non Q-wave infarction. PMID:9341032

  15. Unrecognized Myocardial Infarction Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging – Prognostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ahlström, Håkan; Bjerner, Tomas; Duvernoy, Olov; Eggers, Kai M.; Fröbert, Ole; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically unrecognized myocardial infarctions (UMI) are not uncommon and may be associated with adverse outcome. The aims of this study were to determine the prognostic implication of UMI in patients with stable suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and to investigate the associations of UMI with the presence of CAD. Methods and Findings In total 235 patients late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging and coronary angiography were performed. For each patient with UMI, the stenosis grade of the coronary branch supplying the infarcted area was determined. UMIs were present in 25% of the patients and 67% of the UMIs were located in an area supplied by a coronary artery with a stenosis grade ≥70%. In an age- and gender-adjusted model, UMI independently predicted the primary endpoint (composite of death, myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, hospitalization for unstable angina pectoris or heart failure within 2 years of follow-up) with an odds ratio of 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1–7.9. However, this association was abrogated after adjustment for age and presence of significant coronary disease. There was no difference in the primary endpoint rates between UMI patients with or without a significant stenosis in the corresponding coronary artery. Conclusions The presence of UMI was associated with a threefold increased risk of adverse events during follow up. However, the difference was no longer statistically significant after adjustments for age and severity of CAD. Thus, the results do not support that patients with suspicion of CAD should be routinely investigated by LGE-CMR for UMI. However, coronary angiography should be considered in patients with UMI detected by LGE-CMR. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01257282 PMID:26885831

  16. Optimizing the use of abciximab and intracoronary stents in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Velianou, James L; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim; Mathew, Verghese

    2002-01-01

    Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Reperfusion therapy, either with thrombolytic agents or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is the mainstay of therapy. Worldwide, systemic thrombolysis is the more commonly utilized reperfusion strategy, although an increasing number undergo primary PCI. PCI techniques and adjuvant therapies are evolving. Stents appear to be more useful than thrombolytic therapy or PTCA in acute AMI, especially in decreasing the need for subsequent target lesion revascularization. In patients with STEMI, administration of abciximab with stent placement decreased the primary endpoint [composite of major adverse cardiac events (death, reinfarction, urgent TVR)] by over 50% at 30 days in the Abciximab before Direct angioplasty and stenting in acute Myocardial Infarction Regarding Acute and Long-term follow-up (ADMIRAL) trial, and the benefit appeared to be maintained at 6 months. Despite these promising results, administration of abciximab with a stent did not afford greater benefit over stent alone in the Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications (CADILLAC) trial. The apparent lack of benefit with abciximab in the CADILLAC trial may be explained by the fact that this trial was not powered to detect differences in mortality and enrolled patients were selected after angiography, and were thus at lower risk. The adjuvant therapies of intracoronary stents and abciximab are becoming the standard of care, based on multiple studies. Stent placement during STEMI decreases the risk of restenosis and TVR. Treatment with abciximab may reduce the risk of acute adverse events in the short term. PMID:14727961

  17. Cocaine-Induced Delayed Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Apical Thrombus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rafay; Arshed, Sabrina; Jehangir, Waqas; Sen, Shuvendu; Yousif, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    It is well demonstrated in the literature that cocaine use has been well linked to the formation of various forms of acute and chronic cardiovascular problems including but not limited to acute coronary syndromes. However, cocaine has been commonly associated with coronary vasospasms and less commonly with myocardial infarction and the formation of atrial thrombus. Through this case presentation, we illustrate the findings of a 35-year-old gentleman with history of cocaine use presenting with acute coronary syndrome and complicated by thrombus formation. Furthermore, through this report, we illustrate in a patient with no other risk factors and at a young age, how chronic cocaine use or even a history of usage may result in complications even weeks after its consumption. PMID:26668686

  18. The evolving role of rescue therapy for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tadros, George M; Iliadis, Elias A; Wilson, Robert F; Henry, Timothy D

    2005-07-01

    Coronary reperfusion for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction can be accomplished with fibrinolytic therapy or with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Primary PCI provides more effective and sustained early reperfusion than fibrinolytic therapy, but is only available in a minority of hospitals worldwide. There is a lack of a definite method for identification of patients who have inadequate reperfusion after fibrinolysis. Transfer of patients after fibrinolysis for diagnostic angiography and possible rescue therapy is safe and feasible. Rescue PCI with the use of stents and antiplatelet therapy decreases cardiovascular mortality and morbidity compared with conservative therapy. Increasing use of primary PCI and forming networks to transfer patients to centers that offer primary PCI may decrease the need for rescue therapy in the future. PMID:19804147

  19. Neutrophil roles in left ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs; neutrophils) serve as key effector cells in the innate immune system and provide the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. In addition to producing inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and undergoing a respiratory burst that stimulates the release of reactive oxygen species, PMNs also degranulate to release components that kill pathogens. Recently, neutrophil extracellular traps have been shown to be an alternative way to trap microorganisms and contain infection. PMN-derived granule components are also involved in multiple non-infectious inflammatory processes, including the response to myocardial infarction (MI). In this review, we will discuss the biological characteristics, recruitment, activation, and removal of PMNs, as well as the roles of PMN-derived granule proteins in inflammation and innate immunity, focusing on the MI setting when applicable. We also discuss future perspectives that will direct research in PMN biology. PMID:23731794

  20. Newer Interventions in Myocardial Infarction: Do They Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Dwight I.

    1988-01-01

    Preventive aspects of coronary artery disease have made substantial advances in recent years, decreasing the incidence of coronary artery disease in Western countries. In addition to that there has been an initial drop from an in-hospital mortality of 35% to approximately 12% in the early 1960s with the establishment of coronary care units and cardiopulmonary resuscitation with defibrillation. Further to that, in recent years, it has been conclusively shown that there would be a further 20% decrease in mortality and improvement in morbidity in acute myocardial infarcts in patients treated with thrombolytic agents who present themselves within four hours of the onset of their symptoms and who are under 65 years of age. This would decrease the in-hospital mortality to approximately nine percent. PMID:21253251

  1. Apoptosis after reperfused myocardial infarction: Role of angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Jugdutt, Bodh I

    2004-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a significant role in apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI) and reperfused MI. Cumulative evidence suggests that Ang II is a major contributor to cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after acute reperfused MI and that apoptosis mediates a major portion of early LV dysfunction. Importantly, blockade of the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) limits CM apoptosis and LV dysfunction after acute reperfused MI. Ang II type 2 receptor activation during AT1R blockade contributes to these beneficial effects. The role of Ang II and apoptosis in chronic LV remodelling, healing and post-MI heart failure is more complex and involves effects on the CMs, fibroblasts and vascular cells. The long-term effects of agents targeting apoptosis after reperfused MI, including AT1R blockade, on apoptosis in different cell types, windows of enhanced apoptosis and the appropriate timing of therapy need to be considered. PMID:19641712

  2. Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  3. Analysis of myocardial infarction signals using optical technique.

    PubMed

    Mahri, Nurhafizah; Gan, Kok Beng; Mohd Ali, Mohd Alauddin; Jaafar, Mohd Hasni; Meswari, Rusna

    2016-01-01

    The risk of heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI) may lead to serious consequences in mortality and morbidity. Current MI management in the triage includes non-invasive heart monitoring using an electrocardiogram (ECG) and the cardic biomarker test. This study is designed to explore the potential of photoplethysmography (PPG) as a simple non-invasive device as an alternative method to screen the MI subjects. This study emphasises the usage of second derivative photoplethysmography (SDPPG) intervals as the extracted features to classify the MI subjects. The statistical analysis shows the potential of "a-c" interval and the corrected "a-cC" interval to classify the subject. The sensitivity of the predicted model using "a-c" and "a-cC" is 90.6% and 81.2% and the specificity is 87.5% and 84.4%, respectively. PMID:27010162

  4. Assessment and treatment of depression following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Guck, T P; Kavan, M G; Elsasser, G N; Barone, E J

    2001-08-15

    Approximately 65 percent of patients with acute myocardial infarction report experiencing symptoms of depression. Major depression is present in 15 to 22 percent of these patients. Depression is an independent risk factor in the development of and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy persons. Persons who are depressed and who have pre-existing cardiovascular disease have a 3.5 times greater risk of death than patients who are not depressed and have cardiovascular disease. Physicians can assess patients for depression by using one of several easily administered and scored self-report inventories, including the SIG E CAPS + mood mnemonic. Cognitive-behavior therapy is the preferred psychologic treatment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants are the recommended pharmacologic treatment because of the relative absence of effects on the cardiovascular system. The combination of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with cognitive-behavior therapy is often the most effective treatment for depression in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:11529263

  5. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction with mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yan; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ying; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current evidences suggest that revascularization of the culprit vessels with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting can be beneficial for relieving IMR. A 2.5-year follow-up data of a 61-year-old male patient with ST-segment elevation AMI complicated with IMR showed that mitral regurgitation area increased five days after PCI, and decreased to lower steady level three months after PCI. This finding suggest that three months after PCI might be a suitable time point for evaluating the possibility of IMR recovery and the necessity of surgical intervention of the mitral valve for AMI patient. PMID:27582769

  6. Noncompaction and embolic myocardial infarction: the importance of oral anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Pulignano, Giovanni; Tinti, Maria Denitza; Tolone, Stefano; Musto, Carmine; De Lio, Lucia; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Minardi, Giovanni; Violini, Roberto; Uguccioni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrabeculations and is associated with heart failure, arrhythmias and embolism. We report the case of a 67-year-old LVNC patient, under oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy for apical thrombosis. After she discontinued OAC, the thrombus involved almost the whole of the left ventricle; in a few months her condition worsened, requiring hospitalization, and despite heparin infusion she experienced myocardial infarction (MI), caused by embolic occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. Although infrequent as a complication of LVNC, and usually attributable to microvascular dysfunction, in this case MI seems due to coronary thromboembolism from dislodged thrombotic material in the left ventricle. PMID:26162290

  7. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction with mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yan; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ying; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current evidences suggest that revascularization of the culprit vessels with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting can be beneficial for relieving IMR. A 2.5-year follow-up data of a 61-year-old male patient with ST-segment elevation AMI complicated with IMR showed that mitral regurgitation area increased five days after PCI, and decreased to lower steady level three months after PCI. This finding suggest that three months after PCI might be a suitable time point for evaluating the possibility of IMR recovery and the necessity of surgical intervention of the mitral valve for AMI patient. PMID:27582769

  8. Cocaine-Induced Delayed Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Apical Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rafay; Arshed, Sabrina; Jehangir, Waqas; Sen, Shuvendu; Yousif, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    It is well demonstrated in the literature that cocaine use has been well linked to the formation of various forms of acute and chronic cardiovascular problems including but not limited to acute coronary syndromes. However, cocaine has been commonly associated with coronary vasospasms and less commonly with myocardial infarction and the formation of atrial thrombus. Through this case presentation, we illustrate the findings of a 35-year-old gentleman with history of cocaine use presenting with acute coronary syndrome and complicated by thrombus formation. Furthermore, through this report, we illustrate in a patient with no other risk factors and at a young age, how chronic cocaine use or even a history of usage may result in complications even weeks after its consumption. PMID:26668686

  9. Mammalian Cardiac Regeneration After Fetal Myocardial Infarction Requires Cardiac Progenitor Cell Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Allukian, Myron; Xu, Junwang; Morris, Michael; Caskey, Robert; Dorsett-Martin, Wanda; Plappert, Theodore; Griswold, Michael; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Background In contrast to the adult, fetal sheep consistently regenerate functional myocardium after myocardial infarction. We hypothesize that this regeneration is due to the recruitment of cardiac progenitor cells to the infarct by stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and that its competitive inhibition will block the regenerative fetal response. Methods A 20% apical infarct was created in adult and fetal sheep by selective permanent coronary artery ligation. Lentiviral overexpression of mutant SDF-1α competitively inhibited SDF-1α in fetal infarcts. Echocardiography was performed to assess left ventricular function and infarct size. Cardiac progenitor cell recruitment and proliferation was assessed in fetal infarcts at 1 month by immunohistochemistry for nkx2.5 and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Results Competitive inhibition of SDF-1α converted the regenerative fetal response into a reparative response, similar to the adult. SDF-inhibited fetal infarcts demonstrated significant infarct expansion by echocardiography (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in the number of nkx2.5+ cells repopulating the infarct (p < 0.001). Conclusions The fetal regenerative response to myocardial infarction requires the recruitment of cardiac progenitor cells and is dependent on SDF1α. This novel model of mammalian cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction provides a powerful tool to better understand cardiac progenitor cell biology and to develop strategies to cardiac regeneration in the adult. PMID:23816072

  10. miRNome in myocardial infarction: Future directions and perspective

    PubMed Central

    Boštjančič, Emanuela; Glavač, Damjan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small and non-coding RNAs, are genome encoded from viruses to humans. They contribute to various developmental, physiological and pathological processes in living organisms. A huge amount of research results revealed that miRNAs regulate these processes also in the heart. miRNAs may have cell-type-specific or tissue-specific expression patterns or may be expressed ubiquitously. Primary studies of miRNA involvement in hypertrophy, heart failure and myocardial infarction analyzed miRNAs that are enriched in or specific for cardiomyocytes; however, growing evidence suggest that other miRNAs, not cardiac or muscle-specific, play a significant role in cardiovascular disease. Abnormal miRNA regulation has been shown to be involved in cardiac diseases, suggesting that miRNAs might affect cardiac structure and function. In this review, we focus on miRNAs that have been found to contribute to the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) and the response post-MI and characterized as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. The majority of these studies were performed using mouse and rat models of MI, with a focus on the identification of basic cellular and molecular pathways involved in MI and in the response post-MI. Much research has also been performed on animal and human plasma samples from MI individuals to identify miRNAs that are possible prognostic and/or diagnostic targets of MI and other MI-related diseases. A large proportion of research is focused on miRNAs as promising therapeutic targets and biomarkers of drug responses and/or stem cell treatment approaches. However, only a few studies have described miRNA expression in human heart tissue following MI. PMID:25276296

  11. Nitrendipine binding in congestive heart failure due to myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, I.M.; Lee, S.L.; Dhalla, N.S. )

    1990-03-01

    Depressed cardiac pump function is the hallmark of congestive heart failure, and it is suspected that decreased influx of Ca2+ into the cardiac cell is responsible for depressed contractile function. Since Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemmal membrane are considered to be an important route for the entry of Ca2+, we examined the status of Ca2+ receptors/channels in failing rat hearts after myocardial infarction of the left ventricular free wall. For this purpose, the left coronary artery was ligated and hearts were examined 4, 8, and 16 weeks later; sham-operated animals served as controls. Hemodynamic assessment revealed decreased total mechanical energy (left ventricular systolic pressure x heart rate), increased left ventricular diastolic pressure, and decreased positive and negative dP/dt in experimental animals at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Although accumulation of ascites in the abdominal cavity was evident at 4 weeks, other clinical signs of congestive heart failure in experimental rats were evident from the presence of lung congestion and cardiac dilatation at 8 and 16 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction. The density of Ca2+ receptors/channels in crude membranes, as assessed by (3H)nitrendipine binding assay, was found to be decreased in the uninfarcted experimental left ventricle at 8 and 16 weeks; however, no change in the affinity of nitrendipine was evident. A similar depression in the specific binding of another dihydropyridine compound, (3H)PN200-110, was also evident in failing hearts. Brain and skeletal muscle crude membrane preparations, unlike those of the right ventricle and liver, revealed a decrease in Ca2+ receptors/channels density in experimental animals at 16 weeks.

