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Sample records for myocyte enhancer factor-2

  1. Myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2A expression is downregulated during temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunyi; Wu, Xuling; Guo, Jing; Yuan, Jinxian

    2016-09-01

    Myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2A (MEF2A) is a multifunctional nuclear protein that regulates synaptogenesis, dendritic morphogenesis, and neuronal survival. This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of MEF2A in epileptogenic processes. MEF2A expression was detected in 20 temporal neocortex tissue samples from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 20 samples from trauma patients without epilepsy by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, double-label immunofluorescent staining, and western blot analysis. In addition, the expression patterns of MEF2A in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex of a lithium-pilocarpine-induced TLE rat model and control rats were examined. MEF2A was found to be expressed in the nuclei of neurons but not in the dendrites of neurons and astrocytes. MEF2A expression was significantly downregulated in temporal neocortex of humans and rats with TLE compared to the control groups. In addition, in the lithium-pilocarpine-induced TLE model, MEF2A expression dynamically decreased within 2 months. Taken together, these data suggest that MEF2A is involved in the pathogenesis of TLE. PMID:26439092

  2. RNA Interference of Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-xia; Liu, Gang-qiong; Zhang, Jin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective Myocyte enhancer factor-2A (MEF 2A) has been shown to be involved in atherosclerotic lesion development, but its role in preexisting lesions is still unclear. In the present study we aim to assess the role of MEF 2A in the progression of pre-existing atherosclerosis. Methods Eighty apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (APOE KO) were randomly allocated to control, scramble and MEF 2A RNA interference (RNAi) groups, and constrictive collars were used to induce plaque formation. Six weeks after surgery, lentiviral shRNA construct was used to silence the expression of MEF 2A. Carotid plaques were harvested for analysis 4 weeks after viral vector transduction. Inflammatory gene expression in the plasma and carotid plaques was determined by using ELISAs and real-time RT-PCR. Results The expression level of MEF 2A was significantly reduced in plasma and plaque in the RNAi group, compared to the control and NC groups, whereas the expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was markedly increased. Silencing MEF 2A using lentiviral shRNA significantly reduced the plaque collagen content and fibrous cap thickness, as well as increased plaque area. However, silencing MEF 2A had no obvious effect on plaque lipid content. Conclusions Lentivirus-mediated MEF 2A shRNA accelerates inflammation and atherosclerosis in APOE KO mice, but has no effect on lipoprotein levels in plasma. PMID:25793529

  3. The Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b Is an Essential Cofactor for the Activation of Transcription by Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2

    PubMed Central

    Nojima, Masanori; Huang, Yehong; Tyagi, Mudit; Kao, Hung-Ying; Fujinaga, Koh

    2014-01-01

    The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), composed of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 and cyclin T1, stimulates the elongation of transcription by hyperphosphorylating the C-terminal region of RNA polymerase II. Aberrant activation of P-TEFb results in manifestations of cardiac hypertrophy in mice, suggesting that P-TEFb is an essential factor for cardiac myocyte function and development. Here, we present evidence that P-TEFb selectively activates transcription mediated by the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors, key regulatory factors for myocyte development. Knockdown of endogenous cyclin T1 in murine C2C12 cells abolishes MEF2-dependent reporter gene expression as well as transcription of endogenous MEF2 target genes, whereas overexpression of P-TEFb enhances MEF2-dependent transcription. P-TEFb interacts with MEF2 both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of MEF2-dependent transcription induced by serum starvation is mediated by a rapid dissociation of P-TEFb from its inhibitory subunit, HEXIM1, and a subsequent recruitment of P-TEFb to MEF2 binding sites in the promoter region of MEF2 target genes. These results indicate that recruitment of P-TEFb is a critical step for stimulation of MEF2-dependent transcription, therefore providing a fundamentally important regulatory mechanism underlying the transcriptional program in muscle cells. PMID:18662700

  4. Identification of singles bar as a direct transcriptional target of Drosophila Myocyte enhancer factor-2 and a regulator of adult myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Tonya M.; Fremin, Brayon J.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, myoblast fusion is a conserved process in which founder cells (FCs) and fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a syncytial muscle fiber. Mutants for the myogenic regulator Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) show a failure of myoblast fusion, indicating that MEF2 regulates the fusion process. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that several genes involved in myoblast fusion are bound by MEF2 during embryogenesis. Of these, the MARVEL domain gene singles bar (sing), is down-regulated in MEF2 knockdown pupae, and has five consensus MEF2 binding sites within a 9000-bp region. To determine if MEF2 is an essential and direct regulator of sing during pupal muscle development, we identified a 315-bp myoblast enhancer of sing. This enhancer was active during myoblast fusion, and mutation of two MEF2 sites significantly decreased enhancer activity. We show that lack of sing expression resulted in adult lethality and muscle loss, due to a failure of fusion during the pupal stage. Additionally, we sought to determine if sing was required in either FCs or FCMs to support fusion. Interestingly, knockdown of sing in either population did not significantly affect fusion, however, knockdown in both FCs and FCMs resulted in muscles with significantly reduced nuclei numbers, provisionally indicating that sing function is required in either cell type, but not both. Finally, we found that MEF2 regulated sing expression at the embryonic stage through the same 315-bp enhancer, indicating that sing is a MEF2 target at both critical stages of myoblast fusion. Our studies define for the first time how MEF2 directly controls fusion at multiple stages of the life cycle, and provide further evidence that the mechanisms of fusion characterized in Drosophila embryos is also used in the formation of the more complex adult muscles. PMID:25797154

  5. Inhibition of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A improved diabetic cardiac fibrosis partially by regulating endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Ying; Lv, Rui-Juan; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yu-Gang; Li, Peng; Dong, Wen-Qian; Liu, Xue; Liang, Er-Shun; Tian, Hong-Liang; Lu, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Xiang

    2016-05-24

    Cardiac fibrosis is an important pathological process of diabetic cardiomyopathy, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study sought to identify whether inhibition of Myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) alleviates cardiac fibrosis by partially regulating Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). We induced type 1 diabetes mellitus using the toxin streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and injected with lentivirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) in myocardium to inhibit MEF2A expression. Protein expression, histological and functional parameters were examined twenty-one weeks post-STZ injection. We found that Diabetes mellitus increased cardiac MEF2A expression, aggravated cardiac dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis through the accumulation of fibroblasts via EndMT. All of these features were abolished by MEF2A inhibition. MEF2A gene silencing by shRNA in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) ameliorated high glucose-induced phenotypic transition and acquisition of mesenchymal markers through interaction with p38MAPK and Smad2. We conclude that inhibition of endothelial cell-derived MEF2A might be beneficial in the prevention of diabetes mellitus-induced cardiac fibrosis by partially inhibiting EndMT through interaction with p38MAPK and Smad2. PMID:27105518

  6. The mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates myocyte enhancer factor-2C phosphorylation levels through integrin-linked kinase in goat skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiqing; Ren, Yu; Pan, Wei; Dong, Zhenguo; Cang, Ming; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays a key role in muscle development and is involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) regulates muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, how the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2 activity remains unclear. We isolated goat skeletal muscle satellite cells (gSSCs) as model cells to explore mTOR signaling pathway regulation of MEF2C. We inhibited mTOR activity in gSSCs with PP242 and found that MEF2C phosphorylation was decreased and that muscle creatine kinase (MCK) expression was suppressed. Subsequently, we detected integrin-linked kinase (ILK) using MEF2C coimmunoprecipitation; ILK and MEF2C were colocalized in the gSSCs. We found that inhibiting mTOR activity increased ILK phosphorylation levels and that inhibiting ILK activity with Cpd 22 and knocking down ILK with small interfering RNA increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK expression. In the presence of Cpd 22, mTOR activity inhibition did not affect MEF2C phosphorylation. Moreover, ILK dephosphorylated MEF2C in vitro. These results suggest that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C positively and regulates ILK negatively and that ILK regulates MEF2C negatively. It appears that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C through ILK, further regulating the expression of muscle-related genes in gSSCs. PMID:26041412

  7. Interactions between mitochondria and the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulate neuronal structural and functional plasticity and metaplasticity.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Janaina; Haas, Kurt

    2015-08-15

    The classical view of mitochondria as housekeeping organelles acting in the background to simply maintain cellular energy demands has been challenged by mounting evidence of their direct and active participation in synaptic plasticity in neurons. Time-lapse imaging has revealed that mitochondria are motile in dendrites, with their localization and fusion and fission events regulated by synaptic activity. The positioning of mitochondria directly influences function of nearby synapses through multiple pathways including control over local concentrations of ATP, Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have also shown that mitochondrial protein cascades, classically associated with apoptosis, are involved in neural plasticity in healthy cells. These findings link mitochondria to the plasticity- and metaplasticity-associated activity-dependent transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), further repositioning mitochondria as potential command centres for regulation of synaptic plasticity. Intriguingly, MEF2 and mitochondrial functions appear to be intricately intertwined, as MEF2 is a target of mitochondrial apoptotic caspases and, in turn, MEF2 regulates mitochondrial genome transcription essential for production of superoxidase and hydrogen peroxidase. Here, we review evidence supporting mitochondria as central organelles controlling the spatiotemporal expression of neuronal plasticity, and attempt to disentangle the MEF2-mitochondria relationship mediating these functions. PMID:25581818

  8. Autism-Associated Chromatin Regulator Brg1/SmarcA4 Is Required for Synapse Development and Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2-Mediated Synapse Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zilai; Cao, Mou; Chang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Cindy; Shi, Xuanming; Zhan, Xiaoming; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Bezprozvanny, Ilya; Huber, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapse development requires normal neuronal activities and the precise expression of synapse-related genes. Dysregulation of synaptic genes results in neurological diseases such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mutations in genes encoding chromatin-remodeling factor Brg1/SmarcA4 and its associated proteins are the genetic causes of several developmental diseases with neurological defects and autistic symptoms. Recent large-scale genomic studies predicted Brg1/SmarcA4 as one of the key nodes of the ASD gene network. We report that Brg1 deletion in early postnatal hippocampal neurons led to reduced dendritic spine density and maturation and impaired synapse activities. In developing mice, neuronal Brg1 deletion caused severe neurological defects. Gene expression analyses indicated that Brg1 regulates a significant number of genes known to be involved in synapse function and implicated in ASD. We found that Brg1 is required for dendritic spine/synapse elimination mediated by the ASD-associated transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and that Brg1 regulates the activity-induced expression of a specific subset of genes that overlap significantly with the targets of MEF2. Our analyses showed that Brg1 interacts with MEF2 and that MEF2 is required for Brg1 recruitment to target genes in response to neuron activation. Thus, Brg1 plays important roles in both synapse development/maturation and MEF2-mediated synapse remodeling. Our study reveals specific functions of the epigenetic regulator Brg1 in synapse development and provides insights into its role in neurological diseases such as ASD. PMID:26459759

  9. Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 Controls Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A Transcription to Provide a Mechanism for Coordinate Expression of Respiratory Chain Subunits*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Bindu; Yu, Gengsheng; Gulick, Tod

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear respiratory factors NRF1 and NRF2 regulate the expression of nuclear genes encoding heme biosynthetic enzymes, proteins required for mitochondrial genome transcription and protein import, and numerous respiratory chain subunits. NRFs thereby coordinate the expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genes relevant to mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Only two of the nuclear-encoded respiratory chain subunits have evolutionarily conserved tissue-specific forms: the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunits VIa and VIIa heart/muscle (H) and ubiquitous (L) isoforms. We used genome comparisons to conclude that the promoter regions of COX6AH and COX7AH lack NRF sites but have conserved myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) elements. We show that MEF2A mRNA is induced with forced expression of NRF1 and that the MEF2A 5′-regulatory region contains an evolutionarily conserved canonical element that binds endogenous NRF1 in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. NRF1 regulates MEF2A promoter-reporters according to overexpression, RNA interference underexpression, and promoter element mutation studies. As there are four mammalian MEF2 isotypes, we used an isoform-specific antibody in ChIP to confirm MEF2A binding to the COX6AH promoter. These findings support a role for MEF2A as an intermediary in coordinating respiratory chain subunit expression in heart and muscle through a NRF1 → MEF2A → COXH transcriptional cascade. MEF2A also bound the MEF2A and PPARGC1A promoters in ChIP, placing it within a feedback loop with PGC1α in controlling NRF1 activity. Interruption of this cascade and loop may account for striated muscle mitochondrial defects in mef2a null mice. Our findings also account for the previously described indirect regulation by NRF1 of other MEF2 targets in muscle such as GLUT4. PMID:18222924

  10. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 controls myocyte enhancer factor 2A transcription to provide a mechanism for coordinate expression of respiratory chain subunits.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Bindu; Yu, Gengsheng; Gulick, Tod

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear respiratory factors NRF1 and NRF2 regulate the expression of nuclear genes encoding heme biosynthetic enzymes, proteins required for mitochondrial genome transcription and protein import, and numerous respiratory chain subunits. NRFs thereby coordinate the expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genes relevant to mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Only two of the nuclear-encoded respiratory chain subunits have evolutionarily conserved tissue-specific forms: the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunits VIa and VIIa heart/muscle (H) and ubiquitous (L) isoforms. We used genome comparisons to conclude that the promoter regions of COX6A(H) and COX7A(H) lack NRF sites but have conserved myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) elements. We show that MEF2A mRNA is induced with forced expression of NRF1 and that the MEF2A 5'-regulatory region contains an evolutionarily conserved canonical element that binds endogenous NRF1 in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. NRF1 regulates MEF2A promoter-reporters according to overexpression, RNA interference underexpression, and promoter element mutation studies. As there are four mammalian MEF2 isotypes, we used an isoform-specific antibody in ChIP to confirm MEF2A binding to the COX6A(H) promoter. These findings support a role for MEF2A as an intermediary in coordinating respiratory chain subunit expression in heart and muscle through a NRF1 --> MEF2A --> COX(H) transcriptional cascade. MEF2A also bound the MEF2A and PPARGC1A promoters in ChIP, placing it within a feedback loop with PGC1alpha in controlling NRF1 activity. Interruption of this cascade and loop may account for striated muscle mitochondrial defects in mef2a null mice. Our findings also account for the previously described indirect regulation by NRF1 of other MEF2 targets in muscle such as GLUT4. PMID:18222924

  11. Cross-talk between glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and p38MAPK regulates myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) activity in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Dionyssiou, M G; Nowacki, N B; Hashemi, S; Zhao, J; Kerr, A; Tsushima, R G; McDermott, J C

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing the signaling network that controls MEF2 transcription factors is crucial for understanding skeletal and cardiac muscle gene expression. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) regulates MEF2 activity indirectly through reciprocal regulation of p38MAPK. Cross-talk between GSK3β and p38MAPK regulates MEF2 activity in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Understanding cross-talk in the signaling network converging at MEF2 control has therapeutic implications in cardiac and skeletal muscle pathology. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a known regulator of striated muscle gene expression suppressing both myogenesis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Since myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins are key transcriptional regulators in both systems, we assessed whether MEF2 is a target for GSK3β. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3β resulted in enhanced MEF2A/D expression and transcriptional activity in skeletal myoblasts and cardiac myocytes. Even though in silico analysis revealed GSK3β consensus (S/T)XXX(S/T) sites on MEF2A, a subsequent in vitro kinase assay revealed that MEF2A is only a weak substrate. However, we did observe a posttranslational modification in MEF2A in skeletal myoblasts treated with a GSK3β inhibitor which coincided with increased p38MAPK phosphorylation, a potent MEF2A activator, indicating that GSK3β inhibition may de-repress p38MAPK. Heart specific excision of GSK3β in mice also resulted in up-regulation of p38MAPK activity. Interestingly, upon pharmacological p38MAPK inhibition (SB203580), GSK3β inhibition loses its effect on MEF2 transcriptional activity suggesting potent cross-talk between the two pathways. Thus we have documented that cross-talk between p38MAPK and GSK3β signaling converges on MEF2 activity having potential consequences for therapeutic modulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle gene expression. PMID:23137781

  12. p300/cAMP-response-element-binding-protein ('CREB')-binding protein (CBP) modulates co-operation between myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) and thyroid hormone receptor-retinoid X receptor.

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Antonio; Severino, Anna; De Paolis, Paola; Cottone, Giuliano; De Luca, Luca; De Falco, Maria; Porcellini, Antonio; Volpe, Massimo; Condorelli, Gianluigi

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and members of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family are involved in the regulation of muscle-specific gene expression during myogenesis. Physical interaction between these two factors is required to synergistically activate gene transcription. p300/cAMP-response-element-binding-protein ('CREB')-binding protein (CBP) interacting with transcription factors is able to increase their activity on target gene promoters. We investigated the role of p300 in regulating the TR-MEF2A complex. To this end, we mapped the regions of these proteins involved in physical interactions and we evaluated the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in U2OS cells under control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter containing the thyroid hormone response element (TRE). Our results suggested a role of p300/CBP in mediating the transactivation effects of the TR-retenoid X receptor (RxR)-MEF2A complex. Our findings showed that the same C-terminal portion of p300 binds the N-terminal domains of both TR and MEF2A, and our in vivo studies demonstrated that TR, MEF2A and p300 form a ternary complex. Moreover, by the use of CAT assays, we demonstrated that adenovirus E1A inhibits activation of transcription by TR-RxR-MEF2A-p300 but not by TR-RxR-MEF2A. Our data suggested that p300 can bind and modulate the activity of TR-RxR-MEF2A at TRE. In addition, it is speculated that p300 might modulate the activity of the TR-RxR-MEF2A complex by recruiting a hypothetical endogenous inhibitor which may act like adenovirus E1A. PMID:12371907

  13. Essential amino acids increase microRNA-499, -208b, and -23a and downregulate myostatin and myocyte enhancer factor 2C mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Micah J; Glynn, Erin L; Fry, Christopher S; Dhanani, Shaheen; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2009-12-01

    Essential amino acids (EAA) stimulate muscle protein synthesis in humans. However, little is known about whether microRNAs (miRNA) and genes associated with muscle growth are expressed differently following EAA ingestion. Our purpose in this experiment was to determine whether miRNA and growth-related mRNA expressed in skeletal muscle are up- or downregulated in humans following the ingestion of EAA. We hypothesized that EAA would alter miRNA expression in skeletal muscle as well as select growth-related genes. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of 7 young adult participants (3 male, 4 female) before and 3 h after ingesting 10 g of EAA. Muscle samples were analyzed for muscle miRNA (miR-499, -208b, -23a, -1, -133a, and -206) and muscle-growth related genes [MyoD1, myogenin, myostatin, myocyte enhancer factor C (MEF2C), follistatin-like-1 (FSTL1), histone deacytylase 4, and serum response factor mRNA] before and after EAA ingestion using real-time PCR. Following EAA ingestion, miR-499, -208b, -23a, -1, and pri-miR-206 expression increased (P < 0.05). The muscle-growth genes MyoD1 and FSTL1 mRNA expression increased (P < 0.05), and myostatin and MEF2C mRNA were downregulated following EAA ingestion (P < 0.05). We conclude that miRNA and growth-related genes expressed in skeletal muscle are rapidly altered within hours following EAA ingestion. Further work is needed to determine whether these miRNA are post-transcriptional regulators of growth-related genes following an anabolic stimulus. PMID:19828686

  14. Nitrate-containing beetroot enhances myocyte metabolism and mitochondrial content

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Gannon, Nicholas P.; Carriker, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Beetroot (甜菜 tián cài) juice consumption is of current interest for improving aerobic performance by acting as a vasodilator and possibly through alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism and physiology. This work explored the effects of a commercially available beetroot supplement on metabolism, gene expression, and mitochondrial content in cultured myocytes. C2C12 myocytes were treated with various concentrations of the beetroot supplement for various durations. Glycolytic metabolism and oxidative metabolism were quantified via measurement of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption, respectively. Metabolic gene expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and mitochondrial content was assessed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cells treated with beetroot exhibited significantly increased oxidative metabolism, concurrently with elevated metabolic gene expression including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and glucose transporter 4, leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data show that treatment with a beetroot supplement increases basal oxidative metabolism. Our observations are also among the first to demonstrate that beetroot extract is an inducer of metabolic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. These observations support the need for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of nitrate-containing supplements for health and athletic benefits. PMID:26870674

  15. Nitrate-containing beetroot enhances myocyte metabolism and mitochondrial content.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Gannon, Nicholas P; Carriker, Colin R

    2016-01-01

    Beetroot ( tián cài) juice consumption is of current interest for improving aerobic performance by acting as a vasodilator and possibly through alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism and physiology. This work explored the effects of a commercially available beetroot supplement on metabolism, gene expression, and mitochondrial content in cultured myocytes. C2C12 myocytes were treated with various concentrations of the beetroot supplement for various durations. Glycolytic metabolism and oxidative metabolism were quantified via measurement of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption, respectively. Metabolic gene expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and mitochondrial content was assessed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cells treated with beetroot exhibited significantly increased oxidative metabolism, concurrently with elevated metabolic gene expression including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and glucose transporter 4, leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data show that treatment with a beetroot supplement increases basal oxidative metabolism. Our observations are also among the first to demonstrate that beetroot extract is an inducer of metabolic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. These observations support the need for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of nitrate-containing supplements for health and athletic benefits. PMID:26870674

  16. Milrinone enhances cytosolic calcium transient and contraction in rat cardiac myocytes during beta-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Raffaeli, S; Ferroni, C; Spurgeon, H A; Capogrossi, M C

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism that underlies the absence of a positive inotropic effect of milrinone on rat myocardium. The twitch characteristics of enzymatically dissociated left ventricular myocytes from the adult rat and guinea pig were assessed by edge tracking during field stimulation. In some rat myocytes loaded with the ester derivative of the Ca2+ probe Indo-1 we simultaneously measured changes in cell length and in the associated cytosolic Ca2+ (Cai) transient. Our results show that in guinea pig myocytes bathed in 0.5 mM [Ca2+] and field stimulated at 1 Hz, milrinone (10 microM) had a positive inotropic effect. In contrast milrinone had no effect on the contractile properties of rat myocytes studied under similar conditions and field stimulated at 0.2 Hz. In rat myocytes bathed in 0.5 mM [Ca2+] and stimulated at 0.2 Hz isoproterenol (1 nM) increased the amplitude and shortened the duration of the contraction and of the associated Cai transient; these effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation were further enhanced by the addition of milrinone (10 microM) in the presence of isoproterenol. Under conditions of higher cell Ca2+ loading achieved by raising bathing [Ca2+] to 1 mM and isoproterenol to 3 nM the positive inotropic effect of milrinone (10 microM) in rat myocytes saturated when spontaneous oscillatory Ca2+ release appeared in the diastolic intervals between electrically stimulated twitches. Our results suggest that an enhancement in the baseline beta-adrenergic stimulation is required for milrinone to exercise a positive inotropic action on rat myocardial tissue. PMID:2576017

  17. Extracellular ATP has a potent effect to enhance cytosolic calcium and contractility in single ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Danziger, R S; Raffaeli, S; Moreno-Sanchez, R; Sakai, M; Capogrossi, M C; Spurgeon, H A; Hansford, R G; Lakatta, E G

    1988-08-01

    The effect of extracellular ATP on the contraction of single rat cardiac myocytes was investigated, together with the effect on the transient change in cytosolic Ca2+ (Cai) elicited by excitation and on the relationship between these two parameters. In unstimulated single myocytes, ATP caused a small increase in Cai (measured as the ratio of fluorescence of Indo-1 at 410 to that at 490 nm. In myocytes bathed in a medium containing 1.0 mM [Ca2+] at 23 degrees C and stimulated at 1 Hz, ATP (1 microM) resulted in a two-threefold increase in amplitude of contraction, as measured by video cinemicrographic techniques. The duration of the Cai-transient was not altered but its amplitude was markedly enhanced, as was the amplitude of contraction. The relation between Cai and contraction-amplitude was not altered by ATP, when measured over a range of extracellular [Ca2+], suggesting that ATP does not affect the myofilament-Ca2+ interaction. The primary site of action of ATP in increasing Cai is at the sarcolemma since the addition to suspensions of myocytes of caffeine (10 mM), which depletes the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, does not prevent the subsequent increase of Cai due to ATP. Further, lowering of the extracellular [Ca2+] to less than 1 microM with EGTA abolishes the response of Cai to ATP, though not the response to caffeine. Thus in rat cardiac myocytes ATP stimulates trans-sarcolemmal influx of Ca2+: ADP, AMP and adenosine are ineffective. ATP markedly augments the amplitude of the Cai transient elicited by electrical stimulation thus rendering it a potent inotropic agent. PMID:3191528

  18. Trophic effect of human pericardial fluid on adult cardiac myocytes. Differential role of fibroblast growth factor-2 and factors related to ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Corda, S; Mebazaa, A; Gandolfini, M P; Fitting, C; Marotte, F; Peynet, J; Charlemagne, D; Cavaillon, J M; Payen, D; Rappaport, L; Samuel, J L

    1997-11-01

    Pericardial fluid (PF) may contain myocardial growth factors that exert paracrine actions on cardiac myocytes. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of human PF and serum, collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery, on the growth of cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes and (2) to relate the growth activity of both fluids to the adaptive changes in overloaded human hearts. Both PF and serum increased the rate of protein synthesis, measured by [14C]phenylalanine incorporation in adult rat cardiomyocytes (PF, +71.9 +/- 8.2% [n = 17]; serum, +14.9 +/- 6.5% [n = 13]; both P < .01 versus control medium). The effects of both PF and serum on cardiomyocyte growth correlated positively with the respective left ventricular (LV) mass. However, the magnitude of change with PF was 3-fold greater than with serum (P < .01). These trophic effects of PF were mimicked by exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and inhibited by anti-FGF2 antibodies and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), suggesting a relationship to FGF2. In addition, FGF2 concentration in PF was 20 times greater than in serum. On the other hand, the LV mass-dependent trophic effect, present in both fluids, was independent of FGF2 concentration or other factors, such as angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic factor, and TGF-beta. These data suggest that FGF2 in human PF is a major determining factor in normal myocyte growth, whereas unidentified LV mass-dependent factor(s), present in both PF and serum, participates in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:9351441

  19. Enhancing Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uptake in Myocytes From Failing Hearts Restores Energy Supply and Demand Matching

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; O’Rourke, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial ATP production is continually adjusted to energy demand through coordinated increases in oxidative phosphorylation and NADH production mediated by mitochondrial Ca2+([Ca2+]m). Elevated cytosolic Na+ impairs [Ca2+]m accumulation during rapid pacing of myocytes, resulting in a decrease in NADH/NAD+ redox potential. Here, we determined 1) if accentuating [Ca2+]m accumulation prevents the impaired NADH response at high [Na+]i; 2) if [Ca2+]m handling and NADH/NAD+ balance during stimulation is impaired with heart failure (induced by aortic constriction); and 3) if inhibiting [Ca2+]m efflux improves NADH/NAD+ balance in heart failure. [Ca2+]m and NADH were recorded in cells at rest and during voltage clamp stimulation (4Hz) with either 5 or 15 mmol/L [Na+]i. Fast [Ca2+]m transients and a rise in diastolic [Ca2+]m were observed during electric stimulation. [Ca2+]m accumulation was [Na+]i-dependent; less [Ca2+]m accumulated in cells with 15 Na+ versus 5 mmol/L Na+ and NADH oxidation was evident at 15 mmol/L Na+, but not at 5 mmol/L Na+. Treatment with either the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor CGP-37157 (1 µmol/L) or raising cytosolic Pi (2 mmol/L) enhanced [Ca2+]m accumulation and prevented the NADH oxidation at 15 mmol/L [Na+]i. In heart failure myocytes, resting [Na+]i increased from 5.2±1.4 to 16.8±3.1mmol/L and net NADH oxidation was observed during pacing, whereas NADH was well matched in controls. Treatment with CGP-37157 or lowering [Na+]i prevented the impaired NADH response in heart failure. We conclude that high [Na+]i (at levels observed in heart failure) has detrimental effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics, and this impairment can be prevented by inhibiting the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. PMID:18599868

  20. Cardiac Non-myocyte Cells Show Enhanced Pharmacological Function Suggestive of Contractile Maturity in Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocyte Microtissues.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Stephanie M; Pointon, Amy; Williams, Awel W; Cross, Michael J; Sidaway, James E

    2016-07-01

    The immature phenotype of stem cell derived cardiomyocytes is a significant barrier to their use in translational medicine and pre-clinical in vitro drug toxicity and pharmacological analysis. Here we have assessed the contribution of non-myocyte cells on the contractile function of co-cultured human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in spheroid microtissue format. Microtissues were formed using a scaffold free 96-well cell suspension method from hESC-CM cultured alone (CM microtissues) or in combination with human primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblasts (CMEF microtissues). Contractility was characterized with fluorescence and video-based edge detection. CMEF microtissues displayed greater Ca(2+ )transient amplitudes, enhanced spontaneous contraction rate and remarkably enhanced contractile function in response to both positive and negative inotropic drugs, suggesting a more mature contractile phenotype than CM microtissues. In addition, for several drugs the enhanced contractile response was not apparent when endothelial cell or fibroblasts from a non-cardiac tissue were used as the ancillary cells. Further evidence of maturity for CMEF microtissues was shown with increased expression of genes that encode proteins critical in cardiac Ca(2+ )handling (S100A1), sarcomere assembly (telethonin/TCAP) and β-adrenergic receptor signalling. Our data shows that compared with single cell-type cardiomyocyte in vitro models, CMEF microtissues are superior at predicting the inotropic effects of drugs, demonstrating the critical contribution of cardiac non-myocyte cells in mediating functional cardiotoxicity. PMID:27125969

  1. Cardiac Non-myocyte Cells Show Enhanced Pharmacological Function Suggestive of Contractile Maturity in Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocyte Microtissues

    PubMed Central

    Ravenscroft, Stephanie M.; Pointon, Amy; Williams, Awel W.; Cross, Michael J.; Sidaway, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The immature phenotype of stem cell derived cardiomyocytes is a significant barrier to their use in translational medicine and pre-clinical in vitro drug toxicity and pharmacological analysis. Here we have assessed the contribution of non-myocyte cells on the contractile function of co-cultured human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in spheroid microtissue format. Microtissues were formed using a scaffold free 96-well cell suspension method from hESC-CM cultured alone (CM microtissues) or in combination with human primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblasts (CMEF microtissues). Contractility was characterized with fluorescence and video-based edge detection. CMEF microtissues displayed greater Ca2+ transient amplitudes, enhanced spontaneous contraction rate and remarkably enhanced contractile function in response to both positive and negative inotropic drugs, suggesting a more mature contractile phenotype than CM microtissues. In addition, for several drugs the enhanced contractile response was not apparent when endothelial cell or fibroblasts from a non-cardiac tissue were used as the ancillary cells. Further evidence of maturity for CMEF microtissues was shown with increased expression of genes that encode proteins critical in cardiac Ca2+ handling (S100A1), sarcomere assembly (telethonin/TCAP) and β-adrenergic receptor signalling. Our data shows that compared with single cell-type cardiomyocyte in vitro models, CMEF microtissues are superior at predicting the inotropic effects of drugs, demonstrating the critical contribution of cardiac non-myocyte cells in mediating functional cardiotoxicity. PMID:27125969

  2. STIM1 enhances SR Ca2+ content through binding phospholamban in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guiling; Li, Tianyu; Brochet, Didier X. P.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Lederer, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    In ventricular myocytes, the physiological function of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) Ca2+ sensor, is unclear with respect to its cellular localization, its Ca2+-dependent mobilization, and its action on Ca2+ signaling. Confocal microscopy was used to measure Ca2+ signaling and to track the cellular movement of STIM1 with mCherry and immunofluorescence in freshly isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes and those in short-term primary culture. We found that endogenous STIM1 was expressed at low but measureable levels along the Z-disk, in a pattern of puncta and linear segments consistent with the STIM1 localizing to the junctional SR (jSR). Depleting SR Ca2+ using thapsigargin (2–10 µM) changed neither the STIM1 distribution pattern nor its mobilization rate, evaluated by diffusion coefficient measurements using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Two-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and coimmunoprecipitation showed that STIM1 in the heart exists mainly as a large protein complex, possibly a multimer, which is not altered by SR Ca2+ depletion. Additionally, we found no store-operated Ca2+ entry in control or STIM1 overexpressing ventricular myocytes. Nevertheless, STIM1 overexpressing cells show increased SR Ca2+ content and increased SR Ca2+ leak. These changes in Ca2+ signaling in the SR appear to be due to STIM1 binding to phospholamban and thereby indirectly activating SERCA2a (Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase). We conclude that STIM1 binding to phospholamban contributes to the regulation of SERCA2a activity in the steady state and rate of SR Ca2+ leak and that these actions are independent of store-operated Ca2+ entry, a process that is absent in normal heart cells. PMID:26261328

  3. Transforming growth factor-{beta}2 enhances differentiation of cardiac myocytes from embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinender . E-mail: Dinender.Kumar@uvm.edu; Sun, Baiming

    2005-06-24

    Stem cell therapy holds great promise for the treatment of injured myocardium, but is challenged by a limited supply of appropriate cells. Three different isoforms of transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) -{beta}1, -{beta}2, and -{beta}3 exhibit distinct regulatory effects on cell growth, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development. We compared the effects of these three different isoforms on cardiomyocyte differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) cells. In contrast to TGF-{beta}1, or -{beta}3, treatment of mouse ES cells with TGF-{beta}2 isoform significantly increased embryoid body (EB) proliferation as well as the extent of the EB outgrowth that beat rhythmically. At 17 days, 49% of the EBs treated with TGF-{beta}2 exhibited spontaneous beating compared with 15% in controls. Cardiac myocyte specific protein markers sarcomeric myosin and {alpha}-actin were demonstrated in beating EBs and cells isolated from EBs. In conclusion, TGF-{beta}2 but not TGF-{beta}1, or -{beta}3 promotes cardiac myocyte differentiation from ES cells.

  4. Carbon nanotubes enhance intercalated disc assembly in cardiac myocytes via the β1-integrin-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyu; Lü, Shuanghong; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xia; Li, Hong; Lin, Qiuxia; Mou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuwei; Han, Yao; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Changyong

    2015-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a new paradigm for constructing functional cardiac patches and repairing myocardial infarction (MI). However, little is known about how CNTs enhance the mechanical integrity and electrophysiological function of cardiac myocytes. To address this issue, we investigated the regularity and precise mechanism of the influence of CNTs on the assembly of intercalated disc (IDs). Here, single walled CNTs incorporated into collagen substrates were utilized as growth supports for neonatal cardiomyocytes, which enhanced cardiomyocyte adhesion and maturation. Furthermore, through the use of immunohistochemical staining, western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular calcium transient measurement, we discovered that the addition of CNTs remarkably increased ID-related protein expression and enhanced ID assembly and functionality. On that basis, we further explored the underlying mechanism for how CNTs enhanced ID assembly through the use of immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. We found that the β1-integrin-mediated signaling pathway mediated CNT-induced upregulation of electrical and mechanical junction proteins. Notably, CNTs remarkably accelerated gap junction formation via activation of the β1-integrin-mediated FAK/ERK/GATA4 pathway. These findings provide valuable insight into the mechanistic effects that CNTs have on neonatal cardiomyocyte performance and will have a significant impact on the future of nanomedical research. PMID:25934454

  5. Crosstalk between monocytes and myometrial smooth muscle in culture generates synergistic pro-inflammatory cytokine production and enhances myocyte contraction, with effects opposed by progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, S.P.; Hutchinson, J.L.; Dorward, D.A.; Rossi, A.G.; Norman, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Both term and preterm parturition are characterized by an influx of macrophages and neutrophils into the myometrium and cervix, with co-incident increased peripheral blood monocyte activation. Infection and inflammation are strongly implicated in the pathology of preterm labour (PTL), with progesterone considered a promising candidate for its prevention or treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of monocytes on myometrial smooth muscle cell inflammatory cytokine production both alone and in response to LPS, a TLR4 agonist used to trigger PTL in vivo. We also investigated the effect of monocytes on myocyte contraction. Monocytes, isolated from peripheral blood samples from term pregnant women, were cultured alone, or co-cultured with PHM1-41 myometrial smooth muscle cells, for 24 h. In a third set of experiments, PHM1-41 myocytes were cultured for 24 h in isolation. Cytokine secretion was determined by ELISA or multiplex assays. Co-culture of monocytes and myocytes led to synergistic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1, with the secretion being further enhanced by LPS (100 ng/ml). The synergistic secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 from co-cultures was mediated in part by direct cell–cell contact, and by TNF. Conditioned media from co-cultures stimulated contraction of PHM1-41 myocytes, and the effect was inhibited by progesterone. Both progesterone and IL-10 inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion from co-cultures, while progesterone also inhibited chemokine secretion. These data suggest that monocytes infiltrating the myometrium at labour participate in crosstalk that potentiates pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, an effect that is enhanced by LPS, and can augment myocyte contraction. These effects are all partially inhibited by progesterone. PMID:26002969

  6. Crosstalk between monocytes and myometrial smooth muscle in culture generates synergistic pro-inflammatory cytokine production and enhances myocyte contraction, with effects opposed by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, S P; Hutchinson, J L; Dorward, D A; Rossi, A G; Norman, J E

    2015-08-01

    Both term and preterm parturition are characterized by an influx of macrophages and neutrophils into the myometrium and cervix, with co-incident increased peripheral blood monocyte activation. Infection and inflammation are strongly implicated in the pathology of preterm labour (PTL), with progesterone considered a promising candidate for its prevention or treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of monocytes on myometrial smooth muscle cell inflammatory cytokine production both alone and in response to LPS, a TLR4 agonist used to trigger PTL in vivo. We also investigated the effect of monocytes on myocyte contraction. Monocytes, isolated from peripheral blood samples from term pregnant women, were cultured alone, or co-cultured with PHM1-41 myometrial smooth muscle cells, for 24 h. In a third set of experiments, PHM1-41 myocytes were cultured for 24 h in isolation. Cytokine secretion was determined by ELISA or multiplex assays. Co-culture of monocytes and myocytes led to synergistic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1, with the secretion being further enhanced by LPS (100 ng/ml). The synergistic secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 from co-cultures was mediated in part by direct cell-cell contact, and by TNF. Conditioned media from co-cultures stimulated contraction of PHM1-41 myocytes, and the effect was inhibited by progesterone. Both progesterone and IL-10 inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion from co-cultures, while progesterone also inhibited chemokine secretion. These data suggest that monocytes infiltrating the myometrium at labour participate in crosstalk that potentiates pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, an effect that is enhanced by LPS, and can augment myocyte contraction. These effects are all partially inhibited by progesterone. PMID:26002969

  7. Enhancement of contraction and L-type Ca(2+) current by murrayafoline-A via protein kinase C in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Chidipi, Bojjibabu; Son, Min-Jeong; Kim, Joon-Chul; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Toan, Tran Quoc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Lee, Byung Ho; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that murrayafoline-A (1-methoxy-3-methyl-9H-carbazole, Mu-A) increases the contractility of ventricular myocytes, in part, via enhancing Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels, and that it increases the Ca(2+) transients by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we further examined the cellular mechanisms for the enhancement of contractility and L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) by Mu-A. Cell shortening and ICa,L were measured in rat ventricular myocytes using a video edge detection method and perforated patch-clamp technique, respectively. We found that the positive inotropic effect of Mu-A was not affected by pre-exposure to the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors KT5720 or H-89, or the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Interestingly, the Mu-A-mediated increases in cell shortening and in the rate of contraction were completely suppressed by pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. The stimulatory effect of Mu-A on ICa,L was not altered by inhibition of PKA (KT5720), G-protein coupled receptors (suramin), or α1-adrenoceptor (prazosin). However, pre-exposure to the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X or chelerythrine, abolished the Mu-A-induced increase in ICa,L. Pre-exposure to the Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN93 slightly reduced the stimulatory effects on contraction and ICa,L by Mu-A. Phosphorylation of PKC was enhanced by Mu-A in ventricular myocytes. These data suggest that Mu-A increases contraction and ICa,L via PKC in rat ventricular myocytes, and that the PKC-mediated responses in the presence of Mu-A may be partly mediated by CaMKII. PMID:27158118

  8. Myogenin induces the myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor MEF-2 independently of other muscle-specific gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Cserjesi, P; Olson, E N

    1991-01-01

    The myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor MEF-2 is a nuclear factor that interacts with a conserved element in the muscle creatine kinase and myosin light-chain 1/3 enhancers (L. A. Gossett, D. J. Kelvin, E. A. Sternberg, and E. N. Olson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 9:5022-5033, 1989). We show in this study that MEF-2 is regulated by the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin and that mitogenic signals block this regulatory interaction. Induction of MEF-2 by myogenin occurs in transfected 10T1/2 cells that have been converted to myoblasts by myogenin, as well as in CV-1 kidney cells that do not activate the myogenic program in response to myogenin. Through mutagenesis of the MEF-2 site, we further defined the binding site requirements for MEF-2 and identified potential MEF-2 sites within numerous muscle-specific regulatory regions. The MEF-2 site was also found to bind a ubiquitous nuclear factor whose binding specificity was similar to but distinct from that of MEF-2. Our results reveal that MEF-2 is controlled, either directly or indirectly, by a myogenin-dependent regulatory pathway and suggest that growth factor signals suppress MEF-2 expression through repression of myogenin expression or activity. The ability of myogenin to induce MEF-2 activity in CV-1 cells, which do not activate downstream genes associated with terminal differentiation, also demonstrates that myogenin retains limited function within cell types that are nonpermissive for myogenesis and suggests that MEF-2 is regulated independently of other muscle-specific genes. Images PMID:1656214

  9. Coxsackievirus group B type 3 infection upregulates expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in cardiac myocytes, which leads to enhanced migration of mononuclear cells in viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Xu, Wei; Chu, Yi-Wei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Xiong, Si-Dong

    2004-11-01

    Coxsackievirus group B type 3 (CVB3) is an important cause of viral myocarditis. The infiltration of mononuclear cells into the myocardial tissue is one of the key events in viral myocarditis. Immediately after CVB3 infects the heart, the expression of chemokine(s) by infected myocardial cells may be the first trigger for inflammatory infiltration and immune response. However, it is unknown whether CVB3 can induce the chemokine expression in cardiac myocytes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemokine that stimulates the migration of mononuclear cells. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of CVB3 infection on MCP-1 expression in murine cardiac myocytes and the role of MCP-1 in migration of mononuclear cells in viral myocarditis. Our results showed that the expression of MCP-1 was significantly increased in cardiac myocytes after wild-type CVB3 infection in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which resulted in enhanced migration of mononuclear cells in mice with viral myocarditis. The migration of mononuclear cells was partially abolished by antibodies specific for MCP-1 in vivo and in vitro. Administration of anti-MCP-1 antibody prevented infiltration of mononuclear cells bearing the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 in mice with viral myocarditis. Infection by UV-irradiated CVB3 induced rapid and transient expression of MCP-1 in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, our results indicate that CVB3 infection stimulates the expression of MCP-1 in myocardial cells, which subsequently leads to migration of mononuclear cells in viral myocarditis. PMID:15507642

  10. Nitrite circumvents canonical cGMP signaling to enhance proliferation of myocyte precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Totzeck, Matthias; Schicho, Andreas; Stock, Pia; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue has a remarkable high regenerative capacity. The underlying cellular events are governed by complex signaling processes, and the proliferation of skeletal myoblasts is a key initial event. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in cell cycle regulation is well-appreciated. Nitrite, an NO oxidation product, is a stable source for NO-like bioactivity particularly in cases when oxygen shortage compromises NO-synthases activity. Although numerous studies suggest that nitrite effects are largely related to NO-dependent signaling, emerging evidence also implicates that nitrite itself can activate protein pathways albeit under physiological, normoxic conditions. This includes a recently demonstrated cyclic guanosine monophosphate-(cGMP)-independent enhancement of endothelial cell proliferation. Whether nitrite itself has the potential to affect myoblast proliferation and metabolism with or without activation of the canonical NO/cGMP pathway to subsequently support muscle cell regeneration is not known. Here we show that nitrite increases proliferation and metabolic activity of murine cultured myoblasts dose-dependently. This effect is not abolished by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimida-zoline-1-oxyl-3 oxide and does not affect intracellular cGMP levels, implicating a cGMP-independent mechanism. Nitrite circumvents the rapamycin induced attenuation of myoblast proliferation and enhances mTOR activity. Our results provide evidence for a novel potential physiological and therapeutic approach of nitrite in skeletal muscle regeneration processes under normoxia independent of NO and cGMP. PMID:25501648

  11. Expression and Critical Role of Interleukin Enhancer Binding Factor 2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaobing; Jiang, Xu; Ding, Chaofeng; Du, Chengli; Owusu-Ansah, Kwabena Gyabaah; Weng, Xiaoyu; Hu, Wendi; Peng, Chuanhui; Lv, Zhen; Tong, Rongliang; Xiao, Heng; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 plays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the expression levels of ILF2 in HCC tissue with Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. To examine the effect of ILF2 on liver cancer cell growth and apoptosis, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ILF2 were recombined to create lentiviral overexpression vectors. Our results showed higher expression levels of ILF2 mRNA and ILF2 protein in HCC tissue compared with matched peritumoral tissue. Expression of ILF2 may regulate cell growth and apoptosis in liver cancer cells via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 related ovarian killer (Bok), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). Moreover, we inoculated nude mice with liver cancer cells to investigate the effect of ILF2 on tumorigenesis in vivo. As expected, a rapid growth was observed in cancer cells inoculated with a lentiviral vector coding Flag-ILF2 (Lenti-ILF2) compared with the control cells. Hence, these results promote a better understanding of ILF2's potential role as a therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27556459

  12. Expression and Critical Role of Interleukin Enhancer Binding Factor 2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shaobing; Jiang, Xu; Ding, Chaofeng; Du, Chengli; Owusu-Ansah, Kwabena Gyabaah; Weng, Xiaoyu; Hu, Wendi; Peng, Chuanhui; Lv, Zhen; Tong, Rongliang; Xiao, Heng; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 plays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the expression levels of ILF2 in HCC tissue with Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. To examine the effect of ILF2 on liver cancer cell growth and apoptosis, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ILF2 were recombined to create lentiviral overexpression vectors. Our results showed higher expression levels of ILF2 mRNA and ILF2 protein in HCC tissue compared with matched peritumoral tissue. Expression of ILF2 may regulate cell growth and apoptosis in liver cancer cells via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 related ovarian killer (Bok), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). Moreover, we inoculated nude mice with liver cancer cells to investigate the effect of ILF2 on tumorigenesis in vivo. As expected, a rapid growth was observed in cancer cells inoculated with a lentiviral vector coding Flag-ILF2 (Lenti-ILF2) compared with the control cells. Hence, these results promote a better understanding of ILF2’s potential role as a therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27556459

  13. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 expression is enhanced in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from burned children

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C; He, Jing; Herndon, David N

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in hypertrophic scar formation. A lot of studies have shown that TGF-β1 stimulates fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, inhibits matrix degradation and eventually leads to scar formation. Smad proteins are important intracellular mediators of TGF-β1 signaling, and Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2), an ubiquitin ligase for Smads, plays critical roles in the regulation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling. It was reported that Smurf2 was abnormally expressed during the process of liver fibrosis and lung fibrosis. Hypertrophic scarring is a fibroproliferative disorder of the dermis that occurs following wounding. However, little is known about the expression of Smurf2 in hypertrophic scarring. We hypothesized that TGF-β1 signaling cannot be disrupted after wound epithelialization probably due to abnormal expression of Smurf2 in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. In the present study, we found that hypertrophic scar fibroblasts exhibited increased Smurf2 protein and mRNA levels compared with normal fibroblasts, and the expression of Smurf2 gradually increased in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts after TGF-β1 stimulation. Furthermore, we transfected Smurf2 siRNA into hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, and we found that silencing the expression of Smurf2 in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts dramatically reduced TGF-β1 production, inhibited TGF-β1-induced α-SMA expression and inhibited TGF-β1-induced collagen I synthesis. Our results suggest that the enhanced expression of Smurf2 is involved in the progression of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:21920670

  14. Role of transient receptor potential C3 in TNF-alpha-enhanced calcium influx in human airway myocytes.

    PubMed

    White, Thomas A; Xue, Ailing; Chini, Eduardo N; Thompson, Michael; Sieck, Gary C; Wylam, Mark E

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, contributes to airway hyperresponsivness by altering airway smooth muscle (ASM) Ca(2+) responses to agonist stimulation. The present study examined the effects of TNF-alpha on Ca(2+) influx pathways in cultured human ASM cells (HASMCs). Proteins encoded by the transient receptor potential (TRP) gene family function as channels through which receptor-operated and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) occur. In the present study, the presence of TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPC6 mRNA and protein expression was confirmed in cultured HASMCs using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. TNF-alpha treatment significantly increased TRPC3 mRNA and protein levels in HASMCs as well as SOCE. TNF-alpha treatment also increased both the peak and plateau intracellular Ca(2+) concentration responses in HASMCs elicited by acetylcholine and bradykinin. The effects of TNF-alpha treatment on SOCE and agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) concentration responses were attenuated using small interfering RNA transfection, which knocked down TRPC3 expression. Thus, in inflammatory airway diseases, TNF-alpha treatment may result in increased myocyte activation due to altered Ca(2+) influx pathways. These results suggest that TRPC3 may be an important therapeutic target in inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:16574942

  15. Similar enhancement of BK(Ca) channel function despite different aerobic exercise frequency in aging cerebrovascular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Liu, B; Xiang, S; Shi, L

    2016-07-18

    Aerobic exercise showed beneficial influence on cardiovascular systems in aging, and mechanisms underlying vascular adaption remain unclear. Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels play critical roles in regulating cellular excitability and vascular tone. This study determined the effects of aerobic exercise on aging-associated functional changes in BK(Ca) channels in cerebrovascular myocytes, Male Wistar rats aged 20-22 months were randomly assigned to sedentary (O-SED), low training frequency (O-EXL), and high training frequency group (O-EXH). Young rats were used as control. Compared to young rats, whole-cell BK(Ca) current was decreased, and amplitude of spontaneous transient outward currents were reduced. The open probability and Ca(2+)/voltage sensitivity of single BK(Ca) channel were declined in O-SED, accompanied with a reduction of tamoxifen-induced BK(Ca) activation; the mean open time of BK(Ca) channels was shortened whereas close time was prolonged. Aerobic exercise training markedly alleviated the aging-associated decline independent of training frequency. Exercise three times rather than five times weekly may be a time and cost-saving training volume required to offer beneficial effects to offset the functional declines of BK(Ca) during aging. PMID:27070745

  16. Enhancement of energy production by black ginger extract containing polymethoxy flavonoids in myocytes through improving glucose, lactic acid and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kazuya; Takeda, Shogo; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Enhancement of muscular energy production is thought to improve locomotive functions and prevent metabolic syndromes including diabetes and lipidemia. Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) has been cultivated for traditional medicine in Thailand. Recent studies have shown that black ginger extract (KPE) activated brown adipocytes and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, which may cure obesity-related dysfunction of lipid metabolism. However, the effect of KPE on glucose and lipid utilization in muscle cells has not been examined yet. Hence, we evaluated the effect of KPE and its constituents on energy metabolism in pre-differentiated (p) and differentiated (d) C2C12 myoblasts. KPE (0.1-10 μg/ml) was added to pC2C12 cells in the differentiation process for a week or used to treat dC2C12 cells for 24 h. After culturing, parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed. In terms of the results, KPE enhanced the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and lactic acid as well as the mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 in both types of cells. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α was enhanced in pC2C12 cells. In addition, KPE enhanced the production of ATP and mitochondrial biogenesis. Polymethoxy flavonoids in KPE including 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and PGC-1α. Moreover, KPE and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In conclusion, KPE and its polymethoxy flavonoids were found to enhance energy metabolism in myocytes. KPE may improve the dysfunction of muscle metabolism that leads to metabolic syndrome and locomotive dysfunction. PMID:26581843

  17. MicroRNA-23a reduces slow myosin heavy chain isoforms composition through myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) and potentially influences meat quality.

    PubMed

    Shen, Linyuan; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jingyong; Zhu, Li

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that participate in the regulation of a variety of biological processes. Muscle fiber types were very important to meat quality traits, however, the molecular mechanism by which miRNAs regulate the muscle fiber type composition is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miRNA-23a can affect muscle fiber type composition. Luciferase reporter assays proved that miRNA-23a directly targets the 3' untranslated region (UTRs) of MEF2c. Overexpression of miRNA-23a significantly suppressed the expression of MEF2c both in mRNA and protein levels, thus caused down-regulation of the expression of some key downstream genes of MEF2c (PGC1-α, NRF1 and mtTFA). More interestingly, overexpression of miRNA-23a significantly restrained the myogenic differentiation and decreased the ratio of slow myosin heavy chain in myoblasts (p<0.05). Our findings hinted a novel role of miRNA-23a in the epigenetic regulation of meat quality via decreasing the ratio of slow myosin heavy chain isoforms. PMID:26897085

  18. Contribution of myocyte enhancer factor 2 family transcription factors to BZLF1 expression in Epstein-Barr virus reactivation from latency.

    PubMed

    Murata, Takayuki; Narita, Yohei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kawashima, Daisuke; Kanda, Teru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2013-09-01

    Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latency is dependent on expression of the viral transactivator BZLF1 protein, whose promoter (Zp) normally exhibits only low basal activity but is activated in response to chemical or biological inducers. Using a reporter assay system, we screened for factors that can activate Zp and isolated genes, including those encoding MEF2B, KLF4, and some cellular b-Zip family transcription factors. After confirming their importance and functional binding sites in reporter assays, we prepared recombinant EBV-BAC, in which the binding sites were mutated. Interestingly, the MEF2 mutant virus produced very low levels of BRLF1, another transactivator of EBV, in addition to BZLF1 in HEK293 cells. The virus failed to induce a subset of early genes, such as that encoding BALF5, upon lytic induction, and accordingly, could not replicate to produce progeny viruses in HEK293 cells, but this restriction could be completely lifted by exogenous supply of BRLF1, together with BZLF1. In B cells, induction of BZLF1 by chemical inducers was inhibited by point mutations in the ZII or the three SP1/KLF binding sites of EBV-BAC Zp, while leaky BZLF1 expression was less affected. Mutation of MEF2 sites severely impaired both spontaneous and induced expression of not only BZLF1, but also BRLF1 in comparison to wild-type or revertant virus cases. We also observed that MEF2 mutant EBV featured relatively high repressive histone methylation, such as H3K27me3, but CpG DNA methylation levels were comparable around Zp and the BRLF1 promoter (Rp). These findings shed light on BZLF1 expression and EBV reactivation from latency. PMID:23843637

  19. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2

    PubMed Central

    MIYAHARA, Daichi; OISHI, Isao; MAKINO, Ryuichi; KURUMISAWA, Nozomi; NAKAYA, Ryuma; ONO, Tamao; KAGAMI, Hiroshi; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  20. HISTONE DEACETYLASE 7 (HDAC7) REGULATES MYOCYTE MIGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengzhuo; Liu, Yu; Lam, Minh; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Summary Class IIa HDACs including HDAC7 play a role in gene expression, cell differentiation, and animal development through their association with transcription factors such as myogenic enhancer factors 2 (MEF2s). In this study, we show that endogenous HDAC7 localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of C2C12 myoblasts, but is exclusively retained in the cytoplasm of myotubes after completion of differentiation process. To elucidate the role of differential distribution of HDAC7 during myogenesis, we examined the effects of stably expressed HDAC7 mutants on myogenesis. Expression of nuclear-retained HDAC7 mutants significantly inhibits myogenesis in C2C12 cells and reduces the expression of muscle-specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myogenin. The inhibition in myocyte differentiation can be partially relieved by introduction of a mutation disrupting HDAC7:MEF2 interaction. Since phosphorylation of HDAC7 plays an important role in its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, we further investigated the expression and distribution of phosphorylated HDAC7. To our surprise, the phosphorylation levels of HDAC7 at S344 and S479 were slightly decreased upon differentiation, whereas the phosphorylation of S178 was unchanged. Interestingly, a significant fraction of pS344- and/or pS479-HDAC7 localizes to plasma membrane of myotubes. In addition, Ser178-phosphorylated (pS178) HDAC7 shows a predominant actin filament-like staining prior to muscle differentiation and cytoplasmic and plasma membrane staining after differentiation. Consistent with this notion, HDAC7 partially co-localizes with actin filaments; in particular, pS178-HDAC7 largely colocalizes with actin filaments as indicated by phalloidin counter staining in myocytes. Furthermore, C2C12 cells expressing nuclear-retained HDAC7 display defects in migration. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanisms that regulate myocyte differentiation and migration by controlling the subcellular distribution of HDAC7 in

  1. bcl-2 overexpression promotes myocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Limana, Federica; Urbanek, Konrad; Chimenti, Stefano; Quaini, Federico; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan; Nadal-Ginard, Bernardo; Izumo, Seigo; Anversa, Piero

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of Bcl-2 on the developmental biology of myocytes, we analyzed the population dynamics of this cell type in the heart of transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing Bcl-2 under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter. TG mice and non-TG (wild type, WT) mice were studied at 24 days, 2 months, and 4 months after birth. Bcl-2 overexpression produced a significant increase in the percentage of cycling myocytes and their mitotic index. These effects were strictly connected to the expression of the transgene, as demonstrated in isolated myocytes. The formation of mitotic spindle and contractile ring was identified in replicating cells. These typical aspects of mitosis were complemented with the demonstration of karyokinesis and cytokinesis to provide structural evidence of cell division. Apoptosis was low at all ages and was not affected by Bcl-2. The higher cell replication rate in TG was conditioned by a decrease in the expression of the cell-cycle inhibitors, p21WAF1 and p16INK4a, and by an increase in Mdm2-p53 complexes. In comparison with WT, TG had 0.4 × 106, 0.74 × 106, and 1.2 × 106 more myocytes in the left ventricle at 24 days, 2 months, and 4 months, respectively. Binucleated myocytes were 12% and 25% larger in WT than in TG mice at 2 and 4 months of age. Taken together, these observations reveal a previously uncharacterized replication-enhancing function of Bcl-2 in myocytes in vivo in the absence of stressful conditions. PMID:11983915

  2. S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase Deficiency Enhances the Proliferative Expansion of Adult Heart Progenitors and Myocytes Post Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E; Paulino, Ellena C; Dulce, Raul A; Takeuchi, Lauro M; Bellio, Michael A; Kulandavelu, Shathiyah; Cao, Yenong; Balkan, Wayne; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M; Hare, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammalian heart regenerative activity is lost before adulthood but increases after cardiac injury. Cardiac repair mechanisms, which involve both endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and cardiomyocyte cell-cycle reentry, are inadequate to achieve full recovery after myocardial infarction (MI). Mice deficient in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR−⁄−), an enzyme regulating S-nitrosothiol turnover, have preserved cardiac function after MI. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GSNOR activity modulates cardiac cell proliferation in the post-MI adult heart. Methods and Results GSNOR−⁄− and C57Bl6/J (wild-type [WT]) mice were subjected to sham operation (n=3 GSNOR−⁄−; n=3 WT) or MI (n=41 GSNOR−⁄−; n=65 WT). Compared with WT,GSNOR−⁄− mice exhibited improved survival, cardiac performance, and architecture after MI, as demonstrated by higher ejection fraction (P<0.05), lower endocardial volumes (P<0.001), and diminished scar size (P<0.05). In addition, cardiomyocytes from post-MI GSNOR−⁄− hearts exhibited faster calcium decay and sarcomeric relaxation times (P<0.001). Immunophenotypic analysis illustrated that post-MI GSNOR−⁄− hearts demonstrated enhanced neovascularization (P<0.001), c-kit+ CSC abundance (P=0.013), and a ≈3-fold increase in proliferation of adult cardiomyocytes and c-kit+/CD45− CSCs (P<0.0001 and P=0.023, respectively) as measured by using 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Conclusions Loss of GSNOR confers enhanced post-MI cardiac regenerative activity, characterized by enhanced turnover of cardiomyocytes and CSCs. Endogenous denitrosylases exert an inhibitory effect over cardiac repair mechanisms and therefore represents a potential novel therapeutic target. PMID:26178404

  3. Evidence for Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 as a Mediator of Amphetamine-Enhanced Motor Improvement following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, William A.; Martin, Jody L.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.; Farrer, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have shown that addition of amphetamine to physical therapy results in enhanced motor improvement following stroke in rats, which was associated with the formation of new motor pathways from cortical projection neurons of the contralesional cortex. It is unclear what mechanisms are involved, but amphetamine is known to induce the neuronal release of catecholamines as well as upregulate fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression in the brain. Since FGF-2 has been widely documented to stimulate neurite outgrowth, the present studies were undertaken to provide evidence for FGF-2 as a neurobiological mechanism underlying amphetamine-induced neuroplasticity. In the present study rats that received amphetamine plus physical therapy following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion exhibited significantly greater motor improvement over animals receiving physical therapy alone. Amphetamine plus physical therapy also significantly increased the number of FGF-2 expressing pyramidal neurons of the contralesional cortex at 2 weeks post-stroke and resulted in significant axonal outgrowth from these neurons at 8 weeks post-stroke. Since amphetamine is a known releaser of norepinephrine, in vitro analyses focused on whether noradrenergic stimulation could lead to neurite outgrowth in a manner requiring FGF-2 activity. Primary cortical neurons did not respond to direct stimulation by norepinephrine or amphetamine with increased neurite outgrowth. However, conditioned media from astrocytes exposed to norepinephrine or isoproterenol (a beta adrenergic agonist) significantly increased neurite outgrowth when applied to neuronal cultures. Adrenergic agonists also upregulated FGF-2 expression in astrocytes. Pharmacological analysis indicated that beta receptors and alpha1, but not alpha2, receptors were involved in both effects. Antibody neutralization studies demonstrated that FGF-2 was a critical contributor to neurite outgrowth induced by astrocyte

  4. Gene Transfer into Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sarah E.; Westfall, Margaret V.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for DNA transfection are often inefficient and toxic for terminally differentiated cells, such as cardiac myocytes. Vector-based gene transfer is an efficient approach for introducing exogenous cDNA into these types of primary cell cultures. In this chapter, separate protocols for adult rat cardiac myocyte isolation and gene transfer with recombinant adenovirus are provided and are routinely utilized for studying the effects of sarcomeric proteins on myofilament function. PMID:25836585

  5. Nanomolar ouabain increases NCX1 expression and enhances Ca2+ signaling in human arterial myocytes: a mechanism that links salt to increased vascular resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Cristina I.; Antos, Laura K.; Golovina, Vera A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which NaCl raises blood pressure (BP) in hypertension are unresolved, but much evidence indicates that endogenous ouabain is involved. In rodents, arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) Na+ pumps with an α2-catalytic subunit (ouabain EC50 ≤1.0 nM) are crucial for some hypertension models, even though ≈80% of ASMC Na+ pumps have an α1-subunit (ouabain EC50 ≈ 5 μM). Human α1-Na+ pumps, however, have high ouabain affinity (EC50 ≈ 10–20 nM). We used immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and Ca2+ imaging (fura-2) to examine the expression, distribution, and function of Na+ pump α-subunit isoforms in human arteries and primary cultured human ASMCs (hASMCs). hASMCs express α1- and α2-Na+ pumps. Further, α2-, but not α1-, pumps are confined to plasma membrane microdomains adjacent to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), where they colocalize with Na/Ca exchanger-1 (NCX1) and C-type transient receptor potential-6 (receptor-operated channels, ROCs). Prolonged inhibition (72 h) with 100 nM ouabain (blocks nearly all α1- and α2-pumps) was toxic to most cultured hASMCs. Treatment with 10 nM ouabain (72 h), however, increased NCX1 and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase expression and augmented ATP (10 μM)-induced SR Ca2+ release in 0 Ca2+, ouabain-free media, and Ca2+ influx after external Ca2+ restoration. The latter was likely mediated primarily by ROCs and store-operated Ca2+ channels. These hASMC protein expression and Ca2+ signaling changes are comparable with previous observations on myocytes isolated from arteries of many rat hypertension models. We conclude that the same structurally and functionally coupled mechanisms (α2-Na+ pumps, NCX1, ROCs, and the SR) regulate Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling in hASMCs and rodent ASMCs. These ouabain/endogenous ouabain-modulated mechanisms underlie the whole body autoregulation associated with increased vascular resistance and elevation of BP in human, salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:22842068

  6. Cell contact as an independent factor modulating cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and survival in long-term primary culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. A.; Decker, M. L.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Janes, D. M.; Decker, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes maintained in cell culture develop hypertrophy both in response to mechanical loading as well as to receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms. However, it has been shown that the hypertrophic response to these stimuli may be modulated through effects of intercellular contact achieved by maintaining cells at different plating densities. In this study, we show that the myocyte plating density affects not only the hypertrophic response and features of the differentiated phenotype of isolated adult myocytes, but also plays a significant role influencing myocyte survival in vitro. The native rod-shaped phenotype of freshly isolated adult myocytes persists in an environment which minimizes myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum. However, these conditions are not optimal for long-term maintenance of cultured adult cardiac myocytes. Conditions which promote myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum, on the other hand, also promote the re-establishment of new intercellular contacts between myocytes. These contacts appear to play a significant role in the development of spontaneous activity, which enhances the redevelopment of highly differentiated contractile, junctional, and sarcoplasmic reticulum structures in the cultured adult cardiomyocyte. Although it has previously been shown that adult cardiac myocytes are typically quiescent in culture, the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists stimulates beating and myocyte hypertrophy, and thereby serves to increase the level of intercellular contact as well. However, in densely-plated cultures with intrinsically high levels of intercellular contact, spontaneous contractile activity develops without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists. In this study, we compare the function, morphology, and natural history of adult feline cardiomyocytes which have been maintained in cultures with different levels of intercellular contact, with and without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists

  7. MicroRNAs in the Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2)-regulated Gtl2-Dio3 Noncoding RNA Locus Promote Cardiomyocyte Proliferation by Targeting the Transcriptional Coactivator Cited2.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amanda L; Naya, Francisco J

    2015-09-18

    Understanding cell cycle regulation in postmitotic cardiomyocytes may lead to new therapeutic approaches to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. We have demonstrated previously that microRNAs encoded by the Gtl2-Dio3 noncoding RNA locus function downstream of the MEF2A transcription factor in skeletal muscle regeneration. We have also reported expression of these miRNAs in the heart. Here we investigated the role of two Gtl2-Dio3 miRNAs, miR-410 and miR-495, in cardiac muscle. Overexpression of miR-410 and miR-495 robustly stimulated cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Interestingly, unlike our findings in skeletal muscle, these miRNAs did not modulate the activity of the WNT signaling pathway. Instead, these miRNAs targeted Cited2, a coactivator required for proper cardiac development. Consistent with miR-410 and miR-495 overexpression, siRNA knockdown of Cited2 in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in robust proliferation. This phenotype was associated with reduced expression of Cdkn1c/p57/Kip2, a cell cycle inhibitor, and increased expression of VEGFA, a growth factor with proliferation-promoting effects. Therefore, miR-410 and miR-495 are among a growing number of miRNAs that have the ability to potently stimulate neonatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. PMID:26240138

  8. Chronic hypoxia-induced upregulation of Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in pulmonary arterial myocytes: a mechanism contributing to enhanced vasoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Xia, Yang; Paudel, Omkar; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Sham, James S K

    2012-08-01

    Chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) is associated with altered expression and function of cation channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), but little is known for anion channels. The Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC), recently identified as TMEM16A, plays important roles in pulmonary vascular function. The present study sought to determine the effects of chronic hypoxia (CH) on the expression and function of CaCCs in PASMCs, and their contributions to the vascular hyperreactivity in CHPH. Male Wistar rats were exposed to room air or 10% O(2) for 3–4 weeks to generate CHPH. CaCC current (I(CI.Ca)) elicited by caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release or by depolarization at a constant high [Ca(2+)](i) (500 or 750 nm) was significantly larger in PASMCs of CH rats compared to controls. The enhanced I(CI.Ca)) density in CH PASMCs was unrelated to changes in amplitude of Ca(2+) release, Ca(2+)-dependent activation, voltage-dependent properties or calcineurin-dependent modulation of CaCCs, but was associated with increased TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression. Maximal contraction induced by serotonin, an important mediator of CHPH, was potentiated in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries of CH rats. The enhanced contractile response was prevented by the CaCC blockers niflumic acid and T16A(inh)-A01, or by the L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist nifedipine. The effects of niflumic acid and nifedipine were non-additive. Our results demonstrate for the first time that CH increases I(CI.Ca) density, which is attributable to an upregulation of TMEM16A expression in PASMCs. The augmented CaCC activity in PASMCs may potentiate membrane depolarization and L-type channel activation in response to vasoconstrictors and enhance pulmonary vasoreactivity in CHPH. PMID:22674716

  9. Modeling the isolated cardiac myocyte.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Jose L; Wang, Fei; Bers, Donald M

    2004-01-01

    Computer modeling of cardiac myocytes has flourished in recent years. Models have evolved from mathematical descriptions of ionic channels alone to more sophisticated formulations that include calcium transport mechanisms, ATP production and metabolic pathways. The increased complexity is fueled by the new data available in the field. The continuous production of experimental data has led to the evolution of increasingly refined descriptions of the phenomena by modelers. Integrating the numerous systems involved in cardiac myocyte homeostasis makes the use of computer models necessary due to the unreliability of intuitive approaches. However the complexity of the model should not imply a cumbersome operation of the program. As with any tool, computer models have to be easy to operate or their strength will be diminished and potential users will not benefit fully from them. The contribution of the computer modeler to their respective biological fields will be more successful and enduring if modelers devote sufficient time to implement their equations into a model with user-friendly characteristics. PMID:15142742

  10. Electrochemical properties and myocyte interaction of carbon nanotube microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Fung, Andrew O; Tsiokos, Christos; Paydar, Omeed; Chen, Li Han; Jin, Sungho; Wang, Yibin; Judy, Jack W

    2010-11-10

    Arrays of carbon nanotube (CNT) microelectrodes (nominal geometric surface areas 20-200 μm(2)) were fabricated by photolithography with chemical vapor deposition of randomly oriented CNTs. Raman spectroscopy showed strong peak intensities in both G and D bands (G/D = 0.86), indicative of significant disorder in the graphitic layers of the randomly oriented CNTs. The impedance spectra of gold and CNT microelectrodes were compared using equivalent circuit models. Compared to planar gold surfaces, pristine nanotubes lowered the overall electrode impedance at 1 kHz by 75%, while nanotubes treated in O(2) plasma reduced the impedance by 95%. Cyclic voltammetry in potassium ferricyanide showed potential peak separations of 133 and 198 mV for gold and carbon nanotube electrodes, respectively. The interaction of cultured cardiac myocytes with randomly oriented and vertically aligned CNTs was investigated by the sectioning of myocytes using focused-ion-beam milling. Vertically aligned nanotubes deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were observed to penetrate the membrane of neonatal-rat ventricular myocytes, while randomly oriented CNTs remained external to the cells. These results demonstrated that CNT electrodes can be leveraged to reduce impedance and enhance biological interfaces for microelectrodes of subcellular size. PMID:20954739

  11. Controlled dual delivery of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Interleukin-10 by heparin-based coacervate synergistically enhances ischemic heart repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, William C W; Lee, Brandon G; Park, Dae Woo; Kim, Kyobum; Chu, Hunghao; Kim, Kang; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2015-12-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes myocardial necrosis, triggers chronic inflammatory responses, and leads to pathological remodeling. Controlled delivery of a combination of angiogenic and immunoregulatory proteins may be a promising therapeutic approach for MI. We investigated the bioactivity and therapeutic potential of an injectable, heparin-based coacervate co-delivering an angiogenic factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. Coacervate delivery of FGF2 and IL-10 preserved their bioactivities on cardiac stromal cell proliferation in vitro. Upon intramyocardial injection into a mouse MI model, echocardiography revealed that FGF2/IL-10 coacervate treated groups showed significantly improved long-term LV contractile function and ameliorated LV dilatation. FGF2/IL-10 coacervate substantially augmented LV myocardial elasticity. Additionally, FGF2/IL-10 coacervate notably enhanced long-term revascularization, especially at the infarct area. In addition, coacervate loaded with 500 ng FGF2 and 500 ng IL-10 significantly reduced LV fibrosis, considerably preserved infarct wall thickness, and markedly inhibited chronic inflammation at the infarct area. These results indicate that FGF2/IL-10 coacervate has notably greater therapeutic potential than coacervate containing only FGF2. Overall, our data suggest therapeutically synergistic effects of FGF-2/IL-10 coacervate, particularly coacervate with FGF2 and 500 ng IL-10, for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. PMID:26370927

  12. Myocyte-Depleted Engineered Cardiac Tissues Support Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Gregory W.; Turnbull, Irene C.; Ancukiewicz, Damian; Kim, Do Eun; Kao, Evan; Cashman, Timothy J.; Hadri, Lahouaria; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for restoring cardiac function after cardiomyocyte loss remains controversial. Engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) offer a simplified three-dimensional in vitro model system to evaluate stem cell therapies. We hypothesized that contractile properties of dysfunctional ECTs would be enhanced by MSC treatment. ECTs were created from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with and without bone marrow-derived adult rat MSCs in a type-I collagen and Matrigel scaffold using custom elastomer molds with integrated cantilever force sensors. Three experimental groups included the following: (1) baseline condition ECT consisting only of myocytes, (2) 50% myocyte-depleted ECT, modeling a dysfunctional state, and (3) 50% myocyte-depleted ECT plus 10% MSC, modeling dysfunctional myocardium with intervention. Developed stress (DS) and pacing threshold voltage (VT) were measured using 2-Hz field stimulation at 37°C on culture days 5, 10, 15, and 20. By day 5, DS of myocyte-depleted ECTs was significantly lower than baseline, and VT was elevated. In MSC-supplemented ECTs, DS and VT were significantly better than myocyte-depleted values, approaching baseline ECTs. Findings were similar through culture day 15, but lost significance at day 20. Trends in DS were partly explained by changes in the cell number and alignment with time. Thus, supplementing myocyte-depleted ECTs with MSCs transiently improved contractile function and compensated for a 50% loss of cardiomyocytes, mimicking recent animal studies and clinical trials and supporting the potential of MSCs for myocardial therapy. PMID:22500611

  13. Myocyte-depleted engineered cardiac tissues support therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Gregory W; Turnbull, Irene C; Ancukiewicz, Damian; Kim, Do Eun; Kao, Evan; Cashman, Timothy J; Hadri, Lahouaria; Hajjar, Roger J; Costa, Kevin D

    2012-07-01

    The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for restoring cardiac function after cardiomyocyte loss remains controversial. Engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) offer a simplified three-dimensional in vitro model system to evaluate stem cell therapies. We hypothesized that contractile properties of dysfunctional ECTs would be enhanced by MSC treatment. ECTs were created from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with and without bone marrow-derived adult rat MSCs in a type-I collagen and Matrigel scaffold using custom elastomer molds with integrated cantilever force sensors. Three experimental groups included the following: (1) baseline condition ECT consisting only of myocytes, (2) 50% myocyte-depleted ECT, modeling a dysfunctional state, and (3) 50% myocyte-depleted ECT plus 10% MSC, modeling dysfunctional myocardium with intervention. Developed stress (DS) and pacing threshold voltage (VT) were measured using 2-Hz field stimulation at 37°C on culture days 5, 10, 15, and 20. By day 5, DS of myocyte-depleted ECTs was significantly lower than baseline, and VT was elevated. In MSC-supplemented ECTs, DS and VT were significantly better than myocyte-depleted values, approaching baseline ECTs. Findings were similar through culture day 15, but lost significance at day 20. Trends in DS were partly explained by changes in the cell number and alignment with time. Thus, supplementing myocyte-depleted ECTs with MSCs transiently improved contractile function and compensated for a 50% loss of cardiomyocytes, mimicking recent animal studies and clinical trials and supporting the potential of MSCs for myocardial therapy. PMID:22500611

  14. MondoA coordinately regulates skeletal myocyte lipid homeostasis and insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byungyong; Soundarapandian, Mangala M; Sessions, Hampton; Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Roth, Gregory P; Li, Jian-Liang; Sugarman, Eliot; Koo, Ada; Malany, Siobhan; Wang, Miao; Yea, Kyungmoo; Brooks, Jeanne; Leone, Teresa C; Han, Xianlin; Vega, Rick B; Kelly, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Intramuscular lipid accumulation is a common manifestation of chronic caloric excess and obesity that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The mechanistic links between lipid accumulation in myocytes and insulin resistance are not completely understood. In this work, we used a high-throughput chemical biology screen to identify a small-molecule probe, SBI-477, that coordinately inhibited triacylglyceride (TAG) synthesis and enhanced basal glucose uptake in human skeletal myocytes. We then determined that SBI-477 stimulated insulin signaling by deactivating the transcription factor MondoA, leading to reduced expression of the insulin pathway suppressors thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and arrestin domain-containing 4 (ARRDC4). Depleting MondoA in myocytes reproduced the effects of SBI-477 on glucose uptake and myocyte lipid accumulation. Furthermore, an analog of SBI-477 suppressed TXNIP expression, reduced muscle and liver TAG levels, enhanced insulin signaling, and improved glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. These results identify a key role for MondoA-directed programs in the coordinated control of myocyte lipid balance and insulin signaling and suggest that this pathway may have potential as a therapeutic target for insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. PMID:27500491

  15. Resveratrol protects rabbit ventricular myocytes against oxidative stress-induced arrhythmogenic activity and Ca2+ overload

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Yue-peng; Gao, Ling; Zhang, Peng-pai; Zhou, Qing; Xu, Quan-fu; Zhou, Zhi-wen; Guo, Kai; Chen, Ren-hua; Yang, Huang-tian; Li, Yi-gang

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether resveratrol suppressed oxidative stress-induced arrhythmogenic activity and Ca2+ overload in ventricular myocytes and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 200 μmol/L)) was used to induce oxidative stress in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Cell shortening and calcium transients were simultaneously recorded to detect arrhythmogenic activity and to measure intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII) activity was measured using a CaMKII kit or Western blotting analysis. Voltage-activated Na+ and Ca2+ currents were examined using whole-cell recording in myocytes. Results: H2O2 markedly prolonged Ca2+ transient duration (CaTD), and induced early afterdepolarization (EAD)-like and delayed afterdepolarization (DAD)-like arrhythmogenic activity in myocytes paced at 0.16 Hz or 0.5 Hz. Application of resveratrol (30 or 50 μmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed H2O2-induced EAD-like arrhythmogenic activity and attenuated CaTD prolongation. Co-treatment with resveratrol (50 μmol/L) effectively prevented both EAD-like and DAD-like arrhythmogenic activity induced by H2O2. In addition, resveratrol markedly blunted H2O2-induced diastolic [Ca2+]i accumulation and prevented the myocytes from developing hypercontracture. In whole-cell recording studies, H2O2 significantly enhanced the late Na+ current (INa,L) and L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) in myocytes, which were dramatically suppressed or prevented by resveratrol. Furthermore, H2O2-induced ROS production and CaMKII activation were significantly prevented by resveratrol. Conclusion: Resveratrol protects ventricular myocytes against oxidative stress-induced arrhythmogenic activity and Ca2+ overload through inhibition of INa,L/ICa,L, reduction of ROS generation, and prevention of CaMKII activation. PMID:23912472

  16. Modulation of local Ca2+ release sites by rapid fluid puffing in rat atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun-Hee; Risius, Tim; Morad, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Atrial myocytes that lack t-tubules appear to have two functionally separate sarcoplasmic Ca2+ stores: a peripheral store associated with plasmalemmal L-type calcium channels and a central store with no apparent proximity to L-type calcium channels. Here we describe a set of calcium sparks and waves that are triggered by puffing of pressurized (200-400 mmH2O) bathing solutions onto resting isolated rat atrial myocytes. Puffing of pressurized (200 mmH2O) solutions, identical to those bathing the myocytes from distances of approximately 150 microm onto the surface of a single myocyte triggered or enhanced spontaneously occurring peripheral sparks by five- to six-fold and central Ca2+ sparks by two- to three-fold, without altering the unitary spark properties. Exposure to higher pressure flows (400 mmH2O) often triggered longitudinally spreading Ca2+ waves. These results suggest that pressurized flows may directly modulate Ca2+ signaling of atrial myocytes by activating the intracellular Ca2+ release sites. PMID:17087992

  17. Evidence for functional expression of TRPM7 channels in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Hui; Sun, Hai-Ying; Chen, Kui-Hao; Du, Xin-Ling; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Lik-Cheung; Li, Xin; Jin, Man-Wen; Li, Gui-Rong

    2012-09-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin-7 (TRPM7) channels have been recently reported in human atrial fibroblasts and are believed to mediate fibrogenesis in human atrial fibrillation. The present study investigates whether TRPM7 channels are expressed in human atrial myocytes using whole-cell patch voltage-clamp, RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. It was found that a gradually activated TRPM7-like current was recorded with a K(+)- and Mg(2+)-free pipette solution in human atrial myocytes. The current was enhanced by removing extracellular Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and the current increase could be inhibited by Ni(2+) or Ba(2+). The TRPM7-like current was potentiated by acidic pH and inhibited by La(3+) and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. In addition, Ca(2+)-activated TRPM4-like current was recorded in human atrial myocytes with the addition of the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 in bath solution. RT-PCR and Western immunoblot analysis revealed that in addition to TRPM4, TRPM7 channel current, mRNA and protein expression were evident in human atrial myocytes. Interestingly, TRPM7 channel protein, but not TRPM4 channel protein, was significantly increased in human atrial specimens from the patients with atrial fibrillation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that functional TRPM7 channels are present in human atrial myocytes, and the channel expression is upregulated in the atria with atrial fibrillation. PMID:22802050

  18. Cyclic GMP protein kinase activity is reduced in thyroxine-induced hypertrophic cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Zhang, Qihang; Scholz, Peter M; Weiss, Harvey R

    2003-12-01

    1. We tested the hypothesis that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase has major negative functional effects in cardiac myocytes and that the importance of this pathway is reduced in thyroxine (T4; 0.5 mg/kg per day for 16 days) hypertrophic myocytes. 2. Using isolated ventricular myocytes from control (n = 7) and T4-treated (n = 9) rabbit hypertrophic hearts, myocyte shortening was studied with a video edge detector. Oxygen consumption was measured using O2 electrodes. Protein phosphorylation was measured autoradiographically. 3. Data were collected following treatment with: (i) 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (PCPT; 10-7 or 10-5 mol/L); (ii) 8-bromo-cAMP (10-5 mol/L) followed by PCPT; (iii) beta-phenyl-1,N2-etheno-8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-monophosphorothioate, SP-isomer (SP; 10-7 or 10-5 mol/L); or (iv) 8-bromo-cAMP (10-5 mol/L) followed by SP. 4. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline percentage shortening (Pcs; 4.9 +/- 0.2 vs 5.6 +/- 0.4% for control and T4 groups, respectively) and maximal rate of shortening (Rs; 64.8 +/- 5.9 vs 79.9 +/- 7.1 micro m/ s for control and T4 groups, respectively). Both SP and PCPT decreased Pcs (-43 vs-21% for control and T4 groups, respectively) and Rs (-36 vs-22% for control and T4 groups, respectively), but the effect was significantly reduced in T4 myocytes. 8-Bromo-cAMP similarly increased Pcs (28 vs 23% for control and T4 groups, respectively) and Rs (20 vs 19% for control and T4 groups, respectively). After 8-bromo-cAMP, SP and PCPT decreased Pcs (-34%) and Rs (-29%) less in the control group. However, the effects of these drugs were not altered in T4 myocytes (Pcs -24%; Rs -22%). Both PCPT and cAMP phosphorylated the same five protein bands. In T4 myocytes, these five bands were enhanced less. 5. We conclude that, in control ventricular myocytes, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase exerted major negative functional effects but, in T4-induced hypertrophic myocytes, the importance of

  19. Estrogen receptor profiling and activity in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Pugach, Emily K; Blenck, Christa L; Dragavon, Joseph M; Langer, Stephen J; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2016-08-15

    Estrogen signaling appears critical in the heart. However a mechanistic understanding of the role of estrogen in the cardiac myocyte is lacking. Moreover, there are multiple cell types in the heart and multiple estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms. Therefore, we studied expression, localization, transcriptional and signaling activity of ERs in isolated cardiac myocytes. We found only ERα RNA (but no ERβ RNA) in cardiac myocytes using two independent methods. The vast majority of full-length ERα protein (ERα66) localizes to cardiac myocyte nuclei where it is competent to activate transcription. Alternate isoforms of ERα encoded by the same genomic locus (ERα46 and ERα36) have differential transcriptional activity in cardiac myocytes but also primarily localize to nuclei. In contrast to other reports, no ERα isoform is competent to activate MAPK or PI3K signaling in cardiac myocytes. Together these data support a role for ERα at the level of transcription in cardiac myocytes. PMID:27164442

  20. Mechanically induced orientation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, J.-L.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present study describes the spatial orientation of a population of freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes using a computerized mechanical cell stimulator device for tissue cultured cells. A continuous unidirectional stretch of the substratum at 60 to 400 microns/min for 120 to 30 min, respectively, during the cell attachment period in a serum-free medium was found to induce a significant threefold increase in the number of rod-shaped myocytes oriented parallel to the direction of movement. The myocytes orient less well with unidirectional substratum stretching after their adhesion to the substratum. Adult myocytes plated onto a substratum undergoing continuous 10-percent stretch-relaxation cycling show no significant change in the myocyte orientation or cytoskeletal organization. In addition to the type of mechanical activity, orientation of rod-shaped myocytes is dependent on the speed of the substratum, the final stretch amplitude, and the timing between initiation of substratum stretching and adhesion of myocytes to the substratum.

