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Sample records for myopitae hymenoptera pteromalidae

  1. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bi...

  2. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Assays were conducted by varying e...

  3. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a potential natural enemy of corn-infesting Ulidiidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-species complex of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) are primary sweet corn pests in Florida. Few natural enemies of these flies are known. The pupal parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was discovered in a laboratory colony of Euxesta eluta Loew (Dipte...

  4. An update on the diversity of Wolbachia in Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections of Wolbachia bacteria have the potential to improve the efficacy of their host insects as biological control agents. Results of an earlier study documented numerous cases of such infections in a beneficial guild of wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitic on pest flies affecting lives...

  5. Revision of the Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker, 1843 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are revised. Four previously described Afrotropical species are recognized as valid and redescribed: N. africanus Subba Rao, 1973, N. garouae (Risbec, 1956) comb. nov. (transferred from Bruchobius Ashmead), N. kitegaensis (Risbec, 1957) and N. seyrigi (Risbec, 1952) comb. nov. (from Habrocytus Thomson). In addition, the Mediterranean species N. tenuicornis Bouček, 1970 is recorded for the first time from the Afrotropical region, and 21 species are described as new: N. aequus sp. nov., N. awi sp. nov., N. brevicephalus sp. nov., N. breviclava sp. nov., N. caloramans sp. nov., N. draco sp. nov., N. erebus sp. nov., N. foritempus sp. nov., N. gibber sp. nov., N. gracilis sp. nov., N. incombo sp. nov., N. ingens sp. nov., N. longissimus sp. nov., N. maliarphae sp. nov., N. mustatai sp. nov., N. pilosus sp. nov., N. pleuralis sp. nov., N. polaszeki sp. nov., N. prinslooi sp. nov., N. rotundus sp. nov., and N. sunabron sp. nov. Three extralimital species from North Africa are included in the key: N. cerasiops (Masi, 1922), N. guyoni (Giraud, 1869), and N. obscurus (Masi, 1922). Lectotypes are designated for N. cerasiops, N. kitegaensis and N. seyrigi. The subgenus Picroscytoides Masi is placed in synonymy with Norbanus s.s. syn. nov. Host records are given for several new species, including some economically important pests of maize, sorghum or rice. PMID:26249477

  6. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes. PMID:22437404

  7. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate: A female-produced pheromone component of the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of house flies Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male e...

  8. Linear dispersal of the filth fly parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and parasitism of hosts at increasing distances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  9. The effect of linear distance on the parasitism of house fly hosts (Diptera: Muscidae) by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  10. Comparison of the Olfactory Preferences of Four Species of Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoid Species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Hosts in Equine and Bovine Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  11. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  12. Winter survival of nuisance fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Canada and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Floate, K D; Skovgård, H

    2004-08-01

    Independent studies were performed in Canada and in Denmark to assess the survival of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) wintering in puparia of house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae). Data in Canada were collected for Muscidifurax raptorGirault & Saunders, M. raptorellus Kogan & Legner, M. zaraptor Kogan & Legner, Nasonia vitripennis(Walker), Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Trichomalopsis sarcophagae (Gahan) and Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) in three microsites at an outdoor cattle facility in southern Alberta. Survival was highest for N. vitripennis, T. sarcophagae and U. rufipes, ranging from near zero to c. 7%. No survival was observed for S. cameroni. Daily mean values for ambient air temperature (DMAT) averaged about -3.5 degrees C during exposure periods. Data for Denmark were collected for M. raptor, S. cameroni and U. rufipes in a dairy barn and in a swine barn. Survival of M. raptor and U. rufipes was higher than that of S. cameroni in the dairy barn (DMAT = 8.6 degrees C), with the three species having similar survival in the swine barn (DMAT = 15.4 degrees C). In both studies, parasitoids in egg stages were least likely to survive. These results identify the potential for T. sarcophagae and U. rufipes to be commercialized for use in northern climates as biocontrol agents for nuisance flies, compare directly the cold-hardiness of commercialized species (i.e. all of the above species excluding T. sarcophagae and U. rufipes), and document the importance of microsite on winter survival. PMID:15301698

  13. Pheomelanin in the secondary sexual characters of male parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Jorge García, Alberto; Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence and distribution of eumelanin and pheomelanin, the most prevalent biological pigments, has been rarely investigated in insects. Particularly yellowish to brownish body parts, which in many vertebrates are associated with pheomelanin, are visible in many insects but their chemical nature was rarely examined to a similar detail. Here, by using Dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis, we found both eumelanin and pheomelanin in different body parts of male parasitoid wasps of three species of the genus Mesopolobus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), which are known to have species-specific spots and coloured stripes on the legs and/or antennae which are displayed to females during courtship. We found a strong eumelanin signal in the antennal clava of all studied Mesopolobus species and in the circular black spot or callosity and the triangular black projection on the outer apical angle of the typically expanded middle tibia of Mesopolobus tibialis and Mesopolobus xanthocerus. Eumelanin was also the predominant pigment in the black thorax of Mesopolobus and other members of the family. Pheomelanin, on the other hand, was detected as predominant only in certain body parts of M. tibialis and M. xanthocerus, precisely in a very narrow, longitudinal brownish stripe on the middle femur and, only in M. tibialis, in a brownish oval-longitudinal stripe on the middle tibia. The two melanin types co-occurred in most pigmented areas, but more often one is clearly predominant relative to the other, according to the variation of Raman signal intensity of their signature peaks. A further tibial yellowish-orange stripe present in both these species did not include melanins of any type. Pheomelanin, could be more widespread than previously known in insects. A convergent evolution of melanin-based male sexual ornaments between vertebrates (e.g. bird feathers) and wasps can be suggested, opening to a new line of comparative evolutionary studies. PMID:27224206

  14. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  15. The preimaginal phases and development of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D; Fernández, Severiano

    2009-10-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae) using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is granulated, and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The labrum of the first instar larva does not have sensilla, and the second to fourth instar larvae have setae on the head. The mature larva is characterized by the position and number of the integumental differentiations (sensilla and setae). On completion of larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. As for the adult, the mandibles of the pupae are toothed. Five larval instars are recorded, based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles in combination with characters such as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was 18-20 days for males and 21-23 days for females at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 relative humidity, and a 16L:8D photoperiod. The results show that the eggs and different larval instars of this parasitoid can be unambiguously identified only by scanning electron microscope. PMID:19709460

  16. Linear Dispersal of the Filth Fly Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Parasitism of Hosts at Increasing Distances

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, Erika T.; Geden, Christopher J.; Leppla, Norman C.

    2015-01-01

    Release of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents for house flies and stable flies in livestock confinements has had variable success. In part, this may reflect a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal distance to be used between parasitoid release stations. In the current study, we assessed the effect of linear distance on host parasitism by the wasp Spalangia cameroni Perkins. In open fields at distances ranging from 1 m to 60 m from a central point, house fly puparia were placed in a mixture of pine shavings soiled with equine manure, urine, and alfalfa hay. Releases of S. cameroni then were made using a 5:1 host: parasitoid ratio. Host pupae were parasitized at all distances, with the highest rate of total parasitism (68.9%) recorded ≤ 5 m from the release site. Analyses of results using non-linear and linear models suggest that S. cameroni should be released in close proximity to host development areas. Additionally, releases may not be suitable in pasture situations where long-distance flight is required for control. However, further testing is needed to examine the effect of density-dependent dispersal and diffusion of S. cameroni. PMID:26061882

  17. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  18. Parasitoids of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with description of a new species of Agiommatus Crawford, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from India with notes on biology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M

    2016-07-01

    In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Karnataka and Goa, India, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis. PMID:27307173

  19. Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival, Development, and Oviposition Rates of the Pupal Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-08-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d(-1)), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies. PMID:27298392

  20. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Live and Freeze-killed House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine if the reduced suitability of freeze-killed pupae for Pteromalidae, particularly Spalangia cameroni Perkins, is due to freezing, freezing duration or the type of freezer utilized. Processing pupae through freezing had a considerably greater negative effect on ...

  1. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Live and Freeze-killed House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine if the reduced suitability of freeze-killed pupae for Pteromalidae, particularly Spalangia cameroni Perkins, is due to freezing, freezing duration or the type of freezer utilized. Processing pupae through freezing had a considerably greater negative effect on ...

  2. Host suitability of house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), pupae killed by high or low temperature treatment for a parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kohei; Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Arakawa, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i) heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii) freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to -80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at -20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at -80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at -80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at -80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage. PMID:23049472

  3. Biocontrol potential of Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at low temperatures: reproduction and parasitoid-induced mortality.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lise Stengård

    2007-06-01

    Lariophagus distinguendus Forster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) has been suggested as a biological control agent against the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), in grain stores. Information on the effect of low temperatures prevailing in grain stores is necessary to be able to predict the potential of this parasitoid against S. granarius in temperate regions, where grain is cooled with ambient air to achieve safe storage conditions. The influence of constant temperatures of 16, 18, and 20 degrees C on life table parameters and parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was investigated in the laboratory. L. distinguendus is able to develop and reproduce at temperatures as low as 16 degrees C. The intrinsic rate of natural increase, rm, was 0.0182, 0.0222, and 0.0792 d(-1) at 16, 18, and 20 degrees C, respectively. The proportion of hosts killed due to parasitoid-induced mortality was highest at 20 degrees C. At this temperature, it amounted to 70% of the total mortality exerted by the parasitoid; at 18 and 16'C, it was 57 and 42% of the total, respectively. L. distinguendus is a promising biocontrol agent for grain stores in temperate regions because it is able to develop and reproduce at temperatures down to 16 degrees C; its development is quicker than that of its host, estimated from the literature; and it kills many hosts in addition to those used for reproduction. PMID:17598568

  4. Biological control of house flies Musca domestica and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans(Diptera: Muscidae) by means of inundative releases of Spalangia cameroni(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, H; Nachman, G

    2004-12-01

    The efficacy of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni Perkins as a biological control agent was tested against house flies Musca domestica Linnaeus and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus) in one dairy cattle and two pig installations in Denmark. Weekly releases of S. cameroni from April through to September-October 1999 and 2000 resulted in significant suppressions of house fly populations to below nuisance level, whereas no effect on stable flies was found. Parasitism was significantly higher in the release years compared to the control years, but was below 25% averaged over the fly season for each farm. A statistical model based on a functional relationship between the innate capacity of increase of the two fly species and three explanatory variables (air temperature, fly density and parasitism) provided a fairly good fit to data with the abundances of house flies and stable flies explained mostly by temperature, but intra- and interspecific competition, and parasitism had a significant effect as well. Overall, the model was capable of explaining 14% and 6.6% of the total variation in data for house fly and stable fly, respectively. Spalangia cameroni was the predominant parasitoid to emerge from exposed house fly pupae, but from mid summer onwards Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was also quite common. The study indicated that biological control of house flies can be an efficient alternative to chemical control. PMID:15541194

  5. Host Suitability of House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), Pupae Killed by High or Low Temperature Treatment for a Parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kohei; Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Arakawa, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i) heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii) freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to −80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at −20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at −80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at −80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at –80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage. PMID:23049472

  6. Two new fossil genera and species of Cerocephalinae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae), including the first record from the Eocene

    PubMed Central

    Bläser, Marcel; Krogmann, Lars; Peters, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cerocephalinae (Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps characterized by a number of derived diagnostic features. Their hosts are endophytic beetles. So far, 43 species of Cerocephalinae have been described, including one fossil species from the Miocene. In this study, we add two new genera and species from Baltic and Dominican amber to the fossil record. Tenuicornus dominicus gen. et sp. n. is the second genus described from Dominican amber, and Pteropilosa lailarabanorum gen. et sp. n., described from Baltic amber, represents the oldest record of the subfamily, pushing the minimum age of Cerocephalinae back to the Eocene. Diagnostic characters of both species are discussed in comparison with other Cerocephalinae. An updated key to extant and fossil Cerocephalinae is presented. PMID:26798296

  7. Review of Hyperimerus (Pteromalidae: Asaphinae) in North America, with redescription of Hyperimerus corvus (Girault)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American species Hyperimerus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reviewed. Hyperimerus corvus Girault is redescribed, a lectotype designated, and the male is described for the first time. Hyperimerus pusillus (Walker) is also briefly redescribed and range extension is proposed. Notes on extralimit...