  12. Association of Age and CKD with Prognosis of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Min Jee; Kang, Yong Un; Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ahn, Young-Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives CKD is a well known poor prognostic factor in myocardial infarction (MI). This study evaluated the prognostic significance of CKD, particularly in association with increasing age, in MI patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study was based on a retrospective cohort, the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of MI were analyzed to investigate the association of CKD with mortality risk according to age. A total of 11,268 patients (mean age 63.0±12.6 years) were included and followed for 1 year. Results In the full cohort, 26% of patients had CKD (n=2929). The prevalence of CKD was higher with advancing age. Eight hundred sixty-one patients (7.6%) died and the interaction for 1-year mortality between age strata and estimated GFR (eGFR) strata was significant (P<0.001). Within each age category, the absolute 1-year mortality was higher in patients with a low eGFR. However, the adjusted relative mortality risk for a low eGFR was lower with increasing age (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for 1-year mortality at eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2: 4.84 [1.93−12.15], 4.53 [2.42−8.47], 3.51 [2.42−5.09], and 3.30 [2.41−4.52] for patients aged <55, 55−64, 65−74, and ≥75 years compared with those with eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively). Conclusions For all age categories, the overall mortality was significantly higher as eGFR declined. The association of a lower eGFR with mortality was weaker with increasing age, indicating that the prognostic significance of CKD in MI patients is age dependent. PMID:23430208

  13. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Immediately After Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Maclure, Malcolm; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Muller, James E.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitual moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) whereas heavy (binge) drinking is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. However, less is known about the immediate effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of acute MI and whether any association differs by beverage type or usual drinking patterns. Methods We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3,869 participants from the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study who were interviewed during hospitalization for acute MI in one of 64 medical centers across the United States in 1989–1996. We compared the observed number of times that each participant consumed wine, beer or liquor in the hour preceding MI symptom onset with the expected frequency based on each participant’s control information, defined as the number of times the participant consumed alcohol in the past year. Results Among 3869 participants, 2119 (55%) reported alcohol consumption in the past year, including 76 within 1 hour before acute MI onset. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 1.72-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.37–2.16) within 1 hour after alcohol consumption. The association was stronger for liquor than for beer or wine. The higher rate was not apparent for daily drinkers. For the 24 hours after consumption, there was a 14% lower rate (relative risk=0.86 [95% CI=0.79–0.95]) of MI compared with periods with no alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol consumption is associated with an acutely higher risk of MI in the subsequent hour among people who do not typically drink alcohol daily. PMID:25563434

  14. Time Trends in Incidence and Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction, and All-Cause Mortality following a Cardiovascular Prevention Program in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Journath, Gunilla; Hammar, Niklas; Elofsson, Stig; Linnersjö, Anette; Vikström, Max; Walldius, Göran; Krakau, Ingvar; Lindgren, Peter; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1988, a cardiovascular prevention program which combined an individual and a population-based strategy was launched within primary health-care in Sollentuna, a municipality in Stockholm County. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of and mortality from acute myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County during a period of two decades following the implementation of a cardiovascular prevention program. Materials and Methods The average population in Sollentuna was 56,589 (49% men) and in Stockholm County (Sollentuna included) 1,795,504 (49% men) during the study period of 1987–2010. Cases of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction and death were obtained for the population of Sollentuna and the rest of Stockholm County using national registries of hospital discharges and deaths. Acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality were estimated using the average population of Sollentuna and Stockholm in 1987–2010. Results During the observation period, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction decreased more in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County in women (-22% vs. -7%; for difference in slope <0.05). There was a trend towards a greater decline in Sollentuna compared to the rest of Stockholm County in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (in men), acute myocardial mortality, and all-cause mortality but the differences were not significant. Conclusion During a period of steep decline in acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality in Stockholm County the municipality of Sollentuna showed a stronger trend in women possibly compatible with favorable influence of a cardiovascular prevention program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02212145 PMID:26580968

  15. Scintigraphic assessment of sympathetic innervation after transmural versus nontransmural myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Dae, M.W.; Herre, J.M.; O'Connell, J.W.; Botvinick, E.H.; Newman, D.; Munoz, L. )

    1991-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of detecting denervated myocardium in the infarcted canine heart, the distribution of sympathetic nerve endings using I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was compared with the distribution of perfusion using thallium-201, with the aid of color-coded computer functional map in 16 dogs. Twelve dogs underwent myocardial infarction by injection of vinyl latex into the left anterior descending coronary artery (transmural myocardial infarction, n = 6), or ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (nontransmural myocardial infarction, n = 6). Four dogs served as sham-operated controls. Image patterns were compared with tissue norepinephrine content and with histofluorescence microscopic findings in biopsy specimens. Hearts with transmural infarction showed zones of absent MIBG and thallium, indicating scar. Adjacent and distal regions showed reduced MIBG but normal thallium uptake, indicating viable but denervated myocardium. Denervation distal to infarction was confirmed by reduced norepinephrine content and absence of nerve fluorescence. Nontransmural myocardial infarction showed zones of wall thinning with decreased thallium uptake and a greater reduction or absence of MIBG localized to the region of the infarct, with minimal extension of denervation beyond the infarct. Norepinephrine content was significantly reduced in the infarct zone, and nerve fluorescence was absent. These findings suggest that (1) MIBG imaging can detect viable and perfused but denervated myocardium after infarction; and (2) as opposed to the distal denervation produced by transmural infarction, nontransmural infarction may lead to regional ischemic damage of sympathetic nerves, but may spare subepicardial nerve trunks that course through the region of infarction to provide a source of innervation to distal areas of myocardium.

  16. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  17. Platelet microparticle number is associated with the extent of myocardial damage in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Puspitawati, Ira; Gharini, Putrika Prastuti Ratna; Setianto, Budi Yuli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Activated platelets generate microparticles. Increased platelet microparticles occur in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and contribute to intracoronary thrombosis and subsequent myocardial injury. This study aimed to investigate the impact of platelet microparticles on intracoronary thrombosis by assessing the relationship between platelet microparticles and the extent of myocardial damage in AMI. Material and methods This was a cross sectional study. The subjects were patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Forty-one consecutive subjects with ACS admitted to intensive cardiovascular care unit were enrolled. The clinical spectrum of ACS comprised AMI (n = 26), both ST-elevation AMI (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation AMI (NSTEMI), and unstable angina (n = 15). Platelet microparticles were isolated from peripheral venous blood and detected with anti-CD42b-PE by the flow cytometry method. The extent of myocardial damage was determined by measuring the peak level of serial cardiac enzymes within 24 h of admission. Results Subjects with AMI had a significantly higher number of platelet microparticles than those with unstable angina (4855 ±4509/µl vs. 2181 ±1923/µl respectively; p = 0.036). Subjects with STEMI had the highest number of platelet microparticles, but no significant difference was detected as compared to those with NSTEMI (5775 ±5680/µl vs. 3601 ±1632/µl). The number of platelet microparticles in AMI was positively associated with the extent of myocardial damage (peak CK-MB: r = 0.408, p = 0.019 and peak GOT: r = 0.384, p = 0.026). Conclusions The number of platelet microparticles was increased in AMI as compared to unstable angina and associated with the extent of myocardial damage. PMID:27279844

  18. In vivo experience with natural scaffolds for myocardial infarction: the times they are a-changin'.

    PubMed

    Perea-Gil, Isaac; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Treating a myocardial infarction (MI), the most frequent cause of death worldwide, remains one of the most exciting medical challenges in the 21st century. Cardiac tissue engineering, a novel emerging treatment, involves the use of therapeutic cells supported by a scaffold for regenerating the infarcted area. It is essential to select the appropriate scaffold material; the ideal one should provide a suitable cellular microenvironment, mimic the native myocardium, and allow mechanical and electrical coupling with host tissues. Among available scaffold materials, natural scaffolds are preferable for achieving these purposes because they possess myocardial extracellular matrix properties and structures. Here, we review several natural scaffolds for applications in MI management, with a focus on pre-clinical studies and clinical trials performed to date. We also evaluate scaffolds combined with different cell types and proteins for their ability to promote improved heart function, contractility and neovascularization, and attenuate adverse ventricular remodeling. Although further refinement is necessary in the coming years, promising results indicate that natural scaffolds may be a valuable translational therapeutic option with clinical impact in MI repair. PMID:26670389

  19. iPS Cells for Post-myocardial Infarction Repair: Remarkable Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lalit, Pratik A.; Hei, Derek J.; Raval, Amish N.; Kamp, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease with associated myocardial infarction continues to be a major cause of death and morbidity around the world despite significant advances in therapy. Patients who suffer large myocardial infarctions are at highest risk for progressive heart failure and death, and cell-based therapies offer new hope for these patients. A recently discovered cell source for cardiac repair has emerged as a result of a breakthrough reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The iPSCs can proliferate indefinitely in culture and can differentiate into cardiac lineages including cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and cardiac progenitors. Thus large quantities of desired cell products can be generated without being limited by cellular senescence. The iPSCs can be obtained from patients to allow autologous therapy or, alternatively, banks of HLA diverse iPSCs are possible for allogeneic therapy. Preclinical animal studies using a variety of cell preparations generated from iPSCs have shown evidence of cardiac repair. Methodology for the production of clinical grade products from human iPSCs is in place. Ongoing studies of the safety of various iPSC preparations with regard to the risk of tumor formation, immune rejection, induction of arrhythmias, and formation of stable cardiac grafts are needed as the field advances toward the first in man trials of iPSCs post-MI. PMID:24723658

  20. Side effects of using nitrates to treat heart failure and the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L

    2007-07-01

    increased mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with stable coronary artery disease, no such adverse effects of nitrates have been reported in the large randomized trials in patients with acute myocardial infarction or chronic heart failure. PMID:17688382

  1. Photoacoustic tomography of ex vivo mouse hearts with myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holotta, Markus; Grossauer, Harald; Kremser, Christian; Torbica, Pavle; Völkl, Jakob; Degenhart, Gerald; Esterhammer, Regina; Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Günther; Jaschke, Werner

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the applicability of ex vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) on small animal organs. We used photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to visualize infarcted areas within murine hearts and compared these data to other imaging techniques [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography] and histological slices. In order to induce ischemia, an in vivo ligation of the left anterior descending artery was performed on nine wild-type mice. After varying survival periods, the hearts were excised and fixed in formaldehyde. Samples were illuminated with nanosecond laser pulses delivered by a Nd:YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator. Ultrasound detection was achieved using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) working as an integrating line detector. The voxel data were computed using a Fourier-domain based reconstruction algorithm, followed by inverse Radon transforms. The results clearly showed the capability of PAI to visualize myocardial infarction and to produce three-dimensional images with a spatial resolution of approximately 120 μm. Regions of affected muscle tissue in PAI corresponded well with the results of MRI and histology. Photoacoustic tomography utilizing a MZI for ultrasound detection allows for imaging of small tissue samples. Due to its high spatial resolution, good soft tissue contrast and comparatively low cost, PAT offers great potentials for imaging.

  2. Myocardial infarction activates CCR2+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Partha; Sager, Hendrik B.; Stengel, Kristy R.; Naxerova, Kamila; Courties, Gabriel; Saez, Borja; Silberstein, Lev; Heidt, Timo; Sebas, Matthew; Sun, Yuan; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Feruglio, Paolo Fumene; King, Kevin; Baker, Joshua N.; van der Laan, Anja M.; Borodovsky, Anna; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Hulsmans, Maarten; Hoyer, Friedrich; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Vinegoni, Claudio; Brown, Dennis; Di Carli, Marcelo; Libby, Peter; Hiebert, Scott; Scadden, David; Swirski, Filip K.; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Following myocardial infarction (MI), myeloid cells derived from the hematopoietic system drive a sharp increase in systemic leukocyte levels that correlate closely with mortality. The origin of these myeloid cells, and the response of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to MI, however, is unclear. Here, we identify a CCR2+CD150+CD48− LSK hematopoietic subset as the most upstream contributor to emergency myelopoiesis after ischemic organ injury. CCR2+ HSPC have fourfold higher proliferation rates than CCR2−CD150+CD48− LSK cells, display a myeloid differentiation bias, and dominate the migratory HSPC population. We further demonstrate the myeloid translocation gene 16 (Mtg16) regulates CCR2+ HSPC emergence. Mtg16−/− mice have decreased levels of systemic monocytes and infarct-associated macrophages and display compromised tissue healing and post-MI heart failure. Together, these data provide insights into regulation of emergency hematopoiesis after ischemic injury, and identify potential therapeutic targets to modulate leukocyte output after MI. PMID:25957903

  3. Acute myocardial infarct imaging with indium-111-labeled monoclonal antimyosin Fab

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, B.A.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Johns, J.A.; Kanke, M.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Strauss, H.W.; Haber, E.

    1987-11-01

    Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin Fab scintigraphy was used to detect myocardial necrosis in 52 of 54 patients (96.3%) with acute myocardial infarction. Infarcts were visualized when coronary arteries were persistently occluded (n = 10), became patent after thrombolysis (n = 33), or became patent after spontaneous reperfusion (n = 7). Posteroinferolateral visualizations were obtained in two patients with clinical and enzymatic evidence of infarction but normal electrocardiograms. Of the two patients in whom no infarcts were visualized, one had an anterior myocardial infarct. This patient underwent successful thrombolytic therapy, with attendant minimization of creatine kinase release. The other patient had a small, nonreperfused inferior myocardial infarct. Five patients with a history of remote infarction and acute necrosis showed antimyosin uptake only in regions concordant with the acute episodes of infarction, and radiolabeled antimyosin Fab localized in neither old infarcts nor normal, noninfarcted myocardium. Antimyosin Fab scintigraphy, thus, appears to be a highly specific means of delineating necrotic myocardium, at least in this limited and selected group of patients.

  4. Computerized measurement of myocardial infarct size on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Li-Yueh; Kellman, Peter; Natanzon, Alex; Hirsch, Glenn A.; Aletras, Anthony H.; Arai, Andrew E.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To validate a computer algorithm for measuring myocardial infarct size on gadolinium enhanced MR images. The results of computer infarct sizing are studied on phase-sensitive and magnitude imaging against a histopathology reference. Materials and Methods: Validations were performed in 9 canine myocardial infarctions determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). The algorithm analyzed the pixel intensity distribution within manually traced myocardial regions. Pixels darker than an automatically determined threshold were first excluded from further analysis. Selected image features were used to remove false positive regions. A threshold 50% between bright and dark regions was then used to minimize partial volume errors. Post-processing steps were applied to identify microvascular obstruction. Both phase sensitive and magnitude reconstructed MR images were measured by the computer algorithm in units of % of the left ventricle (LV) infarction and compared to TTC. Results: Correlations of MR and TTC infarct size were 0.96 for both phase sensitive and magnitude imaging. Bland Altman analysis showed no consistent bias as a function of infarct size. The average error of computer infarct sizing was less than 2% of the LV for both reconstructions. Fixed intensity thresholding was less accurate compared to the computer algorithm. Conclusions: MR can accurately depict myocardial infarction. The proposed computer algorithm accurately measures infarct size on contrast-enhanced MR images against the histopathology reference. It is effective for both phase-sensitive and magnitude imaging.

  5. Clinical update on the therapeutic use of clopidogrel: treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Huyen; Mehta, Shamir R; Eikelboom, John W

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involves plaque disruption, platelet aggregation and intracoronary artery thrombus formation. Aspirin is the cornerstone of antiplatelet therapy in patients with STEMI, reducing the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction or death during the acute phase and long term by about one-quarter. Recent large randomized trials have demonstrated that the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin reduces the risk of major ischemic events by up to a further one-third in patients with STEMI treated with fibrinolytic therapy and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, with no significant increase in bleeding. Thus, dual antiplatelet therapy with the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin is becoming the new standard of care for the management of patients with STEMI. PMID:17323592

  6. Plasma lysosomal enzyme activity in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Welman, E; Selwyn, A P; Peters, T J; Colbeck, J F; Fox, K M

    1978-02-01

    N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30, recommended name beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase) was found to be a constituent of human cardiac lysosomes. beta-glucuronidase was also found in this tissue, while lysozyme, an enzyme present in leucocyte lysosomes, was not detectable in the heart. The activities of both N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and beta-glucuronidase were elevated in plasma during the first 24 h after the onset of chest pain in patients with acute myocardial infarction and the peak levels of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase correlated well with those of creatine kinase. N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase showed a further rise in plasma activity which gave a peak at 72 h after the onset of chest pain and this was accompanied by a rise in lysozyme activity. It is suggested that lysosome disruption caused by myocardial cell necrosis was responsible for the initial rise in plasma lysosomal enzyme activity and that the subsequent inflammatory reaction gave rise to the second peak. PMID:647716

  7. MOEMS-based cardiac enzymes detector for acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amritsar, Jeetender; Stiharu, Ion G.; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Balagopal, Ganesharam; Li, Xing

    2004-10-01

    Biomedical applications of MOEMS are limited only by the mankind imagination. Precision measurements on minute amounts of biological material could be performed by optical means with a remarkable accuracy. Although available in medical laboratories for general purposes, such analyzers are making their way directly to the users in the form of dedicated equipment. Such an example is a test kit to detect the existence of cardiac enzymes in the blood stream. Apart from the direct users, the medical personnel will make use of such tools given the practicality of the kit. In a large proportion of patients admitted to the hospital suspected of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), the symptoms and electrocardiographic changes are inconclusive. This necessitates the use of biochemical markers of myocardial damage for correct exclusion or conformation of AMI. In this study the concept of MOEMS is applied for the detection of enzyme reaction, in which glass spectrums are scanned optically when enzyme molecules adsorb on their surface. This paper presents the optical behavior of glass spectrums under Horseradish Peroxide (HRP) enzyme reaction. The reported experimental results provide valuable information that will be useful in the development of biosensors for enzymatic detection. This paper also reports the dynamic behavior of different glass spectrums.