  1. Diesterified Nitrone Rescues Nitroso-Redox Levels and Increases Myocyte Contraction Via Increased SR Ca2+ Handling

    PubMed Central

    Traynham, Christopher J.; Roof, Steve R.; Wang, Honglan; Prosak, Robert A.; Tang, Lifei; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Racoma, Ira O.; Catalano, Dominic J.; Huang, Xin; Han, Yongbin; Kim, Shang-U; Gyorke, Sandor; Billman, George E.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2−) are important cardiac signaling molecules that regulate myocyte contraction. For appropriate regulation, NO and O2.− must exist at defined levels. Unfortunately, the NO and O2.− levels are altered in many cardiomyopathies (heart failure, ischemia, hypertrophy, etc.) leading to contractile dysfunction and adverse remodeling. Hence, rescuing the nitroso-redox levels is a potential therapeutic strategy. Nitrone spin traps have been shown to scavenge O2.− while releasing NO as a reaction byproduct; and we synthesized a novel, cell permeable nitrone, 2–2–3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide (EMEPO). We hypothesized that EMEPO would improve contractile function in myocytes with altered nitroso-redox levels. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from wildtype (C57Bl/6) and NOS1 knockout (NOS1−/−) mice, a known model of NO/O2.− imbalance, and incubated with EMEPO. EMEPO significantly reduced O2.− (lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence) and elevated NO (DAF-FM diacetate) levels in NOS1−/− myocytes. Furthermore, EMEPO increased NOS1−/− myocyte basal contraction (Ca2+ transients, Fluo-4AM; shortening, video-edge detection), the force-frequency response and the contractile response to β-adrenergic stimulation. EMEPO had no effect in wildtype myocytes. EMEPO also increased ryanodine receptor activity (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak/load relationship) and phospholamban Serine16 phosphorylation (Western blot). We also repeated our functional experiments in a canine post-myocardial infarction model and observed similar results to those seen in NOS1−/− myocytes. In conclusion, EMEPO improved contractile function in myocytes experiencing an imbalance of their nitroso-redox levels. The concurrent restoration of NO and O2.− levels may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of various cardiomyopathies. PMID:23300588

  2. Myocyte nuclear factor, a novel winged-helix transcription factor under both developmental and neural regulation in striated myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bassel-Duby, R; Hernandez, M D; Yang, Q; Rochelle, J M; Seldin, M F; Williams, R S

    1994-01-01

    A sequence motif (CCAC box) within an upstream enhancer region of the human myoglobin gene is essential for transcriptional activity in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. A cDNA clone, myocyte nuclear factor (MNF), was isolated from a murine expression library on the basis of sequence-specific binding to the myoglobin CCAC box motif and was found to encode a novel member of the winged-helix or HNF-3/fork head family of transcription factors. Probes based on this sequence identify two mRNA species that are upregulated during myocyte differentiation, and antibodies raised against recombinant MNF identify proteins of approximately 90, 68, and 65 kDa whose expression is regulated following differentiation of myogenic cells in culture. In addition, the 90-kDa form of MNF is phosphorylated and is upregulated in intact muscles subjected to chronic motor nerve stimulation, a potent stimulus to myoglobin gene regulation. Amino acid residues 280 to 389 of MNF demonstrate 35 to 89% sequence identity to the winged-helix domain from other known members of this family, but MNF is otherwise divergent. A proline-rich amino-terminal region (residues 1 to 206) of MNF functions as a transcriptional activation domain. These studies provide the first evidence that members of the winged-helix family of transcription factors have a role in myogenic differentiation and in remodeling processes of adult muscles that occur in response to physiological stimuli. Images PMID:8007964

  3. Cardiac myosin binding protein C regulates postnatal myocyte cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianming; Burgon, Patrick G; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Onoue, Kenji; Gorham, Joshua M; O'Meara, Caitlin C; Fomovsky, Gregory; McConnell, Bradley K; Lee, Richard T; Seidman, J G; Seidman, Christine E

    2015-07-21

    Homozygous cardiac myosin binding protein C-deficient (Mybpc(t/t)) mice develop dramatic cardiac dilation shortly after birth; heart size increases almost twofold. We have investigated the mechanism of cardiac enlargement in these hearts. Throughout embryogenesis myocytes undergo cell division while maintaining the capacity to pump blood by rapidly disassembling and reforming myofibrillar components of the sarcomere throughout cell cycle progression. Shortly after birth, myocyte cell division ceases. Cardiac MYBPC is a thick filament protein that regulates sarcomere organization and rigidity. We demonstrate that many Mybpc(t/t) myocytes undergo an additional round of cell division within 10 d postbirth compared with their wild-type counterparts, leading to increased numbers of mononuclear myocytes. Short-hairpin RNA knockdown of Mybpc3 mRNA in wild-type mice similarly extended the postnatal window of myocyte proliferation. However, adult Mybpc(t/t) myocytes are unable to fully regenerate the myocardium after injury. MYBPC has unexpected inhibitory functions during postnatal myocyte cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. We suggest that human patients with homozygous MYBPC3-null mutations develop dilated cardiomyopathy, coupled with myocyte hyperplasia (increased cell number), as observed in Mybpc(t/t) mice. Human patients, with heterozygous truncating MYBPC3 mutations, like mice with similar mutations, have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism leading to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in heterozygous MYBPC3(+/-) individuals is myocyte hypertrophy (increased cell size), whereas the mechanism leading to cardiac dilation in homozygous Mybpc3(-/-) mice is primarily myocyte hyperplasia. PMID:26153423

  4. Cardiac myosin binding protein C regulates postnatal myocyte cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianming; Burgon, Patrick G.; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Onoue, Kenji; Gorham, Joshua M.; O’Meara, Caitlin C.; Fomovsky, Gregory; McConnell, Bradley K.; Lee, Richard T.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous cardiac myosin binding protein C-deficient (Mybpct/t) mice develop dramatic cardiac dilation shortly after birth; heart size increases almost twofold. We have investigated the mechanism of cardiac enlargement in these hearts. Throughout embryogenesis myocytes undergo cell division while maintaining the capacity to pump blood by rapidly disassembling and reforming myofibrillar components of the sarcomere throughout cell cycle progression. Shortly after birth, myocyte cell division ceases. Cardiac MYBPC is a thick filament protein that regulates sarcomere organization and rigidity. We demonstrate that many Mybpct/t myocytes undergo an additional round of cell division within 10 d postbirth compared with their wild-type counterparts, leading to increased numbers of mononuclear myocytes. Short-hairpin RNA knockdown of Mybpc3 mRNA in wild-type mice similarly extended the postnatal window of myocyte proliferation. However, adult Mybpct/t myocytes are unable to fully regenerate the myocardium after injury. MYBPC has unexpected inhibitory functions during postnatal myocyte cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. We suggest that human patients with homozygous MYBPC3-null mutations develop dilated cardiomyopathy, coupled with myocyte hyperplasia (increased cell number), as observed in Mybpct/t mice. Human patients, with heterozygous truncating MYBPC3 mutations, like mice with similar mutations, have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism leading to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in heterozygous MYBPC3+/− individuals is myocyte hypertrophy (increased cell size), whereas the mechanism leading to cardiac dilation in homozygous Mybpc3−/− mice is primarily myocyte hyperplasia. PMID:26153423

  5. Locally produced estrogen through aromatization might enhance tissue expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene and fibroblast growth factor 2 in growth hormone-secreting adenomas.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Comunoglu, Nil; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Oz, Buge; Haliloglu, Ozlem Asmaz; Tanriover, Necmettin; Gazioglu, Nurperi; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2016-06-01

    Aromatase, a key enzyme in local estrogen synthesis, is expressed in different pituitary tumors including growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas. We aimed to evaluate aromatase, estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expressions in GH-secreting adenomas, and investigate their correlation with clinical, pathologic, and radiologic parameters. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary center in Turkey. Protein expressions were determined via immunohistochemical staining in ex vivo tumor samples of 62 patients with acromegaly and ten normal pituitary tissues. Concordantly increased aromatase, PTTG, and FGF2 expressions were detected in the tumor samples as compared with controls (p < 0.001 for all). None of the tumors expressed ERα while ERβ was detected only in mixed somatotroph adenomas. Aromatase, ERβ, PTTG expressions were not significantly different between patients with and without remission (p > 0.05 for all). FGF2 expression was significantly higher in patients without postoperative and late remission (p = 0.002 and p = 0.012, respectively), with sphenoid bone invasion, optic chiasm compression, and somatostatin analog resistance (p = 0.005, p = 0.033, and p = 0.013, respectively). Aromatase, PTTG and FGF2 expressions were positively correlated with each other (r = 0,311, p = 0.008 for aromatase, FGF2; r = 0.380, p = 0.001 for aromatase, PTTG; r = 0.400, p = 0.001 for FGF2, PTTG). PTTG-mediated FGF2 upregulation is associated with more aggressive tumor features in patients with acromegaly. Also, locally produced estrogen through aromatization might have a role in this phenomenon. PMID:26578364

  6. Impaired stimulation of glucose transport in cardiac myocytes exposed to very low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, I; Viglino, C; Brulhart-Meynet, M-C; James, R W; Lerch, R; Montessuit, C

    2016-07-01

    We recently observed that free fatty acids impair the stimulation of glucose transport into cardiomyocytes in response to either insulin or metabolic stress. In vivo, fatty acids for the myocardium are mostly obtained from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and Very Low-Density Lipoproteins). We therefore determined whether exposure of cardiac myocytes to VLDL resulted in impaired basal and stimulated glucose transport. Primary adult rat cardiac myocytes were chronically exposed to VLDL before glucose uptake was measured in response to insulin or metabolic stress, provoked by the mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin. Exposure of cardiac myocytes to VLDL reduced both insulin-and oligomycin-stimulated glucose uptake. The reduction of glucose uptake was associated with a moderately reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. No reduction of the phosphorylation of the downstream effectors of insulin signaling Akt and AS160 was however observed. Similarly only a modest reduction of the activating phosphorylation of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) was observed in response to oligomycin. Similar to our previous observations with free fatty acids, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation restored oligomycin-stimulated glucose uptake. In conclusions, VLDL-derived fatty acids impair stimulated glucose transport in cardiac myocytes by a mechanism that seems to be mediated by a fatty acid oxidation intermediate. Thus, in the clinical context of the metabolic syndrome high VLDL may contribute to enhancement of ischemic injury by reduction of metabolic stress-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:27052924

  7. Expression and protective effects of urocortin in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Okosi, A; Brar, B K; Chan, M; D'Souza, L; Smith, E; Stephanou, A; Latchman, D S; Chowdrey, H S; Knight, R A

    1998-04-01

    Reverse transcription PCR showed that mRNA encoding the CRH-like molecule, urocortin, is expressed in a rat cardiac myocyte cell line and in primary cultures of cardiac myocytes. Identity of the amplified with the published sequence was established by restriction mapping and direct sequencing. Expression of urocortin mRNA was increased 12-18 h after thermal injury. Urocortin peptide protected cardiac myocytes from cell death induced by hypoxia. The data suggest that urocortin is an endogenous cardiac myocyte peptide which modulates the cellular response to stress. PMID:9639256

  8. PARM-1 Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Molecule Involved in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Isodono, Koji; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Imoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Asada, Satoshi; Adachi, Atsuo; Ueyama, Tomomi; Oh, Hidemasa; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    To identify novel transmembrane and secretory molecules expressed in cardiac myocytes, signal sequence trap screening was performed in rat neonatal cardiac myocytes. One of the molecules identified was a transmembrane protein, prostatic androgen repressed message-1 (PARM-1). While PARM-1 has been identified as a gene induced in prostate in response to castration, its function is largely unknown. Our expression analysis revealed that PARM-1 was specifically expressed in hearts and skeletal muscles, and in the heart, cardiac myocytes, but not non-myocytes expressed PARM-1. Immunofluorescent staining showed that PARM-1 was predominantly localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Dahl salt-sensitive rats, high-salt diet resulted in hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure, and significantly stimulated PARM-1 expression in the hearts, with a concomitant increase in ER stress markers such as GRP78 and CHOP. In cultured cardiac myocytes, PARM-1 expression was stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines, but not by hypertrophic stimuli. A marked increase in PARM-1 expression was observed in response to ER stress inducers such as thapsigargin and tunicamycin, which also induced apoptotic cell death. Silencing PARM-1 expression by siRNAs enhanced apoptotic response in cardiac myocytes to ER stresses. PARM-1 silencing also repressed expression of PERK and ATF6, and augmented expression of CHOP without affecting IRE-1 expression and JNK and Caspase-12 activation. Thus, PARM-1 expression is induced by ER stress, which plays a protective role in cardiac myocytes through regulating PERK, ATF6 and CHOP expression. These results suggested that PARM-1 is a novel ER transmembrane molecule involved in cardiac remodeling in hypertensive heart disease. PMID:20305782

  9. Loss of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 Alpha in the Lung Alveolar Epithelium of Mice Leads to Enhanced Eosinophilic Inflammation in Cobalt-Induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Proper, Steven P.; Saini, Yogesh; LaPres, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Hard metal lung disease (HMLD) is an occupational lung disease specific to inhalation of cobalt-containing particles whose mechanism is largely unknown. Cobalt is a known hypoxia mimic and stabilizer of the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Previous work revealed that though HIF1α contrib utes to cobalt toxicity in vitro, loss of HIF1α in the alveolar epithelial cells does not provide in vivo protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation. HIF1α and HIF2α show unique tissue expression profiles, and HIF2α is known to be the predominant HIF mRNA isoform in the adult lung. Thus, if HIF2α activation by cobalt contributes to pathophysiology of HMLD, we hypothesized that loss of HIF2α in lung epithelium would provide protection from cobalt-induced inflammation. Mice with HIF2α-deficiency in Club and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATIIs) (HIF2αΔ/Δ) were exposed to cobalt (60 µg/day) or saline using a subacute occupational exposure model. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity, cytokines, qRT-PCR, and histopathology were analyzed. Results show that loss of HIF2α leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation and increased goblet cell metaplasia. Additionally, control mice demonstrated a mild recovery from cobalt-induced lung injury compared with HIF2αΔ/Δ mice, suggesting a role for epithelial HIF2α in repair mechanisms. The expression of important cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10, displayed significant differences following cobalt exposure when HIF2αΔ/Δ and control mice were compared. In summary, our data suggest that although loss of HIF2α does not afford protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation, epithelial HIF2α signaling does play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and repair response in the lung. PMID:24218148

  10. Loss of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha in the lung alveolar epithelium of mice leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation in cobalt-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Proper, Steven P; Saini, Yogesh; Greenwood, Krista K; Bramble, Lori A; Downing, Nathaniel J; Harkema, Jack R; Lapres, John J

    2014-02-01

    Hard metal lung disease (HMLD) is an occupational lung disease specific to inhalation of cobalt-containing particles whose mechanism is largely unknown. Cobalt is a known hypoxia mimic and stabilizer of the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Previous work revealed that though HIF1α contrib utes to cobalt toxicity in vitro, loss of HIF1α in the alveolar epithelial cells does not provide in vivo protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation. HIF1α and HIF2α show unique tissue expression profiles, and HIF2α is known to be the predominant HIF mRNA isoform in the adult lung. Thus, if HIF2α activation by cobalt contributes to pathophysiology of HMLD, we hypothesized that loss of HIF2α in lung epithelium would provide protection from cobalt-induced inflammation. Mice with HIF2α-deficiency in Club and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATIIs) (HIF2α(Δ/Δ)) were exposed to cobalt (60 µg/day) or saline using a subacute occupational exposure model. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity, cytokines, qRT-PCR, and histopathology were analyzed. Results show that loss of HIF2α leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation and increased goblet cell metaplasia. Additionally, control mice demonstrated a mild recovery from cobalt-induced lung injury compared with HIF2α(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a role for epithelial HIF2α in repair mechanisms. The expression of important cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10, displayed significant differences following cobalt exposure when HIF2α(Δ/Δ) and control mice were compared. In summary, our data suggest that although loss of HIF2α does not afford protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation, epithelial HIF2α signaling does play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and repair response in the lung. PMID:24218148

  11. Multimodality of Ca2+ signaling in rat atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Morad, Martin; Javaheri, Ashkan; Risius, Tim; Belmonte, Steve

    2005-06-01

    It has been suggested that the multiplicity of Ca(2+) signaling pathways in atrial myocytes may contribute to the variability of its function. This article reports on a novel Ca(2+) signaling cascade initiated by mechanical forces induced by "puffing" of solution onto the myocytes. Ca(i) transients were measured in fura-2 acetoxymethyl (AM) loaded cells using alternating 340- and 410-nm excitation waves at 1.2 kHz. Pressurized puffs of bathing solutions, applied by an electronically controlled micro-barrel system, activated slowly (approximately 300 ms) developing Ca(i) transients that lasted 1,693 +/- 68 ms at room temperature. Subsequent second and third puffs, applied at approximately 20 s intervals activated significantly smaller or no Ca(i) transients. Puff-triggered Ca(i) transients could be reactivated once again following caffeine (10 mM)-induced release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Puff-triggered Ca(i) transients were independent of [Ca(2+)](o), and activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) or cationic stretch channels or influx of Ca(2+) on Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchanger, because puffing solution containing no Ca(2+), 10 microM diltiazem, 1 mM Cd(2+), 5 mM Ni(2+), or 100 microM Gd(3+) failed to suppress them. Puff-triggered Ca(i) transients were enhanced in paced compared to quiescent myocytes. Electrically activated Ca(i) transients triggered during the time course of puff-induced transients were unaltered, suggesting functionally separate Ca(2+) pools. Contribution of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3))-gated or mitochondrial Ca(2+) pools or modulation of SR stores by nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase (NO/NOS) signaling were evaluated using 0.5 to 500 microM 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and 0.1 to 1 microM carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), and 1 mM Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 7-nitroindizole, respectively. Only FCCP appeared to significantly suppress the puff-triggered Ca(i) transients. It was

  12. Patterning, Prestress, and Peeling Dynamics of Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Maureen A.; Engler, Adam J.; Barber, Thomas A.; Healy, Kevin E.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Discher, Dennis E.

    2004-01-01

    As typical anchorage-dependent cells myocytes must balance contractility against adequate adhesion. Skeletal myotubes grown as isolated strips from myoblasts on micropatterned glass exhibited spontaneous peeling after one end of the myotube was mechanically detached. Such results indicate the development of a prestress in the cells. To assess this prestress and study the dynamic adhesion strength of single myocytes, the shear stress of fluid aspirated into a large-bore micropipette was then used to forcibly peel myotubes. The velocity at which cells peeled from the surface, Vpeel, was measured as a continuously increasing function of the imposed tension, Tpeel, which ranges from ∼0 to 50 nN/μm. For each cell, peeling proved highly heterogeneous, with Vpeel fluctuating between 0 μm/s (∼80% of time) and ∼10 μm/s. Parallel studies of smooth muscle cells expressing GFP-paxillin also exhibited a discontinuous peeling in which focal adhesions fractured above sites of strong attachment (when pressure peeled using a small-bore pipette). The peeling approaches described here lend insight into the contractile-adhesion balance and can be used to study the real-time dynamics of stressed adhesions through both physical detection and the use of GFP markers; the methods should prove useful in comparing normal versus dystrophic muscle cells. PMID:14747355

  13. Effects of cholesterol depletion on compartmentalized cAMP responses in adult cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh R.; MacDougall, David A.; Tyser, Richard; Pugh, Sara D.; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Harvey, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    β1-Adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) and E-type prostaglandin receptors (EPRs) both produce compartmentalized cAMP responses in cardiac myocytes. The role of cholesterol-dependent lipid rafts in producing these compartmentalized responses was investigated in adult rat ventricular myocytes. β1ARs were found in lipid raft and non-lipid raft containing membrane fractions, while EPRs were only found in non-lipid raft fractions. Furthermore, β1AR activation enhanced the L-type Ca2+ current, intracellular Ca2+ transient, and myocyte shortening, while EPR activation had no effect, consistent with the idea that these functional responses are regulated by cAMP produced by receptors found in lipid raft domains. Using methyl-β-cyclodextrin to disrupt lipid rafts by depleting membrane cholesterol did not eliminate compartmentalized behavior, but it did selectively alter specific receptor-mediated responses. Cholesterol depletion enhanced the sensitivity of functional responses produced by β1ARs without having any effect on EPR activation. Changes in cAMP activity were also measured in intact cells using two different FRET-based biosensors: a type II PKA-based probe to monitor cAMP in subcellular compartments that include microdomains associated with caveolar lipid rafts and a freely diffusible Epac2-based probe to monitor total cytosolic cAMP. β1AR and EPR activation elicited responses detected by both FRET probes. However, cholesterol depletion only affected β1AR responses detected by the PKA probe. These results indicate that lipid rafts alone are not sufficient to explain the difference between β1AR and EPR responses. They also suggest that β1AR regulation of myocyte contraction involves the local production of cAMP by a subpopulation of receptors associated with caveolar lipid rafts. PMID:21115018

  14. Physiological changes induced in cardiac myocytes by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hassin, D.; Fixler, R.; Shimoni, Y.; Rubinstein, E.; Raz, S.; Gotsman, M.S.; Hasin, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The lethal hit induced by viral specific, sensitized, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) attacking virus-infected heart cells is important in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis and reflects the key role of CTL in this immune response. The mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Studies of the physiological changes induced in mengovirus-infected, cultured, neonatal, rat heart cells by CTL that had been previously sensitized by the same virus are presented. The CTL were obtained from spleens of mengovirus-infected, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matched adult rats. Cell wall motion was measured by an optical method, action potentials with intracellular microelectrodes, and total exchangeable calcium content by /sup 45/Ca tracer measurements after loading the myocytes with /sup 45/Ca and then exposing them to CTL. After 50 min (mean time) of exposing mengovirus-infected myocytes to the CTL, the mechanical relaxation of the myocyte was slowed, with a subsequent slowing of beating rate and a reduced amplitude of contraction. Impaired relaxation progressed, and prolonged oscillatory contractions lasting up to several seconds appeared, with accompanying oscillations in the prolonged plateau phase of the action potentials. Arrest of the myocyte contractions appeared 98 min (mean time) after exposure to CTL. It is concluded that infection of cultured myocytes with mengovirus predisposes them to attack by mengovirus specific CTL, and that persistent dysfunction of the myocyte is preceded by reversible changes in membrane potential and contraction. This is suggestive of an altered calcium handling by the myocytes possibly resulting in the cytotoxic effect.

  15. [Synthesis of new gene-loaded microbubbles serve as gene delivery vehicle applied in reporter gene transfer into cardiac myocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guozhong; Hu, Shenjiang; Zheng, Zhelan; Sun, Jian; Zheng, Xia; Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Jiang; Yao, Yumei

    2006-08-01

    To improve the stability and gene-carried capability of gene-attached microbubbles, the method for manufacture of albumin microbubbles was modified and new gene-loaded microbubbles were synthesized by incorporated gene-PEI complex into the shell of microbubbles. Agarose gel electrophoresis and bacteria transformation showed that PEI had the ability to provide the protection of plasmid DNA from ultrasonic degradation. The new gene-loaded microbubbles exhibited excellent acoustical and hemorheological properties. Moreover, they could carry more plasmid DNA than gene-attached microbubbles. beta-galactosidase plasmid transfection into cardiac myocytes was performed by using ultrasound targeted destruction of new gene-loaded microbubbles or gene-attached microbubbles. Gene expression in cardiac myocytes was detected by beta-galactosidase in situ staining and quantitive assay. It was shown that beta-galactosidase activity in cardiac myocytes was enhanced 107-fold by ultrasonic destruction of gene-loaded microbubbles compared with naked plasmid transfection and new gene-loaded microbubbles resulted in 6.85-fold increase in beta-galactosidase activity compared with optimal transfection mediated by gene-attached microbubbles. These results suggested that ultrasonic destruction of the gene-loaded microbubbles can enhance the cardiac myocytes exogenous gene transfer efficiency significantly and new gene-loaded microbubbles is an efficient and safe gene delivery vehicle. PMID:17002125

  16. Bnip3 Binds and Activates p300: Possible Role in Cardiac Transcription and Myocyte Morphology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John W; Wei, Jianqin; Appau, Kweku; Wang, Huilan; Yu, Hong; Spiga, Maria G; Graham, Regina M; Webster, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Bnip3 is a hypoxia-regulated member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that is implicated in apoptosis, programmed necrosis, autophagy and mitophagy. Mitochondria are thought to be the primary targets of Bnip3 although its activities may extend to the ER, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Bnip3 is induced in the heart by ischemia and pressure-overload, and may contribute to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Only mitochondrial-dependent programmed death actions have been described for Bnip3 in the heart. Here we describe a novel activity of Bnip3 in cultured cardiac myocytes and transgenic mice overexpressing Bnip3 in the heart (Bnip3-TG). In cultured myocytes Bnip3 bound and activated the acetyltransferase p300, increased acetylation of histones and the transcription factor GATA4, and conferred p300 and GATA4-sensitive cellular morphological changes. In intact Bnip3-TG hearts Bnip3 also bound p300 and GATA4 and conferred enhanced GATA4 acetylation. Bnip3-TG mice underwent age-dependent ventricular dilation and heart failure that was partially prevented by p300 inhibition with curcumin. The results suggest that Bnip3 regulates cardiac gene expression and perhaps myocyte morphology by activating nuclear p300 acetyltransferase activity and hyperacetylating histones and p300-selective transcription factors. PMID:26317696

  17. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    He, Quan; Harris, Nicole; Ren, Jun; Han, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:25247053

  18. A Mathematical Model of the Mouse Ventricular Myocyte Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Paula D.; Bondarenko, Vladimir E.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models of cardiac function at the cellular level include three major components, such as electrical activity, Ca2+ dynamics, and cellular shortening. We developed a model for mouse ventricular myocyte contraction which is based on our previously published comprehensive models of action potential and Ca2+ handling mechanisms. The model was verified with extensive experimental data on mouse myocyte contraction at room temperature. In the model, we implemented variable sarcomere length and indirect modulation of the tropomyosin transition rates by Ca2+ and troponin. The resulting model described well steady-state force-calcium relationships, dependence of the contraction force on the sarcomere length, time course of the contraction force and myocyte shortening, frequency dependence of the contraction force and cellular contraction, and experimentally measured derivatives of the myocyte length variation. We emphasized the importance of the inclusion of variable sarcomere length into a model for ventricular myocyte contraction. Differences in contraction force and cell shortening for epicardial and endocardial ventricular myocytes were investigated. Model applicability for the experimental studies and model limitations were discussed. PMID:23671664

  19. Aged garlic extract enhances heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit expression via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kei; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Morihara, Naoaki

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway defends cells against oxidative stress and regulates the cellular redox balance. Activation of this pathway induces a variety of antioxidant enzymes, resulting in the protection of our bodies against oxidative damage. It has been reported that aged garlic extract (AGE), a garlic preparation that is rich in water-soluble cysteinyl moieties, reduces oxidative stress and helps to ameliorate of cardiovascular, renal and hepatic diseases. We hypothesized that AGE enhances the expression of antioxidant enzymes via the Nrf2-ARE pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes expression were evaluated using western blotting analyses. We found that AGE promoted the accumulation of Nrf2 into the nucleus in a time- and dose-dependent manner and increased the gene expression and polypeptide level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM). Moreover, the effect of AGE in elevating the gene expression of HO-1 and GCLM was found to be mediated via Nrf2 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that AGE induces the expression of HO-1 and GCLM, which are antioxidant enzymes, via activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. PMID:26507778

  20. Physiological pathway of magnesium influx in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Michiko; Inoue, Hana; Konishi, Masato

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic free Mg(2+) concentration ([Mg(2+)]i) was measured in rat ventricular myocytes with a fluorescent indicator furaptra (mag-fura-2) introduced by AM-loading. By incubation of the cells in a high-K(+) (Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-free) solution, [Mg(2+)]i decreased from ? 0.9 mM to 0.2 to 0.5 mM. The lowered [Mg(2+)]i was recovered by perfusion with Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution containing 1 mM Mg(2+). The time course of the [Mg(2+)]i recovery was fitted by a single exponential function, and the first derivative at time 0 was analyzed as being proportional to the initial Mg(2+) influx rate. The Mg(2+) influx rate was inversely related to [Mg(2+)]i, being higher at low [Mg(2+)]i. The Mg(2+) influx rate was augmented by the high extracellular Mg(2+) concentration (5 mM), whereas it was greatly reduced by cell membrane depolarization caused by high K(+). Known inhibitors of TRPM7 channels, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), NS8593, and spermine reduced the Mg(2+) influx rate with half inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of, respectively, 17 ?M, 2.0 ?M, and 22 ?M. We also studied Ni(2+) influx by fluorescence quenching of intracellular furaptra by Ni(2+). The Ni(2+) influx was activated by lowering intra- and extracellular Mg(2+) concentrations, and it was inhibited by 2-APB and NS8593 with IC50 values comparable with those for the Mg(2+) influx. Intracellular alkalization (caused by pulse application of NH4Cl) enhanced, whereas intracellular acidification (induced after the removal of NH4Cl) slowed the Mg(2+) influx. Under the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, the removal of intracellular and extracellular divalent cations induced large inward and outward currents, MIC (Mg-inhibited cation) currents or IMIC, carried by monovalent cations likely via TRPM7 channels. IMIC measured at -120 mV was diminished to ? 50% by 100 ?M 2-APB or 10 ?M NS8593. These results suggest that TRPM7/MIC channels serve as a major physiological pathway of Mg(2+) influx in rat

  1. Measuring mitochondrial function in intact cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dedkova, Elena N.; Blatter, Lothar A.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in cellular functions that go beyond the traditional role of these organelles as the power plants of the cell. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including cardiac dysfunction, and play a role in the aging process. Many aspects of our knowledge of mitochondria stem from studies performed on the isolated organelle. Their relative inaccessibility imposes experimental difficulties to study mitochondria in their natural environment – the cytosol of intact cells – and has hampered a comprehensive understanding of the plethora of mitochondrial functions. Here we review currently available methods to study mitochondrial function in intact cardiomyocytes. These methods primarily use different flavors of fluorescent dyes and genetically encoded fluorescent proteins in conjunction with high-resolution imaging techniques. We review methods to study mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+ and Na+ signaling, mitochondrial pH regulation, redox state and ROS production, NO signaling, oxygen consumption, ATP generation and the activity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Where appropriate we complement this review on intact myocytes with seminal studies that were performed on isolated mitochondria, permeabilized cells, and in whole hearts. PMID:21964191

  2. Stem Cell Stimulation of Endogenous Myocyte Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Brian R.; Canty, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has emerged as a promising approach to combat the myocyte loss and cardiac remodeling that characterize the progression of left ventricular dysfunction to heart failure. Several clinical trials conducted during the past decade have shown that a variety of autologous bone marrow- and peripheral blood-derived stem and progenitor cell populations can be safely administered to patients with ischemic heart disease and yield modest improvements in cardiac function. Concurrently, rapid progress has been made at the preclinical level to identify novel therapeutic cell populations, delineate the mechanisms underlying cell-mediated cardiac repair, and optimize cell-based approaches for clinical use. The following review summarizes the progress that has been made in this rapidly evolving field over the past decade and examines how our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in successful cardiac regeneration should direct future investigation in this area. Particular emphasis is placed on discussion of the general hypothesis that the benefits of cell therapy primarily result from stimulation of endogenous cardiac repair processes that have only recently been identified in the adult mammalian heart, rather than direct differentiation of exogenous cells. Continued scientific investigation in this area will guide the optimization of cell-based approaches for myocardial regeneration, with the ultimate goal of clinical implementation and substantial improvement in our ability to restore cardiac function in ischemic heart disease patients. PMID:23577634

  3. Effects of Modified Parvalbumin EF-Hand Motifs on Cardiac Myocyte Contractile Function.

    PubMed

    Asp, Michelle L; Sjaastad, Frances V; Siddiqui, Jalal K; Davis, Jonathan P; Metzger, Joseph M

    2016-05-10

    Cardiac gene delivery of parvalbumin (Parv), an EF-hand Ca(2+) buffer, has been studied as a therapeutic strategy for diastolic heart failure, in which slow Ca(2+) reuptake is an important contributor. A limitation of wild-type (WT) Parv is the significant trade-off between faster relaxation and blunted contraction amplitude, occurring because WT-Parv sequesters Ca(2+) too early in the cardiac cycle and prematurely truncates sarcomere shortening in the facilitation of rapid relaxation. We recently demonstrated that an E → Q substitution (ParvE101Q) at amino acid 12 of the EF-hand Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) binding loop disrupts bidentate Ca(2+) binding, reducing Ca(2+) affinity by 99-fold and increasing Mg(2+) affinity twofold. ParvE101Q caused faster relaxation and not only preserved contractility, but unexpectedly increased it above untreated myocytes. To gain mechanistic insight into the increased contractility, we focused here on amino acid 12 of the EF-hand motif. We introduced an E → D substitution (ParvE101D) at this site, which converts bidentate Ca(2+) coordination to monodentate coordination. ParvE101D decreased Ca(2+) affinity by 114-fold and increased Mg(2+) affinity 28-fold compared to WT-Parv. ParvE101D increased contraction amplitude compared to both untreated myocytes and myocytes with ParvE101Q, with limited improvement in relaxation. Additionally, ParvE101D increased spontaneous contractions after pacing stress. ParvE101D also increased Ca(2+) transient peak height and was diffusely localized around the Z-line of the sarcomere, suggesting a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism of enhanced contractility. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load was not changed with ParvE101D, but postpacing Ca(2+) waves were increased. Together, these data show that inverted Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) binding affinities of ParvE101D increase myocyte contractility through a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism without altering sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load and by increasing unstimulated contractions and Ca(2

  4. Inorganic polyphosphate in cardiac myocytes: from bioenergetics to the permeability transition pore and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Dedkova, Elena N

    2016-02-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of Pi residues linked together by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds as in ATP. PolyP is present in all living organisms ranging from bacteria to human and possibly even predating life of this planet. The length of polyP chain can vary from just a few phosphates to several thousand phosphate units long, depending on the organism and the tissue in which it is synthesized. PolyP was extensively studied in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes by Kulaev's group in the Russian Academy of Sciences and by the Nobel Prize Laureate Arthur Kornberg at Stanford University. Recently, we reported that mitochondria of cardiac ventricular myocytes contain significant amounts (280±60 pmol/mg of protein) of polyP with an average length of 25 Pi and that polyP is involved in Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Enzymatic polyP depletion prevented Ca(2+)-induced mPTP opening during ischaemia; however, it did not affect reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mPTP opening during reperfusion and even enhanced cell death in cardiac myocytes. We found that ROS generation was actually enhanced in polyP-depleted cells demonstrating that polyP protects cardiac myocytes against enhanced ROS formation. Furthermore, polyP concentration was dynamically changed during activation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and stress conditions such as ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and heart failure (HF) indicating that polyP is required for the normal heart metabolism. This review discusses the current literature on the roles of polyP in cardiovascular health and disease. PMID:26862184

  5. Cytoskeletal prestress regulates nuclear shape and stiffness in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Adams, William J; Alford, Patrick W; McCain, Megan L; Feinberg, Adam W; Sheeny, Sean P; Goss, Josue A

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stresses on the myocyte nucleus have been associated with several diseases and potentially transduce mechanical stimuli into cellular responses. Although a number of physical links between the nuclear envelope and cytoplasmic filaments have been identified, previous studies have focused on the mechanical properties of individual components of the nucleus, such as the nuclear envelope and lamin network. The mechanical interaction between the cytoskeleton and chromatin on nuclear deformability remains elusive. Here, we investigated how cytoskeletal and chromatin structures influence nuclear mechanics in cardiac myocytes. Rapid decondensation of chromatin and rupture of the nuclear membrane caused a sudden expansion of DNA, a consequence of prestress exerted on the nucleus. To characterize the prestress exerted on the nucleus, we measured the shape and the stiffness of isolated nuclei and nuclei in living myocytes during disruption of cytoskeletal, myofibrillar, and chromatin structure. We found that the nucleus in myocytes is subject to both tensional and compressional prestress and its deformability is determined by a balance of those opposing forces. By developing a computational model of the prestressed nucleus, we showed that cytoskeletal and chromatin prestresses create vulnerability in the nuclear envelope. Our studies suggest the cytoskeletal–nuclear–chromatin interconnectivity may play an important role in mechanics of myocyte contraction and in the development of laminopathies by lamin mutations. PMID:25908635

  6. Transcriptomic alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Rocha, Leonardo Lima; de Azevedo Fortes, Fabio da Silva; Vairo, Leandro; Nagajyothi, Fnu; de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Spray, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a major cause of cardiomyopathy. Previous gene profiling studies of infected mouse hearts have revealed prominent changes in gene expression within many functional pathways. This variety of transcriptomic changes in infected mice raises the question of whether gene expression alterations in whole hearts are due to changes in infected cardiac myocytes or other cells or even to systemic effects of the infection on the heart. We employed microarrays to examine infected cardiac myocyte cultures 48 h post-infection. Statistical comparison of gene expression levels of 7624 well annotated unigenes in four independent cultures of infected and uninfected myocytes detected substantial (≥1.5 absolute fold changes) in 420 (5.5%) of the sampled genes. Major categories of affected genes included those involved in immune response, extracellular matrix and cell adhesion. These findings on infected cardiac myocytes in culture reveal that alterations in cardiac gene expression described in Chagas disease are the consequence of both direct infection of the myocytes themselves as well as resulting from the presence of other cell types in the myocardium and systemic effects of infection. PMID:19729072

  7. Nuclear Morphology and Deformation in Engineered Cardiac Myocytes and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Adams, William J.; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Feinberg, Adam W.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering requires finely-tuned manipulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment to optimize internal myocardial organization. The myocyte nucleus is mechanically connected to the cell membrane via cytoskeletal elements, making it a target for the cellular response to perturbation of the ECM. However, the role of ECM spatial configuration and myocyte shape on nuclear location and morphology is unknown. In this study, printed ECM proteins were used to configure the geometry of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Engineered one- and two-dimensional tissue constructs and single-myocyte islands were assayed using live fluorescence imaging to examine nuclear position, morphology and motion as a function of the imposed ECM geometry during diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction. Image analysis showed that anisotropic tissue constructs cultured on microfabricated ECM lines possessed a high degree of nuclear alignment similar to that found in vivo; nuclei in isotropic tissues were polymorphic in shape with an apparently random orientation. Nuclear eccentricity was also increased for the anisotropic tissues, suggesting that intracellular forces deform the nucleus as the cell is spatially confined. During systole, nuclei experienced increasing spatial confinement in magnitude and direction of displacement as tissue anisotropy increased, yielding anisotropic deformation. Thus, the nature of nuclear displacement and deformation during systole appears to rely on a combination of the passive myofibril spatial organization and the active stress fields induced by contraction. Such findings have implications in understanding the genomic consequences and functional response of cardiac myocytes to their ECM surroundings under conditions of disease. PMID:20382423

  8. Allicin inhibits transient outward potassium currents in mouse ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    CAO, HONG; HUANG, CONGXIN; WANG, XIN

    2016-01-01

    Allicin is the active constituent of garlic, a widely used spice and food. The remedial properties of garlic have also been extensively researched and it has been demonstrated that allicin is able to inhibit the transient outward potassium current (Ito) in atrial myocytes. However, the direct effect of allicin on Ito in ventricular myocytes has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of allicin on Ito in ventricular myocytes isolated from mice were investigated, using the whole-cell patch recording technique. The results revealed that Ito current was not significantly suppressed by allicin in the low-dose group (10 µmol/l; P>0.05). However, Ito was significantly inhibited by higher doses of allicin (30, 100 and 300 µmol/l; P<0.05 vs. control; n=6) in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=41.6 µmol/l). In addition, a high concentration of allicin (≥100 µmol/l) was able to accelerate the voltage-dependent inactivation of Ito in mouse ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, the present study revealed that allicin inhibited the Ito in mouse ventricular myocytes, which may be the mechanism through which allicin exerts its antiarrhythmic effect. PMID:27168824

  9. Cytoskeletal prestress regulates nuclear shape and stiffness in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Adams, William J; Alford, Patrick W; McCain, Megan L; Feinberg, Adam W; Sheehy, Sean P; Goss, Josue A; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stresses on the myocyte nucleus have been associated with several diseases and potentially transduce mechanical stimuli into cellular responses. Although a number of physical links between the nuclear envelope and cytoplasmic filaments have been identified, previous studies have focused on the mechanical properties of individual components of the nucleus, such as the nuclear envelope and lamin network. The mechanical interaction between the cytoskeleton and chromatin on nuclear deformability remains elusive. Here, we investigated how cytoskeletal and chromatin structures influence nuclear mechanics in cardiac myocytes. Rapid decondensation of chromatin and rupture of the nuclear membrane caused a sudden expansion of DNA, a consequence of prestress exerted on the nucleus. To characterize the prestress exerted on the nucleus, we measured the shape and the stiffness of isolated nuclei and nuclei in living myocytes during disruption of cytoskeletal, myofibrillar, and chromatin structure. We found that the nucleus in myocytes is subject to both tensional and compressional prestress and its deformability is determined by a balance of those opposing forces. By developing a computational model of the prestressed nucleus, we showed that cytoskeletal and chromatin prestresses create vulnerability in the nuclear envelope. Our studies suggest the cytoskeletal-nuclear-chromatin interconnectivity may play an important role in mechanics of myocyte contraction and in the development of laminopathies by lamin mutations. PMID:25908635

  10. Oxidative stress decreases microtubule growth and stability in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Drum, Benjamin M L; Yuan, Can; Li, Lei; Liu, Qinghang; Wordeman, Linda; Santana, L Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Microtubules (MTs) have many roles in ventricular myocytes, including structural stability, morphological integrity, and protein trafficking. However, despite their functional importance, dynamic MTs had never been visualized in living adult myocytes. Using adeno-associated viral vectors expressing the MT-associated protein plus end binding protein 3 (EB3) tagged with EGFP, we were able to perform live imaging and thus capture and quantify MT dynamics in ventricular myocytes in real time under physiological conditions. Super-resolution nanoscopy revealed that EB1 associated in puncta along the length of MTs in ventricular myocytes. The vast (~80%) majority of MTs grew perpendicular to T-tubules at a rate of 0.06μm∗s(-1) and growth was preferentially (82%) confined to a single sarcomere. Microtubule catastrophe rate was lower near the Z-line than M-line. Hydrogen peroxide increased the rate of catastrophe of MTs ~7-fold, suggesting that oxidative stress destabilizes these structures in ventricular myocytes. We also quantified MT dynamics after myocardial infarction (MI), a pathological condition associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our data indicate that the catastrophe rate of MTs increases following MI. This contributed to decreased transient outward K(+) currents by decreasing the surface expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels after MI. On the basis of these data, we conclude that, under physiological conditions, MT growth is directionally biased and that increased ROS production during MI disrupts MT dynamics, decreasing K(+) channel trafficking. PMID:26902968

  11. Myomaker mediates fusion of fast myocytes in zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Landemaine, Aurélie; Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Gabillard, Jean-Charles

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes during embryonic myogenesis. • Myomaker is essential for fast myocyte fusion in zebrafish. • The function of myomaker is conserved among Teleostomi. - Abstract: Myomaker (also called Tmem8c), a new membrane activator of myocyte fusion was recently discovered in mice. Using whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos at different stages of embryonic development, we show that myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes forming the bulk of zebrafish myotome. Zebrafish embryos injected with morpholino targeted against myomaker were alive after yolk resorption and appeared morphologically normal, but they were unable to swim, even under effect of a tactile stimulation. Confocal observations showed a marked phenotype characterized by the persistence of mononucleated muscle cells in the fast myotome at developmental stages where these cells normally fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This indicates that myomaker is essential for myocyte fusion in zebrafish. Thus, there is an evolutionary conservation of myomaker expression and function among Teleostomi.

  12. Some growth factors stimulate cultured adult rabbit ventricular myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. S.; Cook, M. G.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Decker, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Cultured adult rabbit cardiac myocytes treated with recombinant growth factors display enhanced rates of protein accumulation (ie, growth) in response to insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), but epidermal growth factor, acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor failed to increase contractile protein synthesis or growth of the heart cells. Insulin and IGF-1 increased growth rates by stimulating anabolic while simultaneously inhibiting catabolic pathways, whereas IGF-2 elevated growth modestly by apparently inhibiting lysosomal proteolysis. Neutralizing antibodies directed against either IGF-1 or IGF-2 or IGF binding protein 3 blocked protein accumulation. A monoclonal antibody directed against the IGF-1 receptor also inhibited changes in protein turnover provoked by recombinant human IGF-1 but not IGF-2. Of the other growth factors tested, only transforming growth factor-beta 1 increased the fractional rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis, with beta-MHC synthesis being elevated and alpha-MHC synthesis being suppressed. However, the other growth factors were able to modestly stimulate the rate of DNA synthesis in this preparation. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed that these growth factors increased DNA synthesis in myocytes and nonmyocytes alike, but the heart cells displayed neither karyokinesis or cytokinesis. In contrast, cocultures of cardiac myocytes and nonmyocytes and nonmyocyte-conditioned culture medium failed to enhance the rate of cardiac MHC synthesis or its accumulation, implying that quiescent heart cells do not respond to "conditioning" by cardiac nonmyocytes. These findings demonstrated that insulin and the IGFs promote passively loaded cultured adult rabbit heart cells to hypertrophy but suggest that other growth factors tested may be limited in this regard.

  13. LabHEART: an interactive computer model of rabbit ventricular myocyte ion channels and Ca transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puglisi, J. L.; Bers, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    An interactive computer program, LabHEART, was developed to simulate the action potential (AP), ionic currents, and Ca handling mechanisms in a rabbit ventricular myocyte. User-oriented, its design allows switching between voltage and current clamp and easy on-line manipulation of key parameters to change the original formulation. The model reproduces normal rabbit ventricular myocyte currents, Ca transients, and APs. We also changed parameters to simulate data from heart failure (HF) myocytes, including reduced transient outward (I(to)) and inward rectifying K currents (I(K1)), enhanced Na/Ca exchange expression, and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase function, but unaltered Ca current density. These changes caused reduced Ca transient amplitude and increased AP duration (especially at lower frequency) as observed experimentally. The model shows that the increased Na/Ca exchange current (I(NaCa)) in HF lowers the intracellular [Ca] threshold for a triggered AP from 800 to 540 nM. Similarly, the decrease in I(K1) reduces the threshold to 600 nM. Changes in I(to) have no effect. Combining enhanced Na/Ca exchange with reduced I(K1) (as in HF) lowers the threshold to trigger an AP to 380 nM. These changes reproduce experimental results in HF, where the contributions of different factors are not readily distinguishable. We conclude that the triggered APs that contribute to nonreentrant ventricular tachycardia in HF are due approximately equally (and nearly additively) to alterations in I(NaCa) and I(K1). A free copy of this software can be obtained at http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/DeptWebs/physio/bers.html.

  14. Future perspectives and potential implications of cardiac myocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Haunstetter, A; Izumo, S

    2000-02-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis has gained increasing interest in the cardiovascular research community. Apoptotic myocyte loss has been detected in different cardiac disease states such as ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. In addition, some evidence for the molecular mechanisms in cardiac myocyte apoptosis has been evolving, although at present the implications thereof for clinical cardiac disease are not known in most of the cases. Based on these new insights, it is the intention of this article to highlight some topics in apoptosis research that might be of particular interest to define the future role and potentials of new therapeutic approaches aimed at preventing myocyte apoptosis. PMID:10728403

  15. ErbB4 localization to cardiac myocyte nuclei, and its role in myocyte DNA damage response

    SciTech Connect

    Icli, Basak; Bharti, Ajit; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Sawyer, Douglas B.

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ErbB4 localizes to cardiac myocyte nuclei as a full-length receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myocytes express predominantly JM-a/CYT-1 ErbB4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocyte p53 activation in response to doxorubicin requires ErbB4 activity. -- Abstract: The intracellular domain of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is known to translocate to the nucleus of cells where it can regulate p53 transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ErbB4 can localize to the nucleus of adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM), and regulate p53 in these cells. We demonstrate that ErbB4 does locate to the nucleus of cardiac myocytes as a full-length protein, although nuclear location occurs as a full-length protein that does not require Protein Kinase C or {gamma}-secretase activity. Consistent with this we found that only the non-cleavable JM-b isoform of ErbB4 is expressed in ARVM. Doxorubicin was used to examine ErbB4 role in regulation of a DNA damage response in ARVM. Doxorubicin induced p53 and p21 was suppressed by treatment with AG1478, an EGFR and ErbB4 kinase inhibitor, or suppression of ErbB4 expression with small interfering RNA. Thus ErbB4 localizes to the nucleus as a full-length protein, and plays a role in the DNA damage response induced by doxorubicin in cardiac myocytes.

  16. Modeling beta-adrenergic control of cardiac myocyte contractility in silico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucerman, Jeffrey J.; Brunton, Laurence L.; Michailova, Anushka P.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic signaling pathway regulates cardiac myocyte contractility through a combination of feedforward and feedback mechanisms. We used systems analysis to investigate how the components and topology of this signaling network permit neurohormonal control of excitation-contraction coupling in the rat ventricular myocyte. A kinetic model integrating beta-adrenergic signaling with excitation-contraction coupling was formulated, and each subsystem was validated with independent biochemical and physiological measurements. Model analysis was used to investigate quantitatively the effects of specific molecular perturbations. 3-Fold overexpression of adenylyl cyclase in the model allowed an 85% higher rate of cyclic AMP synthesis than an equivalent overexpression of beta 1-adrenergic receptor, and manipulating the affinity of Gs alpha for adenylyl cyclase was a more potent regulator of cyclic AMP production. The model predicted that less than 40% of adenylyl cyclase molecules may be stimulated under maximal receptor activation, and an experimental protocol is suggested for validating this prediction. The model also predicted that the endogenous heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor may enhance basal cyclic AMP buffering by 68% and increasing the apparent Hill coefficient of protein kinase A activation from 1.0 to 2.0. Finally, phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel and phospholamban were found sufficient to predict the dominant changes in myocyte contractility, including a 2.6x increase in systolic calcium (inotropy) and a 28% decrease in calcium half-relaxation time (lusitropy). By performing systems analysis, the consequences of molecular perturbations in the beta-adrenergic signaling network may be understood within the context of integrative cellular physiology.

  17. Endothelin-stimulated secretion of natriuretic peptides by rat atrial myocytes is mediated by endothelin A receptors.

    PubMed

    Thibault, G; Doubell, A F; Garcia, R; Larivière, R; Schiffrin, E L

    1994-03-01

    Endothelin (ET), a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, is known to enhance the secretion of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) by the heart. In the present study, we investigated the potency of ET isopeptides to stimulate ANF and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) secretion in primary cultures of neonatal atrial myocytes, and we characterized the receptor mediating these effects. All ET isopeptides caused a twofold increase of ANF and BNP secretion with the following order of potency: ET-1 approximately ET-2 > sarafotoxin 6b > ET-3. Secretion of the natriuretic peptides was blocked by BQ-123, an ETA-receptor antagonist, but was not affected by either IRL-1620 or [Ala1,3,11,15]ET-1, two ETB-receptor agonists. ET receptors were localized by autoradiography on the surface of atrial myocytes, indicating that contaminating cells were not responsible for 125I-ET-1 binding. Competition binding analyses were then used to assess the ET-receptor subtype on atrial myocyte membrane preparations. A high-affinity (100 pmol/L) binding site with high density (approximately 1500 fmol/mg) was found to preferentially bind the ET isopeptides in the following order: ET-1 > or = ET-2 > or = sarafotoxin 6b > ET-3. Binding was totally displaced by BQ-123 but not by IRL-1620. The ET binding site therefore had the characteristics of an ETA-like receptor. Analysis by cross-linking and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that it possessed a molecular mass of approximately 50 kD. Northern blot analysis of both ETA- and ETB-receptor mRNAs allowed only the detection of the former, indicating that the ETB receptor may be expressed in very small amounts. These results demonstrate that ANF and BNP secretion by atrial myocytes is enhanced by ET via binding to an ETA-like receptor. PMID:8118954

  18. Caveolin Contributes to the Modulation of Basal and β-Adrenoceptor Stimulated Function of the Adult Rat Ventricular Myocyte by Simvastatin: A Novel Pleiotropic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh R.; Harvey, Robert D.; Porter, Karen E.; Calaghan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The number of people taking statins is increasing across the globe, highlighting the importance of fully understanding statins' effects on the cardiovascular system. The beneficial impact of statins extends well beyond regression of atherosclerosis to include direct effects on tissues of the cardiovascular system (‘pleiotropic effects’). Pleiotropic effects on the cardiac myocyte are often overlooked. Here we consider the contribution of the caveolin protein, whose expression and cellular distribution is dependent on cholesterol, to statin effects on the cardiac myocyte. Caveolin is a structural and regulatory component of caveolae, and is a key regulator of cardiac contractile function and adrenergic responsiveness. We employed an experimental model in which inhibition of myocyte HMG CoA reductase could be studied in the absence of paracrine influences from non-myocyte cells. Adult rat ventricular myocytes were treated with 10 µM simvastatin for 2 days. Simvastatin treatment reduced myocyte cholesterol, caveolin 3 and caveolar density. Negative inotropic and positive lusitropic effects (with corresponding changes in [Ca2+]i) were seen in statin-treated cells. Simvastatin significantly potentiated the inotropic response to β2-, but not β1-, adrenoceptor stimulation. Under conditions of β2-adrenoceptor stimulation, phosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16 and troponin I at Ser23/24 was enhanced with statin treatment. Simvastatin increased NO production without significant effects on eNOS expression or phosphorylation (Ser1177), consistent with the reduced expression of caveolin 3, its constitutive inhibitor. In conclusion, statin treatment can reduce caveolin 3 expression, with functional consequences consistent with the known role of caveolae in the cardiac cell. These data are likely to be of significance, particularly during the early phases of statin treatment, and in patients with heart failure who have altered β-adrenoceptor signalling. In addition

  19. Extracellular Ubiquitin: Role in Myocyte Apoptosis and Myocardial Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Stephanie L C; Amin, Parthiv; Singh, Mahipal; Singh, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin (UB) is a highly conserved low molecular weight (8.5 kDa) protein. It consists of 76 amino acid residues and is found in all eukaryotic cells. The covalent linkage of UB to a variety of cellular proteins (ubiquitination) is one of the most common posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. This modification generally regulates protein turnover and protects the cells from damaged or misfolded proteins. The polyubiquitination of proteins serves as a signal for degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway. UB is present in trace amounts in body fluids. Elevated levels of UB are described in the serum or plasma of patients under a variety of conditions. Extracellular UB is proposed to have pleiotropic roles including regulation of immune response, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. CXCR4 is identified as receptor for extracellular UB in hematopoietic cells. Heart failure represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western society. Cardiac remodeling is a determinant of the clinical course of heart failure. The components involved in myocardial remodeling include-myocytes, fibroblasts, interstitium, and coronary vasculature. Increased sympathetic nerve activity in the form of norepinephrine is a common feature during heart failure. Acting via β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR), norepinephrine is shown to induce myocyte apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. β-AR stimulation increases extracellular levels of UB in myocytes, and UB inhibits β-AR-stimulated increases in myocyte apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. This review summarizes intracellular and extracellular functions of UB with particular emphasis on the role of extracellular UB in cardiac myocyte apoptosis and myocardial remodeling. PMID:26756642

  20. A modular instrument for exploring the mechanics of cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Webb, M G; Taberner, A J; Hogan, N C; Hunter, I W

    2007-07-01

    The cardiac ventricular myocyte is a key experimental system for exploring the mechanical properties of the diseased and healthy heart. Millions of primary myocytes, which remain viable for 4-6 h, can be readily isolated from animal models. However, currently available instrumentation allows the mechanical properties of only a few physically loaded myocytes to be explored within 4-6 h. Here we describe a modular and inexpensive prototype instrument that could form the basis of an array of devices for probing the mechanical properties of single mammalian myocytes in parallel. This device would greatly increase the throughput of scientific experimentation and could be applied as a high-content screening instrument in the pharmaceutical industry. The instrument module consists of two independently controlled Lorentz force actuators-force transducers in the form of 0.025 x 1 x 5 mm stainless steel cantilevers with 0.5 m/N compliance and 360-Hz resonant frequency. Optical position sensors focused on each cantilever provide position and force resolution of <1 nm/ radicalHz and <2 nN/ radicalHz, respectively. The motor structure can produce peak displacements and forces of +/-200 mum and +/-400 microN, respectively. Custom Visual Basic.Net software provides data acquisition, signal processing, and digital control of cantilever position. The functionality of the instrument was demonstrated by implementation of novel methodologies for loading and attaching healthy mammalian ventricular myocytes to the force sensor and actuator and use of stochastic system identification techniques to measure their passive dynamic stiffness at various sarcomere lengths. PMID:17308002

  1. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel protects cardiac myocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua; Xiong, Yiqun; Xu, Chaoying; Liu, Xinliang; Lin, Jian; Mu, Guiping; Xu, Shaogang; Liu, Wenhe

    2016-09-01

    The sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (sarcKATP) channel plays a cardioprotective role during stress. However, the role of the sarcKATP channel in the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and association with mitochondrial calcium remains unclear. For this purpose, we developed a model of LPS-induced sepsis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs). The TUNEL assay was performed in order to detect the apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and the MTT assay was performed to determine cellular viability. Exposure to LPS significantly decreased the viability of the NRCs as well as the expression of Bcl-2, whereas it enhanced the activity and expression of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and Bax, respectively. The sarcKATP channel blocker, HMR-1098, increased the apoptosis of NRCs, whereas the specific sarcKATP channel opener, P-1075, reduced the apoptosis of NRCs. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) partially inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of HMR-1098. In order to confirm the role of the sarcKATP channel, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector carrying the sarcKATP channel mutant subunit Kir6.2AAA to inhibit the channel activity. Kir6.2AAA adenovirus infection in NRCs significantly aggravated the apoptosis of myocytes induced by LPS. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of the sarcKATP channel in apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies for the management of sepsis and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27430376

  2. Cardiac myocyte follistatin-like 1 functions to attenuate hypertrophy following pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Shimano, Masayuki; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kazuto; van Wijk, Bram; Ohashi, Koji; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Higuchi, Akiko; Pimentel, David R; Sam, Flora; Murohara, Toyoaki; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Walsh, Kenneth

    2011-10-25

    Factors secreted by the heart, referred to as "cardiokines," have diverse actions in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis and remodeling. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a secreted glycoprotein expressed in the adult heart and is induced in response to injurious conditions that promote myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cardiac Fstl1 in the remodeling response to pressure overload. Cardiac myocyte-specific Fstl1-KO mice were constructed and subjected to pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Although Fstl1-KO mice displayed no detectable baseline phenotype, TAC led to enhanced cardiac hypertrophic growth and a pronounced loss in ventricular performance by 4 wk compared with control mice. Conversely, mice that acutely or chronically overexpressed Fstl1 were resistant to pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and cardiac failure. Fstl1-deficient mice displayed a reduction in TAC-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in heart, whereas Fstl1 overexpression led to increased myocardial AMPK activation under these conditions. In cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, administration of Fstl1 promoted AMPK activation and antagonized phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy. Inhibition of AMPK attenuated the antihypertrophic effect of Fstl1 treatment. These results document that cardiac Fstl1 functions as an autocrine/paracrine regulatory factor that antagonizes myocyte hypertrophic growth and the loss of ventricular performance in response to pressure overload, possibly through a mechanism involving the activation of the AMPK signaling axis. PMID:21987816

  3. Phosphodiesterase types 3 and 4 regulate the phasic contraction of neonatal rat bladder smooth myocytes via distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Wei, Bin; Liu, Qinghua; Leblais, Véronique; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Ji, Guangju

    2014-05-01

    Activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway reduces bladder contractility. However, the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) families in regulating this function is poorly understood. Here, we compared the contractile function of the cAMP hydrolyzing PDEs in neonatal rat bladder smooth myocytes. RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis revealed that several isoforms of PDE1-4 were expressed in neonatal rat bladder. While 8-methoxymethyl-3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (a PDE1 inhibitor) and BAY-60-7550 (a PDE2 inhibitor) had no effect on the carbachol-enhanced phasic contractions of bladder strips, cilostamide (Cil, a PDE3 inhibitor) and Ro-20-1724 (Ro, a PDE4 inhibitor) significantly reduced these contractions. This inhibitory effect of Ro was blunted by the PKA inhibitor H-89, while the inhibitory effect of Cil was strongly attenuated by the PKG inhibitor KT 5823. Application of Ro in single bladder smooth myocytes resulted in an increase in Ca(2+) spark frequency but a decrease both in Ca(2+) transients and in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content. In contrast, Cil had no effect on these events. Furthermore, Ro-induced inhibition of the phasic contractions was significantly blocked by ryanodine and iberiotoxin. Taken together, PDE3 and PDE4 are the main PDE isoforms in maintaining the phasic contractions of bladder smooth myocytes, with PDE4 being functionally more active than PDE3. However, their roles are mediated through different mechanisms. PMID:24463006

  4. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase promotes survival of cardiac myocytes after oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Christopher J; Kubasiak, Lori A; Prentice, Howard; Andreka, Peter; Bishopric, Nanette H; Webster, Keith A

    2002-01-01

    Reperfusion injury occurs when ischaemic tissue is reperfused. It involves the generation and release of reactive oxygen that activates numerous signalling pathways and initiates cell death. Exposure of isolated cardiac myocytes to chronic hypoxia followed by reoxygenation results in the early activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and death by apoptosis of approx. 30% of the myocytes. Although JNK activation has been described in a number of models of ischaemia/reperfusion, the contribution of JNK activation to cell fate has not been established. Here we report that the activation of JNK by reoxygenation correlates with myocyte survival. Transfection of myocytes with JNK pathway interfering plasmid vectors or infection with adenoviral vectors support the hypothesis that JNK is protective. Transfection or infection with JNK inhibitory mutants increased the rates of apoptosis by almost 2-fold compared with control cultures grown aerobically or subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Caspase 9 activity, measured by LEHD cleavage, increased >3-fold during reoxygenation and this activity was enhanced significantly at all times in cultures infected with dominant negative JNK adenovirus. Hypoxia-reoxygenation mediated a biphasic (2.6- and 2.9-fold) activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as a small increase of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) secretion, but treatments with the p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor SB203580 or saturating levels of a TNFalpha-1 blocking antibody provided only partial protection against apoptosis. The results suggest that JNK activation is protective and that the pathway is largely independent of p38 MAPK or secreted TNFalpha. PMID:11879182

  5. Biology of the cardiac myocyte in heart disease.

    PubMed

    Peter, Angela K; Bjerke, Maureen A; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2016-07-15

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure, and it has been shown that this increase in size occurs at the level of the cardiac myocyte. Cardiac myocyte model systems have been developed to study this process. Here we focus on cell culture tools, including primary cells, immortalized cell lines, human stem cells, and their morphological and molecular responses to pathological stimuli. For each cell type, we discuss commonly used methods for inducing hypertrophy, markers of pathological hypertrophy, advantages for each model, and disadvantages to using a particular cell type over other in vitro model systems. Where applicable, we discuss how each system is used to model human disease and how these models may be applicable to current drug therapeutic strategies. Finally, we discuss the increasing use of biomaterials to mimic healthy and diseased hearts and how these matrices can contribute to in vitro model systems of cardiac cell biology. PMID:27418636

  6. Cardiac myocyte exosomes: stability, HSP60, and proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Z. A.; Kott, K. S.; Poe, A. J.; Kuo, T.; Chen, L.; Ferrara, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes, which are 50- to 100-nm-diameter lipid vesicles, have been implicated in intercellular communication, including transmitting malignancy, and as a way for viral particles to evade detection while spreading to new cells. Previously, we demonstrated that adult cardiac myocytes release heat shock protein (HSP)60 in exosomes. Extracellular HSP60, when not in exosomes, causes cardiac myocyte apoptosis via the activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Thus, release of HSP60 from exosomes would be damaging to the surrounding cardiac myocytes. We hypothesized that 1) pathological changes in the environment, such as fever, change in pH, or ethanol consumption, would increase exosome permeability; 2) different exosome inducers would result in different exosomal protein content; 3) ethanol at “physiological” concentrations would cause exosome release; and 4) ROS production is an underlying mechanism of increased exosome production. We found the following: first, exosomes retained their protein cargo under different physiological/pathological conditions, based on Western blot analyses. Second, mass spectrometry demonstrated that the protein content of cardiac exosomes differed significantly from other types of exosomes in the literature and contained cytosolic, sarcomeric, and mitochondrial proteins. Third, ethanol did not affect exosome stability but greatly increased the production of exosomes by cardiac myocytes. Fourth, ethanol- and hypoxia/reoxygenation-derived exosomes had different protein content. Finally, ROS inhibition reduced exosome production but did not completely inhibit it. In conclusion, exosomal protein content is influenced by the cell source and stimulus for exosome formation. ROS stimulate exosome production. The functions of exosomes remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:23376832

  7. Models of Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, M. Saleet

    2012-01-01

    Excitation–contraction coupling describes the processes relating to electrical excitation through force generation and contraction in the heart. It occurs at multiple levels from the whole heart, to single myocytes and down to the sarcomere. A central process that links electrical excitation to contraction is calcium mobilization. Computational models that are well grounded in experimental data have been an effective tool to understand the complex dynamics of the processes involved in excitation–contraction coupling. Presented here is a summary of some computational models that have added to the understanding of the cellular and subcellular mechanisms that control ventricular myocyte calcium dynamics. Models of cardiac ventricular myocytes that have given insight into termination of calcium release and interval–force relations are discussed in this manuscript. Computational modeling of calcium sparks, the elementary events in cardiac excitation–contraction coupling, has given insight into mechanism governing their dynamics and termination as well as their role in excitation–contraction coupling and is described herein. PMID:22821602

  8. Mechanical properties of adult feline ventricular myocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Pollack, P S; Carson, N L; Nuss, H B; Marino, T A; Houser, S R

    1991-01-01

    The contractile and electrophysiological properties of cultured adult feline ventricular myocytes were studied. Cells were field stimulated and contraction was measured using a video-based edge detector. The magnitude of contraction decreased by 36% and the rate of contraction decreased by 52% 2 h after the cells were plated on laminin-coated cover slips. The magnitude and rate of contraction then remained stable for 1 wk. The duration of contraction prolonged and a second component to the twitch frequently, but not invariably, developed after 5 days in culture. This was associated with prolongation of the action potential duration. After 7 days in culture, cells could be divided into two groups based on resting membrane potential. Norepinephrine increased the magnitude of contraction for 5 days after plating. Cultured ventricular myocytes became unresponsive to the effects of norepinephrine after 7 days. Adult cardiac myocytes maintained in primary culture continue to respond to field stimulation and retain many contractile properties for up to 7 days; however, the functional characteristics of these cells do not remain uniform during this time period. PMID:1992803

  9. Finite Element Model to Study One Dimensional Calcium Dyanmics in Cardiac Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Kunal B.; Adlakha, Neeru

    2015-12-01

    The multi physical process involving calcium ions regulate expansion and contraction of cardiac myocytes. This mechanism of expansion and contraction of cardiac myocytes is responsible for contraction and expansion of heart for pumping of blood into arteries and receiving blood into heart from vein. Thus calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes is responsible for the activities of the myocytes cells and functioning of the heart. The specific spatiotemporal calcium ion dynamics is required to trigger, sustain and terminate activity of the cell. In this paper an attempt has been done to propose a model to study calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes for a one-dimensional unsteady state case. The model incorporates the process like diffusion, reaction involving source and excess buffers. Appropriate boundary conditions and initial conditions have been framed. The finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers and source influx on calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes.