  8. Pushing the limits – two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Pteromalus briani sp. n. and Pteromalus janstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalus briani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglais urticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalus janstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world. PMID:26261432

  9. Review of the world species of Spaniopus Walker, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), with description of a new species from the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Tselikh, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    The species of Spaniopus Walker, 1833 (Pteromalidae) are reviewed. A new species from the Russian Far East, S. belokobylskiji sp. nov., is described and illustrated. Redescriptions and illustrations of all available types of Spaniopus species are provided. A key for the identification of the twelve known species of Spaniopus is given. Five species, Spaniopus fulvicornis Bouček, S. japonicus Kamijo, S. nigriceps Kamijo, S. sasacolae Kamijo and S. varicornis Bouček are recorded from Russia for the first time. PMID:26701506

  10. Hyperparasitism in a Generalist Ectoparasitic Pupal Parasitoid, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), on Its Own Conspecifics: When the Lack of Resource Lead to Cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; He, Zhang; Ji, Xiao-Li; Tang, Si-Ting; Hu, Hao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperparasitism is a normal behavior of parasitoids, which often happens among species. Conspecific hyperparasitism, such as some kinds of heteronomous hyperparasitic behaviors, has been only reported in some species belonging to Aphelinidae. In this article, the conspecific hyperparasitism of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae) is reported, with Drosophila puparia as hosts. Hosts were exposed to P. vindemmiae females twice to parasitism with nine, twelve, and fifteen day intervals between the two exposures. None of the infested hosts emerged more than one offspring, and emergence of parasitoid offspring occurred in two obvious events, synchronously with the exposure time intervals, which suggested that offspring emerging during the first and second events would come from the primary and secondary parasitoids, respectively, and the inference with the developmental duration of offspring also indicated this. With two P. vindemmiae strains that could be identified by a simple sequence repeat marker, the above speculation of the origin of those offspring emerging during the two events was confirmed. Dissection of hosts exposed twice revealed a cannibalism behavior of larvae from the secondary foundresses on the primary conspecific pupae. Our results suggested a conspecific hyperparasitism behavior of the secondary parasitoids on the primary conspecifics. Measures showed a reduced body size for the adults from the conspecific hyperparasitism. Foundresses from the conspecific hyperparasitism had less fitness variables than those from primary parasitism, with shorter longevity, less life time fecundity, lower values of infestation degree, and lower success rate of parasitism. However, when the parasitoids from the conspecific hyperparasitism met healthy Drosophila puparia, their offspring would recover to normal size. Frequency of the conspecific hyperparasitism behavior enhanced with the decreasing of proportion of healthy hosts in the oviposition patch. The

  11. Hyperparasitism in a Generalist Ectoparasitic Pupal Parasitoid, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), on Its Own Conspecifics: When the Lack of Resource Lead to Cannibalism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; He, Zhang; Ji, Xiao-Li; Tang, Si-Ting; Hu, Hao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperparasitism is a normal behavior of parasitoids, which often happens among species. Conspecific hyperparasitism, such as some kinds of heteronomous hyperparasitic behaviors, has been only reported in some species belonging to Aphelinidae. In this article, the conspecific hyperparasitism of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae) is reported, with Drosophila puparia as hosts. Hosts were exposed to P. vindemmiae females twice to parasitism with nine, twelve, and fifteen day intervals between the two exposures. None of the infested hosts emerged more than one offspring, and emergence of parasitoid offspring occurred in two obvious events, synchronously with the exposure time intervals, which suggested that offspring emerging during the first and second events would come from the primary and secondary parasitoids, respectively, and the inference with the developmental duration of offspring also indicated this. With two P. vindemmiae strains that could be identified by a simple sequence repeat marker, the above speculation of the origin of those offspring emerging during the two events was confirmed. Dissection of hosts exposed twice revealed a cannibalism behavior of larvae from the secondary foundresses on the primary conspecific pupae. Our results suggested a conspecific hyperparasitism behavior of the secondary parasitoids on the primary conspecifics. Measures showed a reduced body size for the adults from the conspecific hyperparasitism. Foundresses from the conspecific hyperparasitism had less fitness variables than those from primary parasitism, with shorter longevity, less life time fecundity, lower values of infestation degree, and lower success rate of parasitism. However, when the parasitoids from the conspecific hyperparasitism met healthy Drosophila puparia, their offspring would recover to normal size. Frequency of the conspecific hyperparasitism behavior enhanced with the decreasing of proportion of healthy hosts in the oviposition patch. The

  12. Catolaccus grandis (Burks)(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catolaccus grandis is an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil classified initially within the genus Heterolaccus (Burks 1954). It was first introduced to the U.S. during the early 1970’s and released in experimental fields in Mississippi State, MS (Johnson et al. 1973). Researchers observed encouraging...

  13. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  14. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Munro, James B.; Heraty, John M.; Burks, Roger A.; Hawks, David; Mottern, Jason; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Jansta, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with more than 23,000 species described and over 500,000 species estimated to exist. This is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a molecular analysis of 18S and 28S ribosomal gene regions for 19 families, 72 subfamilies, 343 genera and 649 species. The 56 outgroups are comprised of Ceraphronoidea and most proctotrupomorph families, including Mymarommatidae. Data alignment and the impact of ambiguous regions are explored using a secondary structure analysis and automated (MAFFT) alignments of the core and pairing regions and regions of ambiguous alignment. Both likelihood and parsimony approaches are used to analyze the data. Overall there is no impact of alignment method, and few but substantial differences between likelihood and parsimony approaches. Monophyly of Chalcidoidea and a sister group relationship between Mymaridae and the remaining Chalcidoidea is strongly supported in all analyses. Either Mymarommatoidea or Diaprioidea are the sister group of Chalcidoidea depending on the analysis. Likelihood analyses place Rotoitidae as the sister group of the remaining Chalcidoidea after Mymaridae, whereas parsimony nests them within Chalcidoidea. Some traditional family groups are supported as monophyletic (Agaonidae, Eucharitidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Leucospidae, Mymaridae, Ormyridae, Signiphoridae, Tanaostigmatidae and Trichogrammatidae). Several other families are paraphyletic (Perilampidae) or polyphyletic (Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae and Torymidae). Evolutionary scenarios discussed for Chalcidoidea include the evolution of phytophagy, egg parasitism, sternorrhynchan parasitism, hypermetamorphic development and heteronomy. PMID:22087244

  15. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies cause problems around horses by taking blood meals and increasing horse activity. Although this is a recognized problem, few equine studies have been conducted. Therefore scientists at the USDA-CMAVE worked cooperatively with University of Florida scientists to conduct a 26-month study ...

  16. Development of microsporidia-infected Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at different temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscididfurax raptor, a pupal parasitoid of house flies and other filth flies, is commonly infected with the microsporidium Nosema muscidifuracis. To determine the effects of infection on developmental time, uninfected and infected adult M. raptor were allowed to parasitize pupae of the house fly (M...

  17. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Cereal Grain Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by the host's food would be the first signals used by parasitoids in the host location process and are thought to play an important role in host habitat location. In this study, the olfactory responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood), a Pteromalid wasp that parasitizes immature stages of stored-product insect pests developing inside cereal or leguminous grains, to volatiles emitted by healthy wheat grains, their hexane extracts, and different doses of three individual compounds previously identified in cereal grain odors were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer and Petri dish arena behavioral bioassays and electroantennogram recordings. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, odors from healthy wheat grains and their hexane extracts were attractive to both sexes of T. elegans. Moreover, hexane extracts elicited arresting effects in Petri dish arena. The three synthetic compounds valeraldehyde, maltol, and vanillin elicited dose-dependent responses in both male and female adult wasps confirming the capability of the peripheral olfactory systems to perceive cereal volatiles. In behavioral bioassays, different doses of vanillin were significantly attractive to both sexes. PMID:26904680

  18. General morphology and ultrastructure of the female reproductive apparatus of Trichomalopsis shirakii crawford (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ning; Tang, Pu; Tian, Hong-Wei; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of the female reproductive system were examined for a larval-pupal parasitoid Trichomalopsis shirakii Crawford of Oulema oryzae Kuwayama using light and electron microscopes. The reproductive system includes two ovaries, two pairs of accessory glands, an unbranched venom gland, a large venom reservoir and a Dufour gland. Each ovariole contains follicles and oocytes at different stages of maturation. A fibrous layer covers the surface of mature egg. The accessory glands are made up of a layer of secretory cells surrounded by muscle fibers. In these secretory cells, numerous mitochondria, electron-dense secretory granules and vesicles filled with dense granular particles are present. These granular particles appear as virus-like particles (VLPs). The venom gland consists of a single layer of secretory cells which are organelle rich with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and vesicular organelles, a layer of duct cells and an inner intima. The reservoir consists of a muscular sheath, epidermal cells with few organelles and an intima layer. The Dufour gland has a relatively large lumen surrounded by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells which are characterized by clusters of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets. Aside from the venom, the fibrous layer coating the egg and the granular particles which may be VLPs have been discovered in our study. They may serve as one of the parasitoid-associated factors in their host-parasitoid relationship and play a role in host immune suppression. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:625-636, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27151249

  19. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Cereal Grain Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by the host's food would be the first signals used by parasitoids in the host location process and are thought to play an important role in host habitat location. In this study, the olfactory responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood), a Pteromalid wasp that parasitizes immature stages of stored-product insect pests developing inside cereal or leguminous grains, to volatiles emitted by healthy wheat grains, their hexane extracts, and different doses of three individual compounds previously identified in cereal grain odors were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer and Petri dish arena behavioral bioassays and electroantennogram recordings. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, odors from healthy wheat grains and their hexane extracts were attractive to both sexes of T. elegans. Moreover, hexane extracts elicited arresting effects in Petri dish arena. The three synthetic compounds valeraldehyde, maltol, and vanillin elicited dose-dependent responses in both male and female adult wasps confirming the capability of the peripheral olfactory systems to perceive cereal volatiles. In behavioral bioassays, different doses of vanillin were significantly attractive to both sexes. PMID:26904680

  20. Host location by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in equine associated substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of filth flies with pupal parasitoids has become increasingly popular with horse owners (USDA 2006) but has not been evaluated on equestrian facilities. Little is known of the substrate preferences of filth fly parasitoids on equestrian facilities, but the success of release prog...

  1. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Fang, L; Liu, J L; He, Z; Hu, H Y

    2015-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) is a common pupal parasitoid of many fly pests that is distributed worldwide. This organism can be used for biological control in orchards or livestock farms. Identifying polymorphic microsatellite loci would be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure of the parasitoid. In the current study, based on a modified biotin-capture method, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the insect, 7 of which did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allelic number per locus varied from 3-7 (N = 30). The expected and observed heterozygosities of 10 loci ranged from 0.369-0.775 and from 0.300-0.867, respectively. PMID:25867324

  2. Data mining cDNAs reveals 3 new ssRNA viruses in Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Deodoro C.S.G.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Ng, Julienne; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Dang, Phat M.; Werren, John H.

    2010-01-01

    We report three novel small RNA viruses uncovered from cDNA libraries from parasitoid wasps in the genus Nasonia. The genome of this kind of virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA with a 3′ poly(A), which facilitates cloning from cDNAs. Two of the viruses, NvitV-1 and NvitV-2, possess a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that associates them with the family Iflaviridae of the order Picornavirales. A third virus, NvitV-3, is most similar to the Nora virus from Drosophila. A RT-PCR method developed for NvitV-1 indicates that it is a persistent commensal infection of Nasonia. PMID:20167021

  3. Comparison of host-seeking behavior of the filth fly pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, are often sold together for biological control of house flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking b...