  8. Carbon monoxide and ST-elevation myocardial infarction: case reports.

    PubMed

    Sward, Douglas G; Sethuraman, Kinjal N; Wong, Jennifer S; Rosenthal, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    We describe two cases of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram associated with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a condition rarely reported in the literature. The first was a 62-year-old woman who experienced chest pain in the emergency department (ED) while being assessed for exposure to carbon monoxide in her home. The second was an 80-year-old man who fainted at home and was found to have ST elevation during the ED workup. After hospitalization, he returned home and soon thereafter had difficulty walking and speaking. The responding paramedics detected a very high CO level in the home. Both patients received hyperbaric oxygen therapy within the first several hours of presentation. For this combination of conditions, it is difficult to derive evidence-based management recommendations, given the paucity of cases reported to date. We conclude that rapid consultation with interventional cardiology and consideration of angioplasty or stenting are appropriate, especially when electrocardiographic findings and echocardiography point to a specific coronary distribution. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy might have a role in the treatment, based on its effects on myocardial ischemia and injury in other models. PMID:27000015

  9. Complete infarct-related artery revascularization in acute myocardial infarction patients. CORAMI Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mrevlje, Blaz; Januś, Bogdan; Dziewierz, Artur; Rakowski, Tomasz; Legutko, Jacek; Bartuś, Stanisław; Dudek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are still limited data on the occurrence of multiple stenotic lesions within the infarct-related artery (IRA) in acute myocardial infarction (MI), and there is no consensus on the optimal treatment of this patient subgroup, which varies between centers and operators. Aim To analyse the clinical efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy of culprit lesion only in patients with myocardial infarction. Material and methods Patients with acute MI with the presence of at least two significant lesions in the IRA – (1) the target culprit lesion which required immediate stenting (> 50–100% stenosis) and (2) a second distal critical lesion (70–90%) – were included in the registry. Both lesions in the IRA were considered to be independent lesions requiring two separate stent platforms to be covered (no overlap). The decision on the treatment strategy of either complete (CR) or culprit-lesion-only (CLO) revascularization was at the discretion of the operator. Results There were altogether 95 patients enrolled in the registry, 63 (66%) in the group with CR of the IRA and 32 (34%) with CLO revascularization, which did not differ in terms of baseline demographics. In-hospital and long-term outcomes were similar between the groups. Stent thrombosis at 1 year occurred in 1.6% in CR and in 6.2% in CLO groups respectively (statistically not significant). There were no patients from the CLO group who had a planned percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the 2nd lesion in the IRA during 1-year observation. Conclusions At 1 year the clinical outcome was similar between those with complete and CLO PCI. Complete coverage of significant lesions did not increase the risk of stent thrombosis or need for repeated revascularization in long-term observation. PMID:26161098

  10. Acute myocardial infarction and renal infarction in a bodybuilder using anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Erkan; Demirci, Deniz; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Calık, Ali Nazmi

    2010-06-01

    A 41-year-old male bodybuilder was admitted with acute inferior myocardial infarction. The patient had been using oxymetholone and methenolone to increase his performance for 15 years and quitted smoking three years before. He underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and bare metal stenting for total occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery. Angiography also showed a critical lesion in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five hours after primary PCI, the patient had severe right flank pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed a large renal infarction in the right kidney. Subcutaneous enoxaparin was added to dual antiplatelet treatment. Doppler renal ultrasound performed on the eighth day showed findings of reperfusion in the right kidney and normal-size kidneys. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated disappearance of previously detected thrombus remnant in the left ventricle and only mild hypokinesia around the apical and middle segments of the inferior and inferoseptal walls. The patient was discharged on the 10th day. Renal arteriography during elective LAD intervention 18 days after discharge showed complete revascularization, stent patency, and improved blood flow. This is the first case of renal infarction that developed in the early hours of primary PCI, despite effective anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment. Intensive coronary artery and left ventricular thrombi may be explained by the use of anabolic steroids. PMID:20935436

  11. Imaging of acute myocardial infarction in pigs with Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin scintigraphy and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    ten Kate, C.I.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Schipperheyn, J.J.; Doornbos, J.; Hoedemaeker, P.J.; Maes, A.; v.d. Nat, K.H.; Camps, J.A.; Huysmans, H.A.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1990-07-01

    Indium-111 antimyosin F(ab')2 was used in a series of scintigraphic studies on experimentally induced myocardial infarctions in pigs. Antimyosin distribution recorded by planar images of in vivo pigs and by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of excised hearts delineated areas of myocardial necrosis if infarct volume exceeded 3.3 cm3. Scintigraphic images were compared with magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from excised hearts and with photographs of slices of the hearts. Infarct size and localization determined with antimyosin were compared. The MR images, with or without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), of the in vivo pigs were all false-negative; some myocardial wall thinning and high bloodpool signals were visible. Results show that both the antimyosin and the MR technique are specific methods for the visualization of induced myocardial necrosis in this animal model. However, the use of antimyosin is limited to a period ranging from 24 to 72 hours after infarction.

  12. Persistent uptake of indium-111-antimyosin monoclonal antibody in patients with myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumori, A.; Yamada, T.; Tamaki, N.; Kawai, C.; Watanabe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J.; Yoshida, A.; Tamaki, S. )

    1990-11-01

    Indium-111(111In)-antimyosin scintigraphy was investigated in 27 patients with myocardial infarction. {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was administered intravenously, and planar and single photon emission computed tomographic images were obtained 48 hours later. Uptake of {sup 111}In-antimyosin was present in 9 of 10 patients (90%) studied within 6 days of infarction. During the second week positive scans were seen in 16 of 16 patients (100%) including 13 (81%) who had normal creatine kinase levels. The mechanism of persistent positive antimyosin images in the subacute stage of myocardial infarction remains to be clarified. {sup 111}In-antimyosin scintigraphy may be useful as a noninvasive method for the detection of myocardial injury late and early after a suspected acute myocardial infarction.

  13. The 1999 Ji-Ji (Taiwan) earthquake as a trigger for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Hong; Lung, For-Wey; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of stress due to the Ji-Ji, Taiwan, earthquake, which occurred at 1:47 a.m. on September 21, 1999, on the onset of acute myocardial infarction in six counties near the earthquake epicenter. The rate of hospitalization due to acute myocardial infarction increased during the 6 weeks after the earthquake, and a significantly higher number of patients were hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction during that period, compared with the same 6-week period in the previous year (99 and 65 patients, respectively). The findings suggest that extreme emotional stress due to the natural disaster, superimposed on the stress of awakening, increased the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in this population. PMID:15546824

  14. Clenbuterol and anabolic steroids: a previously unreported cause of myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteriograms.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D R; Dobbs, T; Krull, B; Plumb, V J

    1998-08-01

    During the last 10 years, several cases of myocardial infarction associated with anabolic steroid use have been reported. Postulated mechanisms to explain this association have included changes in lipid levels, the fibrinolytic system, and platelet aggregation. Clenbuterol is a beta 2-agonist with anabolic properties that has not been seen previously with myocardial infarction. We report a case of myocardial infarction in an otherwise healthy 26-year-old body-builder who recently used clenbuterol and anabolic steroids. In this case, synergistic effects of the two agents seem likely to have played a role in the infarct. The normal coronary arteriograms before any anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy strongly suggest coronary spasm as the mechanism of the infarct. PMID:9715231

  15. Relationship between T-wave normalization on exercise ECG and myocardial functional recovery in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Shim, Wan Joo; Jung, Seong Won; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Soo Jin; Song, Woo Hyuk; Kim, Young Hoon; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo; Ro, Young Moo

    2002-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested that T-wave normalization (TWN) in exercise ECG indicates the presence of viable myocardium. But the clinical implication of this phenomenon in patients with acute myocardial infarction who received proper revascularization therapy was not determined. Precisely the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TWN in exercise ECG and myocardial functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. Methods We studied 30 acute myocardial infarction patients with negative T waves in infarct related electrocardiographic leads and who had received successful revascularization therapy. Exercise ECG was performed 10–14days after infarct onset using Naughton protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to presence (group I; n=14) or not (group II; n=16) of TWN in exercise ECG. Exercise parameters and coronary angiographic findings were compared between groups. Baseline and follow-up (mean 11 months) regional and global left ventricular function was analyzed by echocardiography. Results Exercise parameters were similar between groups. There was no difference in baseline ejection fraction and wall motion score between group I and II (EF; 56±12% vs 52±11%, p=ns. WMS; 21±3 vs 23±4, p=ns) and it was improved at the tenth month by similar magnitude (group I/group II, EF % change=12±12% vs 7±6%, p=ns, WMS % change=6±6% vs 7±5%, p=ns). The finding of no relation between TWN and functional recovery was observed also when the patients were analysed according to infarct location and presence or absence of Q-waves. Conclusion As the exercise-induced TWN in patients with acute myocardial infarction was not related with better functional recovery of dysfunctional regional wall motion and ejection fraction, TWN does not appear to be an indicator of myocardial viability. PMID:12164089

  16. Acute Myocardial Infarction Due to Spontaneous Dissection of the Right Coronary Artery in a Young Male

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris P. Moyssakis, Ioannis; Perakis, Alexandros; Athanasiou, Andreas; Anagnostopoulou, Sophia; Benos, Ioannis; Votteas, Vassilios E.

    2004-09-15

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with an acute inferior myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography performed 3 hours after the episode revealed a dissection involving the middle segment of right coronary artery. Because of a spiral form of dissection and the TIMI 3 flow grade, our patient was treated medically and repeat coronary angiography 6 months later was decided.

  17. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after acute myocardial infarction: An unusual case of possible association.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Francesco; Baldi, Cesare; Malinconico, Marisa; Acri, Edvige; Cirillo, Annapaola; Citro, Rodolfo; Bossone, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute reversible clinical condition mimicking an acute myocardial infarction. Although a normal coronary artery tree is frequently detected, the concurrence of coronary artery disease is a common finding in a substantial proportion of patients. We report an unusual case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in post-menopausal women after emotional stress, occurring after inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The possible association between takotsubo cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease is discussed. PMID:24833638

  18. Significance of perfusion of the infarct related coronary artery for susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with previous myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Huikuri, H. V.; Koistinen, M. J.; Airaksinen, K. E.; Ikäheimo, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the significance of perfusion of the infarct related coronary artery for susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with a remote myocardial infarction. SETTING--Tertiary referral cardiac centre. METHODS--Angiographic filling of the infarct related artery was assessed in a consecutive series of 85 patients with different susceptibilities to ventricular tachyarrhythmias after previous (> 3 months) Q wave myocardial infarction: 30 patients had a history of cardiac arrest (n = 16) or sustained ventricular tachycardia (n = 14), and sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia was inducible in these by programmed electrical stimulation (arrhythmia group); 47 patients had no clinical arrhythmic events and no inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmias during programmed ventricular stimulation (control group). Eight patients without a history of any arrhythmic events were inducible into ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS--The patients in the arrhythmia group were older (63 (SD 8) years) than the control patients (59 (6) years, P < 0.05), and had larger left ventricular volumes in cineangiography (P < 0.01), but ejection fraction, severity of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, previous thrombolytic therapy, and time from previous infarction did not differ between the groups. Patients with susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmias more often had a totally occluded infarct related artery on angiography (77%) than patients without arrhythmia susceptibility (21%) (P < 0.001), and complete collateral filling of the infarct artery in cases without complete anterograde filling was less common in the arrhythmia group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Patients without a history of malignant arrhythmia but with inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmia also had no or poor perfusion of the infarct artery more often than the patients without inducible arrhythmia (P < 0.001). Logistic multiple regression showed that no or poor anterograde or

  19. Effect of beta-blockers on arrhythmias during six weeks after suspected myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Roland, J M; Wilcox, R G; Banks, D C; Edwards, B; Fentem, P H; Hampton, J R

    1979-09-01

    Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic tape-recording was used to investigate the incidence of arrhythmias in patients with suspected myocardial infarction who were receiving either propranolol, atenolol, or placebo. Recordings begun within 24 hours after admission to a coronary care unit showed that 76% of patients eventually found to have had a myocardial infarction had ventricular arrhythmias of a type generally regarded as serious, whereas of patients in whom myocardial infarction was not substantiated, only 24% had such arrhythmias. At one and six weeks after admission the incidence of arrhythmias ranged from 25% to 33% irrespective of diagnosis. Of patients monitored at both one and six weeks, however, only 5% had arrhythmias on each occasion. Patients treated with propranolol and atenolol showed a similar incidence of arrhythmias to those taking placebo. There was no difference in the incidence or type of arrhythmias recorded between patients who died and those who were still alive at six weeks.These results confirm that "serious" ventricular arrythmias occur in most patients during the acute phase of myocardial infarction and suggest that they do not constitute an independent risk factor. Beta-blockers showed little evidence of useful antiarrhythmic action in the dosage used, but increasing the dosage in suspected myocardial infarction is not practicable because of the risk of hypotension. The findings raise grave doubts about the value of studying arrhythmias to assess drugs intended to reduce mortality from myocardial infarction. PMID:387170

  20. Inflammatory response, neutrophil activation, and free radical production after acute myocardial infarction: effect of thrombolytic treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, D; Jackson, M; Nicoll, J J; Millar, A; Dawes, J; Muir, A L

    1990-01-01

    Activated neutrophils releasing proteolytic enzymes and oxygen free radicals have been implicated in extending myocardial injury after myocardial infarction. Neutrophil elastase was used as a marker of neutrophil activation and the non-peroxide diene conjugate of linoleic acid was used as an indicator of free radical activity in 32 patients after acute myocardial infarction; 17 were treated by intravenous thrombolysis. Patients with acute myocardial infarction had higher plasma concentrations of neutrophil elastase and the non-peroxide diene conjugated isomer of linoleic acid than normal volunteers or patients with stable ischaemic heart disease. Patients treated by thrombolysis had an early peak of neutrophil elastase at eight hours while those who had not been treated by thrombolysis showed a later peak 40 hours after infarction. The plasma concentration of non-peroxide conjugated diene of linoleic acid was highest 16 hours after the infarction irrespective of treatment by thrombolysis. Quantitative imaging with single photon emission tomography showed decreased uptake of indium-111 labelled neutrophils in the infarcted myocardium (as judged from technetium-99m pyrophosphate) in those who had received thrombolysis, suggesting a decreased inflammatory response. The results indicate increased neutrophil activation and free radical production after myocardial infarction; they also suggest that thrombolysis does not amplify the inflammatory response and may indeed suppress it. Images PMID:2317413

  1. Plasmid-mediated VEGF gene transfer induces cardiomyogenesis and reduces myocardial infarct size in sheep.

    PubMed

    Vera Janavel, G; Crottogini, A; Cabeza Meckert, P; Cuniberti, L; Mele, A; Papouchado, M; Fernández, N; Bercovich, A; Criscuolo, M; Melo, C; Laguens, R