  10. Generating Primary Cultures of Murine Cardiac Myocytes and Cardiac Fibroblasts to Study Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Viruses can induce direct damage to cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts resulting in myocarditis and impaired cardiac function. Cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts display different capacities to support viral infection and generate a protective antiviral response. This chapter provides detailed protocols for generation and characterization of primary cultures of murine cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, offering a powerful tool to probe cell type-specific responses that determine protection against viral myocarditis. PMID:25836571

  11. Altered Na/Ca exchange distribution in ventricular myocytes from failing hearts.

    PubMed

    Gadeberg, Hanne C; Bryant, Simon M; James, Andrew F; Orchard, Clive H

    2016-01-15

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca efflux via Na/Ca exchange (NCX) occurs predominantly at T tubules. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubular structure, but its effect on t-tubular function is less clear. We therefore investigated t-tubular NCX activity in ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ∼18 wk after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding sham operation (Sham). NCX current (INCX) and l-type Ca current (ICa) were recorded using the whole cell, voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated (DT) myocytes; intracellular free Ca concentration ([Ca]i) was monitored simultaneously using fluo-4. INCX was activated and measured during application of caffeine to release Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Whole cell INCX was not significantly different in Sham and CAL myocytes and occurred predominantly in the T tubules in Sham myocytes. CAL was associated with redistribution of INCX and ICa away from the T tubules to the cell surface and an increase in t-tubular INCX/ICa density from 0.12 in Sham to 0.30 in CAL myocytes. The decrease in t-tubular INCX in CAL myocytes was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of Ca sequestered by SR. However, SR Ca content was not significantly different in Sham, Sham DT, and CAL myocytes but was significantly increased by DT of CAL myocytes. In Sham myocytes, there was hysteresis between INCX and [Ca]i, which was absent in DT Sham but present in CAL and DT CAL myocytes. These data suggest altered distribution of NCX in CAL myocytes. PMID:26566728

  12. Altered Na/Ca exchange distribution in ventricular myocytes from failing hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gadeberg, Hanne C.; Bryant, Simon M.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca efflux via Na/Ca exchange (NCX) occurs predominantly at T tubules. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubular structure, but its effect on t-tubular function is less clear. We therefore investigated t-tubular NCX activity in ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ∼18 wk after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding sham operation (Sham). NCX current (INCX) and l-type Ca current (ICa) were recorded using the whole cell, voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated (DT) myocytes; intracellular free Ca concentration ([Ca]i) was monitored simultaneously using fluo-4. INCX was activated and measured during application of caffeine to release Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Whole cell INCX was not significantly different in Sham and CAL myocytes and occurred predominantly in the T tubules in Sham myocytes. CAL was associated with redistribution of INCX and ICa away from the T tubules to the cell surface and an increase in t-tubular INCX/ICa density from 0.12 in Sham to 0.30 in CAL myocytes. The decrease in t-tubular INCX in CAL myocytes was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of Ca sequestered by SR. However, SR Ca content was not significantly different in Sham, Sham DT, and CAL myocytes but was significantly increased by DT of CAL myocytes. In Sham myocytes, there was hysteresis between INCX and [Ca]i, which was absent in DT Sham but present in CAL and DT CAL myocytes. These data suggest altered distribution of NCX in CAL myocytes. PMID:26566728

  13. Activating transcription factor 2 in mesenchymal tumors.

    PubMed

    Endo, Makoto; Su, Le; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2014-02-01

    Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of activator protein 1 superfamily, which can heterodimerize with other transcription factors regulating cell differentiation and survival. ATF2 assembles into a complex with the synovial sarcoma translocation, chromosome 18 (SS18)-synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint (SSX) fusion oncoprotein, and the transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) corepressor, driving oncogenesis in synovial sarcoma. The fusion oncoproteins in many other translocation-associated sarcomas incorporate transcription factors from the ATF/cAMP response element binding or E26 families, which potentially form heterodimers with ATF2 to regulate transcription. ATF2 may therefore play an important role in the oncogenesis of many mesenchymal tumors, but as yet, little is known about its protein expression in patient specimens. Herein we perform immunohistochemical analyses using a validated specific antibody for ATF2 expression and intracellular localization on a cohort of 594 malignant and 207 benign mesenchymal tumors representing 47 diagnostic entities. Melanoma served as a positive control for nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. High nuclear ATF2 expression was mainly observed in translocation-associated and/or spindle cell sarcomas including synovial sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, endometrial stromal sarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and solitary fibrous tumor. Cytoplasmic ATF2 expression was less frequently seen than nuclear expression in malignant mesenchymal tumors. Benign mesenchymal tumors mostly showed much lower nuclear and cytoplasmic ATF2 expression. PMID:24289970

  14. Resveratrol reduces intracellular free calcium concentration in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Ma, Hui-Jie; Wang, Chuan; Li, Ming; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2005-10-25

    Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5-trihydroxy stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skins and red wine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. It has been speculated that resveratrol may have cardioprotective activity. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat ventricular myocytes. [Ca(2+)](i) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results showed that resveratrol (15~60 mumol/L) reduced [Ca(2+)](i) in normal and Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of resveratrol on [Ca(2+)](i) in normal Tyrode's solution was partially inhibited by pretreatment with sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4, 1.0 mmol/L, P<0.01), an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase, or L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist Bay K8644 (10 mumol/L, P<0.05), but could not be antagonized by NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (1.0 mmol/L). Resveratrol also markedly inhibited the ryanodine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution (P<0.01). When Ca(2+) waves were produced by increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration from 1 to 10 mmol/L, resveratrol (60 mumol/L) could reduce the velocity and duration of propagating waves, and block the propagating waves of elevated [Ca(2+)](i). These results suggest that resveratrol may reduce the [Ca(2+)](i) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. The inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel and tyrosine kinase, and alleviation of Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are possibly involved in the effects of resveratrol on rat ventricular myocytes. These findings could help explain the protective activity of resveratrol against cardiovascular disease. PMID:16220198

  15. Myocyte Dedifferentiation Drives Extraocular Muscle Regeneration in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Kasprick, Daniel S.; Junttila, Tyler L.; Grzegorski, Steven J.; Louie, Ke'ale W.; Chiari, Estelle F.; Kish, Phillip E.; Kahana, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the injury response of extraocular muscles (EOMs) in adult zebrafish. Methods Adult zebrafish underwent lateral rectus (LR) muscle myectomy surgery to remove 50% of the muscle, followed by molecular and cellular characterization of the tissue response to the injury. Results Following myectomy, the LR muscle regenerated an anatomically correct and functional muscle within 7 to 10 days post injury (DPI). Following injury, the residual muscle stump was replaced by a mesenchymal cell population that lost cell polarity and expressed mesenchymal markers. Next, a robust proliferative burst repopulated the area of the regenerating muscle. Regenerating cells expressed myod, identifying them as myoblasts. However, both immunofluorescence and electron microscopy failed to identify classic Pax7-positive satellite cells in control or injured EOMs. Instead, some proliferating nuclei were noted to express mef2c at the very earliest point in the proliferative burst, suggesting myonuclear reprogramming and dedifferentiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling of regenerating cells followed by a second myectomy without repeat labeling resulted in a twice-regenerated muscle broadly populated by BrdU-labeled nuclei with minimal apparent dilution of the BrdU signal. A double-pulse experiment using BrdU and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) identified double-labeled nuclei, confirming the shared progenitor lineage. Rapid regeneration occurred despite a cell cycle length of 19.1 hours, whereas 72% of the regenerating muscle nuclei entered the cell cycle by 48 hours post injury (HPI). Dextran lineage tracing revealed that residual myocytes were responsible for muscle regeneration. Conclusions EOM regeneration in adult zebrafish occurs by dedifferentiation of residual myocytes involving a muscle-to-mesenchyme transition. A mechanistic understanding of myocyte reprogramming may facilitate novel approaches to the development of molecular

  16. A rabbit pulmonary vein myocyte isolation method based on simultaneous heart and pulmonary vein perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Miao-Miao; Zhang, Liang-Pin; Yang, Shu-Lin; Yao, Ke-Jun; Song, Yuan-Long

    2016-02-25

    Myocytes in the pulmonary veins (PV) play a pivotal role in the development of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). It is therefore important to understand physiological characteristics of these cells. Studies on these cells are, however, markedly impeded by the fact that single PV myocytes are very difficult to obtain due to lack of effective isolation methods. In this study, we described a novel PV myocyte isolation method. The key aspect of this method is to establish a combination of retrograde heart perfusion (via the aorta) and anterograde PV perfusion (via the pulmonary artery). With this simultaneous perfusion method, a better perfusion of the PV myocytes can be obtained. As results, the output and viability of single myocytes isolated by simultaneous heart and PV perfusion method were increased compared with those in conventional retrograde heart perfusion method. PMID:26915322

  17. Membrane currents underlying the modified electrical activity of guinea-pig ventricular myocytes exposed to hyperosmotic solution.

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, T; You, Y; McDonald, T F

    1997-01-01

    1. Guinea-pig ventricular myocytes were superfused with hyperosmotic (sucrose) Tyrode solution (1.2-2.8 times (T) normal osmolality) for up to 40 min. Action potentials were recorded with microelectrodes, and membrane currents with the perforated- or ruptured-patch technique. 2. Hyperosmotic treatment for 20 min shrunk cell volume and hyperpolarized the membrane. Moderate (1.2-1.5 T) treatment caused biphasic changes in action potential configuration (rapid minor shortening quickly followed by lengthening to a stable 110% control duration). Severe (2.2-2.8 T) treatment caused triphasic changes (marked early shortening, strong rebound lengthening and subsequent pronounced shortening). At peak lengthening (6-10 min) action potentials (165% control duration) had a hump near -30 mV and slowed terminal repolarization. 3. In accordance with previous studies, hyperosmotic solution inhibited the delayed rectifier K+ current, and enhanced the outward Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current (INaCa) at plateau potentials. A novel finding was that hyperosmolality reduced the amplitude of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) and slowed its rate of inactivation. Experiments on myocytes loaded with indo-1 suggest that the reduction in ICa,L is due to a rapid elevation of [Ca2+]i. 4. When impaled myocytes were preloaded with EGTA, severe hyperosmotic treatment induced a rapid monotonic shortening of the action potential to a stable 20% of control duration. Addition of external K+ quickly nulled the hyperpolarization and slowly lengthened the action potential. 5. The results suggest that modified electrical activity in osmotically shrunken myocytes is primarily caused by increases in [K+]i, [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i: (i) elevated [K+]i hyperpolarizes the membrane (which may contribute to increased [Na+]i); (ii) elevated [Na+.]i shortens all phases of the action potential (increased outward-directed INaCa); and (iii) elevated [Ca2+]i has antagonistic plateau shortening (inhibition of inward ICa,L) and plateau

  18. Myocyte repolarization modulates myocardial function in aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Signore, Sergio; Qanud, Khaled; Borghetti, Giulia; Meo, Marianna; Cannata, Antonio; Zhou, Yu; Wybieralska, Ewa; Luciani, Marco; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Zhang, Eric; Matsuda, Alex; Webster, Andrew; Cimini, Maria; Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; D'Alessandro, David A; Wunimenghe, Oriyanhan; Michler, Robert E; Royer, Christopher; Goichberg, Polina; Leri, Annarosa; Barrett, Edward G; Anversa, Piero; Hintze, Thomas H; Rota, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Studies of myocardial aging are complex and the mechanisms involved in the deterioration of ventricular performance and decreased functional reserve of the old heart remain to be properly defined. We have studied a colony of beagle dogs from 3 to 14 yr of age kept under a highly regulated environment to define the effects of aging on the myocardium. Ventricular, myocardial, and myocyte function, together with anatomical and structural properties of the organ and cardiomyocytes, were evaluated. Ventricular hypertrophy was not observed with aging and the structural composition of the myocardium was modestly affected. Alterations in the myocyte compartment were identified in aged dogs, and these factors negatively interfere with the contractile reserve typical of the young heart. The duration of the action potential is prolonged in old cardiomyocytes contributing to the slower electrical recovery of the myocardium. Also, the remodeled repolarization of cardiomyocytes with aging provides inotropic support to the senescent muscle but compromises its contractile reserve, rendering the old heart ineffective under conditions of high hemodynamic demand. The defects in the electrical and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes with aging suggest that this cell population is an important determinant of the cardiac senescent phenotype. Collectively, the delayed electrical repolarization of aging cardiomyocytes may be viewed as a critical variable of the aging myopathy and its propensity to evolve into ventricular decompensation under stressful conditions. PMID:26801307

  19. Ryanodol action on calcium sparks in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Franco, Josefina; Gomez, Ana M.; Nani, Alma; Liu, Yiwei; Copello, Julio A.; Fill, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The action of ryanodol on single cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) channels in bilayers and local RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks) in ventricular myocytes was defined. At the single channel level, ryanodol intermittently modified single channels into a long lived sub-conductance state with an average duration of 3.8±0.2 s. Unlike ryanodine, ryanodol did not change the open probability (Po) of unmodified channels and high concentrations did not promote full channel closure. Ryanodol action was Po dependent with the KD varying roughly from 20 to 80 μM as Po changed from ~0.2 to 1, respectively. Ryanodol preferentially bound during long channel openings. In intact and permeabilized rat myocytes, ryanodol evoked trains of sparks at active release sites resulting in a significant increase in overall spark frequency. Ryanodol did not increase the number of active release sites. Long lived Ca2+ release events were observed but infrequently and ryanodol action was readily reversed upon drug washout. We propose that ryanodol modifies a few channels during a Ca2+ spark. These modified channels mediate a sustained low intensity Ca2+ release that repeatedly triggers sparks at the same release site. We conclude that ryanodol is an easily generated reversible probe that can be effectively used to explore RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release in cells. PMID:20419313

  20. 5-HT4 and 5-HT2 receptors antagonistically influence gap junctional coupling between rat auricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Derangeon, Mickaël; Bozon, Véronique; Defamie, Norah; Peineau, Nicolas; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Sarrouilhe, Denis; Argibay, Jorge A; Hervé, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT(4)) receptors have been proposed to contribute to the generation of atrial fibrillation in human atrial myocytes, but it is unclear if these receptors are present in the hearts of small laboratory animals (e.g. rat). In this study, we examined presence and functionality of 5-HT(4) receptors in auricular myocytes of newborn rats and their possible involvement in regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC, responsible for the cell-to-cell propagation of the cardiac excitation). Western-blotting assays showed that 5-HT(4) receptors were present and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that 5-HT(4b) was the predominant isoform. Serotonin (1 microM) significantly reduced cAMP concentration unless a selective 5-HT(4) inhibitor (GR113808 or ML10375, both 1 microM) was present. Serotonin also reduced the amplitude of L-type calcium currents and influenced the strength of GJIC without modifying the phosphorylation profiles of the different channel-forming proteins or connexins (Cxs), namely Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45. GJIC was markedly increased when serotonin exposure occurred in presence of a 5-HT(4) inhibitor but strongly reduced when 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors were inhibited, showing that activation of these receptors antagonistically regulated GJIC. The serotoninergic response was completely abolished when 5-HT(4), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) were simultaneously inhibited. A 24 h serotonin exposure strongly reduced Cx40 expression whereas Cx45 was less affected and Cx43 still less. In conclusion, this study revealed that 5-HT(4) (mainly 5-HT(4b)), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors coexisted in auricular myocytes of newborn rat, that 5-HT(4) activation reduced cAMP concentration, I(Ca)(L) and intercellular coupling whereas 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2B) activation conversely enhanced GJIC. PMID:19615378

  1. Glycolytic inhibition: effects on diastolic relaxation and intracellular calcium handling in hypertrophied rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kagaya, Y; Weinberg, E O; Ito, N; Mochizuki, T; Barry, W H; Lorell, B H

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that glycolytic inhibition by 2-deoxyglucose causes greater impairment of diastolic relaxation and intracellular calcium handling in well-oxygenated hypertrophied adult rat myocytes compared with control myocytes. We simultaneously measured cell motion and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) with indo-1 in isolated paced myocytes from aortic-banded rats and sham-operated rats. There was no difference in either the end-diastolic or peak-systolic [Ca2+]i between control and hypertrophied myocytes (97 +/- 18 vs. 105 +/- 15 nM, 467 +/- 92 vs. 556 +/- 67 nM, respectively). Myocytes were first superfused with oxygenated Hepes-buffered solution containing 1.2 mM CaCl2, 5.6 mM glucose, and 5 mM acetate, and paced at 3 Hz at 36 degrees C. Exposure to 20 mM 2-deoxyglucose as substitution of glucose for 15 min caused an upward shift of end-diastolic cell position in both control (n = 5) and hypertrophied myocytes (n = 10) (P < 0.001 vs. baseline), indicating an impaired extent of relaxation. Hypertrophied myocytes, however, showed a greater upward shift in end-diastolic cell position and slowing of relaxation compared with control myocytes (delta 144 +/- 28 vs. 55 +/- 15% of baseline diastolic position, P < 0.02). Exposure to 2-deoxyglucose increased end-diastolic [Ca2+]i in both groups (P < 0.001 vs. baseline), but there was no difference between hypertrophied and control myocytes (218 +/- 38 vs. 183 +/- 29 nM, respectively). The effects of 2-deoxyglucose were corroborated in isolated oxygenated perfused hearts in which glycolytic inhibition which caused severe elevation of isovolumic diastolic pressure and prolongation of relaxation in the hypertrophied hearts compared with controls. In summary, the inhibition of the glycolytic pathway impairs diastolic relaxation to a greater extent in hypertrophied myocytes than in control myocytes even in well-oxygenated conditions. The severe impairment of diastolic relaxation induced by 2

  2. Identification, localization and interaction of SNARE proteins in atrial cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christian G; Miller, Daniel F; Giovannucci, David R

    2006-03-01

    Atrial cardiac myocytes secrete the vasoactive hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) by both constitutive and regulated exocytotic fusion of ANP-containing large dense core vesicles (LDCV) with the sarcolemma. Detailed information, however, regarding the identity and function of specific membrane fusion proteins (SNARE proteins) involved in exocytosis in the endocrine heart is lacking. In the current study, we identified SNARE proteins and determined their association with ANP-containing secretory granules using primary cultures of neonatal and adult rat atrial cardiac myocytes. Using RT-PCR, cardiac myocytes were screened for SNARE and SNARE-associated transcripts. Identified SNARE proteins that have been implicated in exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells were further characterized by Western blot analysis. Functional interaction between SNARE proteins was demonstrated using immunoprecipitation. Using cell fractionation and immunocytochemical methods, it was revealed that VAMP-1, VAMP-2 and synaptotagmin-1 (the putative Ca(2+) sensor) localized to subpopulations of ANP-containing secretory granules in atrial myocytes. Currently, there is conflicting data regarding the role of Ca(2+) in ANP exocytosis. To judge whether secretory activity could be evoked by intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, time-resolved membrane capacitance measurements were used in combination with the flash photolysis of caged compounds to follow the exocytotic activity of single neonatal atrial myocytes. These studies demonstrated that multiple SNARE proteins are present in neonatal and adult cardiac myocytes and suggest the importance of Ca(2+) in exocytosis of ANP from neonatal atrial cardiac myocytes. PMID:16458920

  3. Hypoxia induces hypersensitivity and hyperreactivity to thromboxane receptor agonist in neonatal pulmonary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hinton, M; Mellow, L; Halayko, A J; Gutsol, A; Dakshinamurti, S

    2006-02-01

    PPHN, caused by perinatal hypoxia or inflammation, is characterized by an increased thromboxane-prostacyclin ratio and pulmonary vasoconstriction. We examined effects of hypoxia on myocyte thromboxane responsiveness. Myocytes from 3rd-6th generation pulmonary arteries of newborn piglets were grown to confluence and synchronized in contractile phenotype by serum deprivation. On the final 3 days of culture, myocytes were exposed to 10% O2 for 3 days; control myocytes from normoxic piglets were cultured in 21% O2. PPHN was induced in newborn piglets by 3-day hypoxic exposure (Fi(O2) 0.10); pulmonary arterial myocytes from these animals were maintained in normoxia. Ca2+ mobilization to thromboxane mimetic U-46619 and ATP was quantified using fura-2 AM. Three-day hypoxic exposure in vitro results in increased basal [Ca2+]i, faster and heightened peak Ca2+ response, and decreased U-46619 EC50. These functional changes persist in myocytes exposed to hypoxia in vivo but cultured in 21% O2. Blockade of Ca2+ entry and store refilling do not alter peak U-46619 Ca2+ responses in hypoxic or normoxic myocytes. Blockade of ryanodine-sensitive or IP3-gated intracellular Ca2+ channels inhibits hypoxic augmentation of peak U-46619 response. Ca2+ response to ryanodine alone is undetectable; ATP-induced Ca2+ mobilization is unaltered by hypoxia, suggesting no independent increase in ryanodine-sensitive or IP3-linked intracellular Ca2+ pool mobilization. We conclude hypoxia has a priming effect on neonatal pulmonary arterial myocytes, resulting in increased resting Ca2+, thromboxane hypersensitivity, and hyperreactivity. We postulate that hypoxia increases agonist-induced TP-R-linked IP3 pathway activation. Myocyte thromboxane hyperresponsiveness persists in culture after removal from the initiating hypoxic stimulus, suggesting altered gene expression. PMID:16214814

  4. Direct toxic effects of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on cardiac myocytes at clinically relevant concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Shigeyuki; Zhang Xiuquan; Kadono, Toshie; Matsuoka, Nobuhiro; Rollins, Douglas; Badger, Troy; Rodesch, Christopher K.; Barry, William H.

    2009-04-01

    Aims: Our goal was to determine if clinically relevant concentrations of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (CSE) have direct deleterious effects on ventricular myocytes during simulated ischemia, and to investigate the mechanisms involved. Methods: CSE was prepared with a smoking chamber. Ischemia was simulated by metabolic inhibition (MI) with cyanide (CN) and 0 glucose. Adult rabbit and mouse ventricular myocyte [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was measured by flow cytometry using fluo-3. Mitochondrial [Ca{sup 2+}] was measured with confocal microscopy, and Rhod-2 fluorescence. The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) was detected by TMRM fluorescence and myocyte contracture. Myocyte oxidative stress was quantified by dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence with confocal microscopy. Results: CSE 0.1% increased myocyte contracture caused by MI. The nicotine concentration (HPLC) in 0.1% CSE was 15 ng/ml, similar to that in humans after smoking cigarettes. CSE 0.1% increased mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake, and increased the susceptibility of mitochondria to the MPT. CSE 0.1% increased DCF fluorescence in isolated myocytes, and increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in paced myocytes exposed to 2.0 mM CN, 0 glucose (P-MI). These effects were inhibited by the superoxide scavenger Tiron. The effect of CSE on [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} during P-MI was also prevented by ranolazine. Conclusions: CSE in clinically relevant concentrations increases myocyte [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} during simulated ischemia, and increases myocyte susceptibility to the MPT. These effects appear to be mediated at least in part by oxidative radicals in CSE, and likely contribute to the effects of cigarette smoke to increase myocardial infarct size, and to decrease angina threshold.

  5. Vector-averaged gravity alters myocyte and neuron properties in cell culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, Raphael; Hoeger, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    The effect of changes in the gravitational field of developing neurons and myocytes on the development of these cells was investigated using observations of rotated cultures of embryonic spinal neurons and myocytes in a horizontal clinostat, in which rotation produces, from the cells' perspective, a 'vector-free' gravity environment by continous averaging of the vector, thus simulating the microgravity of space. It was found that, at rotation rates between 1 and 50 rpm, cellular and nuclear areas of myocytes become significantly enlarged and the number of presumptive nucleoli increase; in neurons, frequent and large swellings appeared along neuritic shafts. Some of these changes were reversible after the cessation of rotation.

  6. Cardiac sodium channel palmitoylation regulates channel availability and myocyte excitability with implications for arrhythmia generation.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zifan; Xiao, Yucheng; Meng, Jingwei; Hudmon, Andy; Cummins, Theodore R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.5) play an essential role in regulating cardiac electric activity by initiating and propagating action potentials in the heart. Altered Nav1.5 function is associated with multiple cardiac diseases including long-QT3 and Brugada syndrome. Here, we show that Nav1.5 is subject to palmitoylation, a reversible post-translational lipid modification. Palmitoylation increases channel availability and late sodium current activity, leading to enhanced cardiac excitability and prolonged action potential duration. In contrast, blocking palmitoylation increases closed-state channel inactivation and reduces myocyte excitability. We identify four cysteines as possible Nav1.5 palmitoylation substrates. A mutation of one of these is associated with cardiac arrhythmia (C981F), induces a significant enhancement of channel closed-state inactivation and ablates sensitivity to depalmitoylation. Our data indicate that alterations in palmitoylation can substantially control Nav1.5 function and cardiac excitability and this form of post-translational modification is likely an important contributor to acquired and congenital arrhythmias. PMID:27337590

  7. Cardiac sodium channel palmitoylation regulates channel availability and myocyte excitability with implications for arrhythmia generation

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zifan; Xiao, Yucheng; Meng, Jingwei; Hudmon, Andy; Cummins, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.5) play an essential role in regulating cardiac electric activity by initiating and propagating action potentials in the heart. Altered Nav1.5 function is associated with multiple cardiac diseases including long-QT3 and Brugada syndrome. Here, we show that Nav1.5 is subject to palmitoylation, a reversible post-translational lipid modification. Palmitoylation increases channel availability and late sodium current activity, leading to enhanced cardiac excitability and prolonged action potential duration. In contrast, blocking palmitoylation increases closed-state channel inactivation and reduces myocyte excitability. We identify four cysteines as possible Nav1.5 palmitoylation substrates. A mutation of one of these is associated with cardiac arrhythmia (C981F), induces a significant enhancement of channel closed-state inactivation and ablates sensitivity to depalmitoylation. Our data indicate that alterations in palmitoylation can substantially control Nav1.5 function and cardiac excitability and this form of post-translational modification is likely an important contributor to acquired and congenital arrhythmias. PMID:27337590

  8. l-Arginine currents in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, R Daniel

    2007-01-01

    l-Arginine (l-Arg) is a basic amino acid that plays a central role in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide, creatine, agmantine, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Most tissues, including myocardium, must import l-Arg from the circulation to ensure adequate intracellular levels of this amino acid. This study reports novel l-Arg-activated inward currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Ion-substitution experiments identified extracellular l-Arg as the charge-carrying cationic species responsible for these currents, which, thus, represent l-Arg import into cardiac myocytes. This result was independently confirmed by an increase in myocyte nitric oxide production upon extracellular application of l-Arg. The inward movement of Arg molecules was found to be passive and independent of Na2+, K2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The process displayed saturation and membrane potential (Vm)-dependent kinetics, with a K0.5 for l-Arg that increased from 5 mm at hyperpolarizing Vm to 20 mm at +40 mV. l-Lysine and l-ornithine but not d-Arg produced currents with characteristics similar to that activated by l-Arg indicating that the transport process is stereospecific for cationic l-amino acids. l-Arg current was fully blocked after brief incubation with 0.2 mmN-ethylmaleimide. These features suggest that the activity of the low-affinity, high-capacity CAT-2A member of the y2+ family of transporters is responsible for l-Arg currents in acutely isolated cardiomyocytes. Regardless of the mechanism, we hypothesize that a low-affinity arginine transport process in heart, by ensuring substrate availability for sustained NO production, might play a cardio-protective role during catabolic states known to increase Arg plasma levels severalfold. PMID:17303641

  9. Variations in local calcium signaling in adjacent cardiac myocytes of the intact mouse heart detected with two-dimensional confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Karin P.; Hohendanner, Felix; Blatter, Lothar A.; Pieske, Burkert M.; Heinzel, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Dyssynchronous local Ca release within individual cardiac myocytes has been linked to cellular contractile dysfunction. Differences in Ca kinetics in adjacent cells may also provide a substrate for inefficient contraction and arrhythmias. In a new approach we quantify variation in local Ca transients between adjacent myocytes in the whole heart. Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were loaded with Fluo-8 AM to detect Ca and Di-4-ANEPPS to visualize cell membranes. A spinning disc confocal microscope with a fast camera allowed us to record Ca signals within an area of 465 μm by 315 μm with an acquisition speed of 55 fps. Images from multiple transients recorded at steady state were registered to their time point in the cardiac cycle to restore averaged local Ca transients with a higher temporal resolution. Local Ca transients within and between adjacent myocytes were compared with regard to amplitude, time to peak and decay at steady state stimulation (250 ms cycle length). Image registration from multiple sequential Ca transients allowed reconstruction of high temporal resolution (2.4 ± 1.3 ms) local CaT in 2D image sets (N = 4 hearts, n = 8 regions). During steady state stimulation, spatial Ca gradients were homogeneous within cells in both directions and independent of distance between measured points. Variation in CaT amplitudes was similar across the short and the long side of neighboring cells. Variations in TAU and TTP were similar in both directions. Isoproterenol enhanced the CaT but not the overall pattern of spatial heterogeneities. Here we detected and analyzed local Ca signals in intact mouse hearts with high temporal and spatial resolution, taking into account 2D arrangement of the cells. We observed significant differences in the variation of CaT amplitude along the long and short axis of cardiac myocytes. Variations of Ca signals between neighboring cells may contribute to the substrate of cardiac remodeling. PMID:25628569

  10. Shear stress induces a longitudinal Ca(2+) wave via autocrine activation of P2Y1 purinergic signalling in rat atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Chul; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2015-12-01

    Atrial myocytes are exposed to shear stress during the cardiac cycle and haemodynamic disturbance. In response, they generate a longitudinally propagating global Ca(2+) wave. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the shear stress-mediated Ca(2+) wave, using two-dimensional confocal Ca(2+) imaging combined with a pressurized microflow system in single rat atrial myocytes. Shear stress of ∼16 dyn cm(-2) for 8 s induced ∼1.2 aperiodic longitudinal Ca(2+) waves (∼79 μm s(-1)) with a delay of 0.2-3 s. Pharmacological blockade of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) abolished shear stress-induced Ca(2+) wave generation. Furthermore, in atrial myocytes from type 2 IP3R (IP3R2) knock-out mice, shear stress failed to induce longitudinal Ca(2+) waves. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, but not its inactive analogue U73343, abolished the shear-induced longitudinal Ca(2+) wave. However, pretreating atrial cells with blockers for stretch-activated channels, Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger, transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily 4, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase did not suppress wave generation under shear stress. The P2 purinoceptor inhibitor suramin, and the potent P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179, both suppressed the Ca(2+) wave, whereas the P2X receptor antagonist, iso-PPADS, did not alter it. Suppression of gap junction hemichannels permeable to ATP or extracellular application of ATP-metabolizing apyrase inhibited the wave. Removal of external Ca(2+) to enhance hemichannel opening facilitated the wave generation. Our data suggest that longitudinally propagating, regenerative Ca(2+) release through RyRs is triggered by P2Y1-PLC-IP3R2 signalling that is activated by gap junction hemichannel-mediated ATP release in atrial myocytes under shear stress. PMID:26377030

  11. Chronic activation of extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases by phenylephrine is required to elicit a hypertrophic response in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Anthony J; Finn, Stephen G; Fuller, Stephen J

    2003-01-01

    Extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) are activated rapidly and transiently in response to phenylephrine (PE) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in cardiac myocytes, but whether this is linked to the subsequent development of the hypertrophic phenotype remains equivocal. To investigate this, we examined the dependence of the hypertrophic response on the length of exposure to PE in neonatal myocyte cultures. In addition to the initial transient activation of ERKs (maximum at 5-10 min), PE (10 microM) induced a second, more prolonged peak of activity several hours later. The activity of a transfected atrial natriuretic factor-luciferase reporter gene was increased 10- to 24-fold by PE. This response was inhibited by the alpha(1)-antagonist prazosin (100 nM) and by U0126 (10 microM) and PD184352 (1 microM), inhibitors of ERK activation, irrespective of whether these were added before or up to 24 h after the addition of PE. Prazosin had no effect on ET-1 (50 nM)-stimulated atrial natriuretic factor-luciferase activity. Protein synthesis was enhanced by 35+/-6% by PE, and this was blocked by prazosin added 1 h after the addition of PE, but decreased only by half when added 8 h after PE. Similarly, PE (48 h) increased myocyte area by 49% and this was prevented by prazosin added 1 h after PE, but decreased only by half when added at 24 h. These results demonstrate that prolonged exposure to PE is required to elicit alterations in gene expression, protein synthesis and cell size, characteristic of hypertrophied myocytes, and they confirm that the initial peak of ERK activity is insufficient to trigger hypertrophic responses. PMID:12513686

  12. GENERAL: Stochastic Alternating Dynamics for Synchronous EAD-Like Beating Rhythms in Cultured Cardiac Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Hui-Min; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Ding, Xue-Li; Yang, Ming-Hao; Gu, Hua-Guang; Ren, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Dissolved cardiac myocytes can couple together and generate synchronous beatings in culture. We observed a synchronized early after-depolarization(EAD)-like rhythm in cultured cardiac myocytes and reproduced the experimental observation in a network mathematical model whose dynamics are close to a Hopf bifurcation. The mechanism for this EAD-like rhythm is attributed to noised-induced stochastic alternatings between the focus and the limit cycle. These results provide novel understandings for pathological heart rhythms like the early immature beatings.

  13. Endothelin activates voltage-dependent Ca2+ current by a G protein-dependent mechanism in rabbit cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, M R; Gunn, M D; Clusin, W T

    1992-01-01

    1. Endothelin is a vasoactive peptide released from vascular endothelial cells which has potent cardiac inotropic effects. We examined the effect of endothelin on the verapamil-sensitive Ca2+ current (ICa) in enzymatically dispersed rabbit ventricular myocytes. 2. Using the whole-cell voltage clamp technique with a standard dialysing pipette solution, the application of extracellular endothelin (20 nM) did not increase the peak ICa, but in fact caused a small reversible decline (903 +/- 109 pA without endothelin, 727 +/- 95 pA with endothelin (means +/- S.E.M., n = 14, P less than 0.05)). 3. If GTP (100 microM) was added to the pipette solution, the extracellular application of endothelin (0.2 or 20 nM) caused a large, reproducible increase in peak ICa (871 +/- 85 pA without endothelin, 1230 +/- 110 pA with 20 nM-endothelin (n = 10, P less than 0.05). The endothelin enhancement of ICa occurred after a delay of approximately 3-4 min at room temperature. 4. The GTP requirement for the endothelin effect on ICa suggests that its effect may be mediated through a G protein-dependent pathway. To investigate this further, experiments were performed with pipette solutions containing guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S), a GDP analogue which inhibits G protein cycling. With the addition of GDP beta S (0.5-5.0 mM) to the pipette solution (along with 100 microM-GTP), the effect of endothelin on peak ICa was blocked (1062 +/- 86 pA without endothelin, 1170 +/- 134 pA with endothelin (n = 11, P greater than 0.05)). 5. Incubation of myocytes with pertussis toxin (500 ng/ml) prevented the partial ACh-induced reversal of the isoprenolol enhancement of ICa. However, this identical treatment failed to block the endothelin enhancement of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ current (n = 4). 6. Taken together, these results confirm that while the effect of endothelin in rabbit cardiac ventricular myocytes is mediated through a G protein-dependent pathway, the G protein involved is

  14. Contribution of the late sodium current to intracellular sodium and calcium overload in rabbit ventricular myocytes treated by anemone toxin.

    PubMed

    Kornyeyev, Dmytro; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Nguyen, Steven; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Yao, Lina; Rajamani, Sridharan; Belardinelli, Luiz

    2016-02-01

    Pathological enhancement of late Na(+) current (INa) can potentially modify intracellular ion homeostasis and contribute to cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of late INa can be a source of intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)]i) overload. Late INa was enhanced by exposing rabbit ventricular myocytes to Anemonia sulcata toxin II (ATX-II) and measured using whole cell patch-clamp technique. [Na(+)]i was determined with fluorescent dye Asante NaTRIUM Green-2 AM. Pacing-induced changes in the dye fluorescence measured at 37°C were more pronounced in ATX-II-treated cells than in control (dye washout prevented calibration). At 22-24°C, resting [Na(+)]i was 6.6 ± 0.8 mM. Treatment with 5 nM ATX-II increased late INa 8.7-fold. [Na(+)]i measured after 2 min of electrical stimulation (1 Hz) was 10.8 ± 1.5 mM and 22.1 ± 1.6 mM (P < 0.001) in the absence and presence of 5 nM ATX-II, respectively. Inhibition of late INa with GS-967 (1 μM) prevented Na(+) i accumulation. A strong positive correlation was observed between the late INa and the pacing-induced increase of [Na(+)]i (R(2) = 0.88) and between the rise in [Na(+)]i and the increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) (R(2) = 0.96). ATX-II, tetrodotoxin, or GS-967 did not affect [Na(+)]i in quiescent myocytes suggesting that late INa was solely responsible for triggering the ATX-II effect on [Na(+)]i. Experiments with pinacidil and E4031 indicate that prolongation of the action potential contributes to as much as 50% of the [Na(+)]i overload associated with the increase in late INa caused by ATX-II. Enhancement of late INa can cause intracellular Na(+) overload in ventricular myocytes. PMID:26637557

  15. PDE5A suppression of acute β-adrenergic activation requires modulation of myocyte beta-3 signaling coupled to PKG-mediated troponin I phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong I.; Vahebi, Susan; Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele; Barouch, Lili A.; Solaro, R. John; Takimoto, Eiki

    2010-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5A (PDE5A) inhibitors acutely suppress beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation in left ventricular myocytes and hearts. This modulation requires cyclic GMP synthesis via nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-NO stimulation, but upstream and downstream mechanisms remain un-defined. To determine this, adult cardiac myocytes from genetically engineered mice and controls were studied by video microscopy to assess sarcomere shortening (SS) and fura2-AM fluorescence to measure calcium transients (CaT). Enhanced SS from isoproterenol (ISO, 10 nM) was suppressed ≥50% by the PDE5A inhibitor sildenafil (SIL, 1 µM), without altering CaT. This regulation was unaltered despite co-inhibition of either the cGMP-stimulated cAMP-esterase PDE2 (Bay 60-7550), or cGMP-inhibited cAMP-esterase PDE3 (cilostamide). Thus, the SIL response could not be ascribed to cGMP interaction with alternative PDEs. However, genetic deletion (or pharmacologic blockade) of β3-ARs, which couple to NOS signaling, fully prevented SIL modulation of ISO-stimulated SS. Importantly, both PDE5A protein expression and activity were similar in β3-AR knockout (β3-AR−/−) myocytes as in controls. Downstream, cGMP stimulates protein kinase G (PKG), and we found contractile modulation by SIL required PKG activation and enhanced TnI phosphorylation at S23, S24. Myocytes expressing the slow skeletal TnI isoform which lacks these sites displayed no modulation of ISO responses by SIL. Non-equilibrium isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed SIL increased TnI phosphorylation above that from concomitant ISO in control but not β3-AR−/− myocytes. These data support a cascade involving β3-AR stimulation, and subsequent PKG-dependent TnI S23, S24 phosphorylation as primary factors underlying the capacity of acute PDE5A inhibition to blunt myocardial β-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:20107996

  16. VAMP-1, VAMP-2, and syntaxin-4 regulate ANP release from cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ferlito, Marcella; Fulton, William B; Zauher, Mohamed A; Marbán, Eduardo; Steenbergen, Charles; Lowenstein, Charles J

    2010-11-01

    ANP is a peptide released by cardiac myocytes that regulates blood pressure and natriuresis. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling ANP release from cardiac myocytes are not defined. We now identify three components of the exocytic machinery that regulate ANP release from atrial myocytes. We found that cardiac myocytes express N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP), and SNAP receptors (SNAREs). Additionally we found that specific SNARE molecules, VAMP-1 and VAMP-2, both co-sediment and co-localize with ANP. Also, one SNARE molecule, syntaxin-4, partially co-sediments and partially co-localizes with ANP. Furthermore, these three SNAREs, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-1 and VAMP-2, form a SNARE complex inside cardiac myocytes. Finally, knockdown of VAMP-1, VAMP-2, or syntaxin-4 blocks regulated release of ANP. In contrast, silencing of VAMP-3 did not have an effect on ANP release. Our data suggest that three specific SNAREs regulate cardiac myocyte exocytosis of ANP. Pathways that modify the exocytic machinery may influence natriuresis and blood pressure. PMID:20801128

  17. Cyclic GMP regulation of the L-type Ca2+ channel current in human atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vandecasteele, Grégoire; Verde, Ignacio; Rücker-Martin, Catherine; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) by intracellular cGMP was investigated in human atrial myocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Intracellular application of 0.5 μm cGMP produced a strong stimulation of basal ICa (+64 ± 5%, n = 60), whereas a 10-fold higher cGMP concentration induced a 2-fold smaller increase (+36 ± 8%, n = 35). The biphasic response of ICa to cGMP was not mimicked by the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activator 8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′ cyclic monophosphate (8-bromo-cGMP, 0.5 or 5 μm), and was not affected by the PKG inhibitor KT 5823 (100 nm). In contrast, cGMP stimulation of ICa was abolished by intracellular perfusion with PKI (10 μm), a selective inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Selective inhibition of the cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase (PDE3) by extracellular cilostamide (100 nm) strongly enhanced basal ICa in control conditions (+78 ± 13%, n = 7) but had only a marginal effect in the presence of intracellular cGMP (+22 ± 7% in addition to 0.5 μm cGMP, n = 11; +20 ± 22% in addition to 5 μm cGMP, n = 7). Application of erythro-9-[2-hydroxy-3-nonyl]adenine (EHNA, 30 μm), a selective inhibitor of the cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase (PDE2), fully reversed the secondary inhibitory effect of 5 μm cGMP on ICa (+99 ± 16% stimulation, n = 7). Altogether, these data indicate that intracellular cGMP regulates basal ICa in human atrial myocytes in a similar manner to NO donors. The effect of cGMP involves modulation of the cAMP level and PKA activity via opposite actions of the nucleotide on PDE2 and PDE3. PMID:11389195

  18. MMP9 Rs3918242 Polymorphism Affects Tachycardia-Induced MMP9 Expression in Cultured Atrial-Derived Myocytes but Is Not a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation among the Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Fu-Chih; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Jan; Chan, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Wang, Chun-Li; Chang, Chi-Jen; Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Hsu, Lung-An

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The MMP9 promoter has a functional polymorphism rs3918242 that can regulate the level of gene transcription. This study recruited 200 AF patients and 240 controls. The MMP9 rs3918242 was examined by polymerase chain reactions. HL-1 atrial myocytes were cultured and electrically stimulated. Right atrial appendages were obtained from six patients with AF and three controls with sinus rhythm undergoing open heart surgery. The MMP9 expression and activity were determined using immunohistochemical analysis and gelatin zymography, respectively. Rapid pacing induces MMP9 secretion from HL-1 myocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The responsiveness of MMP9 transcriptional activity to tachypacing was significantly enhanced by rs3918242. The expression of MMP9 was increased in fibrillating atrial tissue than in sinus rhythm. However, the distribution of rs3918242 genotypes and allele frequencies did not significantly differ between the control and AF groups. HL-1 myocyte may secrete MMP9 in response to rapid pacing, and the secretion could be modulated by rs3918242. Although the MMP9 expression of human atrial myocyte is associated with AF, our study did not support the association of susceptibility to AF among Taiwanese subjects with the MMP9 rs3918242 polymorphism. PMID:27070579

  19. MMP9 Rs3918242 Polymorphism Affects Tachycardia-Induced MMP9 Expression in Cultured Atrial-Derived Myocytes but Is Not a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation among the Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Fu-Chih; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Jan; Chan, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Wang, Chun-Li; Chang, Chi-Jen; Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Hsu, Lung-An

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The MMP9 promoter has a functional polymorphism rs3918242 that can regulate the level of gene transcription. This study recruited 200 AF patients and 240 controls. The MMP9 rs3918242 was examined by polymerase chain reactions. HL-1 atrial myocytes were cultured and electrically stimulated. Right atrial appendages were obtained from six patients with AF and three controls with sinus rhythm undergoing open heart surgery. The MMP9 expression and activity were determined using immunohistochemical analysis and gelatin zymography, respectively. Rapid pacing induces MMP9 secretion from HL-1 myocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The responsiveness of MMP9 transcriptional activity to tachypacing was significantly enhanced by rs3918242. The expression of MMP9 was increased in fibrillating atrial tissue than in sinus rhythm. However, the distribution of rs3918242 genotypes and allele frequencies did not significantly differ between the control and AF groups. HL-1 myocyte may secrete MMP9 in response to rapid pacing, and the secretion could be modulated by rs3918242. Although the MMP9 expression of human atrial myocyte is associated with AF, our study did not support the association of susceptibility to AF among Taiwanese subjects with the MMP9 rs3918242 polymorphism. PMID:27070579

  20. Biphasic effects of hyposmotic challenge on excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Brette, F; Calaghan, S C; Lappin, S; White, E; Colyer, J; Le Guennec, J Y

    2000-10-01

    The effects of short (1 min) and long (7-10 min) exposure to hyposmotic solution on excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes were studied. After short exposure, the action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD(90)), the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transient amplitude, and contraction increased, whereas the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca, L)) amplitude decreased. Fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release increased but SR Ca(2+) load did not. After a long exposure, I(Ca,L), APD(90), [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitude, and contraction decreased. The abbreviation of APD(90) was partially reversed by 50 microM DIDS, which is consistent with the participation of Cl(-) current activated by swelling. After 10-min exposure to hyposmotic solution in cells labeled with di-8-aminonaphthylethenylpyridinium, t-tubule patterning remained intact, suggesting the loss of de-t-tubulation was not responsible for the fall in I(Ca,L). After long exposure, Ca(2+) load of the SR was not increased, and swelling had no effect on the site-specific phosphorylation of phospholamban, but fractional SR Ca(2+) release was depressed. The initial positive inotropic response to hyposmotic challenge may be accounted for by enhanced coupling between Ca(2+) entry and release. The negative inotropic effect of prolonged exposure can be accounted for by shortening of the action potential duration and a fall in the I(Ca,L) amplitude. PMID:11009486

  1. An Experimental Model Using Cultured Cardiac Myocytes for a Study of the Generation of Premature Ventricular Contractions Under Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    2011-09-01

    It is known that use of a contrast agents in echocardiography increases the probability of generation of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). As a basic study to elucidate the mechanisms and to reduce adverse effects, the generation of PVCs was investigated using cultured cardiac myocytes instead of the intact heart in vivo. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured on a cover slip. The myocyte sample was exposed to pulsed ultrasound with microbubbles adjacent to the myocytes, and generation of PVCs was examined with ultrasound exposure at various delay times after onset of myocyte contraction. The experimental results showed that generation of PVCs had a stable threshold delay time and that PVCs were generated only when myocytes were exposed to ultrasound with delay times longer than the threshold. The results indicate that the model used in this study is useful for revealing the mechanisms by which PVCs are induced by ultrasound exposure.

  2. Modeling CICR in rat ventricular myocytes: voltage clamp studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR) in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC) studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca2+ loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and administration of blockers caffeine and thapsigargin have been utilized to probe the phenomena surrounding SR Ca2+ release. Here, we develop a deterministic mathematical model of a rat ventricular myocyte under VC conditions, to better understand mechanisms underlying the response of an isolated cell to calcium perturbation. Motivation for the study was to pinpoint key control variables influencing CICR and examine the role of CICR in the context of a physiological control system regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]myo). Methods The cell model consists of an electrical-equivalent model for the cell membrane and a fluid-compartment model describing the flux of ionic species between the extracellular and several intracellular compartments (cell cytosol, SR and the dyadic coupling unit (DCU), in which resides the mechanistic basis of CICR). The DCU is described as a controller-actuator mechanism, internally stabilized by negative feedback control of the unit's two diametrically-opposed Ca2+ channels (trigger-channel and release-channel). It releases Ca2+ flux into the cyto-plasm and is in turn enclosed within a negative feedback loop involving the SERCA pump, regulating[Ca2+]myo. Results Our model reproduces measured VC data published by several laboratories, and generates graded Ca2+ release at high Ca2+ gain in a homeostatically-controlled environment where [Ca2+]myo is precisely regulated. We elucidate the importance of the DCU elements in this process, particularly the role of the ryanodine receptor in controlling SR Ca2+ release, its activation by trigger Ca2+, and its refractory characteristics

  3. β-adrenergic effects on cardiac myofilaments and contraction in an integrated rabbit ventricular myocyte model.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Jorge A; Morotti, Stefano; Lascano, Elena C; Gomes, Aldrin V; Grandi, Eleonora; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    A five-state model of myofilament contraction was integrated into a well-established rabbit ventricular myocyte model of ion channels, Ca(2+) transporters and kinase signaling to analyze the relative contribution of different phosphorylation targets to the overall mechanical response driven by β-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS). β-AS effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling, Ca(2+), K(+) and Cl(-) currents, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase properties was included based on experimental data. The inotropic effect on the myofilaments was represented as reduced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity (XBCa) and titin stiffness, and increased cross-bridge (XB) cycling rate (XBcy). Assuming independent roles of XBCa and XBcy, the model reproduced experimental β-AS responses on action potentials and Ca(2+) transient amplitude and kinetics. It also replicated the behavior of force-Ca(2+), release-restretch, length-step, stiffness-frequency and force-velocity relationships, and increased force and shortening in isometric and isotonic twitch contractions. The β-AS effect was then switched off from individual targets to analyze their relative impact on contractility. Preventing β-AS effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels or phospholamban limited Ca(2+) transients and contractile responses in parallel, while blocking phospholemman and K(+) channel (IKs) effects enhanced Ca(2+) and inotropy. Removal of β-AS effects from XBCa enhanced contractile force while decreasing peak Ca(2+) (due to greater Ca(2+) buffering), but had less effect on shortening. Conversely, preventing β-AS effects on XBcy preserved Ca(2+) transient effects, but blunted inotropy (both isometric force and especially shortening). Removal of titin effects had little impact on contraction. Finally, exclusion of β-AS from XBCa and XBcy while preserving effects on other targets resulted in preserved peak isometric force response (with slower kinetics) but nearly abolished enhanced shortening. β-AS effects on XBCa and XBcy

  4. β-adrenergic effects on cardiac myofilaments and contraction in an integrated rabbit ventricular myocyte model

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Jorge A.; Morotti, Stefano; Lascano, Elena C.; Gomes, Aldrin V.; Grandi, Eleonora; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    A five-state model of myofilament contraction was integrated into a well-established rabbit ventricular myocyte model of ion channels, Ca2+ transporters and kinase signaling to analyze the relative contribution of different phosphorylation targets to the overall mechanical response driven by β-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS). β-AS effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling, Ca2+, K+ and Cl− currents, and Na+/K+-ATPase properties were included based on experimental data. The inotropic effect on the myofilaments was represented as reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity (XBCa) and titin stiffness, and increased cross-bridge (XB) cycling rate (XBcy). Assuming independent roles of XBCa and XBcy, the model reproduced experimental β-AS responses on action potentials and Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics. It also replicated the behavior of force-Ca2+, release-restretch, length-step, stiffness-frequency and force-velocity relationships, and increased force and shortening in isometric and isotonic twitch contractions. The β-AS effect was then switched off from individual targets to analyze their relative impact on contractility. Preventing β-AS effects on L-type Ca2+ channels or phospholamban limited Ca2+ transients and contractile responses in parallel, while blocking phospholemman and K+ channel (IKs) effects enhanced Ca2+ and inotropy. Removal of β-AS effects from XBCa enhanced contractile force while decreasing peak Ca2+ (due to greater Ca2+ buffering), but had less effect on shortening. Conversely, preventing β-AS effects on XBcy preserved Ca2+ transient effects, but blunted inotropy (both isometric force and especially shortening). Removal of titin effects had little impact on contraction. Finally, exclusion of β-AS from XBCa and XBcy while preserving effects on other targets resulted in preserved peak isometric force response (with slower kinetics) but nearly abolished enhanced shortening. β-AS effects on XBCa vs. XBcy have greater impact on isometric

  5. Relaxation in ferret ventricular myocytes: unusual interplay among calcium transport systems.

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, R A; Bassani, J W; Bers, D M

    1994-01-01

    Transport systems responsible for removing Ca2+ from the myoplasm during relaxation in isolated ferret ventricular myocytes were studied using caffeine-induced contractures. Internal calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the fluorescent calcium indicator indo-1, and the results were compared with our recent detailed characterizations in rabbit and rat myocytes. Relaxation and [Ca2+]i decline during a twitch in ferret myocytes were fast and similar to that in rat myocytes (i.e. half-time, t 1/2 approximately 100-160 ms). During a caffeine-induced contracture (SR Ca2+ accumulation prevented), relaxation was still relatively fast (t 1/2 = 0.57 s) and similar to relaxation in rabbit supported mainly by a strong Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange. When both the SR Ca2+ uptake and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange are blocked (by caffeine and 0 Na+, 0 Ca2+ solution) relaxation in the ferret myocyte is remarkably fast (approximately 5-fold) compared with rabbit and rat myocytes. The decline of the Cai2+ transient was also fast under these conditions. These values were similar to those in rat under conditions where relaxation is due primarily to Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange. Additional inhibition of either the sarcolemmal Ca(2+)-ATPase or mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake caused only modest slowing of the relaxation of caffeine-induced contracture in 0 Na+, 0 Ca2+ (t 1/2 increased to approximately 3 s). In rabbit myocytes the relaxation t 1/2 is slowed to 20-30 s by these procedures. Even when the systems responsible for slow relaxation in rabbit ventricular myocytes are inhibited (i.e. sarcolemmal Ca(2+)-ATPase and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake) along with the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange, relaxation and [Ca2+]i decline in ferret myocytes remain rapid compared with rabbit myocytes. Ca2+ taken up by mitochondria in rabbit myocytes during a caffeine contracture in 0 Na+, 0 Ca2+ solution gradually returns to the SR after caffeine removal, but this component appears to be much smaller in ferret

  6. Calcium Movements Inside the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bers, Donald M.; Shannon, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca content ([Ca]SRT) is critical to both normal cardiac function and electrophysiology, and changes associated with pathology contribute to systolic and diastolic dysfunction and arrhythmias. The intra-SR free [Ca] ([Ca]SR) dictates the [Ca]SRT, the driving force for Ca release and regulates release channel gating. We discuss measurement of [Ca]SR and [Ca]SRT, how [Ca]SR regulates activation and termination of release, and how Ca diffuses within the SR and influences SR Ca release during excitation-contraction coupling, Ca sparks and Ca waves. The entire SR network is connected and its lumen is also continuous with the nuclear envelope. Rapid Ca diffusion within the SR could stabilize and balance local [Ca]SR within the myocyte, but restrictions to diffusion can create spatial inhomogeneities. Experimental measurements and mathematical models of [Ca]SR to date have greatly enriched our understanding of these [Ca]SR dynamics, but controversies exist and may stimulate new measurements and analysis. PMID:23321551

  7. MicroRNA-27b Regulates Mitochondria Biogenesis in Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhua; Du, Jingjing; Bai, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuewei; Wang, Jinyong; Zhu, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that affect the post-transcriptional regulation of various biological pathways. To date, it is not fully understood how miRNAs regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. This study aimed at the identification of the role of miRNA-27b in mitochondria biogenesis. The mitochondria content in C2C12 cells was significantly increased during myogenic differentiation and accompanied by a marked decrease of miRNA-27b expression. Furthermore, the expression of the predicted target gene of miRNA-27b, forkhead box j3 (Foxj3), was also increased during myogenic differentiation. Luciferase activity assays confirmed that miRNA-27b directly targets the 3’-untranslated region (3’-UTR) of Foxj3. Overexpression of miRNA-27b provoked a decrease of mitochondria content and diminished expression of related mitochondrial genes and Foxj3 both at mRNA and protein levels. The expression levels of downstream genes of Foxj3, such as Mef2c, PGC1α, NRF1 and mtTFA, were also decreased in C2C12 cells upon overexpression of miRNA-27b. These results suggested that miRNA-27b may affect mitochondria biogenesis by down-regulation of Foxj3 during myocyte differentiation. PMID:26849429

  8. Contractile reserve and intracellular calcium regulation in mouse myocytes from normal and hypertrophied failing hearts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, K.; Yan, X.; Tajima, M.; Su, Z.; Barry, W. H.; Lorell, B. H.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Mouse myocyte contractility and the changes induced by pressure overload are not fully understood. We studied contractile reserve in isolated left ventricular myocytes from mice with ascending aortic stenosis (AS) during compensatory hypertrophy (4-week AS) and the later stage of early failure (7-week AS) and from control mice. Myocyte contraction and [Ca(2+)](i) transients with fluo-3 were measured simultaneously. At baseline (0.5 Hz, 1.5 mmol/L [Ca(2+)](o), 25 degrees C), the amplitude of myocyte shortening and peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) in 7-week AS were not different from those of controls, whereas contraction, relaxation, and the decline of [Ca(2+)](i) transients were slower. In response to the challenge of high [Ca(2+)](o), fractional cell shortening was severely depressed with reduced peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) in 7-week AS compared with controls. In response to rapid pacing stimulation, cell shortening and peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) increased in controls, but this response was depressed in 7-week AS. In contrast, the responses to both challenge with high [Ca(2+)](o) and rapid pacing in 4-week AS were similar to those of controls. Although protein levels of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger were increased in both 4-week and 7-week AS, the ratio of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase to phospholamban protein levels was depressed in 7-week AS compared with controls but not in 4-week AS. This was associated with an impaired capacity to increase sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load during high work states in 7-week AS myocytes. In hypertrophied failing mouse myocytes, depressed contractile reserve is related to an impaired augmentation of systolic [Ca(2+)](i) and SR Ca(2+) load and simulates findings in human failing myocytes.

  9. Contractile reserve and calcium regulation are depressed in myocytes from chronically unloaded hearts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, Kenta; Nakayama, Masaharu; Hasan, Faisal; Yan, Xinhua; Schneider, Michael D.; Lorell, Beverly H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic cardiac unloading of the normal heart results in the reduction of left ventricular (LV) mass, but effects on myocyte contractile function are not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac unloading and reduction in LV mass were induced by heterotopic heart transplantation to the abdominal aorta in isogenic rats. Contractility and [Ca(2+)](i) regulation in LV myocytes were studied at both 2 and 5 weeks after transplantation. Native in situ hearts from recipient animals were used as the controls for all experiments. Contractile function indices in myocytes from 2-week unloaded and native (control) hearts were similar under baseline conditions (0.5 Hz, 1.2 mmol/L [Ca(2+)](o), and 36 degrees C) and in response to stimulation with high [Ca(2+)](o) (range 2.5 to 4.0 mmol/L). In myocytes from 5-week unloaded hearts, there were no differences in fractional cell shortening and peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) at baseline; however, time to 50% relengthening and time to 50% decline in [Ca(2+)](i) were prolonged compared with controls. Severe defects in fractional cell shortening and peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) were elicited in myocytes from 5-week unloaded hearts in response to high [Ca(2+)](o). However, there were no differences in the contractile response to isoproterenol between myocytes from unloaded and native hearts. In 5-week unloaded hearts, but not in 2-week unloaded hearts, LV protein levels of phospholamban were increased (345% of native heart values). Protein levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger were not changed. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic unloading of the normal heart caused a time-dependent depression of myocyte contractile function, suggesting the potential for impaired performance in states associated with prolonged cardiac atrophy.

  10. Role of SERCA and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content on calcium waves propagation in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Cantú, Ayleen; Pérez-Treviño, Perla; Montalvo-Parra, Dolores; Balderas-Villalobos, Jaime; Gómez-Víquez, Norma L; García, Noemí; Altamirano, Julio

    2016-08-15

    In Ca(2+)-overloaded ventricular myocytes, SERCA is crucial to steadily achieve the critical sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) level to trigger and sustain Ca(2+) waves, that propagate at constant rate (ʋwave). High luminal Ca(2+) sensitizes RyR2, thereby increasing Ca(2+) sparks frequency, and the larger RyR2-mediated SR Ca(2+) flux (dF/dt) sequentially activates adjacent RyR2 clusters. Recently, it was proposed that rapid SERCA Ca(2+) reuptake, ahead of the wave front, further sensitizes RyR2, increasing ʋwave. Nevertheless, this is controversial because rapid cytosolic Ca(2+) removal could instead impair RyR2 activation. We assessed whether rapid SR Ca(2+) uptake enhances ʋwave by changing SERCA activity (ҡDecay) over a large range (∼175%). We used normal (Ctrl) and hyperthyroid rat (HT; reduced phospholamban by ∼80%) myocytes treated with thapsigargin or isoproterenol (ISO). We found that ʋwave and dF/dt had a non-linear dependency with ҡDecay, while Ca(2+) waves amplitude was largely unaffected. Furthermore, SR Ca(2+) also showed a non-linear dependency with ҡDecay, however, the relationships ʋwave vs. SR Ca(2+) and ʋwave vs. dF/dt were linear, suggesting that high steady state SR Ca(2+) determines ʋwave, while rapid SERCA Ca(2+) uptake does not. Finally, ISO did not increase ʋwave in HT cells, therefore, ISO-enhanced ʋwave in Ctrl depended on high SR Ca(2+). PMID:27242324

  11. Methamphetamine oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and functional deficits are modulated by nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2.

    PubMed

    Ramkissoon, Annmarie; Wells, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors like nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) can enhance the transcription of cytoprotective genes during oxidative stress. We investigated whether Nrf2 is activated by methamphetamine (METH) thereby altering neurotoxicity in Nrf2 +/+ and -/- adult mouse brain. A single dose of METH can induce the mRNA levels of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and cytoprotective proteins in mouse brain. Multiple-day dosing with METH enhanced DNA oxidation and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter staining in the striatum, indicating dopaminergic nerve terminal toxicity, which was more severe in -/- mice, as were deficits in motor coordination and olfactory discrimination. These Nrf2-dependent effects were independent of changes in METH metabolism or the induction of hyperthermia. Similarly, METH increased striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein, indicating neurotoxicity. METH neurotoxicity was also observed in the glial cells and in the GABAergic system of the olfactory bulbs and was enhanced in -/- mice, whereas dopaminergic parameters were unaffected. With one-day dosing of METH, there were no differences between +/+ and -/- mice in either basal or METH-enhanced DNA oxidation and neurotoxicity markers. Nrf2-mediated pathways accordingly may protect against the neurodegenerative effects and functional deficits initiated by METH and perhaps other reactive oxygen species-enhancing neurotoxicants, when there is time for transcriptional activation and protein induction. In human users of METH, this mechanism may be essential when differences in drug abuse patterns may alter the induction and duration of Nrf2 activation thereby modulating susceptibility to the neurotoxic effects of METH. PMID:26427884

  12. Tissue-specific expression of the human brain natriuretic peptide gene in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    LaPointe, M C; Wu, G; Garami, M; Yang, X P; Gardner, D G

    1996-03-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac hormone constitutively expressed in the adult heart. To identify the cis-acting elements involved in regulation of the human BNP gene, we subcloned the full-length promoter (-1818 to +100) and deletions thereof upstream from a luciferase reporter gene and transiently transfected them into primary cultures of neonatal rat atrial and ventricular myocytes and myocardial fibroblasts. Luciferase activity of the full-length construct was higher in ventricular (39064 +/- 8488 relative light units, N=11) and atrial (11225 +/- 1907, N=17) myocytes than myocardial fibroblasts (329 +/- 113, n=5). Maximal promoter activity in ventricular and atrial myocytes was maintained by sequences positioned between -1818 and -1283 relative to the transcription start site. Deletion to -1175 resulted in a decrease, whereas further deletion to -500 effected an increase in reporter activity in both cell types. In ventricular and atrial myocytes, deletion from -500 to -40 reduced luciferase activity 20-fold and 2-fold, respectively, whereas in myocardial fibroblasts, deletion to -40 upregulated the BNP promoter 2-fold. Of note, deleting 16 bp between -127 and -111 reduced luciferase activity 7-fold and 4-fold in ventricular and atrial myocytes, respectively, but had essentially no effect on luciferase activity in fibroblasts. Placement of sequences lying between -127 and -40 upstream from a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter resulted in reporter expression that was 7.4-fold greater than the vector alone in ventricular myocytes, approximately 2-fold greater in atrial myocytes, and equivalent to the vector alone in fibroblasts. For study of activity of the human BNP promoter in adult myocytes, either 408 or 97 bp of 5' flanking sequence coupled to the luciferase reporter gene was injected into the apex of adult male Sprague-Dawley rat hearts. After 7 days, luciferase activity in the injected myocardium was 9.8-fold higher for the longer construct

  13. VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway promotes myocyte hypertrophy and survival in the infarcted myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tieqiang; Zhao, Wenyuan; Meng, Weixin; Liu, Chang; Chen, Yuanjian; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Kumar, Rahul; Sun, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have shown that in addition to angio/lymphangiogenesis, the VEGF family is involved in other cellular actions. We have recently reported that enhanced VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in the infarcted rat myocardium, suggesting the paracrine/autocrine function of VEGF-C on cardiac remodeling. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that VEGF-C regulates cardiomyocyte growth and survival in the infarcted myocardium. Methods and results: Gene profiling and VEGFR-3 expression of cardiomyocytes were assessed by laser capture microdissection/microarray and immunohistochemistry in the normal and infarcted myocardium. The effect of VEGF-C on myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis during normoxia and hypoxia was detected by RT-PCR and western blotting in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. VEGFR-3 was minimally expressed in cardiomyocytes of the normal and noninfarcted myocardium, while markedly elevated in the surviving cardiomyocytes of the infarcted myocardium and border zone. Genes altered in the surviving cardiomyocytes were associated with the networks regulating cellular growth and survival. VEGF-C significantly increased the expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANP), brain natriuretic factor (BNP), and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC), markers of hypertrophy, in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Hypoxia caused neonatal cardiomyocyte atrophy, which was prevented by VEGF-C treatment. Hypoxia significantly enhanced apoptotic mediators, including cleaved caspase 3, 8, and 9, and Bax in neonatal cardiomyocytes, which were abolished by VEGF-C treatment. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway exerts a beneficial role in the infarcted myocardium by promoting compensatory cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and survival. PMID:26064438

  14. Structural and Functional Plasticity in Long-term Cultures of Adult Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Mukherjee, Rosy; Dick, Ivy E.; Liu, Ting; O'Rourke, Brian; Yue, David T.; Tung, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Cultured heart cells have long been valuable for characterizing biological mechanism and disease pathogenesis. However, these preparations have limitations, relating to immaturity in key properties like excitation-contraction coupling and β-adrenergic stimulation. Progressive attenuation of the latter is intimately related to pathogenesis and therapy in heart failure. Highly valuable would be a long-term culture system that emulates the structural and functional changes that accompany disease and development, while concurrently permitting ready access to underlying molecular events. Accordingly, we here produce functional monolayers of adult guinea-pig ventricular myocytes (aGPVMs) that can be maintained in long-term culture for several weeks. At baseline, these monolayers exhibit considerable myofibrillar organization and a significant contribution of sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+ release to global Ca2+ transients. In terms of electrical signaling, these monolayers support propagated electrical activity and manifest monophasic restitution of action-potential duration and conduction velocity. Intriguingly, β-adrenergic stimulation increases chronotropy but not inotropy, indicating selective maintenance of β-adrenergic signaling. It is interesting that this overall phenotypic profile is not fixed, but can be readily enhanced by chronic electrical stimulation of cultures. This simple environmental cue significantly enhances myofibrillar organization as well as β-adrenergic sensitivity. In particular, the chronotropic response increased, and an inotropic effect now emerges, mimicking a reversal of the progression seen in heart failure. Thus, these aGPVM monolayer cultures offer a valuable platform for clarifying long elusive features of β-adrenergic signaling and its plasticity. PMID:24076394

  15. [Application of a Fotonic Sensor for measurement of chronotropy and contractility in cultured rat cardiac myocytes].

    PubMed

    Kawana, S; Kimura, H; Miyamoto, A; Ohshika, H; Namiki, A

    1993-10-01

    We used a Fotonic Sensor, a fiber optic displacement measurement instrument, to measure the chronotropy and the contractility of cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The principle of the measurement is to detect changes in the distance between the probe and myocytes vertically extruded by the contraction. A fiber optic probe consists of adjacent pairs of light-transmitting and light-receiving fibers. The ratio of reflected light to transmitted light changes proportionally to the distance between the probe and an object at a certain range shown in a calibration curve. The analogue output from the sensor was transferred to a personal computer through an analogue/digital converter and analyzed. The sensor was able to detect the rate of myocyte beating, i.e., chronotropy, with a high correlation to the frequency of electrically stimulated beating and agreed well with the beating rate counted visually under a microscope. The contractility was evaluated by the maximum contraction velocity (Vm) by the first derivatives of the contraction curves obtained by the sensor. Norepinephrine (NE) and isoproterenol (ISO) increased the contractility in cultured myocytes in a dose-dependent fashion. In the preparation of rat ventricular papillary muscle, NE- and ISO-induced increase in the Vm in the radial direction significantly correlated with the increase in tension measured with a force-displacement transducer. These results indicate that the Fotonic Sensor is an appropriate instrument for evaluating the chronotropy and the contractility of cultured myocytes. PMID:8253432

  16. Glucagon-like peptide-1 increases cAMP but fails to augment contraction in adult rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Vila Petroff, M G; Egan, J M; Wang, X; Sollott, S J

    2001-08-31

    The gut hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is secreted in nanomolar amounts in response to nutrients in the intestinal lumen, exerts cAMP/protein kinase A-mediated insulinotropic actions in target endocrine tissues, but its actions in heart cells are unknown. GLP-1 (10 nmol/L) increased intracellular cAMP (from 5.7+/-0.5 to 13.1+/-0.12 pmol/mg protein) in rat cardiac myocytes. The effects of cAMP-doubling concentrations of both GLP-1 and isoproterenol (ISO, 10 nmol/L) on contraction amplitude, intracellular Ca(2+) transient (CaT), and pH(i) in indo-1 and seminaphthorhodafluor (SNARF)-1 loaded myocytes were compared. Whereas ISO caused a characteristic increase (above baseline) in contraction amplitude (160+/-34%) and CaT (70+/-5%), GLP-1 induced a significant decrease in contraction amplitude (-27+/-5%) with no change in the CaT after 20 minutes. Neither pertussis toxin treatment nor exposure to the cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase (PDE2) inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine or the nonselective PDE inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine nor the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid or calyculin A unmasked an ISO-mimicking response of GLP-1. In SNARF-1-loaded myocytes, however, both ISO and GLP-1 caused an intracellular acidosis (DeltapH(i) -0.09+/-0.02 and -0.08+/-0.03, respectively). The specific GLP-1 antagonist exendin 9-39 and the cAMP inhibitory analog Rp-8CPT-cAMPS inhibited both the GLP-1-induced intracellular acidosis and the negative contractile effect. We conclude that in contrast to beta-adrenergic signaling, GLP-1 increases cAMP but fails to augment contraction, suggesting the existence of functionally distinct adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A compartments, possibly determined by unique receptor signaling microdomains that are not controlled by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins or by enhanced local PDE or phosphatase activation. Furthermore, GLP-1 elicits a cAMP-dependent modest negative inotropic effect produced by a

  17. Fibroblast KATP currents modulate myocyte electrophysiology in infarcted hearts.

    PubMed

    Benamer, Najate; Vasquez, Carolina; Mahoney, Vanessa M; Steinhardt, Maximilian J; Coetzee, William A; Morley, Gregory E

    2013-05-01

    Cardiac metabolism remains altered for an extended period of time after myocardial infarction. Studies have shown fibroblasts from normal hearts express KATP channels in culture. It is unknown whether fibroblasts from infarcted hearts express KATP channels and whether these channels contribute to scar and border zone electrophysiology. KATP channel subunit expression levels were determined in fibroblasts isolated from normal hearts (Fb), and scar (sMI-Fb) and remote (rMI-Fb) regions of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligated rat hearts. Whole cell KATP current density was determined with patch clamp. Action potential duration (APD) was measured with optical mapping in myocyte-only cultures and heterocellular cultures with fibroblasts with and without 100 μmol/l pinacidil. Whole heart optical mapping was used to assess KATP channel activity following LAD ligation. Pinacidil activated a potassium current (35.4 ± 7.5 pA/pF at 50 mV) in sMI-Fb that was inhibited with 10 μmol/l glibenclamide. Kir6.2 and SUR2 transcript levels were elevated in sMI-Fb. Treatment with Kir6.2 short interfering RNA decreased KATP currents (87%) in sMI-Fb. Treatment with pinacidil decreased APD (26%) in co-cultures with sMI-Fb. APD values were prolonged in LAD ligated hearts after perfusion with glibenclamide. KATP channels are present in fibroblasts from the scar and border zones of infarcted hearts. Activation of fibroblast KATP channels could modulate the electrophysiological substrate beyond the acute ischemic event. Targeting fibroblast KATP channels could represent a novel therapeutic approach to modify border zone electrophysiology after cardiac injury. PMID:23436329

  18. cAMP- and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases mediate inotropic, lusitropic and arrhythmogenic effects of urocortin 2 in mouse ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Zhen; Kockskämper, Jens; Khan, Shelina; Suarez, Jorge; Walther, Stefanie; Doleschal, Bernhard; Unterer, Gregor; Khafaga, Mounir; Mächler, Heinrich; Heinzel, Frank R; Dillmann, Wolfgang H; Pieske, Burkert; Spiess, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Urocortin 2 is beneficial in heart failure, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we have characterized the functional effects of urocortin 2 on mouse cardiomyocytes and elucidated the underlying signalling pathways and mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mouse ventricular myocytes were field-stimulated at 0.5 Hz at room temperature. Fractional shortening and [Ca2+]i transients were measured by an edge detection and epifluorescence system respectively. Western blots were carried out on myocyte extracts with antibodies against total phospholamban (PLN) and PLN phosphorylated at serine-16. KEY RESULTS Urocortin 2 elicited time- and concentration-dependent positive inotropic and lusitropic effects (EC50: 19 nM) that were abolished by antisauvagine-30 (10 nM, n = 6), a specific antagonist of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) CRF2 receptors. Urocortin 2 (100 nM) increased the amplitude and decreased the time constant of decay of the underlying [Ca2+]i transients. Urocortin 2 also increased PLN phosphorylation at serine-16. H89 (2 µM) or KT5720 (1 µM), two inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA), as well as KN93 (1 µM), an inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), suppressed the urocortin 2 effects on shortening and [Ca2+]i transients. In addition, urocortin 2 also elicited arrhythmogenic events consisting of extra cell shortenings and extra [Ca2+]i increases in diastole. Urocortin 2-induced arrhythmogenic events were significantly reduced in cells pretreated with KT5720 or KN93. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Urocortin 2 enhanced contractility in mouse ventricular myocytes via activation of CRF2 receptors in a cAMP/PKA- and Ca2+/CaMKII-dependent manner. This enhancement was accompanied by Ca2+-dependent arrhythmogenic effects mediated by PKA and CaMKII. PMID:20942811

  19. Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells can transdifferentiate into skeletal myocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Fujie, Masaki; Endo, Tuyoshi; Kano, Koichiro

    2008-12-19

    We have previously reported the establishment of preadipocyte cell lines, termed dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells, from mature adipocytes of various animals. DFAT cells possess long-term viability and can redifferentiate into adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, DFAT cells can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes under appropriate culture conditions. However, it is unclear whether DFAT cells are capable of transdifferentiating into skeletal myocytes, which is common in the mesodermal lineage. Here, we show that DFAT cells can be induced to transdifferentiate into skeletal myocytes in vitro. Myogenic induction of DFAT cells resulted in the expression of MyoD and myogenin, followed by cell fusion and formation of multinucleated cells expressing sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. These results indicate that DFAT cells derived from mature adipocytes can transdifferentiate into skeletal myocytes in vitro.