  4. Comparison of Host-Seeking Behavior of the Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Teal, P E; Leppla, N C

    2015-04-01

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, can be purchased for biological control of house flies Musca domestica L. and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking behavior of these two species, so odors associated with house flies were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from house fly host puparia, larvae, pine-shavings bedding with horse manure, and developing flies in the pine-shavings-manure substrate were evaluated in bioassays using the two pteromalid species. In choice tests, naïve female S. cameroni were strongly attracted to odor from the substrate containing house fly larvae and secondarily from the uninfested substrate and substrate with puparia versus humidified and purified air. This species also selected the substrate with larvae versus the substrate with the house fly puparia or uninfested substrate. Muscidifurax raptor was attracted to odor from the substrate containing puparia, washed puparia, and substrate with puparia removed. The data suggest that coexistence between the two pteromalid parasitoids, S. cameroni and M. raptor, might be promoted by different host-seeking behavior. PMID:26313187

  5. Electroantennogram responses of the southern pine beetle parasitoidDinotiscus dendroctoni (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to potential semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Salom, S M; Birgersson, G; Payne, T L; Berisford, C W

    1991-12-01

    In two studies using the electroantennogram (EAG) technique, bark beetle- and tree-produced semiochemicals were presented toDinotiscus dendroctoni (Ashmead), a larval parasitoid ofDendroctonus frontalis Zimm. In the first study, 20 test compounds and a standard mixture of oxygenated monoterpenes were presented individually at one concentration to the parasitoids. In the second study, the nine compounds that elicited the greatest EAGs in study 1 were then tested as serial dilutions of 10 to 0.0001μg/ul. The individual compounds did not elicit responses greater than the standard mixture of oxygenated monoterpenes. Males and females exhibited similar dose responses, although females showed lower thresholds of response than males to frontalin, terpinen-4-ol,E,Z-chalcogran, andexo-brevicomin. In both studies, pino-/isopinocamphone elicited the greatest responses at high concentrations. Tests of different ratios of the camphone mixture indicated that pinocamphone elicited the greatest response. Most of the test compounds elicited similar responses which suggests that several of the compounds may be used together byD. dendroctoni in habitat and/or host community location. PMID:24258645

  6. The leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) encapsulates its koinobiont parasitoid Halticoptera circulus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Kemmochi, T; Fujimori, S; Saito, T

    2016-06-01

    The koinobiont parasitoid Halticoptera circulus (Walker) is a potential biological control agent of leafminers, but it has only rarely been collected from the invasive leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), in Japan. To understand why this is the case, parasitism and development of H. circulus in L. trifolii was compared with parasitism and development in two indigenous leafminer species, Liriomyza chinensis Kato and Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau). There was no significant difference in parasitism rates by H. circulus in the three leafminer species and the eggs and larvae successfully developed in L. chinensis and C. horticola. However, H. circulus failed to develop in L. trifolii, where developmental stages were encapsulated by host haemocytes. This parasitoid may be a good agent to control indigenous leafminers such as L. chinensis and C. horticola but is unlikely to be useful for the biological control of the invasive L. trifolii in Japan. PMID:26639841

  7. Sexy Mouth Odour? Male Oral Gland Pheromone in the Grain Beetle Parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    König, Kerstin; Seeger, Lucy; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, sexual pheromones are used for the attraction of mates and as courtship signals but also enable sexual isolation between species. In the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus, male courtship behaviour consisting of wing fanning, antennal stroking of the female antenna, and head nodding stimulates female receptivity leading to copulation. Recently L. distinguendus was reported to consist of two different lineages, which are sexually isolated because males fail to elicit receptivity in foreign females. It is unclear, however, which part of the courtship behaviour triggers female receptivity and therefore could be a mechanism causing sexual isolation. Here we show that in L. distinguendus a nonvolatile male oral pheromone is essential to release the female receptivity signal. In contrast, male wing fanning and antennal contact play a minor role. Additionally, the composition of the oral pheromone depends on the developmental host and females learn the composition upon emergence from the host substrate. These results will enable more detailed work on oral sexual pheromones to answer the question of how they are involved in the speciation process of L. distinguendus and other parasitoid species, for a better understanding of the huge biodiversity in this group. PMID:26579532

  8. The Ability of selected Pupal Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Locate Stable Fly Hosts in a Soiled Equine Bedding Substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory evaluations assessing the ability of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Spalangia endius Walker, and Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner to locate and attack stable fly hosts in a field-collected fly-breeding substrate suggest that Spalangia spp. are more suited to successfully locate and ...

  9. Susceptibility of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and five pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to abamectin and seven commercial insecticides.

    PubMed

    Geden, C J; Rutz, D A; Scott, J G; Long, S J

    1992-04-01

    Assays of five commercial insecticides applied as residual sprays at label rates to plywood indicated the most toxic insecticide overall for pteromalid parasitoids of house flies, Musca domestica L., was Atroban (permethrin), followed by Ciodrin (crotoxyphos), Rabon (tetrachlorvinphos), Ectrin (fenvalerate), and Cygon (dimethoate). Insecticide-susceptible house flies were susceptible to all five insecticides (mortality, 62-100%). Flies that were recently colonized from populations on dairy farms in New York were susceptible only to Rabon. Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) was the most susceptible parasitoid species overall to these insecticides, followed by Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, Nasonia vitripennis Walker, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani), and Spalangia cameroni Perkins. Compared with susceptible flies, newly colonized flies showed moderate resistance to avermectin B1a (abamectin). Abamectin was more toxic to all of the parasitoids except N. vitripennis and S. cameroni than to newly colonized house flies when exposed for 90 min to plywood boards treated with 0.001-0.1% abamectin. Space sprays with Vapona (dichlorvos) killed all of the parasitoids and susceptible flies and 64% of the newly colonized flies when insects were placed directly in the path of the spray; mortality was substantially lower among flies and parasitoids protected under 5 cm of wheat straw. Space sprays with Pyrenone (pyrethrins) killed greater than 86% of all insects exposed to the spray path except for the newly colonized flies (1% mortality); mortality of insects protected under straw was low (less than 12%) except for S. cameroni (76%). Because responses of the five parasitoids to the different insecticides varied considerably, general conclusions about parasitoid susceptibility to active ingredients, insecticide class, or method of application were not possible. PMID:1593014

  10. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, J. . E-mail: tormos@usal.es; Asis, J.D.; Frago, E.; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.; Guara, M.

    2007-03-15

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author) [Spanish] Se describen las fases de huevo y larva de T. peregrina. El huevo, como es caracteristico en los que se depositan externamente, presenta un corion ornamentado. Las larvas inmaduras exhiben peculiaridades en (a) el anillo setoso de los segmentos toracicos y abdominales, (b) la escotadura anal y (c) el tamano, y estructuras sensoriales, de la capsula cefalica. El estado de caracter mas sobresaliente presentado por la larva madura de esta especie radica en la presencia de un epistoma totalmente diferenciado. (author)

  11. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

  12. Morphometric analysis and taxonomic revision of Anisopteromalus Ruschka (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) – an integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes; Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Timokhov, Alexander V; Gokhman, Vladimir E

    2014-01-01

    We use an integrative taxonomic approach to revise the genus Anisopteromalus. In particular, we apply multivariate ratio analysis (MRA), a rather new statistical method based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), to numerous body measurements and combine the data with those from our molecular analysis of Cytb and ITS2 genetic markers (on a subset of species) and all available published data on morphology, karyology, behaviour, host associations and geographic distribution. We demonstrate that the analysis of quantitative characters using MRA plays a major role for the integration of name-bearing types and thus for the association of taxa with names. Six species are recognized, of which two are new: A. cornis Baur sp.n. and A. quinarius Gokhman & Baur sp.n. For Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), a well-known, cosmopolitan parasitoid of stored-product pests, we have selected a neotype to foster continuity and stability in the application of this important name. The species was sometimes confused with the related A. quinarius sp.n., another cosmopolitan species that is frequently encountered in similar environments. We also show that several species originally described or later put under Anisopteromalus actually belong to different genera: Cyrtoptyx camerunus (Risbec) comb.n.; Meraporus glaber (Szelényi) comb.n.; Dinarmus schwenkei (Roomi, Khan & Khan) comb.n. Neocatolaccus indicus Ayyar & Mani is confirmed as a junior synonym of Oxysychus sphenopterae (Ferrière) syn.n. and Anisopteromalus calandrae brasiliensis (Domenichini) stat.rev. must be considered as a valid but doubtful taxon. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BDFE96D3-D0F4-4012-90F5-9A087F7F5864. PMID:26074661

  13. Sexy Mouth Odour? Male Oral Gland Pheromone in the Grain Beetle Parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    König, Kerstin; Seeger, Lucy; Steidle, Johannes L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, sexual pheromones are used for the attraction of mates and as courtship signals but also enable sexual isolation between species. In the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus, male courtship behaviour consisting of wing fanning, antennal stroking of the female antenna, and head nodding stimulates female receptivity leading to copulation. Recently L. distinguendus was reported to consist of two different lineages, which are sexually isolated because males fail to elicit receptivity in foreign females. It is unclear, however, which part of the courtship behaviour triggers female receptivity and therefore could be a mechanism causing sexual isolation. Here we show that in L. distinguendus a nonvolatile male oral pheromone is essential to release the female receptivity signal. In contrast, male wing fanning and antennal contact play a minor role. Additionally, the composition of the oral pheromone depends on the developmental host and females learn the composition upon emergence from the host substrate. These results will enable more detailed work on oral sexual pheromones to answer the question of how they are involved in the speciation process of L. distinguendus and other parasitoid species, for a better understanding of the huge biodiversity in this group. PMID:26579532

  14. Two mitochondrial genomes from the families Bethylidae and Mutillidae: independent rearrangement of protein-coding genes and higher-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Li, Qian; van Achterberg, Kees; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2014-08-01

    In animal mitochondrial genomes, gene arrangements are usually conserved across major lineages but might be rearranged within derived groups, and might provide valuable phylogenetic characters. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Cephalonomia gallicola (Chrysidoidea: Bethylidae) and Wallacidia oculata (Vespoidea: Mutillidae). In Cephalonomia at least 11 tRNA and 2 protein-coding genes were rearranged, which is the first report of protein-coding gene rearrangements in the Aculeata. In the Hymenoptera, three types of protein-coding gene rearrangement events occur, i.e. reversal, transposition and reverse transposition. Venturia (Ichneumonidae) had the greatest number of common intervals with the ancestral gene arrangement pattern, whereas Philotrypesis (Agaonidae) had the fewest. The most similar rearrangement patterns are shared between Nasonia (Pteromalidae) and Philotrypesis, whereas the most differentiated rearrangements occur between Cotesia (Braconidae) and Philotrypesis. It is clear that protein-coding gene rearrangements in the Hymenoptera are evolutionarily independent across the major lineages but are conserved within groups such as the Chalcidoidea. Phylogenetic analyses supported the sister-group relationship of Orrussoidea and Apocrita, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata, Vespidae and Apoidea, and the paraphyly of Vespoidea. The Evaniomorpha and phylogenetic relationships within Aculeata remain controversial, with discrepancy between analyses using protein-coding and RNA genes. PMID:24704304

  15. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  16. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M.; Unni, Deepak R.; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  17. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L.; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera. PMID:25878545

  18. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE)

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Darren; Edney-Browne, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE). Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae). However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286), and major differences include: i) the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe); and ii) the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%). The disharmonic ‘island’ nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36%) have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60%) compared to Europe (~30%), and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950). Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour) during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment. PMID:26147445

  19. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE).

    PubMed

    Ward, Darren; Edney-Browne, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE). Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae). However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286), and major differences include: i) the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe); and ii) the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%). The disharmonic 'island' nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36%) have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60%) compared to Europe (~30%), and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950). Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour) during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment. PMID:26147445

  20. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Rabeling, Christian; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2013-01-01

    Female parthenogenesis, or thelytoky, is particularly common in solitary Hymenoptera. Only more recently has it become clear that many eusocial species also regularly reproduce thelytokously, and here we provide a comprehensive overview. Especially in ants, thelytoky underlies a variety of idiosyncratic life histories with unique evolutionary and ecological consequences. In all eusocial species studied, thelytoky probably has a nuclear genetic basis and the underlying cytological mechanism retains high levels of heterozygosity. This is in striking contrast to many solitary wasps, in which thelytoky is often induced by cytoplasmic bacteria and results in an immediate loss of heterozygosity. These differences are likely related to differences in haplodiploid sex determination mechanisms, which in eusocial species usually require heterozygosity for female development. At the same time, haplodiploidy might account for important preadaptations that can help explain the apparent ease with which Hymenoptera transition between sexual and asexual reproduction. PMID:23072461

  1. Data mining cDNAs reveals three new single stranded RNA viruses in Nasonia (Hymenopetera:Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hymenopteran viruses may provide insights into colony collapse disorder in honey bees and other insect species. Three novel small RNA viruses were discovered during the genomics effort for the beneficial parasitoid of flies in the genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera). Genomics provides a great deal of inform...

  2. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  3. Drilling-in and Chewing-out of Hosts by the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) When Parasitizing Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Broski, Scott A; King, B H

    2015-08-01

    Many organisms are protected from natural enemies by a tough exterior. Such protection is particularly important for immobile stages, such as pupae. The pupa of some insects is protected by a puparium, which is a shell formed from the exoskeleton of the last larval instar. However, the puparium of certain fly species is drilled through by adult females of the wasp Spalangia endius Walker. The female wasp then deposits an egg on the fly pupa within the puparium. After the wasp offspring finishes feeding on the fly pupa, it chews through the puparium to complete emergence. Despite the apparent toughness of the puparium, there was no detectable wear on the ovipositor of S. endius females even when females had been encountering fly pupae (Musca domestica L.) for weeks, and regardless of whether the pupae were large or old or both. Energy dispersive spectroscopy did not reveal any metal ions in the ovipositor's cuticle to account for this resistance against wear. Offspring of S. endius that chewed their way out of pupae also showed no detectable wear on their mandibles. Tests with a penetrometer showed that the force required to penetrate the center of a puparium was greater for larger and for older pupae; and an index of overall thickness was greater for large old pupae than for small old pupae. The lack of an effect of pupal size or age on wear may result from wasps choosing locations on the puparium that are easier to get through. PMID:26314056

  4. Impact of αAI-1 Expressed in Genetically Modified Cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Its Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lüthi, Christoph; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests. PMID:23840776

  5. Distribution and abundance of natural parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) populations of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of house fly and stable fly populations with commercially produced parasitic wasp has become increasingly popular because no pesticides are involved. A field evaluation was performed in northcentral Florida to document local wasp species and their prevalence during the year. Samples wer...