    2006-08-01

    We have recently reported that in pigs with chronic myocardial ischemia heart transfection with a plasmid encoding the 165 isoform of human vascular endothelial growth factor (pVEGF165) induces an increase in the mitotic index of adult cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocyte hyperplasia. On these bases we hypothesized that VEGF gene transfer could also modify the evolution of experimental myocardial infarct. In adult sheep pVEGF165 (3.8 mg, n=7) or empty plasmid (n=7) was injected intramyocardially 1 h after coronary artery ligation. After 15 days infarct area was 11.3+/-1.3% of the left ventricle in the VEGF group and 18.2+/-2.1% in the empty plasmid group (P<0.02). The mechanisms involved in infarct size reduction (assessed in additional sheep at 7 and 10 days after infarction) included an increase in early angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, a decrease in peri-infarct fibrosis, a decrease in myofibroblast proliferation, enhanced cardiomyoblast proliferation and mitosis of adult cardiomyocytes with occasional cytokinesis. Resting myocardial perfusion (99mTc-sestamibi SPECT) was higher in VEGF-treated group than in empty plasmid group 15 days after myocardial infarction. We conclude that plasmid-mediated VEGF gene transfer reduces myocardial infarct size by a combination of effects including neovascular proliferation, modification of fibrosis and cardiomyocyte regeneration. PMID:16572192

  2. Noninvasive Imaging of Angiotensin Receptors After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Verjans, Johan W. H.; Lovhaug, Dagfinn; Narula, Navneet; Petrov, Artiom D.; Indrevoll, Bård; Bjurgert, Emma; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Petersen, Lizette B.; Kindberg, Grete M.; Solbakken, Magne; Cuthbertson, Alan; Vannan, Mani A.; Reutelingsperger, Chris P. M.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Hofstra, Leonard; Narula, Jagat

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive imaging of angiotensin II (AT) receptor upregulation in a mouse model of post-myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND Circulating AT levels do not reflect the status of upregulation of renin-angiotensin axis in the myocardium, which plays a central role in ventricular remodeling and evolution of HF after MI. Appropriately labeled AT or AT receptor blocking agents should be able to specifically target AT receptors by molecular imaging techniques. METHODS AT receptor imaging was performed in 29 mice at various time points after permanent coronary artery ligation or in controls using a fluoresceinated angiotensin peptide analog (APA) and radiolabeled losartan. The APA was used in 19 animals for intravital fluorescence microscopy on a beating mouse heart. Tc-99m losartan was used for in vivo radionuclide imaging and quantitative assessment of AT receptor expression in 10 mice. After imaging, hearts were harvested for pathological characterization using confocal and 2-photon microscopy. RESULTS No or little APA uptake was observed in control animals or within infarct regions on days 0 and 1. Distinct uptake occurred in the infarct area at 1 to 12 weeks after MI; the uptake was at maximum at 3 weeks and reduced markedly at 12 weeks after MI. Ultrasonographic examination demonstrated left ventricular remodeling, and pathologic characterization revealed localization of the APA tracer with collagen-producing myofibroblasts. Tc-99m losartan uptake in the infarct region (0.524 ± 0.212% injected dose/g) increased 2.4-fold as compared to uptake in the control animals (0.215 ± 0.129%; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The present study demonstrates the feasibility of in vivo molecular imaging of AT receptors in the remodeling myocardium. Noninvasive imaging studies aimed at AT receptor expression could play a role in identification of subjects likely to develop heart failure. In addition

  3. Atorvastatin Therapy during the Peri-Infarct Period Attenuates Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroshi; Bi, Qiuli; Hunt, Greg; Vincent, Robert J.; Peng, Yong; Shirk, Gregg; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Bolli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Although statins impart a number of cardiovascular benefits, whether statin therapy during the peri-infarct period improves subsequent myocardial structure and function remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated the effects of atorvastatin on cardiac function, remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI). Two groups of rats were subjected to permanent coronary occlusion. Group II (n = 14) received oral atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d) daily for 3 wk before and 4 wk after MI, while group I (n = 12) received equivalent doses of vehicle. Infarct size (Masson's trichrome-stained sections) was similar in both groups. Compared with group I, echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fractional area change (FAC) were higher while LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters (LVESD and LVEDD) were lower in treated rats. Hemodynamically, atorvastatin-treated rats exhibited significantly higher dP/dtmax, end-systolic elastance (Ees), and preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and lower LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Morphometrically, infarct wall thickness was greater in treated rats. The improvement of LV function by atorvastatin was associated with a decrease in hydroxyproline content and in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocyte nuclei. We conclude that atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period significantly improves LV function and limits adverse LV remodeling following MI independent of a reduction in infarct size. These salubrious effects may be due in part to a decrease in myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis. PMID:21980426

  4. Heart failure progression is accelerated following myocardial infarction in type II diabetic rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical studies have shown a greater incidence of myocardial infarction in diabetic patients and following an infarction, diabetes is associated with an increased risk for the development of left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. The goal of this study was to determine if the progression o...

  5. Rationale and design of the Transendocardial Injection of Autologous Human Cells (bone marrow or mesenchymal) in Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Heart Failure Secondary to Myocardial Infarction (TAC-HFT) trial: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Trachtenberg, Barry; Velazquez, Darcy L; Williams, Adam R; McNiece, Ian; Fishman, Joel; Nguyen, Kim; Rouy, Didier; Altman, Peter; Schwarz, Richard; Mendizabal, Adam; Oskouei, Behzad; Byrnes, John; Soto, Victor; Tracy, Melissa; Zambrano, Juan Pablo; Heldman, Alan W; Hare, Joshua M

    2011-03-01

    Although there is tremendous interest in stem cell (SC)-based therapies for cardiomyopathy caused by chronic myocardial infarction, many unanswered questions regarding the best approach remain. The TAC-HFT study is a phase I/II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to address several of these questions, including the optimal cell type, delivery technique, and population. This trial compares autologous mesenchymal SCs (MSCs) and whole bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs). In addition, the study will use a novel helical catheter to deliver cells transendocardially. Although most trials have used intracoronary delivery, the optimal method is unknown and data suggest that the transendocardial approach may have important advantages. Several trials support the benefit of SCs in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP), although the sample sizes have been small and the number of trials sparse. After a pilot phase of 8 patients, 60 patients with ICMP (left ventricular ejection fraction 15%-50%) will be randomized to group A (30 patients further randomized to receive MSC injection or placebo in a 2:1 fashion) or group B (30 patients further randomized to BMCs or placebo in a 2:1 fashion). All patients will undergo bone marrow aspiration and transendocardial injection of SCs or placebo. The primary and secondary objectives are, respectively, to demonstrate the safety and efficacy (determined primarily by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) of BMCs and MSCs administered transendocardially in patients with ICMP. PMID:21392602

  6. Regional myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction assessed by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, M.; Brunken, R.; Grover-McKay, M.; Krivokapich, J.; Child, J.; Tillisch, J.H.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1986-10-01

    Positron emission tomography has been shown to distinguish between reversible and irreversible ischemic tissue injury. Using this technique, 13 patients with acute myocardial infarction were studied within 72 hours of onset of symptoms to evaluate regional blood flow and glucose metabolism with nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia and fluorine (F)-18 deoxyglucose, respectively. Serial noninvasive assessment of wall motion was performed to determine the prognostic value of metabolic indexes for functional tissue recovery. Segmental blood flow and glucose utilization were evaluated using a circumferential profile technique and compared with previously established semiquantitative criteria. Relative N-13 ammonia uptake was depressed in 32 left ventricular segments. Sixteen segments demonstrated a concordant decrease in flow and glucose metabolism. Regional function did not change over time in these segments. In contrast, 16 other segments with reduced blood flow revealed maintained F-18 deoxyglucose uptake consistent with remaining viable tissue. The average wall motion score improved significantly in these segments (p less than 0.01), yet the degree of recovery varied considerably among patients. Coronary anatomy was defined in 9 of 13 patients: patent infarct vessels supplied 8 of 10 segments with F-18 deoxyglucose uptake, while 10 of 13 segments in the territory of an occluded vessel showed concordant decreases in flow and metabolism (p less than 0.01). Thus, positron emission tomography reveals a high incidence of residual tissue viability in ventricular segments with reduced flow and impaired function during the subacute phase of myocardial infarction. Absence of residual tissue metabolism is associated with irreversible injury, while preservation of metabolic activity identifies segments with a variable outcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effect of alpha 1-adrenergic blockade on myocardial blood flow during exercise after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Herzog, C A; Dai, X Z; Bache, R J

    1991-08-01

    The effect of alpha 1-adrenergic blockade with prazosin on myocardial blood flow at rest and during two levels of treadmill exercise was assessed in 16 chronically instrumented dogs 9-14 days after myocardial infarction had been produced by occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. During resting conditions prazosin did not alter mean myocardial blood flow or the subendocardial-to-subepicardial flow ratio in either normally perfused or collateral-dependent myocardium. However, during exercise at comparable external work loads and comparable rate-pressure products, prazosin significantly increased blood flow to normally perfused (27% increase at the second level of exercise, P less than 0.001) and collateral-dependent myocardium (35% increase at the second level of exercise, P less than 0.001) compared with control. In addition, prazosin caused a small but significant decrease in the subendocardial-to-subepicardial flow ratio in both normal (1.27 +/- 0.04 to 1.19 +/- 0.04; P less than 0.01) and collateral-dependent myocardium (0.57 +/- 0.11 to 0.52 +/- 0.11; P less than 0.01) compared with control, reflecting a disproportionally greater increase in subepicardial flow in response to alpha 1-adrenergic blockade. These data demonstrate that alpha 1-adrenergic vasoconstriction inhibits coronary vasodilation during exercise, even in areas of collateral-dependent myocardium relatively early after coronary artery occlusion. PMID:1678929

  8. Current State of Radial Artery Catheterization in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Hinohara, Tomoya T; Rao, Sunil V

    2015-01-01

    A well-established body of evidence demonstrating the advantages of a transradial approach for coronary angiography and intervention has led to worldwide adoption of this technique. In some countries, radial access has replaced femoral access as the dominant access site for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). More recently, numerous randomized controlled trials have compared transradial and transfemoral access in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and have shown that transradial access is associated with lower mortality and less major bleeding. This review examines the advantages of transradial primary PCI for STEMI patients, addresses concerns in adopting this approach for primary PCI, and reviews recommendations on how to start a transradial primary PCI program. PMID:26206109

  9. Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a new step forward to optimized reperfusion?

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Javier; Bastante, Teresa; Rivero, Fernando; García-Guimaraes, Marcos; Alvarado, Teresa; Benedicto, Amparo; Cortese, Bernardo; Byrne, Robert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) represent a disruptive technology that has caused a new revolution in interventional cardiology. BVS appear to be particularly appealing in patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction (MI). The available evidence on the value of BVS implantation in this challenging scenario is very promising but still limited. Results come from preliminary small observational studies, prospective registries that include a control group, and from scarce randomized clinical trials with surrogate mechanistic or angiographic primary end-points. Further studies, powered for clinical endpoints, are required to establish the relative safety and efficacy of BVS vs. new-generation metallic drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with ST-segment elevation acute MI. PMID:27293870

  10. Repair mechanisms of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhuzhi; Zheng, Shaoxin; Zhou, Changqing; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Tong

    2011-05-01

    The prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and resultant chronic heart failure remains extremely poor despite advances in optimal medical therapy and interventional procedures. Animal experiments and clinical trials using adult stem cell therapy following MI have shown a global improvement of myocardial function. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold promise for cardiac repair following MI, due to their multilineage, self-renewal and proliferation potential. In addition, MSCs can be easily isolated, expanded in culture, and have immunoprivileged properties to the host tissue. Experimental studies and clinical trials have revealed that MSCs not only differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, but also secrete amounts of growth factors and cytokines which may mediate endogenous regeneration via activation of resident cardiac stem cells and other stem cells, as well as induce neovascularization, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, anti-remodelling and cardiac contractility in a paracrine manner. It has also been postulated that the anti-arrhythmic and cardiac nerve sprouting potential of MSCs may contribute to their beneficial effects in cardiac repair. Most molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the MSC-based therapy after MI are still unclear at present. This article reviews the potential repair mechanisms of MSCs in the setting of MI. PMID:21199333

  11. Novel association of the obesity risk-allele near Fas Apoptotic Inhibitory Molecule 2 (FAIM2) gene with heart rate and study of its effects on myocardial infarction in diabetic participants of the PREDIMED trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Fas apoptotic pathway has been implicated in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although a polymorphism (rs7138803; G > A) near the Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (FAIM2) locus has been related to obesity, its association with other cardiovascular risk factors and disease remains uncertain. Methods We analyzed the association between the FAIM2-rs7138803 polymorphism and obesity, blood pressure and heart rate in 7,161 participants (48.3% with type 2 diabetes) in the PREDIMED study at baseline. We also explored gene-diet interactions with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and examined the effects of the polymorphism on cardiovascular disease incidence per diabetes status after a median 4.8-year dietary intervention (MedDiet versus control group) follow-up. Results We replicated the association between the FAIM2-rs7138803 polymorphism and greater obesity risk (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.16; P = 0.011; per-A allele). Moreover, we detected novel associations of this polymorphism with higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate at baseline (B = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.97-1.28 bmp in AA vs G-carriers for the whole population), that remained statistically significant even after adjustment for body mass index (P = 0.012) and correction for multiple comparisons. This association was greater and statistically significant in type-2 diabetic subjects (B = 1.44: 95% CI: 0.23-2.56 bmp; P = 0.010 for AA versus G-carriers). Likewise, these findings were also observed longitudinally over 5-year follow-up. Nevertheless, we found no statistically significant gene-diet interactions with MedDiet for this trait. On analyzing myocardial infarction risk, we detected a nominally significant (P = 0.041) association in type-2 diabetic subjects (HR: 1.86; 95% CI:1.03-3.37 for AA versus G-carriers), although this association did not remain statistically significant following correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions We

  12. [Atrial filling fraction predicts left ventricular systolic function after myocardial infarction: pre-discharge echocardiographic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Galderisi, M; Fakher, A; Petrocelli, A; Alfieri, A; Garofalo, M; de Divitiis, O

    1995-10-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the relation between Doppler-derived indices of left ventricular diastolic and systolic function early after myocardial infarction. Fifty-three patients (31 males, 22 females) recovering from acute myocardial infarction underwent predischarge Doppler echocardiographic examination. Patients with age > 70 years, previous myocardial infarction, more than mild mitral and aortic regurgitation, mitral and aortic stenosis were excluded. Twenty-two healthy subjects (13 males; 9 females) free of coronary risk factors were selected as the control group. Both end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and ejection fraction were measured by two-dimensional echocardiography. Pulsed Doppler was used to evaluate mitral inflow and left ventricular outflow velocity patterns. The following indices were measured: peak velocity of early (E) and late (A) flows, ratio of E/A peak velocities, ratio of early to late time velocity integrals, atrial filling fraction (time velocity integral A / time velocity integral of flow during total diastole) and deceleration time of E wave for mitral inflow; peak and time-velocity integral for left ventricular outflow. Stroke volume and cardiac output were obtained by pulsed Doppler using the left ventricular outflow method. The two groups were comparable for age, with blood pressure (p < 0.05) and heart rate (p < 0.01) reduced in myocardial infarction patients. Both end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were significantly higher (both p < 0.0001) and ejection fraction (p < 0.0001) lower after myocardial infarction. Also stroke volume and cardiac output (both p < 0.0001) were reduced in myocardial infarction patients. No significant difference in Doppler indices of diastolic function was observed between the two groups, except for shortened deceleration time (p < 0.0001) in myocardial infarction patients. Multilinear regression analyses were performed separately into the two groups to identify determinants of left

  13. [Epidemiological studies as an instrument for assessment of society welfare and quality of medical service (examplified by of analysis of myocardial infarction morbidity)].