  20. Fibroblast–myocyte electrotonic coupling: Does it occur in native cardiac tissue?☆

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Peter; Gourdie, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Heterocellular electrotonic coupling between cardiac myocytes and non-excitable connective tissue cells has been a long-established and well-researched fact in vitro. Whether or not such coupling exists in vivo has been a matter of considerable debate. This paper reviews the development of experimental insight and conceptual views on this topic, describes evidence in favour of and against the presence of such coupling in native myocardium, and identifies directions for further study needed to resolve the riddle, perhaps less so in terms of principal presence which has been demonstrated, but undoubtedly in terms of extent, regulation, patho-physiological context, and actual relevance of cardiac myocyte–non-myocyte coupling in vivo. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Myocyte-Fibroblast Signalling in Myocardium." PMID:24412581

  1. Cytosolic and nuclear calcium signaling in atrial myocytes: IP3-mediated calcium release and the role of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Hohendanner, Felix; Maxwell, Joshua T; Blatter, Lothar A

    2015-01-01

    In rabbit atrial myocytes Ca signaling has unique features due to the lack of transverse (t) tubules, the spatial arrangement of mitochondria and the contribution of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-induced Ca release (IICR). During excitation-contraction coupling action potential-induced elevation of cytosolic [Ca] originates in the cell periphery from Ca released from the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (j-SR) and then propagates by Ca-induced Ca release from non-junctional (nj-) SR toward the cell center. The subsarcolemmal region between j-SR and the first array of nj-SR Ca release sites is devoid of mitochondria which results in a rapid propagation of activation through this domain, whereas the subsequent propagation through the nj-SR network occurs at a velocity typical for a propagating Ca wave. Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca uptake with the Ca uniporter blocker Ru360 accelerates propagation and increases the amplitude of Ca transients (CaTs) originating from nj-SR. Elevation of cytosolic IP3 levels by rapid photolysis of caged IP3 has profound effects on the magnitude of subcellular CaTs with increased Ca release from nj-SR and enhanced CaTs in the nuclear compartment. IP3 uncaging restricted to the nucleus elicites ‘mini’-Ca waves that remain confined to this compartment. Elementary IICR events (Ca puffs) preferentially originate in the nucleus in close physical association with membrane structures of the nuclear envelope and the nucleoplasmic reticulum. The data suggest that in atrial myocytes the nucleus is an autonomous Ca signaling domain where Ca dynamics are primarily governed by IICR. PMID:25891132

  2. Microdomain heterogeneity in 3D affects the mechanics of neonatal cardiac myocyte contraction.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Matthew W; Budyn, Elisa; Desai, Tejal A; Samarel, Allen M; Russell, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac muscle cells are known to adapt to their physical surroundings, optimizing intracellular organization and contractile function for a given culture environment. A previously developed in vitro model system has shown that the inclusion of discrete microscale domains (or microrods) in three dimensions (3D) can alter long-term growth responses of neonatal ventricular myocytes. The aim of this work was to understand how cellular contact with such a domain affects various mechanical changes involved in cardiac muscle cell remodeling. Myocytes were maintained in 3D gels over 5 days in the presence or absence of 100-μm-long microrods, and the effect of this local heterogeneity on cell behavior was analyzed via several imaging techniques. Microrod abutment resulted in approximately twofold increases in the maximum displacement of spontaneously beating myocytes, as based on confocal microscopy scans of the gel xy-plane or the myocyte long axis. In addition, microrods caused significant increases in the proportion of aligned myofibrils (≤20° deviation from long axis) in fixed myocytes. Microrod-related differences in axial contraction could be abrogated by long-term interruption of certain signals of the RhoA-/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) or protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Furthermore, microrod-induced increases in myocyte size and protein content were prevented by ROCK inhibition. In all, the data suggest that microdomain heterogeneity in 3D appears to promote the development of axially aligned contractile machinery in muscle cells, an observation that may have relevance to a number of cardiac tissue engineering interventions. PMID:22407215

  3. Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Tobias; Lehnart, Stephan E.

    2014-01-01

    In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+ release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied

  4. Adiponectin downregulation is associated with volume overload-induced myocyte dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-li; Miller, Dori; Wanders, Desiree; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Amin, Rajesh; Judd, Robert; Morrison, Edward E; Zhong, Ju-ming

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Adiponectin has been reported to exert protective effects during pathological ventricular remodeling, but the role of adiponectin in volume overload-induced heart failure remains unclear. In this study we investigated the effect of adiponectin on cardiac myocyte contractile dysfunction following volume overload in rats. Methods: Volume overload was surgically induced in rats by infrarenal aorta-vena cava fistula. The rats were intravenously administered adenoviral adiponectin at 2-, 6- and 9-weeks following fistula. The protein expression of adiponectin, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/R2 and T-cadherin) and AMPK activity were measured using Western blot analyses. Isolated ventricular myocytes were prepared at 12 weeks post-fistula to examine the contractile performance of myocytes and intracellular Ca2+ transient. Results: A-V fistula resulted in significant reductions in serum and myocardial adiponectin levels, myocardial adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1/R2 and T-cadherin) levels, as well as myocardial AMPK activity. Consistent with these changes, the isolated myocytes exhibited significant depression in cell shortening and intracellular Ca2+ transient. Administration of adenoviral adiponectin significantly increased serum adiponectin levels and prevented myocyte contractile dysfunction in fistula rats. Furthermore, pretreatment of isolated myocytes with recombinant adiponectin (2.5 μg/mL) significantly improved their contractile performance in fistula rats, but had no effects in control or adenoviral adiponectin-administered rats. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a positive correlation between adiponectin downregulation and volume overload-induced ventricular remodeling. Adiponectin plays a protective role in volume overload-induced heart failure. PMID:26616727

  5. Hypertrophic stimuli induce transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, N; Calderone, A; Izzo, N J; Mäki, T M; Marsh, J D; Colucci, W S

    1994-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a peptide growth factor that may play a role in the myocardial response to hypertrophic stimuli. However, the cellular distribution, mechanism of induction, and source of increased TGF-beta 1 in response to hypertrophic stimuli are not known. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiac myocyte responds to hypertrophic stimuli with the increased expression of TGF-beta 1. In adult rat ventricular myocardium freshly dissociated into myocyte and nonmyocyte cellular fractions, the preponderance of TGF-beta 1 mRNA visualized by Northern hybridization was in the nonmyocyte fraction. Abdominal aortic constriction (7 d) and subcutaneous norepinephrine infusion (36 h) each caused ventricular hypertrophy associated with 3.1-fold and 3.8-fold increases, respectively, in TGF-beta 1 mRNA in the myocyte fraction, but had no effect on the level of TGF-beta 1 mRNA in the nonmyocyte fraction. In ventricular myocytes, norepinephrine likewise caused a 4.1-fold increase in TGF-beta 1 mRNA associated with an increase in TGF-beta bioactivity. This induction of TGF-beta 1 mRNA occurred at norepinephrine concentrations as low as 1 nM and was blocked by prazosin, but not propranolol. NE did not increase the TGF-beta 1 mRNA level in nonmyocytes, primarily fibroblasts, cultured from neonatal rat ventricle. Thus, the cardiac myocyte responds to two hypertrophic stimuli, pressure overload and norepinephrine, with the induction of TGF-beta 1. These data support the view that TGF-beta 1, released by myocytes and acting in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner, is involved in myocardial remodeling by hypertrophic stimuli. Images PMID:7929822

  6. Microdomain heterogeneity in 3D affects the mechanics of neonatal cardiac myocyte contraction

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Matthew W.; Budyn, Elisa; Desai, Tejal A.; Samarel, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac muscle cells are known to adapt to their physical surroundings, optimizing intracellular organization and contractile function for a given culture environment. A previously developed in vitro model system has shown that the inclusion of discrete microscale domains (or microrods) in three dimensions (3D) can alter long-term growth responses of neonatal ventricular myocytes. The aim of this work was to understand how cellular contact with such a domain affects various mechanical changes involved in cardiac muscle cell remodeling. Myocytes were maintained in 3D gels over 5 days in the presence or absence of 100 – μm-long microrods, and the effect of this local heterogeneity on cell behavior was analyzed via several imaging techniques. Microrod abutment resulted in approximately twofold increases in the maximum displacement of spontaneously beating myocytes, as based on confocal microscopy scans of the gel xy-plane or the myocyte long axis. In addition, microrods caused significant increases in the proportion of aligned myofibrils (≤20° deviation from long axis) in fixed myocytes. Microrod-related differences in axial contraction could be abrogated by long-term interruption of certain signals of the RhoA-/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) or protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Furthermore, microrod-induced increases in myocyte size and protein content were prevented by ROCK inhibition. In all, the data suggest that microdomain heterogeneity in 3D appears to promote the development of axially aligned contractile machinery in muscle cells, an observation that may have relevance to a number of cardiac tissue engineering interventions. PMID:22407215

  7. The stimulus interval-tension relation in enzymatically isolated single myocytes of the frog heart.

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, G; Colomo, F; Poggesi, C; Tesi, C

    1992-01-01

    1. Apparatus for recording the small tensions developed by electrically stimulated single intact myocytes of frog heart is described. A laser-light optoelectronic transducer was used. The compliance of the force probes was 10-20 nm/nN, with a frequency response of 600-900 Hz in Ringer solution. The myocyte shortening during an ordinary twitch contraction was no greater than 1% of the slack length. The overall sensitivity of the transducer system was 5-10 mV/nN, with a total noise of 0.5-1 nN peak to peak. The experiments were performed at 20-23 degrees C on either atrial or ventricular myocytes at 2.15-2.2 microns sarcomere length, in 1 mM-Ca2+ Ringer solution. 2. Isoprenaline (5 microM), increases in external Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o), and shortening of stimulus interval potentiated the myocyte twitch tension. The dependence of twitch characteristics on these inotropic interventions for all the atrial and ventricular myocytes tested was comparable to that of multicellular preparations under similar experimental conditions. This implies that the enzymatic isolation procedure had not altered the physiological properties of the myocytes. 3. The stimulus interval-tension relation for premature twitches of atrial and ventricular myocytes showed (i) a very steep rising phase in the region of intervals just longer than 0.52 and 0.66 s (the duration of the mechanical refractoriness in atrial or ventricular cells), (ii) a peak, at intervals of 0.7-0.8 s, where the twitch tension was strongly potentiated compared to that of the controls, and (iii) as the stimulus interval was further increased, a progressive return to the control level. The stimulus interval-tension relation for steady-state conditions exhibited similar characteristics. 4. The degree of tension potentiation by isoprenaline was greater in the controls than in the earliest test twitches. The result was that the stimulus interval-tension relations for isoprenaline-treated myocytes showed a gentler rise and

  8. Cellular Mechanism of the Nonmonotonic Dose Response of Bisphenol A in Rat Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qian; Gao, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yamei; Hong, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Background: The need for mechanistic understanding of nonmonotonic dose responses has been identified as one of the major data gaps in the study of bisphenol A (BPA). Previously we reported that acute exposure to BPA promotes arrhythmogenesis in female hearts through alteration of myocyte Ca2+ handling, and that the dose response of BPA was inverted U-shaped. Objective: We sought to define the cellular mechanism underlying the nonmonotonic dose response of BPA in the heart. Methods: We examined rapid effects of BPA in female rat ventricular myocytes using video-edge detection, confocal and conventional fluorescence imaging, and patch clamp. Results: The rapid effects of BPA in cardiac myocytes, as measured by multiple end points, including development of arrhythmic activities, myocyte mechanics, and Ca2+ transient, were characterized by nonmonotonic dose responses. Interestingly, the effects of BPA on individual processes of myocyte Ca2+ handling were monotonic. Over the concentration range of 10–12 to 10–6 M, BPA progressively increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and Ca2+ reuptake and inhibited the L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL). These effects on myocyte Ca2+ handling were mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) β signaling. The nonmonotonic dose responses of BPA can be accounted for by the combined effects of progressively increased SR Ca2+ reuptake/release and decreased Ca2+ influx through ICaL. Conclusion: The rapid effects of BPA on female rat cardiac myocytes are characterized by nonmonotonic dose responses as measured by multiple end points. The nonmonotonic dose response was produced by ERβ-mediated monotonic effects on multiple cellular Ca2+ handling processes. This represents a distinct mechanism underlying the nonmonotonicity of BPA’s actions. Citation: Liang Q, Gao X, Chen Y, Hong K, Wang HS. 2014. Cellular mechanism of the nonmonotonic dose response of bisphenol A in rat cardiac myocytes. Environ Health Perspect 122:601–608;

  9. The relationship between contraction and intracellular sodium in rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S M; McCall, E; Boyett, M R

    1992-01-01

    1. The contraction, measured optically, and the intracellular Na+ activity (aNai), measured with the Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye SBFI, have been recorded simultaneously in rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. 2. In rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes at rest, aNai was 7.8 +/- 0.3 mM (n = 4) and 5.1 +/- 0.3 mM (n = 16), respectively. 3. When both rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes were stimulated at 1 Hz after a rest there was usually a gradual increase in twitch shortening (referred to as a 'staircase') over several minutes accompanied by an increase in aNai over a similar time course. Twitch shortening increased by 21 +/- 3% (n = 6) and 20 +/- 4% (n = 16) (of steady-state twitch shortening during 1 Hz stimulation) per millimolar rise in aNai in rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes, respectively. 4. When rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes were exposed to strophanthidin to block the Na(+)-K+ pump, there were increases in twitch shortening and aNai over similar time courses. Twitch shortening increased by 24 +/- 4% (n = 5) and 20 +/- 3% (n = 10) (of control twitch shortening) per millimolar rise in aNai in rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes respectively. 5. The inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides, such as strophanthidin, is widely regarded to be principally the result of the rise in aNai. The similarity of the relation between twitch shortening and aNai during the staircase and on application of strophanthidin suggests that the progressive increase in the strength of contraction during the staircase was also linked to the rise in aNai. 6. In guinea-pig, but not rat, ventricular myocytes there was hysteresis in the relation between twitch shortening and aNai on application and wash-off of strophanthidin. This indicates that strophanthidin has another inotropic action in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. 7. A computer model of excitation-contraction coupling has been developed to simulate the staircase and the action of cardiac glycoside

  10. Cyclic GMP reduces ventricular myocyte stunning after simulated ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, A; Yan, L; Scholz, P M; Huang, M W; Weiss, H R

    1999-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the second messenger activated by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP, would reduce the effects of myocyte stunning following simulated ischemia-reperfusion and that this was related to cyclic GMP protein kinase. Ventricular cardiac myocytes were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits (n = 8). Cell shortening was measured by a video edge detector and protein phosphorylation was determined autoradiographically after SDS gel electrophoresis. Cell shortening data were acquired at: (i) baseline followed by 8-Bromo-cGMP 10(-6) M (8-Br-cGMP) and then KT 5823 10(-6) M (cyclic GMP protein kinase inhibitor) and (ii) simulated ischemia (20 min of 95% N(2)-5% CO(2) at 37 degrees C) followed by simulated reperfusion (reoxygenation) with addition of 8-Br-cGMP 10(-6) M followed by KT 5823 10(-6) M, (iii) addition of 8-Br-cGMP prior to ischemia followed by the addition of KT 5823 10(-6) M after 30 min of reoxygenation. In the control group, 8-Br-cGMP 10(-6) M decreased percentage shortening (%short) (5.0 +/- 0.6 vs 3.8 +/- 0. 4) and the maximum velocity (V(max), microm/s) (48.6 +/- 6.9 vs 40.2 +/- 6.4). KT 5823 10(-6) M added after 8-Br-cGMP partially restored %short (4.6 +/- 0.5) and V(max) (46.6 +/- 8.0). After stunning, baseline myocytes had decreased %short (3.4 +/- 0.2) and V(max) (36. 0 +/- 4.2). After the addition of 8-Br-cGMP, the %short (2.7 +/- 0. 2) and V(max) (27.6 +/- 2.5) decreased further. The addition of KT 5823 did not change either the %short or the V(max). The myocytes with 8-Br-cGMP during ischemia had increased %short (4.2 +/- 0.2) and V(max) (37.2 +/- 3.4) when compared to the stunned group. The addition of KT 5823 did not significantly alter %short (3.3 +/- 0.4) or V(max) (29.2 +/- 5.0) in the myocytes pretreated with 8-Br-cGMP. Protein phosphorylation was increased by 8-Br-cGMP in control and stunned myocytes. KT 5823 blocked this effect in control but not stunned myocytes, suggesting some change in the cyclic GMP protein kinase

  11. Current-Voltage Relationship for Late Na(+) Current in Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Clark, R B; Giles, W R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that the slowly inactivating component of the Na(+) current (INa-L) in the mammalian heart is a significant regulator of the action potential waveform. This insight has led to detailed studies of the role of INa-L in a number of important and challenging pathophysiological settings. These include genetically based ventricular arrhythmias (LQT 1, 2, and 3), ventricular arrhythmias arising from progressive cardiomyopathies (including diabetic), and proarrhythmic abnormalities that develop during local or global ventricular ischemia. Inhibition of INa-L may also be a useful strategy for management of atrial flutter and fibrillation. Many important biophysical parameters that characterize INa-L have been identified; and INa-L as an antiarrhythmia drug target has been studied extensively. However, relatively little information is available regarding (1) the ion transfer or current-voltage relationship for INa-L or (2) the time course of its reactivation at membrane potentials similar to the resting or diastolic membrane potential in mammalian ventricle. This chapter is based on our preliminary findings concerning these two very important physiological/biophysical descriptors for INa-L. Our results were obtained using whole-cell voltage clamp methods applied to enzymatically isolated rat ventricular myocytes. A chemical agent, BDF 9148, which was once considered to be a drug candidate in the Na(+)-dependent inotropic agent category has been used to markedly enhance INa-L current. BDF acts in a potent, selective, and reversible fashion. These BDF 9148 effects are compared and contrasted with the prototypical activator of INa-L, a sea anemone toxin, ATX II. PMID:27586292

  12. Effects of mitochondrial uncoupling on Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling in atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zima, Aleksey V.; Pabbidi, Malikarjuna R.; Lipsius, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria play an important role in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulation in the heart. We studied sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release in cat atrial myocytes during depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by the protonophore FCCP. FCCP caused an initial decrease of action potential-induced Ca2+ transient amplitude and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ waves followed by partial recovery despite partially depleted SR Ca2+ stores. In the presence of oligomycin, FCCP only exerted a stimulatory effect on Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ wave frequency, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of FCCP was mediated by ATP consumption through reverse-mode operation of mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase. ΔΨm depolarization was accompanied by cytosolic acidification, increases of diastolic [Ca2+]i, intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i), and intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i), and a decrease of intracellular ATP concentration ([ATP]i); however, glycolytic ATP production partially compensated for the exhaustion of mitochondrial ATP supplies. In conclusion, the initial inhibition of Ca2+ transients and waves resulted from suppression of ryanodine receptor SR Ca2+ release channel activity by a decrease in [ATP], an increase of [Mg2+]i, and cytoplasmic acidification. The later stimulation resulted from reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering and cytosolic Na+ and Ca2+ accumulation, leading to enhanced Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and spontaneous Ca2+ release in the form of Ca2+ waves. ΔΨm depolarization and the ensuing consequences of mitochondrial uncoupling observed here (intracellular acidification, decrease of [ATP]i, increase of [Na+]i and [Mg2+]i, and Ca2+ overload) are hallmarks of ischemia. These findings may therefore provide insight into the consequences of mitochondrial uncoupling for ion homeostasis, SR Ca2+ release, and excitation-contraction coupling in ischemia at the cellular and subcellular level. PMID:23376829

  13. Vagus nerve stimulation mitigates intrinsic cardiac neuronal and adverse myocyte remodeling postmyocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Eric; Southerland, Elizabeth M; Hardwick, Jean C; Wright, Gary L; Ryan, Shannon; Li, Ying; KenKnight, Bruce H; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to determine whether chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) mitigates myocardial infarction (MI)-induced remodeling of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS), along with the cardiac tissue it regulates. Guinea pigs underwent VNS implantation on the right cervical vagus. Two weeks later, MI was produced by ligating the ventral descending coronary artery. VNS stimulation started 7 days post-MI (20 Hz, 0.9 ± 0.2 mA, 14 s on, 48 s off; VNS-MI, n = 7) and was compared with time-matched MI animals with sham VNS (MI n = 7) vs. untreated controls (n = 8). Echocardiograms were performed before and at 90 days post-MI. At termination, IC neuronal intracellular voltage recordings were obtained from whole-mount neuronal plexuses. MI increased left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) 30% (P = 0.027) and reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 6.5% (P < 0.001) at 90 days post-MI compared with baseline. In the VNS-MI group, LVESV and LVEF did not differ from baseline. IC neurons showed depolarization of resting membrane potentials and increased input resistance in MI compared with VNS-MI and sham controls (P < 0.05). Neuronal excitability and sensitivity to norepinephrine increased in MI and VNS-MI groups compared with controls (P < 0.05). Synaptic efficacy, as determined by evoked responses to stimulating input axons, was reduced in VNS-MI compared with MI or controls (P < 0.05). VNS induced changes in myocytes, consistent with enhanced glycogenolysis, and blunted the MI-induced increase in the proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (P < 0.05). VNS mitigates MI-induced remodeling of the ICNS, correspondingly preserving ventricular function via both neural and cardiomyocyte-dependent actions. PMID:26276818

  14. Ketamine attenuates the Na+-dependent Ca2+ overload in rabbit ventricular myocytes in vitro by inhibiting late Na+ and L-type Ca2+ currents

    PubMed Central

    Luo, An-tao; Cao, Zhen-zhen; Xiang, Yu; Zhang, Shuo; Qian, Chun-ping; Fu, Chen; Zhang, Pei-hua; Ma, Ji-hua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) overload occurs in myocardial ischemia. An increase in the late sodium current (INaL) causes intracellular Na+ overload and subsequently [Ca2+]i overload via the reverse-mode sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX). Thus, inhibition of INaL is a potential therapeutic target for cardiac diseases associated with [Ca2+]i overload. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ketamine on Na+-dependent Ca2+ overload in ventricular myocytes in vitro. Methods: Ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated from hearts of rabbits. INaL, NCX current (INCX) and L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL) were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Myocyte shortening and [Ca2+]i transients were measured simultaneously using a video-based edge detection and dual excitation fluorescence photomultiplier system. Results: Ketamine (20, 40, 80 μmol/L) inhibited INaL in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of sea anemone toxin II (ATX, 30 nmol/L), INaL was augmented by more than 3-fold, while ketamine concentration-dependently suppressed the ATX-augmented INaL. Ketamine (40 μmol/L) also significantly suppressed hypoxia or H2O2-induced enhancement of INaL. Furthermore, ketamine concentration-dependently attenuated ATX-induced enhancement of reverse-mode INCX. In addition, ketamine (40 μmol/L) inhibited ICaL by 33.4%. In the presence of ATX (3 nmol/L), the rate and amplitude of cell shortening and relaxation, the diastolic [Ca2+]i, and the rate and amplitude of [Ca2+]i rise and decay were significantly increased, which were reverted to control levels by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 2 μmol/L) or by ketamine (40 μmol/L). Conclusion: Ketamine protects isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes against [Ca2+]i overload by inhibiting INaL and ICaL. PMID:26456586

  15. EXPOSURE OF CULTURED MYOCYTES TO ZINC RESULTS IN ALTERED BEAT RATE AND INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cultured myocytes to zinc results in altered beat rate and intercellular communication

    Graff, Donald W, Devlin, Robert B, Brackhan, Joseph A, Muller-Borer, Barbara J, Bowman, Jill S, Cascio, Wayne E.

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (...

  16. Interleukin 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibit Cardiac Myocyte β -adrenergic Responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Tod; Chung, Mina K.; Pieper, Stephen J.; Lange, Louis G.; Schreiner, George F.

    1989-09-01

    Reversible congestive heart failure can accompany cardiac allograft rejection and inflammatory myocarditis, conditions associated with an immune cell infiltrate of the myocardium. To determine whether immune cell secretory products alter cardiac muscle metabolism without cytotoxicity, we cultured cardiac myocytes in the presence of culture supernatants from activated immune cells. We observed that these culture supernatants inhibit β -adrenergic agonist-mediated increases in cultured cardiac myocyte contractility and intracellular cAMP accumulation. The myocyte contractile response to increased extracellular Ca2+ concentration is unaltered by prior exposure to these culture supernatants, as is the increase in myocyte intracellular cAMP concentration in response to stimulation with forskolin, a direct adenyl cyclase activator. Inhibition occurs in the absence of alteration in β -adrenergic receptor density or ligand binding affinity. Suppressive activity is attributable to the macrophage-derived cytokines interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. Thus, these observations describe a role for defined cytokines in regulating the hormonal responsiveness and function of contractile cells. The effects of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor on intracellular cAMP accumulation may be a model for immune modulation of other cellular functions dependent upon cyclic nucleotide metabolism. The uncoupling of agonist-occupied receptors from adenyl cyclase suggests that β -receptor or guanine nucleotide binding protein function is altered by the direct or indirect action of cytokines on cardiac muscle cells.

  17. Effects of phytoestrogens on protein turnover in rainbow trout primary myocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean-derived ingredients used in aquaculture feeds may contain phytoestrogens, but it is unknown if these compounds can mimic the catabolic effects of estradiol in fish muscle. Six day-old rainbow trout primary myocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations (10 nM – 100 µM) of either geniste...

  18. Myocyte-fibroblast communication in cardiac fibrosis and arrhythmias: Mechanisms and model systems.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Jason; Zhang, Jing; Sheikh, Farah

    2016-05-01

    Development of cardiac fibrosis and arrhythmias is controlled by the activity of and communication between cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts in the heart. Myocyte-fibroblast interactions occur via both direct and indirect means including paracrine mediators, extracellular matrix interactions, electrical modulators, mechanical junctions, and membrane nanotubes. In the diseased heart, cardiomyocyte and fibroblast ratios and activity, and thus myocyte-fibroblast interactions, change and are thought to contribute to the course of disease including development of fibrosis and arrhythmogenic activity. Fibroblasts have a developing role in modulating cardiomyocyte electrical and hypertrophic activity, however gaps in knowledge regarding these interactions still exist. Research in this field has necessitated the development of unique approaches to isolate and control myocyte-fibroblast interactions. Numerous methods for 2D and 3D co-culture systems have been developed, while a growing part of this field is in the use of better tools for in vivo systems including cardiomyocyte and fibroblast specific Cre mouse lines for cell type specific genetic ablation. This review will focus on (i) mechanisms of myocyte-fibroblast communication and their effects on disease features such as cardiac fibrosis and arrhythmias as well as (ii) methods being used and currently developed in this field. PMID:26996756

  19. Heart rate variability effect on the myocyte action potential duration restitution: insights from switched systems theory.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Hila; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The physiological heart rate presents a stochastic behavior known as heart rate variability (HRV). In this framework the influence of HRV on the action potential duration (APD) of the atrial myocyte is analyzed in a computer model. We have found that introducing HRV into the myocyte action potential model decreases the APD of the extra beat S2 in an S1-S2 protocol compared to constant heart rate. A possible theoretical explanation for this is also presented and is derived from switched systems theory. It is suggested to consider the myocyte action potential phase 4 and phase 2 as two operation modes of a switching system and analyze the stability of switching between them. Since random switching is known to have a stabilization effect on a switching system, this might explain why HRV has a stabilization effect on the myocyte APD restitution. Implications of this finding include reduced system stability for conditions with low HRV. A possible application for this phenomenon regards artificial pacemakers, where a preset added HRV is predicted to reduce susceptibility to arrhythmias. PMID:22254402

  20. Spaceflight regulates ryanodine receptor subtype 1 in portal vein myocytes in the opposite way of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dabertrand, Fabrice; Porte, Yves; Macrez, Nathalie; Morel, Jean-Luc

    2012-02-01

    Gravity has a structural role for living systems. Tissue development, architecture, and organization are modified when the gravity vector is changed. In particular, microgravity induces a redistribution of blood volume and thus pressure in the astronaut body, abolishing an upright blood pressure gradient, inducing orthostatic hypotension. The present study was designed to investigate whether isolated vascular smooth muscle cells are directly sensitive to altered gravitational forces and, second, whether sustained blood pressure changes act on the same molecular target. Exposure to microgravity during 8 days in the International Space Station induced the decrease of ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression in primary cultured myocytes from rat hepatic portal vein. Identical results were found in portal vein from mice exposed to microgravity during an 8-day shuttle spaceflight. To evaluate the functional consequences of this physiological adaptation, we have compared evoked calcium signals obtained in myocytes from hindlimb unloaded rats, in which the shift of blood pressure mimics the one produced by the microgravity, with those obtained in myocytes from rats injected with antisense oligonucleotide directed against ryanodine receptor subtype 1. In both conditions, calcium signals implicating calcium-induced calcium release were significantly decreased. In contrast, in spontaneous hypertensive rat, an increase in ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression was observed as well as the calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. Taken together, our results shown that myocytes were directly sensitive to gravity level and that they adapt their calcium signaling pathways to pressure by the regulation of the ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression. PMID:22096120

  1. Intracellular calcium in cardiac myocytes: calcium transients measured using fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Cannell, M B; Berlin, J R; Lederer, W J

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the distribution of Ca2+ in voltage-clamped cardiac myocytes under resting conditions and during the Ca2+ transient. We find that the resting Ca2+ level in a quiescent rat myocyte bathed in 1 mM extracellular Ca is relatively low (between 60 and 100 nM) and uniform. At the peak of the Ca2+ transient, Ca2+ can rise to a level as high as 600 nM to 1.0 microM. Furthermore, the magnitude of the Ca2+ transient is dependent on the size of the membrane depolarization. There is good agreement between measurements made using video imaging and those made using a photomultiplier tube for the value of intracellular Ca2+ at the peak of the Ca2+ transient and for the subsequent slow changes in intracellular Ca2+. On repolarization, intracellular Ca2+ falls with a half-time of approximately 100 ms. The uniform distribution of Ca2+ reported in the Ca2+ images of myocytes at rest and at the peak of the Ca2+ transient under normal conditions is in contrast to what is observed during "Ca2+ overload" when subcellular regions of elevated Ca2+ are observed to propagate along the cell. Thus, the measurement of [Ca2+]i in cardiac myocytes with fura-2 has already yielded important new information that was not available using other techniques to measure [Ca2+]i in cardiac ventricular muscle. PMID:3505361

  2. Functional analysis of Na+/K+-ATPase isoform distribution in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Despa, Sanda; Bers, Donald M

    2007-07-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is the main route for Na(+) extrusion from cardiac myocytes. Different NKA alpha-subunit isoforms are present in the heart. NKA-alpha1 is predominant, although there is a variable amount of NKA-alpha2 in adult ventricular myocytes of most species. It has been proposed that NKA-alpha2 is localized mainly in T-tubules (TT), where it could regulate local Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange and thus cardiac myocyte Ca(2+). However, there is controversy as to where NKA-alpha1 vs. NKA-alpha2 are localized in ventricular myocytes. Here, we assess the TT vs. external sarcolemma (ESL) distribution functionally using formamide-induced detubulation of rat ventricular myocytes, NKA current (I(Pump)) measurements and the different ouabain sensitivity of NKA-alpha1 (low) and NKA-alpha2 (high) in rat heart. Ouabain-dependent I(Pump) inhibition in control myocytes indicates a high-affinity NKA isoform (NKA-alpha2, K(1/2) = 0.38 +/- 0.16 microM) that accounts for 29.5 +/- 1.3% of I(Pump) and a low-affinity isoform (NKA-alpha1, K(1/2) = 141 +/- 17 microM) that accounts for 70.5% of I(Pump). Detubulation decreased cell capacitance from 164 +/- 6 to 120 +/- 8 pF and reduced I(Pump) density from 1.24 +/- 0.05 to 1.02 +/- 0.05 pA/pF, indicating that the functional density of NKA is significantly higher in TT vs. ESL. In detubulated myocytes, NKA-alpha2 accounted for only 18.2 +/- 1.1% of I(Pump). Thus, approximately 63% of I(Pump) generated by NKA-alpha2 is from the TT (although TT are only 27% of the total sarcolemma), and the NKA-alpha2/NKA-alpha1 ratio in TT is significantly higher than in the ESL. The functional density of NKA-alpha2 is approximately 4.5 times higher in the T-tubules vs. ESL, whereas NKA-alpha1 is almost uniformly distributed between the TT and ESL. PMID:17392375

  3. Shear fluid-induced Ca2+ release and the role of mitochondria in rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Steve; Morad, Martin

    2008-03-01

    Cardiac myocyte contraction occurs when Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels causes Ca2+ release from ryanodine receptors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Although mitochondria occupy about 35% of the cell volume in rat cardiac myocytes, and are thought to be located <300 nm from the junctional SR, their role in the beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac Ca2+ signaling remains unclear. We have recently shown that rapid ( approximately 20 ms) application of shear fluid forces ( approximately 25 dynes/cm2) to rat cardiac myocytes triggers slowly ( approximately 300 ms) developing Cai transients that were independent of activation of all transmembrane Ca2+ transporting pathways, but were suppressed by FCCP, CCCP, and Ru360, all of which are known to disrupt mitochondrial function. We have here used rapid 2-D confocal microscopy to monitor fluctuations in mitochondrial Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]m) and mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) in rat cardiac myocytes loaded either with rhod-2 AM or tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), respectively. Freshly isolated intact rat cardiac myocytes were plated on glass coverslips and incubated in 5 mM Ca2+ containing Tyrode's solution and 40 mM 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) to inhibit cell contraction. Alternatively, myocytes were permeabilized with 10 microM digitonin and perfused with an "intracellular" solution containing 10 microM free [Ca2+], 5 mM EGTA, and 15 mM BDM. Direct [Ca2+]m measurements showed transient mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation after exposure to 10 mM caffeine, as revealed by a 66% increase in the rhod-2 fluorescence intensity. Shear fluid forces, however, produced a 12% decrease in signal, suggesting that application of a mechanical force releases Ca2+ from the mitochondria. In addition, caffeine and CCCP or FCCP strongly reduced Delta Psi m, while application of a pressurized solution produced a transient Delta Psi m hyperpolarization in intact ventricular myocytes loaded with TMRM

  4. Automated microscopy of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy: a case study on the role of intracellular α-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Karen A; Saucerman, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional approaches for measuring cardiac myocyte hypertrophy have been of low throughput and subjective, limiting the scope of experimental studies designed to understand it. Here, we describe an automated image acquisition and analysis platform for studying the dynamics of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Image acquisition scripts record 5 × 5 mosaic images of fluorescent protein-labeled neonatal rat ventricular myocytes from each well of a 96-well plate using the microscope's automated stage and focus. Image analysis algorithms automatically segment myocyte boundaries, track myocytes, and quantify changes in shape. We describe each step of the image acquisition and analysis algorithms and provide specific examples of how to implement them using Metamorph and CellProfiler software. With this system, shape dynamics of thousands of individual cardiac myocytes can be tracked for up to a week. This imaging platform was recently applied to study reversal of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy following withdrawal of the α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. Hypertrophy readily reversed at low but not high levels of α-adrenergic signaling, leading to identification of an intracellular population of α-adrenergic receptors responsible for this reversibility delay. PMID:25304353

  5. Impaired myogenesis in estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ)-deficient skeletal myocytes due to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jennifer; Auwerx, Johan; Huss, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Specialized contractile function and increased mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity are hallmark features of myocyte differentiation. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) can regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial enzyme expression in skeletal muscle, suggesting that ERRs may have a role in promoting myogenesis. Therefore, we characterized myogenic programs in primary myocytes isolated from wild-type (M-ERRγWT) and muscle-specific ERRγ(-/-) (M-ERRγ(-/-)) mice. Myotube maturation and number were decreased throughout differentiation in M-ERRγ(-/-) primary myocytes, resulting in myotubes with reduced mitochondrial content and sarcomere assembly. Compared with M-ERRγWT myocytes at the same differentiation stage, the glucose oxidation rate was reduced by 30% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myotubes, while medium-chain fatty acid oxidation was increased by 34% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myoblasts and 36% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myotubes. Concomitant with increased reliance on mitochondrial β-oxidation, H(2)O(2) production was significantly increased by 40% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myoblasts and 70% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myotubes compared to M-ERRγWT myocytes. ROS activation of FoxO and NF-κB and their downstream targets, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was observed in M-ERRγ(-/-) myocytes. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine rescued myotube formation and atrophy gene induction in M-ERRγ(-/-) myocytes. These results suggest that loss of ERRγ causes metabolic defects and oxidative stress that impair myotube formation through activation of skeletal muscle atrophy pathways. PMID:23038752

  6. Estrogen-related receptor α regulates skeletal myocyte differentiation via modulation of the ERK MAP kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jennifer; Huss, Janice M

    2011-09-01

    Myocyte differentiation involves complex interactions between signal transduction pathways and transcription factors. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) regulate energy substrate uptake, mitochondrial respiration, and biogenesis and may target structural gene programs in striated muscle. However, ERRα's role in regulating myocyte differentiation is not known. ERRα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) are coordinately upregulated with metabolic and skeletal muscle-specific genes early in myogenesis. We analyzed effects of ERRα overexpression and loss of function in myogenic models. In C2C12 myocytes ERRα overexpression accelerated differentiation, whereas XCT790 treatment delayed myogenesis and resulted in myotubes with fewer mitochondria and disorganized sarcomeres. ERRα-/- primary myocytes showed delayed myogenesis, resulting in structurally immature myotubes with reduced sarcomeric assembly and mitochondrial function. However, sarcomeric and metabolic gene expression was unaffected or upregulated in ERRα-/- cells. Instead, ERRα-/- myocytes exhibited aberrant ERK activation early in myogenesis, consistent with delayed myotube formation. XCT790 treatment also increased ERK phosphorylation in C2C12, whereas ERRα overexpression decreased early ERK activation, consistent with the opposing effects of these treatments on differentiation. The transient induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which mediates ERK dephosphorylation at the onset of myogenesis, was lost in ERRα-/- myocytes and in XCT790-treated C2C12. The ERRα-PGC-1α complex activates the Dusp1 gene, which encodes MKP-1, and ERRα occupies the proximal 5' regulatory region during early differentiation in C2C12 myocytes. Finally, treatment of ERRα-/- myocytes with MEK inhibitors rescued normal ERK signaling and myogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ERRα is required for normal skeletal myocyte differentiation via modulation of MAP

  7. Estrogen-related receptor α regulates skeletal myocyte differentiation via modulation of the ERK MAP kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Myocyte differentiation involves complex interactions between signal transduction pathways and transcription factors. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) regulate energy substrate uptake, mitochondrial respiration, and biogenesis and may target structural gene programs in striated muscle. However, ERRα's role in regulating myocyte differentiation is not known. ERRα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) are coordinately upregulated with metabolic and skeletal muscle-specific genes early in myogenesis. We analyzed effects of ERRα overexpression and loss of function in myogenic models. In C2C12 myocytes ERRα overexpression accelerated differentiation, whereas XCT790 treatment delayed myogenesis and resulted in myotubes with fewer mitochondria and disorganized sarcomeres. ERRα−/− primary myocytes showed delayed myogenesis, resulting in structurally immature myotubes with reduced sarcomeric assembly and mitochondrial function. However, sarcomeric and metabolic gene expression was unaffected or upregulated in ERRα−/− cells. Instead, ERRα−/− myocytes exhibited aberrant ERK activation early in myogenesis, consistent with delayed myotube formation. XCT790 treatment also increased ERK phosphorylation in C2C12, whereas ERRα overexpression decreased early ERK activation, consistent with the opposing effects of these treatments on differentiation. The transient induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which mediates ERK dephosphorylation at the onset of myogenesis, was lost in ERRα−/− myocytes and in XCT790-treated C2C12. The ERRα-PGC-1α complex activates the Dusp1 gene, which encodes MKP-1, and ERRα occupies the proximal 5′ regulatory region during early differentiation in C2C12 myocytes. Finally, treatment of ERRα−/− myocytes with MEK inhibitors rescued normal ERK signaling and myogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ERRα is required for normal skeletal myocyte differentiation via

  8. Relationship between transient outward K+ current and Ca2+ influx in rat cardiac myocytes of endo- and epicardial origin

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Tilmann; Nguyen, Thi Hong-Diep; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Ehmke, Heimo

    1999-01-01

    The transient outward K+ current (Ito) is a major repolarizing ionic current in ventricular myocytes of several mammals. Recently it has been found that its magnitude depends on the origin of the myocyte and is regulated by a number of physiological and pathophysiological signals. The relationship between the magnitude of Ito, action potential duration (APD) and Ca2+ influx (QCa) was studied in rat left ventricular myocytes of endo- and epicardial origin using whole-cell recordings and the action potential voltage-clamp method. Under control conditions, in response to a depolarizing voltage step to +40 mV, Ito averaged 12.1 ± 2.6 pA pF−1 in endocardial (n = 11) and 24.0 ± 2.6 pA pF−1 in epicardial myocytes (n = 12; P < 0.01). APD90 (90 % repolarization) was twice as long in endocardial myocytes, whereas QCa inversely depended on the magnitude of Ito. L-type Ca2+ current density was similar in myocytes from both regions. To determine the effects of controlled reductions of Ito on QCa, recordings were repeated in the presence of increasing concentrations of the Ito inhibitor 4-aminopyridine. Inhibition of Ito by as little as 20 % more than doubled QCa in epicardial myocytes, whereas it had only a minor effect on QCa in myocytes of endocardial origin. Further inhibition of Ito led to a progressive increase in QCa in epicardial myocytes; at 90 % inhibition of Ito, QCa was four times larger than the control value. We conclude that moderate changes in the magnitude of Ito strongly affect QCa primarily in epicardial regions. An alteration of Ito might therefore allow for a regional regulation of contractility during physiological and pathophysiological adaptations. PMID:10457095

  9. Stimulated release of a hyperpolarizing factor (ADHF) from mesenteric artery perivascular adipose tissue: involvement of myocyte BKCa channels and adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Weston, A H; Egner, I; Dong, Y; Porter, E L; Heagerty, A M; Edwards, G

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases adipocyte-derived hyperpolarizing factors (ADHFs) that may partly act by opening myocyte K+ channels. The present study in rat and mouse mesenteric arteries aimed to identify the myocyte K+ channel activated by PVAT and to determine whether adiponectin contributed to the hyperpolarizing effects of PVAT. Experimental Approach Myocyte membrane potential was recorded from de-endothelialized, non-contracted rat and mouse mesenteric arteries in the presence and absence of PVAT. Key Results The β3-adrenoceptor agonist, CL-316,243 (10 μM), generated PVAT-dependent, iberiotoxin-sensitive myocyte hyperpolarizations resulting from BKCa channel opening and which were partially blocked by L-NMMA (100 μM). Adiponectin (5 μg·mL−1) also produced iberiotoxin-sensitive hyperpolarizations in PVAT-denuded arterioles. Activation of myocyte AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) using 5 μM A-769662 also induced BKCa-mediated hyperpolarizations. Dorsomorphin abolished hyperpolarizations to CL-316,243, adiponectin and A-769662. In vessels from Adipo−/− mice, hyperpolarizations to CL-316,243 were absent whereas those to A-769662 and adiponectin were normal. In rat vessels, adipocyte-dependent hyperpolarizations were blocked by glibenclamide and clotrimazole but those to NS1619 (33 μM) were unaltered. Conclusions and Implications Under basal, non-contracted conditions, β3-adrenoceptor stimulation of PVAT releases an ADHF, which is probably adiponectin. This activates AMPK to open myocyte BKCa channels indirectly and additionally liberates NO, which also contributes to the observed PVAT-dependent myocyte hyperpolarizations. Clotrimazole and glibenclamide each reversed hyperpolarizations to adiponectin and A-769662, suggesting the involvement of myocyte TRPM4 channels in the ADHF-induced myocyte electrical changes mediated via the opening of BKCa channels. PMID:23488724

  10. Thromboxane-induced actin polymerization in hypoxic neonatal pulmonary arterial myocytes involves Cdc42 signaling.

    PubMed

    Fediuk, Jena; Sikarwar, Anurag S; Nolette, Nora; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala

    2014-12-01

    In hypoxic pulmonary arterial (PA) myocytes, challenge with thromboxane mimetic U46619 induces marked actin polymerization and contraction, phenotypic features of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Rho GTPases regulate the actin cytoskeleton. We previously reported that U46619-induced actin polymerization in hypoxic PA myocytes occurs independently of the RhoA pathway and hypothesized involvement of the Cdc42 pathway. PA myocytes grown in normoxia or hypoxia for 72 h were stimulated with U46619, then analyzed for Rac/Cdc42 activation by affinity precipitation, phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) activity by phospho-Akt, phospho-p21-activated kinase (PAK) by immunoblot, and association of Cdc42 with neuronal Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASp) by immunoprecipitation. The effect of Rac or PAK inhibition on filamentous actin was quantified by laser-scanning cytometry and by cytoskeletal fractionation; effects of actin-modifying agents were measured by isometric myography. Basal Cdc42 activity increased in hypoxia, whereas Rac activity decreased. U46619 challenge increased Cdc42 and Rac activity in hypoxic cells, independently of PI3K. Hypoxia increased phospho-PAK, unaltered by U46619. Association of Cdc42 with N-WASp decreased in hypoxia but increased after U46619 exposure. Hypoxia doubled filamentous-to-globular ratios of α- and γ-actin isoforms. Jasplakinolide stabilized γ-filaments, increasing force; cytochalasin D depolymerized all actin isoforms, decreasing force. Rac and PAK inhibition decreased filamentous actin in tissues although without decrease in force. Rho inhibition decreased myosin phosphorylation and force. Hypoxia induces actin polymerization in PA myocytes, particularly increasing filamentous α- and γ-actin, contributing to U46619-induced contraction. Hypoxic PA myocytes challenged with a thromboxane mimetic polymerize actin via the Cdc42 pathway, reflecting increased Cdc42 association with N-WASp. Mechanisms

  11. Myocyte morphology of free wall trabeculae in right ventricular pressure overload hypertrophy in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hamrell, B B; Roberts, E T; Carkin, J L; Delaney, C L

    1986-02-01

    Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and changes in mechanical properties develop in response to sustained pulmonary artery construction in rabbits. We use basilar RV free wall trabeculae from rabbits for measurements of force, shortening and sarcomere length (diffraction and/or photomicrography). With enzymes we dispersed calcium tolerant myocytes from trabeculae similar to those used for the above mechanical studies. The average weight of the normal (N) rabbits (n = 16) was 2.21 +/- 0.16(1) kg and was 2.11 +/- 0.10 kg for the rabbits with RV hypertrophy (H; n = 16). The ratio of RV free wall to total ventricular weight was 0.17 +/- 0.01 in the N and 0.31 +/- 0.02 in H hearts (P less than 0.01). Average length and width were determined from digitized measures of the projected image of 42 +/- 3 Ca2+ tolerant myocytes from each N heart and 41 +/- 3 from each H heart. Average myocyte length increased from 102.9 +/- 0.9 in N to 109.8 +/- 1.0 micron in H (6.7% above N; P less than 0.05) and average width from 15.4 +/- 0.2 to 20.0 +/- 0.2 micron (29.9% above N; P less than 0.01). Sarcomere length in these quiescent myocytes was 1.92 +/- 0.003 micron in the N and 1.90 +/- 0.004 in H (P greater than 0.05); consequently, the restoring forces in the myocytes were the same as N in H. The greater addition of parallel myofibrils than of series sarcomeres in H is important for tension generation in the presence of the increased pressure load of pulmonary artery constriction. The addition of sarcomeres in series may be important to sustain muscle shortening in H and is consistent with our measures of sarcomere shortening in N and H trabeculae. PMID:2937924

  12. Influence of fatty acid oxidation rate on glycerol release from cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, T.S.; Severson, D.L.

    1986-03-05

    Quiescent cardiac myocytes are characterized by low rates of fatty acid oxidation due to the reduced energy demand compared with beating hearts. The accumulation of intracellular fatty acid metabolites may, therefore, result in feed-back inhibition of the cardiac lipase responsible for the mobilization of triacylglycerols (lipolysis). The objective of this study was to examine if interventions that increase fatty acid oxidation rates in myocytes have an effect on lipolysis. Addition of 100 ..mu..M dinitrophenol (DNP) to calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes caused an increase in the rate of /sup 14/C-oleic acid oxidation from 1.11 +/- 0.06 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 nmol /sup 14/CO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ cells/min (115% stimulation; mean +/- S.D., n = 3). In parallel incubations, DNP increased the rate of lipolysis from 4.4 +/- 1.7 to 13.6 +/- 3.2 nmol glycerol/10/sup 6/ cells/30 min (215% stimulation). The addition of 1 mM barium to a modified Ringer's incubation medium produced an increase in the contractile activity of the myocytes, and increased the rates of oleic acid oxidation from 0.62 +/- 0.16 to 0.88 +/- 0.23 nmol/10/sup 6/ cells/min (42% stimulation; n = 6) and lipolysis from 13.1 +/- 6.5 to 22.2 +/- 6.4 nmol/10/sup 6/ cells/30 min (70% stimulation). These data show that stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in myocardial myocytes is accompanied by increased lipolytic rates, the latter probably due to release of feed-back inhibition of cardiac lipases by accumulated fatty acid metabolites.

  13. Restoring forces in cardiac myocytes. Insight from relaxations induced by photolysis of caged ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Niggli, E; Lederer, W J

    1991-01-01

    Concentration jumps of intracellular ATP were produced by photolysis of P3-1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl (NPE)-caged ATP and were used to investigate the passive relengthening properties in unloaded cardiac myocytes. Patch-clamp pipettes in the whole-cell mode were used to voltage-clamp the myocytes and to load the cells with caged ATP while optical methods were applied to record sarcomere length or cell length simultaneously. Cell length was varied using energy deprivation contractures while intracellular Ca2+ was controlled with EGTA. At sarcomere lengths between 1.8 and 1.4 microns cellular relengthening after photolysis of caged ATP was rapid (t1/2 approximately 100 ms) and could be well described by a simple mechanical model. However, ATP jumps made at sarcomere lengths approximately 1.1 microns led to slow relengthening (t1/2 approximately seconds), comparable to the slow reextensions observed in skinned myocytes after bulk solution changes. We attribute the slow and incomplete relengthening of intact and skinned myocytes after severe rigor shortening to deformation and alteration of structural elements inside the cell. Relengthening from intermediate sarcomere lengths in intact cells is elastic and provides information about the underlying relengthening forces inside the cell. The data do not support the presence of a significant discontinuity in elastic modulus at a sarcomere length of approximately 1.6 microns expected from ultrastructural features of the sarcomeres and from observations in skinned myocytes. Our results suggest that the cell length measurements usually performed in this preparation provide an adequate description of the force produced by the unloaded cell in the steady state. The results also provide a way to estimate the error arising from viscous forces during rapid shortening. PMID:1868157

  14. Stimulation of ICa by basal PKA activity is facilitated by caveolin-3 in cardiac ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Simon; Kimura, Tomomi E; Kong, Cherrie H T; Watson, Judy J; Chase, Anabelle; Suleiman, M Saadeh; James, Andrew F; Orchard, Clive H

    2014-03-01

    L-type Ca channels (LTCC), which play a key role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, are located predominantly at the transverse (t-) tubules in ventricular myocytes. Caveolae and the protein caveolin-3 (Cav-3) are also present at the t-tubules and have been implicated in localizing a number of signaling molecules, including protein kinase A (PKA) and β2-adrenoceptors. The present study investigated whether disruption of Cav-3 binding to its endogenous binding partners influenced LTCC activity. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats and LTCC current (ICa) recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Incubation of myocytes with a membrane-permeable peptide representing the scaffolding domain of Cav-3 (C3SD) reduced basal ICa amplitude in intact, but not detubulated, myocytes, and attenuated the stimulatory effects of the β2-adrenergic agonist zinterol on ICa. The PKA inhibitor H-89 also reduced basal ICa; however, the inhibitory effects of C3SD and H-89 on basal ICa amplitude were not summative. Under control conditions, myocytes stained with antibody against phosphorylated LTCC (pLTCC) displayed a striated pattern, presumably reflecting localization at the t-tubules. Both C3SD and H-89 reduced pLTCC staining at the z-lines but did not affect staining of total LTCC or Cav-3. These data are consistent with the idea that the effects of C3SD and H-89 share a common pathway, which involves PKA and is maximally inhibited by H-89, and suggest that Cav-3 plays an important role in mediating stimulation of ICa at the t-tubules via PKA-induced phosphorylation under basal conditions, and in response to β2-adrenoceptor stimulation. PMID:24412535

  15. The cardiotoxicity and myocyte damage caused by small molecule anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors is correlated with lack of target specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B.

    2010-04-15

    The use of the new anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. However, the use of some of these results in cardiotoxicity. Large-scale profiling data recently made available for the binding of 7 of the 9 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases has allowed us to correlate kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with TKI-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The tyrosine kinase selectivity scores, but not the serine-threonine kinase scores, were highly correlated with the myocyte damaging effects of the TKIs. Additionally, we showed that damage to myocytes gave a good rank order correlation with clinical cardiotoxicity. Finally, strength of TKI binding to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) was highly correlated with myocyte damage, thus possibly implicating this kinase in contributing to TKI-induced cardiotoxicity.

  16. Impaired myogenesis in estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ)-deficient skeletal myocytes due to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jennifer; Auwerx, Johan; Huss, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    Specialized contractile function and increased mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity are hallmark features of myocyte differentiation. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) can regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial enzyme expression in skeletal muscle, suggesting that ERRs may have a role in promoting myogenesis. Therefore, we characterized myogenic programs in primary myocytes isolated from wild-type (M-ERRγWT) and muscle-specific ERRγ−/− (M-ERRγ−/−) mice. Myotube maturation and number were decreased throughout differentiation in M-ERRγ−/− primary myocytes, resulting in myotubes with reduced mitochondrial content and sarcomere assembly. Compared with M-ERRγWT myocytes at the same differentiation stage, the glucose oxidation rate was reduced by 30% in M-ERRγ−/− myotubes, while medium-chain fatty acid oxidation was increased by 34% in M-ERRγ−/− myoblasts and 36% in M-ERRγ−/− myotubes. Concomitant with increased reliance on mitochondrial β-oxidation, H2O2 production was significantly increased by 40% in M-ERRγ−/− myoblasts and 70% in M-ERRγ−/− myotubes compared to M-ERRγWT myocytes. ROS activation of FoxO and NF-κB and their downstream targets, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was observed in M-ERRγ−/− myocytes. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine rescued myotube formation and atrophy gene induction in M-ERRγ−/− myocytes. These results suggest that loss of ERRγ causes metabolic defects and oxidative stress that impair myotube formation through activation of skeletal muscle atrophy pathways.—Murray, J., Auwerx, J., Huss, J. M. Impaired myogenesis in estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ)-deficient skeletal myocytes due to oxidative stress. PMID:23038752

  17. Altered distribution of ICa impairs Ca release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes from failing hearts

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Simon M.; Kong, Cherrie H.T.; Watson, Judy; Cannell, Mark B.; James, Andrew F.; Orchard, Clive H.

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca influx and release occur predominantly at t-tubules, ensuring synchronous Ca release throughout the cell. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubule structure, but its effect on t-tubule function is less clear. We therefore investigated Ca influx and release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ~ 18 weeks after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding Sham operation. L-type Ca current (ICa) was recorded using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated myocytes; Ca release at t-tubules was monitored using confocal microscopy with voltage- and Ca-sensitive fluorophores. CAL was associated with cardiac and cellular hypertrophy, decreased ejection fraction, disruption of t-tubule structure and a smaller, slower Ca transient, but no change in ryanodine receptor distribution, L-type Ca channel expression, or ICa density. In Sham myocytes, ICa was located predominantly at the t-tubules, while in CAL myocytes, it was uniformly distributed between the t-tubule and surface membranes. Inhibition of protein kinase A with H-89 caused a greater decrease of t-tubular ICa in CAL than in Sham myocytes; in the presence of H-89, t-tubular ICa density was smaller in CAL than in Sham myocytes. The smaller t-tubular ICa in CAL myocytes was accompanied by increased latency and heterogeneity of SR Ca release at t-tubules, which could be mimicked by decreasing ICa using nifedipine. These data show that CAL decreases t-tubular ICa via a PKA-independent mechanism, thereby impairing Ca release at t-tubules and contributing to the altered excitation–contraction coupling observed in heart failure. PMID:26103619

  18. Altered distribution of ICa impairs Ca release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes from failing hearts.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Simon M; Kong, Cherrie H T; Watson, Judy; Cannell, Mark B; James, Andrew F; Orchard, Clive H

    2015-09-01

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca influx and release occur predominantly at t-tubules, ensuring synchronous Ca release throughout the cell. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubule structure, but its effect on t-tubule function is less clear. We therefore investigated Ca influx and release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ~18weeks after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding Sham operation. L-type Ca current (ICa) was recorded using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated myocytes; Ca release at t-tubules was monitored using confocal microscopy with voltage- and Ca-sensitive fluorophores. CAL was associated with cardiac and cellular hypertrophy, decreased ejection fraction, disruption of t-tubule structure and a smaller, slower Ca transient, but no change in ryanodine receptor distribution, L-type Ca channel expression, or ICa density. In Sham myocytes, ICa was located predominantly at the t-tubules, while in CAL myocytes, it was uniformly distributed between the t-tubule and surface membranes. Inhibition of protein kinase A with H-89 caused a greater decrease of t-tubular ICa in CAL than in Sham myocytes; in the presence of H-89, t-tubular ICa density was smaller in CAL than in Sham myocytes. The smaller t-tubular ICa in CAL myocytes was accompanied by increased latency and heterogeneity of SR Ca release at t-tubules, which could be mimicked by decreasing ICa using nifedipine. These data show that CAL decreases t-tubular ICa via a PKA-independent mechanism, thereby impairing Ca release at t-tubules and contributing to the altered excitation-contraction coupling observed in heart failure. PMID:26103619

  19. Contribution of NADPH Oxidase to Membrane CD38 Internalization and Activation in Coronary Arterial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Ritter, Joseph K.; Abais, Justine M.; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway importantly contributes to the vasomotor response in different arteries. Although there is evidence indicating that the activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase is associated with CD38 internalization, the molecular mechanism mediating CD38 internalization and consequent activation in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli remains poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that CD38 may sense redox signals and is thereby activated to produce cellular response and that the NADPH oxidase isoform, NOX1, is a major resource to produce superoxide (O2·−) in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs) in response to muscarinic receptor agonist, which uses CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase signaling pathway to exert its action in these CAMs. These findings led us hypothesize that NOX1-derived O2·− serves in an autocrine fashion to enhance CD38 internalization, leading to redox activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in mouse CAMs. To test this hypothesis, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and a membrane protein biotinylation assay were used in the present study. We first demonstrated that CD38 internalization induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) was inhibited by silencing of NOX1 gene, but not NOX4 gene. Correspondingly, NOX1 gene silencing abolished ET-1-induced O2·− production and increased CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in CAMs, while activation of NOX1 by overexpression of Rac1 or Vav2 or administration of exogenous O2·− significantly increased CD38 internalization in CAMs. Lastly, ET-1 was found to markedly increase membrane raft clustering as shown by increased colocalization of cholera toxin-B with CD38 and NOX1. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence that Rac1-NOX1-dependent O2·− production mediates CD38 internalization in CAMs, which may represent an important mechanism linking receptor activation with CD38 activity in these cells. PMID:23940720

  20. Nicorandil stimulates a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by activating guanylate cyclase in guinea pig cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiazhang; Watanabe, Yasuhide; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Kanna; Tashiro, Miyuki; Kita, Satomi; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kimura, Junko

    2016-04-01

    Nicorandil, a hybrid of an ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel opener and a nitrate generator, is used clinically for the treatment of angina pectoris. This agent has been reported to exert antiarrhythmic actions by abolishing both triggered activity and spontaneous automaticity in an in vitro study. It is well known that delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) are caused by the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (I NCX). In this study, we investigated the effect of nicorandil on the cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1). We used the whole-cell patch clamp technique and the Fura-2/AM (Ca(2+) indicator) method to investigate the effect of nicorandil on I NCX in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes and CCL39 fibroblast cells transfected with dog heart NCX1. Nicorandil enhanced I NCX in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 (half-maximum concentration for enhancement of the drug) values were 15.0 and 8.7 μM for the outward and inward components of I NCX, respectively. 8-Bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), a membrane-permeable analog of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), enhanced I NCX. 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a guanylate cyclase inhibitor (10 μM), completely abolished the nicorandil-induced I NCX increase. Nicorandil increased I NCX in CCL39 cells expressing wild-type NCX1 but did not affect mutant NCX1 without a long intracellular loop between transmembrane segments (TMSs) 5 and 6. Nicorandil at 100 μM abolished DADs induced by electrical stimulation with ouabain. Nicorandil enhanced the function of NCX1 via guanylate cyclase and thus may accelerate Ca(2+) exit via NCX1. This may partially contribute to the cardioprotection by nicorandil in addition to shortening action potential duration (APD) by activating KATP channels. PMID:26631169

  1. A force transducer and a length-ramp generator for mechanical investigations of frog-heart myocytes.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, G; Colomo, F; Poggesi, C; Tesi, C

    1993-04-01

    An apparatus for studying the mechanics of isolated frog heart myocytes is described. The cells are held horizontal in a through of Ringer solution by means of two suction micropipettes. Myocyte force is measured with an opto-electronic system recording the deflection of the tip of one micropipette, which acts as a cantilever force probe. The force probes are selected for compliance according to the force a myocyte is expected to develop in a given condition, so as to limit myocyte shortening during force development to no more than 1% of the slack cellular length (l0). The other micropipette, which is stiff relative to the forces measured, is mounted on an electromagnetic-loudspeaker motor by which controlled-velocity length changes, of preset size and in either direction, are imposed on myocytes. The force transducer has a sensitivity of 5-10 mV/nN, with a frequency response of 700-900 Hz in Ringer solution and a resolution of 0.5-1 nN. The motor with a suction micropipette can complete controlled-velocity length ramps within 1.5-2.0 ms, across a range of +/- 100 microns at a resolution of 8.0 nm. These values correspond, for frog-heart myocytes 200 microns and 400 microns long, to 25%-50% l0 and 0.002%-0.004% l0 respectively. PMID:8488085

  2. The impact of surgical and percutaneous coronary revascularization on the cardiac myocyte.

    PubMed

    Khabbaz, Kamal R; Levitsky, Sidney

    2008-03-01

    Re-establishing coronary blood flow to a segment of myocardium suffering from cessation or diminution of flow, either with surgical or percutaneous approaches, may be complicated by injury to the myocardium. During surgical revascularization with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), aortic cross-clamping and subsequent reduction in oxygen transport to the myocardium may result in cardiac myocyte injury and myonecrosis. This injury can be compounded if protection of the myocardium using myocardial protective strategies is not adequate. Ischemia/reperfusion cellular alterations may contribute to this injury as well. Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are also associated with myonecrosis resulting from side branch compromise, distal embolization of debris, and plugging of the microcirculation, as well as ischemia/reperfusion injury. Intracoronary filtering devices have not been shown to improve outcomes associated with such complications. Which revascularization strategy is associated with superior outcomes and less cardiac myocyte necrosis is an area of continuing controversy. PMID:18193319

  3. Sub-micrometer anatomical models of the sarcolemma of cardiac myocytes based on confocal imaging.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Frank B; Savio-Galimberti, Eleonora; Goldhaber, Joshua I; Bridge, John H B

    2008-01-01

    We describe an approach to develop anatomical models of cardiac cells. The approach is based on confocal imaging of living ventricular myocytes with submicrometer resolution, digital image processing of three-dimensional stacks with high data volume, and generation of dense triangular surface meshes representing the sarcolemma including the transverse tubular system. The image processing includes methods for deconvolution, filtering and segmentation. We introduce and visualize models of the sarcolemma of whole ventricular myocytes and single transversal tubules. These models can be applied for computational studies of cell and sub-cellular physical behavior and physiology, in particular cell signaling. Furthermore, the approach is applicable for studying effects of cardiac development, aging and diseases, which are associated with changes of cell anatomy and protein distributions. PMID:18229702

  4. Maturation status of sarcomere structure and function in human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Bedada, Fikru B; Wheelwright, Matthew; Metzger, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Human heart failure due to myocardial infarction is a major health concern. The paucity of organs for transplantation limits curative approaches for the diseased and failing adult heart. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have the potential to provide a long-term, viable, regenerative-medicine alternative. Significant progress has been made with regard to efficient cardiac myocyte generation from hiPSCs. However, directing hiPSC-CMs to acquire the physiological structure, gene expression profile and function akin to mature cardiac tissue remains a major obstacle. Thus, hiPSC-CMs have several hurdles to overcome before they find their way into translational medicine. In this review, we address the progress that has been made, the void in knowledge and the challenges that remain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26578113

  5. Do t-tubules play a role in arrhythmogenesis in cardiac ventricular myocytes?

    PubMed

    Orchard, C H; Bryant, S M; James, A F

    2013-09-01

    The transverse (t-) tubules of mammalian ventricular myocytes are invaginations of the surface membrane. The function of many of the key proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling is located predominantly at the t-tubules, which thus form a Ca(2+)-handling micro-environment that is central to the normal rapid activation and relaxation of the ventricular myocyte. Although cellular arrhythmogenesis shares many ion flux pathways with normal excitation-contraction coupling, the role of the t-tubules in such arrhythmogenesis has not previously been considered. In this brief review we consider how the location and co-location of proteins at the t-tubules may contribute to the generation of arrhythmogenic delayed and early afterdepolarisations, and how the loss of t-tubules that occurs during heart failure may alter the generation of such arrhythmias, as well as contributing to other types of arrhythmia as a result of changes of electrical heterogeneity within the whole heart. PMID:23652596

  6. Calcium-sensing receptor activation contributed to apoptosis stimulates TRPC6 channel in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yi-hua; Li, Yong-quan; Feng, Shan-li; Li, Bao-xin; Pan, Zhen-wei; Xu, Chang-qing; Li, Ting-ting; Yang, Bao-feng

    2010-04-16

    Capacitative calcium entry (CCE) refers to the influx of calcium through plasma membrane channels activated on depletion of endoplasmic sarcoplasmic/reticulum (ER/SR) Ca{sup 2+} stores, which is performed mainly by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and plays an important role in mediating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there are no data regarding the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart. In this study, in rat neonatal myocytes, by Ca{sup 2+} imaging, we found that the depletion of ER/SR Ca{sup 2+} stores by thapsigargin (TG) elicited a transient rise in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), followed by sustained increase depending on extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. But, TRP channels inhibitor (SKF96365), not L-type channels or the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger inhibitors, inhibited [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} relatively high. Then, we found that the stimulation of CaR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or by an increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+}([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}) increased the concentration of intracelluar Ca{sup 2+}, whereas, the sustained elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of SKF96365. Similarly, the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Western blot analysis showed that GdCl{sub 3} increased the expression of TRPC6, which was reversed by SKF96365. Additionally, SKF96365 reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by GdCl{sub 3}. Our results suggested that CCE exhibited in rat neonatal myocytes and CaR activation induced Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cationic channels TRPCs to gate the CCE, for which TRPC6 was one of the most likely candidates. TRPC6 channel was functionally coupled with CaR to enhance the cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  7. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.J.; Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N.; Bridgland-Taylor, M.; Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P.

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility.

  8. Effects of Acetylcholine and Noradrenalin on Action Potentials of Isolated Rabbit Sinoatrial and Atrial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Wilders, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls heart rate and contractility through sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the cardiac tissue, with acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenalin (NA) as the chemical transmitters. In recent years, it has become clear that specific Regulators of G protein Signaling proteins (RGS proteins) suppress muscarinic sensitivity and parasympathetic tone, identifying RGS proteins as intriguing potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we have identified the effects of 1 μM ACh and 1 μM NA on the intrinsic action potentials of sinoatrial (SA) nodal and atrial myocytes. Single cells were enzymatically isolated from the SA node or from the left atrium of rabbit hearts. Action potentials were recorded using the amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of ACh, NA, or a combination of both. In SA nodal myocytes, ACh increased cycle length and decreased diastolic depolarization rate, whereas NA decreased cycle length and increased diastolic depolarization rate. Both ACh and NA increased maximum upstroke velocity. Furthermore, ACh hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential. In atrial myocytes stimulated at 2 Hz, both ACh and NA hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential, increased the action potential amplitude, and increased the maximum upstroke velocity. Action potential duration at 50 and 90% repolarization was decreased by ACh, but increased by NA. The effects of both ACh and NA on action potential duration showed a dose dependence in the range of 1–1000 nM, while a clear-cut frequency dependence in the range of 1–4 Hz was absent. Intermediate results were obtained in the combined presence of ACh and NA in both SA nodal and atrial myocytes. Our data uncover the extent to which SA nodal and atrial action potentials are intrinsically dependent on ACh, NA, or a combination of both and may thus guide further experiments with RGS proteins. PMID:22754533

  9. Comparison of sarcolemmal calcium channel current in rabbit and rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, W; Ginsburg, K S; Bers, D M

    1996-01-01

    1. Fundamental properties of Ca2+ channel currents in rat and rabbit ventricular myocytes were measured using whole cell voltage clamp. 2. In rat, as compared with rabbit myocytes, Ca2+ channel current (ICa) was half-activated at about 10 mV more negative potential, decayed slower, was half-inactivated (in steady state) at about 5 mV more positive potential, and recovered faster from inactivation. 3. These features result in a larger steady-state window current in rat, and also suggest that under comparable voltage clamp conditions, including action potential (AP) clamp, more Ca2+ influx would be expected in rat myocytes. 4. Ca2+ channel current carried by Na+ and Cs+ in the absence of divalent ions (Ins) also activated at more negative potential and decayed more slowly in rat. 5. The reversal potential for Ins was 6 mV more positive in rabbit, consistent with a larger permeability ratio (PNa/PCs) in rabbit than in rat. ICa also reversed at slightly more positive potentials in rabbit (such that PCa/PCs might also be higher). 6. Ca2+ influx was calculated by integration of ICa evoked by voltage clamp pulses (either square pulses or pulses based on recorded rabbit or rat APs). For a given clamp waveform, the Ca2+ influx was up to 25% greater in rat, as predicted from the fundamental properties of ICa and Ins. 7. However, the longer duration of the AP in rabbit myocytes compensated for the difference in influx, such that the integrated Ca2+ influx via ICa in response to the species-appropriate waveform was about twice as large as that seen in rat. PMID:8799895

  10. In vitro characterization of HCN channel kinetics and frequency dependence in myocytes predicts biological pacemaker functionality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Bucchi, Annalisa; Oren, Ronit V; Kryukova, Yelena; Dun, Wen; Clancy, Colleen E; Robinson, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    The pacemaker current, mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, contributes to the initiation and regulation of cardiac rhythm. Previous experiments creating HCN-based biological pacemakers in vivo found that an engineered HCN2/HCN1 chimeric channel (HCN212) resulted in significantly faster rates than HCN2, interrupted by 1-5 s pauses. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in HCN212 and HCN2 in vivo functionality as biological pacemakers, we studied newborn rat ventricular myocytes over-expressing either HCN2 or HCN212 channels. The HCN2- and HCN212-over-expressing myocytes manifest similar voltage dependence, current density and sensitivity to saturating cAMP concentrations, but HCN212 has faster activation/deactivation kinetics. Compared with HCN2, myocytes expressing HCN212 exhibit a faster spontaneous rate and greater incidence of irregular rhythms (i.e. periods of rapid spontaneous rate followed by pauses). To explore these rhythm differences further, we imposed consecutive pacing and found that activation kinetics of the two channels are slower at faster pacing frequencies. As a result, time-dependent HCN current flowing during diastole decreases for both constructs during a train of stimuli at a rapid frequency, with the effect more pronounced for HCN2. In addition, the slower deactivation kinetics of HCN2 contributes to more pronounced instantaneous current at a slower frequency. As a result of the frequency dependence of both instantaneous and time-dependent current, HCN2 exhibits more robust negative feedback than HCN212, contributing to the maintenance of a stable pacing rhythm. These results illustrate the benefit of screening HCN constructs in spontaneously active myocyte cultures and may provide the basis for future optimization of HCN-based biological pacemakers. PMID:19171659

  11. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Ryanodine Receptor Clusters in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Izu, Ye; McCulle, Stacey L.; Ward, Chris W.; Soeller, Christian; Allen, Bryan M.; Rabang, Cal; Cannell, Mark B.; Balke, C. William; Izu, Leighton T.

    2006-01-01

    The clustering of ryanodine receptors (RyR2) into functional Ca2+ release units is central to current models for cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Using immunolabeling and confocal microscopy, we have analyzed the distribution of RyR2 clusters in rat and ventricular atrial myocytes. The resolution of the three-dimensional structure was improved by a novel transverse sectioning method as well as digital deconvolution. In contrast to earlier reports, the mean RyR2 cluster transverse spacing was measured 1.05 μm in ventricular myocytes and estimated 0.97 μm in atrial myocytes. Intercalated RyR2 clusters were found interspersed between the Z-disks on the cell periphery but absent in the interior, forming double rows flanking the local Z-disks on the surface. The longitudinal spacing between the adjacent rows of RyR2 clusters on the Z-disks was measured to have a mean value of 1.87 μm in ventricular and 1.69 μm in atrial myocytes. The measured RyR2 cluster distribution is compatible with models of Ca2+ wave generation. The size of the typical RyR2 cluster was close to 250 nm, and this suggests that ∼100 RyR2s might be present in a cluster. The importance of cluster size and three-dimensional spacing for current E-C coupling models is discussed. PMID:16603500

  12. Minocycline suppresses oxidative stress and attenuates fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis triggered by in utero cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Shen, Ruoqing; Nzenwa, Ify; Gelfand, Robert; Mahata, Sushil K; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the molecular mechanisms by which minocycline, a second generation tetracycline, prevents cardiac myocyte death induced by in utero cocaine exposure. Timed mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received one of the following treatments twice daily from embryonic (E) day 15-21 (E15-E21): (i) intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline (control); (ii) IP injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg BW); and (iii) IP injections of cocaine + oral administration of 25 mg/kg BW of minocycline. Pups were killed on postnatal day 15 (P15). Additional pregnant dams received twice daily IP injections of cocaine (from E15-E21) + oral administration of a relatively higher (37.5 mg/kg BW) dose of minocycline. Minocycline treatment continued from E15 until the pups were sacrificed on P15. In utero cocaine exposure resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis through activation of c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Continued minocycline treatment from E15 through P15 significantly prevented oxidative stress, kinase activation, perturbation of BAX/BCL-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and attenuated fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis after prenatal cocaine exposure. These results demonstrate in vivo cardioprotective effects of minocycline in preventing fetal cardiac myocyte death after prenatal cocaine exposure. Given its proven clinical safety and ability to cross the placental barrier and enter into the fetal circulation, minocycline may be an effective therapy for preventing cardiac consequences of in utero cocaine exposure. PMID:21424555

  13. Intracellular tortuosity underlies slow cAMP diffusion in adult ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Mark; Lomas, Oliver; Jalink, Kees; Ford, Kerrie L.; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D.; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Aims 3′,5′-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signals in the heart are often confined to concentration microdomains shaped by cAMP diffusion and enzymatic degradation. While the importance of phosphodiesterases (degradative enzymes) in sculpting cAMP microdomains is well established in cardiomyocytes, less is known about cAMP diffusivity (DcAMP) and factors affecting it. Many earlier studies have reported fast diffusivity, which argues against sharply defined microdomains. Methods and results [cAMP] dynamics in the cytoplasm of adult rat ventricular myocytes were imaged using a fourth generation genetically encoded FRET-based sensor. The [cAMP]-response to the addition and removal of isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) quantified the rates of cAMP synthesis and degradation. To obtain a read out of DcAMP, a stable [cAMP] gradient was generated using a microfluidic device which delivered agonist to one half of the myocyte only. After accounting for phosphodiesterase activity, DcAMP was calculated to be 32 µm2/s; an order of magnitude lower than in water. Diffusivity was independent of the amount of cAMP produced. Saturating cAMP-binding sites with the analogue 6-Bnz-cAMP did not accelerate DcAMP, arguing against a role of buffering in restricting cAMP mobility. cAMP diffused at a comparable rate to chemically unrelated but similar sized molecules, arguing for a common physical cause of restricted diffusivity. Lower mitochondrial density and order in neonatal cardiac myocytes allowed for faster diffusion, demonstrating the importance of mitochondria as physical barriers to cAMP mobility. Conclusion In adult cardiac myocytes, tortuosity due to physical barriers, notably mitochondria, restricts cAMP diffusion to levels that are more compatible with microdomain signalling. PMID:27089919

  14. Myocyte-derived Tnfsf14 is a survival factor necessary for myoblast differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Waldemer-Streyer, R J; Chen, J

    2015-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle tissue has a uniquely robust capacity for regeneration, which gradually declines with aging or is compromised in muscle diseases. The cellular mechanisms regulating adult myogenesis remain incompletely understood. Here we identify the cytokine tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14 (Tnfsf14) as a positive regulator of myoblast differentiation in culture and muscle regeneration in vivo. We find that Tnfsf14, as well as its cognate receptors herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR), are expressed in both differentiating myocytes and regenerating myofibers. Depletion of Tnfsf14 or either receptor inhibits myoblast differentiation and promotes apoptosis. Our results also suggest that Tnfsf14 regulates myogenesis by supporting cell survival and maintaining a sufficient pool of cells for fusion. In addition, we show that Akt mediates the survival and myogenic function of Tnfsf14. Importantly, local knockdown of Tnfsf14 is found to impair injury-induced muscle regeneration in a mouse model, affirming an important physiological role for Tnfsf14 in myogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that localized overexpression of Tnfsf14 potently enhances muscle regeneration, and that this regenerative capacity of Tnfsf14 is dependent on Akt signaling. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel regulator of skeletal myogenesis and implicate Tnfsf14 in future therapeutic development. PMID:26720335

  15. PI3Ks Maintain the Structural Integrity of T-Tubules in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Yen C.; Jia, Zhiheng; Wang, Wei; Ballou, Lisa M.; Jiang, Ya-Ping; Chen, Biyi; Mathias, Richard T.; Cohen, Ira S.; Song, Long-Sheng; Entcheva, Emilia; Lin, Richard Z.