  6. Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Förster)-Past, Present, and Future: The History of a Biological Control Method Using L. distinguendus against Different Storage Pests.

    PubMed

    Niedermayer, Steffi; Pollmann, Marie; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2016-01-01

    Legal requirements and consumer demands for residue-free products pose a big challenge for pest control in grain stores. One possible alternative to chemical insecticides is biological pest control with the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus against the weevils Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Dryophtoridae), and many other storage pest beetles. The use of this wasp as a biocontrol agent was already suggested in 1919 by Prof. Dr. Hase [1]. Despite many studies on host-finding and behavioral biology, the applied aspect was neglected until 1994. Nowadays the wasps are commercially available and can now even be reared on-site, facilitating their use tremendously. This review highlights the milestones in L. distinguendus research, gives insights in current studies, and ventures a glimpse into the future. PMID:27490572

  7. Inundative releases of pteromalid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for the control of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) at confined cattle installations in west central Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Andress, E R; Campbell, J B

    1994-06-01

    Fly pupal parasitoids, primarily Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, purchased from commercial insectaries, failed to reduce numbers of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), significantly despite weekly releases of high numbers at one feedlot and one dairy during 1990 and a different feedlot and dairy in 1991. Parasitoid emergence from stable fly puparia were not significantly greater in the confinements where releases were made compared with confinements where no releases were made. The level of parasitism increased at all four confinements during and following parasitoid releases. Shipments of parasitoids contained neither the number requested or the species purity that had been anticipated. Both quantity and quality of parasitoids improved the second year of the research. The most numerous naturally occurring parasitoid species were also present at a new, relatively isolated feedlot by mid-July. PMID:8027475

  8. Individual and combined releases of Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a biological control tactic targeting house flies in dairy calf facilities.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Strong, Colleen; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2012-09-01

    The impact of commercially reared house fly parasitoids released into nine dairy calf coverall facilities were evaluated over 3 yr. Individual and equally mixed ratios of the pteromalid parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Saunders and M. raptorellus Kogan and Legner were released at a rate of 500 parasitoids per calf per week for 8 wk. Prerelease, release, and postrelease parasitism was monitored using nearly 100,000 sentinel house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae during the 3 yr study. In general, very few adult parasitoids were recovered during the prerelease period and on the no-release farms during any period. However, considerable numbers of M. raptor and M. raptorellus were recovered from sentinel pupae on respective release farms. As expected, the greatest successful parasitism occurred during release periods, with a drop during postrelease periods. High successful parasitism and uneclosed pupae on M. raptorellus release farms suggests that this parasitoid was aggressive in attacking hosts with progeny production at approximately four wasps per pupa. Solitary releases of M. raptor provided sentinel mortality between 31 and 38%, whereas sentinel mortality on M. raptorellus-release farms was double, at 59-80%. Using mixed releases of the two species, overall fly mortality was slightly lower than that observed on M. raptorellus-only farms. This study documents the advantage of releasing M. raptorellus rather than M. raptor on New York dairy calf facilities, as supported by higher parasitism rates and lower costs (35-75%) for purchase of these gregarious wasps, as 75-80% fewer parasitized pupae are needed to achieve similar adult parasitoid levels. PMID:23025187

  9. Commercial and naturally occurring fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents of stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on California dairies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J A; Mullens, B A; Cyr, T L; Stokes, C

    1990-06-01

    Filth fly parasites reared by commercial insectaries were released on two dairies (MO, DG) in southern California to determine their effect on populations of house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Spalangia endius Walker, Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner, and Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner were released on the MO dairy from 1985 to 1987 in varying quantities. Parasitism by Muscidifurax zaraptor on the MO dairy was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) from the field-collected stable fly (4.4%) and house fly (12.5%) pupae, compared with a control dairy (0.1%, stable fly; 1.3%, house fly). Muscidifurax zaraptor, released from April through October during 1987 on the DG dairy (350,000 per month), was not recovered in a significantly higher proportion from either fly species relative to the corresponding control dairy. No specimens of Muscidifurax raptorellus were recovered from the MO dairy. Parasite treatments had no apparent effect on adult populations of either fly species or on overall parasitism rate of field-collected stable fly (16.8%, MO; 17.2%, DG) and house fly (23.3%, MO; 20.9%, DG) pupae. Spalangia spp. were the predominant parasites recovered from field-collected stable fly and house fly pupae on all four dairies. Sentinel house fly pupae placed in fly-breeding sites on both release dairies were parasitized at a significantly higher rate, as compared with sentinel pupae on control dairies. The generic composition of parasites emerging from sentinel house fly pupae was 20.6% Spalangia spp. and 73.2% Muscidifurax spp., whereas in field-collected house fly pupae, Spalangia spp. and Muscidifurax spp. constituted 74.3 and 19.6% of the parasites, respectively. PMID:2376639

  10. Impacts of extended laboratory rearing on female fitness in Florida colonies of the parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with an analysis of wolbachia strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni is used as a biological control agent of filth flies. These parasitoids are reared commercially, but little is known about the impact of colony age on host-seeking and life history parameters. Host-seeking in equine shavings and manure was analyzed with two colony ages established...

  11. Transcriptomics and Identification of the Chemoreceptor Superfamily of the Pupal Parasitoid of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuping; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Dunsong; Fan, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, causes serious losses to fruit production and is one of the most economically important pests in many countries, including China, Spalangia endius Walker is a pupal parasitoid of various dipteran hosts, and may be considered a potentially important ectoparasitic pupal parasitoid of B. dorsalis. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its interaction with this host. Analysis of the S. endius transcriptome is essential to extend the resources of genetic information on this species and, to support studies on S. endius on the host B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly RNA-seq of S. endius. We obtained nearly 10 Gbp of data using a HiSeq platform, and 36319 high-quality transcripts using Trinity software. A total of 22443 (61.79%) unigenes were aligned to homologous sequences in the jewel wasp and honeybee (Apis florae) protein set from public databases. A total of 10037 protein domains were identified in 7892 S. endius transcripts using HMMER3 software. We identified expression of six gustatory receptor and 21 odorant receptor genes in the sample, with only one gene having a high expression level in each family. The other genes had a low expression level, including two genes regulated by splicing. This result may be due to the wasps being kept under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a total of 3727 SSR markers were predicted, which could facilitate the identification of polymorphisms and functional genes within wasp populations. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of S. endius and provides a large number of gene sequences for further study. PMID:24505315

  12. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  13. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aximopsis masneri Gates, new species, (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts...

  14. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rousse, D.

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp.(Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters. PMID:19537971

  15. Hymenoptera allergens: from venom to "venome".

    PubMed

    Spillner, Edzard; Blank, Simon; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe, Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of Hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of HVA research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire "venome" as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function, and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of immunoglobulin E reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in HVA and may serve for monitoring, re-evaluation, and improvement of current therapeutic strategies. PMID:24616722

  16. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, 'Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)' comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. PMID:25859127

  17. Comparative ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa (Formicidae: Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D E; Crichton, E G; Krutzsch, P H

    1990-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from spermathecae of founding queens were obtained from 5 species of ants, representing the major subfamilies Myrmicinae (Acromyrmex versicolor, Crematogaster sp.) and Dolichoderinae (Tapinoma sessile, Conomyrma insana, Conomyrma wheeleri). The ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa has many features in common with that of higher insects and is similar to that of other Hymenoptera. Structural similarities to spermatozoa of other Hymenoptera include an acrosome containing an internal rod that extends into the nucleus, two elongate mitochondrial derivatives, a centriolar adjunct, and an axonemal arrangement of 9 + 9 + 2 that includes well-developed coarse, or accessory, tubules. Spermatozoa obtained from A. versicolor, a species that is known to store and utilize viable sperm from this supply for over 10 years, show greater development of the mitochondrial derivatives than do the other species. The most distinctive feature of ant spermatozoa in comparison to other Hymenoptera is the large size of the centriolar adjunct relative to the other organelles. The centriolar adjunct is located posterior to the nucleus, anterior to the mitochondrial derivatives, and opposite the axoneme. PMID:2280410

  18. Identifying and managing Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Matron, Patricia Kane; Timms, Victoria; Fitzsimons, Roisin

    2016-05-25

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order and is a common cause of anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of venom allergy is made by taking an accurate medical, family and social history, alongside specific allergy testing. Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a small proportion of the population; these range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Treatment for local reactions involves the use of cold packs, antihistamines, analgesia and topical corticosteroids to help alleviate swelling, pain and pruritus. Venom immunotherapy is the treatment of choice for reducing the incidence of future anaphylactic reactions in individuals who have signs of respiratory obstruction or hypotension. Venom immunotherapy is the most effective treatment in reduction of life-threatening reactions to venom, and can improve quality of life for individuals. Treatment should only be provided by experienced staff who are able to provide emergency care for anaphylaxis and life-threatening episodes. A risk assessment to deliver treatment should be undertaken before treatment is commenced. PMID:27224630

  19. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) species new to the fauna of Norway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present paper contains new distributional records for 61 species of ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) previously unknown for Norway, six of them are reported from Scandinavia for the first time. PMID:24855440

  20. Combivena gen.n (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Acaenitinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mao-Ling; Sun, Shu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Combivena Sheng & Sun, gen.n. and Combivena sulcata Sheng & Sun, sp.n. belonging to Acaenitinae of family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), collected from Qinghai Province, China, are described and illustrated. PMID:25347843

  1. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) species new to the fauna of Norway.

    PubMed

    Humala, Andrei E; Reshchikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The present paper contains new distributional records for 61 species of ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) previously unknown for Norway, six of them are reported from Scandinavia for the first time. PMID:24855440

  2. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-01-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  3. Hymenoptera Allergy and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Lombardo, Carla; Zanotti, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) can be diagnosed in patients with recurrent, severe symptoms from mast cell (MC)-derived mediators, which are transiently increased in serum and are attenuated by mediator-targeting drugs. When KIT-mutated, clonal MC are detected in these patients, a diagnosis of primary MCAS can be made. Severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom (HV) represent the most common form of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis are predominantly males and do not have skin lesions in the majority of cases, and anaphylaxis is characterized by hypotension and syncope in the absence of urticaria and angioedema. A normal value of tryptase (≤11.4 ng/ml) in these patients does not exclude a diagnosis of mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis have to undergo lifelong venom immunotherapy, in order to prevent further potentially fatal severe reactions. PMID:26714690

  4. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898. PMID:26624699

  5. Subforaminal bridges in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a focus on Chalcidoidea.

    PubMed

    Burks, R A; Heraty, J M

    2015-03-01

    Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution. PMID:25579204

  6. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  7. The Wing Apparatus and Flapping Behavior of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Tsuyuki, Koji; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Tani, Junji

    The wing apparatus of Hymenoptera was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the structure and function of insect wings were studied. The measurements of displacement of extrinsic skeleton vibration produced by wing flapping of a wasp were made by an optical displacement detector system. The free flight of the wasp was analyzed by a three dimensional motion analysis system. The results of a series of measurements revealed the flight characteristics of Hymenoptera, such as the wing tip velocity, wing path, wave form of extrinsic skeleton vibration, and so forth.

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with an estimated 500,000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a cladistic analysis of both morphological and molecular data. A total of 233 morphological characters were scored for 300 taxa and 265 genera, a...

  9. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  10. A review of Trachusoides Michener and Griswold (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Megachile (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are well-known for their diverse nesting habits, records of the genus nesting in live plants are rare and unknown in the North America. Here, we report the widespread Megachile (Megachile) montivaga Cresson, 1878 nesting in live thistle (Cirsium neomexi...

  11. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Filippo; Reshchikov, Alexey; Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobashibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  12. Geographic spread of Strumigenys silvestrii (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetine)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strumigenys silvestrii is a tiny dacetine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini), apparently from South America, that has spread to the southern US and the West Indies. Strumigenys silvestrii has recently been found for the first time in the Old World, from the island of Madeira, mainland Portugal,...

  13. Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of a survey of Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise traps and a canopy trap. Selec...