    PubMed

    Takhauov, R M; Karpov, A B; Semenova, Iu V; Litvinenko, T M; Butyrin, S Iu

    2009-01-01

    Dynamics of incidence of myocardial infarction among adult (older than 20 years) population of Seversk in 1998-2006 was studied according to WHO program "Myocardial Infarction Register" updated in concordance with criteria of Joint European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology Committee for the Redefinition of Myocardial Infarction (2002). Incidence of myocardial infarction in the studied population had steady tendency to growth with equal contribution of such components as first and recurrent myocardial infarction what was related to progressive aging of population. Hospital myocardial infarction mortality showed steady tendency to decline evidencing for improvement of quality of medical service. PMID:19254217

  14. Noninvasive estimation of regional myocardial oxygen consumption by positron emission tomography with carbon-11 acetate in patients with myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.N.; Geltman, E.M.; Brown, M.A.; Henes, C.G.; Weinheimer, C.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R. )

    1989-11-01

    We previously demonstrated in experimental studies that myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) can be estimated noninvasively with positron emission tomography (PET) from analysis of the myocardial turnover rate constant (k) after administration of carbon-11 (11C) acetate. To determine regional k in healthy human subjects and to estimate alterations in MVO2 accompanying myocardial ischemia, we administered (11C)acetate to five healthy human volunteers and to six patients with myocardial infarction. Extraction of (11C)acetate by the myocardium was avid and clearance from the blood-pool rapid yielding myocardial images of excellent quality. Regional k was homogeneous in myocardium of healthy volunteers (coefficient variation = 11%). In patients, k in regions remote from the area of infarction was not different from values in myocardium of healthy human volunteers (0.061 +/- 0.025 compared with 0.057 +/- 0.008 min-1). In contrast, MVO2 in the center of the infarct region was only 6% of that in remote regions (p less than 0.01). In four patients studied within 48 hr of infarction and again more than seven days after the acute event, regional k and MVO2 did not change. The approach developed should facilitate evaluation of the efficacy of interventions designed to enhance recovery of jeopardized myocardium and permit estimation of regional MVO2 and metabolic reserve underlying cardiac disease of diverse etiologies.

  15. Changes in Employment Status after Myocardial Infarction among Men

    PubMed Central

    Şahan, Ceyda; Demiral, Yücel; Kılıç, Bülent; Aslan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to the Turkey Burden of Disease Study, 10% of the national burden of disease is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Although the standardized coronary heart disease (CHD) rate is falling in general, CHD prevalence among young people is rising. On the other hand, as a result of increased life expectancy and higher retirement ages, the CHD rate among workers is also increasing. Therefore, work ability and return to work after diagnosis are important for population health and well-being. Socioeconomic factors and working conditions may play a key role as well as clinical conditions described in the literature that affect returning to work. Aims: The aims of this qualitative study are exploring the changes in employment and working conditions of the patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and affecting factors such as socioeconomic, personal and environmental. Study design: Qualitative research. Methods: The research population are fifty-three patients who are engaged in paid employment when the people have been diagnosed with myocardial infarction for the first time between 2011 and 2012 at a university hospital coronary care unit. We intended to reach the whole population. Twenty-seven patients were contacted whose phone numbers were accessible from the hospital records. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve patients in a meeting room at the hospital. The interviews were tape-recorded accompanied by note-taking and the content analysis method were evaluated. Results: While many of the participants continued to work at the same job by working less, one third of them said that they were thinking about getting an easier job if they have the opportunity. On the other hand, in most cases, there were neither assessments about their work ability, nor changes to their working conditions after AMI. They had to cope with their conditions, such as economic or psychosocial, without any support. Conclusions: While the

  16. [Pulmonary complications of acute myocardial infarct. Therapeutic orientation].

    PubMed

    Cano, A E; Meaney, E

    1975-01-01

    The heart and the lung make up an inseparable anatomic and functional unit. The changes in one affect the other and vice versa. In acute myocardial infarction a heart failure syndrome develops. This syndrome is characterized by passive pulmonary congestion, which leads to hypoxemia. This hypoxemia indicate the functional disturbance of the lung, and the hemodinamic evolution of the disease. Arterial gases determination is the best way to assess the sickness progression. A certain paralelism exists among the central venous saturation, cardiac insufficiency and the degree of pulmonary disfunction. Such a procedure is not very appreciable and does not substitute the direct analysis of the arterial PO2. The pulmonary complications in the myocardial infarction shock are directly responsable of death in 50% of the patients. To heart failure and shock, hipperfusion and hypoxia are added. Many vessels close due to the decrease in the pulmonary flow. This brings about the release of substances that are toxic to the vessel causing an inflammatory vascular reaction. The decrease in the flow harms the lung cell and for this reason atelectasia or alveolar colapse occur; besides inducing the formation of shunts. Under these conditions the lung compliance decreases. The areas that are badly ventilated and hypoperfused can easily become infected and pneumonitis and abscesses cause even more harm to the tissue. The decrease in the speed of circulation and hematologic changes of shock, induce a diseminated intravascular coagulation. What was stated before leads to an important reduction of the lung as a depurating organ and makes the shock irreversible. As far as therapy is concerned in the prevention of vascular colaps and the improvement of the oxemia, oxygen is very useful when there is a venous congestion (clinically, X rays, and oxemia). When the concentration of O2 is lower than 50% in the cases with slight cardiac failure; do not use oxygen in higher concentrations unless the

  17. [Surgical revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Beyersdorf, F; Sarai, K; Mitrev, Z; Eckel, L; Maul, F D; Wendt, T; Satter, P

    1993-01-01

    This retrospective study was done to assess the results of emergency revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In addition, the influence of the mode of reperfusion was investigated in terms of morbidity and mortality. Between January 1987 and May 1992, 75 consecutive patients with acute coronary occlusion (in 87% PTCA-failure) received one of two different reperfusion protocols during emergency aortocoronary bypass operation. In 36 patients, the reperfusate was normal blood given at systemic pressure (uncontrolled reperfusion); in 39 patients, the ischemic area was initially reperfused for 20 minutes with a blood cardioplegic solution (substrate-enriched, hyperosmolar, hypocalcemic, alkalotic, diltiazem-enriched) given at 37 degrees C and at a perfusion pressure of 50 mmHg. Thereafter, the heart was kept in the beating empty state for 30 minutes before extra-corporeal circulation was discontinued (controlled reperfusion). Regional contractility (echocardiography, radionuclide ventriculography), electrocardiogram (ECG), release of creatine kinase and MB-isoenzyme of creatine kinase as well as hospital mortality were assessed. Quantification of regional contractility was done with a scoring system from 0 (normokinesis) to 4 (dyskinesis). Data are expressed as mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM). Both groups were well matched for age, sex, and the distribution of the occluded artery. In the controlled reperfusion group, there was a higher incidence of additional significant stenosis (2.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.7 +/- 0.1) and cardiogenic shock (36% vs 17%). Furthermore, the interval between coronary occlusion and reperfusion was longer in the controlled reperfusion group (4.1 +/- 0.3 vs 3.3 +/- 0.3 hrs; p > 0.05). Regional contractility returned to normal after controlled reperfusion (score 0.8 +/- 0.2; normokinesis = 0, slight hypokinesis = 1). In contrast, regional contractility remained depressed severely after uncontrolled reperfusion with normal

  18. Predictors of excess mortality after myocardial infarction in women

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Johanne; Adgey, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background Research suggests that women have higher mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than men. Potential factors to explain this disparity include delay to presentation, less aggressive interventional strategies, and more severe disease at coronary angiography in women. Methods Consecutive patients (n=663) presenting to coronary care between Jan 2002 and Jan 2005 with ischemic type chest pain and AMI (troponin T >0.09ng/ml) were recruited. Details of the presentation and management were obtained from the medical notes. The primary endpoint was three month all cause mortality. Results Of these patients 31% (205/663) were female. Mean age of women was 70 (SD 11) and 63 (SD 13) for men (p<0.001). There was no difference between the sexes for delay in presentation or treatment or for ST elevation infarction site. Women had prior hypertension more than men (49% 100/205 vs. 38% 174/458, p=0.008). Women were less likely to have diagnostic catheterisation (67% 137/205 vs. 80% 365/458 p<0.001). Both genders had similar coronary artery disease extent and frequencies of LV impairment (EF<45%) and were equally likely to undergo revascularisation (79% 108/137 vs. 81% 295/365 p=NS). There was an excess 3 month mortality among women (11% 23/205 vs. 5% 24/458 in men p=0.006). Independent predictors of 3 month mortality by logistic regression analysis were age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03 –1.09, p<0.001) and LV impairment (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13–0.56, p<0.001). Conclusion As LV impairment was comparable in men and women, the excess mortality identified is due to older age at presentation of women. PMID:18711631

  19. Functionalized nanoparticles provide early cardioprotection after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Yao; Yang, Yu-Jen; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Alan C L; Liao, Wei-Yin; Cheng, Fong-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Lai, James J; Stayton, Patrick S; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2013-09-10

    Recent developments in nanotechnology have created considerable potential toward diagnosis and cancer therapy. In contrast, the use of nanotechnology in tissue repair or regeneration remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-complexed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-IGF-1 NPs) increases IGF-1 retention, induces Akt phosphorylation, and provides early cardioprotection after acute myocardial infarction (MI). We synthesized 3 different sizes of PLGA particles (60 nm, 200 nm, and 1 μm) which were complexed with IGF-1 using electrostatic force to preserve the biological function of IGF-1. Afterward, we injected PLGA-IGF-1 NPs in the heart after MI directly. Compared with the other two larger particles, the 60 nm-sized PLGA-IGF-1 NPs carried more IGF-1 and induced more Akt phosphorylation in cultured cardiomyocytes. PLGA-IGF-1 NPs also prolonged Akt activation in cardiomyocytes up to 24h and prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, PLGA-IGF-1 NP treatment significantly retained more IGF-1 in the myocardium than the IGF-1 alone treatment at 2, 6, 8, and 24 h. Akt phosphorylation was detected in cardiomyocytes 24h post-MI only in hearts receiving PLGA-IGF-1 NP treatment, but not in hearts receiving injection of PBS, IGF-1 or PLGA NPs. Importantly, a single intramyocardial injection of PLGA-IGF-1 NPs was sufficient to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis (P<0.001), reduce infarct size (P<0.05), and improve left ventricle ejection fraction (P<0.01) 21 days after experimental MI in mice. Our results not only demonstrate the potential of nanoparticle-based technology as a new approach to treating MI, but also have significant implications for translation of this technology into clinical therapy for ischemic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23665256

  20. SPARC mediates early extracellular matrix remodeling following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Sarah M.; Dai, Qiuxia; Zhang, Jianhua; Zamilpa, Rogelio; Ramirez, Trevi A.; Dayah, Tariq; Nguyen, Nguyen; Jin, Yu-Fang; Bradshaw, Amy D.

    2011-01-01

    Secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that functions in the extracellular processing of newly synthesized collagen. Collagen deposition to form a scar is a key event following a myocardial infarction (MI). Because the roles of SPARC in the early post-MI setting have not been defined, we examined age-matched wild-type (WT; n=22) and SPARC-deficient (null; n=25) mice at day 3 post-MI. Day 0 WT (n=28) and null (n=20) mice served as controls. Infarct size was 52 ± 2% for WT and 47 ± 2% for SPARC null (P=NS), indicating that the MI injury was comparable in the two groups. By echocardiography, WT mice increased end-diastolic volumes from 45 ± 2 to 83 ± 5 μl (P < 0.05). SPARC null mice also increased end-diastolic volumes but to a lesser extent than WT (39 ± 3 to 63 ± 5 μl; P < 0.05 vs. day 0 controls and vs. WT day 3 MI). Ejection fraction fell post-MI in WT mice from 57 ± 2 to 19 ± 1%. The decrease in ejection fraction was attenuated in the absence of SPARC (65 ± 2 to 28 ± 2%). Fibroblasts isolated from SPARC null left ventricle (LV) showed differences in the expression of 22 genes encoding extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule genes, including fibronectin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). The change in fibroblast gene expression levels was mirrored in tissue protein extracts for fibronectin, CTGF, and MMP-3 but not TIMP-2. Combined, the results of this study indicate that SPARC deletion preserves LV function at day 3 post-MI but may be detrimental for the long-term response due to impaired fibroblast activation. PMID:21602472

  1. Recurrent Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with an Arteriovenous Coronary Fistula and No Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Marcaccini, Sandro; Templin, Christian; Manka, Robert; Stämpfli, Simon F

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary artery disease is a rare finding. Mechanisms leading to infarction include paradoxical embolism, coronary dissection, coronary spasm, hypercoagulable states, vasculitis, or-in presence of a coronary fistula-a steal phenomenon. We report for the first time a case of a patient with an arteriovenous coronary fistula and no coronary artery disease, suffering from three incidents of myocardial infarction in three different coronary regions-of which only one was located in the area supplied by the coronary artery connected to the fistula. PMID:27231431

  2. Left atrium remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (results of the GISSI-3 Echo Substudy).

    PubMed

    Popescu, Bogdan A; Macor, Franco; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Temporelli, Pier L; Bosimini, Enzo; Gentile, Francesco; Maggioni, Aldo P; Tavazzi, Luigi; Piazza, Rita; Ascione, Luigi; Stoian, Ioana; Cervesato, Eugenio; Nicolosi, Gian L

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the existence, timing, and determinants of post-infarction left atrial remodeling, we studied a subgroup of 514 patients from the Third Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico Echo Substudy who underwent 4 serial 2-dimensional echocardiograms up to 6 months after acute myocardial infarction. This study is the first to demonstrate, in a large series of patients, the existence of early and late left atrial remodeling after low-risk acute myocardial infarction and the relation of left atrial remodeling to left ventricular remodeling. PMID:15110211

  3. Severe limb pain suppresses chest pain in a patient with anterior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Canpolat, U; Kaya, E B; Aytemir, K; Kabakçı, G

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac complications of chest trauma range from arrhythmias and valvular avulsions to myocardial contusion, rupture, and--rarely--myocardial infarction. Herein, we described a 44-year-old male patient who presented to the hospital after receiving a blow from a fist directly to the chest and fingertip amputation during a fight; anterior myocardial infarction without any chest pain was coincidentally detected. Our case illustrates the importance of electrocardiography in the initial evaluation of patients with chest trauma and suspected injury to the coronary arteries. PMID:22407423

  4. Chronic effects of myocardial infarction on right ventricular function: a noninvasive assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S.; Hopkins, J.M.; Shah, P.M.

    1983-10-01

    To assess the chronic effects of myocardial infarction on right ventricular function, 48 subjects were studied utilizing radionuclide angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography. Ten were normal subjects (group I), 11 had previous inferior wall myocardial infarction (group II), 10 had previous anteroseptal infarction (group III), 11 had combined anteroseptal and inferior infarction (group IV) and 6 had extensive anterolateral infarction (group V). The mean (+/- standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.66 +/- 0.03 in group I, 0.58 +/- 0.02 in group II, 0.52 +/- 0.02 in group III, 0.33 +/- 0.03 in group IV and 0.33 +/- 0.01 in group V. No systematic correlation between left and right ventricular ejection fraction was observed among the groups. The mean right ventricular ejection fraction was significantly reduced in the presence of inferior myocardial infarction (0.30 +/- 0.03 in group II and 0.29 +/- 0.03 in group IV compared with 0.43 +/- 0.02 in group I (p less than 0.001)). The group II and IV patients also had increased (p less than 0.001) right ventricular end-diastolic area and decreased (p less than 0.001) right ventricular free wall motion by two-dimensional echocardiography. In the presence of anteroseptal infarction (group III), right ventricular free wall motion was increased (p less than 0.05) compared with normal subjects (group I). Thus, the effects of prior myocardial infarction on right ventricular function depend more on the location of infarction than on the extent of left ventricular dysfunction. Inferior infarction was commonly associated with reduced right ventricular ejection fraction and increased right ventricular end-diastolic area. The right ventricular free wall excursion was increased in the presence of anteroseptal infarction, suggested loss of contribution of interventricular septal contraction to right ventricular ejection.

  5. Patients treated in a coronary care unit without acute myocardial infarction: identification of high risk subgroup for subsequent myocardial infarction and/or cardiovascular death.