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate numerous physiological processes including some aspects of cardiac function. Although regulation of cardiac contraction by individual PI3K isoforms has been studied, little is known about the cardiac consequences of downregulating multiple PI3Ks concurrently. Methods and Results Genetic ablation of both p110α and p110β in cardiac myocytes throughout development or in adult mice caused heart failure and death. Ventricular myocytes from double knockout animals showed transverse tubule (T-tubule) loss and disorganization, misalignment of L-type Ca2+ channels in the T-tubules with ryanodine receptors in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and reduced Ca2+ transients and contractility. Junctophilin-2, which is thought to tether T-tubules to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, was mislocalized in the double PI3K-null myocytes without a change in expression level. Conclusions PI3K p110α and p110β are required to maintain the organized network of T-tubules that is vital for efficient Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and ventricular contraction. PI3Ks maintain T-tubule organization by regulating junctophilin-2 localization. These results could have important medical implications because several PI3K inhibitors that target both isoforms are being used to treat cancer patients in clinical trials. PMID:21912691

  16. Cyclin D2 induces proliferation of cardiac myocytes and represses hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Busk, Peter K. . E-mail: pkbu@novonordisk.com; Hinrichsen, Rebecca; Bartkova, Jirina; Hansen, Ane H.; Christoffersen, Tue E.H.; Bartek, Jiri; Haunso, Stig

    2005-03-10

    The myocytes of the adult mammalian heart are considered unable to divide. Instead, mitogens induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We have investigated the effect of adenoviral overexpression of cyclin D2 on myocyte proliferation and morphology. Cardiomyocytes in culture were identified by established markers. Cyclin D2 induced DNA synthesis and proliferation of cardiomyocytes and impaired hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II and serum. At the molecular level, cyclin D2 activated CDK4/6 and lead to pRB phosphorylation and downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}. Expression of the CDK4/6 inhibitor p16 inhibited proliferation and cyclin D2 overexpressing myocytes became hypertrophic under such conditions. Inhibition of hypertrophy by cyclin D2 correlated with downregulation of p27{sup Kip1}. These data show that hypertrophy and proliferation are highly related processes and suggest that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is due to low amounts of cell cycle activators unable to overcome the block imposed by cell cycle inhibitors. Cell cycle entry upon hypertrophy may be converted to cell division by increased expression of activators such as cyclin D2.

  17. Modeling Calcium Wave Based on Anomalous Subdiffusion of Calcium Sparks in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Kang, Jianhong; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang

    2013-01-01

    sparks and waves play important roles in calcium release and calcium propagation during the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling process in cardiac myocytes. Although the classical Fick’s law is widely used to model sparks and waves in cardiac myocytes, it fails to reasonably explain the full-width at half maximum(FWHM) paradox. However, the anomalous subdiffusion model successfully reproduces sparks of experimental results. In this paper, in the light of anomalous subdiffusion of sparks, we develop a mathematical model of calcium wave in cardiac myocytes by using stochastic release of release units (CRUs). Our model successfully reproduces calcium waves with physiological parameters. The results reveal how concentration waves propagate from an initial firing of one CRU at a corner or in the middle of considered region, answer how large in magnitude of an anomalous spark can induce a wave. With physiological currents (2pA) through CRUs, it is shown that an initial firing of four adjacent CRUs can form a wave. Furthermore, the phenomenon of calcium waves collision is also investigated. PMID:23483894

  18. Caveolae in Ventricular Myocytes are Required for Stretch-Dependent Conduction Slowing

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, E.R.; Wright, A.T.; Edwards, A.G.; Stowe, J.C.; McNall, K.; Tan, J.; Niesman, I.; Patel, H.H.; Roth, D.M.; Omens, J.H.; McCulloch, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical stretch of cardiac muscle modulates action potential propagation velocity, causing potentially arrhythmogenic conduction slowing. The mechanisms by which stretch alters cardiac conduction remain unknown, but previous studies suggest that stretch can affect the conformation of caveolae in myocytes and other cell types. We tested the hypothesis that slowing of action potential conduction due to cardiac myocyte stretch is dependent on caveolae. Cardiac action potential propagation velocities, measured by optical mapping in isolated mouse hearts and in micropatterned mouse cardiomyocyte cultures, decreased reversibly with volume loading or stretch, respectively (by 19±5% and 26±4%). Stretch-dependent conduction slowing was not altered by stretch-activated channel blockade with gadolinium or by GsMTx-4 peptide, but was inhibited when caveolae were disrupted via genetic deletion of caveolin-3 (Cav3 KO) or membrane cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin. In wild-type mouse hearts, stretch coincided with recruitment of caveolae to the sarcolemma, as observed by electron microscopy. In myocytes from wild-type but not Cav3 KO mice, stretch significantly increased cell membrane capacitance (by 98±64%), electrical time constant (by 285±149%), and lipid recruitment to the bilayer (by 84±39%). Recruitment of caveolae to the sarcolemma during physiologic cardiomyocyte stretch slows ventricular action potential propagation by increasing cell membrane capacitance. PMID:25257915

  19. A Localized Meshless Approach for Modeling Spatial-temporal Calcium Dynamics in Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Guangming; Yu, Zeyun

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Spatial-temporal calcium dynamics due to calcium release, buffering and re-uptaking plays a central role in studying excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in both normal and diseased cardiac myocytes. In this paper, we employ a meshless method, namely, the local radial basis function collocation method (LRBFCM) to model such calcium behaviors by solving a nonlinear system of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. In particular, a simplified structural unit containing a single transverse-tubule (or t-tubule) and its surrounding half sarcomeres is investigated using the meshless method. Numerical results are compared to those generated by finite element methods, showing the capability and efficiency of the LRBFCM in modeling calcium dynamics in ventricular myocytes. The single t-tubule model is also extended to the whole-cell scale with t-tubules excluded to demonstrate the scalability of the proposed meshless method in handling very large domains. The experiments have shown that the LRBFCM is suitable to multi-scale modeling of calcium dynamics in ventricular myocytes with high accuracy and efficiency. PMID:22408720

  20. Comparative study of myocytes from normal and mdx mice iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Cao, Jiqing; Liu, Qiang; Qin, Jie; Kong, Jie; Wang, Yanyun; Li, Yaqin; Geng, Jia; Li, Qiuling; Yang, Liqing; Xiang, Andy Peng; Zhang, Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) have been derived from various techniques and show great potential for therapy of human diseases. Furthermore, the iPS technique can be used to provide cell models to explore pathological mechanisms of many human diseases in vitro, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is a severe recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy without effective treatment. In this study, we try to determine whether there are different characteristics of myocytes from mdx iPS cells and C57BL/10 iPS cells. Our results showed that both of mdx and C57BL/10 cells could be induced into iPS cells in vitro, whereas colony-forming ability of mdx iPS cells was much weaker than that of C57BL/10 iPS cells. Meanwhile, mdx iPS cells could be induced to differentiate into myocytes, whereas their differentiation efficiency was much lower than that of C57BL/10 iPS cells. And, the number of apoptotic cells in differentiated myocytes from mdx iPS cells was significantly higher than that from C57BL/10 iPS cells. More importantly, treatment of a pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD) produced a significant decrease in apoptotic cells. This study might add some insight to the biology study of dystrophin gene. PMID:21976068

  1. Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone type-1 receptor accelerate myocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Shigemi; Yoshioka, Kowasi

    2014-01-01

    The ZHTc6-MyoD embryonic stem cell line expresses the myogenic transcriptional factor MyoD under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Following induction, most of the ZHTc6-MyoD cells differentiate to myotubes. However, a small fraction does not differentiate, instead forming colonies that retain the potential for myocyte differentiation. In our current study, we found that parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R) expression in colony-forming cells at 13 days after differentiation was higher than that in the undifferentiated ZHTc6-MyoD cells. We also found that PTH1R expression was required for myocyte differentiation, and that parathyroid hormone accelerated the differentiation. Our analysis of human and mouse skeletal muscle tissues showed that most cells expressing PTH1R also expressed Pax7 and CD34, which are biomarkers of satellite cells. Furthermore, we found that parathyroid hormone treatment significantly improved muscle weakness in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. This is the first report indicating that PTH1R and PTH accelerate myocyte differentiation. PMID:24919035

  2. Activators of PPARgamma antagonize protection of cardiac myocytes by endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Natsuhiko; Hasegawa, Koji; Ono, Koh; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Iwai-Kanai, Eri; Morimoto, Tatsuya; Akao, Masaharu; Adachi, Souichi; Kita, Toru

    2004-08-20

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent survival factor against myocardial cell apoptosis. This anti-apoptotic effect of ET-1 is mediated in part through calcineurin/NFATc-dependent induction of bcl-2 expression. Since it has been reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) interacts with NFATc, we investigated the effects of PPARgamma ligands on anti-apoptotic effects of ET-1 in cardiac myocytes. In primary cardiac myocytes from neonatal rats, administration of PPARgamma activators (15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 and troglitazone) attenuated the anti-apoptotic effects of ET-1. These activators abolished the ET-1-stimulated increase in bcl-2 expression and in binding of cardiac NFATc to the bcl-2 NFAT site. These findings demonstrate that activators of PPARgamma perturb the anti-apoptotic effects of ET-1 in cardiac myocytes and that this perturbation is, in part, based on functional transcriptional cross-talk between NFATc and PPARgamma. PMID:15358182

  3. Global Intracoronary Infusion of Allogeneic Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Improves Ventricular Function and Stimulates Endogenous Myocyte Regeneration throughout the Heart in Swine with Hibernating Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Gen; Weil, Brian R.; Leiker, Merced M.; Ribbeck, Amanda E.; Young, Rebeccah F.; Cimato, Thomas R.; Canty, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) improve ventricular function and reduce fibrotic volume when administered via an infarct-related artery using the “stop-flow” technique. Unfortunately, myocyte loss and dysfunction occur globally in many patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, necessitating an approach to distribute CDCs throughout the entire heart. We therefore determined whether global intracoronary infusion of CDCs under continuous flow improves contractile function and stimulates new myocyte formation. Methods and Results Swine with hibernating myocardium from a chronic LAD occlusion were studied 3-months after instrumentation (n = 25). CDCs isolated from myocardial biopsies were infused into each major coronary artery (∼33×106 icCDCs). Global icCDC infusion was safe and while ∼3% of injected CDCs were retained, they did not affect ventricular function or myocyte proliferation in normal animals. In contrast, four-weeks after icCDCs were administered to animals with hibernating myocardium, %LADWT increased from 23±6 to 51±5% (p<0.01). In diseased hearts, myocyte proliferation (phospho-histone-H3) increased in hibernating and remote regions with a concomitant increase in myocyte nuclear density. These effects were accompanied by reductions in myocyte diameter consistent with new myocyte formation. Only rare myocytes arose from sex-mismatched donor CDCs. Conclusions Global icCDC infusion under continuous flow is feasible and improves contractile function, regresses myocyte cellular hypertrophy and increases myocyte proliferation in diseased but not normal hearts. New myocytes arising via differentiation of injected cells are rare, implicating stimulation of endogenous myocyte regeneration as the primary mechanism of repair. PMID:25402428

  4. Validation of an in vitro contractility assay using canine ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harmer, A.R. Abi-Gerges, N.; Morton, M.J.; Pullen, G.F.; Valentin, J.P.; Pollard, C.E.

    2012-04-15

    Measurement of cardiac contractility is a logical part of pre-clinical safety assessment in a drug discovery project, particularly if a risk has been identified or is suspected based on the primary- or non-target pharmacology. However, there are limited validated assays available that can be used to screen several compounds in order to identify and eliminate inotropic liability from a chemical series. We have therefore sought to develop an in vitro model with sufficient throughput for this purpose. Dog ventricular myocytes were isolated using a collagenase perfusion technique and placed in a perfused recording chamber on the stage of a microscope at ∼ 36 °C. Myocytes were stimulated to contract at a pacing frequency of 1 Hz and a digital, cell geometry measurement system (IonOptix™) was used to measure sarcomere shortening in single myocytes. After perfusion with vehicle (0.1% DMSO), concentration–effect curves were constructed for each compound in 4–30 myocytes taken from 1 or 2 dog hearts. The validation test-set was 22 negative and 8 positive inotropes, and 21 inactive compounds, as defined by their effect in dog, cynolomolgous monkey or humans. By comparing the outcome of the assay to the known in vivo contractility effects, the assay sensitivity was 81%, specificity was 75%, and accuracy was 78%. With a throughput of 6–8 compounds/week from 1 cell isolation, this assay may be of value to drug discovery projects to screen for direct contractility effects and, if a hazard is identified, help identify inactive compounds. -- Highlights: ► Cardiac contractility is an important physiological function of the heart. ► Assessment of contractility is a logical part of pre-clinical drug safety testing. ► There are limited validated assays that predict effects of compounds on contractility. ► Using dog myocytes, we have developed an in vitro cardiac contractility assay. ► The assay predicted the in vivo contractility with a good level of accuracy.

  5. Characterization of Mg2+-regulated TRPM7-like current in human atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background TRPM7 (Transient Receptor Potential of the Melastatin subfamily) proteins are highly expressed in the heart, however, electrophysiological studies, demonstrating and characterizing these channels in human cardiomyocytes, are missing. Methods We have used the patch clamp technique to characterize the biophysical properties of TRPM7 channel in human myocytes isolated from right atria small chunks obtained from 116 patients in sinus rhythm during coronary artery and valvular surgery. Under whole-cell voltage-clamp, with Ca2+ and K+ channels blocked, currents were generated by symmetrical voltage ramp commands to potentials between -120 and +80 mV, from a holding potential of -80 mV. Results We demonstrate that activated native current has dual control by intracellular Mg2+ (free-Mg2+ or ATP-bound form), and shows up- or down-regulation by its low or high levels, respectively, displaying outward rectification in physiological extracellular medium. High extracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+ block the outward current, while Gd3+, SpM4+, 2-APB, and carvacrol inhibit both (inward and outward) currents. Besides, divalents also permeate the channel, and the efficacy sequence, at 20 mM, was Mg2+>Ni2+>Ca2+>Ba2+>Cd2+ for decreasing outward and Ni2+>Mg2+>Ba2+≥Ca2+>Cd2+ for increasing inward currents. The defined current bears many characteristics of heterologously expressed or native TRPM7 current, and allowed us to propose that current under study is TRPM7-like. However, the time of beginning and time to peak as well steady state magnitude (range from 1.21 to 11.63 pA/pF, ncells/patients = 136/77) of induced TRPM7-like current in atrial myocytes from different patients showed a large variability, while from the same sample of human atria all these parameters were very homogenous. We present new information that TRPM7-like current in human myocytes is less sensitive to Mg2+. In addition, in some myocytes (from 24 out of 77 patients) that current was already up

  6. Phorbol ester activation of chloride current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Shuba, L. M.; Asai, T.; McDonald, T. F.

    1996-01-01

    1. Although earlier studies with phorbol esters indicate that protein kinase C (PKC) may be an important regulator of Cl- current (Icl) in cardiac cells, there is a need for additional quantitative data and investigation of conflicting findings. Our objectives were to measure the magnitude, time course, and concentration-dependence of Icl activated in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), evaluate its PKC dependence, and examine its modification by external and internal ions. 2. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to apply short depolarizing and hyperpolarizing pulses to myocytes superfused with Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-free solution (36 degrees C) and dialysed with Cs+ solution. Stimulation of membrane currents by PMA (threshold < or = 1nM, EC50 approximately equal to 14 nM, maximal 40% increase with > or = 100 nM) plateaued within 6-10 min. 3. PMA-activated current was time-independent, and suppressed by l mM 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid (9-AC). Its reversal potential (Erev) was sensitive to changes in the Cl- gradient, and outward rectification of the current-voltage (I-V) relationship was more pronounced with 30 mM than 140 mM Cl- dialysate. 4. The relative permeability of PMA-activated channels estimated from Erev measurements was I- > Cl- > > aspartate. Channel activation was independent of external Na+. 5. PMA failed to activate Icl in myocytes pretreated with 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7) or dialysed with pCa 10.5 solution. Lack of response to 4 alpha-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (alpha PDD) was a further indication of mediation by PKC. 6. Icl induced by 2 microM forskolin was far larger than that induced by PMA, suggesting that endogenous protein kinase A is a much stronger Cl- channel activator than endogenous PKC in these myocytes. 7. The macroscopic properties of PMA-induced Icl appear to be indistinguishable from those of PKA-activated Icl. We discount stimulation of PKA by PMA as an

  7. Two functionally different Na/K pumps in cardiac ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to voltage clamp acutely isolated myocytes at -60 mV and study effects of ionic environment on Na/K pump activity. In quiescent guinea pig myocytes, normal intracellular Na+ is approximately 6 mM, which gives a total pump current of 0.25 +/- 0.09 pA/pF, and an inward background sodium current of 0.75 +/- 0.26 pA/pF. The average capacitance of a cell is 189 +/- 61 pF. Our main conclusion is the total Na/K pump current comprises currents from two different types of pumps, whose functional responses to the extracellular environment are different. Pump current was reversibly blocked with two affinities by extracellular dihydro-ouabain (DHO). We determined dissociation constants of 72 microM for low affinity (type-1) pumps and 0.75 microM for high affinity (type-h) pumps. These dissociation constants did not detectably change with two intracellular Na+ concentrations, one saturating and one near half- saturating, and with two extracellular K+ concentrations of 4.6 and 1.0 mM. Ion effects on type-h pumps were therefore measured using 5 microM DHO and on total pump current using 1 mM DHO. Extracellular K+ half- maximally activated the type-h pumps at 0.4 mM and the type-1 at 3.7 mM. Extracellular H+ blocked the type-1 pumps with half-maximal blockade at a pH of 7.71 whereas the type-h pumps were insensitive to extracellular pH. Both types of pumps responded similarly to changes in intracellular-Na+, with 9.6 mM causing half-maximal activation. Neither changes in intracellular pH between 6.0 and 7.2, nor concentrations of intracellular K+ of 140 mM or below, had any effect on either type of pump. The lack of any effect of intracellular K+ suggests the dissociation constants are in the molar range so this step in the pump cycle is not rate limiting under normal physiological conditions. Changes in intracellular-Na+ did not affect the half-maximal activation by extracellular K+, and vice versa. We found DHO-blockade of Na/K pump

  8. Hypertrophy, gene expression, and beating of neonatal cardiac myocytes are affected by microdomain heterogeneity in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Matthew W.; Sharma, Sadhana; Desai, Tejal A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes are known to be influenced by the rigidity and topography of their physical microenvironment. It was hypothesized that 3D heterogeneity introduced by purely physical microdomains regulates cardiac myocyte size and contraction. This was tested in vitro using polymeric microstructures (G′=1.66 GPa) suspended with random orientation in 3D by a soft Matrigel matrix (G′=22.9 Pa). After 10 days of culture, the presence of 100 μm-long microstructures in 3D gels induced fold increases in neonatal rat ventricular myocyte size (1.61±0.06, p<0.01) and total protein/cell ratios (1.43± 0.08, p<0.05) that were comparable to those induced chemically by 50 μM phenylephrine treatment. Upon attachment to microstructures, individual myocytes also had larger cross-sectional areas (1.57±0.05, p<0.01) and higher average rates of spontaneous contraction (2.01±0.08, p<0.01) than unattached myocytes. Furthermore, the inclusion of microstructures in myocyte-seeded gels caused significant increases in the expression of beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1-AR, 1.19±0.01), cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, 1.26±0.02), and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA2, 1.59±0.12, p<0.05), genes implicated in hypertrophy and contractile activity. Together, the results demonstrate that cardiac myocyte behavior can be controlled through local 3D microdomains alone. This approach of defining physical cues as independent features may help to advance the elemental design considerations for scaffolds in cardiac tissue engineering and therapeutic microdevices. PMID:20668947

  9. Adenovirus-mediated delivery into myocytes of muscle glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme deficient in patients with glycogen-storage disease type V.

    PubMed Central

    Baqué, S; Newgard, C B; Gerard, R D; Guinovart, J J; Gómez-Foix, A M

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of using adenovirus as a vector for the introduction of glycogen phosphorylase activity into myocytes has been examined. We used the C2C12 myoblast cell line to assay the impact of phosphorylase gene transfer on myocyte glycogen metabolism and to reproduce in vitro the two strategies proposed for the treatment of muscle genetic diseases, myoblast transplantation and direct DNA delivery. In this study, a recombinant adenovirus containing the muscle glycogen phosphorylase cDNA transcribed from the cytomegalovirus promoter (AdCMV-MGP) was used to transduce both differentiating myoblasts and nondividing mature myotube cells. Muscle glycogen phosphorylase mRNA levels and total phosphorylase activity were increased in both cell types after viral treatment although more efficiently in the differentiated myotubes. The increase in phosphorylase activity was transient (15 days) in myoblasts whereas in myotubes higher levels of phosphorylase gene expression and activity were reached, which remained above control levels for the duration of the study (20 days). The introduction of muscle phosphorylase into myotubes enhanced their glycogenolytic capacity. AdCMV MGP-transduced myotubes had lower glycogen levels under basal conditions. In addition, these engineered cells showed more extensive glycogenolysis in response to both adrenaline, which stimulates glycogen phosphorylase phosphorylation, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, a metabolic uncoupler. In conclusion, transfer of the muscle glycogen phosphorylase cDNA into myotubes confers an enhanced and regulatable glycogenolytic capacity. Thus this system might be useful for delivery of muscle glycogen phosphorylase and restoration of glycogenolysis in muscle cells from patients with muscle phosphorylase deficiency (McArdle's disease). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7818463

  10. Uniaxial cyclic strain enhances adipose-derived stem cell fusion with skeletal myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens Isak; Juhl, Morten; Nielsen, Thøger; Emmersen, Jeppe; Fink, Trine; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) applied to ASCs alone or in coculture with myogenic precursors. • CTS promoted the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs. • Without biochemical supplements, CTS did not support advanced myogenic differentiation of ASCs. • Mechanical stimulation of cocultures boosted fusion of ASCs with skeletal myoblasts. - Abstract: Although adult muscle tissue possesses an exceptional capacity for regeneration, in the case of large defects, the restoration to original state is not possible. A well-known source for the de novo regeneration is the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be readily isolated and have been shown to have a broad differentiation and regenerative potential. In this work, we employed uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS), to mechanically stimulate human ASCs to participate in the formation skeletal myotubes in an in vitro model of myogenesis. The application of CTS for 48 h resulted in the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs, but failed to support skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. When the same stimulation paradigm was applied to cocultures with mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts, the percentage of ASCs contributing to the formation of myotubes significantly exceeded the levels reported in the literature hitherto. In perspective, the mechanical strain may be used to increase the efficiency of incorporation of ASCs in the skeletal muscles, which could be found useful in diverse traumatic or pathologic scenarios.

  11. Effect of overexpressed adenylyl cyclase VI on β1- and β2-adrenoceptor responses in adult rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Joalice C C; Haydock, Stephen F; Foo, Roger; Brown, Morris J; Harding, Sian E

    2004-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclase VI (ACVI) is one of the most abundantly expressed β adrenergic receptor (βAR)-coupled cyclases responsible for cyclic AMP (cAMP) production within the mammalian myocardium. We investigated the role of ACVI in the regulation of cardiomyocyte contractility and whether it is functionally coupled with β1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Recombinant adenoviruses were generated for ACVI and for antisense to ACVI (AS). Adult rat ventricular myocytes were transfected with ACVI virus, AS or both (SAS). Adenovirus for green fluorescent protein (GFP) served as control. Myocyte contraction amplitudes (% shortening) and relaxation times (R50) were analysed. ACVI function was determined using cAMP assays. ACVI-transfected cells demonstrated a strong 139 kDa ACVI protein band compared to controls. ACVI myocytes had higher steady-state intracellular cAMP levels than GFP myocytes when unstimulated (GFP vs ACVI=6.60±0.98 vs 14.2±2.1 fmol cAMP/viable cell, n=4, P<0.05) and in the presence of 1 μM isoprenaline or 10 μM forskolin. ACVI myocytes had increased basal contraction (% shortening: GFP vs ACVI: 1.90±1.36 vs 3.91±2.29, P<0.0001) and decreased basal R50 (GFP vs ACVI: 62.6±24.2 ms (n=50) vs 45.0±17.2 ms (n=248), P<0.0001). ACVI myocyte responses were increased for forskolin (Emax: GFP=6.70±1.59 (n=6); ACVI=9.06±0.69 (n=14), P<0.01) but not isoprenaline. ACVI myocyte responses were increased (Emax: GFP vs ACVI=3.16±0.77 vs 5.10±0.60, P<0.0001) to xamoterol (a partial β1AR-selective agonist) under β2AR blockade (+50 nM ICI 118, 551). AS decreased both control and ACVI-stimulated xamoterol responses (Emax: AS=2.59±1.42, SAS=1.38±0.5). ACVI response was not mimicked by IBMX. Conversely, response through β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) was decreased in ACVI myocytes. In conclusion, ACVI overexpression constitutively increases myocyte contraction amplitudes by raising cAMP levels. Native ACVI did not contribute to basal cAMP production or contraction

  12. p21-activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R. John; Banach, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca2+ handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1-/-) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1-/- VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1-/- VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca2+]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca2+ release events and waves. The Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1-/- VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47phox-/-) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1-/- VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca2+ overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident. PMID:24380729

  13. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells activate the survival protein Akt in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells that limits apoptosis and necrosis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Dennis, Steve; Sawmiller, Darrell; Hunter, Lorynn; Sanberg, Paul; Miller, Leslie

    2012-06-01

    We have previously reported that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and endothelial stem cells, can significantly reduce acute myocardial infarction size. To determine the mechanism whereby HUCBC increase myocyte and vascular endothelial cell survival, we treated cardiac myocytes and coronary artery endothelial cells in separate experiments with HUCBC plus culture media or culture media alone and subjected the cells to 24 h of hypoxia or normoxia. We then determined in myocytes and endothelial cells activation of the cell survival protein Akt by Western blots. We also determined in these cells apoptosis by annexin V staining and necrosis by propidium iodide staining. Thereafter, we inhibited with API, a specific and sensitive Akt inhibitor, Akt activation in myocytes and endothelial cells cultured with HUCBC during hypoxia and determined cell apoptosis and necrosis. In cells cultured without HUCBC, hypoxia only slightly activated Akt. Moreover, hypoxia increased myocyte apoptosis by ≥ 226% and necrosis by 58% in comparison with myocytes in normoxia. Hypoxic treatment of endothelial cells without HUCBC increased apoptosis by 94% and necrosis by 59%. In contrast, hypoxia did not significantly affect HUCBC. Moreover, in myocyte + HUCBC cultures in hypoxia, HUCBC induced a ≥ 135% increase in myocyte phospho-Akt. Akt activation decreased myocyte apoptosis by 76% and necrosis by 35%. In endothelial cells, HUCBC increased phospho-Akt by 116%. HUCBC also decreased endothelial cell apoptosis by 58% and necrosis by 42%. Inhibition of Akt with API in myocytes and endothelial cells cultured with HUCBC during hypoxia nearly totally prevented the HUCBC-induced decrease in apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that HUCBC can significantly decrease hypoxia-induced myocyte and endothelial cell apoptosis and necrosis by activating Akt in these cells and in this manner HUCBC can limit myocardial ischemia and injury. PMID

  14. Characterization of L-type calcium channel activity in atrioventricular nodal myocytes from rats with streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yuill, Kathryn H; Al Kury, Lina T; Howarth, Frank Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are common in patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. We have previously shown that spontaneous cellular electrical activity is altered in atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes, isolated from the streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of type-1 DM. In this study, utilizing the same model, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single AVN myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess the changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current. A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. L-type calcium channel current also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident, and a slowing of restitution parameters. These findings demonstrate that experimentally induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. These changes in ion channel activity may contribute to the abnormalities in cardiac electrical function that are associated with high mortality levels in patients with DM. PMID:26603460

  15. Dynamics of Muscle Microcirculatory and Blood-myocyte O2 Flux During Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Poole, David C.; Copp, Steven W.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Musch, Timothy I.

    2011-01-01

    The O2 requirements of contracting skeletal muscle may increase 100-fold above rest. In 1919 August Krogh’s brilliant insights recognized the capillary as the principal site for this increased blood-myocyte O2 flux. Based on the premise that most capillaries did not sustain RBC flux at rest Krogh proposed that capillary recruitment (i.e., initiation of red blood cell (RBC) flux in previously non-flowing capillaries) increased the capillary surface area available for O2 flux and reduced mean capillary-to-mitochondrial diffusion distances. More modern experimental approaches reveal that most muscle capillaries may support RBC flux at rest. Thus, rather than contraction-induced capillary recruitment per se, increased RBC flux and hematocrit within already-flowing capillaries likely elevate perfusive and diffusive O2 conductances and hence blood-myocyte O2 flux. Additional surface area for O2 exchange is recruited but, crucially, this may occur along the length of already-flowing capillaries (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Today, the capillary is still considered the principal site for O2 and substrate delivery to contracting skeletal muscle. Indeed, the presence of very low intramyocyte O2 partial pressures (PO2’s) and the absence of PO2 gradients, whilst refuting the relevance of diffusion distances, place an even greater importance on capillary hemodynamics. This emergent picture calls for a paradigm-shift in our understanding of the function of capillaries by de-emphasizing de novo ‘capillary recruitment.’ Diseases such as heart failure impair blood-myocyte O2 flux, in part, by decreasing the proportion of RBC-flowing capillaries. Knowledge of capillary function in healthy muscle is requisite for identification of pathology and efficient design of therapeutic treatments. PMID:21199399

  16. Ca2+ paradox injury mediated through TRPC channels in mouse ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Akiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Ca2+ paradox is an important phenomenon associated with Ca2+ overload-mediated cellular injury in myocardium. The present study was undertaken to elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms for the development of the Ca2+ paradox. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Fluorescence imaging was performed on fluo-3 loaded quiescent mouse ventricular myocytes using confocal laser scanning microscope. KEY RESULTS The Ca2+ paradox was readily evoked by restoration of the extracellular Ca2+ following 10–20 min of nominally Ca2+-free superfusion. The Ca2+ paradox was significantly reduced by blockers of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, Gd3+, La3+) and anti-TRPC1 antibody. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content, assessed by caffeine application, gradually declined during Ca2+-free superfusion, which was further accelerated by metabolic inhibition. Block of SR Ca2+ leak by tetracaine prevented Ca2+ paradox. The Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) blocker KB-R7943 significantly inhibited Ca2+ paradox when applied throughout superfusion period, but had little effect when added for a period of 3 min before and during Ca2+ restoration. The SR Ca2+ content was better preserved during Ca2+ depletion by KB-R7943. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the expression of TRPC1, in addition to TRPC3 and TRPC4, in mouse ventricular myocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide evidence that (i) the Ca2+ paradox is primarily mediated by Ca2+ entry through TRPC (probably TRPC1) channels that are presumably activated by SR Ca2+ depletion; and (ii) reverse mode NCX contributes little to the Ca2+ paradox, whereas inhibition of NCX during Ca2+ depletion improves SR Ca2+ loading, and is associated with reduced incidence of Ca2+ paradox in mouse ventricular myocytes. PMID:20718730

  17. The proarrhythmic antihistaminic drug terfenadine increases spontaneous calcium release in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hove-Madsen, Leif; Llach, Anna; Molina, Cristina E; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Farré, Jordi; Roura, Santiago; Cinca, Juan

    2006-12-28

    Spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac myocytes plays a central role in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Compounds intended for therapeutical use that interfere with intracellular calcium handling may therefore have an undesired proarrhythmic potential. Here we have used isolated human atrial myocytes to compare the effect of the proarrhythmic antihistaminic drug terfenadine with the non-proarrhythmic antihistaminic drugs fexofenadine and rupatadine on intracellular calcium homeostasis. Perforated patch-clamp technique was used to measure ionic currents and to detect spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results show that the compound terfenadine, with known arrhythmogenic effects, inhibits L-type calcium current (I(Ca)) with an IC(50) of 185 nM when cells are stimulated at 1.0 Hz. The inhibitory effect of 0.3 muM terfenadine increased from 19+/-4% at stimulation frequency of 0.2 Hz to 63+/-6% at 2.0 Hz. Moreover, terfenadine also increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. At a concentration of 1 muM, terfenadine significantly increased the spontaneous Na-Ca exchange current (I(NCX)) frequency from 0.48+/-0.25 to 1.93+/-0.67 s(-1). In contrast, fexofenadine and rupatadine did not change I(Ca) or the frequency of spontaneous I(NCX). We conclude that the proarrhythmic antihistaminic drug terfenadine alters intracellular calcium handling in isolated human atrial myocytes. This experimental model may be suitable to screen for potential arrhythmogenic side-effects of compounds intended for therapeutical use. PMID:17078945

  18. An integrative model of the cardiac ventricular myocyte incorporating local control of Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Joseph L; Winslow, Raimond L

    2002-01-01

    The local control theory of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in cardiac muscle asserts that L-type Ca(2+) current tightly controls Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via local interaction of closely apposed L-type Ca(2+) channels (LCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). These local interactions give rise to smoothly graded Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR), which exhibits high gain. In this study we present a biophysically detailed model of the normal canine ventricular myocyte that conforms to local control theory. The model formulation incorporates details of microscopic EC coupling properties in the form of Ca(2+) release units (CaRUs) in which individual sarcolemmal LCCs interact in a stochastic manner with nearby RyRs in localized regions where junctional SR membrane and transverse-tubular membrane are in close proximity. The CaRUs are embedded within and interact with the global systems of the myocyte describing ionic and membrane pump/exchanger currents, SR Ca(2+) uptake, and time-varying cytosolic ion concentrations to form a model of the cardiac action potential (AP). The model can reproduce both the detailed properties of EC coupling, such as variable gain and graded SR Ca(2+) release, and whole-cell phenomena, such as modulation of AP duration by SR Ca(2+) release. Simulations indicate that the local control paradigm predicts stable APs when the L-type Ca(2+) current is adjusted in accord with the balance between voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation processes as measured experimentally, a scenario where common pool models become unstable. The local control myocyte model provides a means for studying the interrelationship between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors in a manner that would not be possible in experiments. PMID:12496068

  19. Structural and molecular mechanisms of gap junction remodeling in epicardial border zone myocytes following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kieken, Fabien; Mutsaers, Nancy; Dolmatova, Elena; Virgil, Kelly; Wit, Andrew L; Kellezi, Admir; Hirst-Jensen, Bethany J; Duffy, Heather S; Sorgen, Paul L

    2009-05-01

    Lateralization of the ventricular gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) occurs in epicardial border zone myocytes following myocardial infarction (MI) and is arrhythmogenic. Alterations in Cx43 protein partners have been hypothesized to play a role in lateralization although mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. To examine potential mechanisms we did nuclear magnetic resonance, yeast 2-hybrid, and surface plasmon resonance studies and found that the SH3 domain of the tyrosine kinase c-Src binds to the Cx43 scaffolding protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) with a higher affinity than does Cx43. This suggests c-Src outcompetes Cx43 for binding to ZO-1, thus acting as a chaperone for ZO-1 and causing unhooking from Cx43. To determine whether c-Src/ZO-1 interactions affect Cx43 lateralization within the epicardial border zone, we performed Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and immunolocalization for active c-Src (p-cSrc) post-MI using a canine model of coronary occlusion. We found that post-MI p-cSrc interacts with ZO-1 as Cx43 begins to decrease its interaction with ZO-1 and undergo initial loss of intercalated disk localization. This indicates that the molecular mechanisms by which Cx43 is lost from the intercalated disk following MI includes an interaction of p-cSrc with ZO-1 and subsequent loss of scaffolding of Cx43 leaving Cx43 free to diffuse in myocyte membranes from areas of high Cx43, as at the intercalated disk, to regions of lower Cx43 content, the lateral myocyte membrane. Therefore shifts in Cx43 protein partners may underlie, in part, arrhythmogenesis in the post-MI heart. PMID:19342602

  20. A Mathematical Treatment of Integrated Ca Dynamics within the Ventricular Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Thomas R.; Wang, Fei; Puglisi, José; Weber, Christopher; Bers, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a detailed mathematical model for Ca2+ handling and ionic currents in the rabbit ventricular myocyte. The objective was to develop a model that: 1), accurately reflects Ca-dependent Ca release; 2), uses realistic parameters, particularly those that concern Ca transport from the cytosol; 3), comes to steady state; 4), simulates basic excitation-contraction coupling phenomena; and 5), runs on a normal desktop computer. The model includes the following novel features: 1), the addition of a subsarcolemmal compartment to the other two commonly formulated cytosolic compartments (junctional and bulk) because ion channels in the membrane sense ion concentrations that differ from bulk; 2), the use of realistic cytosolic Ca buffering parameters; 3), a reversible sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca pump; 4), a scheme for Na-Ca exchange transport that is [Na]i dependent and allosterically regulated by [Ca]i; and 5), a practical model of SR Ca release including both inactivation/adaptation and SR Ca load dependence. The data describe normal electrical activity and Ca handling characteristics of the cardiac myocyte and the SR Ca load dependence of these processes. The model includes a realistic balance of Ca removal mechanisms (e.g., SR Ca pump versus Na-Ca exchange), and the phenomena of rest decay and frequency-dependent inotropy. A particular emphasis is placed upon reproducing the nonlinear dependence of gain and fractional SR Ca release upon SR Ca load. We conclude that this model is more robust than many previously existing models and reproduces many experimental results using parameters based largely on experimental measurements in myocytes. PMID:15347581

  1. Human colonic myocytes are involved in postischemic inflammation through ADAM17-dependent TNFα production

    PubMed Central

    Jarry, Anne; Bach-Ngohou, Kalyane; Masson, Damien; Dejoie, Thomas; Lehur, Paul-Antoine; Mosnier, Jean-François; Denis, Marc G; Laboisse, Christian L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify human colonic resident cells able to initiate an inflammatory response in postischemic injury. Postischemic colonic injury, a condition relevant to various clinical settings, involves an inflammatory cascade in intestinal tissues through the recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells. However, there is no information on the nature of resident cells of the different intestinal layers able to initiate a postischemic inflammatory response. It is however an important issue in the context of a pharmacological approach of the early phase of intestinal ischemia. We reasoned that maintaining the different colonic layers as explant cultures in an oxygenated medium immediately after colonic resection, that is, after an ischemic period, would allow one to identify the resident cells able to initiate an inflammatory cascade, without interference of recruited inflammatory/immune cells. To this end, we designed an explant culture system that operationally defines three compartments in surgical specimens of the human colon, based on the microdissected layers, that is, mucosa, submucosa (containing muscularis mucosae) and muscularis propria. To validate the results obtained in explant cultures in the clinical setting of ischemic colitis, eight cases of sigmoid volvulus were examined. Only the myocytes-containing explants produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), via an ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17)-dependent pathway, as shown by the abrogation of TNFα production by the inhibitor Tapi-2. Immunofluorescence studies identified nonvascular and vascular myocytes as resident cells coexpressing TNFα and ADAM17, both in our postischemic explant system and in surgical specimens from ischemic colitis patients. Finally, time-course experiments on explanted tissues showed that TNFα production by myocytes was an early event triggered by a postischemic oxidative stress involving nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). In conclusion

  2. High efficiency activation of L-type Ca2+ current by 5-HT in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Emmanuella; Findlay, Ian; Rose, Stephanie; Aupart, Michel; Argibay, Jorge; Cosnay, Pierre; Bozon, Veronique

    2004-01-01

    In human atrial myocytes, serotonin rather than sympathetic, stimulation is more frequently associated with atrial fibrillation. So does the arrhythmogenic effect of serotonin result from the mechanism of action of the receptor or the context of its action upon cardiac myocytes? The capacity of agonists to produce cAMP followed the sequence 5-HT < Iso < Forskolin to increase ICaL with 5-HT = Iso = Forskolin. The simultaneous application of threshold concentrations of 5-HT and Iso maximally increased ICaL. We will show that the effect of 5-HT upon human atrial myocytes is an imbalance between low production of cAMP and maximal activation of ICaL. PMID:15989080

  3. Intracellular Na+ overload causes oxidation of CaMKII and leads to Ca2+ mishandling in isolated ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Kornyeyev, Dmytro; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Budas, Grant; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Yang, Jin; Anderson, Mark E; Shryock, John C; Chang, Ching-Pin; Belardinelli, Luiz; Yao, Lina

    2014-11-01

    An increase of late Na(+) current (INaL) in cardiac myocytes can raise the cytosolic Na(+) concentration and is associated with activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and Ca(2+) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). We tested the hypothesis that augmentation of INaL can increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidation of CaMKII, resulting in spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release and increased diastolic Ca(2+) in myocytes. Increases of INaL and/or of the cytosolic Na(+) concentration led to mitochondrial ROS production and oxidation of CaMKII to cause dysregulation of Ca(2+) handling in rabbit cardiac myocytes. PMID:25252177

  4. Effects of nifedipine and moxonidine on cardiac structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Stereological studies on myocytes, capillaries, arteries, and cardiac interstitium.

    PubMed

    Amann, K; Greber, D; Gharehbaghi, H; Wiest, G; Lange, B; Ganten, U; Mattfeldt, T; Mall, G

    1992-02-01

    Light and electron microscopic stereological studies were performed on the myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) before and after treatment with nifedipine (27 mg/kg body weight/day) and the antisympathotonic agent moxonidine (8 mg/kg body weight/day). The treated groups were compared with nontreated SHR-SP and normotensive WKY (n = 10 in each group). At the beginning of therapy (when the male SHR-SP were 6 months old), blood pressure was increased and left ventricular hypertrophy had developed whereas pathologic changes of myocardial structure were not observed. After 3 months, the nontreated hypertensive rats showed cardiac fibrosis, activation and proliferation of interstitial cells, wall thickening of intramyocardial arteries, reduced capillarization as well as focal degeneration of myocytes at the ultrastructural level. Both treatments showed similar effects on blood pressure, degree of hypertrophy, and cardiac structure. Blood pressure as well as the degree of hypertrophy were significantly reduced. As far as myocardial fibrosis, capillarization, and regressive changes of myocytes are concerned a complete normalization was observed. Furthermore, nifedipine enhanced capillary supply beyond the normal level by induction of capillary neoformation. Microarteriopathy and activation of nonvascular interstitial cells (first step in development of interstitial myocardial fibrosis) were significantly suppressed by therapy, but the level of the normotensive control could not be maintained. Additional experiments with a low dose combination therapy of nifedipine and moxonidine that did not reduce blood pressure provided evidence that hypertension is an important determinant of the alterations of intramyocardial arteries, but not of cardiac interstitial fibrosis. PMID:1550668

  5. [THE EXCESS OF PALMITIC FATTY ACID IN FOOD AS MAIN CAUSE OF LIPOIDOSIS OF INSULIN-DEPENDENT CELLS: SKELETAL MYOCYTES, CARDIO-MYOCYTES, PERIPORTAL HEPATOCYTES, KUPFFER MACROPHAGES AND B-CELLS OF PANCREAS].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2016-02-01

    In phylogenesis, becoming of biologicalfunctions and biological reactions proceeds with the purpose ofpermanent increasing of "kinetic perfection ". The main role belongs to factors ofphysical, chemical and biological kinetics, their evaluation using systemic approach technique under permanent effect of natural selection. The late-in-phylogenesis insulin, proceeded with, in development of biological function of locomotion, specialization of insulin-dependent cells: skeletal myocytes, syncytium of cardiomyocytes, subcutaneous adipocytes, periportal hepatocytes, Kupffer's macrophages and β-cells of islets of pancreas. The insulin initiated formation of new, late in phylogenesis, large pool of fatty cells-subcutaneous adipocytes that increased kinetic parameters of biological function of locomotion. In realization of biological function of locomotion only adipocytes absorb exogenous mono unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in composition of oleic and palmitic lipoproteins of very low density using apoE/B-100 endocytosis. The rest of insulin-dependent cells absorb fatty acids in the form of unesterified fatty acids from associates with albumin and under effect of CD36 of translocase offatty acids. The insulin in all insulin-depended cells inhibits biological reaction of lipolysis enhancing contributing into development of lipoidosis. The insulin expresses transfer offatty acids in the form of unsaturated fatty acids from adipocytes into matrix of mitochondria. The insulin supplies insulin-dependent cells with substrates for acquiring energy subject to that in pool of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes prevails hydrophobic palmitic unsaturated fatiy acid that slowly passes into matrix through external membrane ofmitochondria; oxidases of mitochondria so slowly implement its β-oxidation that content of exogenous palmitic unsaturatedfatty acid can't be higher than phylogenetic, physiological level - 15% of all amount offatty acids

  6. Cardiac Myocyte Alternans in Intact Heart: Influence of Cell-Cell Coupling and β-Adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Karin P.; Ljubojevic, Senka; Ripplinger, Crystal M.; Pieske, Burkert M.; Bers, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac alternans are proarrhythmic and mechanistically link cardiac mechanical dysfunction and sudden cardiac death. Beat-to-beat alternans occur when beats with large Ca2+ transients and long action potential duration (APD) alternate with the converse. APD alternans are typically driven by Ca2+ alternans and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release alternans. But the effect of intercellular communication via gap junctions (GJ) on alternans in intact heart remains unknown. Objective We assessed the effects of cell-to-cell coupling on local alternans in intact Langen-dorff-perfused mouse hearts, measuring single myocyte [Ca2+] alternans synchronization among neighboring cells, and effects of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) activation and reduced GJ coupling. Methods and Results Mouse hearts (C57BL/6) were retrogradely perfused and loaded with Fluo-8 AM to record cardiac myocyte [Ca2+] in situ with confocal microscopy. Single cell resolution allowed analysis of alternans within the intact organ during alternans induction. Carbenoxolone (25 μM), a GJ inhibitor, significantly increased the occurrence and amplitude of alternans in single cells within the intact heart. Alternans were concordant between neighboring cells throughout the field of view, except transiently during onset. β-AR stimulation only reduced Ca2+ alternans in tissue that had reduced GJ coupling, matching effects seen in isolated myocytes. Conclusions Ca2+ alternans among neighboring myocytes is predominantly concordant, likely because of electrical coupling between cells. Consistent with this, partial GJ uncoupling increased propensity and amplitude of Ca2+ alternans, and made them more sensitive to reversal by β-AR activation, as in isolated myocytes. Electrical coupling between myocytes may thus limit the alternans initiation, but also allow alternans to be more stable once established. PMID:25828762

  7. Alterations of ultrastructure and elemental composition in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes after metabolic inhibition with iodoacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Buja, L M; Hagler, H K; Parsons, D; Chien, K; Reynolds, R C; Willerson, J T

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in cellular fine structure and elemental composition, and their relationship to progression of cell injury, in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in which impaired energy metabolism was produced by the metabolic inhibitor, iodoacetic acid (IAA). In order to quantitate changes in the concentrations of elements and their subcellular distribution in individual myocytes, electron probe x-ray microanalysis was performed on freeze-dried cryosections of rapidly frozen cells. After 1 hour of exposure to IAA, ATP level was not significantly reduced. Most cells exhibited minimal ultrastructural alterations and had normal elemental profiles, whereas some cells (10 to 25%) had increased sodium and calcium in mitochondria and cytoplasm. After exposure to IAA for 1.5, 2, or 4 hours, the ATP level was reduced to below one third of control, and remained decreased 24 hours after removal of IAA, indicating irreversible depression of this variable. After exposure to IAA for 1.5 hours no longer, many cells showed severe ultrastructural alterations, including contraction or swelling of mitochondria and distortion of the cristae, myofibrillar hypercontraction, and formation of fluid-filled blebs. At 1.5 and 2 hours, approximately 75% or more of the myocytes had increased sodium and calcium and decreased potassium and magnesium in mitochondria, nuclei, and cytoplasm. Thus, the development of an increased calcium concentration in cytoplasm as well as mitochondria of most myocytes was a feature of this transitional period. These data indicate that progressive alterations in the levels and distribution of elements accompany the development of severe ultrastructural changes and irreversible injury in response to impaired energy metabolism in cultured myocytes. These elemental alterations include accumulation of calcium in cytoplasm and mitochondria of myocytes in this model. PMID:2413276

  8. Long-term hypothermic preservation of cardiac myocytes isolated from the neonatal rat ventricle: a comparison of various crystalloid solutions.

    PubMed

    Orita, H; Fukasawa, M; Uchino, H; Uchida, T; Shiono, S; Washio, M

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the functional and biochemical effects of crystalloid solutions on immature cardiac myocytes incubated under hypothermic conditions were evaluated. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rat ventricles and cultured for 4 days, following which 12.5 x 10(5) myocytes per flask were incubated at 4 degrees C for 3, 6, 12, and 18 h in five types of crystalloid solutions: lactated Ringer's (LR), St. Thomas' Hospital (ST), University of Wisconsin (UW), 5% glucose-based potassium (GK), and normal saline (NS). The levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the solutions were measured after each hypothermic incubation, following which the myocytes were cultured for an additional 24 h at 37 degrees C to evaluate the recovery of the myocyte beating rate. In the LR, UW, and NS groups, the recovery ratios of the myocyte beating rate were over 95% of the control (the beating rate prior to hypothermic incubation) at 3 h, but decreased to 20.3, 15.1, and 0%, respectively, at 18 h. The ST and GK groups had significantly lower recovery ratios than the other three groups (72.9% and 63.4%, respectively) at 3 h. The release of CPK and LDH in the LR, UW, and NS groups was significantly suppressed compared to the ST and GK groups, with the greatest suppression observed in the LR group. Moreover, the ST and GK groups had the highest CPK and LDH levels, respectively. Thus, LR solution had the least cytotoxic effects, indicating that it could be the most suitable basic solution of the various cardioplegic or preservation solutions during the neonatal period. PMID:7640455

  9. Dilated cardiomyopathy mutations in δ-sarcoglycan exert a dominant-negative effect on cardiac myocyte mechanical stability.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew D; Witcher, Marc; Gopal, Anoop; Michele, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    Delta-sarcoglycan is a component of the sarcoglycan subcomplex within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex located at the plasma membrane of muscle cells. While recessive mutations in δ-sarcoglycan cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F, dominant mutations in δ-sarcoglycan have been linked to inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of this study was to investigate functional cellular defects present in adult cardiac myocytes expressing mutant δ-sarcoglycans harboring the dominant inherited DCM mutations R71T or R97Q. This study demonstrates that DCM mutant δ-sarcoglycans can be stably expressed in adult rat cardiac myocytes and traffic similarly to wild-type δ-sarcoglycan to the plasma membrane, without perturbing assembly of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. However, expression of DCM mutant δ-sarcoglycan in adult rat cardiac myocytes is sufficient to alter cardiac myocyte plasma membrane stability in the presence of mechanical strain. Upon cyclical cell stretching, cardiac myocytes expressing mutant δ-sarcoglycan R97Q or R71T have increased cell-impermeant dye uptake and undergo contractures at greater frequencies than myocytes expressing normal δ-sarcoglycan. Additionally, the R71T mutation creates an ectopic N-linked glycosylation site that results in aberrant glycosylation of the extracellular domain of δ-sarcoglycan. Therefore, appropriate glycosylation of δ-sarcoglycan may also be necessary for proper δ-sarcoglycan function and overall dystrophin-glycoprotein complex function. These studies demonstrate that DCM mutations in δ-sarcoglycan can exert a dominant negative effect on dystrophin-glycoprotein complex function leading to myocardial mechanical instability that may underlie the pathogenesis of δ-sarcoglycan-associated DCM. PMID:26968544

  10. The role of luminal Ca2+ in the generation of Ca2+ waves in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lukyanenko, Valeriy; Subramanian, Saisunder; Györke, Inna; Wiesner, Theodore F; Györke, Sandor

    1999-01-01

    We used confocal Ca2+ imaging and fluo-3 to investigate the transition of localized Ca2+ releases induced by focal caffeine stimulation into propagating Ca2+ waves in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. Self-sustaining Ca2+ waves could be initiated when the cellular Ca2+ load was increased by elevating the extracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]o) and they could also be initiated at normal Ca2+ loads when the sensitivity of the release sites to cytosolic Ca2+ was enhanced by low doses of caffeine. When we prevented the accumulation of extra Ca2+ in the luminal compartment of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with thapsigargin, focal caffeine pulses failed to trigger self-sustaining Ca2+ waves on elevation of [Ca2+]o. Inhibition of SR Ca2+ uptake by thapsigargin in cells already preloaded with Ca2+ above normal levels did not prevent local Ca2+ elevations from triggering propagating waves. Moreover, wave velocity increased by 20 %. Tetracaine (0·75 mM) caused transient complete inhibition of both local and propagating Ca2+ signals, followed by full recovery of the responses due to increased SR Ca2+ accumulation. Computer simulations using a numerical model with spatially distinct Ca2+ release sites suggested that increased amounts of releasable Ca2+ might not be sufficient to generate self-sustaining Ca2+ waves under conditions of Ca2+ overload unless the threshold of release site Ca2+ activation was set at relatively low levels (< 1·5 μM). We conclude that the potentiation of SR Ca2+ release channels by luminal Ca2+ is an important factor in Ca2+ wave generation. Wave propagation does not require the translocation of Ca2+ from the spreading wave front into the SR. Instead, it relies on luminal Ca2+ sensitizing Ca2+ release channels to cytosolic Ca2+. PMID:10373699

  11. Urocortin 2 stimulates nitric oxide production in ventricular myocytes via Akt- and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1177

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Stefanie; Pluteanu, Florentina; Renz, Susanne; Nikonova, Yulia; Maxwell, Joshua T.; Yang, Li-Zhen; Schmidt, Kurt; Edwards, Joshua N.; Wakula, Paulina; Groschner, Klaus; Maier, Lars S.; Spiess, Joachim; Blatter, Lothar A.; Pieske, Burkert

    2014-01-01

    Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) is a cardioactive peptide exhibiting beneficial effects in normal and failing heart. In cardiomyocytes, it elicits cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent positive inotropic and lusitropic effects. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition, Ucn2 activates cardiac nitric oxide (NO) signaling and elucidated the underlying signaling pathways and mechanisms. In isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, Ucn2 caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473, Thr308), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (Ser1177), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, was suppressed by inhibition of MEK1/2. Increased Akt phosphorylation resulted in increased Akt kinase activity and was mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor 2 (CRF2) receptors (astressin-2B sensitive). Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) diminished both Akt as well as eNOS phosphorylation mediated by Ucn2. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) reduced Ucn2-induced phosphorylation of eNOS but did not affect the increase in phosphorylation of Akt. Conversely, direct receptor-independent elevation of cAMP via forskolin increased phosphorylation of eNOS but not of Akt. Ucn2 increased intracellular NO concentration ([NO]i), [cGMP], [cAMP], and cell shortening. Inhibition of eNOS suppressed the increases in [NO]i and cell shortening. When both PI3K-Akt and cAMP-PKA signaling were inhibited, the Ucn2-induced increases in [NO]i and cell shortening were attenuated. Thus, in rabbit ventricular myocytes, Ucn2 causes activation of cAMP-PKA, PI3K-Akt, and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway is not required for stimulation of NO signaling in these cells. The other two pathways, cAMP-PKA and PI3K-Akt, converge on eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and result in pronounced and sustained cellular NO production with subsequent stimulation of cGMP signaling. PMID:25015964

  12. Urocortin 2 stimulates nitric oxide production in ventricular myocytes via Akt- and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1177.

    PubMed

    Walther, Stefanie; Pluteanu, Florentina; Renz, Susanne; Nikonova, Yulia; Maxwell, Joshua T; Yang, Li-Zhen; Schmidt, Kurt; Edwards, Joshua N; Wakula, Paulina; Groschner, Klaus; Maier, Lars S; Spiess, Joachim; Blatter, Lothar A; Pieske, Burkert; Kockskämper, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) is a cardioactive peptide exhibiting beneficial effects in normal and failing heart. In cardiomyocytes, it elicits cAMP- and Ca(2+)-dependent positive inotropic and lusitropic effects. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition, Ucn2 activates cardiac nitric oxide (NO) signaling and elucidated the underlying signaling pathways and mechanisms. In isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, Ucn2 caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473, Thr308), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (Ser1177), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, was suppressed by inhibition of MEK1/2. Increased Akt phosphorylation resulted in increased Akt kinase activity and was mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor 2 (CRF2) receptors (astressin-2B sensitive). Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) diminished both Akt as well as eNOS phosphorylation mediated by Ucn2. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) reduced Ucn2-induced phosphorylation of eNOS but did not affect the increase in phosphorylation of Akt. Conversely, direct receptor-independent elevation of cAMP via forskolin increased phosphorylation of eNOS but not of Akt. Ucn2 increased intracellular NO concentration ([NO]i), [cGMP], [cAMP], and cell shortening. Inhibition of eNOS suppressed the increases in [NO]i and cell shortening. When both PI3K-Akt and cAMP-PKA signaling were inhibited, the Ucn2-induced increases in [NO]i and cell shortening were attenuated. Thus, in rabbit ventricular myocytes, Ucn2 causes activation of cAMP-PKA, PI3K-Akt, and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway is not required for stimulation of NO signaling in these cells. The other two pathways, cAMP-PKA and PI3K-Akt, converge on eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and result in pronounced and sustained cellular NO production with subsequent stimulation of cGMP signaling. PMID:25015964

  13. Pertussis toxin treatment attenuates some effects of insulin in BC3H-1 murine myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, L.M.; Hewlett, E.L.; Romero, G.; Rogol, A.D.

    1988-05-05

    The effects of pertussis toxin (PT) treatment on insulin-stimulated myristoyl-diacylglycerol (DAG) generation, hexose transport, and thymidine incorporation were studied in differentiated BC3H-1 mycocytes. Insulin treatment caused a biphasic increase in myristoyl-DAG production which was abolished in myocytes treated with PT. There was no effect of PT treatment on basal (nonstimulated) myristoyl-DAG production. Insulin-stimulated hydrolysis of a membrane phosphatidylinositol glycan was blocked by PT treatment. ADP-ribosylation of BC3H-1 plasma membranes with (/sup 32/P)NAD revealed a 40-kDa protein as the major PT substrate in vivo and in vitro. The time course and dose dependence of the effects of PT on diacylglycerol generation correlated with the in vivo ADP-ribosylation of the 40-kDa substrate. Pertussis toxin treatment resulted in a 71% attenuation of insulin-stimulated hexose uptake without effect on either basal or phorbol ester-stimulated uptake. The stimulatory effects of insulin and fetal calf serum on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into quiescent myocytes were attenuated by 61 and 59%, respectively, when PT was added coincidently with the growth factors. Nonstimulated and EGF-stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation was unaffected by PT treatment. These data suggest that a PT-sensitive G protein is involved in the cellular signaling mechanisms of insulin.

  14. Robust generation and expansion of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Michael; Kocharyan, Avetik; Liu, Jun; Skerjanc, Ilona S; Stanford, William L

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide a developmental model to study early embryonic and tissue development, tease apart human disease processes, perform drug screens to identify potential molecular effectors of in situ regeneration, and provide a source for cell and tissue based transplantation. Highly efficient differentiation protocols have been established for many cell types and tissues; however, until very recently robust differentiation into skeletal muscle cells had not been possible unless driven by transgenic expression of master regulators of myogenesis. Nevertheless, several breakthrough protocols have been published in the past two years that efficiently generate cells of the skeletal muscle lineage from pluripotent stem cells. Here, we present an updated version of our recently described 50-day protocol in detail, whereby chemically defined media are used to drive and support muscle lineage development from initial CHIR99021-induced mesoderm through to PAX7-expressing skeletal muscle progenitors and mature skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, we report an optional method to passage and expand differentiating skeletal muscle progenitors approximately 3-fold every 2weeks using Collagenase IV and continued FGF2 supplementation. Both protocols have been optimized using a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, our differentiation and expansion protocols provide sufficient quantities of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes that could be used for a variety of studies. PMID:26404920

  15. X-ray microanalysis of single cardiac myocytes frozen under voltage-clamp conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt-Gallitelli, M.F.; Isenberg, G.

    1989-02-01

    By means of a patch pipette, an isolated ventricular myocyte was transferred into the taper of a silver holder covered by pioloform film. Once the cell was on the film, the cell was voltage clamped (pulses from -45 to +5 mV at 0.5 Hz). The amount of Ca entry was estimated from the Ca current. When contractility (cell shortening) was potentiated with either five pulses of 0.2 s or four pulses of 1 s, shock freezing was timed 116 or 816 ms after start of the clamp pulse. Electron micrographs from freeze-substituted cells revealed the good preservation of the intracellular compartments. The myocytes were cut at -150 degrees C, and the cryosections were freeze dried. In representative examples, the amount of Ca entry is compared with the subcellular Ca distribution as it is analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray microprobe analysis in cytoplasm, junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), mitochondria, and the subsarcolemmal space (sarcolemma, peripheral SR, fringe of cytosol).

  16. Gaining myocytes or losing fibroblasts: Challenges in cardiac fibroblast reprogramming for infarct repair.

    PubMed

    Nagalingam, Raghu S; Safi, Hamza A; Czubryt, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Unlike most somatic tissues, the heart possesses a very limited inherent ability to repair itself following damage. Attempts to therapeutically salvage the myocardium after infarction, either by sparing surviving myocytes or by injection of exogenous cells of varied provenance, have met with limited success. Cardiac fibroblasts are numerous, resistant to hypoxia, and amenable to phenotype reprogramming to cardiomyocytes - a potential panacea to an intractable problem. However, the long-term effects of mass conversion of fibroblasts are as-yet unknown. Since fibroblasts play key roles in normal cardiac function, treating these cells as a ready source of replacements for myocytes may have the effect of swapping one problem for another. This review briefly examines the roles of cardiac fibroblasts, recaps the strides made so far in their reprogramming to cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and discusses the potential ramifications of large-scale cellular identity swapping. While such therapy offers great promise, the potential repercussions require consideration and careful study. PMID:26640115

  17. Interactions of ethanol and quinidine on contractility and myocyte action potential in the rat ventricle.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, S K; Wilde, D W; Brown, R A; Savage, A O; Bleske, B

    1995-01-01

    The combined effects of ethanol and quinidine on cardiac electromechanical coupling are unknown, but both drugs affect cardiac conduction and can cause myocardial depression. Isolated left ventricular papillary and ventricular myocytes were used to assess the combined effects of quinidine and ethanol on the electrophysiologic and mechanical properties of rat myocardium. The combination of quinidine (1-300 microM) and ethanol (120-240 mg/dL) depressed active papillary muscle tension within the clinically useful concentration range. In electrophysiologic studies of isolated ventricular myocytes, quinidine prolonged the action potential duration at 50% (APD50) and 90% (APD90) repolarization, the absolute refractory period, and the relative refractory period, but decreased the maximum rate of change of depolarization in phase 0 (Vmax). When cells were exposed to ethanol (240 mg/dL) and quinidine (1.5 microM) together, a significant decrease in the quinidine-induced prolongation of the absolute refractory and relative refractory periods was seen. Additional changes in action potential parameters from the quinidine values included slight reductions in Vmax and in APD50 and APD90, but these reductions were not consistently displayed, nor were they statistically significant. PMID:7897336

  18. Na+ Transport in Cardiac Myocytes; Implications for Excitation-Contraction Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Bers, Donald M.; Despa, Sanda

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) is very important in modulating the contractile and electrical activity of the heart. Upon electrical excitation of the myocardium, voltage-dependent Na+ channels open, triggering the upstroke of the action potential (AP). During the AP, Ca2+ enters the myocytes via L-type Ca2+ channels. This triggers Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and thus activates contraction. Relaxation occurs when cytosolic Ca2+ declines, mainly due to re-uptake into the SR via SR Ca2+-ATPase and extrusion from the cell via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). NCX extrudes one Ca2+ ion in exchange for three Na+ ions and its activity is critically regulated by [Na+]i. Thus, via NCX, [Na+]i is centrally involved in the regulation of intracellular [Ca2+] and contractility. Na+ brought in by Na+ channels, NCX and other Na+ entry pathways is extruded by the Na+/K+ pump (NKA) to keep [Na+]i low. NKA is regulated by phospholemman, a small sarcolemmal protein that associates with NKA. Unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits NKA by decreasing the pump affinity for internal Na+ and this inhibition is relieved upon phosphorylation. Here we discuss the main characteristics of the Na+ transport pathways in cardiac myocytes and their physiological and pathophysiological relevance. PMID:19243007

  19. Effect of cocaine and methylecgonidine on intracellular Ca2+ and myocardial contraction in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Woolf, J H; Ishiguro, Y; Morgan, J P

    1997-08-01

    We evaluated the cardiac effects of the principle pyrolysis product of crack cocaine smoking, methylecgonidine (MEG), in comparison with cocaine. Peak cell shortening and intracellular Ca2+, as detected by the Ca2+ indicator indo 1, were recorded in enzymatically isolated ferret myocytes. Both cocaine and MEG decreased peak cell shortening and peak intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner (10(-8)-10(-4) M). MEG shifted the peak [Ca2+]i-to-peak shortening relationship downward and was more potent than cocaine. Atropine (10(-6) M) upwardly shifted the dose-response curves of MEG, cocaine, and carbachol but not of procaine. The negative inotropic effects of MEG were inhibited by methoctramine, a selective M2 receptor blocker but not by M1 (pirenzepine) or M3 (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide) blocking agents. In contrast to cocaine, the effects of large doses of MEG were irreversible over the time course of our experiments, raising the possibility of structural damage. We conclude that MEG acts primarily on M2 cholinergic receptors in the heart to produce acute cardiac intoxication and, in contrast to cocaine, may decrease the myofilament Ca2+ responseness and cause structural damage to myocytes by a direct toxic effect. PMID:9277508

  20. Ultraviolet photoalteration of late Na+ current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    La, C; You, Y; Zhabyeyev, P; Pelzer, D J; McDonald, T F

    2006-03-01

    UV irradiation has multiple effects on mammalian cells, including modification of ion channel function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the response of membrane currents in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes to the type A (355, 380 nm) irradiation commonly used in Ca(2+) imaging studies. Myocytes configured for whole-cell voltage clamp were generally held at -80 mV, dialyzed with K(+)-, Na(+)-free pipette solution, and bathed with K(+)-free Tyrode's solution at 22 degrees C. During experiments that lasted for approximately 35 min, UVA irradiation caused a progressive increase in slowly-inactivating inward current elicited by 200-ms depolarizations from -80 to -40 mV, but had little effect on background current or on L-type Ca(2+) current. Trials with depolarized holding potential, Ca(2+) channel blockers, and tetrodotoxin (TTX) established that the current induced by irradiation was late (slowly-inactivating) Na(+) current (I(Na)). The amplitude of the late inward current sensitive to 100 microM: TTX was increased by 3.5-fold after 20-30 min of irradiation. UVA modulation of late I(Na) may (i) interfere with imaging studies, and (ii) provide a paradigm for investigation of intracellular factors likely to influence slow inactivation of cardiac I(Na). PMID:16783617

  1. Ectopic automaticity induced in ventricular myocytes by transgenic overexpression of HCN2.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kensuke; Itoh, Masayuki; Hirashima, Shingo; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Keiko; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kimura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro; Ushijima, Kazuo; Takano, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCNs) are expressed in the ventricles of fetal hearts but are normally down-regulated as development progresses. In the hypertrophied heart, however, these channels are re-expressed and generate a hyperpolarization-activated, nonselective cation current (Ih), which evidence suggests may increase susceptibility to arrhythmia. To test this hypothesis, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice overexpressing HCN2 specifically in their hearts (HCN2-Tg). Under physiological conditions, HCN2-Tg mice exhibited no discernible abnormalities. After the application of isoproterenol (ISO), however, ECG recordings from HCN2-Tg mice showed intermittent atrioventricular dissociation followed by idioventricular rhythm. Consistent with this observation, 0.3 μmol/L ISO-induced spontaneous action potentials (SAPs) in 76% of HCN2-Tg ventricular myocytes. In the remaining 24%, ISO significantly depolarized the resting membrane potential (RMP), and the late repolarization phase of evoked action potentials (APs) was significantly longer than in WT myocytes. Analysis of membrane currents revealed that these differences are attributable to the Ih tail current. These findings suggest HCN2 channel activity reduces the repolarization reserve of the ventricular action potential and increases ectopic automaticity under pathological conditions such as excessive β-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:25562801

  2. Sustained exposure to catecholamines affects cAMP/PKA compartmentalised signalling in adult rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Fields, Laura A; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    In the heart compartmentalisation of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling is necessary to achieve a specific functional outcome in response to different hormonal stimuli. Chronic exposure to catecholamines is known to be detrimental to the heart and disrupted compartmentalisation of cAMP signalling has been associated to heart disease. However, in most cases it remains unclear whether altered local cAMP signalling is an adaptive response, a consequence of the disease or whether it contributes to the pathogenetic process. We have previously demonstrated that isoforms of PKA expressed in cardiac myocytes, PKA-I and PKA-II, localise to different subcellular compartments and are selectively activated by spatially confined pools of cAMP, resulting in phosphorylation of distinct downstream targets. Here we investigate cAMP signalling in an in vitro model of hypertrophy in primary adult rat ventricular myocytes. By using a real time imaging approach and targeted reporters we find that that sustained exposure to catecholamines can directly affect cAMP/PKA compartmentalisation. This appears to involve a complex mechanism including both changes in the subcellular localisation of individual phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms as well as the relocalisation of PKA isoforms. As a result, the preferential coupling of PKA subsets with different PDEs is altered resulting in a significant difference in the level of cAMP the kinase is exposed to, with potential impact on phosphorylation of downstream targets. PMID:26475678

  3. Cardiac mast cells regulate myocyte ANP release via histamine H2 receptor in beating rabbit atria.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wen, Jin Fu; Jin, Jing Yu; Quan, He Xiu; Cho, Kyung Woo

    2009-06-01

    It has been shown that histamine inhibits atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release. Because cardiac mast cells are the principal source of histamine in the heart, we hypothesized that cardiac mast cells are involved in the regulation of atrial ANP release. To test the hypothesis, experiments were performed in perfused beating rabbit atria allowing atrial pacing and measurements of changes in atrial stroke volume, intraatrial pulse pressure and myocyte ANP release. Mast cell degranulation with Compound 48/80 decreased atrial myocyte ANP release, and the response was blocked by a selective histamine H(2) receptor blocker, cimetidine, indicating that histamine was responsible for the decrease in ANP release. Mast cell stabilization with cromolyn blocked the Compound 48/80-induced decrease in ANP release. These data suggest that mast cell-derived histamine is involved in the regulation of cardiac ANP release. Thus, the cardiac mast cell-cardiomyocyte communication via the histamine-ANP pathway may implicate in the cardiac disorder associated with mast cell degranulation such as in acute coronary syndrome or cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:19328828

  4. Restoration of β -Adrenergic Signaling in Failing Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes via Adenoviral-Mediated Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shahab A.; Skaer, Christine A.; Kypson, Alan P.; McDonald, Patricia H.; Peppel, Karsten C.; Glower, Donald D.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.; Koch, Walter J.

    1997-10-01

    Cardiovascular gene therapy is a novel approach to the treatment of diseases such as congestive heart failure (CHF). Gene transfer to the heart would allow for the replacement of defective or missing cellular proteins that may improve cardiac performance. Our laboratory has been focusing on the feasibility of restoring β -adrenergic signaling deficiencies that are a characteristic of chronic CHF. We have now studied isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbits that have been chronically paced to produce hemodynamic failure. We document molecular β -adrenergic signaling defects including down-regulation of myocardial β -adrenergic receptors (β -ARs), functional β -AR uncoupling, and an upregulation of the β -AR kinase (β ARK1). Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of the human β 2-AR or an inhibitor of β ARK1 to these failing myocytes led to the restoration of β -AR signaling. These results demonstrate that defects present in this critical myocardial signaling pathway can be corrected in vitro using genetic modification and raise the possibility of novel inotropic therapies for CHF including the inhibition of β ARK1 activity in the heart.

  5. Human myocytes are protected from titin aggregation-induced stiffening by small heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Kötter, Sebastian; Unger, Andreas; Hamdani, Nazha; Lang, Patrick; Vorgerd, Matthias; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Linke, Wolfgang A

    2014-01-20

    In myocytes, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are preferentially translocated under stress to the sarcomeres. The functional implications of this translocation are poorly understood. We show here that HSP27 and αB-crystallin associated with immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain-containing regions, but not the disordered PEVK domain (titin region rich in proline, glutamate, valine, and lysine), of the titin springs. In sarcomeres, sHSP binding to titin was actin filament independent and promoted by factors that increased titin Ig unfolding, including sarcomere stretch and the expression of stiff titin isoforms. Titin spring elements behaved predominantly as monomers in vitro. However, unfolded Ig segments aggregated, preferentially under acidic conditions, and αB-crystallin prevented this aggregation. Disordered regions did not aggregate. Promoting titin Ig unfolding in cardiomyocytes caused elevated stiffness under acidic stress, but HSP27 or αB-crystallin suppressed this stiffening. In diseased human muscle and heart, both sHSPs associated with the titin springs, in contrast to the cytosolic/Z-disk localization seen in healthy muscle/heart. We conclude that aggregation of unfolded titin Ig domains stiffens myocytes and that sHSPs translocate to these domains to prevent this aggregation. PMID:24421331

  6. Cardiac fibroblasts are predisposed to convert into myocyte phenotype: Specific effect of transforming growth factor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, M.; Tomek, R.; Woods, C.; Bhambi, B. )

    1991-02-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts are mainly responsible for the synthesis of major extracellular matrix proteins in the heart, including fibrillar collagen types I and III and fibronectin. In this report we show that these cells, when stimulated by transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}), acquire certain myocyte-specific properties. Cultured cardiac fibroblasts from adult rabbit heart were treated with TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, (10-15 ng/ml) for different periods of time. Northern hybridization analysis of total RNA showed that cells treated with TGF-{beta}{sub 1} became stained with a monoclonal antibody to muscle-specific actin. After treatment of quiescent cells with TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, cell proliferation (as measured by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation) was moderately increased. Cultured cardiac fibroblasts at the subconfluent stage, when exposed to TGF-{beta}{sub 1} in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum, gave rise to a second generation of slowly growing cells that expressed muscle-specific actin filaments. The findings demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts can be made to differentiate into cells that display many characteristics of cardiac myocytes. TGF-{beta}{sub 1} seems to be a specific inducer of such conversion.

  7. Activation of chloride current by P2-purinoceptors in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kaneda, M.; Fukui, K.; Doi, K.