  14. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  15. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  16. Power over reproduction in social hymenoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Madeleine; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2003-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory has been very successful in predicting and explaining much of the observed variation in the reproductive characteristics of insect societies. For example, the theory correctly predicts sex-ratio biasing by workers in relation to the queen's mating frequency. However, within an insect society there are typically multiple reproductive optima, each corresponding to the interest of different individual(s) or parties of interest. When multiple optima occur, which party's interests prevail? Presumably, the interests of the party with the greatest 'power'; the ability to do or act. This article focuses on factors that influence power over colony reproduction. In particular, we seek to identify the principles that may cause different parties of interest to have greater or lesser power. In doing this, we discuss power from two different angles. On the one hand, we discuss general factors based upon non-idiosyncratic biological features (e.g. information, access to and ability to process food) that are likely to be important to all social Hymenoptera. On the other hand, we discuss idiosyncratic factors that depend upon the biology of a taxon at any hierarchical level. We propose that a better understanding of the diversity of reproductive characteristics of insect societies will come from combining inclusive fitness theory with a wide range of other factors that affect relative power in a conflict situation. PMID:14561330

  17. A hymenopterist’s guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) and its associated applications. These...

  18. Allometric ecological distributions in a local community of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The present paper describes basic ecological distributions in a community of beech forest Hymenoptera. It shows that the species diversity-body weight and the density-body weight distributions give rise to a new distribution that relates total community biomass to species diversity. For Hymenoptera this distribution follows a power function with a slope of 1.3. Combining this relation with the species-area and the individuals-area relations resulted in two other distributions that relate community biomass to area and individual numbers. It appeared that population densities decrease when computed over larger areas. The biomass-species diversity relation offers a new and simple way to estimate total community biomass from samples. The possible implications of this distribution to the productivity-diversity debate are discussed.

  19. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobas hibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  20. Management of hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis: a preventive medicine survey.

    PubMed

    McDougle, L; Klein, G L; Hoehler, F K

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of aftercare instructions given to patients suffering from hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis was the objective of the study. Part of this evaluation included asking the physicians questions to examine the knowledge on which they based their aftercare instructions. Survey questionnaires were completed by 124 of 174 (71%) physicians who worked in an emergency department or urgent care center. Fifty-eight percent of the physicians never provided written avoidance instructions, 24% provided or prescribed anaphylaxis ID bracelets, 44% referred all of their patients to an allergist for further evaluation, and 73% reported prescribing an Epi-pen or Ana-kit to all hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis victims. Twenty-four percent of physicians did not know where to obtain anaphylaxis identification bracelets. This survey demonstrates that a substantial number of physicians practicing emergency medicine are not providing appropriate aftercare instructions to patients, and substantiates the need for educational efforts to increase the awareness of physicians concerning the implications of hymenoptera allergy and the value of proper preventive measures. PMID:7782631

  1. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased. PMID:15662965

  2. Recombination, chromosome number and eusociality in the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ross, L; Blackmon, H; Lorite, P; Gokhman, V E; Hardy, N B

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinarily high rates of recombination have been observed in some eusocial species. The most popular explanation is that increased recombination increases genetic variation among workers, which in turn increases colony performance, for example by increasing parasite resistance. However, support for the generality of higher recombination rates among eusocial organisms remains weak, due to low sample size and a lack of phylogenetic independence of observations. Recombination rate, although difficult to measure directly, is correlated with chromosome number. As predicted, several authors have noted that chromosome numbers are higher among the eusocial species of Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here, we present a formal comparative analysis of karyotype data from 1567 species of Hymenoptera. Contrary to earlier studies, we find no evidence for an absolute difference between chromosome number in eusocial and solitary species of Hymenoptera. However, we find support for an increased rate of chromosome number change in eusocial taxa. We show that among eusocial taxa colony size is able to explain some of the variation in chromosome number: intermediate-sized colonies have more chromosomes than those that are either very small or very large. However, we were unable to detect effects of a number of other colony characteristics predicted to affect recombination rate – including colony relatedness and caste number. Taken together, our results support the view that a eusocial lifestyle has led to variable selection pressure for increased recombination rates, but that identifying the factors contributing to this variable selection will require further theoretical and empirical effort. PMID:25382409

  3. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:26184309

  4. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  5. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  6. The description of Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), a new species from Joshua Tree National Park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), is described and characters separating it from the Nearctic species P. zonatus Weld and P. virginianus Liu are discussed. A discussion of the insect biodiversity survey at Joshua Tree National Park is provided....

  7. A new parasitoid of Bazariaturensis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae): Campoplexbazariae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary endoparasitoid of the larva of Bazariaturensis Ragonot, 1887 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Qinghai province, China, Campoplexbazariae Sheng, sp. n., belonging to the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), is reported. Illustrations of the new species are provided. PMID:25610335

  8. A floral-derived compound attractive to the tephritid fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many adult hymenopteran parasitoids, even host-feeding species, consume the nectar of flowering plants. Previous field studies had identified plants attractive (Lobularia maritima L.) and unattractive (Spermacoce verticillata L) to certain opiine braconids (Hymenoptera). Under laboratory conditions,...

  9. Context dependent stridulatory responses of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to social, prey, and disturbance stimuli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By increasing the speed of stridulatory movements and the rates of stridulation pulses, individuals and groups of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) produce graded stridulatory responses to increasingly excitatory stimuli ranging from social interactions within a nest to prey items placed ...

  10. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  11. The genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jie; He, Jun-hua; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from China is revised and keyed, with nine new species, namely Diolcogaster bifurcifossa sp. n., Diolcogaster brevivena sp. n., Diolcogaster grammata sp. n., Diolcogaster ineminens sp. n., Diolcogaster laetimedia sp. n., Diolcogaster pluriminitida sp. n., Diolcogaster praritas sp. n., Diolcogaster punctatiscutum sp. n. and Diolcogaster translucida sp. n. described and illustrated, and one species, Diolcogaster perniciosa (Wilkinson, 1929) recorded for the first time from China. A key to the Chinese species of this genus is provided. PMID:21998555

  12. Revision of the world species of Zambion (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae)

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Andrew M.R.; Barnes, Diana I.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The world species of Zambion Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) are revised including re-descriptions of Zambion monodon Kasparyan and Zambion hirtum Delobel. Five new species are described: Zambion kasparyani sp. n., Zambion rogeri sp. n., Zambion eileenae sp. n., Zambion wahli sp. n. andZambion broadi sp. n. A key to species is provided. The genus is endemic to Africa (Angola to Kenya) and is one of only three genera of the tribe Tryphonini recorded from the Afrotropical region. PMID:22303113

  13. The mitochondrial genome of Diadromus collaris (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-04-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the parasitic wasps Diadromus collaris, the fourth sequenced mitogenome in the family Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). The sequenced segment is 14,621 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 19 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Four tRNAs are rearranged comparing to the ancestral insect mitochondrial gene arrangements, which coincides with the fact that the most rearranged genes are tRNA genes in the Ichneumonidae, and trnI-trnQ-trnM is a hot-spot of gene rearrangement. The lrRNA secondary structure was predicted, containing six domains (I-VI) and 49 helics. PMID:24047184

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new tRNA arrangement in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Hong, Eui Jeong; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed of an identical tandem repeat consisting of six 100-bp copies and one 96-bp copy. A total of 315 bp of intergenic spacer sequence was spread over 23 regions. An alignment of the spacer sequences in ants was largely feasible among congeneric species, and there was substantial sequence divergence, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for congeneric species. The A/T contents at the first and second codon positions of protein-coding genes (PCGs) were similar for ant species, including C. atrox (73.9% vs. 72.3%, on average). With increased taxon sampling among hymenopteran superfamilies, differences in the divergence rates (i.e., the non-synonymous substitution rates) between the suborders Symphyta and Apocrita were detected, consistent with previous results. The C. atrox mt genome had a unique gene arrangement, trnI-trnM-trnQ, at the A+T-rich region and ND2 junction (underline indicates inverted gene). This may have originated from a tandem duplication of trnM-trnI, resulting in trnM-trnI-trnM-trnI-trnQ, and the subsequent loss of the first trnM and second trnI, resulting in trnI-trnM-trnQ. PMID:26731510

  15. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  16. Antennal Sensilla in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm’s bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp. PMID:25843589

  17. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking, Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) with a summary of African Eurytoma spp. biology and species checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected galls induced on Erythrina spp. by Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), in Tanzania, Ghana, and South Africa. It is compared to a closely related African species. W...

  18. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available. PMID:26624091

  19. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided. PMID:26249881

  20. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae) by fluorochromes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K = 32 M¯+2 A¯). Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA 3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin. PMID:21637478

  1. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  2. Evaluation of insecticides for the control of Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Chaves, Cindy Correa; Fialho, Flávio Bello; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2014-02-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for the spreading of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that damages grapevine plants in southern Brazil. The effect of contact and ingestion of insecticides on the control of L. micans was evaluated in a greenhouse using grapevines (Vitis spp.) infested by L. micans. The insecticides thiamethoxam (250, 187.5, and 125 g/ha), fipronil (4, 5, and 50 ml/ha), and imidacloprid (650 g/ha) were sprayed on the ground, whereas toxic baits containing boric acid (0.5, 1.0, and 1.2%), pyriproxyfen (0.3 and 0.5%), and hydramethylnon (0.5%) were evaluated in different formulations. Hydramethylnon (toxic bait) and thiamethoxam (chemical barrier) were the most efficient active ingredients for the control of L. micans. PMID:24665704

  3. Revision of the Paridris nephtaspecies group (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Paridris nephta group is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, 14 of which are new: Paridris atroxTalamas, sp. n.(Yunnan Province, China), Paridris bununTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris ferusTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris kagemonoTalamas, sp. n.(Japan), Paridris minatorTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris mystaxTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris nephta(Kozlov) (Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Far Eastern Russia), Paridris nilakaTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris reptilisTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris rugulosusTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Vietnam), Paridris solarisTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand, Vietnam), Paridris teresTalamas, sp. n.(Vietnam), Paridris toketokiTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris verrucosusTalamas, sp. n.(Guangdong Province, China), Paridris yakTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand). PMID:22140338

  4. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control. PMID:24521569

  5. Sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera support inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Bourke, A F G

    2015-11-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are a function of the relatedness asymmetry (relative relatedness to females and males) of the individuals controlling sex allocation. In monogynous ants (with one queen per colony), assuming worker control, the theory therefore predicts female-biased sex investment ratios, as found in natural populations. Recently, E.O. Wilson and M.A. Nowak criticized this explanation and presented an alternative hypothesis. The Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis proposes that, in monogynous ants, there is selection for a 1 : 1 numerical sex ratio to avoid males remaining unmated, which, given queens exceed males in size, results in a female-biased sex investment ratio. The hypothesis also asserts that, contrary to inclusive fitness theory, queens not workers control sex allocation and queen-worker conflict over sex allocation is absent. Here, I argue that the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis is flawed because it contradicts Fisher's sex ratio theory, which shows that selection on sex ratio does not maximize the number of mated offspring and that the sex ratio proposed by the hypothesis is not an equilibrium for the queen. In addition, the hypothesis is not supported by empirical evidence, as it fails to explain 'split' (bimodal) sex ratios or data showing queen and worker control and ongoing queen-worker conflict. By contrast, these phenomena match predictions of inclusive fitness theory. Hence, the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis fails both as an alternative hypothesis for sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera and as a critique of inclusive fitness theory. PMID:26238365

  6. Acute exposure to low dose radiation disrupts reproduction and shortens survival of Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera Formicidae)queens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), was studied to determine...

  7. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  8. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  9. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  10. The genus Mymaromella (Hymenoptera: Mymarommatidae) in North America, with a key to described extant species of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate the adults of two species of Nearctic Mymarommatidae (Hymenoptera): Mymaromella pala and M. palella. In addition, the world species of Mymaromella are keyed and strong circumstantial evidence provided in support of their hosts being Psocoptera....

  11. Cell position during larval development affects postdiapause development in Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is the primary pollinator of alfalfa in the northwestern United States and western Canada and provides pollination services for onion, carrot, hybrid canola, various legumes and other specialty crops. Female M. rotundata are gregarious, nest in ca...

  12. Prewinter Management Affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Prepupal Physiology and Adult Emergence and Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is widely used as a pollinator for production of alfalfa seed, and populations of these bees can be maintained by alfalfa seed growers or can be purchased from mostly Canadian bee providers. Megachile rotundata raised i...

  13. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Katja C; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction. PMID:23441153

  14. Utilizing Descriptive Statements from the Biodiversity Heritage Library to Expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Katja C.; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the ‘Proofer’, as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction. PMID:23441153

  15. Biology of Eurytoma Sivinskii, an unusual Eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  16. Biology of Eurytoma sivinskii, an unusual eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  17. Production of Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) on Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy candidate for a classical biological control program targeting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Little is known about A. epos biology or ecology when usi...