    PubMed Central

    Nordlander, R; Nyquist, O

    1979-01-01

    Consecutive patients admitted to a coronary care unit (CCU) during one year were studied. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was not substantiated by our criteria in 206 of the patients discharged from the CCU. Of these, 193 were retrospectively followed up during one year. Seventeen of the patients (9%) died from cardiovascular causes during the 1-year period. Another 14 patients (7%) had a subsequent non-fatal acute myocardial infarction during the same period. The majority of the patients had coronary artery disease. Only 32 (17%) could be classified as non-coronary cases, and these had an excellent prognosis without any subsequent acute myocardial infarctions or deaths. The occurrence of transient ST-T shifts in serial electrocardiograms obtained during the first 3 days in hospital selected a subgroup of patients who had a high risk for subsequent non-fatal acute myocardial infarction and/or cardiovascular death. This high risk subgroup provides a basis for more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Images PMID:465239

  6. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Nyyssönen, K.; Parviainen, M. T.; Salonen, R.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salonen, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective population study. SETTING: Eastern Finland. SUBJECTS: 1605 randomly selected men aged 42, 48, 54, or 60 who did not have either symptomatic coronary heart disease or ischaemia on exercise testing at entry to the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study in between 1984 and 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of acute myocardial infarctions; fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations at baseline. RESULTS: 70 of the men had a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction between March 1984 and December 1992.91 men had vitamin C deficiency (plasma ascorbate < 11.4 mumol/l, or 2.0 mg/l), of whom 12 (13.2%) had a myocardial infarction; 1514 men were not deficient in vitamin C, of whom 58 (3.8%) had a myocardial infarction. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, year of examination, and season of the year examined (August to October v rest of the year) men who had vitamin C deficiency had a relative risk of acute myocardial infarction of 3.5 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 6.7, P = 0.0002) compared with those who were not deficient. In another model adjusted additionally for the strongest risk factors for myocardial infarction and for dietary intakes of tea fibre, carotene, and saturated fats men with a plasma ascorbate concentration < 11.4 mumol/l had a relative risk of 2.5 (1.3 to 5.2, P = 0.0095) compared with men with higher plasma vitamin C concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C deficiency, as assessed by low plasma ascorbate concentration, is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. PMID:9066474

  7. Altered Gene Expression Pattern in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kiliszek, Marek; Burzynska, Beata; Michalak, Marcin; Gora, Monika; Winkler, Aleksandra; Maciejak, Agata; Leszczynska, Agata; Gajda, Ewa; Kochanowski, Janusz; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. Methods and Results Twenty-eight patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. The blood was collected on the 1st day of myocardial infarction, after 4–6 days, and after 6 months. Control group comprised 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease, without history of myocardial infarction. Gene expression analysis was performed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays and GCS3000 TG system. Lists of genes showing altered expression levels (fold change >1.5, p<0.05) were submitted to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Gene lists from each group were examined for canonical pathways and molecular and cellular functions. Comparing acute phase of MI with the same patients after 6 months (stable phase) and with control group we found 24 genes with changed expression. In canonical analysis three pathways were highlighted: signaling of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), IL-10 and IL-6 (interleukin 10 and 6). Conclusions In the acute phase of STEMI, dozens of genes from several pathways linked with lipid/glucose metabolism, platelet function and atherosclerotic plaque stability show altered expression. Up-regulation of SOCS3 and FAM20 genes in the first days of myocardial infarction is observed in the vast majority of patients. PMID:23185530

  8. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  9. Diastolic function in acute myocardial infarction: a radionuclide study

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaduce, D.; Morgano, G.; Petretta, M.; Arrichiello, P.; Conforti, G.; Betocchi, S.; Salvatore, M.; Chiariello, M.

    1988-11-01

    We studied left ventricular diastolic function by equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography in patients as follows: 75 with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 35 with anterior or anteroseptal necrosis (Group A) and 40 with inferior, inferolateral, or posterior necrosis (Group I). The ejection fraction (EF) was lower in Group A than Group I (41.9 +/- 2.5 vs. 57.1 +/- 2.0%, p less than 0.001), as was peak diastolic filling rate normalized to end diastolic volume (PDFR-EDV/sec) (1.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.1 EDV/sec, p less than 0.05). PDFR normalized to stroke volume was similar in both groups. An excellent linear correlation was found between EF and PDFR-EDV/sec in the total study population. Isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) was beyond our upper normal value of 94 msec in 64% of patients and it was shorter in Group A than I (95.8 +/- 12.7 vs. 147.0 +/- 13.6 msec, p less than 0.05). The presence of shorter IRP in Group A than in I is probably a result of an earlier mitral valve opening as a consequence of higher left atrial pressure.

  10. [Treatment of acute myocardial infarction--an elucidative report].

    PubMed

    Madsen, E B; Godtfredsen, J; Hansen, J F; Jensen, G; Nielsen, B L; Nielsen, P E; Nielsen, T T; Pedersen, A; Rømer, F; Sandøe, E

    1989-06-01

    The present-day optimal treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is reviewed. The prehospital phase should be as brief as possible. Emergency observation and treatment in hospital should be initiated without delay. Schematic stages for mobilization have been discarded and free mobilization is recommended. Routine acute intervention with thrombolysis is recommended for patients in whom symptoms have been present for 6-12 hours and treatment with Aspirin is recommended. Beta-blocking agents are recommended for patients with increased risk after discharge. Treatment of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias, block and cardiac failure are reviewed in detail. Patients without complications should be monitored for three to five days and may be discharged after seven to ten days. Exercise ECG should be carried out at discharge to assess the working capacity, ischaemia and subjective reaction. The importance of good patient information is emphasized. Cessation of smoking, control of lipids and blood pressure are important as secondary interventions. As far as possible, outpatient control should be offered after discharge. The criteria for referral to specialized cardiological departments are established both for emergency and elective referral. Patients under the age of 70 years with high risk for repeated AMI or death after discharge (with residual ischaemia) should possibly be referred for coronary arteriography. PMID:2567543

  11. Uncontrolled immune response in acute myocardial infarction: unraveling the thread.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Vicente; Sanchis, Juan; Nunez, Julio; Mainar, Luis; Minana, Gema; Benet, Isabel; Solano, Carlos; Chorro, Francisco J; Llacer, Angel

    2008-12-01

    Recently, the theory that hyperinflammation is the body's primary response to potent stimulus has been challenged. Indeed, a deregulation of the immune system could be the cause of multiple organ failure. So far, clinicians have focused on the last steps of the inflammatory cascade. However, little attention has been paid to lymphocytes, which play an important role as strategists of the inflammatory response. Experimental evidence suggests a crucial role of T lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In summary, from the bottom of an imaginary inverted pyramid, a few regulatory T-cells control the upper parts represented by the wide spectrum of the inflammatory cascade. In AMI, a loss of regulation of the inflammatory system occurs in patients with a decreased activity of regulatory T-cells. As a consequence, aggressive T-cells boost and anti-inflammatory T-cells drop. A pleiotropic proinflammatory imbalance with damaging effects in terms of left ventricular performance and patient outcome is the result of this uncontrolled immune response. It is needed to unravel the thread of the inflammatory cells to better understand the pathophysiology as well as to open innovative therapeutic options in AMI. PMID:19033000

  12. Experimental Myocardial Infarction Upregulates Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor‐23

    PubMed Central

    Andrukhova, Olena; Slavic, Svetlana; Odörfer, Kathrin I; Erben, Reinhold G

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of death worldwide. Epidemiological studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to MI incidence. Because fibroblast growth factor‐23 (FGF23) is a master regulator of vitamin D hormone production and has been shown to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy per se, we explored the hypothesis that FGF23 may be a previously unrecognized pathophysiological factor causally linked to progression of cardiac dysfunction post‐MI. Here, we show that circulating intact Fgf23 was profoundly elevated, whereas serum vitamin D hormone levels were suppressed, after induction of experimental MI in rat and mouse models, independent of changes in serum soluble Klotho or serum parathyroid hormone. Both skeletal and cardiac expression of Fgf23 was increased after MI. Although the molecular link between the cardiac lesion and circulating Fgf23 concentrations remains to be identified, our study has uncovered a novel heart–bone–kidney axis that may have important clinical implications and may inaugurate the new field of cardio‐osteology. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). PMID:25858796

  13. [Analysis of the prehospitalization period in myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Benzer, W; Mähr, G

    1983-01-01

    56 patients with acute myocardial infarction during the period 1973/74, and 58 during the period 1979/80, were questioned immediately after arrival in the coronary care unit about their pre-hospitalization phase. We were able to determine, that the patients' decision time followed by the transportation time accounted for the greater part of the pre-hospitalization period. The contact time between general practitioner and patient played only an insignificant role in the total time-lag. In a comparison of the years 1973/74 and 1979/80 an increase in the patients' decision time and a decrease in the transportation time became evident. Noteworthy was, that in approximately one-fifth of the cases the telephone call to the doctor was not answered. Since an improvement in informing the general public about prodromal symptoms of heart attacks does not seem to bring about a decrease in the decision time, a shortening of the pre-hospitalization period could succeed through a reduction in transportation time and an improvement in doctor accessibility. The use of mobile coronary care units, in particular in rural areas, and improvement in doctors' radio communication services would in that case be matters for discussion. PMID:6868942

  14. Medication Adherence and Readmission In Medicare Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuting; Kaplan, Cameron M.; Baik, Seo Hyon; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Lave, Judith R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between 6-month medication adherence and 1-year down-stream heart-disease related readmission among patients who survived a myocardial infarction (MI). Study Design Retrospective, nested case-control analysis of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who were discharged alive post-MI in 2008 (n = 168,882). Methods Patients in the case group had their first heart-disease related readmission post-MI discharge during 6-9 months and/or 9-12 months. We then used propensity score matching mechanism to identify patients in the control group who had similar characteristics, but did not have a readmission in the same time window. Adherence was defined as the average 6-month medication possession ratio (MPR) prior to the first date of the time-window of defining readmission. Results After controlling for demographic, insurance coverage and clinical characteristics, patients who had a heart-disease related readmission had worse adherence, with MPR of 0.70 and 0.74 in the case and control groups. Odds ratio of MPR ≥0.75 was 0.79 (95% CI 0.75-0.83) among those with a readmission relative to those without. Conclusion Our study shows that better 6-month medication adherence may reduce heart-disease related readmissions within a year after an MI. PMID:25651604

  15. Improved Bat algorithm for the detection of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    The medical practitioners study the electrical activity of the human heart in order to detect heart diseases from the electrocardiogram (ECG) of the heart patients. A myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack is a heart disease, that occurs when there is a block (blood clot) in the pathway of one or more coronary blood vessels (arteries) that supply blood to the heart muscle. The abnormalities in the heart can be identified by the changes in the ECG signal. The first step in the detection of MI is Preprocessing of ECGs which removes noise by using filters. Feature extraction is the next key process in detecting the changes in the ECG signals. This paper presents a method for extracting key features from each cardiac beat using Improved Bat algorithm. Using this algorithm best features are extracted, then these best (reduced) features are applied to the input of the neural network classifier. It has been observed that the performance of the classifier is improved with the help of the optimized features. PMID:26558169

  16. The economics of cardiac biomarker testing in suspected myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Steve; Thokala, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is a common reason for emergency hospital attendance and admission. Cardiac biomarker measurement is an essential element of diagnostic assessment of suspected MI. Although the cost of a routinely available biomarker may be small, the large patient population and consequences in terms of hospital admission and investigation mean that the economic impact of cardiac biomarker testing is substantial. Economic evaluation involves comparing the estimated costs and effectiveness (outcomes) of two or more interventions or care alternatives. This process creates some difficulties with respect to cardiac biomarkers. Estimating the effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers involves identifying how they help to improve health and how we can measure this improvement. Comparison to an appropriate alternative is also problematic. New biomarkers may be promoted on the basis of reducing hospital admission or length of stay, but hospital admission for low risk patients may incur significant costs while providing very little benefit, making it an inappropriate comparator. Finally, economic evaluation may conclude that a more sensitive biomarker strategy is more effective but, by detecting and treating more cases, is also more expensive. In these circumstances it is unclear whether we should use the more effective or the cheaper option. This article provides an introduction to health economics and addresses the specific issues relevant to cardiac biomarkers. It describes the key concepts relevant to economic evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in suspected MI and highlights key areas of uncertainty and controversy. PMID:25173750

  17. A Case of Metanephric Adenoma and Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dusan, Ruzicic; Relja, Kovacevic; Marija, Mirkovic; Jelena, Radovanovic; Vesna, Krstevska; Milijana, Terzic; Vladimir, Pantelic; Irena, Matic; Dragan, Hrncic

    2016-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a rare neoplasm that acounts for 0.2% of adult renal neoplasms. MAs are typically discover incidentally during detailed examinations for nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, hematuria, fever and palpable abdominal mass. Additionally, polycythemia has occasionally been reported as well. Herein we describe a case of metanephric adenoma which was an incidental finding in the course of a clinical autopsy in a patient with complete AV block and polycythemia. Histologically, the tumor was composed of small and uniform tubular structures reminiscent of renal tubuli, without signs of cellular atypia and pleomorphism. Such tumor histomorphology was consistent with the diagnosis of metanephric adenoma. Thrombosis is a common complication of polycythemia that often causes death. Polycythemia with an increasing number of blood cells causes hyperviscosity and, in 20-40% of cases, lethal thrombosis or hemorrhage. Hyperviscosity and coronary artery disease in our patient caused acute myocardial infarction with the subsequent rupture of posterior left ventricle wall and hemopericardium. PMID:27471365

  18. The Wedensky test predicts malignant ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Better tools are needed for detection of future malignant ventricular arrhythmias post myocardial infarct (MI). Wedensky Modulation (WM) is a new semi-invasive method: A short low-amplitude electrical impulse is applied synchronized to the QRS between a precordial and dorsal thoracic patch, and changes in the following QRS-T are registered. Design. A total of 357 (MI) ICD patients underwent WM testing. QRS-T wavelet analysis provided WM Indexes for the QRS complex (WMI-R) and T wave (WMI-T). Outcome was the time to first occurrence of appropriate device therapy for ventricular arrhythmia. Patients were followed at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Results. No arrhythmia was induced by the testing. Two-year appropriate arrhythmia treatment occurred in 35% (WMI-R positive) versus 25% (WMI-R negative, p = 0.014), and. 45% versus 26% (p = 0.001) for WMI-T positive versus negative. Two-year event rates of WMI-R or WMI-T positive versus WMI-R and WMI-T negative were 36% versus 22% (p = 0.004). In Cox proportional hazard model, the combination of WMI-R and WMI-T was the only statistically significant event predictor (p = 0.003). Conclusion. Potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmic events could be predicted by the WM test. In combination with other risk factors WMI may be useful in these patients. PMID:24050376

  19. A Case of Metanephric Adenoma and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dusan, Ruzicic; Relja, Kovacevic; Marija, Mirkovic; Jelena, Radovanovic; Vesna, Krstevska; Milijana, Terzic; Vladimir, Pantelic; Irena, Matic; Dragan, Hrncic

    2016-01-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a rare neoplasm that acounts for 0.2% of adult renal neoplasms. MAs are typically discover incidentally during detailed examinations for nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, hematuria, fever and palpable abdominal mass. Additionally, polycythemia has occasionally been reported as well. Herein we describe a case of metanephric adenoma which was an incidental finding in the course of a clinical autopsy in a patient with complete AV block and polycythemia. Histologically, the tumor was composed of small and uniform tubular structures reminiscent of renal tubuli, without signs of cellular atypia and pleomorphism. Such tumor histomorphology was consistent with the diagnosis of metanephric adenoma. Thrombosis is a common complication of polycythemia that often causes death. Polycythemia with an increasing number of blood cells causes hyperviscosity and, in 20-40% of cases, lethal thrombosis or hemorrhage. Hyperviscosity and coronary artery disease in our patient caused acute myocardial infarction with the subsequent rupture of posterior left ventricle wall and hemopericardium. PMID:27471365

  20. Understanding prehospital delay behavior in acute myocardial infarction in women.

    PubMed

    Waller, Cynthia G

    2006-12-01

    Studies demonstrate that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality can be reduced if reperfusion therapy is initiated within 1 hour of AMI symptom onset. However, a considerable number of men and women arrive at the emergency department outside of the time frame for thrombolytic and angioplasty effectiveness. This is especially true for women who have been shown to delay longer than men due to their prehospital decision-making process utilized. With a mean total delay time greater than 4 hours, the time interval from symptom onset to transport activation to the hospital consumes the majority of the prehospital phase of emergency cardiac care. The health belief model, self-regulation model, theory of reasoned action, and theory of planned behavior have all been used to describe the prehospital decision-making process of both men and women with an AMI and the variables that impact that process. These models have identified the importance of symptom attribution to cardiac-related causes as a target variable for research and interventions related to care-seeking behavior. PMID:18340239

  1. Behaviour of protein carbonyl groups in juvenile myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Caimi, Gregorio; Canino, Baldassare; Incalcaterra, Egle; Ferrera, Eleonora; Montana, Maria; Lo Presti, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is accompanied by oxidative stress, and protein oxidation is among the consequences of oxidative stress. We examined the plasma concentration of protein carbonyl groups (PC), a marker of protein oxidation, in a group of young subjects with AMI (45 men and 5 women; mean age 40.4 ± 4.8 yrs). We found a significant increase of PC (p < 0.001) in comparison with normal controls. No difference was observed between patients with AMI characterized by elevated ST segment and those without elevation of ST segment. There was no correlation between the ejection fraction and PC in the whole group nor in the subgroups of STEMI and non-STEMI patients. Subdividing the whole group of AMI patients according to the number of risk factors and the number of stenosed coronary vessels, the difference in PC level was not statistically significant among the subgroups. This study showed an increased protein oxidation in young subjects with recent AMI. Further investigation is needed to ascertain whether this can be a target of therapeutic intervention. PMID:22504219

  2. Delayed clopidogrel transit during myocardial infarction evident on angiography.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, Joanna; Gibson, C Michael; Pinto, Duane S

    2015-05-01

    We describe the case of a patient with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) where a limitation of oral clopidogrel loading prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was directly visualized on angiography. Clopidogrel is a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent used in acute coronary syndromes. It reduces platelet aggregation via inhibition of the P2Y12 receptor. Clopidogrel is an inactive metabolite that is metabolized into the active metabolite by the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes located mostly in the liver and partly in the gastrointestinal system. As such, it requires at least 2 hours to reach maximal effect. A 63-year-old female went to an outside facility where she was diagnosed with NSTEMI and underwent angiography. She was administered 324 mg of aspirin and 600 mg of clopidogrel, and was transferred to our facility. Upon arrival, approximately 1.5 hours after the oral loading dose, the clopidogrel tablets were visualized intact in the stomach during angiography, implying a very low likelihood of adequate absorption or antiplatelet effect. This observation raises the concern that delayed gastrointestinal transit, apart from other metabolic derangements, may be a factor in achieving optimal platelet inhibition using oral agents. PMID:25929306

  3. Late prognostic value of scintigraphic parameters of acute myocardial infarction size in complicated myocardial infarction without heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Perez-Gonzalez, J.F.; Dunn, R.; Ports, T.; Chatterjee, K.; Parmley, W.