    1994-01-01

    1. Rat ventricular myocytes were dissociated and their responses to extracellularly applied ATP were recorded using patch pipettes under the whole cell configuration. 2. ATP initially induced an inward current followed by an outward current at -50 mV. With a Cs-rich pipette solution the late outward current was blocked, leaving a sustained inward current (IATPs) suggesting that a K+ conductance underlies the late response. 3. When the extracellular Cl- concentration was changed, the reversal potential of IATPs corresponded well to the shift of the Cl- equilibrium potential. IATPs was reversibly blocked by the chloride channel blocker, 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). 4. The concentration-response curve of IATPs had a Hill coefficient of 0.98 and an EC50 value of 5.2 x 10(-6) M. 5. ATP was more potent than ADP, while AMP and adenosine were ineffective, suggesting that P2-purinoceptor activation induced IATPs. 6. The activation of IATPs was depressed by depleting the extracellular Mg2+ and increased by adding Mg2+. 7. Our results strongly suggest that P2-purinoceptor activation by ATP induces both a Cl(-)-conductance (IATPs) and a K(+)-conductance in rat ventricular myocytes. PMID:8032621

  8. Cytoskeletal involvement during hypo-osmotic swelling and volume regulation in cultured chick cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T H; Dalen, H; Boyle, R; Souza, M M; Lieberman, M

    2000-06-01

    The membrane skeleton in spherical cardiac myocytes subjected to hypo-osmotic challenge was examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. A distinct cortical layer intimately localized under the plasmalemma was revealed for spectrin and actin (including filamentous actin and alpha-sarcomeric actin). Desmin filaments were abundant and in close contact with the plasmalemma. During swelling and subsequent regulatory volume decrease (RVD) the structural integrity of these cytoskeletal elements remained intact, and the close association between actin and plasmalemma persisted as confirmed by double immunolabeling. Subplasmalemmal beta-tubulin labeling was sparse. Hypo-osmotic conditions disrupted the microtubules and depolymerized tubulin. Neither pretreatment with taxol nor with colchicine, resulted in any effect on cell volume regulation. The present results show that actin, desmin, and spectrin contribute to a subplasmalemmal cytoskeletal network in spherical cardiac myocytes, and that this membrane skeleton remains structurally intact during swelling and RVD. It is suggested that the integrity of this membrane skeleton is important for stabilization of the plasmalemma and the membrane-integrated proteins during hypo-osmotic challenge, and that it may participate in the regulation of the cell volume. PMID:10933224

  9. High frequency stimulation of cardiac myocytes: A theoretical and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Seth H.

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency stimulation (HFS) has recently been identified as a novel approach for terminating life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. HFS elevates myocyte membrane potential and blocks electrical conduction for the duration of the stimulus. However, low amplitude HFS can induce rapidly firing action potentials, which may reinitiate an arrhythmia. The cellular level mechanisms underlying HFS-induced electrical activity are not well understood. Using a multiscale method, we show that a minimal myocyte model qualitatively reproduces the influence of HFS on cardiac electrical activity. Theoretical analysis and simulations suggest that persistent activation and de-inactivation of ionic currents, in particular a fast inward window current, underlie HFS-induced action potentials and membrane potential elevation, providing hypotheses for future experiments. We derive analytical expressions to describe how HFS modifies ionic current amplitude and gating dynamics. We show how fast inward current parameters influence the parameter regimes for HFS-induced electrical activity, demonstrating how the efficacy of HFS as a therapy for terminating arrhythmias may depend on the presence of pathological conditions or pharmacological treatments. Finally, we demonstrate that HFS terminates cardiac arrhythmias in a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach to characterize the influence of HFS on ionic current gating dynamics, provide new insight into HFS of the myocardium, and suggest mechanisms underlying HFS-induced electrical activity.

  10. Important role of energy-dependent mitochondrial pathways in cultured rat cardiac myocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, J; Tatsumi, T; Keira, N; Akashi, K; Mano, A; Yamanaka, S; Matoba, S; Asayama, J; Yaoi, T; Fushiki, S; Fliss, H; Nakagawa, M

    2001-10-01

    Recent studies have suggested that apoptosis and necrosis share common features in their signaling pathway and that apoptosis requires intracellular ATP for its mitochondrial/apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 suicide cascade. The present study was, therefore, designed to examine the role of intracellular energy levels in determining the form of cell death in cardiac myocytes. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were first incubated for 1 h in glucose-free medium containing oligomycin to achieve metabolic inhibition. The cells were then incubated for another 4 h in similar medium containing staurosporine and graded concentrations of glucose to manipulate intracellular ATP levels. Under ATP-depleting conditions, the cell death caused by staurosporine was primarily necrotic, as determined by creatine kinase release and nuclear staining with ethidium homodimer-1. However, under ATP-replenishing conditions, staurosporine increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, as determined by nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation. Caspase-3 activation by staurosporine was also ATP dependent. However, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), Bax translocation, and cytochrome c release were observed in both apoptotic and necrotic cells. Moreover, cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, attenuated staurosporine-induced apoptosis and necrosis through the inhibition of DeltaPsi(m) reduction, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. Our data therefore suggest that staurosporine induces cell demise through a mitochondrial death signaling pathway and that the presence of intracellular ATP favors a shift from necrosis to apoptosis through caspase activation. PMID:11557554

  11. Towards Computational Modeling of Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Cardiac Myocytes: Reconstruction of Structures and Proteins from Confocal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Frank B.; Savio-galimberti, Eleonora; Goldhaber, Joshua I.; Bridge, John H. B.

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in myocytes are valuable tools for studying the signaling cascade that transduces transmembrane voltage into mechanical responses. A key component of these models is the appropriate description of structures involved in EC coupling, such as the sarcolemma and ion channels. This study aims at developing an approach for spatial reconstruction of these structures. We exemplified our approach by reconstructing clusters of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) together with the sarcolemma of rabbit ventricular myocytes. The reconstructions were based on dual labeling and three-dimensional (3D) confocal imaging of segments of fixed and permeabilized myocytes lying flat or on end. The imaging led to 3D stacks of cross-sections through myocytes. Methods of digital image processing were applied to deconvolve, filter and segment these stacks. Finally, we created point meshes representing RyR distributions together with volume and surface meshes of the sarcolemma. We suggest that these meshes are suitable for computational studies of structure-function relationships in EC coupling. We propose that this approach can be extended to reconstruct other structures and proteins involved in EC coupling. PMID:19209712

  12. Isolated rat cardiac myocytes as an experimental model to study calcium overload: the effect of calcium-entry blockers.

    PubMed

    Donck, L V; Pauwels, P J; Vandeplassche, G; Borgers, M

    1986-03-01

    Calcium overload and the effect of a series of calcium-entry blockers were studied in isolated adult cardiac myocytes from the rat challenged with veratrine. The isolation procedure resulted in a high yield of individual rod shaped, calcium tolerant myocytes. After incubation with veratrine, an alkaloid which induces both sodium and calcium influx, 93% of the myocytes became calcium intolerant: the quiescent rod shaped cells vigorously contracted after 30 sec of contact with veratrine and contracture (round cells) ensued within 1 min. Exposure for 30 min to various doses of calcium-entry blockers prior to veratrine addition resulted in the prevention of contracture, the degree of protection depending on the type and the concentration of calcium-entry blocker. Among the different calcium-entry blockers tested, the diarylalkylpiperazines lidoflazine, cinnarizine and flunarizine were protective from the 10(-7) M concentration onwards. Nicardipine was protective at the 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M concentrations, verapamil at 10(-5)M only while other blockers of the "slow channel" type (diltiazem and nifedipine) were not protective in the concentration range tested. This study shows that isolated myocytes represent a valid model for pharmacological investigations. The results with the calcium-entry blockers stress the heterogeneity of the different series of calcium-entry blockers. PMID:3951332

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,…

  14. The lack of target specificity of small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors is correlated with their ability to damage myocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B. Patel, Daywin

    2010-12-01

    Many new targeted small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors are actively being developed. However, the clinical use of some kinase inhibitors has been shown to result in cardiotoxicity. In most cases the mechanisms by which they exert their cardiotoxicity are not well understood. We have used large scale profiling data on 8 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors and 10 other kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases in order to correlate binding constants and kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with kinase inhibitor-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The 18 kinase inhibitors that were the subject of this study were: canertinib, dasatinib, dovitinib, erlotinib, flavopiridol, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, midostaurin, motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, staurosporine, sunitinib, tandutinib, tozasertib, vandetanib and vatalanib. The combined tyrosine kinase and serine-threonine kinase selectivity scores were highly correlated with the myocyte-damaging effects of the kinase inhibitors. This result suggests that myocyte damage was due to a lack of target selectivity to binding of both tyrosine kinases and serine-threonine kinases, and was not due to binding to either group specifically. Finally, the strength of kinase inhibitor binding for 290 kinases was examined for correlations with myocyte damage. Kinase inhibitor binding was significantly correlated with myocyte damage for 12 kinases. Thus, myocyte damage may be multifactorial in nature with the inhibition of a number of kinases involved in producing kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage.

  15. The lack of target specificity of small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors is correlated with their ability to damage myocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hasinoff, Brian B; Patel, Daywin

    2010-12-01

    Many new targeted small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors are actively being developed. However, the clinical use of some kinase inhibitors has been shown to result in cardiotoxicity. In most cases the mechanisms by which they exert their cardiotoxicity are not well understood. We have used large scale profiling data on 8 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors and 10 other kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases in order to correlate binding constants and kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with kinase inhibitor-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The 18 kinase inhibitors that were the subject of this study were: canertinib, dasatinib, dovitinib, erlotinib, flavopiridol, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, midostaurin, motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, staurosporine, sunitinib, tandutinib, tozasertib, vandetanib and vatalanib. The combined tyrosine kinase and serine-threonine kinase selectivity scores were highly correlated with the myocyte-damaging effects of the kinase inhibitors. This result suggests that myocyte damage was due to a lack of target selectivity to binding of both tyrosine kinases and serine-threonine kinases, and was not due to binding to either group specifically. Finally, the strength of kinase inhibitor binding for 290 kinases was examined for correlations with myocyte damage. Kinase inhibitor binding was significantly correlated with myocyte damage for 12 kinases. Thus, myocyte damage may be multifactorial in nature with the inhibition of a number of kinases involved in producing kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage. PMID:20832415

  16. Ca²⁺ entry via Trpm2 is essential for cardiac myocyte bioenergetics maintenance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Nicholas E; Miller, Barbara A; Wang, JuFang; Elrod, John W; Rajan, Sudasan; Gao, Erhe; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Hirschler-Laszkiewicz, Iwona; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Koch, Walter J; Feldman, Arthur M; Madesh, Muniswamy; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2015-03-15

    Ubiquitously expressed Trpm2 channel limits oxidative stress and preserves mitochondrial function. We first demonstrated that intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increase after Trpm2 activation was due to direct Ca(2+) influx and not indirectly via reverse Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. To elucidate whether Ca(2+) entry via Trpm2 is required to maintain cellular bioenergetics, we injected adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), wild-type (WT) Trpm2, and loss-of-function (E960D) Trpm2 mutant into left ventricles of global Trpm2 knockout (gKO) or WT hearts. Five days post-injection, gKO-GFP heart slices had higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels but lower oxygen consumption rate (OCR) than WT-GFP heart slices. Trpm2 but not E960D decreased ROS and restored OCR in gKO hearts back to normal levels. In gKO myocytes expressing Trpm2 or its mutants, Trpm2 but not E960D reduced the elevated mitochondrial superoxide (O2(.-)) levels in gKO myocytes. After hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R), Trpm2 but not E906D or P1018L (inactivates Trpm2 current) lowered O2(.-) levels in gKO myocytes and only in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), indicating sustained Ca(2+) entry is necessary for Trpm2-mediated preservation of mitochondrial function. After ischemic-reperfusion (I/R), cardiac-specific Trpm2 KO hearts exhibited lower maximal first time derivative of LV pressure rise (+dP/dt) than WT hearts in vivo. After doxorubicin treatment, Trpm2 KO mice had worse survival and lower +dP/dt. We conclude 1) cardiac Trpm2-mediated Ca(2+) influx is necessary to maintain mitochondrial function and protect against H/R injury; 2) Ca(2+) influx via cardiac Trpm2 confers protection against H/R and I/R injury by reducing mitochondrial oxidants; and 3) Trpm2 confers protection in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy. PMID:25576627

  17. Effects of Mg2+ on Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ transients of rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Terada, H; Hayashi, H; Noda, N; Satoh, H; Katoh, H; Yamazaki, N

    1996-03-01

    It has been shown that the occurrence of the transient inward current, which is responsible for triggered activity, was often associated with propagating regions of increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), i.e., the "Ca2+ wave." To investigate the mechanism of antiarrhythmic action of Mg2+, we have studied effects of high concentrations of Mg2+ on Ca2+ waves in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. [Ca2+]i was estimated using the Ca(2+)-indicating probe indo 1. Ca2+ waves in myocytes, stimulated at 0.2 Hz, were induced by perfusion of isoproterenol (10(-7) M). High Mg2+ concentration suppressed Ca2+ waves in a concentration-dependent manner (36% at 4 mM, 70% at 8 mM, and 82% at 12 mM). The Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil also suppressed Ca2+ waves in a similar way. In contrast with marked depression of Ca2+ transients by verapamil, Ca2+ transients were not affected by high Mg2+ concentration (8 mM). High Mg2+ concentration also reduced frequencies of Ca2+ waves in the absence of electrical stimulation, whereas verapamil failed to reduce frequencies of Ca2+ waves. Reduction in frequency of Ca2+ waves by high Mg2+ concentration was associated with slowing of propagation velocity of Ca2+ waves. To examine whether suppressive effects of high Mg2+ concentration on Ca2+ waves were related to an increase in intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i), the effect of high-Mg2+ solution on [Mg2+]i was examined in myocytes loaded with mag-fura 2. An increase in extracellular Mg2+ concentration from 1 to 12 mM increased [Mg2+]i from 1.06 +/- 0.16 to 1.87 +/- 0.22 mM (P < 0.01) in 30 min. To examine the effect of high Mg2+ concentration on amount of releasable Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the effect of high Mg2+ concentration on the Ca2+ transient induced by a rapid application of caffeine was examined. High-Mg2+ solution increased the peak of the caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of Mg2+ on Ca2+ waves was not due

  18. Pressure overload-induced hypertrophy in transgenic mice selectively overexpressing AT2 receptors in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xinhua; Schuldt, Adam J T; Price, Robert L; Amende, Ivo; Liu, Fen-Fen; Okoshi, Katashi; Ho, Kalon K L; Pope, Adèle J; Borg, Thomas K; Lorell, Beverly H; Morgan, James P

    2008-03-01

    The role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor in cardiac hypertrophy remains controversial. We studied the effects of AT2 receptors on chronic pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic mice selectively overexpressing AT2 receptors in ventricular myocytes. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was induced by ascending aorta banding (AS). Transgenic mice overexpressing AT2 (AT2TG-AS) and nontransgenic mice (NTG-AS) were studied after 70 days of aortic banding. Nonbanded NTG mice were used as controls. LV function was determined by catheterization via LV puncture and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. LV myocyte diameter and interstitial collagen were determined by confocal microscopy. Atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were analyzed by Northern blot. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial NOS, ERK1/2, p70S6K, Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1, and protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A were analyzed by Western blot. LV myocyte diameter and collagen were significantly reduced in AT2TG-AS compared with NTG-AS mice. LV anterior and posterior wall thickness were not different between AT2TG-AS and NTG-AS mice. LV systolic and diastolic dimensions were significantly higher in AT2TG-AS than in NTG-AS mice. LV systolic pressure and end-diastolic pressure were lower in AT2TG-AS than in NTG-AS mice. ANP, BNP, and SERCA2 were not different between AT2TG-AS and NTG-AS mice. Phospholamban (PLB) and the PLB-to-SERCA2 ratio were significantly higher in AT2TG-AS than in NTG-AS mice. iNOS was higher in AT2TG-AS than in NTG-AS mice but not significantly different. Our results indicate that AT2 receptor overexpression modified the pathological hypertrophic response to aortic banding in transgenic mice. PMID:18178728

  19. Reduction in the amplitude of shortening and Ca(2+) transient by phlorizin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside in ventricular myocytes from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, N N; Qureshi, M A; Alkaabi, J M; Oz, M; Howarth, F C

    2016-06-20

    Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Phlorizin (PHLOR) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (QUER-3-G) are two natural compounds reported to have antidiabetic properties by inhibiting sodium/glucose transporters. Their effects on ventricular myocyte shortening and intracellular Ca(2+) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were investigated. Video edge detection and fluorescence photometry were used to measure ventricular myocyte shortening and intracellular Ca(2+), respectively. Blood glucose in STZ rats was 4-fold higher (469.64+/-22.23 mg/dl, n=14) than in Controls (104.06+/-3.36 mg/dl, n=16). The amplitude of shortening was reduced by PHLOR in STZ (84.76+/-2.91 %, n=20) and Control (83.72+/-2.65 %, n=23) myocytes, and by QUER-3-G in STZ (79.12+/-2.28 %, n=20) and Control (76.69+/-1.92 %, n=30) myocytes. The amplitude of intracellular Ca(2+) was also reduced by PHLOR in STZ (82.37+/-3.16 %, n=16) and Control (73.94+/-5.22 %, n=21) myocytes, and by QUER-3-G in STZ (73.62+/-5.83 %, n=18) and Control (78.32+/-3.54 %, n=41) myocytes. Myofilament sensitivity to Ca(2+) was not significantly altered by PHLOR; however, it was reduced by QUER-3-G modestly in STZ myocytes and significantly in Controls. PHLOR and QUER-3-G did not significantly alter sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) in STZ or Control myocytes. Altered mechanisms of Ca(2+) transport partly underlie PHLOR and QUER-3-G negative inotropic effects in ventricular myocytes from STZ and Control rats. PMID:26447513

  20. A Long Lasting β1 Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation of cAMP/Protein Kinase A (PKA) Signal in Cardiac Myocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qin; Kim, Sungjin; Soto, Dagoberto; De Arcangelis, Vania; DiPilato, Lisa; Liu, Shubai; Xu, Bing; Shi, Qian; Zhang, Jin; Xiang, Yang K.

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule, ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors are generally thought to be rapidly desensitized within a period of minutes through receptor phosphorylation and internalization after repeated or prolonged stimulation. This transient G protein-coupled receptor activation remains at odds with many observed long-lasting cellular and physiological responses. Here, using live cell imaging of cAMP with a FRET-based biosensor and myocyte contraction assay, we show that the catecholamine-activated β1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR) continuously stimulates second messenger cAMP synthesis in primary cardiac myocytes and neurons, which lasts for more than 8 h (a decay t½ of 3.9 h) in cardiac myocytes. However, the β1AR-induced cAMP signal is counterbalanced and masked by the receptor-bound phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D8-dependent cAMP hydrolysis. Inhibition of PDE4 activity recovers the receptor-induced cAMP signal and promotes contractile response in mouse hearts during extended periods of agonist stimulation. β1AR associates with PDE4D8 through the receptor C-terminal PDZ motif-dependent binding to synaptic-associated protein 97 (SAP97). Knockdown of SAP97 or mutation of the β1AR PDZ motif disrupts the complex and promotes sustained agonist-induced cAMP activity, PKA phosphorylation, and cardiac myocyte contraction response. Together, these findings unveil a long lasting adrenergic signal in neurons and myocytes under prolonged stimulation and an underappreciated role of PDE that is essential in classic receptor signaling desensitization and in maintaining a long lasting cAMP equilibrium for ligand-induced physiological response. PMID:24713698

  1. Effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate on L-type calcium current and Ca(2+) transient in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Egom, Emmanuel Eroume-A; Bae, James S H; Capel, Rebecca; Richards, Mark; Ke, Yunbo; Pharithi, Rebabonye B; Maher, Vincent; Kruzliak, Peter; Lei, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Modulation of Ca(2+) homoeostasis in cardiac myocytes plays a major role in beat-to-beat regulation of heart function. Previous studies suggest that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a biologically active sphingomyelin metabolite, regulates Ca(2+) handling in cardiac myocytes, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that S1P-induced functional alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) handling includes the L-type calcium channel current (ICa,L) via a signalling pathway involving P21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1). Our results show that, in rat ventricular myocytes, S1P (100 nM) does not affect the basal activity of ICa,L but is able to partially reverse the effect of the β-adrenergic agonist Isoproterenol (ISO, 100 nM) on ICa,L. S1P (25 nM) also significantly prevents ISO (5 nM)-induced Ca(2+) waves and diastolic Ca(2+) release in these cells. Our further molecular characterisation demonstrates that Pak1 activity is increased in myocytes treated with S1P (25 nM) compared with those myocytes without treatment of S1P. By immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that Pak1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are associated in ventricular tissue indicating their functional interaction. Thus the results indicate that S1P attenuates β-adrenergic stress-induced alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) release and L-type Ca(2+) channel current at least in part via Pak1-PP2A-mediated signalling. PMID:27372350

  2. Beta-adrenoceptor subtypes in young and old rat ventricular myocytes: a combined patch-clamp and binding study.

    PubMed Central

    Cerbai, E.; Guerra, L.; Varani, K.; Barbieri, M.; Borea, P. A.; Mugelli, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. We used electrophysiological and binding techniques to assess the presence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors (beta 1AR and beta 2AR) in rat cardiac myocytes and to determine their ratio during aging. Experiments were performed in left ventricular myocytes enzymatically dissociated from the heart of 3-(young) or 22-month-old (old) Wistar Kyoto rats. 2. In patch-clamp experiments, myocytes from old rats showed a prolonged action potential duration (at -20 mV: 41.7 +/- 3.6 vs 26.2 +/- 3.1 ms; at -60 mV: 154.4 +/- 17.7 vs 87.1 +/- 6.9 ms, P < 0.05) and an augmented membrane capacitance (an index of cell size) (271.7 +/- 20.2 vs 164.3 +/- 14.6 pF, P < 0.05) compared to young rats. beta 2AR stimulation, achieved by superfusing myocytes with the selective beta 2AR agonist, zinterol (10 microM) or with (-)-isoprenaline (1 microM) in the presence of the selective beta 1AR antagonist, CGP 20712A (0.1 microM), significantly increased L-type calcium current (ICa,L) in rat ventricular myocytes. The percentage increase was similar in both young and old rats, either with zinterol (26.9 +/- 3.6% and 24.2 +/- 2.8%, respectively) or isoprenaline plus CGP 20712A (30.4 +/- 3.7% and 22.4 +/- 4.1%, respectively). Isoprenaline alone (beta 1AR and beta 2AR stimulation) caused a much smaller increase in ICa,L in old rats (58.4 +/- 12.1%) than in younger ones (95.3 +/- 8.1%) (P = 0.067).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8528568

  3. R-CEPIA1er as a new tool to directly measure sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca] in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Elisa; Martin, Jody L; Tyryfter, Jollyn; de Tombe, Pieter P; Zima, Aleksey V

    2016-07-01

    In cardiomyocytes, [Ca] within the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR; [Ca]SR) partially determines the amplitude of cytosolic Ca transient that, in turn, governs myocardial contraction. Therefore, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate [Ca]SR handling. Until recently, the best approach available to directly measure [Ca]SR was to use low-affinity Ca indicators (e.g., Fluo-5N). However, this approach presents several limitations, including nonspecific cellular localization, dye extrusion, and species limitation. Recently a new genetically encoded family of Ca indicators has been generated, named Ca-measuring organelle-entrapped protein indicators (CEPIA). Here, we tested the red fluorescence SR-targeted Ca sensor (R-CEPIA1er) as a tool to directly measure [Ca]SR dynamics in ventricular myocytes. Infection of rabbit and rat ventricular myocytes with an adenovirus expressing the R-CEPIA1er gene displayed prominent localization in the SR and nuclear envelope. Calibration of R-CEPIA1er in myocytes resulted in a Kd of 609 μM, suggesting that this sensor is sensitive in the whole physiological range of [Ca]SR [Ca]SR dynamics measured with R-CEPIA1er were compared with [Ca]SR measured with Fluo5-N. We found that both the time course of the [Ca]SR depletion and fractional SR Ca release induced by an action potential were similar between these two Ca sensors. R-CEPIA1er fluorescence did not decline during experiments, indicating lack of dye extrusion or photobleaching. Furthermore, measurement of [Ca]SR with R-CEPIA1er can be combined with cytosolic [Ca] measurements (with Fluo-4) to obtain more detailed information regarding Ca handling in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, R-CEPIA1er is a promising tool that can be used to measure [Ca]SR dynamics in myocytes from different animal species. PMID:27233762

  4. Importance of myocyte-nonmyocyte interactions in cardiac development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ying; Morrisey, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging data in the field of cardiac development as well as repair and regeneration indicate a complex and important interplay between endocardial, epicardial, and myofibroblast populations that is critical for cardiomyocyte differentiation and postnatal function. For example, epicardial cells have been shown to generate cardiac myofibroblasts and may be one of the primary sources for this cell lineage during development. Moreover, paracrine signaling from the epicardium and endocardium is critical for proper development of the heart and pathways such as Wnt, FGF, and retinoic acid signaling have been shown to be key players in this process. Despite this progress, interactions between nonmyocyte cells and cardiomyocytes in the heart are still poorly understood. We review the various nonmyocyte-myocyte interactions that occur in the heart and how these interactions, primarily through signaling networks, help direct cardiomyocyte differentiation and regulate postnatal cardiac function. PMID:22461366

  5. Cellular Trafficking of Phospholamban and Formation of Functional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum During Myocyte DIfferentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenoien, David L.; Knyushko, Tatyana V.; Londono, Monica P.; Opresko, Lee; Mayer, M. Uljana; Brady, Scott T.; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2007-06-01

    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) family members are transmembrane proteins that play an essential role in regulating intracellular calcium levels. Phospholamban (PLB), a 52 amino acid phosphoprotein, regulates SERCA activity in adult heart and skeletal muscle. Using the C2C12 myocyte cell line, we find endogenous PLB constitutively expressed in both myoblasts and myotubes, whereas SERCA expression coincides with activation of the differentiation program. PLB has a punctuate distribution in myoblasts changing to a reticular distribution in myotubes where it colocalizes with SERCAs. To examine the distribution and dynamics of PLB and SERCA, we expressed fluorescent fusion proteins (GFP, CFP, and YFP) of PLB and SERCA in myoblasts. Coexpressed PLB and SERCA localize to distinct cellular compartments in myoblasts but begin to colocalize as cells differentiate. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) studies show different recovery patterns for each protein in myoblasts confirming their localization to distinct compartments. To extend these studies, we created stable cell lines expressing O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) fusions with PLB or SERCA to track their localization as myocytes differentiate. These experiments demonstrate that PLB localizes to punctate vesicles in myoblasts and adopts a reticular distribution that coincides with SERCA distribution after differentiation. Colocalization experiments indicate that a subset of PLB in myoblasts colocalizes with endosomes, Golgi, and the plasma membrane however PLB also localizes to other, as yet unidentified vesicles. Our results indicate that differentiation plays a critical role in regulating PLB distribution to ensure its colocalization within the same cellular compartment as SERCA in differentiated cells. The presence and altered distribution of PLB in undifferentiated myoblasts raises the possibility that this protein has additional functions distinct from SERCA regulation.

  6. Voluntary exercise-induced changes in beta2-adrenoceptor signalling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Stones, Rachel; Natali, Antonio; Billeter, Rudolf; Harrison, Simon; White, Ed

    2008-09-01

    Regular exercise is beneficial to cardiovascular health. We tested whether mild voluntary exercise training modifies key myocardial parameters [ventricular mass, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) handling and the response to beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) stimulation] in a manner distinct from that reported for beneficial, intensive training and pathological hypertrophic stimuli. Female rats performed voluntary wheel-running exercise for 6-7 weeks. The mRNA expression of target proteins was measured in left ventricular tissue using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Simultaneous measurement of cell shortening and [Ca2+]i transients were made in single left ventricular myocytes and the inotropic response to beta1- and beta2-AR stimulation was measured. Voluntary exercise training resulted in cardiac hypertrophy, the heart weight to body weight ratio being significantly greater in trained compared with sedentary animals. However, voluntary exercise caused no significant alteration in the size or time course of myocyte shortening and [Ca2+]i transients or in the mRNA levels of key proteins that regulate Ca2+ handling. The positive inotropic response to beta1-AR stimulation and the level of beta1-AR mRNA were unaltered by voluntary exercise but both mRNA levels and inotropic response to beta2-AR stimulation were significantly reduced in trained animals. The beta2-AR inotropic response was restored by exposure to pertussis toxin. We propose that in contrast to pathological stimuli and to beneficial, intense exercise training, modulation of Ca2+ handling is not a major adaptive mechanism in the response to mild voluntary exercise. In addition, and in a reversal of the situation seen in heart failure, voluntary exercise training maintains the beta1-AR response but reduces the beta2-AR response. Therefore, although voluntary exercise induces cardiac hypertrophy, there are distinct differences between its effects on key myocardial regulatory mechanisms

  7. Inorganic polyphosphate is a potent activator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seidlmayer, Lea K.; Gomez-Garcia, Maria R.; Blatter, Lothar A.; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by excessive Ca2+ accumulation is a major contributor to cardiac cell and tissue damage during myocardial infarction and ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). At the molecular level, mitochondrial dysfunction is induced by Ca2+-dependent opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which leads to the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), disruption of adenosine triphosphate production, and ultimately cell death. Although the role of Ca2+ for induction of mPTP opening is established, the exact molecular mechanism of this process is not understood. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the adverse effect of mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation is mediated by its interaction with inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds. We found that cardiac mitochondria contained significant amounts (280 ± 60 pmol/mg of protein) of short-chain polyP with an average length of 25 orthophosphates. To test the role of polyP for mPTP activity, we investigated kinetics of Ca2+ uptake and release, ΔΨm and Ca2+-induced mPTP opening in polyP-depleted mitochondria. polyP depletion was achieved by mitochondria-targeted expression of a polyP-hydrolyzing enzyme. Depletion of polyP in mitochondria of rabbit ventricular myocytes led to significant inhibition of mPTP opening without affecting mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration by itself. This effect was observed when mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was stimulated by increasing cytosolic [Ca2+] in permeabilized myocytes mimicking mitochondrial Ca2+ overload observed during IRI. Our findings suggest that inorganic polyP is a previously unrecognized major activator of mPTP. We propose that the adverse effect of polyphosphate might be caused by its ability to form stable complexes with Ca2+ and directly contribute to inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. PMID:22547663

  8. Metal particulate matter components affect gene expression and beat frequency of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Graff, Donald W; Cascio, Wayne E; Brackhan, Joseph A; Devlin, Robert B

    2004-05-01

    Soluble particulate matter (PM) components (e.g., metals) have the potential to be absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the heart where they might induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines and remodel electrical properties. We exposed cultured rat ventricular myocytes to similar concentrations of two metals [zinc (Zn) and vanadium (V)] found commonly in PM and measured changes in spontaneous beat rate. We found statistically significant reductions in spontaneous beat rate after both short-term (4-hr) and long-term (24-hr) exposures, with a more substantial effect seen with Zn. We also measured the expression of genes associated with inflammation and a number of sarcolemmal proteins associated with electrical impulse conduction. Exposure to Zn or V (6.25-50 microM) for 6 hr produced significant increases in IL-6, IL-1 alpha, heat shock protein 70, and connexin 43 (Cx43). After 24 hr exposure, Zn induced significant changes in the gene expression of Kv4.2 and KvLQt (potassium channel proteins), the alpha 1 subunit of the L-type calcium channel, and Cx43, as well as IL-6 and IL-1 alpha. In contrast, V produced a greater effect on Cx43 and affected only one ion channel (KvLQT1). These results show that exposure of rat cardiac myocytes to noncytotoxic concentrations of Zn and V alter spontaneous beat rate as well as the expression of ion channels and sarcolemmal proteins relevant to electrical remodeling and slowing of spontaneous beat rate, with Zn producing a more profound effect. As such, these data suggest that the cardiac effects of PM are largely determined by the relative metal composition of particles. PMID:15159208

  9. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Hyun . E-mail: ihpark@uiuc.edu; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-09-10

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector.

  10. Calcium-Voltage Coupling in the Genesis of Early and Delayed Afterdepolarizations in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhen; Ko, Christopher Y.; Nivala, Michael; Weiss, James N.; Qu, Zhilin

    2015-01-01

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) are voltage oscillations known to cause cardiac arrhythmias. EADs are mainly driven by voltage oscillations in the repolarizing phase of the action potential (AP), while DADs are driven by spontaneous calcium (Ca) release during diastole. Because voltage and Ca are bidirectionally coupled, they modulate each other’s behaviors, and new AP and Ca cycling dynamics can emerge from this coupling. In this study, we performed computer simulations using an AP model with detailed spatiotemporal Ca cycling incorporating stochastic openings of Ca channels and ryanodine receptors to investigate the effects of Ca-voltage coupling on EAD and DAD dynamics. Simulations were complemented by experiments in mouse ventricular myocytes. We show that: 1) alteration of the Ca transient due to increased ryanodine receptor leakiness and/or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase activity can either promote or suppress EADs due to the complex effects of Ca on ionic current properties; 2) spontaneous Ca waves also exhibit complex effects on EADs, but cannot induce EADs of significant amplitude without the participation of ICa,L; 3) lengthening AP duration and the occurrence of EADs promote DADs by increasing intracellular Ca loading, and two mechanisms of DADs are identified, i.e., Ca-wave-dependent and Ca-wave-independent; and 4) Ca-voltage coupling promotes complex EAD patterns such as EAD alternans that are not observed for solely voltage-driven EADs. In conclusion, Ca-voltage coupling combined with the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of voltage and Ca cycling play a key role in generating complex EAD and DAD dynamics observed experimentally in cardiac myocytes, whose mechanisms are complex but analyzable. PMID:25902431

  11. Hyperpolarization and lysophosphatidylcholine induce inward currents and ethidium fluorescence in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Song, Y-M; Ochi, R

    2002-12-01

    Strong electric pulses produce reversible or irreversible membrane breakdown (electroporation). We analysed the permeation properties of minute pores caused by hyperpolarization or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by comparing the amount of charge carried by irregular inward currents (I(hi)) with changes in ethidium bromide (EB) fluorescence in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. Forty-second negative pulses from a holding potential of -20 mV induced I(hi) whose conductance increased with hyperpolarization; the mean conductance (G(hi)) was 63.6 +/- 9.9 pS pF(-1) (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 9) at -160 mV. EB fluorescence increased during voltage pulses in parallel with the time integral of I(hi) (Q(hi)), with the magnitude of the increases in nuclear EB fluorescence being 5.3 times greater than in the cytoplasm at -160 mV. Similar hyperpolarization-induced parallel increases in I(hi) and EB fluorescence were also obtained in Na(+)-free, N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) solution. LPC (10 microM) induced large (101.2 +/- 21.2 pS pF(-1), n = 16), rapid (rise times, 1-10 ms) I(hi) with slow relaxation rates at -80 mV that reflected increases in G(hi) to 94.3 +/- 24.8 pS pF(-1) (n = 8) at 6 min. Plots of EB fluorescence vs. Q(hi) were well fitted by a common Hill's equation with a Hill coefficient of 0.97. Taken together, our findings indicate that hyperpolarization and LPC produced pores having the same filter properties for the permeation of small ions, including ethidium(+), and that I(hi) (carried in part by Ca(2+)) generated by membrane breakdown are capable of supplying sufficient ions to evoke abnormal excitation and contraction in cardiac myocytes. PMID:12456826

  12. Effects of aldosterone on transient outward K+ current density in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bénitah, Jean-Pierre; Perrier, Emeline; Gómez, Ana María; Vassort, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Aldosterone, a major ionic homeostasis regulator, might also regulate cardiac ion currents. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated whether aldosterone affects the 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward K+ current (Ito1). Exposure to 100 nm aldosterone for 48 h at 37 °C produced a 1.6-fold decrease in the Ito1 density compared to control myocytes incubated without aldosterone. Neither the time- nor voltage-dependent properties of the current were significantly altered after aldosterone treatment. RU28318 (1 μm), a specific mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, prevented the aldosterone-induced decrease in Ito1 density. When myocytes were incubated for 24 h with aldosterone, concentrations up to 1 μm did not change Ito1 density, whereas L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) density increased. After 48 h, aldosterone caused a further increase in ICa,L. The delay in the Ito1 response to aldosterone might indicate that it occurs secondary to an increase in ICa,L. After 24 h of aldosterone pretreatment, further co-incubation for 24 h either with an ICa,L antagonist (100 nm nifedipine) or with a permeant Ca2+ chelator (10 μm BAPTA-AM) prevented a decrease in Ito1 density. After 48 h of aldosterone treatment, we observed a 2.5-fold increase in the occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks, which was blunted by co-treatment with nifedipine. We conclude that aldosterone decreases Ito1 density. We suggest that this decrease is secondary to the modulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling, which probably arises from the aldosterone-induced increase in ICa,L. These results provide new insights into how cardiac ionic currents are modulated by hormones. PMID:11711569

  13. Differential effects of cocaine and cocaethylene on intracellular Ca2+ and myocardial contraction in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Z.; Morgan, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. Isolated cardiac myocytes of the ferret were used to investigate the influence of cocaine and cocaethylene on the intracellular Ca2+ transient indicated by the indo-1 405/480 nm ratio signal, and peak cell shortening. 2. Both cocaine and cocaethylene produced significant decreases in peak intracellular Ca2+ and peak cell shortening in a dose-dependent manner. Of interest, (1) the minimally effective dose of cocaethylene was ten fold lower (10(-8)M versus 10(-7)M) than that of cocaine; (2) the log EC50 of cocaethylene was -5.99 +/- 0.13 (1.0 x 10(-6) M), which was about ten fold lower than that of cocaine (-5.02 +/- 0.11, 9.6 x 10(-6) M); and (3) 1 x 10(-4)M cocaethylene decreased the contraction amplitude by 71 +/- 7%, while the same concentration of cocaine decreased the amplitude only by 55 +/- 5%, indicating that cocaethylene is more potent than cocaine. 3. The negative inotropic effects of either cocaine or cocaethylene could be overcome by noradrenaline (approximately 5 microM) or calcium. 4. In contrast to cocaine, cocaethylene shifted the peak [Ca2+]i-peak shortening relationship downward, indicating that cocaethylene decreased myofilament Ca(2+)-responsiveness. 5. These data indicate that both cocaine and cocaethylene act directly on cardiac myocytes to produce a negative inotropic effect that is due to decreased Ca2+ availability. In contrast to cocaine, cocaethylene produces more potent inhibition by an additional action to decrease myofilament Ca(2+)-responsiveness. PMID:8358533

  14. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Male Mouse Skeletal Muscle Is Largely Independent of D2 in Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Werneck-de-Castro, Joao P; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Ignacio, Daniele L; Fernandes, Gustavo W; Andrade-Feraud, Cristina M; Lartey, Lattoya J; Ribeiro, Marcelo B; Ribeiro, Miriam O; Gereben, Balazs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2015-10-01

    The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26214036

  15. Dissociation of insulin receptor phosphorylation and stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojsilovic, L.P.; Standaert, M.L.; Rosic, N.K.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated insulin receptor phosphorylation in differentiated cultured BC3H-1 myocytes. As for other insulin-responsive cell systems in partially purified wheat germ agglutinin receptor preparations, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of its own receptor (95K ..beta..-subunits) in a dose dependent manner (0-400 nM), as identified by immunoprecipitation with antiinsulin receptor antibodies and SDS-PAGE. In the same preparations they show that 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol acetate (TPA), which in many respect ..beta..-subunits in the same dose dependent manner (0-5 ..mu..M). In addition, antiinsulin receptor antibodies (B-10) also induced phosphorylation of mimics insulin action, also induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and HPLC tryptic maps of the /sup 32/P-labeled ..beta..-subunit were identical to those for insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation. However, while insulin and TPA are potent stimulators of glucose transport in these muscle cells, the antireceptor antibodies alone failed to provoke glucose transport at any concentration. The specificity and activity of these antibodies were confirmed in their system by their ability to inhibit insulin binding and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Their results indicate that phosphorylation of insulin receptor is not a crucial event in mediating insulin action, at least with respect to glucose transport. While the effects of the B-10 antibody in the BC3H-1 myocyte differ from those in the adipocyte, their results provide independent confirmation of their essential conclusion that phosphorylation of the insulin receptor may not be necessary nor sufficient for its acute action in promoting glucose transport.

  16. RyR2 Modulates a Ca2+-Activated K+ Current in Mouse Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yong-hui; Zhao, Wen-chao; Duan, Ping; Chen, Yun; Zhao, Wei-da; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hui-yin; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) binds to and activates RyR2 channels, resulting in subsequent Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and cardiac contraction. Previous research has documented the molecular coupling of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) to VDCCs in mouse cardiac muscle. Little is known regarding the role of RyRs-sensitive Ca2+ release in the SK channels in cardiac muscle. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we observed that a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK,Ca) recorded from isolated adult C57B/L mouse atrial myocytes was significantly decreased by ryanodine, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2), or by the co-application of ryanodine and thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). The activation of RyR2 by caffeine increased the IK,Ca in the cardiac cells (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). We further analyzed the effect of RyR2 knockdown on IK,Ca and Ca2+ in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes using a whole-cell patch clamp technique and confocal imaging. RyR2 knockdown in mouse atrial cells transduced with lentivirus-mediated small hairpin interference RNA (shRNA) exhibited a significant decrease in IK,Ca (p<0.05) and [Ca2+]i fluorescence intensity (p<0.01). An immunoprecipitated complex of SK2 and RyR2 was identified in native cardiac tissue by co-immunoprecipitation assays. Our findings indicate that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release is responsible for the activation and modulation of SK channels in cardiac myocytes. PMID:24747296

  17. Dependence of Na-K pump current on internal Na+ in mammalian cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Mogul, D J; Singer, D H; Ten Eick, R E

    1990-08-01

    Na-K pump current (Ipump) is a function of the intracellular Na+ concentration [( Na+]i). We examined the quantitative relationship between Ipump and [Na+]i in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes under steady-state conditions. [Na+]i was controlled and "clamped" at several selected concentrations using wide-tipped pipette microelectrodes, and membrane current was measured using the whole cell patch voltage-clamp technique. Ipump generated at a holding potential of -40 mV was determined by measuring the change in steady-state holding current before and during exposure to dihydroouabain (1 mM); Ipump was measured at 11 levels of [Na+]i ranging from 0 to 80 mM (n = 63) with only one measurement per cell and normalized to cell capacitance to account for differences between myocytes in sarcolemmal surface area. Ipump exhibited a nonlinear dependence on [Na+]i; a Hill analysis of the relationship yielded a half-maximal [Na+]i for pump stimulation of 43.2 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.53. An alternative analysis of the experimental data was performed assuming that occupation of three internal binding sites by Na+ is required for enzyme turnover. Regression analysis gave the best fit when only two different binding affinities (KD) are postulated. The values are KD1 = 1 mM, KD2 = KD3 = 29 mM. From the analysis using the latter model, the level of [Na+]i at which Ipump saturated closely approximated the theoretical saturation level calculated from published estimates of pump turnover rate and density. The maximal sensitivity of the Na-K pump to changes in [Na+]i occurs when internal [Na+] is within the range for the normal resting physiological level. PMID:2167023

  18. Overexpression of angiotensin AT1 receptor transgene in the mouse myocardium produces a lethal phenotype associated with myocyte hyperplasia and heart block

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Lutz; Stevens, Mary E.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Pratt, Richard E.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Dzau, Victor J.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates cardiac contractility, rhythm, metabolism, and structure. However, it is unclear whether the cardiac effects are due to direct actions of Ang II on the myocardium or if they are due to secondary effects mediated through the hemodynamic actions of Ang II. In this study, we used the α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) promoter to generate transgenic mice overexpressing angiotensin II type 1 (AT1a) receptor selectively in cardiac myocytes. The specificity of transgene expression in the transgenic offspring was confirmed by radioligand binding studies and reverse transcription–PCR. The offspring displayed massive atrial enlargement with myocyte hyperplasia at birth, developed significant bradycardia with heart block, and died within the first weeks after birth. Thus, direct activation of AT1 receptor signaling in cardiac myocytes in vivo is sufficient to induce cardiac myocyte growth and alter electrical conduction. PMID:9177228

  19. Melatonin enhances mitochondrial ATP synthesis, reduces reactive oxygen species formation, and mediates translocation of the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 resulting in activation of phase-2 antioxidant enzymes (γ-GCS, HO-1, NQO1) in ultraviolet radiation-treated normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK).

    PubMed

    Kleszczyński, Konrad; Zillikens, Detlef; Fischer, Tobias W

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin is an ubiquitous molecule with a variety of functions including potent antioxidative properties. Due to its lipophilic character, it easily crosses cellular and intracellular membranes and reaches all subcellular organelles. Because of its ability to scavenge free radicals, melatonin protects against oxidative stress, for example, induced by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Here, we investigated, in a dose-dependent (0, 10, 25, and 50 mJ/cm(2) ) and time-dependent (0, 4, 24, 48 hr post-UVR) manner, whether melatonin prevents the UVR-mediated alterations in ATP synthesis and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). Additionally, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of action of melatonin with regard to activation of phase-2 antioxidative enzymes via nuclear erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). We found that (i) melatonin counteracted UVR-induced alterations in the ATP synthesis and reduced free radical formation; (ii) melatonin induced the translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor from the cytosol into the nucleus resulting in, (iii) melatonin enhanced gene expression of phase-2 antioxidative enzymes including γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NADPH: quinone dehydrogenase-1 (NQO1) representing an elevated antioxidative response of keratinocytes. These results suggest that melatonin not only directly scavenges ROS, but also significantly induces the activation of phase-2 antioxidative enzymes via the Nrf2 pathway uncovering a new action mechanism that supports the ability of keratinocytes to protect themselves from UVR-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:27117941

  20. Rapid Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Mechanisms Determine the Sexually Dimorphic Sensitivity of Ventricular Myocytes to 17β-Estradiol and the Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Scott M.; Chen, Yamei; Yan, Sujuan

    2012-01-01

    Previously we showed that 17β-estradiol (E2) and/or the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) alter ventricular myocyte Ca2+ handing, resulting in increased cardiac arrhythmias in a female-specific manner. In the present study, the roles of estrogen receptors (ER) in mediating the rapid contractile and arrhythmogenic effects of estrogens were examined. Contractility was used as an index to assess the impact of E2 or BPA on Ca2+ handling in rodent ventricular myocytes. The concentration-response curve for the stimulatory effects of BPA and E2 on female myocyte was inverted-U shaped. Detectable effects for each compound were observed at 10−12 m, and the most efficacious concentrations for each were at 10−9 m. Sensitivity to E2 and BPA was not observed in male myocytes and was abolished in myocytes from ovariectomized females. Analysis using protein-conjugated E2 suggests that these rapid actions are induced by membrane-associated receptors. Analysis using selective ER agonists and antagonists and a genetic ERβ knockout mouse model showed that ERα and ERβ have opposing actions in myocytes and that the balance between ERβ and ERα signaling is the prime regulator of the sex-specific sensitivity toward estrogens. The response of female myocytes to E2 and BPA is dominated by the stimulatory ERβ-mediated signaling, and the absence of BPA and E2 responsiveness in males is due to a counterbalancing-suppressive action of ERα. We conclude that the sex-specific sensitivity of myocytes to estrogens and the rapid arrhythmogenic effects of BPA and estradiol in the female heart are regulated by the balance between ERα and ERβ signaling. PMID:22166976

  1. A novel computational model of mouse myocyte electrophysiology to assess the synergy between Na+ loading and CaMKII.

    PubMed

    Morotti, S; Edwards, A G; McCulloch, A D; Bers, D M; Grandi, E

    2014-03-15

    Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) hyperactivity in heart failure causes intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)]i) loading (at least in part by enhancing the late Na(+) current). This [Na(+)]i gain promotes intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) overload by altering the equilibrium of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger to impair forward-mode (Ca(2+) extrusion), and favour reverse-mode (Ca(2+) influx) exchange. In turn, this Ca(2+) overload would be expected to further activate CaMKII and thereby form a pathological positive feedback loop of ever-increasing CaMKII activity, [Na(+)]i, and [Ca(2+)]i. We developed an ionic model of the mouse ventricular myocyte to interrogate this potentially arrhythmogenic positive feedback in both control conditions and when CaMKIIδC is overexpressed as in genetically engineered mice. In control conditions, simulation of increased [Na(+)]i causes the expected increases in [Ca(2+)]i, CaMKII activity, and target phosphorylation, which degenerate into unstable Ca(2+) handling and electrophysiology at high [Na(+)]i gain. Notably, clamping CaMKII activity to basal levels ameliorates but does not completely offset this outcome, suggesting that the increase in [Ca(2+)]i per se plays an important role. The effect of this CaMKII-Na(+)-Ca(2+)-CaMKII feedback is more striking in CaMKIIδC overexpression, where high [Na(+)]i causes delayed afterdepolarizations, which can be prevented by imposing low [Na(+)]i, or clamping CaMKII phosphorylation of L-type Ca(2+) channels, ryanodine receptors and phospholamban to basal levels. In this setting, Na(+) loading fuels a vicious loop whereby increased CaMKII activation perturbs Ca(2+) and membrane potential homeostasis. High [Na(+)]i is also required to produce instability when CaMKII is further activated by increased Ca(2+) loading due to β-adrenergic activation. Our results support recent experimental findings of a synergistic interaction between perturbed Na(+) fluxes and CaMKII, and suggest that

  2. A novel computational model of mouse myocyte electrophysiology to assess the synergy between Na+ loading and CaMKII

    PubMed Central

    Morotti, S; Edwards, A G; McCulloch, A D; Bers, D M; Grandi, E

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) hyperactivity in heart failure causes intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) loading (at least in part by enhancing the late Na+ current). This [Na+]i gain promotes intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) overload by altering the equilibrium of the Na+–Ca2+ exchanger to impair forward-mode (Ca2+ extrusion), and favour reverse-mode (Ca2+ influx) exchange. In turn, this Ca2+ overload would be expected to further activate CaMKII and thereby form a pathological positive feedback loop of ever-increasing CaMKII activity, [Na+]i, and [Ca2+]i. We developed an ionic model of the mouse ventricular myocyte to interrogate this potentially arrhythmogenic positive feedback in both control conditions and when CaMKIIδC is overexpressed as in genetically engineered mice. In control conditions, simulation of increased [Na+]i causes the expected increases in [Ca2+]i, CaMKII activity, and target phosphorylation, which degenerate into unstable Ca2+ handling and electrophysiology at high [Na+]i gain. Notably, clamping CaMKII activity to basal levels ameliorates but does not completely offset this outcome, suggesting that the increase in [Ca2+]i per se plays an important role. The effect of this CaMKII–Na+–Ca2+–CaMKII feedback is more striking in CaMKIIδC overexpression, where high [Na+]i causes delayed afterdepolarizations, which can be prevented by imposing low [Na+]i, or clamping CaMKII phosphorylation of L-type Ca2+ channels, ryanodine receptors and phospholamban to basal levels. In this setting, Na+ loading fuels a vicious loop whereby increased CaMKII activation perturbs Ca2+ and membrane potential homeostasis. High [Na+]i is also required to produce instability when CaMKII is further activated by increased Ca2+ loading due to β-adrenergic activation. Our results support recent experimental findings of a synergistic interaction between perturbed Na+ fluxes and CaMKII, and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of intracellular Na+ loading

  3. Hypoxia-activated apoptosis of cardiac myocytes requires reoxygenation or a pH shift and is independent of p53

    PubMed Central

    Bishopric, Nanette H.; Discher, Daryl J.; Kaiser, Shari; Hernandez, Olga; Sato, Barbara; Zang, Jie; Webster, Keith A.

    1999-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion activate cardiac myocyte apoptosis, which may be an important feature in the progression of ischemic heart disease. The relative contributions of ischemia and reperfusion to apoptotic signal transduction have not been established. We report here that severe chronic hypoxia alone does not cause apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in culture. When rapidly contracting cardiac myocytes were exposed to chronic hypoxia, apoptosis occurred only when there was a decrease in extracellular pH ([pH]o). Apoptosis did not occur when [pH]o was neutralized. Addition of acidic medium from hypoxic cultures or exogenous lactic acid stimulated apoptosis in aerobic myocytes. Hypoxia-acidosis–mediated cell death was independent of p53: equivalent apoptosis occurred in cardiac myocytes isolated from wild-type and p53 knockout mice, and hypoxia caused no detectable change in p53 abundance or p53-dependent transcription. Reoxygenation of hypoxic cardiac myocytes induced apoptosis in 25–30% of the cells and was also independent of p53 by the same criteria. Finally, equivalent levels of apoptosis, as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, were induced by ischemia-reperfusion, but not by ischemia alone, of Langendorff-perfused hearts from wild-type and p53 knockout mice. We conclude that acidosis, reoxygenation, and reperfusion, but not hypoxia (or ischemia) alone, are strong stimuli for programmed cell death that is substantially independent of p53. J. Clin. Invest. 104:239–252 (1999). PMID:10430605

  4. Isoprenaline can activate the acetylcholine-induced K+ current in canine atrial myocytes via Gs-derived betagamma subunits.

    PubMed

    Sorota, S; Rybina, I; Yamamoto, A; Du, X Y

    1999-01-15

    1. G protein betagamma subunits activate the acetylcholine-induced potassium current IK,ACh. There is no evidence of specificity at the level of the betagamma subunits. Therefore all G protein-coupled receptors in atrial myocytes should be able to activate IK,ACh. Paradoxically, it is often stated that isoprenaline does not activate IK,ACh. Rationales to explain this negative result include insufficient concentrations of Gs in the atrium or restricted access of Gs-derived betagamma subunits to the IK,ACh channel. We took advantage of a non-specific increase in Gs that results after infection with adenovirus. 2. Adenoviral infection unmasked a 1 microM isoprenaline-induced IK,ACh which was prevented by propranolol. Isoprenaline occasionally activated IK,ACh in uninfected and freshly dissociated atrial myocytes but the effect was larger and more consistent in infected myocytes. 3. Pertussis toxin pretreatment (100 ng ml-1 overnight) did not block the effect of isoprenaline. The effect of isoprenaline became persistent if cells were pretreated with cholera toxin (200 ng nl-1). 4. Signal transduction events distal to adenylyl cyclase were not involved in isoprenaline-induced IK,ACh. Forskolin (10 microM) did not activate IK,ACh. Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase with cytoplasmic application of 300 microM 2'-deoxyadenosine 3'-monophosphate did not prevent the activation of IK,ACh by isoprenaline. 5. Cytoplasmic application of a betagamma binding peptide derived from the C terminus of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (50 microM) prevented the effect of isoprenaline on IK,ACh. The peptide did not prevent the stimulation of the L-type calcium current by isoprenaline. 6. The results indicate that beta-adrenoceptors can activate IK,ACh in atrial myocytes through the release of betagamma subunits from Gs. PMID:9852323

  5. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Action Potential and Transient Outward Potassium Current in Ventricular Myocytes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhou; Ren, Yi-Peng; Lu, Cai-Yi; Li, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Peng, Li; Fan, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation contributes to the development and recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. However, the electrophysiological changes in ventricular myocytes in sleep deprivation are still unknown. Material/Methods Sleep deprivation was induced by modified multiple platform technique. Fifty rats were assigned to control and sleep deprivation 1, 3, 5, and 7 days groups, and single ventricular myocytes were enzymatically dissociated from rat hearts. Action potential duration (APD) and transient outward current (Ito) were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results Compared with the control group, the phases of APD of ventricular myocytes in 3, 5, and 7 days groups were prolonged and APD at 20% and 50% level of repolarization (APD20 and APD50) was significantly elongated (The APD20 values of control, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days groups: 5.66±0.16 ms, 5.77±0.20 ms, 8.28±0.30 ms, 11.56±0.32 ms, 13.24±0.56 ms. The APD50 values: 50.66±2.16 ms, 52.77±3.20 ms, 65.28±5.30 ms, 83.56±7.32 ms, 89.24±5.56 ms. P<0.01, n=18). The current densities of Ito significantly decreased. The current density-voltage (I–V) curve of Ito was vitally suppressed downward. The steady-state inactivation curve and steady-state activation curve of Ito were shifted to left and right, respectively, in sleep deprivation rats. The inactivation recovery time of Ito was markedly retarded and the time of closed-state inactivation was markedly accelerated in 3, 5, and 7 days groups. Conclusions APD of ventricular myocytes in sleep deprivation rats was significantly prolonged, which could be attributed to decreased activation and accelerated inactivation of Ito. PMID:25694200

  6. Mitochondrial membrane potential in single living adult rat cardiac myocytes exposed to anoxia or metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lisa, F; Blank, P S; Colonna, R; Gambassi, G; Silverman, H S; Stern, M D; Hansford, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. The relation between mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) and cell function was investigated in single adult rat cardiac myocytes during anoxia and reoxygenation. delta psi m was studied by loading myocytes with JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetra-ethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide), a fluorescent probe characterized by two emission peaks (539 and 597 nm with excitation at 490 nm) corresponding to monomer and aggregate forms of the dye. 2. De-energizing conditions applied to mitochondria, cell suspensions or single cells decreased the aggregate emission and increased the monomer emission. This latter result cannot be explained by changes of JC-1 concentration in the aqueous mitochondrial matrix phase indicating that hydrophobic interaction of the probe with membranes has to be taken into account to explain JC-1 fluorescence properties in isolated mitochondria or intact cells. 3. A different sensitivity of the two JC-1 forms to delta psi m changes was shown in isolated mitochondria by the effects of ADP and FCCP and the calibration with K+ diffusion potentials. The monomer emission was responsive to values of delta psi m below 140 mV, which hardly modified the aggregate emission. Thus JC-1 represents a unique double sensor which can provide semi-quantitative information in both low and high potential ranges. 4. At the onset of glucose-free anoxia the epifluorescence of individual myocytes studied in the single excitation (490 nm)-double emission (530 and 590 nm) mode showed a gradual decline of the aggregate emission, which reached a plateau while electrically stimulated (0.2 Hz) contraction was still retained. The subsequent failure of contraction was followed by the rise of the emission at 530 nm, corresponding to the monomer form of the dye, concomitantly with the development of rigor contracture. 5. The onset of the rigor was preceded by the increase in intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) monitored by mag-indo-1 epifluorescence

  7. Regulation of L-type calcium current by intracellular magnesium in rat cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Tashiro, Michiko; Berlin, Joshua R

    2004-01-01

    The effects of changing cytosolic [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]i) on l-type Ca2+ currents were investigated in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes voltage-clamped with patch pipettes containing salt solutions with defined [Mg2+] and [Ca2+]. To control [Mg2+]i and cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i), the pipette solution included 30 mm citrate and 10 mm ATP along with 5 mm EGTA (slow Ca2+ buffer) or 15 mm EGTA plus 5 mm BAPTA (fast Ca2+ buffer). With pipette [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]p) set at 100 nm using a slow Ca2+ buffer and pipette [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]p) set at 0.2 mm, peak l-type Ca2+ current density (ICa) was 17.0 ± 2.2 pA pF−1. Under the same conditions, but with [Mg2+]p set to 1.8 mm, ICa was 5.6 ± 1.0 pA pF−1, a 64 ± 2.8% decrease in amplitude. This decrease in ICa was accompanied by an acceleration and a –8 mV shift in the voltage dependence of current inactivation. The [Mg2+]p-dependent decrease in ICa was not significantly different when myocytes were preincubated with 10 μm forskolin and 300 μm 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and voltage-clamped with pipettes containing 50 μm okadaic acid, to maximize Ca2+ channel phosphorylation. However, when myocytes were voltage-clamped with pipettes containing protein phosphatase 2A, to promote channel dephosphorylation, ICa decreased only 25 ± 3.4% on changing [Mg2+]p from 0.2 to 1.8 mm. In the presence of 0.2 mm[Mg2+]p, changing channel phosphorylation conditions altered ICa over a 4-fold range; however, with 1.8 mm[Mg2+]p, these same manoeuvres had a much smaller effect on ICa. These data suggest that [Mg2+]i can antagonize the effects of phosphorylation on channel gating kinetics. Setting [Ca2+]p to 1, 100 or 300 nm also showed that the [Mg2+]p-induced reduction of ICa was smaller at the lowest [Ca2+]p, irrespective of channel phosphorylation conditions. This interaction between [Ca2+]i and [Mg2+]i to modulate ICa was not significantly affected by ryanodine, fast Ca2+ buffers or inhibitors of calmodulin, calmodulin-dependent kinase and

  8. Carbon Nanohorns Promote Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes and Inhibit Proliferation of Cardiac Fibroblasts: a Promising Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yujing; Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Yi; Tian, Lei; Bai, Rui; Wei, Yujie; Han, Dong; Liu, Huiliang; Xu, Jianxun

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) has developed rapidly, but a great challenge remains in finding practical scaffold materials for the construction of engineered cardiac tissues. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs) may be a potential candidate due to their special structure and properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CNHs on the biological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) for CTE applications. CNHs were incorporated into collagen to form growth substrates for NRVMs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that CNHs exhibited a good affinity to collagen. Moreover, it was found that CNH-embedded substrates enhanced adhesion and proliferation of NRVMs. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and intracellular calcium transient measurements indicated that the addition of CNHs significantly increased the expression and maturation of electrical and mechanical proteins (connexin-43 and N-cadherin). Bromodeoxyuridine staining and a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that CNHs have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CNHs can have a valuable effect on the construction of engineered cardiac tissues and may be a promising scaffold for CTE. PMID:27263018

  9. Carbon Nanohorns Promote Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes and Inhibit Proliferation of Cardiac Fibroblasts: a Promising Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yujing; Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Yi; Tian, Lei; Bai, Rui; Wei, Yujie; Han, Dong; Liu, Huiliang; Xu, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) has developed rapidly, but a great challenge remains in finding practical scaffold materials for the construction of engineered cardiac tissues. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs) may be a potential candidate due to their special structure and properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CNHs on the biological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) for CTE applications. CNHs were incorporated into collagen to form growth substrates for NRVMs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that CNHs exhibited a good affinity to collagen. Moreover, it was found that CNH-embedded substrates enhanced adhesion and proliferation of NRVMs. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and intracellular calcium transient measurements indicated that the addition of CNHs significantly increased the expression and maturation of electrical and mechanical proteins (connexin-43 and N-cadherin). Bromodeoxyuridine staining and a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that CNHs have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CNHs can have a valuable effect on the construction of engineered cardiac tissues and may be a promising scaffold for CTE.

  10. Effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide on voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al Kury, Lina T; Voitychuk, Oleg I; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Thayyullathil, Faisal T; Doroshenko, Petro; Ramez, Ali M; Shuba, Yaroslav M; Galadari, Sehamuddin; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Oz, Murat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide; AEA) exerts negative inotropic and antiarrhythmic effects in ventricular myocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Whole-cell patch-clamp technique and radioligand-binding methods were used to analyse the effects of anandamide in rat ventricular myocytes. KEY RESULTS In the presence of 1–10 μM AEA, suppression of both Na+ and L-type Ca2+ channels was observed. Inhibition of Na+ channels was voltage and Pertussis toxin (PTX) – independent. Radioligand-binding studies indicated that specific binding of [3H] batrachotoxin (BTX) to ventricular muscle membranes was also inhibited significantly by 10 μM metAEA, a non-metabolized AEA analogue, with a marked decrease in Bmax values but no change in Kd. Further studies on L-type Ca2+ channels indicated that AEA potently inhibited these channels (IC50 0.1 μM) in a voltage- and PTX-independent manner. AEA inhibited maximal amplitudes without affecting the kinetics of Ba2+ currents. MetAEA also inhibited Na+ and L-type Ca2+ currents. Radioligand studies indicated that specific binding of [3H]isradipine, was inhibited significantly by metAEA. (10 μM), changing Bmax but not Kd. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Results indicate that AEA inhibited the function of voltage-dependent Na+ and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat ventricular myocytes, independent of CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. PMID:24758718

  11. DNA Damage Response and DNA Repair in Skeletal Myocytes From a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Fayzullina, Saniya; Martin, Lee J

    2016-09-01

    We studied DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair capacities of skeletal muscle cells from a mouse model of infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) caused by loss-of-function mutation of survival of motor neuron (Smn). Primary myocyte cultures derived from skeletal muscle satellite cells of neonatal control and mutant SMN mice had similar myotube length, myonuclei, satellite cell marker Pax7 and differentiated myotube marker myosin, and acetylcholine receptor clustering. DNA damage was induced in differentiated skeletal myotubes by γ-irradiation, etoposide, and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Unexposed control and SMA myotubes had stable genome integrity. After γ-irradiation and etoposide, myotubes repaired most DNA damage equally. Control and mutant myotubes exposed to MMS exhibited equivalent DNA damage without repair. Control and SMA myotube nuclei contained DDR proteins phospho-p53 and phospho-H2AX foci that, with DNA damage, dispersed and then re-formed similarly after recovery. We conclude that mouse primary satellite cell-derived myotubes effectively respond to and repair DNA strand-breaks, while DNA alkylation repair is underrepresented. Morphological differentiation, genome stability, genome sensor, and DNA strand-break repair potential are preserved in mouse SMA myocytes; thus, reduced SMN does not interfere with myocyte differentiation, genome integrity, and DNA repair, and faulty DNA repair is unlikely pathogenic in SMA. PMID:27452406

  12. Ultrastructural features of left ventricular myocytes in active and torpid hamsters compared with rats: a morphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Skepper, J N; Navaratnam, V

    1995-01-01

    Myocytes from the midmyocardium of the left ventricle of rats and hamsters were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The volume fraction of lipid droplets in such myocytes was about 6 times greater in the active hamster than in the rat, but it became progressively reduced during cold exposure and entry into hibernation to values similar to those of the rat. The volume fraction of the T-system as well as the surface density of its membranes were each found to be twice as large in hamster myocytes as in the rat but there was no difference in these parameters between control, cold-exposed and torpid hamsters. The surface density of the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum coupled with elements of the T-system was greater in active hamsters when compared with those of the rat, and greater still in torpid hamsters. There was no significant difference in the surface density of free sarcoplasmic reticulum between control hamsters, cold-exposed hamsters and rats but it was almost doubled in torpid hamsters. It is proposed that these features represent inherent differences in the ultrastructure of the left ventricle between the rat and hamster that may facilitate entry into hibernation. Additionally, further structural modifications during entry into hibernation may be related to alterations in lipid metabolism and modifications of calcium handling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7559131

  13. Functional Role and Mechanism of microRNA-28b in Atrial Myocyte in a Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbin; Kang, Weiqiang; Wang, Xu; Chen, Meina; Qin, Qiaoji; Guo, Minglei; Ge, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent atrial fibrillation has been indicated to be related with microRNA-28b. However, the exact role of microRNA-28b in persistent atrial fibrillation needs to be further elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a rat model of persistent atrial fibrillation to investigate the level of microRNA-28b in atrial myocytes and to explore the molecular mechanism involved. Material/Methods A persistent atrial fibrillation model was established in rats by using chronic rapid atrial pacing induction. The size of the heart was measured by ultrasonic method. The expression of microRNA-28b in left atrial myocytes was quantified by RT-PCR. Cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The specific inhibitor of ERK signaling pathway, PD98059, was used to further illustrate the role of ERK signaling pathway in the modulation of cardiomyocytes in persistent atrial fibrillation. Results MicroRNA-28b was up-regulated in the experimental rat model with persistent atrial fibrillation. The proliferation of cardiomyocytes was significantly inhibited with potentiated apoptosis. Blockage of the ERK pathway suppressed the microRNA-28b expression and inhibited cell apoptosis. Conclusions microRNA-28b-induced growth inhibition and cell apoptosis of atrial myocytes was observed in the rat model with persistent atrial fibrillation, via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27574952

  14. IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musaro, A.; McCullagh, K. J.; Naya, F. J.; Olson, E. N.; Rosenthal, N.

    1999-01-01

    Localized synthesis of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) has been broadly implicated in skeletal muscle growth, hypertrophy and regeneration. Virally delivered IGF-1 genes induce local skeletal muscle hypertrophy and attenuate age-related skeletal muscle atrophy, restoring and improving muscle mass and strength in mice. Here we show that the molecular pathways underlying the hypertrophic action of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle are similar to those responsible for cardiac hypertrophy. Transfected IGF-1 gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes activates calcineurin-mediated calcium signalling by inducing calcineurin transcripts and nuclear localization of calcineurin protein. Expression of activated calcineurin mimics the effects of IGF-1, whereas expression of a dominant-negative calcineurin mutant or addition of cyclosporin, a calcineurin inhibitor, represses myocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Either IGF-1 or activated calcineurin induces expression of the transcription factor GATA-2, which accumulates in a subset of myocyte nuclei, where it associates with calcineurin and a specific dephosphorylated isoform of the transcription factor NF-ATc1. Thus, IGF-1 induces calcineurin-mediated signalling and activation of GATA-2, a marker of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which cooperates with selected NF-ATc isoforms to activate gene expression programs.

  15. (/sup 3/H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine binding to A1 adenosine receptors of intact rat ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, D.; Lohse, M.J.; Schwabe, U.

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was the identification of A1 adenosine receptors in intact rat ventricular myocytes, which are thought to mediate the negative inotropic effects of adenosine. The adenosine receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine was used as radioligand. Binding of the radioligand to intact myocytes was rapid, reversible, and saturable with a binding capacity of 40,000 binding sites per cell. The dissociation constant of the radioligand was 0.48 nM. The adenosine receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, xanthine amine congener, and theophylline were competitive inhibitors with affinities in agreement with results obtained for A1 receptors in other tissues. Competition experiments using the adenosine receptor agonists R-N(6)-phenylisopropyladenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, and S-N(6)-phenylisopropyladenosine gave monophasic displacement curves with Ki values of 50 nM, 440 nM, and 4,300 nM, which agreed well with the GTP-inducible low affinity state in cardiac membranes. The low affinity for agonists was not due to agonist-induced desensitization, and correlated well with the corresponding IC50 values for the inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation by isoprenaline. It is suggested that only a low affinity state of A1 receptors can be detected in intact rat myocytes due to the presence of high concentrations of guanine nucleotides in intact cells.