  18. Descriptions of three new species of Dzhanokmenia (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Wang, Chao; Hu, Hong-Ying; Kostjukov, Viktor V; Salle, John La; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Dzhanokmenia Kostjukov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), D. muleica Li, Wang & Hu sp. n., D. karamayica Li, Wang & Zhu sp. n. and D. gobica Li, Wang & Zhu sp. n. from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China are described and illustrated. A key to all known species of the genus is provided. PMID:27395234

  19. Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachile)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (fiv...

  20. Cuticular Lipids of Female Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees mainly consisted of hydrocarbons....

  1. The genus Arhaconotus Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) from China, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pu; He, Jun-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Arhaconotus Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Doryctinae) is recorded for the first time from China. A new species of this genus, Arhaconotus hainanensis Tang & Chen, sp. n., is described and illustrated. A key to the species of this genus is updated to include the new species. PMID:21594016

  2. Chinese species of genus Notopygus Holmgren (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae) with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu-Ping; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Notopygus longiventris Sun & Sheng, sp. n., collected from Benxi County, Liaoning Province, China, and N. emarginatus Holmgren, 1857, reared from Neurotoma sibirica Gussakovskij (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae) from Haicheng, Liaoning Province, are reported. The new species is placed within existing key to species. PMID:24693216

  3. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bee cell culture system was developed. A medium, WH2, for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and the modif...

  4. First record of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla obscurior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is an old world genus of omnivorous ants native to Africa and Asia. The genus Cardiocondyla includes several common tramp species that have spread globally with human commerce. A single alate female C. obscurior Wheeler was collected by J. M. Stro...

  5. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  6. Cold Storage Effects on Maternal and Progeny Quality of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effects of cold storage on the survival and development of the mymarid wasp, Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), when stored within host eggs of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) under a daily fluct...

  7. Redescription of Chrysoctonus and description of Chrysoctonoides (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), a new genus from the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Huber, John T.; Triapitsyn, Serguei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chrysoctonoides longisetosa Huber & Triapitsyn (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), gen. n. and sp. n., is described from Australia. It is compared with the related genus Chrysoctonus, known from Africa and the New World. Myrmecomymar Yoshimoto, syn. n., is synonymized under Chrysoctonus Mathot and its type species is transferred to Chrysoctonus as Chrysoctonus masneri (Yoshimoto), comb. n. PMID:26052240

  8. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  9. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. The current protocol for rearing T. ...

  10. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  11. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  12. Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of a survey of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie, excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday, are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise and canopy traps. Topographic...

  13. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  14. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera:Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  15. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R.; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  16. Revision of the genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Carrón, Nilo F Ortiz de Zugasti

    2016-01-01

    The Palaearctic genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is revised and two new species are described: Paralipsis tibiator van Achterberg & Ortiz de Zugasti, sp. n. from Spain and Paralipsis planus van Achterberg, sp. n. from the Netherlands. Some biological notes are supplied for Paralipsis tibiator sp. n. A key to the four known species is added and all species are illustrated. PMID:27551220

  17. Attraction to Old Nest Cues During Nest Selection by the Solitary Bee Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), is an important pollinator for the commercial production of alfalfa seed. However, poor nest establishment is an ongoing problem for bee managers. Megachile rotundata are solitary, yet gregarious bees that nest in pre...

  18. Developing Methods to Evaluate Reproduction Rates of Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) in Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black imported fire ants Solenopsis richteri Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a major economic pest that has spread throughout United State. A great deal of interest exists in the potential for augmentative biological control agents in an effort to control its spread and reduce the damage prod...

  19. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided. PMID:26446545

  20. Selectivity of Organic Products to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Amaro, J T; Bueno, A F; Pomari-Fernandes, A F; Neves, P M O J

    2015-10-01

    The selectivity of various entomopathogens and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos = positive control) to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory, using the protocol established by the Working Group on "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms" of the IOBC. The evaluated parameters were parasitism (%), adult emergence (%), and product repellency to the parasitoid when sprayed on host eggs prior to parasitism (free-choice and no-choice tests). Most of the studied entomopathogens (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Trichoderma harzianum) had no effects on biological parameters and were classified as harmless to T. pretiosum. Emergence of parasitoids (progeny viability) was reduced, but remained above 90%, when host eggs were sprayed with Baculovirus anticarsia prior to parasitism in the free-choice test, and B. anticarsia was therefore considered harmless. Chlorpyrifos (positive control) caused high adult parasitoid mortality in all bioassays. While T. pretiosum and the tested entomopathogens may be used simultaneously in integrated pest management programs, the use of chlorpyrifos should be avoided. PMID:26267248

  1. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches. PMID:20929580

  2. Hemocytes of the Rose Sawfly Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, R; Sendi, J J; Brayner, F A; Alves, L C; Feitosa, A P S

    2016-02-01

    We characterized individual morphological types of the rose sawfly, Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae), hemocytes for the first time by means of light and differential interference contrast microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of hemocytes were identified in the hemolymph of larvae and pupae of A. ochropus: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, and oenocytoids. Prohemocytes are the smallest type of hemocytes, rounded to ovoid cells with large nuclei. Plasmatocytes are polymorphic and variable in size. Granulocytes are oval and spherical cells variable in size, with variable number of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and microtubules in the cytoplasm. Oenocytoids contain eccentric nucleus and cytoplasm with small mitochondria and few rough endoplasmic reticula. Differential hemocyte counts indicated that plasmatocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type during early instars while granulocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type in the last instar. The pattern of total hemocyte count changed during rose sawfly development and reached its peak in prepupae and then declined slowly in the pupal stage. PMID:26429582

  3. Maternal care in the parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring. PMID:23251468

  4. Function and evolution of microRNAs in eusocial Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Bloch, Guy; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of eusociality (“true sociality”) in several insect lineages represents one of the most successful evolutionary adaptations in the animal kingdom in terms of species richness and global biomass. In contrast to solitary insects, eusocial insects evolved a set of unique behavioral and physiological traits such as reproductive division of labor and cooperative brood care, which likely played a major role in their ecological success. The molecular mechanisms that support the social regulation of behavior in eusocial insects, and their evolution, are mostly unknown. The recent whole-genome sequencing of several eusocial insect species set the stage for deciphering the molecular and genetic bases of eusociality, and the possible evolutionary modifications that led to it. Studies of mRNA expression patterns in the brains of diverse eusocial insect species have indicated that specific social behavioral states of individual workers and queens are often associated with particular tissue-specific transcriptional profiles. Here, we discuss recent findings that highlight the role of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating traits associated with reproductive and behavioral divisions of labor in eusocial insects. We provide bioinformatic and phylogenetic data, which suggest that some Hymenoptera-specific miRNA may have contributed to the evolution of traits important for the evolution of eusociality in this group. PMID:26074950

  5. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina), Paridris gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia), Paridris invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo), Paridris isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic), Paridris lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico), Paridris minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba), Paridris nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica), Paridris pallipes (Ashmead)(southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo), Paridris psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela), Paridris saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica), Paridris soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela). Paridris brevipennis Fouts, Paridris laeviceps (Ashmead), and Paridris nigricornis (Fouts) are treated as junior synonyms of Paridris pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead. PMID:23226959

  6. Temperature-dependent emergence of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) adults.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph; Son, Youngsoo; Park, Yong-Lak

    2009-12-01

    Japanese hornfaced bees Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are used for pollination of spring blooming fruit crops such as apple, pear, and blueberry. Because O. cornifrons has a short adult life span, synchronization of bee emergence with bloom is critical to maximize crop pollination. This study was conducted to determine lower temperature thresholds (LTDs), optimum temperatures, and required degree-day accumulation for emergence of O. cornifrons adults. Patterns of temperature-dependent emergence of O. cornifrons adults at seven temperatures (3.9, 12.0, 18.6, 26.6, 30.3, 35.6, and 42.5 degrees C) were modeled and simulated with linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Results of this study showed that required degree-days (DD) for emergence of male and female O. cornifrons adults were 125.2 DD, with LTD of 8.9 degrees C and 179.8 DD, with LTD of 8.6 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperatures for emergence were 36.5, 30.2, and 35.7 degrees C for male, female, and both sexes combined, respectively. This study indicated that emergence of O. cornifrons adults could be manipulated to synchronize with pollination periods of target fruit crops. PMID:20069827

  7. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Antonova, Vera; Radchenko, Alexander G.; Atanasova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements. PMID:21594018

  8. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Taekul, Charuwat; Johnson, Norman F.; Masner, Lubomír; Polaszek, Andrew; Rajmohana K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae) is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe); and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam). Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia); Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa); Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa); and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia). PMID:21594118

  9. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  10. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations. PMID:18613568

  11. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests). PMID:17461077

  12. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae).

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Johnston, J Spencer; Small, Chiyedza; Rajwani, Roma; Hanrahan, Shawn J; Govind, Shubha

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) and Leptopilina victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979)(n = 9), whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the Leptopilina heterotoma clade. Like Leptopilina boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for Ganaspis xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insectcommunities. PMID:24260630

  13. Cold storage of adult Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Mymaridae: Hymenoptera) and effects on maternal and progeny fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT Storage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) adults at 2, 5, and 10°C showed that these parasitoids do not survive at 2°C for 5 d, and exposure to 5 and 10°C shortens their lifespan. The LT50 (i.e., length of storage time for 50% wasp survival) at 5°C was 14 d ...

  14. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Else, George R.; Bolton, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish aculeate Hymenoptera (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea) is revised. Species distribution is summarised for all species at the level of country (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Isle of Man). New information The 601 native species represent an increase of 25 on the 1978 checklist, comprising mostly new discoveries. This increase is nearly balanced by the 23 species now presumed to be extinct in Britain and Ireland. PMID:27226757

  15. Revision of the genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Carrón, Nilo F. Ortiz de Zugasti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is revised and two new species are described: Paralipsis tibiator van Achterberg & Ortiz de Zugasti, sp. n. from Spain and Paralipsis planus van Achterberg, sp. n. from the Netherlands. Some biological notes are supplied for Paralipsis tibiator sp. n. A key to the four known species is added and all species are illustrated. PMID:27551220

  16. Four new species of Andricus Hartig oak gallwasp from Turkey (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini).

    PubMed

    Mutun, Serap; Dinç, Serdar; Bozsó, Miklós; Melika, George

    2014-01-01

    Four new species of oak gallwasps, Andricus ahmeti, A. anatolicus, A. bakrachus and A. turcicus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) are described from Turkey. All four species are known only from asexual females and induce galls on twigs and young shoots on Q. infectoria, Q. macranthera and Q. petraea. Data on the diagnosis, distribution and biology of the four new species are given. Andricus stonei and Aphelonyx kordestanica are listed for the first time for the Turkish oak gallwasp fauna. PMID:24870080

  17. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L.; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution. PMID:26272716

  18. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution. PMID:26272716

  19. Conservation of novel Mahya genes shows the existence of neural functions common between Hymenoptera and Deuterostome.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimoto, Mayumi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Funada, Masahiro; Aoki, Makoto; Sasagawa, Hiromi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Tadauchi, Osamu; Cameron, Sydney A; Kitagawa, Yasuo; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2005-11-01

    Honeybees have been shown to exhibit cognitive performances that were thought to be specific to some vertebrates. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of such cognitive abilities of the bees have not been understood. We have identified a novel gene, Mahya, expressed in the brain of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and other Hymenoptera. Mahya orthologues are present in Deuterostomes but are absent or highly diverged in nematodes and, intriguingly, in two dipteran insects (fruit fly and mosquito) and Lepidoptera (silk moth). Mahya genes encode novel secretory proteins with a follistatin-like domain (Kazal-type serine/threonine protease inhibitor domain and EF-hand calcium-binding domain), two immunoglobulin domains, and a C-terminal novel domain. Honeybee Mahya is expressed in the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes of the brain. Zebra fish Mahya orthologues are expressed in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, habenula, optic tectum, and cerebellum of the brain. Mouse Mahya orthologues are expressed in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brain. These results suggest that Mahya may be involved in learning and memory and in processing of sensory information in Hymenoptera and vertebrates. Furthermore, the limited existence of Mahya in the genomes of Hymenoptera and Deuterostomes supports the hypothesis that the genes typically represented by Mahya were lost or highly diverged during the evolution of the central nervous system of specific Bilaterian branches under the specific selection and subsequent adaptation associated with different ecologies and life histories. PMID:16193321

  20. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  1. Effective population size in eusocial Hymenoptera with worker-produced males