    1983-04-01

    Perfusion scintigraphy with thallium-201, infarct scintigraphy with technetium-99m pyrophosphate (TcPYP), and equilibrium blood pool scintigraphy were performed during the initial hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) in 25 patients without evidence of heart failure who presented with advanced electrocardiographic rhythm and conduction disturbances requiring treatment. Scintigraphic findings during short-term hospitalization were related to the late clinical follow-up performed an average of 14 months later, where patients were grouped as asymptomatic, 8 patients; symptomatic, 9 patients; and deceased, 8 patients. Quantitation of perfusion abnormalities, TcPYP image abnormalities, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) revealed that the deceased group had significantly larger TcPYP abnormalities (36 +/- 20 cm2), absolute perfusion abnormalities (32 +/- 16 cm2), and perfusion abnormalities expressed as a percentage of the projected left ventricular area (42 +/- 8%) than the asymptomatic group (13 +/- 8 cm2, 14 +/- 6 cm2, and 20 +/- 9%; p less than 0.05, p greater than 0.05, and p less than 0.01, respectively). The percent perfusion abnormality was significantly larger in the deceased group (42 +/- 8%, p less than 0.01) than in either the symptomatic group (35 +/- 13%, p less than 0.01) or the asymptomatic group (20 +/- 9%), and this parameter in the symptomatic group also differed from that in the asymptomatic group (p less than 0.01). The study indicates that patients with rhythm and conduction disturbances and without congestive heart failure during acute MI may follow an uncomplicated or a complicated late clinical course. Early scintigraphic measurements of MI and perfusion correlate well with this outcome; however, EF could not differentiate among prognostic subgroups.

  4. [Time costs cardiac muscle tissue--prehospital therapy of acute myocardial infarct--a case report].

    PubMed

    Eschenburg, G; Pappert, D; Ohlmeier, H

    2003-01-01

    Symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction are a common reason for calling the emergency physician. Pre-hospital mortality caused by cardiac infarction is constantly high. The main potential for decreasing infarction mortality lies in the pre-hospital period. The problems and prospects of treatment in the early period are described in the case of a 73-year-old patient with an acute anterior infarction. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach is shown and discussed in this concrete case, taking into consideration the guidelines for diagnostics and therapy of acute myocardial infarction in the pre-hospital period of the German Society for Cardiology. A particular focus is the management of pre-hospital thrombolysis, the preconditions, realization and risks of which are described. In this context, the experience and competence of the emergency physician is prerequisite for the exact diagnosis and therapy. Furthermore, the importance of a smooth transition from pre-hospital therapy to intensive care is emphasized. PMID:12666508

  5. Percutaneous assist devices in acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock: Review, meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Francesco; Acconcia, Maria Cristina; Sergi, Domenico; Romeo, Alessia; Francioni, Simona; Chiarotti, Flavia; Caretta, Quintilio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of percutaneous cardiac support in cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI), treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: We selected all of the studies published from January 1st, 1997 to May 15st, 2015 that compared the following percutaneous mechanical support in patients with CS due to AMI undergoing myocardial revascularization: (1) intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) vs Medical therapy; (2) percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (PLVADs) vs IABP; (3) complete extracorporeal life support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) plus IABP vs IABP alone; and (4) ECMO plus IABP vs ECMO alone, in patients with AMI and CS undergoing myocardial revascularization. We evaluated the impact of the support devices on primary and secondary endpoints. Primary endpoint was the inhospital mortality due to any cause during the same hospital stay and secondary endpoint late mortality at 6-12 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and seventy-two studies met the initial screening criteria. After detailed review, only 30 were selected. There were 6 eligible randomized controlled trials and 24 eligible observational studies totaling 15799 patients. We found that the inhospital mortality was: (1) significantly higher with IABP support vs medical therapy (RR = +15%, P = 0.0002); (2) was higher, although not significantly, with PLVADs compared to IABP (RR = +14%, P = 0.21); and (3) significantly lower in patients treated with ECMO plus IABP vs IABP (RR = -44%, P = 0.0008) or ECMO (RR = -20%, P = 0.006) alone. In addition, Trial Sequential Analysis showed that in the comparison of IABP vs medical therapy, the sample size was adequate to demonstrate a significant increase in risk due to IABP. CONCLUSION: Inhospital mortality was significantly higher with IABP vs medical therapy. PLVADs did not reduce early mortality. ECMO plus IABP significantly reduced inhospital mortality compared to IABP. PMID

  6. Improving myocardial injury, infarct size, and myocardial salvage in the era of primary PCI for STEMI.

    PubMed

    Ndrepepa, Gjin

    2015-06-01

    ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Reperfusion therapy by thrombolysis or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) improves survival and quality of life in patients with STEMI. Despite the proven efficacy of timely reperfusion, mortality from STEMI remains high, particularly among patients with suboptimal reperfusion. Reperfusion injury following opening of occluded coronary arteries mitigates the efficacy of PPCI by further accentuating ischemic damage and increasing infarct size (IS). On the basis of experimental studies, it is assumed that nearly 50% of the final IS is because of the reperfusion injury. IS is a marker of ischemic damage and adequacy of reperfusion that is strongly related to mortality in reperfused patients with STEMI. Many therapeutic strategies including pharmacological and conditioning agents have been proven effective in reducing reperfusion injury and IS in preclinical research. Mechanistically, these agents act either by inhibiting reperfusion injury cascades or by activating cellular prosurvival pathways. Although most of these agents/strategies are at the experimental stage, some of them have been tested clinically in patients with STEMI. This review provides an update on key pharmacological agents and postconditioning used in the setting of PPCI to reduce reperfusion injury and IS. Despite intensive research, no strategy or intervention has been shown to prevent reperfusion injury or enhance myocardial salvage in a consistent manner in a clinical setting. A number of novel therapeutic strategies to reduce reperfusion injury in the setting of PPCI in patients with STEMI are currently under investigation. They will lead to a better understanding of reperfusion injury and to more efficient strategies for its prevention. PMID:25715338

  7. Salutary effect of adjunctive intracoronary nicorandil administration on restoration of myocardial blood flow and functional improvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Y; Kodama, K; Komamura, K; Lim, Y J; Ishikura, F; Hirayama, A; Kitakaze, M; Masuyama, T; Hori, M

    1997-06-01

    Salutary effect of nicorandil, a K+ adenosine triphosphate channel opener, on restoration of myocardial blood flow and functional improvement after coronary revascularization was investigated in 20 patients with first anterior acute myocardial infarction. Ten patients received intracoronary administration of nicorandil (2 mg) after coronary revascularization; the other 10 patients received coronary revascularization only and served as control subjects. Myocardial contrast echocardiography and two-dimensional echocardiography were performed to assess microvascular integrity and regional function in the infarcted area. Nicorandil improved peak contrast intensity ratio (p < 0.001), calculated as the ratio of peak contrast intensity in the infarcted and noninfarcted areas, indicating the restoration of myocardial blood flow to the infarcted myocardium. Regional wall motion improved more significantly in 1 month in patients who received nicorandil (p < 0.01). Thus our results suggested the usefulness of intracoronary nicorandil administration after coronary revascularization for restoring blood flow and functional improvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:9200388

  8. Association Between Extent of Thiazolidinedione Exposure and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dore, David D.; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent; Lapane, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives To determine if an association exists between thiazolidinedione (rosiglitazone or pioglitazone) exposure and acute myocardial infarction, and if the timing of drug initiation relative to the onset of myocardial infarction affected the frequency of the event. Design Nested, case-control study. Data Source Health care claims from California, Florida, New York, Ohio, and Illinois from the Medicaid Analytic Extract database for calendar years 2001–2002. Patients Of patients who received metformin plus a sulfonylurea during a defined eligibility period, we identified 2316 cases who had a primary discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and 9700 controls, who were defined by means of risk-set sampling. Measurements and Main Results We reviewed demographic and clinical characteristics of the cases and controls, and documented initiation of thiazolidinedione therapy. We noted the time of therapy initiation within 180 days of the index date (date of acute myocardial infarction for cases, same date for matched controls) and assessed any association between the start of thiazolidinedione therapy and acute myocardial infarction, relative to use of metformin plus a sulfonylurea. We performed secondary analyses using various time intervals between start of thiazolidinedione and onset of event (0–90 and 91–180 days before the index date). Applying conditional logistic regression, we obtained adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjustment for confounding, starting rosiglitazone (AOR 1.00, 95% CI 0.72–1.39) or pioglitazone (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.74–1.45) therapy in the 180 days before the index date was not associated with acute myocardial infarction. Point estimates for rosiglitazone (AOR 1.29, 95% CI 0.85–1.94) and, less so, pioglitazone (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 0.73–1.81) in the 90 days before the index date suggested a small increase in the rate of acute myocardial infarction shortly after the start of these drugs

  9. Experimental myocardial stem cell therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: rationale and level of evidence.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Jens; Mygind, Naja D; Qayyum, Abbas A; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2016-06-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries reducing the blood supply to the heart muscle causing ischemia. IHD can result in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), chronic IHD and heart failure. The patients suffer from chest pain (angina), dyspnea and a reduced quality of life. Common for all these conditions is loss of functional cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Stem cell therapy to regenerate injured myocardium is a new treatment option which has gained much interest in the last 10-15 years especially after STEMI. Many preclinical and clinical studies have shown encouraging results but also very diverse clinical outcomes after stem cell treatment. This diversity in results may be explained by different factors, such as cell isolation technique, infarct location, timing and route of delivery, cell dosage, cell type etc. The present review will try to elaborate and clarify the present status for stem cell therapy in STEMI. PMID:26899403

  10. Myocardial Salvaging Effects of Berberine in Experimental Diabetes Co-Existing with Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Manjusha K.; Mohanty, Ipseeta Ray; Maheshwari, Ujwala; Deshmukh, Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the Berberis aristata, has been shown to display a wide array of pharmacological activities (hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic). Aim The present study was designed to investigate whether these pharmacological properties translate into the cardioprotective effects of Berberine in the setting of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods Necessary approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee was taken for the study. Experimental diabetes was produced with single dose of Streptozotocin (STZ): 45mg/kg ip and myocardial infarction was induced by administering Isoproterenol (ISP): 85mg/kg, sc to rats on 35th & 36th day. After the confirmation of diabetes on 7th day (>200mg/dl), Berberine (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to experimental rats from day 8 and continued for 30 days thereafter. Various anti-diabetic (Glucose, HbA1c), cardioprotective (CPK-MB), metabolic (lipid profile), safety {liver function (SGPT, kidney function (Creatinine)} and histopathological indices of injury were evaluated in Healthy Control, Diabetic Control and Berberine treated groups. Results Administration of STZ-ISP resulted in a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001), diabetic changes (increase in blood glucose, HbA1c), cardiac injury (leakage of myocardial CPK-MB), altered lipid profile, SGPT, creatinine levels (p<0.001) in the diabetic control group rats as compared to healthy control. Berberine treatment demonstrated significant antidiabetic as well as myocardial salvaging effects as indicated by restoration of blood glucose, HbA1c and CPK-MB levels (p<0.001) compared to diabetic control group. In addition, Berberine favourably modulated the lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL). Subsequent to ISP challenge, histopathological assessment of heart, pancreas and biochemical indices of injury confirmed the cardioprotective effects of Berberine in setting of diabetes. In addition, Berberine

  11. Do antioxidant vitamins reduce infarct size following acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion?

    PubMed

    Bellows, S D; Hale, S L; Simkhovich, B Z; Kay, G L; Kloner, R A

    1995-02-01

    There is controversy concerning the ability of antioxidant vitamins to reduce myocardial infarct size. We sought to determine whether a brief prophylactic treatment of vitamin C or vitamin C plus Trolox (a water-soluble form of vitamin E) could reduce myocardial infarct size in an experimental model. We used an anesthetized open-chest rabbit model in which a branch of the circumflex coronary artery was ligated for 30 minutes followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Experiments were performed in a randomized and blinded fashion. An IV injection of normal saline pH balanced to 7.4 (control group n = 15), vitamin C (150 mg/kg, n = 14), or vitamin C plus Trolox (150 mg/kg plus 100 mg/kg, respectively, n = 15) was administered prior to coronary occlusion. Collateral blood flow during coronary occlusion was measured by radioactive microspheres, myocardial risk zone (AR) was assessed by blue dye injection, and myocardial infarct size (AN) was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. All rabbits received comparable ischemic insult: Collateral blood flow and AR were similar among all three groups. Infarct size, measured as a percent of AR, did not differ significantly among the controls (21%), vitamin C (29%), or the vitamin C plus Trolox (18%) groups. Therefore, in this ischemia/reperfusion model, antioxidant vitamins did not alter myocardial infarct size. PMID:7540423

  12. [Treatment of patients with myocardial infarction in Hungary on the basis of available health data].