  16. Intracellular Ca2+ transients during rapid cooling contractures in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bers, D M; Bridge, J H; Spitzer, K W

    1989-01-01

    1. We measured intracellular Ca2+ transients during rapid cooling contractures (RCCs) in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, Indo-1. 2. Rapid cooling of myocytes from 22 to 0-1 degrees C induced a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i which preceded the peak of the contraction and was sometimes large enough to saturate Indo-1. This indicates that [Ca2+]i may reach greater than 10 microM during an RCC. 3. The [Ca2+]i during the RCC slowly declined from its peak value and most of this decline in [Ca2+]i can be attributed to slow reaccumulation of Ca2+ by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the cold. RCCs induced in the absence of Cao2+, were not different from control, supporting previous conclusions that RCCs depend exclusively on intracellular Ca2+ stores. 4. RCCs are depressed by long rest periods (rest decay) or by exposure to ryanodine or caffeine, which supports conclusions that RCCs are due to Ca2+ release from the SR. The rest decay of RCCs can be almost completely prevented by applying Nao(+)-free solution during the rest period. This implies that the loss of SR Ca2+ during rest depends on the sarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange (and not the sarcolemmal Ca2(+)-ATPase pump). 5. Rapid rewarming during an RCC normally leads to an additional transient contraction (or rewarming spike), without any increase in [Ca2+]i. Thus, the rewarming spike might be attributable to an increase in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity induced by rewarming. 6. A second RCC is used to assess the fraction of Ca2+ which is re-sequestered by the SR during relaxation from the first RCC. In control solution progressive RCCs decline in amplitude, but in Na(+)-free, Ca2(+)-free solution they are of constant amplitude. We conclude that the SR Ca2+ pump and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange are responsible for relaxation and that the latter may account for 20-50% of relaxation. 7. These results support the use of RCCs as a useful means of assessing SR Ca2+ content in intact cardiac muscle cells

  17. Blocking effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on Na+ channels of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Y F; Kang, J X; Morgan, J P; Leaf, A

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids (PUFAs) prevent lethal ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias in animals and probably in humans. To increase understanding of the mechanism(s) of this phenomenon, the effects of PUFAs on Na+ currents were assessed by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Extracellular application of the free 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) produced a concentration-dependent suppression of ventricular, voltage-activated Na+ currents (INa). After cardiac myocytes were treated with 5 or 10 microM EPA, the peak INa (elicited by a single-step voltage change with pulses from -80 to -30 mV) was decreased by 51% +/- 8% (P < 0.01; n = 10) and 64% +/- 5% (P < 0.001; n = 21), respectively, within 2 min. Likewise, the same concentrations of 4,7,10,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid produced the same inhibition of INa. By contrast, 5 and 10 microM arachidonic acid (AA) caused less inhibition of INa, but both n - 6 and n - 3 PUFAs inhibited INa significantly. A monounsaturated fatty acid and a saturated fatty acid did not. After washing out EPA, INa returned to the control level. Raising the concentration of EPA to 40 microM completely blocked INa. The IC50 of EPA was 4.8 microM. The inhibition of this Na+ channel was found to be dose and time, but not use dependent. Also, the EPA-induced inhibition of INa was voltage dependent, since 10 microM EPA produced 83% +/- 7% and 29% +/- 5% inhibition of INa elicited by pulses from -80 to -30 mV and from -150 to -30 mV, respectively, in single-step voltage changes. A concentration of 10 microM EPA shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of INa by -19 +/- 3 mV (n = 7; P < 0.01). These effects of PUFAs on INa may be important for their antiarrhythmic effect in vivo. PMID:7479925

  18. Mouse intact cardiac myocyte mechanics: cross-bridge and titin-based stress in unactivated cells.

    PubMed

    King, Nicholas M P; Methawasin, Methajit; Nedrud, Joshua; Harrell, Nicholas; Chung, Charles S; Helmes, Michiel; Granzier, Henk

    2011-01-01

    A carbon fiber-based cell attachment and force measurement system was used to measure the diastolic stress-sarcomere length (SL) relation of mouse intact cardiomyocytes, before and after the addition of actomyosin inhibitors (2,3-butanedione monoxime [BDM] or blebbistatin). Stress was measured during the diastolic interval of twitching myocytes that were stretched at 100% base length/second. Diastolic stress increased close to linear from 0 at SL 1.85 µm to 4.2 mN/mm(2) at SL 2.1 µm. The actomyosin inhibitors BDM and blebbistatin significantly lowered diastolic stress by ∼1.5 mN/mm(2) (at SL 2.1 µm, ∼30% of total), suggesting that during diastole actomyosin interaction is not fully switched off. To test this further, calcium sensitivity of skinned myocytes was studied under conditions that simulate diastole: 37°C, presence of Dextran T500 to compress the myofilament lattice to the physiological level, and [Ca(2+)] from below to above 100 nM. Mean active stress was significantly increased at [Ca(2+)] > 55 nM (pCa 7.25) and was ∼0.7 mN/mm(2) at 100 nM [Ca(2+)] (pCa 7.0) and ∼1.3 mN/mm(2) at 175 nM Ca(2+) (pCa 6.75). Inhibiting active stress in intact cells attached to carbon fibers at their resting SL and stretching the cells while first measuring restoring stress (pushing outward) and then passive stress (pulling inward) made it possible to determine the passive cell's mechanical slack SL as ∼1.95 µm and the restoring stiffness and passive stiffness of the cells around the slack SL each as ∼17 mN/mm(2)/µm/SL. Comparison between the results of intact and skinned cells shows that titin is the main contributor to restoring stress and passive stress of intact cells, but that under physiological conditions, calcium sensitivity is sufficiently high for actomyosin interaction to contribute to diastolic stress. These findings are relevant for understanding diastolic function and for future studies of diastolic heart failure. PMID:21187335

  19. Illuminating Myocyte-Fibroblast Homotypic and Heterotypic Gap Junction Dynamics Using Dynamic Clamp.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tashalee R; Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J

    2016-08-23

    Fibroblasts play a significant role in the development of electrical and mechanical dysfunction of the heart; however, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. One widely studied mechanism suggests that fibroblasts produce excess extracellular matrix, resulting in collagenous septa that slow propagation, cause zig-zag conduction paths, and decouple cardiomyocytes, resulting in a substrate for cardiac arrhythmia. An emerging mechanism suggests that fibroblasts promote arrhythmogenesis through direct electrical interactions with cardiomyocytes via gap junction (GJ) channels. In the heart, three major connexin (Cx) isoforms, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45, form GJ channels in cell-type-specific combinations. Because each Cx is characterized by a unique time- and transjunctional voltage-dependent profile, we investigated whether the electrophysiological contributions of fibroblasts would vary with the specific composition of the myocyte-fibroblast (M-F) GJ channel. Due to the challenges of systematically modifying Cxs in vitro, we coupled native cardiomyocytes with in silico fibroblast and GJ channel electrophysiology models using the dynamic-clamp technique. We found that there is a reduction in the early peak of the junctional current during the upstroke of the action potential (AP) due to GJ channel gating. However, effects on the cardiomyocyte AP morphology were similar regardless of the specific type of GJ channel (homotypic Cx43 and Cx45, and heterotypic Cx43/Cx45 and Cx45/Cx43). To illuminate effects at the tissue level, we performed multiscale simulations of M-F coupling. First, we developed a cell-specific model of our dynamic-clamp experiments and investigated changes in the underlying membrane currents during M-F coupling. Second, we performed two-dimensional tissue sheet simulations of cardiac fibrosis and incorporated GJ channels in a cell type-specific manner. We determined that although GJ channel gating reduces junctional current, it does not

  20. Nonuniform elasticity of titin in cardiac myocytes: a study using immunoelectron microscopy and cellular mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Granzier, H; Helmes, M; Trombitás, K

    1996-01-01

    Titin (also known as connectin) is a muscle-specific giant protein found inside the sarcomere, spanning from the Z-line to the M-line. The I-band segment of titin is considered to function as a molecular spring that develops tension when sarcomeres are stretched (passive tension). Recent studies on skeletal muscle indicate that it is not the entire I-band segment of titin that behaves as a spring; some sections are inelastic and do not take part in the development of passive tension. To better understand the mechanism of passive tension development in the heart, where passive tension plays an essential role in the pumping function, we investigated titin's elastic segment in cardiac myocytes using structural and mechanical techniques. Single cardiac myocytes were stretched by various amounts and then immunolabeled and processed for electron microscopy in the stretched state. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize different titin epitopes were used, and the locations of the titin epitopes in the sarcomere were studied as a function of sarcomere length. We found that only a small region of the I-band segment of titin is elastic; its contour length is estimated at approximately 75 nm, which is only approximately 40% of the total I-band segment of titin. Passive tension measurements indicated that the fundamental determinant of how much passive tension the heart develops is the strain of titin's elastic segment. Furthermore, we found evidence that in sarcomeres that are slack (length, approximately 1.85 microns) the elastic titin segment is highly folded on top of itself. Based on the data, we propose a two-stage mechanism of passive tension development in the heart, in which, between sarcomere lengths of approximately 1.85 microns and approximately 2.0 microns, titin's elastic segment straightens and, at lengths longer than approximately 2.0 microns, the molecular domains that make up titin's elastic segment unravel. Sarcomere shortening to lengths below slack

  1. Down-Regulation of Replication Factor C-40 (RFC40) Causes Chromosomal Missegregation in Neonatal and Hypertrophic Adult Rat Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Masahiko; Ochi, Rikuo; Jong, Chian Ju; Gebb, Sarah; Benjamin, John; Schaffer, Stephen; Hobart, Holly H.; Downey, James; McMurtry, Ivan; Gupte, Rakhee

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult mammalian cardiac myocytes are generally assumed to be terminally differentiated; nonetheless, a small fraction of cardiac myocytes have been shown to replicate during ventricular remodeling. However, the expression of Replication Factor C (RFC; RFC140/40/38/37/36) and DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) proteins, which are required for DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, in the adult normal and hypertrophied hearts has been rarely studied. Methods We performed qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis to determine the levels of RFC and Pol δ message and proteins in the adult normal cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, as well as in adult normal and pulmonary arterial hypertension induced right ventricular hypertrophied hearts. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine the localization of the re-expressed DNA replication and cell cycle proteins in adult normal (control) and hypertrophied right ventricle. We determined right ventricular cardiac myocyte polyploidy and chromosomal missegregation/aneuploidy using Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for rat chromosome 12. Results RFC40-mRNA and protein was undetectable, whereas Pol δ message was detectable in the cardiac myocytes isolated from control adult hearts. Although RFC40 and Pol δ message and protein significantly increased in hypertrophied hearts as compared to the control hearts; however, this increase was marginal as compared to the fetal hearts. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that in addition to RFC40, proliferative and mitotic markers such as cyclin A, phospho-Aurora A/B/C kinase and phospho-histone 3 were also re-expressed/up-regulated simultaneously in the cardiac myocytes. Interestingly, FISH analyses demonstrated cardiac myocytes polyploidy and chromosomal missegregation/aneuploidy in these hearts. Knock-down of endogenous RFC40 caused chromosomal missegregation/aneuploidy and decrease in the rat neonatal cardiac myocyte numbers. Conclusion Our novel findings

  2. Nitric oxide: a regulator of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinases.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lingying; Heim, Rachel A; Wu, Shiyong

    2011-06-15

    Generation of nitric oxide (NO(•)) can upstream induce and downstream mediate the kinases that phosphorylate the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), which plays a critical role in regulating gene expression. There are four known eIF2α kinases (EIF2AKs), and NO(•) affects each one uniquely. Whereas NO(•) directly activates EIF2AK1 (HRI), it indirectly activates EIF2AK3 (PERK). EIF2AK4 (GCN2) is activated by depletion of l-arginine, which is used by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during the production of NO(•). Finally EIF2AK2 (PKR), which can mediate inducible NOS expression and therefore NO(•) production, can also be activated by NO(•). The production of NO(•) and activation of EIF2AKs coordinately regulate physiological and pathological events such as innate immune response and cell apoptosis. PMID:21463677

  3. The Regulatory Role of Activating Transcription Factor 2 in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tao; Li, Yong Jun; Bian, Ai Hong; Zuo, Hui Bin; Zhu, Ti Wen; Ji, Sheng Xiang; Kong, Fanming; Yin, De Qing; Wang, Chuan Bao; Wang, Zi Fu; Wang, Hong Qun; Yang, Yanyan; Yoo, Byong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins and is widely distributed in tissues including the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. Like c-Jun and c-Fos, ATF2 responds to stress-related stimuli and may thereby influence cell proliferation, inflammation, apoptosis, oncogenesis, neurological development and function, and skeletal remodeling. Recent studies clarify the regulatory role of ATF2 in inflammation and describe potential inhibitors of this protein. In this paper, we summarize the properties and functions of ATF2 and explore potential applications of ATF2 inhibitors as tools for research and for the development of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:25049453

  4. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 is a major determinant of bile acid homeostasis in the liver and intestine

    PubMed Central

    Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Mennone, Albert; Soroka, Carol J.; Harry, Kathy; Hagey, Lee R.; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator for induction of hepatic detoxification and antioxidant mechanisms, as well as for certain hepatobiliary transporters. To examine the role of Nrf2 in bile acid homeostasis and cholestasis, we assessed the determinants of bile secretion and bile acid synthesis and transport before and after bile duct ligation (BDL) in Nrf2−/− mice. Our findings indicate reduced rates of biliary bile acid and GSH excretion, higher levels of intrahepatic bile acids, and decreased expression of regulators of bile acid synthesis, Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1, in Nrf2−/− compared with wild-type control mice. The mRNA expression of the bile acid transporters bile salt export pump (Bsep) and organic solute transporter (Ostα) were increased in the face of impaired expression of the multidrug resistance-associated proteins Mrp3 and Mrp4. Deletion of Nrf2 also decreased ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) expression, leading to reduced bile acid reabsorption and increased loss of bile acid in feces. Finally, when cholestasis is induced by BDL, liver injury was not different from that in wild-type BDL mice. These Nrf2−/− mice also had increased pregnane X receptor (Pxr) and Cyp3a11 mRNA expression in association with enhanced hepatic bile acid hydroxylation. In conclusion, this study finds that Nrf2 plays a major role in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis in the liver and intestine. Deletion of Nrf2 results in a cholestatic phenotype but does not augment liver injury following BDL. PMID:22345550

  5. Apoptosis and the systolic dysfunction in congestive heart failure. Story of apoptosis interruptus and zombie myocytes.

    PubMed

    Narula, J; Arbustini, E; Chandrashekhar, Y; Schwaiger, M

    2001-02-01

    Although previously it was believed that apoptosis could not occur in the terminally differentiated tissue, such as adult heart muscle cells, recent studies in endomyocardial biopsies from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and in explanted hearts from patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing cardiac transplantation have demonstrated histologic evidence of apoptosis. Whereas neurohormonal activation during heart failure leads to compensatory hemodynamic alterations, coupled with ventricular dilatation, it induces transcription factors and myocyte hypertrophy. Persistent growth stimulation in terminally differentiated cells may lead paradoxically to apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis in cardiomyopathic hearts is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm and activation of proteolytic caspase-8 and -3. Although the caspases are duly processed, the fragmentation of the nuclear proteins (including DNA) is completed less frequently, and only a variable degree of fragmentation of cytoplasmic proteins (including contractile proteins) is observed. It is hypothesized that release of cytochrome c from mitochondria should interfere with energy production and lead to functional impairment and variable loss of contractile proteins in a living heart muscle cell should contribute to systolic dysfunction. Because a nuclear blueprint is retained, however, the dysfunctional cell may continue to exist and in favorable conditions, such as with LVAD support, the apoptotic process may subside. Potential feasibility of reversal of heart failure should renew efforts to develop more targeted pharmaceutical intervention within the apoptotic cascade and allow newer paradigm for the management of heart failure. PMID:11787805

  6. The uterine myocyte as a target for prevention of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, B.F.; Aguilar, H.N.; Mosher, A.; Wood, S.; Slater, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) remains the most common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as long-term disability. Current strategies to prevent or arrest spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL) have limited success. For almost three decades, there have been no novel pharmacological agents used clinically to address this important obstetrical complication. In this review, we focus on the uterine myocyte as a target for prevention of spontaneous PTB. After presenting an overview of intracellular signaling pathways that are important in regulation of smooth muscle contractility, we discuss previous and current pharmacological approaches to manage SPTL. We also present recent evidence from our own laboratories suggesting a potentially novel and uterine-specific approach to maintain or impose uterine relaxation. Finally, we briefly discuss extrinsic systems that might affect uterine activity and reinforce the concept that SPTL represents a syndrome that is the end result of a variety of pathophysiologic etiologies leading to PTB. We conclude by emphasizing the need for much more research to provide sufficient understanding of the mechanisms of SPTL and to make inroads towards reducing the incidence and adverse consequences of this common and serious syndrome. PMID:24753931

  7. Extracellular allosteric Na(+) binding to the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A S; Karimi, Keyvan; Liu, Chia-chi; Apell, Hans-Jürgen; Rasmussen, Helge H; Clarke, Ronald J

    2013-12-17

    Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of the current, Ip, produced by the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase across the plasma membrane of rabbit cardiac myocytes show an increase in Ip over the extracellular Na(+) concentration range 0-50 mM. This is not predicted by the classical Albers-Post scheme of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase mechanism, where extracellular Na(+) should act as a competitive inhibitor of extracellular K(+) binding, which is necessary for the stimulation of enzyme dephosphorylation and the pumping of K(+) ions into the cytoplasm. The increase in Ip is consistent with Na(+) binding to an extracellular allosteric site, independent of the ion transport sites, and an increase in turnover via an acceleration of the rate-determining release of K(+) to the cytoplasm, E2(K(+))2 → E1 + 2K(+). At normal physiological concentrations of extracellular Na(+) of 140 mM, it is to be expected that binding of Na(+) to the allosteric site would be nearly saturated. Its purpose would seem to be simply to optimize the enzyme's ion pumping rate under its normal physiological conditions. Based on published crystal structures, a possible location of the allosteric site is within a cleft between the α- and β-subunits of the enzyme. PMID:24359741

  8. Orientation and length of mammalian skeletal myocytes in response to a unidirectional stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinsworth, A. M.; Torgan, C. E.; Nagda, S. N.; Rajalingam, R. J.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of mechanical forces exerted on mammalian skeletal muscle cells during development were studied using an in vitro model to unidirectionally stretch cultured C2C12 cells grown on silastic membrane. Previous models to date have not studied these responses of the mammalian system specifically. The silastic membrane upon which these cells were grown exhibited linear strain behavior over the range of 3.6-14.6% strain, with a Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.5. To mimic murine in utero long bone growth, cell substrates were stretched at an average strain rate of 2.36%/day for 4 days or 1.77%/day for 6 days with an overall membrane strain of 9.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Both control and stretched fibers stained positively for the contractile protein, alpha-actinin, demonstrating muscle fiber development. An effect of stretch on orientation and length of myofibers was observed. At both strain rates, stretched fibers aligned at a smaller angle relative to the direction of stretch and were significantly longer compared to randomly oriented control fibers. There was no effect of duration of stretch on orientation or length, suggesting the cellular responses are independent of strain rate for the range tested. These results demonstrate that, under conditions simulating mammalian long bone growth, cultured myocytes respond to mechanical forces by lengthening and orienting along the direction of stretch.

  9. Ionic currents during sustained pacemaker activity in rabbit sino-atrial myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zaza, A; Micheletti, M; Brioschi, A; Rocchetti, M

    1997-01-01

    1. The contribution of various ionic currents to diastolic depolarization (DD) in rabbit sinoatrial myocytes was evaluated by the action potential clamp technique. Individual currents were identified, during sustained pacemaking activity reproduced under voltage clamp conditions, according to their sensitivity to specific channel blockers. 2. The current sensitive to dihydropyridines (DHPs), blockers of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L), was small and outward during most of DD. Diastolic DHP-sensitive current was affected by changes in the driving force for K+, but it was insensitive to E-4031, which blocks the current termed IK,r; it was abolished by cell dialysis with a Ca2+ chelator. 3. The current sensitive to 2 mM Cs+ (ICs), a blocker of hyperpolarization-activated current (I(f)), was inward during the whole DD and it was substantially larger than the net inward current flowing during this phase. However, diastolic IK,r, identified in the same cells as the current sensitive to the blocker E-4031, exceeded ICs 2-fold. 4. These findings suggest that: (a) Ca2+ influx during the pacemaker cycle increases a K+ conductance, thus inverting the direction of the net current generated by L-type Ca2+ channel activity during DD; (b) the magnitude of I(f) would be adequate to account fully for DD; however, the coexistence of a larger IK,r suggests that other channels besides I(f) contribute inward current during this phase. PMID:9457645

  10. Oxytocin does not directly alter cardiac repolarization in rabbit or human cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yusheng; Fang, Mei; Gao, BaoXi; Amagasu, Shanti; Crumb, William J; Vargas, Hugo M

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin, a nine amino acid peptide, is highly conserved in placental mammals, including humans. Oxytocin has a physiological role in parturition and parenteral administration of the synthetic peptide is used to induce labor and control postpartum hemorrhage. Endogenous levels of oxytocin before labor are ∼20 pg/mL, but pharmacological administration of the peptide can achieve levels of 110 pg/mL (0.1 nmol/L) following intravenous administration. Cardiac arrhythmia and premature ventricular contractions have been associated with oxytocin administration in addition to QTc interval prolongation. In the conscious rabbit model, intravenous oxytocin produced QT and QTc prolongation. The mechanism of oxytocin-induced QTc prolongation is uncertain but could be the result of indirect changes in autonomic nervous tone, or a direct effect on the duration of cardiomyocyte repolarization. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of oxytocin to alter cardiac repolarization directly. Two conventional models were used: QTc interval evaluation in the isolated rabbit heart (IRH) and assessment of action potential duration (APD) in human ventricular myocytes (HVM). Oxytocin did not prolong QTc intervals in IRH or APD in HVM when tested at suprapharmacological concentrations, for example, up to 1 μmol/L. The results indicate that oxytocin has very low risk for eliciting QTc and APD prolongation directly, and infer that the QTc changes observed in vivo may be attributed to an indirect mechanism. PMID:25692020

  11. 5-azacytidine promotes the transdifferentiation of cardiac cells to skeletal myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Keerat; Yang, Jinpu; Eisenberg, Carol A; Eisenberg, Leonard M

    2014-10-01

    The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine is widely used to stimulate the cardiac differentiation of stem cells. However, 5-azacytidine has long been employed as a tool for stimulating skeletal myogenesis. Yet, it is unclear whether the ability of 5-azacytidine to promote both cardiac and skeletal myogenesis is dependent strictly on the native potential of the starting cell population or if this drug is a transdifferentiation agent. To address this issue, we examined the effect of 5-azacytidine on cultures of adult mouse atrial tissue, which contains cardiac but not skeletal muscle progenitors. Exposure to 5-azacytidine caused atrial cells to elongate and increased the presence of fat globules within the cultures. 5-Azacytidine also induced expression of the skeletal myogenic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin. 5-Azacytidine pretreatments allowed atrial cells to undergo adipogenesis or skeletal myogenesis when subsequently cultured with either insulin and dexamethasone or low-serum media, respectively. The presence of skeletal myocytes in atrial cultures was indicated by dual staining for myogenin and sarcomeric α-actin. These data demonstrate that 5-azacytidine converts cardiac cells to noncardiac cell types and suggests that this drug has a compromised efficacy as a cardiac differentiation factor. PMID:25090621

  12. Comparison of Detailed and Simplified Models of Human Atrial Myocytes to Recapitulate Patient Specific Properties.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Daniel M; Fenton, Flavio H; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-08-01

    Computer studies are often used to study mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF). A crucial component in these studies is the electrophysiological model that describes the membrane potential of myocytes. The models vary from detailed, describing numerous ion channels, to simplified, grouping ionic channels into a minimal set of variables. The parameters of these models, however, are determined across different experiments in varied species. Furthermore, a single set of parameters may not describe variations across patients, and models have rarely been shown to recapitulate critical features of AF in a given patient. In this study we develop physiologically accurate computational human atrial models by fitting parameters of a detailed and of a simplified model to clinical data for five patients undergoing ablation therapy. Parameters were simultaneously fitted to action potential (AP) morphology, action potential duration (APD) restitution and conduction velocity (CV) restitution curves in these patients. For both models, our fitting procedure generated parameter sets that accurately reproduced clinical data, but differed markedly from published sets and between patients, emphasizing the need for patient-specific adjustment. Both models produced two-dimensional spiral wave dynamics for that were similar for each patient. These results show that simplified, computationally efficient models are an attractive choice for simulations of human atrial electrophysiology in spatially extended domains. This study motivates the development and validation of patient-specific model-based mechanistic studies to target therapy. PMID:27494252

  13. Comparison of Detailed and Simplified Models of Human Atrial Myocytes to Recapitulate Patient Specific Properties

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Flavio H.; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Computer studies are often used to study mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF). A crucial component in these studies is the electrophysiological model that describes the membrane potential of myocytes. The models vary from detailed, describing numerous ion channels, to simplified, grouping ionic channels into a minimal set of variables. The parameters of these models, however, are determined across different experiments in varied species. Furthermore, a single set of parameters may not describe variations across patients, and models have rarely been shown to recapitulate critical features of AF in a given patient. In this study we develop physiologically accurate computational human atrial models by fitting parameters of a detailed and of a simplified model to clinical data for five patients undergoing ablation therapy. Parameters were simultaneously fitted to action potential (AP) morphology, action potential duration (APD) restitution and conduction velocity (CV) restitution curves in these patients. For both models, our fitting procedure generated parameter sets that accurately reproduced clinical data, but differed markedly from published sets and between patients, emphasizing the need for patient-specific adjustment. Both models produced two-dimensional spiral wave dynamics for that were similar for each patient. These results show that simplified, computationally efficient models are an attractive choice for simulations of human atrial electrophysiology in spatially extended domains. This study motivates the development and validation of patient-specific model-based mechanistic studies to target therapy. PMID:27494252

  14. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; So, Kawai; Koh, Ho-Jin; Queiroz, André Lima; Hirshman, Michael F; Fielding, Roger A; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-related kinase (SNARK, also known as NUAK2), increased with muscle cell differentiation. SNARK expression increased in skeletal muscles from young mice exposed to metabolic stress and in muscles from healthy older human subjects. The regulation of SNARK expression in muscle with differentiation and physiological stress suggests that SNARK may function in the maintenance of muscle mass. Consistent with this hypothesis, decreased endogenous SNARK expression (using siRNA) in cultured muscle cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cell survival under conditions of metabolic stress. Likewise, muscle-specific transgenic animals expressing a SNARK dominant-negative inactive mutant (SDN) had increased myonuclear apoptosis and activation of apoptotic mediators in muscle. Moreover, animals expressing SDN had severe, age-accelerated muscle atrophy and increased adiposity, consistent with sarcopenic obesity. Reduced SNARK activity, in vivo and in vitro, caused downregulation of the Rho kinase signaling pathway, a key mediator of cell survival. These findings reveal a critical role for SNARK in myocyte survival and the maintenance of muscle mass with age. PMID:26690705

  15. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; So, Kawai; Koh, Ho-Jin; Queiroz, André Lima; Hirshman, Michael F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-related kinase (SNARK, also known as NUAK2), increased with muscle cell differentiation. SNARK expression increased in skeletal muscles from young mice exposed to metabolic stress and in muscles from healthy older human subjects. The regulation of SNARK expression in muscle with differentiation and physiological stress suggests that SNARK may function in the maintenance of muscle mass. Consistent with this hypothesis, decreased endogenous SNARK expression (using siRNA) in cultured muscle cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cell survival under conditions of metabolic stress. Likewise, muscle-specific transgenic animals expressing a SNARK dominant-negative inactive mutant (SDN) had increased myonuclear apoptosis and activation of apoptotic mediators in muscle. Moreover, animals expressing SDN had severe, age-accelerated muscle atrophy and increased adiposity, consistent with sarcopenic obesity. Reduced SNARK activity, in vivo and in vitro, caused downregulation of the Rho kinase signaling pathway, a key mediator of cell survival. These findings reveal a critical role for SNARK in myocyte survival and the maintenance of muscle mass with age. PMID:26690705

  16. Frataxin deficiency in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes targets mitochondria and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Obis, Èlia; Irazusta, Verónica; Sanchís, Daniel; Ros, Joaquim; Tamarit, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a hereditary disease caused by deficient frataxin expression. This mitochondrial protein has been related to iron homeostasis, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. Patients with FRDA experience neurologic alterations and cardiomyopathy, which is the leading cause of death. The specific effects of frataxin depletion on cardiomyocytes are poorly understood because no appropriate cardiac cellular model is available to researchers. To address this research need, we present a model based on primary cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and short-hairpin RNA interference. Using this approach, frataxin was reduced down to 5 to 30% of control protein levels after 7 days of transduction. At this stage the activity and amount of the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, in vitro activities of several OXPHOS components, levels of iron-regulated mRNAs, and the ATP/ADP ratio were comparable to controls. However, NRVMs exhibited markers of oxidative stress and a disorganized mitochondrial network with enlarged mitochondria. Lipids, the main energy source of heart cells, also underwent a clear metabolic change, indicated by the increased presence of lipid droplets and induction of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. These results indicate that mitochondria and lipid metabolism are primary targets of frataxin deficiency in NRVMs. Therefore, they contribute to the understanding of cardiac-specific mechanisms occurring in FRDA and give clues for the design of cardiac-specific treatment strategies for FRDA. PMID:24751525

  17. Curvature effects on activation speed and repolarization in an ionic model of cardiac myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comtois, P.; Vinet, A.

    1999-10-01

    Reentry is a major mechanism underlying the initiation and perpetuation of many cardiac arrhythmias 12345. Stimulated ventricular myocytes give action potential characterized by a fast upstroke, a long-lasting plateau, and a late repolarization phase. The plateau phase determines the action potential duration (APD) during which the system remains refractory, a property essential to the synchronization of the heart cycle. The APD varies much with prematurity and this change has been shown to be the main determinant of the dynamics in models of paced cells and cable, and during reentry in the one-dimensional loop. Curvature has also been shown to be an important factor for propagation in experimental and theoretical cardiac extended tissue. The objective of this paper is to combine both curvature and prematurity effects in a kinematical model of propagation in cardiac tissue. First, an approximation of the ionic model is used to obtain the effects of curvature and prematurity on the speed of propagation, the APD, and the absolute refractory period. Two versions of the ionic model are studied that differ in their rate of excitability recovery. The functions are used in a kinematical model describing the propagation of period-1 solutions around an annulus.

  18. Oxytocin does not directly alter cardiac repolarization in rabbit or human cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yusheng; Fang, Mei; Gao, BaoXi; Amagasu, Shanti; Crumb, William J; Vargas, Hugo M

    2015-02-01

    Oxytocin, a nine amino acid peptide, is highly conserved in placental mammals, including humans. Oxytocin has a physiological role in parturition and parenteral administration of the synthetic peptide is used to induce labor and control postpartum hemorrhage. Endogenous levels of oxytocin before labor are ∼20 pg/mL, but pharmacological administration of the peptide can achieve levels of 110 pg/mL (0.1 nmol/L) following intravenous administration. Cardiac arrhythmia and premature ventricular contractions have been associated with oxytocin administration in addition to QTc interval prolongation. In the conscious rabbit model, intravenous oxytocin produced QT and QTc prolongation. The mechanism of oxytocin-induced QTc prolongation is uncertain but could be the result of indirect changes in autonomic nervous tone, or a direct effect on the duration of cardiomyocyte repolarization. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of oxytocin to alter cardiac repolarization directly. Two conventional models were used: QTc interval evaluation in the isolated rabbit heart (IRH) and assessment of action potential duration (APD) in human ventricular myocytes (HVM). Oxytocin did not prolong QTc intervals in IRH or APD in HVM when tested at suprapharmacological concentrations, for example, up to 1 μmol/L. The results indicate that oxytocin has very low risk for eliciting QTc and APD prolongation directly, and infer that the QTc changes observed in vivo may be attributed to an indirect mechanism. PMID:25692020

  19. Simultaneous measurement of Ca2+, contraction, and potential in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, H A; Stern, M D; Baartz, G; Raffaeli, S; Hansford, R G; Talo, A; Lakatta, E G; Capogrossi, M C

    1990-02-01

    A system is described that can simultaneously record cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), cell length, and either membrane potential or current in single cardiac myocytes loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator indo-1. Fluorescence is excited by epi-illumination with 3.8-microsecond flashes of 350 +/- 5 nm light from a xenon arc. Indo-1 fluoresence is measured simultaneously in spectral windows of 391-434 nm and 457-507 nm, and the ratio of indo-1 emission in the two bands is computed as a measure of [Ca2+]i for each flash. With cells loaded with the permeant acetoxymethyl ester of indo-1, quantitation of [Ca2+]i is not precise, owing to subcellular compartmentation of indo-1; however, the instrument would allow full quantitation if indo-1 free acid was introduced by microinjection. Simultaneously, cell length is measured on-line from the bright-field image of the cell. Because fluorescence collection is time gated during the brief flash, and red light (650-750 nm) is used for the bright-field image, cell length and [Ca2+]i measurements are obtained simultaneously without cross talk. Membrane potential or current can be recorded simultaneously with indo-1 fluorescence and cell length via standard patch-clamping techniques. PMID:2309919

  20. The Multi-Domain Fibroblast/Myocyte Coupling in the Cardiac Tissue: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Greisas, Ariel; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac fibroblast proliferation and concomitant collagenous matrix accumulation (fibrosis) develop during multiple cardiac pathologies. Recent studies have demonstrated direct electrical coupling between myocytes and fibroblasts in vitro, and assessed the electrophysiological implications of such coupling. However, in the living tissues, such coupling has not been demonstrated, and only indirect coupling via the extracellular space is likely to exist. In this study we employed a multi-domain model to assess the modulation of the cardiac electrophysiological properties by neighboring fibroblasts assuming only indirect coupling. Numerical simulations in 1D and 2D human atrial models showed that extracellular coupling sustains a significant impact on conduction velocity (CV) and a less significant effect on the action potential duration. Both CV and the slope of the CV restitution increased with increasing fibroblast density. This effect was more substantial for lower extracellular conductance. In 2D, spiral waves exhibited reduced frequency with increasing fibroblast density, and the propensity of wavebreaks and complex dynamics at high pacing rates significantly increased. PMID:27150222

  1. Electrotonic suppression of early afterdepolarizations in the neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Himel, Herman D; Garny, Alan; Noble, Penelope J; Wadgoankar, Raj; Savarese, Joseph; Liu, Nian; Bub, Gil; El-Sherif, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Pathologies that result in early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are a known trigger for tachyarrhythmias, but the conditions that cause surrounding tissue to conduct or suppress EADs are poorly understood. Here we introduce a cell culture model of EAD propagation consisting of monolayers of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes treated with anthopleurin-A (AP-A). AP-A-treated monolayers display a cycle length dependent prolongation of action potential duration (245 ms untreated, vs. 610 ms at 1 Hz and 1200 ms at 0.5 Hz for AP-A-treated monolayers). In contrast, isolated single cells treated with AP-A develop prominent irregular oscillations with a frequency of 2.5 Hz, and a variable prolongation of the action potential duration of up to several seconds. To investigate whether electrotonic interactions between coupled cells modulates EAD formation, cell connectivity was reduced by RNA silencing gap junction Cx43. In contrast to well-connected monolayers, gap junction silenced monolayers display bradycardia-dependent plateau oscillations consistent with EADs. Further, simulations of a cell displaying EADs electrically connected to a cell with normal action potentials show a coupling strength-dependent suppression of EADs consistent with the experimental results. These results suggest that electrotonic effects may play a critical role in EAD-mediated arrhythmogenesis. PMID:24018945

  2. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in myocytes and chromaffin cells of the heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T H; Helle, K B; Saetersdal, T

    1994-07-01

    The heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, was examined for immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) as markers for hormone secreting myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively. Specific antibodies raised against rat alpha-ANP and rat D beta H were used for immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. D beta H-immunoreactive cells were restricted to subendocardial areas of the atrium whereas ANP immunoreactivity occurred throughout both the atrial and the ventricular myocardium, showing particularly strong staining intensity in the atrial myocytes. The granular ANP immunostaining in the atrial myocytes was frequently accumulated in the sarcoplasm. In the ventricular myocytes ANP immunoreactivity occurred as scattered granular staining throughout the sarcoplasm. ANP and D beta H immunofluorescence staining coincided with the presence of immunoreactive specific granules and secretory vesicles in the cardiac myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively, as revealed by electron microscopy. The number of ANP-containing specific granules was generally high in the atrial myocytes, and they were frequently observed in clusters in subsarcolemmal areas. Granular frequency was considerably lower and the mean granular diameter was smaller (0.142 +/- 0.045 micron versus 0.213 +/- 0.049 micron) in the ventricular than in the atrial myocytes. The present results indicate that ANP and D beta H are phylogenetically highly conserved proteins from the dipnoi to the rat. The large amounts of ANP and of specific granules are consistent with an endocrine myocardium in the Protopterus heart. The presence of D beta H and secretory vesicles in the subendocardial chromaffin cells of the atrium suggests a local production of catecholamines from dopamine in the heart of this dipnoan. PMID:7926645

  3. Enhanced effect of fibroblast growth factor-2-containing dalteparin/protamine nanoparticles on hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Takabayashi, Yuki; Nambu, Masaki; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kuwabara, Masahiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Hattori, Hidemi; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although treatments for alopecia are in high demand, not all treatments are safe and reliable. Dalteparin/protamine nanoparticles (D/P NPs) can effectively carry growth factors (GFs) such as fibroblast GF (FGF)-2. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of FGF-2-containing D/P NPs (FGF-2&D/P NPs) on hair growth. Patients and methods In this study, the participants were 12 volunteers with thin hair. One milliliter of FGF-2 (100 ng/mL) and D/P NPs (56 μg/mL) was applied and massaged on the skin of the scalp by the participants twice a day. They were evaluated for 6 months. Participants were photographed using a digital camera for general observation and a hair diagnosis system for measuring hair diameter. Results The mean diameter of the hairs was significantly higher following the application of FGF-2&D/P NPs for 6 months. Objective improvements in thin hair were observed in two cases. Nine participants experienced greater bounce and hair resilience. Conclusion The transdermal application of FGF-2&D/P NPs to the scalp can be used as a new treatment for alopecia. PMID:27274299

  4. Contribution of phosphodiesterase isozymes to the regulation of the L-type calcium current in human cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Kasanuki, Hiroshi; Hosoda, Saichi

    1997-01-01

    To determine the contribution of the various phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes to the regulation of the L-type calcium current (ICa(L)) in the human myocardium, we investigated the effect of selective and non-selective PDE inhibitors on ICa(L) in single human atrial cells by use of the whole-cell patch-clamp method. We repeated some experiments in rabbit atrial myocytes, to make a species comparison. In human atrial cells, 100 μM pimobendan increased ICa(L) (evoked by depolarization to +10 mV from a holding potential of −40 mV) by 250.4±45.0% (n=15), with the concentration for half-maximal stimulation (EC50) being 1.13 μM. ICa(L) was increased by 100 μM UD-CG 212 by 174.5±30.2% (n=10) with an EC50 value of 1.78 μM in human atrial cells. These two agents inhibit PDE III selectively. A selective PDE IV inhibitor, rolipram (1–100 μM), did not itself affect ICa(L) in human atrial cells. However, 100 μM rolipram significantly enhanced the effect of 100 μM UD-CG 212 on ICa(L) (increase with UD-CG 212 alone, 167.9±33.9, n=5; increase with the two agents together, 270.0±52.2%; n=5, P<0.05). Rolipram also enhanced isoprenaline (5 nM)-stimulated ICa(L) by 52.9±9.3% (n=5) in human atrial cells. In rabbit atrial cells, ICa(L) at +10 mV was increased by 22.1±9.0% by UD-CG 212 (n=10) and by 67.4±12.0% (n=10) by pimobendan (each at 100 μM). These values were significantly lower than those obtained in human atrial cells (P<0.0001). Rolipram (1–100 μM) did not itself affect ICa(L) in rabbit atrial cells. However, ICa(L) was increased by 215.7±65.2% (n=10) by the combination of 100 μM UD-CG 212 and 100 μM rolipram. This value was almost 10 times larger than that obtained for the effect of 100 μM UD-CG 212 alone. These results imply a species difference: in the human atrium, the PDE III isoform seems dominant, whereas PDE IV may be more important in the rabbit atrium for regulating ICa(L). However, PDE IV might contribute

  5. Role of upstream stimulatory factor 2 in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuxia

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). About 20%–30% of people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes develop DN. DN is characterized by both glomerulosclerosis with thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix expansion, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Hyperglycemia and the activation of the intra-renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in diabetes have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of DN. However, the mechanisms are not well known. Studies from our laboratory demonstrated that the transcription factor—upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) is an important regulator of DN. Moreover, the renin gene is a downstream target of USF2. Importantly, USF2 transgenic (Tg) mice demonstrate a specific increase in renal renin expression and angiotensin II (AngII) levels in kidney and exhibit increased urinary albumin excretion and extracellular matrix deposition in glomeruli, supporting a role for USF2 in the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we summarize our findings of the mechanisms by which diabetes regulates USF2 in kidney cells and its role in regulation of renal renin-angiotensin system and the development of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26494984

  6. Phophatidylinositol-3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K regulates contractile protein accumulation in airway myocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Halayko, Andrew J; Kartha, Sreedharan; Stelmack, Gerald L; McConville, John; Tam, John; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Forsythe, Sean M; Hershenson, Marc B; Solway, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle in airway remodeling results from myocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Skeletal and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy is induced by phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI(3) kinase) via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). We tested the hypothesis that this pathway regulates contractile protein accumulation in cultured canine airway myocytes acquiring an elongated contractile phenotype in serum-free culture. In vitro assays revealed a sustained activation of PI(3) kinase and p70S6K during serum deprivation up to 12 d, with concomitant accumulation of SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) proteins. Immunocytochemistry revealed that activation of PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K occurred almost exclusively in myocytes that acquire the contractile phenotype. Inhibition of PI(3) kinase or mTOR with LY294002 or rapamycin blocked p70S6K activation, prevented formation of large elongated contractile phenotype myocytes, and blocked accumulation of SM22 and smMHC. Inhibition of MEK had no effect. Steady-state mRNA abundance for SM22 and smMHC was unaffected by blocking p70S6K activation. These studies provide primary evidence that PI(3) kinase and mTOR activate p70S6K in airway myocytes leading to the accumulation of contractile apparatus proteins, differentiation, and growth of large, elongated contractile phenotype airway smooth muscle cells. PMID:15105162

  7. Tribulosin suppresses apoptosis via PKC epsilon and ERK1/2 signaling pathway during hypoxia/reoxygenation in neonatal rat ventricular cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2011-12-01

    Tribulosin (tigogenin 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl (1-3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside), a component of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris, has been shown to produce cytoprotective effects in heart. Yet, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the mechanisms of tribulosin on myocardial protection. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from the heart of neonatal rats and were exposed to 3 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h reoxygenation. Apoptosis was induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), and the expression of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCϵ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes was detected. The results indicated that treatment with tribulosin in the culture medium protected cardiac myocytes against apoptosis induced by H/R. PKCϵ and ERK1/2 expression increased after pretreated with tribulosin. In the presence of PKCϵ inhibitor co-treated with tribulosin, the expression of ERK1/2 was decreased in H/R cardiac myocytes. While preconditioned with PD98059, ERK1/2 inhibitor, no effects on the expression of PKCϵ were detected. Tribulosin has protective effects on cardiac myocytes against apoptosis induced by H/R injury via PKCϵ and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:22115037

  8. Proteome- and transcriptome-driven reconstruction of the human myocyte metabolic network and its use for identification of markers for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Väremo, Leif; Scheele, Camilla; Broholm, Christa; Mardinoglu, Adil; Kampf, Caroline; Asplund, Anna; Nookaew, Intawat; Uhlén, Mathias; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-05-12

    Skeletal myocytes are metabolically active and susceptible to insulin resistance and are thus implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This complex disease involves systemic metabolic changes, and their elucidation at the systems level requires genome-wide data and biological networks. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide a network context for the integration of high-throughput data. We generated myocyte-specific RNA-sequencing data and investigated their correlation with proteome data. These data were then used to reconstruct a comprehensive myocyte GEM. Next, we performed a meta-analysis of six studies comparing muscle transcription in T2D versus healthy subjects. Transcriptional changes were mapped on the myocyte GEM, revealing extensive transcriptional regulation in T2D, particularly around pyruvate oxidation, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and tetrahydrofolate metabolism, connected through the downregulated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Strikingly, the gene signature underlying this metabolic regulation successfully classifies the disease state of individual samples, suggesting that regulation of these pathways is a ubiquitous feature of myocytes in response to T2D. PMID:25937284

  9. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kakudo, Natsuko . E-mail: kakudon@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Shimotsuma, Ayuko; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2007-07-27

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration.

  10. A human ventricular myocyte model with a refined representation of excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Himeno, Yukiko; Asakura, Keiichi; Cha, Chae Young; Memida, Hiraku; Powell, Trevor; Amano, Akira; Noma, Akinori

    2015-07-21

    Cardiac Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) occurs by a regenerative activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) within each Ca(2+)-releasing unit, triggered by the activation of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LCCs). CICR is then terminated, most probably by depletion of Ca(2+) in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Hinch et al. previously developed a tightly coupled LCC-RyR mathematical model, known as the Hinch model, that enables simulations to deal with a variety of functional states of whole-cell populations of a Ca(2+)-releasing unit using a personal computer. In this study, we developed a membrane excitation-contraction model of the human ventricular myocyte, which we call the human ventricular cell (HuVEC) model. This model is a hybrid of the most recent HuVEC models and the Hinch model. We modified the Hinch model to reproduce the regenerative activation and termination of CICR. In particular, we removed the inactivated RyR state and separated the single step of RyR activation by LCCs into triggering and regenerative steps. More importantly, we included the experimental measurement of a transient rise in Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)], 10-15 μM) during CICR in the vicinity of Ca(2+)-releasing sites, and thereby calculated the effects of the local Ca(2+) gradient on CICR as well as membrane excitation. This HuVEC model successfully reconstructed both membrane excitation and key properties of CICR. The time course of CICR evoked by an action potential was accounted for by autonomous changes in an instantaneous equilibrium open probability of couplons. This autonomous time course was driven by a core feedback loop including the pivotal local [Ca(2+)], influenced by a time-dependent decay in the SR Ca(2+) content during CICR. PMID:26200878

  11. Effects of trimebutine maleate on delayed rectifier K+ currents in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, T; Hasegawa, J; Tanabe, K; Watanabe, A; Kitano, M; Kishimoto, Y

    2000-04-01

    The effects of trimebutine maleate, a drug commonly used to regulate motility in the gastrointestinal tract, on the delayed rectifier K+ current (I(K)) were evaluated in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes to determine whether the drug has a proarrhythmic effect through blockade of I(K). Trimebutine decreased I(K) in a concentration-dependent manner. To investigate the effects of trimebutine on two components of I(K) (I(Kr) and I(Ks); rapidly activated and slowly activated components, respectively), we performed the envelope-of-tails test. Trimebutine-sensitive I(K) was determined by digital subtraction of I(K) during exposure to trimebutine from control I(K) for each duration of the test pulse over the range 50 ms-2 s. The ratio of deltaI(K,tail)/deltaI(K) plotted against pulse duration for trimebutine-sensitive I(K) gradually decreased to a steady-state value as the duration of the test pulse was lengthened. This finding suggested a weak inhibitory effect of trimebutine on both I(Kr) and I(Ks). The effects of trimebutine on the inward rectifier K+ current (I(K1)) responsible for the resting potential and final repolarization phase of the action potential were investigated by applying voltage clamp ramps over a broad range of potentials. No significant effects were observed at 10 or 100 microM. We next investigated the effects of the drug on the L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)). Significant inhibition of I(Ca) was observed at trimebutine concentrations greater than 10 microM. These results suggested that trimebutine maleate has weak inhibitory effects on I(Kr), I(Ks) and I(Ca) at concentrations much higher than those in clinical use. PMID:10813550

  12. Instabilities of the resting state in a mathematical model of calcium handling in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tveito, Aslak; Lines, Glenn Terje; Hake, Johan; Edwards, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a recently published model of calcium handling in cardiac myocytes in order to find conditions for the presence of instabilities in the resting state of the model. Such instabilities can create calcium waves which in turn may be able to initiate cardiac arrhythmias. The model was developed by Swietach, Spitzer and Vaughan-Jones [1] in order to study the effect, on calcium waves, of varying ryanodine receptor (RyR)-permeability, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) and calcium diffusion. We study the model using the extracellular calcium concentration ce and the maximal velocity of the SERCA-pump vSERCA as control parameters. In the (ce, vSERCA)-domain we derive an explicit function v* = v*(ce), and we claim that any resting state based on parameters that lie above the curve (i.e. any pair (ce, vSERCA) such that with vSERCA > v*(ce)) is unstable in the sense that small perturbations will grow and can eventually turn into a calcium wave. And conversely; any pair (ce, vSERCA) below the curve is stable in the sense that small perturbations to the resting state will decay to rest. This claim is supported by analyzing the stability of the system in terms of computing the eigenmodes of the linearized model. Furthermore, the claim is supported by direct simulations based on the non-linear model. Since the curve separating stable from unstable states is given as an explicit function, we can show how stability depends on other parameters of the model. PMID:22391458

  13. IK1 heterogeneity affects genesis and stability of spiral waves in cardiac myocyte monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Rajesh B.; Kizana, Eddy; Cho, Hee C.; Molitoris, Jared M.; Hesketh, Geoffrey G.; Eaton, Brett P.; Marbán, Eduardo; Tung, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have postulated an important role for the inwardly rectifying potassium current (IK1) in controlling the dynamics of electrophysiological spiral waves responsible for ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. In this study, we developed a novel tissue model of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) with uniform or heterogeneous Kir2.1 expression achieved by lentiviral transfer to elucidate the role of IK1 in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Kir2.1-overexpressed NRVMs showed increased IK1 density, hyperpolarized resting membrane potential and increased action potential upstroke velocity compared with GFP-transduced NRVMs. Opposite results were observed in Kir2.1-suppressed NRVMs. Optical mapping of uniformly Kir2.1 gene-modified monolayers showed altered conduction velocity (CV) and action potential duration (APD) compared with non-transduced and empty vector-transduced monolayers, but functional reentrant waves could not be induced. In monolayers with an island of altered Kir2.1 expression, CV and APD of the locally transduced and non-transduced regions were similar to those of the uniformly transduced and non-transduced monolayers, respectively, and functional reentrant waves could be induced. The waves were anchored to islands of Kir2.1 overexpression and remained stable, but dropped in frequency and meandered away from islands of Kir2.1 suppression. In monolayers with an inverse pattern of IK1 heterogeneity, stable high frequency spiral waves were present with IK1 overexpression, whereas lower frequency, meandering spiral waves were observed with IK1 suppression. Our study provides direct evidence for the contribution of IK1 heterogeneity and level to the genesis and stability of spiral waves and highlights the potential importance of IK1 as an anti-arrhythmia target. PMID:19122180

  14. Cardiac Intercellular Communication: Are myocytes and fibroblasts fair-weather friends?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Melissa L.; Blaxall, Burns C.

    2012-01-01

    The cardiac fibroblast (CF) has historically been thought of as a quiescent cell of the heart, passively maintaining the extracellular environment for the cardiomyocytes, the functional cardiac cell type. The increasingly appreciated role of the CF, however, extends well beyond matrix production, governing many aspects of cardiac function including cardiac electrophysiology and contractility. Importantly, its contributions to cardiac pathophysiology and pathologic remodeling have created a shift in the field’s focus from the CM to the CF as a therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiac diseases. In response to cardiac injury, the CF undergoes a pathologic phenotypic transition into a myofibroblast, characterized by contractile smooth muscle proteins and upregulation of collagens, matrix proteins, and adhesion molecules. Further, the myofibroblast upregulates expression and secretion of a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. These mediators act in both an autocrine fashion to further activate CFs, as well as in a paracrine manner on both CMs and circulating inflammatory cells to induce myocyte dysfunction and chronic inflammation, respectively. Together, cell-specific cytokine-induced effects exacerbate pathologic remodeling and progression to HF. A better understanding of this dynamic intercellular communication will lead to novel targets for the attenuation of cardiac remodeling. Current strategies aimed at targeting cytokines have been largely unsuccessful in clinical trials, lending insights into ways that such intercellular cross-talk can be more effectively attenuated. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding CF functions in the heart and will discuss the regulation and signaling behind CF-mediated cytokine production and function. We will then highlight clinical trials that have exploited cytokine-crosstalk in the treatment of heart failure and provide novel strategies

  15. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J.; Lutfi, Esmail; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA) to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates the importance of

  16. Fluorescence measurements of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial sodium concentration in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, P; Mill, J G; O'Neill, S C; Eisner, D A

    1992-01-01

    1. The fluorescent Na+ indicator SBFI was incorporated into isolated ventricular myocytes using the acetoxymethyl (AM) ester. 2. The excitation spectrum was found to be shifted about 20 nm in the cell compared to in vitro. In the cell, an increase of [Na+] decreased fluorescence at 380 nm (F380) and had no effect at 340 nm (F340). The ratio (R = F340/F380) was used as a measure of [Na+]i. 3. In vivo calibration of SBFI for [Na+]i was obtained by equilibrating [Na+] across the plasma membrane with a divalent-free solution in the presence of gramicidin D. 4. Selective removal of the surface membrane with saponin or digitonin released only about 50% of the indicator. Following saponin treatment, cyanide or carbonylcyanide m-chlorphenylhydrazone (CCCP) increased the apparent [Na+] measured by the remaining (presumably mitochondrial) SBFI. It is suggested that mitochondrial [Na+] is normally less than cytoplasmic. 5. Attempts to examine the effects of metabolic inhibition on [Na+]i were hampered by changes of autofluorescence due to changes of [NADH]. It is shown that this effect can be corrected for using the isosbestic signal (excited at 340 nm). 6. Inhibition of both aerobic metabolism (with CN-) and glycolysis (glucose removal or iodoacetate) produced a gradual increase of [Na+]i. This began before the resting contracture developed and may (via Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange) account for some of the rise of diastolic [Ca2+]i seen in previous work. The rise of [Na+]i began at about the same time as the decrease of systolic contraction and therefore at a time when [ATP]i had begun to fall. PMID:1593474

  17. Multiphysics model of a rat ventricular myocyte: A voltage-clamp study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive model of the electromechanical behavior of the rat ventricular myocyte to investigate the various factors influencing its contractile response. Methods Here, we couple a model of Ca2 + dynamics described in our previous work, with a well-known model of contractile mechanics developed by Rice, Wang, Bers and de Tombe to develop a composite multiphysics model of excitation-contraction coupling. This comprehensive cell model is studied under voltage clamp (VC) conditions, since it allows to focus our study on the elaborate Ca2 + signaling system that controls the contractile mechanism. Results We examine the role of various factors influencing cellular contractile response. In particular, direct factors such as the amount of activator Ca2 + available to trigger contraction and the type of mechanical load applied (resulting in isosarcometric, isometric or unloaded contraction) are investigated. We also study the impact of temperature (22 to 38°C) on myofilament contractile response. The critical role of myofilament Ca2 + sensitivity in modulating developed force is likewise studied, as is the indirect coupling of intracellular contractile mechanism with the plasma membrane via the Na + /Ca2 + exchanger (NCX). Finally, we demonstrate a key linear relationship between the rate of contraction and relaxation, which is shown here to be intrinsically coupled over the full range of physiological perturbations. Conclusions Extensive testing of the composite model elucidates the importance of various direct and indirect modulatory influences on cellular twitch response with wide agreement with measured data on all accounts. Thus, the model provides mechanistic insights into whole-cell responses to a wide variety of testing approaches used in studies of cardiac myofilament contractility that have appeared in the literature over the past several decades. PMID:23171697

  18. NOS1 induces NADPH oxidases and impairs contraction kinetics in aged murine ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Villmow, Marten; Klöckner, Udo; Heymes, Christophe; Gekle, Michael; Rueckschloss, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates calcium transients and contraction of cardiomyocytes. However, it is largely unknown whether NO contributes also to alterations in the contractile function of cardiomyocytes during aging. Therefore, we analyzed the putative role of nitric oxide synthases and NO for the age-related alterations of cardiomyocyte contraction. We used C57BL/6 mice, nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1)-deficient mice (NOS1(-/-)) and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific NOS1-overexpression to analyze contractions, calcium transients (Indo-1 fluorescence), acto-myosin ATPase activity (malachite green assay), NADPH oxidase activity (lucigenin chemiluminescence) of isolated ventricular myocytes and cardiac gene expression (Western blots, qPCR). In C57BL/6 mice, cardiac expression of NOS1 was upregulated by aging. Since we found a negative regulation of NOS1 expression by cAMP in isolated cardiomyocytes, we suggest that reduced efficacy of β-adrenergic signaling that is evident in aged hearts promotes upregulation of NOS1. Shortening and relengthening of cardiomyocytes from aged C57BL/6 mice were decelerated, but were normalized by pharmacological inhibition of NOS1/NO. Cardiomyocytes from NOS1(-/-) mice displayed no age-related changes in contraction, calcium transients or acto-myosin ATPase activity. Aging increased cardiac expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX2 and NOX4 in C57BL/6 mice, but not in NOS1(-/-) mice. Similarly, cardiac expression of NOX2 and NOX4 was upregulated in a murine model with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of NOS1. We conclude that age-dependently upregulated NOS1, putatively via reduced efficacy of β-adrenergic signaling, induces NADPH oxidases. By increasing nitrosative and oxidative stress, both enzyme systems act synergistically to decelerate contraction of aged cardiomyocytes. PMID:26173391

  19. Trimetazidine effect on phospholipid synthesis in ventricular myocytes: consequences in alpha-adrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Tabbi-Anneni, Iméne; Lucien, Arnaud; Grynberg, Alain

    2003-02-01

    The anti-anginal drug trimetazidine (TMZ) has been shown to increase the synthesis of phospholipids in ventricular myocytes, including phosphatidyl-inositol (PI). This study focused on the consequences of increasing PI metabolism on alpha-adrenergic signaling pathway in cultured rat cardiomyocytes. In the cells treated with TMZ, the synthesis of PI from inositol was largely increased as compared with the control (+55% in 60 min). The stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors by phenylephrine (PE) induced a dose-dependent production of inositide phosphates (IPs) by phospholipase C (PLC) activation. However, the amount of available IPs was significantly lower in TMZ-treated cells, in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was observed in the presence and absence of the IP1-phosphatase inhibitor LiCl. The in vitro determination of PLC activity revealed that this effect could not be attributed to the direct inhibition of the enzyme by TMZ. The TMZ-induced reduction of IPs in the PE-stimulated cardiomyocytes should be attributed to the increase of inositol recycling and incorporation in membrane structures, elicited by increased phospholipid synthesis. The consequences of this reduction in IPs availability were investigated on the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by alpha-adrenergic chronic stimulation. Acute stimulation with PE increased protein synthesis (+50%), but this increase was largely prevented by TMZ. In conclusion, TMZ reduces cell available IPs, by accelerating their recycling in membranes as PI. This effect results in a cytoprotection in the pathological process of hypertrophy elicited by chronic alpha-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:12588630

  20. Cardiac myocyte-derived follistatin-like 1 prevents renal injury in a subtotal nephrectomy model.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Satoko; Ohashi, Koji; Shibata, Rei; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Miyabe, Megumi; Enomoto, Takashi; Joki, Yusuke; Shimizu, Yuuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yusuke; Yuasa, Daisuke; Ogawa, Hayato; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Walsh, Kenneth; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    Heart disease contributes to the progression of CKD. Heart tissue produces a number of secreted proteins, also known as cardiokines, which participate in intercellular and intertissue communication. We recently reported that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) functions as a cardiokine with cardioprotective properties. Here, we investigated the role of cardiac Fstl1 in renal injury after subtotal nephrectomy. Cardiac-specific Fstl1-deficient (cFstl1-KO) mice and wild-type mice were subjected to subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy. cFstl1-KO mice showed exacerbation of urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hypertrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis after subtotal renal ablation compared with wild-type mice. cFstl1-KO mice also exhibited increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, NADPH oxidase components, and fibrotic mediators, in the remnant kidney. Conversely, systemic administration of adenoviral vectors expressing Fstl1 (Ad-Fstl1) to wild-type mice with subtotal nephrectomy led to amelioration of albuminuria, glomerular hypertrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, accompanied by reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, NADPH oxidase components, and fibrotic markers in the remnant kidney. In cultured human mesangial cells, treatment with recombinant FSTL1 attenuated TNF-α-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Treatment of mesangial cells with FSTL1 augmented the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of AMPK activation abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of FSTL1. These data suggest that Fstl1 functions in cardiorenal communication and that the lack of Fstl1 production by myocytes promotes glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in the kidney. PMID:25071081

  1. Cardiac Myocyte-Derived Follistatin-Like 1 Prevents Renal Injury in a Subtotal Nephrectomy Model

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Satoko; Shibata, Rei; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Miyabe, Megumi; Enomoto, Takashi; Joki, Yusuke; Shimizu, Yuuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yusuke; Yuasa, Daisuke; Ogawa, Hayato; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; van den Hoff, Maurice J.B.; Walsh, Kenneth; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    Heart disease contributes to the progression of CKD. Heart tissue produces a number of secreted proteins, also known as cardiokines, which participate in intercellular and intertissue communication. We recently reported that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) functions as a cardiokine with cardioprotective properties. Here, we investigated the role of cardiac Fstl1 in renal injury after subtotal nephrectomy. Cardiac-specific Fstl1-deficient (cFstl1-KO) mice and wild-type mice were subjected to subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy. cFstl1-KO mice showed exacerbation of urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hypertrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis after subtotal renal ablation compared with wild-type mice. cFstl1-KO mice also exhibited increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, NADPH oxidase components, and fibrotic mediators, in the remnant kidney. Conversely, systemic administration of adenoviral vectors expressing Fstl1 (Ad-Fstl1) to wild-type mice with subtotal nephrectomy led to amelioration of albuminuria, glomerular hypertrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, accompanied by reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, NADPH oxidase components, and fibrotic markers in the remnant kidney. In cultured human mesangial cells, treatment with recombinant FSTL1 attenuated TNF-α–stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Treatment of mesangial cells with FSTL1 augmented the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of AMPK activation abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of FSTL1. These data suggest that Fstl1 functions in cardiorenal communication and that the lack of Fstl1 production by myocytes promotes glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in the kidney. PMID:25071081

  2. Identification of autophosphorylation sites in eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Pyr Dit Ruys, Sébastien; Wang, Xuemin; Smith, Ewan M.; Herinckx, Gaëtan; Hussain, Nusrat; Rider, Mark H.; Vertommen, Didier; Proud, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    eEF2K [eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) kinase] phosphorylates and inactivates the translation elongation factor eEF2. eEF2K is not a member of the main eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, but instead belongs to a small group of so-called α-kinases. The activity of eEF2K is normally dependent upon Ca2+ and calmodulin. eEF2K has previously been shown to undergo autophosphorylation, the stoichiometry of which suggested the existence of multiple sites. In the present study we have identified several autophosphorylation sites, including Thr348, Thr353, Ser366 and Ser445, all of which are highly conserved among vertebrate eEF2Ks. We also identified a number of other sites, including Ser78, a known site of phosphorylation, and others, some of which are less well conserved. None of the sites lies in the catalytic domain, but three affect eEF2K activity. Mutation of Ser78, Thr348 and Ser366 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine residue decreased eEF2K activity. Phosphorylation of Thr348 was detected by immunoblotting after transfecting wild-type eEF2K into HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells, but not after transfection with a kinase-inactive construct, confirming that this is indeed a site of autophosphorylation. Thr348 appears to be constitutively autophosphorylated in vitro. Interestingly, other recent data suggest that the corresponding residue in other α-kinases is also autophosphorylated and contributes to the activation of these enzymes [Crawley, Gharaei, Ye, Yang, Raveh, London, Schueler-Furman, Jia and Cote (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 2607–2616]. Ser366 phosphorylation was also detected in intact cells, but was still observed in the kinase-inactive construct, demonstrating that this site is phosphorylated not only autocatalytically but also in trans by other kinases. PMID:22216903

  3. Altered ventricular torsion and transmural patterns of myocyte relaxation precede heart failure in aging F344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Stuart G.; Haynes, Premi; Kelsey Snapp, W.; Nava, Kristofer E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explain changes in ventricular and cellular function that contribute to aging-associated cardiovascular disease in aging F344 rats. Three groups of female F344 rats, aged 6, 18, and 22 mo, were studied. Echocardiographic measurements in isoflurane-anesthetized animals showed an increase in peak left ventricular torsion between the 6- and the 18-mo-old groups that was partially reversed in the 22-mo-old animals (P < 0.05). Epicardial, midmyocardial, and endocardial myocytes were subsequently isolated from the left ventricles of each group of rats. Unloaded sarcomere shortening and Ca2+ transients were then measured in these cells (n = >75 cells for each of the nine age-region groups). The decay time of the Ca2+ transient and the time required for 50% length relaxation both increased with age but not uniformly across the three regions (P < 0.02). Further analysis revealed a significant shift in the transmural distribution of these properties between 18 and 22 mo of age, with the largest changes occurring in epicardial myocytes. Computational modeling suggested that these changes were due in part to slower Ca2+ dissociation from troponin in aging epicardial myocytes. Subsequent biochemical assays revealed a >50% reduction in troponin I phosphoprotein content in 22-mo-old epicardium relative to the other regions. These data suggest that between 18 and 22 mo of age (before the onset of heart failure), F344 rats display epicardial-specific myofilament-level modifications that 1) break from the progression observed between 6 and 18 mo and 2) coincide with aberrant patterns of cardiac torsion. PMID:23792678

  4. Deficiency of methionine sulfoxide reductase A causes cellular dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in cardiac myocytes under physical and oxidative stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Changlong; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Guozhen; Kreymerman, Alexander; Prentice, Howard; Weissbach, Herbert; Huang, Xupei

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Deficiency of MsrA in the heart renders myocardial cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. {yields} Mitochondrial damage happens in the heart lacking MsrA. {yields} More protein oxidation in myocardial cells lacking MsrA. {yields} MsrA protects the heart against oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. Using a MsrA gene knockout (MsrA{sup -/-}) mouse model, we have investigated the role of MsrA in the heart. Our data indicate that cellular contractility and cardiac function are not significantly changed in MsrA{sup -/-} mice if the hearts are not stressed. However, the cellular contractility, when stressed using a higher stimulation frequency (2 Hz), is significantly reduced in MsrA{sup -/-} cardiac myocytes. MsrA{sup -/-} cardiac myocytes also show a significant decrease in contractility after oxidative stress using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Corresponding changes in Ca{sup 2+} transients are observed in MsrA{sup -/-} cardiomyocytes treated with 2 Hz stimulation or with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Electron microscope analyses reveal a dramatic morphological change of mitochondria in MsrA{sup -/-} mouse hearts. Further biochemical measurements indicate that protein oxidation levels in MsrA{sup -/-} mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls. Our study demonstrates that the lack of MsrA in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell's capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart.

  5. PGC-1{alpha} accelerates cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} clearance without disturbing Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Min; Wang, Yanru; Qu, Aijuan

    2010-06-11

    Energy metabolism and Ca{sup 2+} handling serve critical roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1{alpha}) is a multi-functional coactivator that is involved in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and cellular energy metabolism. However, the regulation of PGC-1{alpha} in cardiac Ca{sup 2+} signaling has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we combined confocal line-scan imaging with off-line imaging processing to characterize calcium signaling in cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes expressing PGC-1{alpha} via adenoviral transduction. Our data shows that overexpressing PGC-1{alpha} improved myocyte contractility without increasing the amplitude of Ca{sup 2+} transients, suggesting that myofilament sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} increased. Interestingly, the decay kinetics of global Ca{sup 2+} transients and Ca{sup 2+} waves accelerated in PGC-1{alpha}-expressing cells, but the decay rate of caffeine-elicited Ca{sup 2+} transients showed no significant change. This suggests that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA2a), but not Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange (NCX) contribute to PGC-1{alpha}-induced cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} clearance. Furthermore, PGC-1{alpha} induced the expression of SERCA2a in cultured cardiac myocytes. Importantly, overexpressing PGC-1{alpha} did not disturb cardiac Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, because SR Ca{sup 2+} load and the propensity for Ca{sup 2+} waves remained unchanged. These data suggest that PGC-1{alpha} can ameliorate cardiac Ca{sup 2+} cycling and improve cardiac work output in response to physiological stress. Unraveling the PGC-1{alpha}-calcium handing pathway sheds new light on the role of PGC-1{alpha} in the therapy of cardiac diseases.

  6. Ca(2+) signals mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels in rat ureteric myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Boittin, F X; Coussin, F; Morel, J L; Halet, G; Macrez, N; Mironneau, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized Ca(2+)-release signals (puffs) and propagated Ca(2+) waves were characterized in rat ureteric myocytes by confocal microscopy. Ca(2+) puffs were evoked by photorelease of low concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) from a caged precursor and by low concentrations of acetylcholine; they were also observed spontaneously in Ca(2+)-overloaded myocytes. Ca(2+) puffs showed some variability in amplitude, time course and spatial spread, suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels exist in clusters containing variable numbers of channels and that within these clusters a variable number of channels can be recruited. Immunodetection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors revealed the existence of several spots of fluorescence in the confocal cell sections, supporting the existence of clusters of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors. Strong Ins(1,4,5)P(3) photorelease and high concentrations of acetylcholine induced Ca(2+) waves that originated from an initiation site and propagated in the whole cell by spatial recruitment of neighbouring Ca(2+)-release sites. Both Ca(2+) puffs and Ca(2+) waves were blocked selectively by intracellular applications of heparin and an anti-Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-receptor antibody, but were unaffected by ryanodine and intracellular application of an anti-ryanodine receptor antibody. mRNAs encoding for the three subtypes of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor and subtype 3 of ryanodine receptor were detected in these myocytes, and the maximal binding capacity of [(3)H]Ins(1,4,5)P(3) was 10- to 12-fold higher than that of [(3)H]ryanodine. These results suggest that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels mediate a continuum of Ca(2+) signalling in smooth-muscle cells expressing a high level of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors and no subtypes 1 and 2 of ryanodine receptors. PMID:10861244

  7. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B.; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J.; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Orchard, Clive H.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  8. Role of phospholipase D and diacylglycerol in activating constitutive TRPC-like cation channels in rabbit ear artery myocytes.

    PubMed

    Albert, A P; Piper, A S; Large, W A

    2005-08-01

    Previously we have described a constitutively active Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel in freshly dispersed rabbit ear artery myocytes that has similar properties to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel proteins. In the present study we have investigated the transduction pathways responsible for stimulating constitutive channel activity in these myocytes. Application of the pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D (PC-PLD), butan-1-ol and C2 ceramide, produced marked inhibition of constitutive channel activity in cell-attached patches and also butan-1-ol produced pronounced suppression of resting membrane conductance measured with whole-cell recording whereas the inactive isomer butan-2-ol had no effect on constitutive whole-cell or channel activity. In addition butan-1-ol had no effect on channel activity evoked by the diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Inhibitors of PC-phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) had no effect on constitutive channel activity. Application of a purified PC-PLD enzyme and its metabolite phosphatidic acid to inside-out patches markedly increased channel activity. The phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) inhibitor dl-propranolol also inhibited constitutive and phosphatidic acid-induced increases in channel activity but had no effect on OAG-evoked responses. The DAG lipase and DAG kinase inhibitors, RHC80267 and R59949 respectively, which inhibit DAG metabolism, produced transient increases in channel activity which were mimicked by relatively high concentrations (40 microm) of OAG. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine did not prevent channel activation by OAG but blocked the secondary inhibitory response of OAG. It is proposed that endogenous DAG is involved in the activation of channel activity and that its effects on channel activity are concentration-dependent with higher concentrations of DAG also inhibiting channel

  9. Mesenteric lymph from rats with trauma-hemorrhagic shock causes abnormal cardiac myocyte function and induces myocardial contractile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sambol, Justin T.; Lee, Marlon A.; Jiang, Mingshan; Dosi, Garima; Dong, Wei; Deitch, Edwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial contractile dysfunction develops following trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). We have previously shown that, in a rat fixed pressure model of T/HS (mean arterial pressure of 30–35 mmHg for 90 min), mesenteric lymph duct ligation before T/HS prevented T/HS-induced myocardial contractile depression. To determine whether T/HS lymph directly alters myocardial contractility, we examined the functional effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of mesenteric lymph collected from rats undergoing trauma-sham shock (T/SS) or T/HS on both isolated cardiac myocytes and Langendorff-perfused whole hearts. Acute application of T/HS lymph (0.1–2%), but not T/SS lymph, induced dual inotropic effects on myocytes with an immediate increase in the amplitude of cell shortening (1.4 ± 0.1-fold) followed by a complete block of contraction. Similarly, T/HS lymph caused dual, positive and negative effects on cellular Ca2+ transients. These effects were associated with changes in the electrophysiological properties of cardiac myocytes; T/HS lymph initially prolonged the action potential duration (action potential duration at 90% repolarization, 3.3 ± 0.4-fold), and this was followed by a decrease in the plateau potential and membrane depolarization. Furthermore, intravenous infusion of T/HS lymph, but not T/SS lymph, caused myocardial contractile dysfunction at 24 h after injection, which mimicked actual T/HS-induced changes; left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP rise and fall (±dP/dtmax) were decreased and inotropic response to Ca2+ was blunted. However, the contractile responsiveness to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the T/HS lymph-infused hearts remained unchanged. These results suggest that T/HS lymph directly causes negative inotropic effects on the myocardium and that T/HS lymph-induced changes in myocyte function are likely to contribute to the development of T/HS-induced myocardial dysfunction. PMID:21700891

  10. B-cell- and myocyte-specific E2-box-binding factors contain E12/E47-like subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Murre, C; Voronova, A; Baltimore, D

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a family of DNA-binding proteins that share a common DNA-binding and dimerization domain with the potential to form a helix-loop-helix (HLH) structure. Various HLH proteins can form heterodimers that bind to a common DNA sequence, termed the E2-box. We demonstrate here that E2-box-binding B-cell- and myocyte-specific nuclear factors contain subunits which are identical or closely related to ubiquitously expressed (E12/E47) HLH proteins. These biochemical function for E12/E47-like molecules in mammalian differentiation, similar to the genetically defined function of daughterless in Drosophila development. Images PMID:1990271

  11. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation. PMID:26611209

  12. Diversity of atrial local Ca2+ signalling: evidence from 2-D confocal imaging in Ca2+-buffered rat atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun-Hee; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin

    2005-09-15

    Atrial myocytes, lacking t-tubules, have two functionally separate groups of ryanodine receptors (RyRs): those at the periphery colocalized with dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs), and those at the cell interior not associated with DHPRs. We have previously shown that the Ca(2+) current (I(Ca))-gated central Ca(2+) release has a fast component that is followed by a slower and delayed rising phase. The mechanisms that regulate the central Ca(2+) releases remain poorly understood. The fast central release component is highly resistant to dialysed Ca(2+) buffers, while the slower, delayed component is completely suppressed by such exogenous buffers. Here we used dialysis of Ca(2+) buffers (EGTA) into voltage-clamped rat atrial myocytes to isolate the fast component of central Ca(2+) release and examine its properties using rapid (240 Hz) two-dimensional confocal Ca(2+) imaging. We found two populations of rat atrial myocytes with respect to the ratio of central to peripheral Ca(2+) release (R(c/p)). In one population ('group 1', approximately 60% of cells), R(c/p) converged on 0.2, while in another population ('group 2', approximately 40%), R(c/p) had a Gaussian distribution with a mean value of 0.625. The fast central release component of group 2 cells appeared to result from in-focus Ca(2+) sparks on activation of I(Ca). In group 1 cells intracellular membranes associated with t-tubular structures were never seen using short exposures to membrane dyes. In most of the group 2 cells, a faint intracellular membrane staining was observed. Quantification of caffeine-releasable Ca(2+) pools consistently showed larger central Ca(2+) stores in group 2 and larger peripheral stores in group 1 cells. The R(c/p) was larger at more positive and negative voltages in group 1 cells. In contrast, in group 2 cells, the R(c/p) was constant at all voltages. In group 1 cells the gain of peripheral Ca(2+) release sites (Delta[Ca(2+)]/I(Ca)) was larger at -30 than at +20 mV, but

  13. Reversible inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication, synchronous contraction, and synchronism of intracellular Ca2+ fluctuation in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes by heptanol.

    PubMed

    Kimura, H; Oyamada, Y; Ohshika, H; Mori, M; Oyamada, M

    1995-10-01

    We analyzed by Fotonic Sensor, a fiber-optic displacement measurement instrument, the effects of heptanol on synchronized contraction of primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes cultured at confluent density. We also examined the effect of heptanol on the changes in gap junctional intercellular communication by using the microinjection dye transfer method, and on intercellular Ca2+ fluctuation by confocal laser scanning microscopy of myocytes loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo 3. In addition, we studied expression, phosphorylation, and localization of the major cardiac gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. At Day 6 of culture, numerous myocytes exhibited spontaneous, synchronous contractions, excellent dye coupling, and synchronized intracellular Ca2+ fluctuations. We treated the cells with 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mmol/liter heptanol. With 1.5 mmol/liter heptanol, we could not observe significant effects on spontaneous contraction of myocytes. At 3.0 mmol/liter, the highest concentration used in the current experiment, heptanol inhibited synchronous contractions and even after washing out of heptanol, synchronous contraction was not rapidly recovered. On the other hand, at the intermediate concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5 mmol/liter, heptanol reversely inhibited synchronized contraction, gap junctional intercellular communication, and synchronization of intracellular Ca2+ fluctuations in the myocytes without preventing contraction and changes of intracellular Ca2+ in individual cells. Brief exposure (5-20 min) to heptanol (2.0 mmol/liter) did not cause detectable changes in the expression, phosphorylation, or localization of Cx43, despite strong inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication. These results suggest that gap junctional intercellular communication plays an important role in synchronous intracellular Ca2+ fluctuations, which facilitate synchronized contraction of cardiac myocytes. PMID

  14. Osteopontin-stimulated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes involves oxidative stress and mitochondrial death pathway: role of a pro-apoptotic protein BIK.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Suman; Zha, Qinqin; Singh, Mahipal; Singh, Krishna

    2016-07-01

    Increased osteopontin (OPN) expression in the heart, specifically in myocytes, associates with increased myocyte apoptosis and myocardial dysfunction. Recently, we provided evidence that OPN interacts with CD44 receptor, and induces myocyte apoptosis via the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial death pathways. Here we tested the hypothesis that OPN induces oxidative stress in myocytes and the heart via the involvement of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX-4). Treatment of adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs) with OPN (20 nM) increased oxidative stress as analyzed by protein carbonylation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as analyzed by ROS detection kit and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate staining. Pretreatment with NAC (antioxidant), apocynin (NOX inhibitor), MnTBAP (superoxide dismutase mimetic), and mitochondrial KATP channel blockers (glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate) decreased OPN-stimulated ROS production, cytosolic cytochrome c levels, and apoptosis. OPN increased NOX-4 expression, while decreasing SOD-2 expression. OPN decreased mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by JC-1 staining, and induced mitochondrial abnormalities including swelling and reorganization of cristae as observed using transmission electron microscopy. OPN increased expression of BIK, a pro-apoptotic protein involved in reorganization of mitochondrial cristae. Expression of dominant-negative BIK decreased OPN-stimulated apoptosis. In vivo, OPN expression in cardiac myocyte-specific manner associated with increased protein carbonylation, and expression of NOX-4 and BIK. Thus, OPN induces oxidative stress via the involvement of mitochondria and NOX-4. It may affect mitochondrial morphology and integrity, at least in part, via the involvement of BIK. PMID:27262843

  15. Crystal structure of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mari; Nishimoto, Madoka; Hiyama, Takuya B; Higo, Toshiaki; Umehara, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Ito, Takuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2016-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells restrict protein synthesis under various stress conditions, by inhibiting the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, a heterotrimeric G protein consisting of α-, β- and γ-subunits. eIF2B exchanges GDP for GTP on the γ-subunit of eIF2 (eIF2γ), and is inhibited by stress-induced phosphorylation of eIF2α. eIF2B is a heterodecameric complex of two copies each of the α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ε-subunits; its α-, β- and δ-subunits constitute the regulatory subcomplex, while the γ- and ε-subunits form the catalytic subcomplex. The three-dimensional structure of the entire eIF2B complex has not been determined. Here we present the crystal structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe eIF2B with an unprecedented subunit arrangement, in which the α2β2δ2 hexameric regulatory subcomplex binds two γε dimeric catalytic subcomplexes on its opposite sides. A structure-based in vitro analysis by a surface-scanning site-directed photo-cross-linking method identified the eIF2α-binding and eIF2γ-binding interfaces, located far apart on the regulatory and catalytic subcomplexes, respectively. The eIF2γ-binding interface is located close to the conserved 'NF motif', which is important for nucleotide exchange. A structural model was constructed for the complex of eIF2B with phosphorylated eIF2α, which binds to eIF2B more strongly than the unphosphorylated form. These results indicate that the eIF2α phosphorylation generates the 'nonproductive' eIF2-eIF2B complex, which prevents nucleotide exchange on eIF2γ, and thus provide a structural framework for the eIF2B-mediated mechanism of stress-induced translational control. PMID:26901872

  16. Action of fibroblast growth factor-2 on the intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; An, Howard S; Ellman, Michael; Phillips, Frank; Thonar, Eugene J; Park, Daniel K; Udayakumar, Ranjith K; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a growth factor that is immediately released after cartilage injury and plays a pivotal role in cartilage homeostasis. In human adult articular cartilage, FGF2 mediates anti-anabolic and potentially catabolic effects via the suppression of proteoglycan (PG) production along with the upregulation of matrix-degrading enzyme activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the biological effects of FGF2 in spine disc cells and to elucidate the complex biochemical pathways utilized by FGF2 in bovine intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in an attempt to further understand the pathophysiologic processes involved in disc degeneration. Methods We studied the effect of FGF2 on IVD tissue homeostasis by assessing MMP-13 expression (potent matrix-degrading enzyme), PG accumulation, and PG synthesis in the bovine spine IVD, as well as evaluating whether FGF2 counteracts known anabolic factors such as BMP7. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which FGF2 antagonizes BMP7 activity, we also investigated the signaling pathways utilized by FGF2 in bovine disc tissue. Results The primary receptor expressed in bovine nucleus pulposus cartilage is FGFR1, and this receptor is upregulated in degenerative human IVD tissue compared with normal IVD tissue. Stimulation of bovine nucleus pulposus cells cultured in monolayer with FGF2 augmented the production of MMP-13 at the transcriptional and translational level in a dose-dependent manner. Stimulation of bovine nucleus pulposus cells cultured in alginate beads for 21 days with FGF2 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in PG accumulation, due at least in part to the inhibition of PG synthesis. Further studies demonstrate that FGF2 (10 ng/ml) antagonizes BMP7-mediated acceleration of PG production in bovine nucleus pulposus cells via the upregulation of noggin, an inhibitor of the transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway. Chemical inhibitor studies

  17. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.