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, T; Takahashi, J

    2012-01-01

    In many eusocial Hymenoptera, a proportion of males are produced by workers. To assess the effect of male production by workers on the effective population size Ne, a general expression of Ne in Hymenoptera with worker-produced males is derived on the basis of the genetic drift in the frequency of a neutral allele. Stochastic simulation verifies that the obtained expression gives a good prediction of Ne under a wide range of conditions. Numerical computation with the expression indicates that worker reproduction generally reduces Ne. The reduction can be serious in populations with a unity or female-biased breeding sex ratio. Worker reproduction may increase Ne in populations with a male-biased breeding sex ratio, only if each laying worker produce a small number of males and the difference of male progeny number among workers is not large. Worker reproduction could be an important cause of the generally lower genetic variation found in Hymenoptera, through its effect on Ne. PMID:22948186

  2. Expression of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins in some Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Calvello, M; Brandazza, A; Navarrini, A; Dani, F R; Turillazzi, S; Felicioli, A; Pelosi, P

    2005-04-01

    The expression of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in individuals of different castes and ages have been monitored in three species of social hymenopterans, Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae), Vespa crabro (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae), using PCR with specific primers and polyclonal antibodies. In the paper wasp P. dominulus, OBP is equally expressed in antennae, wings and legs of all castes and ages, while CSP is often specifically present in antennae and in some cases also in legs. In the vespine species V. crabro CSP is antennal specific, while OBP is also expressed in legs and wings. The three CSPs and the five OBPs of A. mellifera show a complex pattern of expression, where both classes of proteins include members specifically expressed in antennae and others present in other parts of the body. These data indicate that at least in some hymenopteran species CSPs are specifically expressed in antennae and could perform roles in chemosensory perception so far assigned only to OBPs. PMID:15763466

  3. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27615886

  4. Transgenic cry1C(⁎) gene rough rice line T1C-19 does not change the host preferences of the non-target stored product pest, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and its parasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Yan, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-10-01

    Rough rice grains are often stored for extended periods before they are used or consumed. However, during storage, the rough rice is vulnerable to insect infestation, resulting in significant economic loss. Previous studies have shown that volatiles cues, physical characteristics, and taste chemicals on the grains could be the important key behavior factors for storage insect pests to locate the hosts and select oviposition sites. It is also well known that the transgenic Bt rough rice line T1C-19, which expresses a cry1C(⁎) gene has a high resistance to Lepidoptera pests. However, there were no evidences to show the consequences of host preference for non-target insect pests after growing Bt transgenic rice. In this study, the potential key factors of Bt rough rice were investigated for their impacts on the behaviors of non-target pest lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica, the main weevil pest of grain and its parasitic wasps Anisopteromalus calandrae, the natural enemy of the beetle. Both electronic nose and electronic tongue analyses showed that the parameters of Bt rough rice were analogous to those of the non-Bt rough rice. The volatile profiles of Bt and non-Bt rough rice examined by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were similar. For most volatile compounds, there were no significantly quantitative differences in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The densities of sclereids and trichomes on the rough rice husk surface were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The non-target pest, R. dominica, and its parasitoid wasp, A. calandrae, were attracted to both rough rice and could not distinguish the transgenic T1C-19 from the isogenic rough rice. These results demonstrated that Bt rough rice has no negative impacts on the host preference behaviors of non-target stored product pest R. dominica and its parasitoid A. calandrae. PMID:26150137

  5. Biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balcha indica (Hymenoptera:Eupelmidae) is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking larvae, prepupae, and pupae of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). Its fecundity, oviposition rate, longevity and development time were determined in the laboratory. Lifetime fecundity averaged 36 eggs...

  6. Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although successfully introduced and established in sugarcane fields around the world, attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Bracondiae) in the temperate sugarcane fields of Louisiana as a parasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) ...

  7. Cryptic species of parasitoids attacking the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Asia: Binodoxys communis Gahan and Binodoxys koreanus Stary sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collections of parasitoids attacking the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in Korea yielded a population that was originally identified as Binodoxys communis Gahan (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Aphidiinae) based upon current identification keys. Our laboratory studies indicated that this population is act...

  8. Tanzawana flavomaculata (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), a new genus and species of parasitoid of Fagineura crenativora (Tenthredinidae, Nematinae), a serious pest of beech tree.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Taniwaki, Tooru; Kasparyan, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new genus, and a new species, of parasitoid--Tanzawana flavomaculata Watanabe & Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae)--based on material collected in Honshu, Japan. As T. flavomaculata is found on Fagineura crenativora Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2000 (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a serious pest of beech tree, this parasitoid is an important natural enemy of F. crenativora that can be used for the biological control of this pest. PMID:26624663

  9. Description of immature stages of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), an ectoparasitoid of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate for the first time the egg, larva and pupa of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid that attacks Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) pupae in Veracruz, Mexico. Using lab-reared A. ludens (Loew) pupae as hosts, we obtained all immature st...

  10. Field Control of the Invasive Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Tropical Fruit Orchard in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The little fire ant (LFA), Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is an invasive ant that forms supercolonies when it successfully invades new areas. LFA was first reported in Hawaii in 1999 and has since invaded a variety of agricultural sites including nurseries, tropical fruit f...

  11. Allomermis solenopsii n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitizing the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of mermithid nematode, Allomermis solenopsii, (Mermithidae: Nematoda) is described from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. This is the first record of Allomermis from South America and the first host record for members of this genus. Previo...

  12. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  13. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  14. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  15. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  16. The effect of photobleaching on bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) setae color and its implications for studying aging and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of foraging ecology and plant-pollinator interactions benefit from a number of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) characteristics including morphometric measurements, natural history and age. Historically, bee age has been estimated using measurements of wing wear and integument color change. Wing w...

  17. Ground Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberá Nature Reserve, the Largest Wetland of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iberá Nature Reserve in northeastern Argentina protects one of the largest freshwater wetlands and reservoirs of species in South America. However, key invertebrate groups such as the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) remain almost unknown. The main objective of this work was to study the ground an...

  18. Review of the genus Metopheltes Uchida, 1932 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with description of a new species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Reshchikov, Alexey; van Achterberg, Kees

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Metopheltes Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), Metopheltesclypeoarmatus sp. n. is described from Vietnam. Metopheltespetiolaris Uchida, 1932 is recorded for the first time from the Russian Far East. The other previously described species are also illustrated and discussed. PMID:24891821

  19. Distribution of 18S rDNA sites and absence of the canonical TTAGG insect telomeric repeat in parasitoid Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Anokhin, Boris A; Kuznetsova, Valentina G

    2014-08-01

    Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal, whereas those of I. amphibolus and Eu. compressa carried three and two rDNA clusters respectively. In addition, three rDNA sites were visualized in the aneuploid female of T. bedeguaris. The number of rDNA clusters in parasitoid Hymenoptera generally correlates to the chromosome number. Apart from the overwhelming majority of the studied species of aculeate Hymenoptera, no hybridization signals were obtained from FISH with the telomeric (TTAGG)n probe in the examined parasitoid species. These data suggest absence of the canonical (TTAGG)n insect telomeric motif in the Ichneumonoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea, and perhaps in parasitoid Hymenoptera in general. PMID:24992984

  20. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  1. A chemical lure for stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is used as a kairomone by Astata occidentalis (Hymenoptera: sphecidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The digger wasp Astata occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is a predator of pentatomid stink bugs (Hemiptera). In the states of Washington and Georgia, adult females were consistently captured in the field in traps baited with lures that included methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, a comp...

  2. A taxonomic review of the genus Dolichomitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from South Korea with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Kolarov, Janko; Jeong, Jong-Chul; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Nineteen species of the genus Dolichomitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) are recognized from South Korea, including 15 newly recorded species as well as two species new to science, Dolichomitus koreanus sp. nov., and D. rufinus sp. nov., A key to the species of the genus Dolichomitus in South Korea is provided, together with diagnostic illustrations. PMID:27395664

  3. Conserving natural enemies with flowering plants: estimating floral attractiveness to parasitic Hymenoptera and attractions relationship to flower and plant morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic Hymenoptera. Various native, introduced/established and cultivated potted plants-in-flower were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted seasonally w...

  4. Review of species of the genus Adelurola Strand, 1928, with a key to species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Yari, Zahra; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ehsan Rakhshani; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The alysiine genus Adelurola Strand, 1928 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is revised. Illustrated re-descriptions and a key to all known species of this genus are given. The following new combination is proposed: Dapsilarthra eurys (Chen & Wu, 1994), comb. n. Adelurola amplidens (Fischer, 1966) and Adelurola asiatica Telenga, 1935 are recorded for the first time from Iran and Kyrgyzstan, respectively. PMID:27047244

  5. Induction of reproductive diapause in Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) when reared at different photoperiods at low temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at low temperatures was determined to identify rearing conditions that might result in adults that were in reproductive diapause. Diapausing adults would be expected to survive cold storage longer than non-diapausing adu...

  6. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  7. Species diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphism and sequence-tagged site markers for the parasitic WASP Genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Ptermalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed, identified and evaluated eight single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and three sequence-tagged site (STS) markers in nuclear gene sequences of the wasp genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera). We studied variation of these markers in natural populations of the closely related and regionally sympatr...

  8. Comparative Performance of Two Mite-Resistant Stocks of Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama Beekeeping Operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared to that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor ...

  9. Solenopsis invicta virus (sinv-1) infection and insecticide interactions in the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling invasive species is a growing concern; however, pesticides can be detrimental for non-target organisms. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has aggressively invaded approximately 138 million ha in the USA and causes over $6 billion in damage and ...

  10. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  11. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members. PMID:23484895

  12. Three new Afrotropical species of Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from the Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Roininen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Seven species of Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) have been found from Uganda in Equatorial Africa: Allophrys budongoana Khalaim, Diaparsis interstitialis Khalaim, D. kanyawara sp. nov., D. mostovskii Khalaim, D. sinuator sp. nov., D. umbrosa sp. nov. and Tersilochus moestus Holmgren. Two species of Diaparsis, described in this paper, possess a white banded flagellum, and a key to the group of four Afrotropical species having a white-banded flagellum is provided. Tersilochus moestus Holmgren, previously known only from a single female from South Africa, is recorded from the Kibale National Park, Uganda. Antennae and ovipositor of this species, broken in the type specimen, are described for the first time.  PMID:24870341

  13. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  14. Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belokobylskij, Sergey A; Falcó-Garí, Jose Vicente; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher diversity than the Font Roja and Torrevieja. Also, the structure of the Aspilota-group community was analysed. PMID:25197232

  15. Three new species of genus Sinophorus Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) parasitizing twig and defoliating Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mao-Ling; Li, Tao; Cao, Jiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Three new wasp species are described from the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Sinophorus bazariae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Bazaria turensis Ragonot (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, China, S. nigrus Sheng, sp. n., reared from Epinotia rubiginosana rubiginosana (Herrich-Schäffer) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Weichang, Hebei Province, and S. zeirapherae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Zeiraphera grisecana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Liupanshan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. A key to the species of Chinese Sinophorus is provided. PMID:25947806

  16. The European species of Foersterella Dalla Torre (Hymenoptera: Tetracampidae), including the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The European species of Foersterella Dalla Torre 1897 (Hymenoptera: Tetracampidae) are treated, including two previously described species, F. erdoesi Bouček and F. reptans (Nees), and two new species, F. angusticornis sp. nov. and F. fuscicornis sp. nov. Morphological concepts of the species are based mainly on characters in the male antenna, which females lack, and with the exception of F. erdoesi females are currently not possible to identify to species. A key for the identification of species is included, as well as illustrations to facilitate the identification. PMID:27470745

  17. Review of the Mexican species of Erythmelus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae),
    with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Huber, John T; González-Hernández, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican species of Erythmelus Enock (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) are revised. A key to females of 13 species is provided in both English and Spanish. Two new taxa are described-E. maya Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. and E. tigres Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. Six species are newly recorded from Mexico-E. angustatus Ogloblin, E. cingulatus Ogloblin, E. clavatus Ogloblin, E. gracilis (Howard), E. nanus Dozier, and E. noeli (Dozier), besides new geographic records for E. miridiphagus Dozier, E. picinus (Girault), E. psallidis Gahan, and E. rex (Girault) which were previously known from the country. PMID:26248908

  18. Influence of rough handling on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nest establishment in commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Cory A; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2011-06-01

    Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) can be used to pollinate fruit trees. Populations are sometimes difficult to sustain because some female bees fail to establish at provided nesting sites. We address the hypothesis that rough handling of overwintered O. lignaria results in decreased establishment. We tested this by shaking (200 rpm for 2 min) overwintering bees as a proxy for rough handling. Bees were then released in an orchard, and nest establishment of shaken and unshaken bees was recorded. There was no significant difference in the proportion of shaken and unshaken females that nested, indicating that rough handling of overwintering bees does not discourage nest establishment. PMID:21735890

  19. Mexican species of the genus Exenterus Hartig (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) reared from diprionid hosts.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique; Khalaim, Andrey I