    PubMed

    Jánosi, András; Póth, Anikó; Zorándi, Ágnes; Ofner, Péter

    2016-01-17

    The authors review data sources related to death arising from myocardial infarction, as well as the major elements of the Hungarian data collection of the Central Statistical Office, the National Health Insurance Fund and the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction. They also discuss conclusions which can be drawn from the data. It was found that the financial database - in accordance with its purpose - is suitable for monitoring the costs arising during the treatment of patient, but the quality and efficiency of treatment cannot be judged on the basis of this database. The Central Statistical Office compiles mortality data on the basis of international conventions, the basis of which is the autopsy report. However, the validity of statistical data depends on the correct completion of this report. Therefore. it is not possible to judge treatment of patients with myocardial infarction simply on the basis of mortality statistics. Considering national databases, only patient registries are suitable for monitoring the quality and efficiency of treatment currently. It is recommended that data of the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction should be used when the quality of treatment of patients with myocardial infarction is evaluated. PMID:26750729

  13. Dipyridamole 201Tl scintigraphy in the evaluation of prognosis after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, R.D.; Glover, D.K.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1991-09-01

    Dipyridamole 201Tl imaging has been proposed as an alternative to exercise ECG testing for the prehospital discharge evaluation of patients recovering from myocardial infarction. The rationale is that many postinfarction patients with exercise-induced ischemia experience later cardiac events, and the sensitivity of predischarge exercise ECG testing in patients with multivessel disease ranges from only 45% to 62%. In addition, several groups of investigators have shown the sensitivity of submaximum exercise 201Tl imaging to be less than ideal. This report summarizes the current status of dipyridamole 201Tl imaging in the period of 1-13 days after myocardial infarction. Although the number of studies performed to date is limited, the following conclusions can be drawn: dipyridamole 201Tl imaging after myocardial infarction was associated with no serious side effects, and those present could be quickly reversed with aminophylline; redistribution with dipyridamole 201Tl images definitely correlates with prognosis after uncomplicated myocardial infarction; dipyridamole 201Tl imaging is definitely useful in patients unable to exercise for a variety of reasons; and future studies are definitely indicated to further define the role of dipyridamole 201Tl imaging for assessing prognosis, especially in those patients undergoing interventional therapy after acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Clinical nuclear imaging techniques for the diagnosis and evaluation of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Williams, K A; Garvin, A A; Taillon, L A

    1992-02-01

    The use of nuclear imaging techniques allows the accurate detection of myocardial infarction, determination of the impact of infarction on ventricular performance, assessment of the myocardial salvage with thrombolysis, identification of preserved regional metabolism in jeopardized myocardial segments, and the elucidation of inducible reversible ischemia requiring aggressive therapeutic intervention. Assessment of myocardial salvage after thrombolysis or revascularization can be accomplished with serial perfusion imaging. Infarct-avid imaging with Tc-99m-PYP can be used to rapidly determine the size and location of the acute transmural myocardial infarction. In the future, however, the improved image quality and diagnostic accuracy of immunoscintigraphy with antimyosin antibodies may supplant PYP imaging. Studies of global ventricular function can be performed at rest, or with multiple interventions using portable scintigraphic devices. The measurement of the dynamic response of left ventricular ejection fraction over time shows promise for risk stratification. As yet, there has been no comprehensive comparison of the relative predictive value of metabolic imaging parameters, perfusion/antibody uptake mismatch, Tl-201 redistribution, or ejection fraction response data. Such a comparison could optimize the diagnostic algorithm for post-infarction damage assessment and risk stratification. PMID:1532141

  15. Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction: Concepts and controversies from inception to acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rentrop, Klaus Peter; Feit, Frederick

    2015-11-01

    More than 20 years of misconceptions derailed acceptance of reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cardiologists abandoned reperfusion for AMI using fibrinolytic therapy, explored in 1958, because they no longer attributed myocardial infarction to coronary thrombosis. Emergent aortocoronary bypass surgery, pioneered in 1968, remained controversial because of the misconception that hemorrhage into reperfused myocardium would result in infarct extension. Attempts to limit infarct size by pharmacotherapy without reperfusion dominated research in the 1970s. Myocardial necrosis was assumed to progress slowly, in a lateral direction. At least 18 hours was believed to be available for myocardial salvage. Afterload reduction and improvement of the microcirculation, but not reperfusion, were thought to provide the benefit of streptokinase therapy. Finally, coronary vasospasm was hypothesized to be the central mechanism in the pathogenesis of AMI. These misconceptions unraveled in the late 1970s. Myocardial necrosis was shown to progress in a transmural direction, as a "wave front," beginning with the subendocardium. Reperfusion within 6 hours salvaged a subepicardial ischemic zone in experimental animals. Acute angiography provided in vivo evidence of the high incidence of total coronary occlusion in the first hours of AMI. In 1978, early reperfusion by transluminal recanalization was shown to be feasible. The pathogenetic role of coronary thrombosis was definitively established in 1979 by demonstrating that intracoronary streptokinase rapidly restored flow in occluded infarct-related arteries, in contrast to intracoronary nitroglycerine which rarely did. The modern reperfusion era had dawned. PMID:26542507

  16. Intestinal Microbial Metabolites Are Linked to Severity of Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lam, Vy; Su, Jidong; Hsu, Anna; Gross, Garrett J; Salzman, Nita H; Baker, John E

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota determine severity of myocardial infarction in rats. We determined whether low molecular weight metabolites derived from intestinal microbiota and transported to the systemic circulation are linked to severity of myocardial infarction. Plasma from rats treated for seven days with the non-absorbed antibiotic vancomycin or a mixture of streptomycin, neomycin, polymyxin B and bacitracin was analyzed using mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling platforms. Antibiotic-induced changes in the abundance of individual groups of intestinal microbiota dramatically altered the host's metabolism. Hierarchical clustering of dissimilarities separated the levels of 284 identified metabolites from treated vs. untreated rats; 193 were altered by the antibiotic treatments with a tendency towards decreased metabolite levels. Catabolism of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine was the most affected pathway comprising 33 affected metabolites. Both antibiotic treatments decreased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction in vivo by 27% and 29%, respectively. We then determined whether microbial metabolites of the amino acids phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine were linked to decreased severity of myocardial infarction. Vancomycin-treated rats were administered amino acid metabolites prior to ischemia/reperfusion studies. Oral or intravenous pretreatment of rats with these amino acid metabolites abolished the decrease in infarct size conferred by vancomycin. Inhibition of JAK-2 (AG-490, 10 μM), Src kinase (PP1, 20 μM), Akt/PI3 kinase (Wortmannin, 100 nM), p44/42 MAPK (PD98059, 10 μM), p38 MAPK (SB203580, 10 μM), or KATP channels (glibenclamide, 3 μM) abolished cardioprotection by vancomycin, indicating microbial metabolites are interacting with cell surface receptors to transduce their signals through Src kinase, cell survival pathways and KATP channels. These inhibitors have no effect on myocardial infarct size in

  17. Mechanical Chest Compressions in Prolonged Cardiac Arrest due to ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Can Cause Myocardial Contusion.

    PubMed

    Stechovsky, Cyril; Hajek, Petr; Cipro, Simon; Veselka, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is a common cause of sudden cardiac death. We present a case report of a 60-year-old man without a history of coronary artery disease who presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. During transportation to the hospital, he developed ventricular fibrillation (VF) and later pulseless electrical activity. Chest compressions with LUCAS 2 (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) automated mechanical compression-decompression device were initiated. Coronary angiography showed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed. After the PCI, his heart started to generate effective contractions and LUCAS could be discontinued. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved after 90 minutes of cardiac arrest. The patient died of cardiogenic shock 11 hours later. An autopsy revealed a transmural anterolateral myocardial infarction but also massive subepicardial hemorrhage and interstitial edema and hemorrhages on histologic samples from regions of the myocardium outside the infarction itself and also from the right ventricle. These lesions were concluded to be a myocardial contusion. The true incidence of myocardial contusion as a consequence of mechanical chest compressions is not known. We speculate that severe myocardial contusion might have influenced outcome of our patient. PMID:27574387

  18. Remote ischaemic conditioning and remodelling following myocardial infarction: current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vanezis, A P; Rodrigo, G C; Squire, I B; Samani, N J

    2016-09-01

    Remote ischaemic conditioning (rIC) has demonstrated its effectiveness as a powerful cardioprotective tool in number of preclinical and limited clinical settings. More recently, ischaemic postconditioning given after an ischaemic event such as a myocardial infarction (MI) has shown not only to reduce infarct size but also to have beneficial effects on acute remodelling post-MI and to reduce the burden of heart failure and other detrimental outcomes. Building on this platform, repeated rIC over a number of days has the potential to augment the protective process even further. This review considers the current evidence base from which the concept of rIC in the setting of post-MI remodelling has grown. It also discusses the ongoing and planned clinical trials which are attempting to elucidate whether the protection imparted by rIC in the preclinical setting can be translated to the clinic and become a realistic weapon in the clinician's armoury to tackle acute remodelling and heart failure post-MI. PMID:27177446

  19. Sympathetic Hyperinnervation and Inflammatory Cell NGF Synthesis Following Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Wohaib; Jama, Abdi; Donohue, Timothy; Wernli, Gwenaelle; Onyszchuk, Gregory; Al-Hafez, Baraa; Bilgen, Mehmet; Smith, Peter G.

    2006-01-01

    Sympathetic hyperinnervation occurs in human ventricular tissue after myocardial infarction and may contribute to arrhythmias. Aberrant sympathetic sprouting is associated with elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) in many contexts, including ventricular hyperinnervation. However, it is unclear whether cardiomyocytes or other cell types are responsible for increased NGF synthesis. In this study, left coronary arteries were ligated and ventricular tissue examined in rats 1-28 days post-infarction. Infarct and peri-infarct tissue was essentially devoid of sensory and parasympathetic nerves at all time points. However, areas of increased sympathetic nerve density were observed in the peri-infarct zone between post-ligation days 4-14. Hyperinnervation occurred in regions containing accumulations of macrophages and myofibroblasts. To assess whether these inflammatory cells synthesize NGF, sections were processed for NGF in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both macrophage1 antigen-positive macrophages and α-smooth muscle actin immunoreactive myofibroblasts expressed NGF in areas where they were closely proximate to sympathetic nerves. To investigate whether NGF produced by peri-infarct cells induces sympathetic outgrowth, we co-cultured adult sympathetic ganglia with peri-infarct explants. Neurite outgrowth from sympathetic ganglia was significantly greater at post-ligation days 7-14 as compared to control tissue. Addition of an NGF function-blocking antibody prevented the increased neurite outgrowth induced by peri-infarct tissue. These findings provide evidence that inflammatory cell NGF synthesis plays a causal role in sympathetic hyperinnervation following myocardial infarction. Section: Disease-Related Neuroscience PMID:17084822

  20. Translation of Methodology Used In Human Myocardial Imaging to a Sheep Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, Dale L; Hunyor, Stephen; Ladd, Leigh; Bautovich, George J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Pre-clinical investigation of stem cells for repairing damaged myocardium predominantly uses rodents, however large animals have cardiac circulation closely resembling the human heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SPECT/CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) could be used for assessing sheep myocardium following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and response to intervention. Methods: Eighteen sheep were enrolled in a pilot study to evaluate [99mTc]-sestamibi MPI at baseline, post-MI and after therapy. Modifications to the standard MPI protocols were developed. All data was reconstructed with OSEM using CT-derived attenuation and scatter correction. Standard analyses were performed and inter-observer agreement was measured using Kappa (κ). Power determined the sample sizes needed to show statistically significant changes due to intervention. Results: Ten sheep completed the full protocol. Data processed was performed with pre-existing hardware and software used in human MPI scanning. No improvement in perfusion was seen in the control group, however improvements of 15%-35% were seen after intra-myocardial stem cell administration. Inter-observer agreement was excellent (К=0.89). Using a target power of 0.9, 28 sheep were required to detect a 10-12% change in perfusion. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the suitability of large animal models for imaging with standard MPI protocols and its feasibility with a manageable number of animals. These protocols could be translated into humans to study the efficacy of stem cell therapy in heart regeneration and repair.

  1. Prehospital Nitroglycerin Safety in Inferior ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, Laurie; Ross, Dave; Proulx, Marie-Hélène; Légaré, Sébastien; Vacon, Charlene; Xue, Xiaoqing; Segal, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), associated with right ventricular infarction, are thought to be at higher risk of developing hypotension when administered nitroglycerin (NTG). However, current basic life support (BLS) protocols do not differentiate location of STEMI prior to NTG administration. We sought to determine if NTG administration is more likely to be associated with hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg) in inferior STEMI compared to non-inferior STEMI. We conducted a retrospective chart review of prehospital patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin and computer-interpreted prehospital ECGs indicating "ACUTE MI." We included all local STEMI cases identified as part of our STEMI registry. Univariate analysis was used to compare differences in proportions of hypotension and drop in systolic blood pressure ≥ 30 mmHg after nitroglycerin administration between patients with inferior wall STEMI and those with STEMI in another region (non-inferior). Multiple variable logistic regression analysis was also used to assess the study outcomes while controlling for various factors. Over a 29-month period, we identified 1,466 STEMI cases. Of those, 821 (56.0%) received NTG. We excluded 16 cases because of missing data. Hypotension occurred post NTG in 38/466 inferior STEMIs and 30/339 non-inferior STEMIs, 8.2% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.73. A drop in systolic blood pressure ≥ 30 mmHg post NTG occurred in 23.4% of inferior STEMIs and 23.9% of non-inferior STEMIs, p = 0.87. Interrater agreement for chart review of the primary outcome was excellent (κ = 0.94). NTG administration to patients with chest pain and inferior STEMI on their computer-interpreted electrocardiogram is not associated with a higher rate of hypotension compared to patients with STEMI in other territories. Computer interpretation of inferior STEMI cannot be used as the sole predictor for patients who may be at higher risk for hypotension following NTG

  2. Roles of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheol Hyun; Woo, Jong Shin; Park, Chang Bum; Cho, Jin Man; Ahn, Young Keun; Kim, Chong Jin; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Weon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many observational studies showed hogh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular (CV) outcome. However, recent large clinical trials evaluating therapies to raise HDL-C level in those already on statin therapy have been discouraging. This complexity is not well-known. A total of 28,357 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR), which was a prospective, multicenter, nationwide, web-based database of AMI in Korea. From this registry, we evaluated 3574 patients with AMI who have follow-up HDL-C level to investigate its association with clinical outcomes. The primary endpoint was the relationship between follow-up change in HDL-C and a 12-month composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Patients with initial HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL showed significantly lower rates of 12-month MACEs, especially cardiac and all-cause mortalities (P < 0.001). When patients were stratified into 4 groups according to the change of HDL-C, patients with decreasing HDL-C showed significantly higher rates of 12-month MACEs as comparable with patients with increasing HLD-C. A multivariate analysis indicated that HDL-C level was a significant predictor of CV events (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–1.71) after correcting for confounding variables. The follow-up change in HDL-C level was significantly related with CV outcomes in patients with AMI. PMID:27149442

  3. How to Best Manage Glycemia and Non-Glycemia During the Time of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is common in patients with diabetes. Reasons for this are multifactorial, but all relate to a variety of maladaptive responses to acute hyperglycemia. Persistent hyperglycemia is associated with worse left ventricular function and higher mortality during AMI, but intervention data are far from clear. Although there is a theoretical basis for the use of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion during AMI, lack of outcome efficacy (and inability to reach glycemic targets) in recent randomized trials has resulted in little enthusiasm for this strategy. Based on the increasing understanding of the dangers of hypoglycemia, while at the same time appreciating the role of hyperglycemia in AMI patients, goal glucose levels of 140–180 mg/dL using an intravenous insulin infusion while not eating seem reasonable for most patients and hospital systems. Non-glycemic therapy for patients with diabetes and AMI has benefited from more conclusive data, as this population has greater morbidity and mortality than those without diabetes. For ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), reperfusion therapy with primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis, antithrombotic therapy to prevent acute stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention or rethrombosis following thrombolysis, and initiation of β-blocker therapy are the current standard of care. Emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery is reserved for the most critically ill. For those with non-STEMI, initial reperfusion therapy or fibrinolysis is not routinely indicated. Overall, there have been dramatic advances for the treatment of people with AMI and diabetes. The use of continuous glucose monitoring in this population may allow better ability to safely reach glycemic targets, which it is hoped will improve glycemic control. PMID:22650221

  4. Comparison of delay times to hospital presentation for physicians and nonphysicians with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ridker, P M; Manson, J E; Goldhaber, S Z; Hennekens, C H; Buring, J E

    1992-07-01

    To evaluate whether patients who recognize the symptoms of myocardial ischemia and have easy access to medical care have shortened time delays between onset of symptoms and hospital presentation, the total time interval between symptom onset and hospital arrival for 258 U.S. male physicians experiencing a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) was compared with that of a comparable group of 240 men enrolled in the U.S. component of the Second International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS-2), as well as with those of previously published series of patients with AMI. For patients presenting for medical care within 24 hours of symptom onset, the median time delay from onset of symptoms to presentation for medical care was 1.8 hours in the PHS, and 4.9 hours in the U.S. component of ISIS-2 (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, 56% of participants in the PHS presented for medical care within 2 hours and 72% within 4 hours of symptom onset compared with 20% (p less than 0.001) and 44% (p less than 0.001), respectively, for ISIS-2 participants. In previously published series, the average time to presentation was comparable to that in the ISIS-2 trial, with variation depending on country of origin and on local population density. The median time to medical presentation in