  18. Pro-survival function of MEF2 in cardiomyocytes is enhanced by β-blockers

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, S; Salma, J; Wales, S; McDermott, JC

    2015-01-01

    β1-Adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) stimulation increases apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through activation of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins function as important regulators of myocardial gene expression. Previously, we reported that PKA signaling directly represses MEF2 activity. We determined whether (a) MEF2 has a pro-survival function in cardiomyocytes, and (b) whether β-adrenergic/PKA signaling modulates MEF2 function in cardiomyocytes. Initially, we observed that siRNA-mediated gene silencing of MEF2 induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis as indicated by flow cytometry. β1-AR activation by isoproterenol represses MEF2 activity and promotes apoptosis in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. Importantly, β1-AR mediated apoptosis was abrogated in cardiomyocytes expressing a PKA-resistant form of MEF2D (S121/190A). We also observed that a β1-blocker, Atenolol, antagonizes isoproterenol-induced apoptosis while concomitantly enhancing MEF2 transcriptional activity. β-AR stimulation modulated MEF2 cellular localization in cardiomyocytes and this effect was reversed by β-blocker treatment. Furthermore, Kruppel-like factor 6, a MEF2 target gene in the heart, functions as a downstream pro-survival factor in cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that (a) MEF2 has an important pro-survival role in cardiomyocytes, and (b) β-adrenergic signaling antagonizes the pro-survival function of MEF2 in cardiomyocytes and β-blockers promote it. These observations have important clinical implications that may contribute to novel strategies for preventing cardiomyocyte apoptosis associated with heart pathology. PMID:27551452

  19. The vasodilator papaverine stimulates L-type Ca(2+) current in rat tail artery myocytes via a PKA-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Fabio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Durante, Miriam; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Saponara, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Papaverine is an opium alkaloid, primarily used as an antispasmodic drug and as a cerebral and coronary vasodilator. Its phosphodiesterase inhibitory activity promotes increase of cAMP levels mainly in the cytosol. As cAMP is known to modulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, here we tested the proposition that papaverine could affect vascular channel function. An in-depth analysis of the effect of papaverine on Ba(2+) or Ca(2+) current through L-type Ca(2+) channel [IBa(L) or ICa(L)], performed in rat tail artery myocytes using either the whole-cell or the perforated patch-clamp method, was accompanied by a functional study on rat aorta rings. Papaverine increased current amplitude under both the perforated or whole-cell configuration. Stimulation of the current by papaverine was concentration-, Vh-, frequency-, and charge carrier-dependent, and fully reverted by drug washout. The PKA inhibitor H89, but not the PKG inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cGMPS, antagonised papaverine- as well as IBMX- (another phosphodiesterase inhibitor) induced IBa(L) stimulation. In cells pre-treated with IBMX, application of papaverine failed to increase current amplitude. Papaverine sped up the inactivation kinetics of IBa(L), though only at concentrations ≥ 30 μM, and shifted the voltage dependence of the inactivation curve to more negative potentials. In rings, the vasorelaxing activity of papaverine was enhanced by previous treatment with nifedipine. In conclusion, papaverine stimulates vascular L-type Ca(2+) channel via a PKA-dependent mechanism, thus antagonising its main vasodilating activity. PMID:26586313

  20. Calcium and IP3 dynamics in cardiac myocytes: experimental and computational perspectives and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hohendanner, Felix; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Blatter, Lothar A.; Michailova, Anushka P.

    2014-01-01

    [Ca2+] in the nuclear and cytosolic compartment. In this review, we discuss the state of knowledge regarding the origin and the physiological implications of nuclear Ca2+ transients in different cardiac cell types (adult atrial and ventricular myocytes) as well as experimental and mathematical approaches to study Ca2+ and IP3 signaling in the cytosol and nucleus. In particular, we focus on the concept that highly localized Ca2+ signals are required to translocate and activate Ca2+-dependent transcription factors (e.g., nuclear factor of activated T-cells, NFAT; histone deacetylase, HDAC) through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes. PMID:24639654

  1. Phosphate release and force generation in cardiac myocytes investigated with caged phosphate and caged calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, A; Walker, J W

    1996-01-01

    The phosphate (P(i)) dissociation step of the cross-bridge cycle was investigated in skinned rat ventricular myocytes to examine its role in force generation and Ca(2+) regulation in cardiac muscle. Pulse photolysis of caged P(i) (alpha-carboxyl-2-nitrobenzyl phosphate) produced up to 3 mM P(i) within the filament lattice, resulting in an approximately exponential decline in steady-state tension. The apparent rate constant, k (rho i), increased linearly with total P(i) concentration (initial plus photoreleased), giving an apparent second-order rate constant for P(i) binding of 3100 M(-1) s(-1), which is intermediate in value between fast and slow skeletal muscles. A decrease in the level of Ca(2+) activation to 20% of maximum tension reduced k (rho i) by twofold and increased the relative amplitude by threefold, consistent with modulation of P(i) release by Ca2+. A three-state model, with separate but coupled transitions for force generation and P(i) dissociation, and a Ca(2+)-sensitive forward rate constant for force generation, was compatible with the data. There was no evidence for a slow phase of tension decline observed previously in fast skeletal fibers at low Ca(2+), suggesting differences in cooperative mechanisms in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In separate experiments, tension development was initiated from a relaxed state by photolysis of caged Ca(2+). The apparent rate constant, k(Ca), was accelerated in the presence of high P(i) consistent with close coupling between force generation and P(i) dissociation, even when force development was initiated from a relaxed state. k(Ca) was also dependent on the level of Ca(2+) activation. However, significant quantitative differences between k (rho i) and k(Ca), including different sensitivities to Ca(2+) and P(i) indicate that caged Ca(2+) tension transients are influenced by additional Ca(2+)-dependent but P i-independent steps that occur before P(i) release. Data from both types of measurements suggest that

  2. Computational analysis of the regulation of Ca2+ dynamics in rat ventricular myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugenhagen, Scott M.; Beard, Daniel A.

    2015-10-01

    Force-frequency relationships of isolated cardiac myocytes show complex behaviors that are thought to be specific to both the species and the conditions associated with the experimental preparation. Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in shaping the force-frequency relationship, and understanding the properties of the force-frequency relationship in vivo requires an understanding of Ca2+ dynamics under physiologically relevant conditions. Ca2+ signaling is itself a complicated process that is best understood on a quantitative level via biophysically based computational simulation. Although a large number of models are available in the literature, the models are often a conglomeration of components parameterized to data of incompatible species and/or experimental conditions. In addition, few models account for modulation of Ca2+ dynamics via β-adrenergic and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathways even though they are hypothesized to play an important regulatory role in vivo. Both protein-kinase-A and CaMKII are known to phosphorylate a variety of targets known to be involved in Ca2+ signaling, but the effects of these pathways on the frequency- and inotrope-dependence of Ca2+ dynamics are not currently well understood. In order to better understand Ca2+ dynamics under physiological conditions relevant to rat, a previous computational model is adapted and re-parameterized to a self-consistent dataset obtained under physiological temperature and pacing frequency and updated to include β-adrenergic and CaMKII regulatory pathways. The necessity of specific effector mechanisms of these pathways in capturing inotrope- and frequency-dependence of the data is tested by attempting to fit the data while including and/or excluding those effector components. We find that: (1) β-adrenergic-mediated phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel (LCC) (and not of phospholamban (PLB)) is sufficient to explain the inotrope-dependence; and (2) that

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose metabolism in human myocytes.

    PubMed

    Luque, M A; González, N; Márquez, L; Acitores, A; Redondo, A; Morales, M; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    2002-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to have insulin-like effects upon the metabolism of glucose in rat liver, muscle and fat, and on that of lipids in rat and human adipocytes. These actions seem to be exerted through specific receptors which, unlike that of the pancreas, are not - at least in liver and muscle - cAMP-associated. Here we have investigated the effect, its characteristics, and possible second messengers of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism of human skeletal muscle, in tissue strips and primary cultured myocytes. In muscle strips, GLP-1, like insulin, stimulated glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase a activity, and glucose oxidation and utilization, and inhibited glycogen phosphorylase a activity, all of this at physiological concentrations of the peptide. In cultured myotubes, GLP-1 exerted, from 10(-13) mol/l, a dose-related increase of the D-[U-(14)C]glucose incorporation into glycogen, with the same potency as insulin, together with an activation of glycogen synthase a; the effect of 10(-11) mol/l GLP-1 on both parameters was additive to that induced by the equimolar amount of insulin. Synthase a was still activated in cells after 2 days of exposure to GLP-1, as compared with myotubes maintained in the absence of peptide. In human muscle cells, exendin-4 and its truncated form 9-39 amide (Ex-9) are both agonists of the GLP-1 effect on glycogen synthesis and synthase a activity; but while neither GLP-1 nor exendin-4 affected the cellular cAMP content after 5-min incubation in the absence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine (IBMX), an increase was detected with Ex-9. GLP-1, exendin-4, Ex-9 and insulin all induced the prompt hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs). This work shows a potent stimulatory effect of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism of human skeletal muscle, and supports the long-term therapeutic value of the peptide. Further evidence for a GLP-1 receptor in this tissue, different from that of the pancreas, is also illustrated

  4. The cytosolic calcium transient modulates the action potential of rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    duBell, W H; Boyett, M R; Spurgeon, H A; Talo, A; Stern, M D; Lakatta, E G

    1991-01-01

    1. The modulation of the action potential by the cytosolic Ca2+ (Cai2+) transient was studied in single isolated rat ventricular myocytes loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester form of the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye Indo-1. Stimulation following rest and exposure to ryanodine were used to change the amount of Ca2+ released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and thus the size of the Cai2+ transient. The Cai2+ transient was measured as the change, upon stimulation, in the ratio of Indo-1 fluorescence at 410 nm to that at 490 nm (410/490) and action potentials or membrane currents were recorded using patch-type microelectrodes. 2. When stimulation was initiated following rest, the magnitude of the Cai2+ transient decreased in a beat-dependent manner until a steady state was reached. The negative staircase in the Cai2+ transient was accompanied by a similar beat-dependent decrease in the duration of the action potential, manifested primarily as a gradual loss of the action potential plateau (approximately -45 mV). A slow terminal phase of repolarization of a few millivolts in amplitude was found to parallel the terminal decay of the Cai2+ transient. 3. The terminal portion of phase-plane loops of membrane potential (Vm) vs. Indo-1 ratio from all of the beats of a stimulus train followed a common linear trajectory even though the individual beats differed markedly in the duration and amplitude of the action potential and Cai2+ transient. 4. When the stimulation dependence of the Cai2+ transient was titrated away with submaximal exposure to ryanodine, the stimulation-dependent changes in the action potential plateau and terminal phase of repolarization were also eliminated. The same effect was noted in cells which, fortuitously, did not show a staircase in the Cai2+ transient following a period of rest. 5. When action potentials were triggered immediately following spontaneous release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which results in a small depolarization at the

  5. Cytosolic calcium and myofilaments in single rat cardiac myocytes achieve a dynamic equilibrium during twitch relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, H A; duBell, W H; Stern, M D; Sollott, S J; Ziman, B D; Silverman, H S; Capogrossi, M C; Talo, A; Lakatta, E G

    1992-01-01

    1. Single isolated rat cardiac myocytes were loaded with either the pentapotassium salt form or the acetoxymethyl ester (AM) form of the calcium-sensitive fluorescent probe, Indo-1. The relationship of the Indo-1 fluorescence transient, an index of the change in cytosolic calcium [Ca2+]i concentration, to the simultaneously measured cell length during the electrically stimulated twitch originating from slack length at 23 degrees C was evaluated. It was demonstrated that even if the Ca2+ dissociation rate from Indo-1 was assumed to be as slow as 10 s-1, the descending limb ('relaxation phase') of the Indo-1 fluorescence transient induced by excitation under these conditions is in equilibrium with the [Ca2+]i transient. Additionally, the extent of Indo-1 loading employed did not substantially alter the twitch characteristics. 2. A unique relationship between the fluorescence transient and cell length was observed during relaxation of contractions that varied in amplitude. This was manifest as a common trajectory in the cell length vs. [Ca2+]i phase-plane diagrams beginning at the time of cell relengthening. The common trajectory could also be demonstrated in Indo-1 AM-loaded cells. The Indo-1 fluorescence-length relation defined by this common trajectory is steeper than that described by the relation of peak contraction amplitude and peak fluorescence during the twitch contractions. 3. The trajectory of the [Ca2+]i-length relation elicited via an abrupt, rapid, brief (200 ms) pulse of caffeine directly onto the cell surface or by 'tetanization' of cells in the presence of ryanodine is identical to the common [Ca2+]i-length trajectory formed by electrically stimulated contractions of different magnitudes. As the [Ca2+]i and length transients induced by caffeine application or during tetanization in the presence of ryanodine develop with a much slower time course than those elicited by electrical stimulation, the common trajectory is not fortuitous, i.e. it cannot be

  6. Calcium-sensitive and insensitive transient outward current in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, M; Kawano, S

    1989-01-01

    1. A suction pipette whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record membrane currents and potentials of isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbit hearts. 2. Transient outward current (Ito) was activated by voltage steps positive to -20 mV, increasing in amplitude with further depolarization to reach a maximum around +70 mV. The current attained its peak within 10 ms and then it inactivated for 100-200 ms. 3. A large portion of Ito still remained after the calcium current (ICa) was blocked when depolarizing pulses were applied at a frequency of 0.1 Hz or less. Therefore, this current component is referred to as calcium-insensitive Ito or It. 4. It showed voltage- and time-dependent inactivation similar to that observed in Purkinje fibres and other cardiac preparations. 5. The reversal potential of It depended on external K+ concentration, [K+]o, with a slope of 32 mV per 10-fold change in the presence of a normal [Na+]o (143 mM), while the slope was 48 mV per 10-fold change in low [Na+]o (1.0 mM). 6. It was completely inhibited by 2-4 mM-4-aminopyridine. Ito in the presence of ICa was also partially blocked by 4-aminopyridine and the remainder was abolished by 5 mM-caffeine. 7. The calcium-insensitive and caffeine-sensitive Ito differed in their decay rates as well as in their recovery time courses. The former was predominantly available at a slow pulsing rate, while the latter increased its amplitude with high-frequency depolarization. 8. The caffeine-sensitive Ito was inhibited by a blockade of ICa, by replacing Ca2+ with Sr2+, by external application of ryanodine and by internal application of EGTA. This indicates that the current is calcium-sensitive and is dependent on increased myoplasmic Ca2+ through Ca2+ influx via the sarcolemma and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The current is therefore designated as IK, Ca. 9. The physiological functions of IK, Ca and It are indicated by their contribution to ventricular repolarization at fast and

  7. Selective block of swelling-activated Cl- channels over cAMP-dependent Cl- channels in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Shuba, Lesya M; Missan, Sergey; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Linsdell, Paul; McDonald, Terence F

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study on guinea-pig and rabbit ventricular myocytes was to evaluate the sensitivities of swelling-activated Cl- current (ICl(swell)) and cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl- current (ICl(CFTR)) to block by dideoxyforskolin and verapamil. The currents were recorded from whole-cell configured myocytes that were dialysed with a Cs+-rich pipette solution and superfused with either isosmotic Na+-, K+-, Ca2+-free solution that contained 140 mM sucrose or hyposmotic sucrose-free solution. Forskolin-activated ICl(CFTR) was inhibited by reference blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid but unaffected by < or = 200 microM dideoxyforskolin and verapamil. However, dideoxyforskolin and verapamil had strong inhibitory effects on outwardly-rectifying, inactivating, distilbene-sensitive ICl(swell); IC50 values were approximately 30 microM, and blocks were voltage-independent and reversible. The results establish that dideoxyforskolin and verapamil can be used to distinguish between ICl(CFTR) and ICl(swell) in heart cells, and expand the pharmacological characterization of cardiac ICl(swell). PMID:15140627

  8. Abnormal Ca2+ Cycling in Failing Ventricular Myocytes: Role of NOS1-Mediated Nitroso-Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Heart failure (HF) results from poor heart function and is the leading cause of death in Western society. Abnormalities of Ca2+ handling at the level of the ventricular myocyte are largely responsible for much of the poor heart function. Recent Advances: Although studies have unraveled numerous mechanisms for the abnormal Ca2+ handling, investigations over the past decade have indicated that much of the contractile dysfunction and adverse remodeling that occurs in HF involves oxidative stress. Critical Issues: Regrettably, antioxidant therapy has been an immense disappointment in clinical trials. Thus, redox signaling is being reassessed to elucidate why antioxidants failed to treat HF. Future Directions: A recently identified aspect of redox signaling (specifically the superoxide anion radical) is its interaction with nitric oxide, known as the nitroso-redox balance. There is a large nitroso-redox imbalance with HF, and we suggest that correcting this imbalance may be able to restore myocyte contraction and improve heart function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2044–2059. PMID:24801117

  9. Modeling the Effects of β1-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers and Polymorphisms on Cardiac Myocyte Ca2+ Handling

    PubMed Central

    Amanfu, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    β-Adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) are commonly used to treat heart failure, but the biologic mechanisms governing their efficacy are still poorly understood. The complexity of β-adrenergic signaling coupled with the influence of receptor polymorphisms makes it difficult to intuit the effect of β-blockers on cardiac physiology. While some studies indicate that β-blockers are efficacious by inhibiting β-adrenergic signaling, other studies suggest that they work by maintaining β-adrenergic responsiveness. Here, we use a systems pharmacology approach to test the hypothesis that in ventricular myocytes, these two apparently conflicting mechanisms for β-blocker efficacy can occur concurrently. We extended a computational model of the β1-adrenergic pathway and excitation-contraction coupling to include detailed receptor interactions for 19 ligands. Model predictions, validated with Ca2+ and Förster resonance energy transfer imaging of adult rat ventricular myocytes, surprisingly suggest that β-blockers can both inhibit and maintain signaling depending on the magnitude of receptor stimulation. The balance of inhibition and maintenance of β1-adrenergic signaling is predicted to depend on the specific β-blocker (with greater responsiveness for metoprolol than carvedilol) and β1-adrenergic receptor Arg389Gly polymorphisms. PMID:24867460

  10. Influence of Thromboxane A2 on the Regulation of Adenosine Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, In Seok; Cho, Hwa Jin; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Kim, Sang Hyung; Na, Kook Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play an important role in myocardial protection. We examined the effects of thromboxane A2 on the regulation of KATP channel activity in single ventricular myocytes. Subjects and Methods Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of adult Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by enzymatic digestion. Single channel activity was recorded by excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp configurations at −60 mV holding potential during the perfusion of an ATP-free K-5 solution. Results In the excised inside-out patches, the thromboxane A2 analog, U46619, decreased the KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner; however, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, did not significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of U46619. In the cell-attached patches, U46619 inhibited dinitrophenol (DNP)-induced KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner, and SQ29548 attenuated the inhibitory effects of U46619 on DNP-induced KATP channel activity. Conclusion Thromboxane A2 may inhibit KATP channel activity, and may have a harmful effect on ischemic myocardium. PMID:27482267

  11. Insulin-like growth factor 2 reverses memory and synaptic deficits in APP transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Lucas, Maria; Viana da Silva, Silvia; Di Scala, Marianna; Garcia-Barroso, Carolina; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Mulle, Christophe; Alberini, Cristina M; Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar; Garcia-Osta, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) was recently found to play a critical role in memory consolidation in rats and mice, and hippocampal or systemic administration of recombinant IGF2 enhances memory. Here, using a gene therapy-based approach with adeno-associated virus (AAV), we show that IGF2 overexpression in the hippocampus of aged wild-type mice enhances memory and promotes dendritic spine formation. Furthermore, we report that IGF2 expression decreases in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease, and this leads us to hypothesize that increased IGF2 levels may be beneficial for treating the disease. Thus, we used the AAV system to deliver IGF2 or IGF1 into the hippocampus of the APP mouse model Tg2576 and demonstrate that IGF2 and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) rescue behavioural deficits, promote dendritic spine formation and restore normal hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission. The brains of Tg2576 mice that overexpress IGF2 but not IGF1 also show a significant reduction in amyloid levels. This reduction probably occurs through an interaction with the IGF2 receptor (IGF2R). Hence, IGF2 and, to a lesser extent, IGF1 may be effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25100745

  12. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart. PMID:24058412

  13. Differential effects of pertussis toxin on insulin-stimulated phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and glycerolipid synthesis de novo. Studies in BC3H-1 myocytes and rat adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.; Standaert, M.L.; Nair, G.P.; Farese, R.V. )

    1991-04-02

    Insulin-induced increases in diacylglycerol (DAG) have been suggested to result from stimulation of de novo phosphatidic acid (PA) synthesis and phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis. Presently, the authors found that insulin decreased PC levels of BC3H-1 myocytes and rat adipocytes by approximately 10-25% within 30 s. These decreases were rapidly reversed in both cell types, apparently because of increased PC synthesis de novo. In BC3H-1 myocytes, pertussis toxin inhibited PC resynthesis and insulin effects on the pathway of de novo PA-DAG-PC synthesis, as evidenced by changes in ({sup 3}H)glycerol incorporation, but did not inhibit insulin-stimulated PC hydrolysis. Pertussis toxin also blocked the later, but not the initial, increase in DAG production in the myocytes. Phorbol esters activated PC hydrolysis in both myocytes and adipocytes, but insulin-induced stimulation of PC hydrolysis was not dependent upon activation of PKC, since this hydrolysis was not inhibited by 500 {mu}M sangivamycin, an effective PKC inhibitor. The results indicate that insulin increases DAG by pertussis toxin sensitive and insensitive (PC hydrolysis) mechanisms, which are mechanistically separate, but functionally interdependent and integrated. PC hydrolysis may contribute importantly to initial increases in DAG, but later sustained increases are apparently largely dependent on insulin-induced stimulation of the pathway of de novo phospholipid synthesis.

  14. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, and leucine on protein turnover and pathways that regulate ubiquitin ligase expression in rainbow trout primary myocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin, and leucine on protein turnover and pathways that regulate proteolytic gene expression and protein polyubiquitination were investigated in primary cultures of four day old rainbow trout myocytes. Supplementing media with 100 nM IGF-I inc...

  15. A monoclonal lewis rat myocyte line that responds to interferon-gamma: responsiveness with the potential to influence subsequent interactions with the immune system.

    PubMed

    Stegall, T; Krolick, K A

    2000-02-01

    In order to begin asking questions about immunopathology associated with the model of the neuromuscular disease experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis, a monoclonal myocyte line, LE1, has been prepared from the Lewis rat. The LE1 myocyte clone was selected from among several clones produced based on its ease of maintenance in culture and for the stability of its phenotype, which is very similar to that reported for in vivo muscle and other cultured myocyte lines. Thus, LE1 cells were observed to produce, constitutively, the myocyte-associated neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56), the intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), and the acetylcholine receptor. LE1 cells were also observed to constitutively secrete relatively low levels of IL-6 and TGF-beta. Moreover, the LE1 cell line may be of use for predicting muscle responses to various immune mediators. For example, the inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) has been recently reported by others to play a role in experimental myasthenia gravis. Thus, it was of interest that LE1 cells could be activated by IFN-gamma to express increased levels of immunopathologically relevant membrane molecules such as ICAM-1 and Class II major histocompatibility molecules (i.e., RT-1B). PMID:10637097

  16. Intravenous Glial Growth Factor 2 (GGF2) Isoform of Neuregulin-1β Improves Left Ventricular Function, Gene and Protein Expression in Rats after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Abigail; Smith, Holly M.; Galindo, Cristi L.; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Lenneman, Carrie G.; Odiete, Oghenerukevwe; Friedman, David B.; Kronenberg, Marvin W.; Zheng, Siyuen; Zhao, Zhongming; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E.; Srinivas, Maya; Ganguly, Anindita; Iaci, Jennifer; Parry, Tom J.; Caggiano, Anthony O.; Sawyer, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Recombinant Neuregulin (NRG)-1β has multiple beneficial effects on cardiac myocytes in culture, and has potential as a clinical therapy for heart failure (HF). A number of factors may influence the effect of NRG-1β on cardiac function via ErbB receptor coupling and expression. We examined the effect of the NRG-1β isoform, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2), in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) and determined the impact of high-fat diet as well as chronicity of disease on GGF2 induced improvement in left ventricular systolic function. Potential mechanisms for GGF2 effects on the remote myocardium were explored using microarray and proteomic analysis. Methods and Results Rats with MI were randomized to receive vehicle, 0.625 mg/kg, or 3.25 mg/kg GGF2 in the presence and absence of high-fat feeding beginning at day 7 post-MI and continuing for 4 weeks. Residual left ventricular (LV) function was improved in both of the GGF2 treatment groups compared with the vehicle treated MI group at 4 weeks of treatment as assessed by echocardiography. High-fat diet did not prevent the effects of high dose GGF2. In experiments where treatment was delayed until 8 weeks after MI, high but not low dose GGF2 treatment was associated with improved systolic function. mRNA and protein expression analysis of remote left ventricular tissue revealed a number of changes in myocardial gene and protein expression altered by MI that were normalized by GGF2 treatment, many of which are involved in energy production. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in rats with MI induced systolic dysfunction, GGF2 treatment improves cardiac function. There are differences in sensitivity of the myocardium to GGF2 effects when administered early vs. late post-MI that may be important to consider in the development of GGF2 in humans. PMID:23437060

  17. Influence of a Constitutive Increase in Myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity on Ca2+-fluxes and Contraction of Mouse Heart Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Puglisi, Jose L.; Goldspink, Paul H.; Gomes, Aldrin V.; Utter, Megan S.; Bers, Donald M.; Solaro, R. John

    2014-01-01

    Chronic increases in myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity in the heart are known to alter gene expression potentially modifying Ca2+-homeostasis and inducing arrhythmias. We tested age-dependent effects of a chronic increase in myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity on induction of altered alter gene expression and activity of Ca2+ transport systems in cardiac myocytes. Our approach was to determine the relative contributions of the major mechanisms responsible for restoring Ca2+ to basal levels in field stimulated ventricular myocytes. Comparisons were made from ventricular myocytes isolated from non-transgenic (NTG) controls and transgenic mice expressing the fetal, slow skeletal troponin I (TG-ssTnI) in place of cardiac TnI (cTnI). Replacement of cTnI by ssTnI induces an increase in myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity. Comparisons included myocytes from relatively young (5–7 months) and older mice (11–13 months). Employing application of caffeine in normal Tyrode and in 0Na+ 0Ca2+ solution, we were able to dissect the contribution of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (SR Ca2+-ATPase), the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), and “slow mechanisms” representing the activity of the sarcolemmal Ca2+ pump and the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. The relative contribution of the SR Ca2+-ATPase to restoration of basal Ca2+levels in younger TG-ssTnI myocytes was lower than in NTG (81.12 ± 2.8% vs 92.70 ± 1.02%), but the same in the older myocytes. Younger and older NTG myocytes demonstrated similar contributions from the SR Ca2+-ATPase and NCX to restoration of basal Ca2+. However, the slow mechanisms for Ca2+ removal were increased in the older NTG (3.4 ± 0.3%) vs the younger NTG myocytes (1.4 ± 0.1%). Compared to NTG, younger TG-ssTnI myocytes demonstrated a significantly bigger contribution of the NCX (16 ± 2.7% in TG vs 6.9 ± 0.9% in NTG) and slow mechanisms (3.3 ± 0.4% in TG vs 1.4 ± 0.1% in NTG). In older TG-ssTnI myocytes the contributions were not significantly different from NTG

  18. The number of cardiac myocytes in the hypertrophic and hypotrophic left ventricle of the obese and calorie-restricted mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Schipke, Julia; Banmann, Ewgenija; Nikam, Sandeep; Voswinckel, Robert; Kohlstedt, Karin; Loot, Annemarieke E; Fleming, Ingrid; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Changes in body mass due to varying amounts of calorie intake occur frequently with obesity and anorexia/cachexia being at opposite sides of the scale. Here, we tested whether a high-fat diet or calorie restriction (CR) decreases the number of cardiac myocytes and affects their volume. Ten 6-8-week-old mice were randomly assigned to a normal (control group, n = 5) or high-fat diet (obesity group, n = 5) for 28 weeks. Ten 8-week-old mice were randomly assigned to a normal (control group, n = 5) or CR diet (CR group, n = 5) for 7 days. The left ventricles of the hearts were prepared for light and electron microscopy, and analysed by design-based stereology. In CR, neither the number of cardiac myocytes, the relationship between one- and multinucleate myocytes nor their mean volume were significantly different between the groups. In contrast, in the obese mice we observed a significant increase in cell size combined with a lower number of cardiomyocytes (P < 0.05 in the one-sided U-test) and an increase in the mean number of nuclei per myocyte. The mean volume of myofibrils and mitochondria per cardiac myocyte reflected the hypertrophic and hypotrophic remodelling in obesity and CR, respectively, but were only significant in the obese mice, indicating a more profound effect of the obesity protocol than in the CR experiments. Taken together, our data indicate that long-lasting obesity is associated with a loss of cardiomyocytes of the left ventricle, but that short-term CR does not alter the number of cardiomyocytes. PMID:25322944

  19. Hrd1 and ER-Associated Protein Degradation, ERAD, Are Critical Elements of the Adaptive ER Stress Response in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Doroudgar, Shirin; Völkers, Mirko; Thuerauf, Donna J; Khan, Mohsin; Mohsin, Sadia; Respress, Jonathan L; Wang, Wei; Gude, Natalie; Müller, Oliver J; Wehrens, Xander HT; Sussman, Mark A; Glembotski, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Hrd1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been studied in yeast, where it contributes to ER protein quality control by ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins that accumulate during ER stress. Neither Hrd1 nor ERAD have been studied in the heart, or in cardiac myocytes, where protein quality control is critical for proper heart function. Objective The objectives of this study were to elucidate roles for Hrd1 in ER stress, ERAD, and viability in cultured cardiac myocytes and in the mouse heart, in vivo. Methods and Results The effects of siRNA-mediated Hrd1 knockdown were examined in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. The effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Hrd1 knockdown and overexpression were examined in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure-overload induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which challenges protein-folding capacity. In cardiac myocytes, the ER stressors, thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (TM) increased ERAD, as well as adaptive ER stress proteins, and minimally affected cell death. However, when Hrd1 was knocked down, TG and TM dramatically decreased ERAD, while increasing maladaptive ER stress proteins and cell death. In vivo, Hrd1 knockdown exacerbated cardiac dysfunction, and increased apoptosis and cardiac hypertrophy, while Hrd1 overexpression preserved cardiac function, and decreased apoptosis and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure-overload. Conclusions Hrd1 and ERAD are essential components of the adaptive ER stress response in cardiac myocytes. Hrd1 contributes to preserving heart structure and function in a mouse model of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26137860

  20. Regulation of unloaded cell shortening by sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchange in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, R A; Clark, R B; Giles, W R

    1993-01-01

    1. Regulation of unloaded cell shortening and relaxation by sarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange was investigated in rat ventricular myocytes. Contraction of single cells at 22 +/- 1 degrees C was measured simultaneously with membrane current and voltage using the whole-cell voltage clamp technique in combination with a video edge-detection device. 2. The extent of mechanical activation (cell shortening amplitude) was strongly dependent on diastolic membrane potential over the voltage range -140 to -50 mV. This voltage sensitivity of contraction was abolished completely when a recently described inhibitory peptide of the cardiac Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger (XIP, 2 x 10(-5) M) was present in the recording pipette, demonstrating that in rat ventricular cells Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange is modulated by diastolic membrane potential. 3. Possible influences of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange on contraction were studied from a holding potential of -80 mV. Depolarizations (-50 to +60 mV) resulted in a bell-shaped shortening-voltage (S-V) relationship. These contractions were suppressed completely by either Cd2+ (10(-4) M) or verapamil (10(-5) M), but remained unchanged during superfusion with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1.5 x 10(-5) M), when [NA+]o was reduced from 140 to 10 mM by substitution with either Li+ or Cs+ ions or when pipette Na+ was varied between 8 and 13 mM. XIP (2 x 10(-5) M) increased the magnitude and duration of twitch contractions, but had no effect on the shape of the S-V relationship. Thus, the Ca2+ current but not the Na+ current or Ca2+ influx due to reversed Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange can release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) under these experimental conditions. 4. The effect of the rate of repolarization on cell shortening was studied under voltage clamp by applying ramp waveforms immediately following the depolarizations which activated contraction. Although slowing of the rate of repolarization had no effect on the first contraction following a train of conditioning depolarizations

  1. The effect of oxygen free radicals on calcium current and dihydropyridine binding sites in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, L.; Cerbai, E.; Gessi, S.; Borea, P. A.; Mugelli, A.

    1996-01-01

    1. We used electrophysiological and binding techniques to determine the effects of oxygen free radicals (OFRs) generated by dihydroxyfumaric acid (DHF, 5 mM) on calcium current and dihydropyridine binding sites in guinea-pig isolated ventricular myocytes. 2. Binding of [3H]-PN200-110 to isolated ventricular myocytes revealed one population of binding sites with a KD of 0.11 +/- 0.01 nM and Bmax of 139.1 +/- 6.9 fmol mg-1 protein (n = 24). After 15 min of exposure to DHF, the density, but not the affinity of [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced to 35% of the control value (Bmax = 49.4 +/- 3.7 fmol mg-1 protein, KD = 0.11 +/- 0.01 nM, n = 15). In the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) the reduction in [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites was almost completely prevented (Bmax = 120.5 +/- 7.4 in control, n = 4 and 98.8 +/- 7.4 fmol mg-1 protein in DHF plus SOD and CAT, n = 4). KD values were not modified (0.08 +/- 0.01 in control and 0.09 +/- 0.01 nM in DHF plus SOD and CAT). 3. The time-course of the reduction of [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites by OFRs was paralleled by the decrease in L-type calcium current (Ica,L) measured in patch-clamped guinea-pig ventricular myocytes either in the absence or in the presence of EGTA in the patch pipette. In the former conditions OFRs induced the appearance of calcium-dependent alterations, i.e. the transient inward current, within 10 min. After 30 min of incubation with DHF, [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites were reduced to 25% of the control value. 4. In myocytes incubated with the antilipoperoxidant agent, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 microM), the decrease in [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites caused by DHF was partially prevented (Bmax values after 30 min exposure to DHF were 55.5 +/- 1.9 and 23.7 +/- 5.9 fmol mg-1 protein in the presence and in the absence of BHT respectively, P < 0.05). BHT did not affect the decrease in [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites during the first 15 min of exposure to

  2. Actin dynamics tune the integrated stress response by regulating eukaryotic initiation factor 2α dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Joseph E; Dalton, Lucy E; Clarke, Hanna J; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S; Patel, Vruti; Moorhead, Greg; Ron, David; Marciniak, Stefan J

    2015-01-01

    Four stress-sensing kinases phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) to activate the integrated stress response (ISR). In animals, the ISR is antagonised by selective eIF2α phosphatases comprising a catalytic protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) subunit in complex with a PPP1R15-type regulatory subunit. An unbiased search for additional conserved components of the PPP1R15-PP1 phosphatase identified monomeric G-actin. Like PP1, G-actin associated with the functional core of PPP1R15 family members and G-actin depletion, by the marine toxin jasplakinolide, destabilised the endogenous PPP1R15A-PP1 complex. The abundance of the ternary PPP1R15-PP1-G-actin complex was responsive to global changes in the polymeric status of actin, as was its eIF2α-directed phosphatase activity, while localised G-actin depletion at sites enriched for PPP1R15 enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation and the downstream ISR. G-actin's role as a stabilizer of the PPP1R15-containing holophosphatase provides a mechanism for integrating signals regulating actin dynamics with stresses that trigger the ISR. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04872.001 PMID:25774599

  3. Insulin-like growth factor 2 rescues aging-related memory loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Adam B; Johnson, Sarah A; Iannitelli, Dylan E; Pollonini, Gabriella; Alberini, Cristina M

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by declines in memory performance, and particularly affects memories that rely on hippocampal-cortical systems, such as episodic and explicit. With aged populations significantly increasing, the need for preventing or rescuing memory deficits is pressing. However, effective treatments are lacking. Here, we show that the level of the mature form of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), a peptide regulated in the hippocampus by learning, required for memory consolidation and a promoter of memory enhancement in young adult rodents, is significantly reduced in hippocampal synapses of aged rats. By contrast, the hippocampal level of the immature form proIGF-2 is increased, suggesting an aging-related deficit in IGF-2 processing. In agreement, aged compared to young adult rats are deficient in the activity of proprotein convertase 2, an enzyme that likely mediates IGF-2 posttranslational processing. Hippocampal administration of the recombinant, mature form of IGF-2 rescues hippocampal-dependent memory deficits and working memory impairment in aged rats. Thus, IGF-2 may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for preventing or reversing aging-related cognitive impairments. PMID:27318130

  4. Changes in myocardial cytoskeletal intermediate filaments and myocyte contractile dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy: an in vivo study in humans

    PubMed Central

    Di, S; Marotta, M; Salvatore, G; Cudemo, G; Cuda, G; De Vivo, F; Di, B; Ciaramella, F; Caputo, G; de Divitiis, O

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To investigate in vivo the intermediate cytoskeletal filaments desmin and vimentin in myocardial tissues from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and to determine whether alterations in these proteins are associated with impaired contractility.
METHODS—Endomyocardial biopsies were performed in 12 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and in 12 controls (six women with breast cancer before anthracycline chemotherapy and six male donors for heart transplantation). Biopsy specimens were analysed by light microscopy and immunochemistry (desmin, vimentin). Myocyte contractile protein function was evaluated by the actin-myosin in vitro motility assay. Left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed by echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography.
RESULTS—Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had a greater cardiomyocyte diameter than controls (p < 0.01). The increase in cell size was associated with a reduction in contractile function, as assessed by actin-myosin motility (r = −0.643; p < 0.01). Quantitative immunochemistry showed increased desmin and vimentin contents (p < 0.01), and the desmin distribution was disturbed in cardiomyopathy. There was a linear relation between desmin distribution and actin-myosin sliding in vitro (r = 0.853; p < 0.01) and an inverse correlation between desmin content and ejection fraction (r = −0.773; p < 0.02). Negative correlations were also found between myocardial vimentin content and the actin-myosin sliding rate (r = −0.74; p < 0.02) and left ventricular ejection fraction (r = −0.68; p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—Compared with normal individuals, the myocardial tissue of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy shows alterations of cytoskeletal intermediate filament distribution and content associated with reduced myocyte contraction.


Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy; desmin; vimentin; cardiac biopsy; actin-myosin PMID:11083750

  5. Chlorthalidone inhibits the KvLQT1 potassium current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes and oocytes from Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Mancilla-Simbro, C; López, A; Martinez-Morales, E; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, E; Millan-PerezPeña, L; Tsushima, R; Salinas-Stefanon, E M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chlorthalidone is used for the treatment of hypertension as it produces a lengthening of the cardiac action potential. However, there is no experimental evidence that chlorthalidone has electrophysiological effects on the potassium currents involved in cardiac repolarization. Experimental approach: Ventricular myocytes and oocytes, transfected with human ionic channels that produce IK current, were exposed to different concentrations of chlorthalidone. Action potentials and potassium currents were recorded using a patch clamp technique. To determine which component of the current was affected by chlorthalidone, human channel proteins (hERG, minK and KvLQT1) were used. Key results: Chlorthalidone prolonged the ventricular action potential at 50 and 90% by 13 and 14%, respectively. The cardiac potassium currents I to and IK1 were not affected by chlorthalidone at any concentration, whereas the delayed rectifier potassium current, IK, was blocked in a dose-response, voltage-independent fashion. In our preparation, 100 μM chlorthalidone blocked the two components of the delayed rectifier potassium current with the same potency (50.1±5% for IKr and 54.6±6% for IKs) (n=7, P<0.05). The chlorthalidone-sensitive current was slow and saturated at potentials greater than +30 mV. In our conditions only the KvLQT1 potassium current was affected by the drug, by 14%. Conclusions and implications: Chlorthalidone was demonstrated to have a direct effect on cardiac ventricular myocytes; it blocked the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK), specifically the KvLQT1 component of the potassium current. These results indicate that it has potential for use as an antiarrhythmic but further studies are needed. PMID:18037918

  6. Simulation of the effect of rogue ryanodine receptors on a calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Luyao; Xia, Ling; Ye, Xuesong; Cheng, Heping

    2010-06-01

    Calcium homeostasis is considered to be one of the most important factors for the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle. However, under some pathological conditions, such as heart failure (HF), calcium homeostasis is disordered, and spontaneous waves may occur. In this study, we developed a mathematical model of formation and propagation of a calcium wave based upon a governing system of diffusion-reaction equations presented by Izu et al (2001 Biophys. J. 80 103-20) and integrated non-clustered or 'rogue' ryanodine receptors (rogue RyRs) into a two-dimensional (2D) model of ventricular myocytes isolated from failing hearts in which sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pools are partially unloaded. The model was then used to simulate the effect of rogue RyRs on initiation and propagation of the calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with HF. Our simulation results show that rogue RyRs can amplify the diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in the form of Ca2+ quarks, increase the probability of occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ waves even with smaller SR Ca2+ stores, accelerate Ca2+ wave propagation, and hence lead to delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and cardiac arrhythmia in the diseased heart. This investigation suggests that incorporating rogue RyRs in the Ca2+ wave model under HF conditions provides a new view of Ca2+ dynamics that could not be mimicked by adjusting traditional parameters involved in Ca2+ release units and other ion channels, and contributes to understanding the underlying mechanism of HF.

  7. Dyad content is reduced in cardiac myocytes of mice with impaired calmodulin regulation of RyR2.

    PubMed

    Lavorato, Manuela; Huang, Tai-Qin; Iyer, Venkat Ramesh; Perni, Stefano; Meissner, Gerhard; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2015-04-01

    In cardiac muscle, calmodulin (CaM) regulates the activity of several membrane proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis (CaV1.2; RyR2, SERCA2, PMCA). Three engineered amino acid substitutions in the CaM binding site of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in mice (Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) ) strongly affect cardiac function, with impaired CaM inhibition of RyR2, reduced SR Ca(2+) sequestration, and early cardiac hypertrophy and death (Yamaguchi et al., J Clin Invest 117:1344-1353, 2007). We have examined the ultrastructure and RyR2 immunolocalization in WT and Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) hearts at ~10 days after birth. The myocytes show only minor evidence of structural damage: some increase in intermyofibrillar space, with occasional areas of irregular SR disposition and an increase in frequency of smaller myofibrils, despite an increase of about 15 % in average myocyte cross sectional area. Z line streaming, a sign of myofibrillar stress, is limited and fairly rare. Immunolabeling with an anti-RyR2 antibody shows that RyR-positive foci located at the level of the Z lines are less frequent in mutant hearts. A dramatic decrease in the frequency and size of dyads, accompanied by a decrease in occupancy of the gap by RyR2, but without obvious alterations in location and general structure is a notable ultrastructural feature. The data suggest that the uneven distribution of dyads or calcium release sites within the cells resulting from an overall reduction in RyR2 content may contribute to the poor cardiac performance and early death of Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) mice. An unusual fragmentation of mitochondria, perhaps related to imbalances in free cytoplasmic calcium levels, accompanies these changes. PMID:25694159

  8. Physiological growth of arteries in the rat heart parallels the growth of capillaries, but not of myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wiest, G; Gharehbaghi, H; Amann, K; Simon, T; Mattfeldt, T; Mall, G

    1992-12-01

    Maladaption to hemodynamic overload, especially to arterial hypertension, has important clinical implications, and it is necessary to obtain criteria in order to discriminate physiological and pathological growth processes. We investigated the physiological growth of intramyocardial arteries in the rat heart. A new stereological method was introduced to determine the length of intramyocardial arteries from counts on histological sections. Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages were investigated. The growth rate of arteries was characterized by the growth coefficient b according to the exponential function y = axb (allometric growth function). Analysis of left ventricular weights (LVW) and total lengths of left ventricular intramyocardial arteries (L) revealed Lv = constant.LVW0.71 (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). The growth coefficient b < 1 indicates that the arterial supply of the heart, i.e. the length density of arteries Lv (length per unit myocardial volume), decreases during normal growth. Empirically, we found L = constant.LVW-0.28 (r = 0.43, P < 0.01). Previously, we estimated growth rates of b = 0.33 for the total length of left ventricular myocytes and b = 0.71 for the total length of capillaries. Thus, growth of intramyocardial arteries considerably exceeds the length increase of myocytes, but is proportional to the length increase of capillaries. Growth analysis of total mitochondrial volume using historical data of our group revealed proportionality to arteries, as well (b = 0.76). This indicates that growth of arteries and capillaries may be determined by oxygen consumption. PMID:1293316

  9. L-type and Ca2+ release channel-dependent hierarchical Ca2+ signalling in rat portal vein myocytes.

    PubMed

    Arnaudeau, S; Boittin, F X; Macrez, N; Lavie, J L; Mironneau, C; Mironneau, J

    1997-11-01

    Ca2+ signalling events and whole-cell Ca2+ currents were analyzed in single myocytes from rat portal vein by using a laser scanning confocal microscope combined with the patch-clamp technique. In myocytes in which the intracellular Ca2+ store was depleted or Ca2+ release channels were blocked by 10 microM ryanodine, inward Ca2+ currents induced slow and sustained elevations of [Ca2+]i. These Ca2+ responses were suppressed by 1 microM oxodipine and by depolarizations to +120 mV, a potential close to the reversal potential for Ca2+ ions, suggesting that they reflected Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels. With functioning intracellular Ca2+ stores, flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ gave rise to a small increase in [Ca2+]i with superimposed Ca2+ sparks, reflecting the opening of clustered Ca2+ release channels. Brief Ca2+ currents in the voltage range from -30 to +10 mV triggered Ca2+ sparks or macrosparks that did not propagate in the entire line-scan image. Increasing the duration of Ca2+ current for 100 ms or more allowed the trigger of propagating Ca2+ waves which originated from the same initiation sites as the caffeine-activated response. Both Ca2+ sparks and initiation sites of Ca2+ waves activated by Ca2+ currents were observed in the vicinity of areas that excluded the Ca2+ probes, reflecting infoldings of the plasma membrane close to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, as revealed by fluorescent markers. The hierarchy of Ca2+ signalling events, from submicroscopic fundamental events to elementary events (sparks) and propagated waves, provides an integrated mechanism to regulate vascular tone. PMID:9448946

  10. Effects of angiotensin II on intracellular Ca2+ and pH in isolated beating rabbit hearts and myocytes loaded with the indicator indo-1.

    PubMed Central

    Ikenouchi, H; Barry, W H; Bridge, J H; Weinberg, E O; Apstein, C S; Lorell, B H

    1994-01-01

    1. Angiotensin II increases myocardial contractility in several species, including the rabbit and man. However, it is controversial whether the predominant mechanism is an increase in free cytosolic [Ca2+]i or a change in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. To address this question, we infused angiotensin II in isolated perfused rabbit hearts loaded with the Ca2+ indicator indo-1 AM and measured changes in beat-to-beat surface transients of the Ca2+i-sensitive 400:500 nm ratio and left ventricular contractility. The effects of angiotensin II were compared with the response to a Ca(2+)-dependent increase in the inotropic state produced by a change in the perfusate [Ca2+] from 0.9 to 3.6 nM. 2. In the isolated beating heart, an increase in perfusate [Ca2+] caused an increase in left ventricular pressure +dP/dt in association with an increase in peak systolic [Ca2+]i. Angiotensin II perfusion caused a similar increase in left ventricular +dP/dt in the absence of any increase in peak systolic [Ca2+]i. 3. To exclude any contribution of non-myocyte sources of Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescence which may be present in the intact heart, we also compared the effects of angiotensin II and a change in superfusate [Ca2+] in collagenase-dissociated paced adult rabbit ventricular myocytes loaded with indo-1 AM. In the isolated rabbit myocytes a change in perfusate [Ca2+] from 0.9 to 3.6 mM caused an increase in peak systolic cell shortening coincident with an increase in peak systolic [Ca2+]i. In contrast, angiotensin II caused a similar increase in peak systolic cell shortening whereas there was no increase in peak systolic [Ca2+]i. There was also no change in inward Ca2+ current (ICa) in response to angiotensin II. 4. To investigate further the mechanism of the positive inotropic action of angiotensin II, its effects on intracellular pH were studied in isolated rabbit myocytes loaded with the fluorescent H+ probe SNARF 1. These experiments demonstrated that angiotensin II induced a 0.2 p

  11. Rapid Responses and Mechanism of Action for Low-Dose Bisphenol S on ex Vivo Rat Hearts and Isolated Myocytes: Evidence of Female-Specific Proarrhythmic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Ma, Jianyong; Chen, Yamei

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphenol S (BPS) has increasingly been used as a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA) in some “BPA-free” consumer goods and in thermal papers. Wide human exposure to BPS has been reported; however, the biological and potential toxic effects of BPS are poorly understood. Objective In this study, we sought to elucidate the sex-specific rapid effect of BPS in rat hearts and its underlying mechanism. Methods We examined the rapid effects of BPS in rat hearts using electrophysiology, confocal and conventional fluorescence imaging, and immunoblotting. Treatment was administered via acute perfusion of excised hearts or isolated cardiac myocytes. Results In female rat hearts acutely exposed to 10–9 M BPS, the heart rate was increased; in the presence of catecholamine-induced stress, the frequency of ventricular arrhythmia events was markedly increased. BPS-exposed hearts showed increased incidence of arrhythmogenic-triggered activities in female ventricular myocytes and altered myocyte Ca2+ handling, particularly spontaneous Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The dose responses of BPS actions were inverted U-shaped. The impact of BPS on myocyte Ca2+ handling was mediated by estrogen receptor β signaling and by rapid increases in the phosphorylation of key Ca2+ handling proteins, including ryanodine receptor and phospholamban. The proarrhythmic effects of BPS were female specific; male rat hearts were not affected by BPS at the organ, myocyte, or protein levels. Conclusion Rapid exposure to low-dose BPS showed proarrhythmic impact on female rat hearts; these effects at the organ, cellular, and molecular levels are remarkably similar to those reported for BPA. Evaluation of the bioactivity and safety of BPS and other BPA analogs is necessary before they are used as BPA alternatives in consumer products. Citation Gao X, Ma J, Chen Y, Wang HS. 2015. Rapid responses and mechanism of action for low-dose bisphenol S on ex vivo rat hearts and isolated

  12. Uptake of hexakis(t-butylisonitrile) technetium (I) and hexakis(isopropylisonitrile) technetium (I) by neonatal rat myocytes and human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, H.; Delano, M.L.; Gallagher, B.M.

    1986-03-01

    The uptake mechanism of two potential cardiac imaging agents (/sup 99m/Tc)hexakis(t-butylisonitrile) technetium (I) (TBI) and (/sup 99m/Tc)hexakis(isopropylisonitrile) technetium (I) (IPI) has been studied using neonatal rat myocytes and human erythrocytes. Uptake of these complexes was rapid, of greater magnitude than seen previously for 42K, and was unaffected by either 0.15 mM ouabain or 10 mM KCI. Both (/sup 99m/Tc)isonitrile complexes had a high affinity for the membranes of the myocytes and erythrocytes. The data suggest that the uptake is not dependent on the membrane Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ATPase but may be related to the lipophilicity of these agents as evidenced by the rapidity, tenacity, and quantity of the binding observed.

  13. Inhibition of Thromboxane A2-Induced Arrhythmias and Intracellular Calcium Changes in Cardiac Myocytes by Blockade of the Inositol Trisphosphate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kosloski, L. M.; Gilbert, W. J. R.; Touchberry, C. D.; Moore, D. S.; Kelly, J. K.; Brotto, M.; Orr, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently reported that left atrial injections of the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) mimetic, (5Z)-7-[(1R,4S,5S,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxy-1-octenyl]-2 -oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl]-5-heptenoic acid (U46619), induced ventricular arrhythmias in the anesthetized rabbit. Data from this study led us to hypothesize that TXA2 may be inducing direct actions on the myocardium to induce these arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanism responsible for these arrhythmias. We report that TXA2R is expressed at both the gene and protein levels in atrial and ventricular samples of adult rabbits. In addition, TXA2R mRNA was identified in single, isolated ventricular cardiac myocytes. Furthermore, treatment of isolated cardiac myocytes with U46619 increased intracellular calcium in a dose-dependent manner and these increases were blocked by the specific TXA2R antagonist, 7-(3-((2-((phenylamino)carbonyl)hydrazino)methyl)-7-oxabicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-yl)-5-heptenoic acid (SQ29548). Pretreatment of myocytes with an inhibitor of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation, gentamicin, or with an inhibitor of IP3 receptors, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), blocked the increase in intracellular calcium. In vivo pretreatment of anesthetized rabbits with either gentamicin or 2-APB subsequently inhibited the formation of ventricular arrhythmias elicited by U46619. These data support the hypothesis that TXA2 can induce arrhythmias via a direct action on cardiac myocytes. Furthermore, these arrhythmogenic actions were blocked by inhibitors of the IP3 pathway. In summary, this study provides novel evidence for direct TXA2-induced cardiac arrhythmias and provides a rationale for IP3 as a potential target for the treatment of TXA2-mediated arrhythmias. PMID:19741149

  14. Direct Evidence for Microdomain-Specific Localization and Remodeling of Functional L-Type Calcium Channels in Rat and Human Atrial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Glukhov, Alexey V.; Balycheva, Marina; Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L.; Ilkan, Zeki; Alvarez-Laviada, Anita; Bhogal, Navneet; Diakonov, Ivan; Schobesberger, Sophie; Sikkel, Markus B.; Bhargava, Anamika; Faggian, Giuseppe; Punjabi, Prakash P.; Houser, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Distinct subpopulations of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) with different functional properties exist in cardiomyocytes. Disruption of cellular structure may affect LTCC in a microdomain-specific manner and contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiac diseases, especially in cells lacking organized transverse tubules (T-tubules) such as atrial myocytes (AMs). Methods and Results— Isolated rat and human AMs were characterized by scanning ion conductance, confocal, and electron microscopy. Half of AMs possessed T-tubules and structured topography, proportional to cell width. A bigger proportion of myocytes in the left atrium had organized T-tubules and topography than in the right atrium. Super-resolution scanning patch clamp showed that LTCCs distribute equally in T-tubules and crest areas of the sarcolemma, whereas, in ventricular myocytes, LTCCs primarily cluster in T-tubules. Rat, but not human, T-tubule LTCCs had open probability similar to crest LTCCs, but exhibited ≈40% greater current. Optical mapping of Ca2+ transients revealed that rat AMs presented ≈3-fold as many spontaneous Ca2+ release events as ventricular myocytes. Occurrence of crest LTCCs and spontaneous Ca2+ transients were eliminated by either a caveolae-targeted LTCC antagonist or disrupting caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, with an associated ≈30% whole-cell ICa,L reduction. Heart failure (16 weeks post–myocardial infarction) in rats resulted in a T-tubule degradation (by ≈40%) and significant elevation of spontaneous Ca2+ release events. Although heart failure did not affect LTCC occurrence, it led to ≈25% decrease in T-tubule LTCC amplitude. Conclusions— We provide the first direct evidence for the existence of 2 distinct subpopulations of functional LTCCs in rat and human AMs, with their biophysical properties modulated in heart failure in a microdomain-specific manner. PMID:26450916

  15. Opposing functional effects of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP may act through protein phosphorylation in rabbit cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Lee, H; Huang, M W; Scholz, P M; Weiss, H R

    2000-04-01

    1. We tested the hypothesis that the negative functional effects of cyclic GMP (cGMP) oppose the positive effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in cardiac myocytes through interaction at the level of their respective protein kinases. 2. Cell shortening was studied using a video-edge detector. The O2 consumption of a suspension of rabbit ventricular myocytes was measured using O2 electrodes. Protein phosphorylation was measured autoradiographically following SDS-PAGE. Data were collected with: (1) 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) 10(-7) or 10(-5) M; (2) 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) 10(-7) or 10(-5) M; (3) 8-Br-cAMP 10(-5) M followed by 8-Br-cGMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M; (4) 8-Br-cGMP 10(-5) M followed by 8-Br-cAMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M; (5) 8-Br-cGMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M followed by KT 5720 (cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor) or KT 5823 (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor) 10(-6) M; and (6) 8-Br-cAMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M followed by KT 5720 or KT 5823 10(-6) M. 3. 8-Br-cGMP 10(-5) M decreased percent shortening (Pcs) from 6.3+/-0.6 to 3.6+/-0.4% and rate of shortening (Rs) from 66.7+/-4.4 to 41.8+/-4.2 microm s(-1). 8-Br-cAMP 10(-5) M increased Pcs (from 3.7+/-0.2 to 4.8+/-0.2) and Rs (from 50.0+/-3.0 to 60.0+/-3.1). With 8-Br-cAMP 10(-5) M, 8-Br-cGMP 10(-5) M decreased Pcs and Rs less. The positive functional effects of 8-Br-cAMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M were also diminished with 8-Br-cGMP 10(-5) M. Following 8-Br-cGMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M, KT 5720 10(-6) M further decreased Pcs to 2.5+/-0.3 and Rs to 30.0+/-4.1. KT 5823 10(-6) M returned Pcs to 4.7+/-0.4 and Rs to 61.3+/-5.3. Following 8-Br-cAMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M, KT 5720 decreased the elevated Pcs and Rs significantly and KT 5823 10(-6) M further increased these parameters. 4. cGMP and cAMP phosphorylated the same five protein bands. With KT 5720 or KT 5823, all of the bands were lighter at the same concentration of 8-Br-cAMP and 8-Br-cGMP. 5. We conclude that, in rabbit ventricular myocytes, the opposing functional effects of cGMP and c

  16. Total and free myoplasmic calcium during a contraction cycle: x-ray microanalysis in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wendt-Gallitelli, M F; Isenberg, G

    1991-01-01

    1. At 36 degrees C and 2 mM [Ca2+]o single guinea-pig ventricular myocytes were voltage clamped with patch electrodes. With a paired-pulse protocol applied at 1 Hz, a first pulse to +5 mV was followed by a second pulse to +50 mV. When paired pulsing had potentiated the contraction to the maximum, the cells were shock-frozen for electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA). Shock-freezing was timed at the end of diastole (-80 mV) or at different times during systole (+5 mV). 2. The same paired-pulse protocol was applied to another group of myocytes from which contraction and [Ca2+]i was estimated by microfluospectroscopy (50 microM-Na5-Indo-1). Potentiation moderately reduced diastolic sarcomere length from 1.85 to 1.82 microns and increased diastolic [Ca2+]i from about 95 to 180 nM. In potentiated cells, during the first pulse, contraction peaked within 128 +/- 25 ms after start of depolarization. [Ca2+]i peaked within 25 ms to 890 +/- 220 nM (mean +/- S.E.M.) and fell within 100 ms to about 450 nM. 3. Sigma Camyo, the total calcium concentration in the overlapping myofilaments (A-band), was measured by EPMA in seventeen potentiated myocytes. During diastole, sigma Camyo was 2.6 +/- 0.4 mmol (kg dry weight (DW]-1 which can be converted to 0.65 mM (mmoles per litre myofibrillar space). Since [Ca2+]i was 180 nM, we estimate that 99.97% of total calcium is bound. 4. A time course for systolic sigma Camyo was determined by shock-freezing thirteen cells at different times after start of depolarization to +5 mV. Sigma Camyo was 5.5 +/- 0.3 mmol (kg DW)-1 (1.4 mM) after 15-25 ms, 4.6 +/- 0.5 mmol (kg DW)-1 (1.1 mM) after 30-45 ms, and 3.1 mmol (kg DW)-1 (0.8 mM) after 60-120 ms. The fast time course of sigma Camyo suggests that calcium binds to and unbinds from troponin C at a fast rate. Hence, it is the slow kinetics of the cross-bridges that determines the 130 ms time-to-peak shortening. 5. Mitochondria of potentiated cells contained during diastole a total calcium concentration

  17. Buffering of calcium influx by sarcoplasmic reticulum during the action potential in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Janczewski, A M; Lakatta, E G

    1993-01-01

    1. Intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) transients, monitored by the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, indo-1, and twitch contractions elicited by action potentials, by voltage clamp pulses or by rapid, brief pulses of caffeine, were measured in guinea-pig single ventricular myocytes. Experiments were designed to determine whether and to what extent the trans-sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx is immediately sequestered by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). 2. Rapid, brief (100-200 ms) pulses of caffeine onto a rested myocyte elicited a [Ca2+]i transient and a contraction. Following exposure to specific SR inhibitors, ryanodine (100 nM) or thapsigargin (200 nM), the rapid application of caffeine onto a rested myocyte failed to elicit changes in [Ca2+]i or in cell length, indicating that caffeine increases [Ca2+]i by specifically discharging Ca2+ from the SR. In the absence of these inhibitors, a second pulse of caffeine, within 3 min following a prior pulse, failed to elicit a [Ca2+]i transient or contraction, indicating that a caffeine pulse depletes the SR releasable Ca2+ pool. 3. Following Ca2+ depletion of the SR by double caffeine pulses at rest, an electrical stimulation elicited a slow increase in [Ca2+]i, and, after a delay, a small, slow twitch contraction. The simultaneous application of caffeine and electrical stimulation of cells in which the SR was Ca2+ depleted elicited [Ca2+]i transients with an increased rate of rise and a larger amplitude (53 +/- 8 and 63 +/- 9% respectively; mean +/- S.E.M., n = 21) than those elicited by electrical stimulation alone. 4. Whether caffeine affected the L-type calcium current (ICa) elicited by electrical stimulation was determined under whole-cell voltage clamp. A caffeine pulse delivered at the onset of a depolarizing voltage clamp step also increased the rates of rise and the amplitudes of the [Ca2+]i transients and twitch contractions in cells in which the SR was depleted of Ca2+. However, Ca2+ influx via ICa decreased when caffeine was

  18. Stromal cell–derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation

    PubMed Central

    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C.; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell–derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser1177 in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. PMID:26286023

  19. Minimum requirements for the function of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, F L; Nika, J; Rippel, S; Hannig, E M

    2001-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a G protein heterotrimer required for GTP-dependent delivery of initiator tRNA to the ribosome. eIF2B, the nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, is a heteropentamer that, in yeast, is encoded by four essential genes and one nonessential gene. We found that increased levels of wild-type eIF2, in the presence of sufficient levels of initiator tRNA, overcome the requirement for eIF2B in vivo. Consistent with bypassing eIF2B, these conditions also suppress the lethal effect of overexpressing the mammalian tumor suppressor PKR, an eIF2alpha kinase. The effects described are further enhanced in the presence of a mutation in the G protein (gamma) subunit of eIF2, gcd11-K250R, which mimics the function of eIF2B in vitro. Interestingly, the same conditions that bypass eIF2B also overcome the requirement for the normally essential eIF2alpha structural gene (SUI2). Our results suggest that the eIF2betagamma complex is capable of carrying out the essential function(s) of eIF2 in the absence of eIF2alpha and eIF2B and are consistent with the idea that the latter function primarily to regulate the level of eIF2.GTP.Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complexes in vivo. PMID:11333223

  20. Maternal high-altitude hypoxia and suppression of ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca2+ sparks in fetal sheep pulmonary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Scott R; Blood, Quintin; Rubalcava, Monica; Waskel, Edith; Lumbard, Britney; Le, Petersen; Longo, Lawrence D; Buchholz, John N; Wilson, Sean M

    2012-11-01

    Ca(2+) sparks are fundamental Ca(2+) signaling events arising from ryanodine receptor (RyR) activation, events that relate to contractile and dilatory events in the pulmonary vasculature. Recent studies demonstrate that long-term hypoxia (LTH) can affect pulmonary arterial reactivity in fetal, newborn, and adult animals. Because RyRs are important to pulmonary vascular reactivity and reactivity changes with ontogeny and LTH we tested the hypothesis that RyR-generated Ca(2+) signals are more active before birth and that LTH suppresses these responses. We examined these hypotheses by performing confocal imaging of myocytes in living arteries and by performing wire myography studies. Pulmonary arteries (PA) were isolated from fetal, newborn, or adult sheep that lived at low altitude or from those that were acclimatized to 3,801 m for > 100 days. Confocal imaging demonstrated preservation of the distance between the sarcoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and plasma membrane in PA myocytes. Maturation increased global Ca(2+) waves and Ca(2+) spark activity, with sparks becoming larger, wider, and slower. LTH preferentially depressed Ca(2+) spark activity in immature pulmonary arterial myocytes, and these sparks were smaller, wider, and slower. LTH also suppressed caffeine-elicited contraction in fetal PA but augmented contraction in the newborn and adult. The influence of both ontogeny and LTH on RyR-dependent cell excitability shed new light on the therapeutic potential of these channels for the treatment of pulmonary vascular disease in newborns as well as adults. PMID:22962012

  1. AKAP150 participates in calcineurin/NFAT activation during the down-regulation of voltage-gated K(+) currents in ventricular myocytes following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Hirenallur-Shanthappa, Dinesh; Nygren, Patrick J; Hinke, Simon A; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Langeberg, Lorene K; Navedo, Manuel; Santana, Luis F; Scott, John D

    2016-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-responsive phosphatase calcineurin/protein phosphatase 2B dephosphorylates the transcription factor NFATc3. In the myocardium activation of NFATc3 down-regulates the expression of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels after myocardial infarction (MI). This prolongs action potential duration and increases the probability of arrhythmias. Although recent studies infer that calcineurin is activated by local and transient Ca(2+) signals the molecular mechanism that underlies the process is unclear in ventricular myocytes. Here we test the hypothesis that sequestering of calcineurin to the sarcolemma of ventricular myocytes by the anchoring protein AKAP150 is required for acute activation of NFATc3 and the concomitant down-regulation of Kv channels following MI. Biochemical and cell based measurements resolve that approximately 0.2% of the total calcineurin activity in cardiomyocytes is associated with AKAP150. Electrophysiological analyses establish that formation of this AKAP150-calcineurin signaling dyad is essential for the activation of the phosphatase and the subsequent down-regulation of Kv channel currents following MI. Thus AKAP150-mediated targeting of calcineurin to sarcolemmal micro-domains in ventricular myocytes contributes to the local and acute gene remodeling events that lead to the down-regulation of Kv currents. PMID:26724383

  2. Calcium transients caused by calcium entry are influenced by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in guinea-pig atrial myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, P; Pott, L; Callewaert, G; Carmeliet, E

    1992-01-01

    1. Single atrial myocytes obtained by enzyme perfusion from hearts of adult guinea-pigs were investigated using whole-cell voltage clamp and Indo-1 micro-fluorometry. 2. In myocytes loaded with a solution containing citrate as a low-affinity, non-saturable Ca2+ chelator, two types of [Ca2+]i transients could be recorded during repetitive activation of L-type Ca2+ current. Both large and small [Ca2+]i transients occurred; large transients reached peak values of about 1 microM, and small transients were about 100 nM or less in amplitude. 3. In the case of the large transients, peak [Ca2+]i was usually reached with a variable delay after repolarization from a voltage step that activated calcium current (ICa). For the small transients the rise in [Ca2+]i paralleled ICa. Upon repolarization [Ca2+]i started to decay. 4. The small transients reflect entry of Ca2+ through Ca2+ channels (entry transients), whereas the large transients are due to entry and release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (release transients). 5. The entry transients displayed a positive staircase pattern during trains of depolarizing voltage steps despite constant or even decreasing amplitude of ICa. The steepness of the staircase was increased by elevation of [Ca2+]o. Entry transients were always smallest immediately after a release transient. 6. After functional removal of the sarcoplasmic reticulum by caffeine (1-5 mM) the staircase pattern of the transients reflecting Ca2+ entry was abolished. 7. It is concluded that the staircase pattern is due to rapid uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum of Ca2+ entering the cell, resulting in an attenuation of the signal. The attenuation is strongest shortly after a release signal, when the rate of sequestration of Ca2+ by the SR should be highest. 8. Evidence is provided that a compartment of the SR is involved in attenuation of the entry transients. This compartment has been identified recently as a peripheral release compartment. PMID:1335504

  3. Characterization and agonist regulation of muscarinic ([3H]N-methyl scopolamine) receptors in isolated ventricular myocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Horackova, M; Robinson, B; Wilkinson, M

    1990-11-01

    Cell surface muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been characterized and quantified for the first time, in intact, isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The cells were previously established as functionally fully compatible with cellular responses in intact cardiac tissue. The specific binding of the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]-NMS, (N-methyl-[3H]-scopolamine methylchloride) was found to be stereo-specific, saturable, reversible and of high affinity. Binding of [3H]-NMS demonstrated appropriate drug specificity and was positively correlated with increasing cell concentrations. Bmax for [3H]-NMS binding to ventricular myocytes, enzymatically dissociated from adult male rats, was 15.8 +/- 1.03 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells (at 4 degrees C) and KD was 0.27 +/- 0.05 nM (n = 14). Binding assays performed at a higher incubation temperature (30 degrees C) yielded a higher Bmax value (22.1 +/- 1.6 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells; n = 11; P less than 0.005 vs. Bmax at 4 degrees C) but an unchanged KD (0.23 +/- 0.06 nM). Pretreatment of myocytes with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) at 37 degrees C resulted in a reduction (down-regulation) in specific binding of the hydrophilic ligand [3H]-NMS. The magnitude of this reduction and its rate of recovery were dependent on the time of the exposure to carbachol. Exposures of 30-60 min elicited down-regulated by 35% (Bmax = 14.29 +/- 1.66 changed to 9.5 +/- 1.79 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells, without change in KD P less than 0.01, n = 4). The down-regulation of the muscarinic receptors by carbachol was insensitive to application of bacitracin - an inhibitor of endocytosis. On the other hand preincubation with 10(-9)M atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, hindered the agonist-induced receptor "loss" from the cell surface confirming the muscarinic nature of these receptors. We conclude that our preparation of intact, isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is ideally suited for the study of cell surface muscarinic receptor regulation under physiological and

  4. Functional diversity of electrogenic Na+–HCO3− cotransport in ventricular myocytes from rat, rabbit and guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Taku; Swietach, Pawel; Rossini, Alessandra; Loh, Shih-Hurng; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Spitzer, Kenneth W

    2005-01-01

    The Na+–HCO3− cotransporter (NBC) is an important sarcolemmal acid extruder in cardiac muscle. The characteristics of NBC expressed functionally in heart are controversial, with reports suggesting electroneutral (NBCn; 1HCO3− : 1Na+; coupling coefficient n = 1) or electrogenic forms of the transporter (NBCe; equivalent to 2HCO3− : 1Na+; n = 2). We have used voltage-clamp and epifluorescence techniques to compare NBC activity in isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbit, rat and guinea pig. Depolarization (by voltage clamp or hyperkalaemia) reversibly increased steady-state pHi while hyperpolarization decreased it, effects seen only in CO2/HCO3−-buffered solutions, and blocked by S0859 (cardiac NBC inhibitor). Species differences in amplitude of these pHi changes were rat > guinea pig ≈ rabbit. Tonic depolarization (−140 mV to −0 mV) accelerated NBC-mediated pHi recovery from an intracellular acid load. At 0 mV, NBC-mediated outward current at resting pHi was +0.52 ± 0.05 pA pF−1 (rat, n = 5), +0.26 ± 0.05 pA pF−1 (guinea pig, n = 5) and +0.10 ± 0.03 pA pF−1 (rabbit, n = 9), with reversal potentials near −100 mV, consistent with n = 2. The above results indicate a functionally active voltage-sensitive NBCe in these species. Voltage-clamp hyperpolarization negative to the reversal potential for NBCe failed, however, to terminate or reverse NBC-mediated pHi-recovery from an acid load although it was slowed significantly, suggesting electroneutral NBC may also be operational. NBC-mediated pHi recovery was associated with a rise of [Na+]i at a rate ∼25% of that mediated via NHE, and consistent with an apparent NBC stoichiometry between n = 1 and n = 2. In conclusion, NBCe in the ventricular myocyte displays considerable functional variation among the three species tested (greatest in rat, least in rabbit) and may coexist with some NBCn activity. PMID:15550467

  5. The GATA-4 transcription factor transactivates the cardiac muscle-specific troponin C promoter-enhancer in nonmuscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ip, H S; Wilson, D B; Heikinheimo, M; Tang, Z; Ting, C N; Simon, M C; Leiden, J M; Parmacek, M S

    1994-01-01

    The unique contractile phenotype of cardiac myocytes is determined by the expression of a set of cardiac muscle-specific genes. By analogy to other mammalian developmental systems, it is likely that the coordinate expression of cardiac genes is controlled by lineage-specific transcription factors that interact with promoter and enhancer elements in the transcriptional regulatory regions of these genes. Although previous reports have identified several cardiac muscle-specific transcriptional elements, relatively little is known about the lineage-specific transcription factors that regulate these elements. In this report, we demonstrate that the slow/cardiac muscle-specific troponin C (cTnC) enhancer contains a specific binding site for the lineage-restricted zinc finger transcription factor GATA-4. This GATA-4-binding site is required for enhancer activity in primary cardiac myocytes. Moreover, the cTnC enhancer can be transactivated by overexpression of GATA-4 in non-cardiac muscle cells such as NIH 3T3 cells. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate that GATA-4 and cTnC have overlapping patterns of expression in the hearts of postimplantation mouse embryos and that GATA-4 gene expression precedes cTnC expression. Indirect immunofluorescence reveals GATA-4 expression in cultured cardiac myocytes from neonatal rats. Taken together, these results are consistent with a model in which GATA-4 functions to direct tissue-specific gene expression during mammalian cardiac development. Images PMID:7935467

  6. Prostaglandin A2 enhances cellular insulin sensitivity via a mechanism that involves the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Walton, R G; Tian, L; Luo, N; Ho, S-R; Fu, Y; Garvey, W T

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that members of the NR4A family of orphan nuclear receptors can augment insulin's ability to stimulate glucose transport in adipocytes. In the current study, we endeavored to test for an insulin-sensitizing effect in muscle cells and to identify a potential transactivator. Lentiviral constructs were used to engineer both hyperexpression and shRNA silencing of NR4A3 in C2C12 myocytes. The NR4A3 hyper-expression construct led to a significant increase in glucose transport rates in the presence of maximal insulin while the NR4A3 knock-down exhibited a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport rates. Consistently, insulin-mediated AKT phosphorylation was increased by NR4A3 hyperexpression and decreased following shRNA NR4A3 suppression. Then, we examined effects of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) on insulin action and NR4A3 transactivation. PGA2 augmented insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myocytes and AKT phosphorylation after 12-h treatment, without significant effects on basal transport or basal AKT phosphorylation. More importantly, we demonstrated that PGA2 led to a greater improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose rates in NR4A3 overexpressing C2C12 myocytes, when compared with Lac-Z controls stimulated with insulin and PGA2. Moreover, the sensitizing effect of PGA2 was significantly diminished in NR4A3 knockdown myocytes compared to scramble controls. These results show for the first time that: (i) PGA2 augments insulin action in myocytes as manifested by enhanced stimulation of glucose transport and AKT phosphorylation; and (ii) the insulin sensitizing effect is dependent upon the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3. PMID:23104421

  7. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-alpha reduces myocyte apoptosis and leukocyte transmigration in aged rat hearts following 24 hours of reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peitan; Xu, Baohuan; Cavalieri, Thomas A; Hock, Carl E

    2008-11-01

    Ischemic heart disease is a common age-related disease. Apoptotic cell death and inflammation are the major contributors to I/R injury. The mechanisms that trigger myocyte apoptosis and inflammation during myocardial I/R (MI/R) remain to be elucidated. Published data f