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of the tryphonine genus Exenterus from Mexico, E. durangensis Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov. and E. sehuerachicus Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., are described. Both species belong to the group of Exenterus species characterized by the unusually short, depressed tarsi. Exenterus durangensis was reared from the sawfly Zadiprion falsus Smith and E. sehuerachicus from Neodiprion autumnalis Smith (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). This is the first record of the genus Exenterus as a parasitoid of these hosts. An identification key to separate the two Mexican species of Exenterus is provided. PMID:26624742

  20. Assessment of potential fumigants to control Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    White, Joseph B; Park, Yong-Lak; West, Todd P; Tobin, Patrick C

    2009-12-01

    With the recent decline of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), there is a need for alternative or supplemental crop pollinators, such as Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, O. cornifrons propagation could be impeded by a cleptoparasitic mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker. We investigated the effects of formic acid and wintergreen oil on mortality of C. krombeini hypopi and O. cornifrons adults by determining the lethal concentration of each compound on each species. On average, >4.8 and >1.8 h were required to cause mortality in O. cornifrons adults when <2,473.5 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil was applied as a fumigant, respectively. When the two chemicals were directly applied to the exoskeleton of O. cornifrons adults, 353.4 ppm of wintergreen oil caused bee mortality within 10 min; however, no mortality was found with any formic acid application attempted. Mortality of C. krombeini hypopi occurred 5 and 10 min after application of >176.7 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil, respectively. Estimates of LC50 for C. krombeini hypopi treated with formic acid and wintergreen oil were 54.3 and 271.3 ppm, respectively. This study showed that C. krombeini could be controlled effectively without inducing O. cornifrons adult mortality based on concentration and duration of fumigation. PMID:20069836

  1. The genus Trachionus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) new for China, with description of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qian; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Jiang-Li; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Trachionus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini) is reported for the first time from China. The genus is represented by four new species from Shaanxi province (NW China), which are described and illustrated. An identification key to the species in China is presented, a key to the genera of the Trachionus group and notes on the relationships with other Palaearctic species are added. PMID:26257558

  2. The genus Euurobracon Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) in China, with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Jun-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The species of the genus Euurobracon Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) from China are revised and six species are recognized, including three new species (E. acuminatus sp. nov., E. disparalis sp. nov., and E. unicolor sp. nov.), which are described and illustrated. Also, E. triplagiata (Cameron, 1900), is reported from China for the first time. A key to the Chinese species of this genus is provided. PMID:27395679

  3. A review of unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankita; Shaw, Mark; Cardinal, Sophie; Fernandez-Triana, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength are reviewed. One new species, Cotesia trabalae sp. n. is described from India and compared with Cotesia pistrinariae (Wilkinson) from Africa, the only other species sharing the same character of all the described species worldwide. The generic placement of these two species, based on molecular and morphological analyses as well as parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27110207

  4. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526

  5. Species identification and genetic differentiation of European cavity-nesting wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pompilidae, Crabronidae) inferred from DNA barcoding data.

    PubMed

    Turčinavičienė, Jurga; Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Budrienė, Anna; Budrys, Eduardas

    2016-01-01

    Solitary trap-nesting wasps are prospective bioindicators of anthropogenic pressures on natural ecosystems and one of the surrogate taxa for biodiversity assessments. The implementation of these studies is taxonomy-based and relies on accurate identification of species. The identification of larval stages of cavity-nesting Hymenoptera, collected using trap-nests, is complicated or impossible before the post-hibernation hatching of adults. DNA barcoding may allow the identification of the trap-nesting Hymenoptera species immediately after collection of the trap-nests, using larvae or dead specimens as sources of DNA. Using the standard barcoding sequence, we identified 33 wasp species from the families Vespidae, Pompilidae and Crabronidae, inhabiting trap-nests in Europe. Within-species and between-species genetic distances were estimated to evaluate the differences of intraspecific and interspecific genetic diversity. Genetic distances between related species indicated an obvious "barcoding gap". Neighbour-joining analysis revealed that groups corresponding to taxa of genus level are cohesive as well. COI barcode approach was confirmed as a valuable tool for taxonomy-based biodiversity studies of the trap-nesting Hymenoptera. PMID:24708137

  6. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement.

    PubMed

    Bilò, M B; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Pumphrey, R; Oude-Elberink, J N; Lange, J; Jakob, T; Bonadonna, P; Fernandez, J; Kosnik, M; Helbling, A; Mosbech, H; Gawlik, R; Niedoszytko, M; Patella, V; Pravettoni, V; Rodrigues-Alves, R; Sturm, G J; Rueff, F

    2016-07-01

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management. This consensus report has been prepared by a European expert panel of the EAACI Interest Group of Insect Venom Hypersensitivity. It is targeted at allergists, clinical immunologists, internal medicine specialists, pediatricians, general practitioners, emergency department doctors, and any other healthcare professional involved. The aim was to report the scientific evidence on self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings, to inform healthcare staff about appropriate patient self-management of sting reactions, to propose indications for the prescription of an adrenaline auto-injector (AAI), and to discuss other forms of medication. First-line treatment for Hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Prescription of AAIs is mandatory in the case of venom-allergic patients who suffer from mast cell diseases or with an elevated baseline serum tryptase level and in untreated patients with a history of a systemic reaction involving at least two different organ systems. AAI prescription should also be considered in other specific situations before, during, and after stopping venom immunotherapy. PMID:27060567

  7. Changes in follicular cells architecture during vitellogenin transport in the ovary of social Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ronnau, Milton; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Gonçlaves, Wagner Gonzaga; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Vitellogenins are the major yolk proteins, synthesized in the fat body, released into the hemolymph and captured by the developing oocytes, but the mechanisms by which these proteins cross the follicular cell layer are still poorly understood. This study describes the actin distribution in follicular cells during vitellogenin transport to the oocyte in social Hymenoptera represented by bees Apis mellifera and Melipona quadrifasciata, the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga and the ant Pachycondyla curvinodis. In oocytic chambers of vitellogenic follicles, vitellogenin was found within the follicular cells, perivitelline space and oocyte, indicating a transcellular route from the hemolymph to the perivitelline space. The cortical actin cytoskeleton in follicular cells underwent reorganization during transport of vitellogenin across this epithelium suggesting that in the ovary of social hymenopterans, vitellogenin delivery to oocytes requires a dynamic cytoskeletal rearrangement of actin filaments in the follicular cells. PMID:26077636

  8. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera) on aphids (Hemiptera) infesting citrus in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Satar, Serdar; Satar, Gül; Karacaoğlu, Mehmet; Uygun, Nedim; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2014-01-01

    The aphids, aphid parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids found in citrus orchards, the parasitoids' and hyperparasitoids' seasonal abundance, and the plant-aphid-parasitoid relationships in Hatay, Osmaniye, Adana, and Mersin provinces of the east Mediterranean region of Turkey are presented in the present 2-yr study. Aphidius colemani Viereck, Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday), and Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) were encountered as the most common parasitoids among 10 identified aphidiine and aphelinid taxa on different citrus species. Hyperparasitoids belonging to the genera Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis, Asaphes, Pachyneuron, Syrphophagus, and Dendrocerus are reported for the first time emerging from aphids feeding on citrus in Turkey. Among them, Asaphes spp., Pachyneuron spp., and Syrphophagus spp. were recorded as the most common ones. Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. were recorded as main hosts for the aphid parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids. PMID:25480969

  9. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps. PMID:18931909

  10. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  11. A review of the New World species of the parasitoid wasp Iconella (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Triana, José L.; Cardinal, Sophie; Whitfield, James B.; Winnie Hallwachs; Smith, M. Alex; Janzenr, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of Iconella (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) are revised. Iconella andydeansi Fernández-Triana, sp. n., Iconella canadensis Fernández-Triana, sp. n., and Iconella jayjayrodriguezae Fernández-Triana, sp. n., are described as new. Iconella isolata (Muesebeck, 1955), stat. r., previously considered as a subspecies of Iconella etiellae (Viereck, 1911), is here elevated to species rank. All species have different, well defined geographic distributions and hosts. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous hardcopy versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, host records (mostly Lepidoptera: Crambidae and Pyralidae), and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. Phylogenetic analyses of the barcoding region of COI indicate the possibility that Iconella is not monophyletic and that the New World species may not form a monophyletic group; more data is needed to resolve this issue. PMID:23950690

  12. Effect of larval food amount on ovariole development in queens of Trigona spinipes (Hymenoptera, Apinae).

    PubMed

    Lisboa, L C O; Serrão, J E; Cruz-Landim, C; Campos, L A O

    2005-06-01

    Caste determination in Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) is trophogenic. Larvae that eat about 360 microl of food become queens, while those who consume 36 microl develop into workers. We studied the effect of larval nutrition on the number and length of ovarioles and on ovarian development in fifth instar larvae, white eyed, pink eyed and black-eyed pupae as well as newly emerged adults. All larvae have four ovarioles per ovary, while in queen pupae this number ranged from 8 to 15. Cyst formation, the cell death and other characteristics of ovary morphogenesis were the same regardless of the quantity of food consumed. These results are discussed in relation to caste differentiation in other bees. PMID:15929734

  13. Gene variation, population differentiation, and sociogenetic structure of nests of Partamona seridoensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlo Rivero Moura; Martins, Celso Feitosa; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Gene variation and the differentiation of two populations of Partamona seridoensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) from the Caatinga biome, a semiarid ecosystem unique to Brazil, were estimated through allozymic and microsatellite analyses. These populations exhibited similar low degrees of enzyme gene variation. Observed genotype frequencies at the allozyme and microsatellite loci were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the two populations. Both markers demonstrated that the two populations are not genetically homogeneous and must be considered distinct populations. The occurrence of private alleles at the allozyme and microsatellite loci corroborates this differentiation, sustaining the hypothesis of a low level of interpopulation gene flow. The phenotypic segregations clearly demonstrated that the progeny inside each nest were the result of mating between the queen of the colony and only one male. PMID:21938561

  14. Two new species of Prionomastix Mayr (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) with a key to Indian species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Species of Prionomastix Mayr were not known from India when Manickavasagam and Rameshkumar 2011 and Rameshkumar and Poorani 2015 misidentified a new species as P. siccarius. Now it is corrected by explaining the characters as to why it is new and not P. siccarius along with another new species. As we have one another new species, P. orientialis, described by Rameshkumar and Poorani 2015 our two new species are compared with P. orientalis also. New information Two new species of Prionomastix Mayr (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), one from Bihar state and the other from Tamil Nadu state, India, are described viz., P. tamilnadensis sp. nov and P. biharensis sp. nov. and a key to all known Indian species is provided. PMID:27563277

  15. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  16. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  17. A semantic model for species description applied to the ensign wasps (hymenoptera: evaniidae) of New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Balhoff, James P; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Mullins, Patricia L; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic descriptions are unparalleled sources of knowledge of life's phenotypic diversity. As natural language prose, these data sets are largely refractory to computation and integration with other sources of phenotypic data. By formalizing taxonomic descriptions using ontology-based semantic representation, we aim to increase the reusability and computability of taxonomists' primary data. Here, we present a revision of the ensign wasp (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) fauna of New Caledonia using this new model for species description. Descriptive matrices, specimen data, and taxonomic nomenclature are gathered in a unified Web-based application, mx, then exported as both traditional taxonomic treatments and semantic statements using the OWL Web Ontology Language. Character:character-state combinations are then annotated following the entity-quality phenotype model, originally developed to represent mutant model organism phenotype data; concepts of anatomy are drawn from the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and linked to phenotype descriptors from the Phenotypic Quality Ontology. The resulting set of semantic statements is provided in Resource Description Framework format. Applying the model to real data, that is, specimens, taxonomic names, diagnoses, descriptions, and redescriptions, provides us with a foundation to discuss limitations and potential benefits such as automated data integration and reasoner-driven queries. Four species of ensign wasp are now known to occur in New Caledonia: Szepligetella levipetiolata, Szepligetella deercreeki Deans and Mikó sp. nov., Szepligetella irwini Deans and Mikó sp. nov., and the nearly cosmopolitan Evania appendigaster. A fifth species, Szepligetella sericea, including Szepligetella impressa, syn. nov., has not yet been collected in New Caledonia but can be found on islands throughout the Pacific and so is included in the diagnostic key. PMID:23652347

  18. A Semantic Model for Species Description Applied to the Ensign Wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) of New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Balhoff, James P.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Mullins, Patricia L.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic descriptions are unparalleled sources of knowledge of life's phenotypic diversity. As natural language prose, these data sets are largely refractory to computation and integration with other sources of phenotypic data. By formalizing taxonomic descriptions using ontology-based semantic representation, we aim to increase the reusability and computability of taxonomists' primary data. Here, we present a revision of the ensign wasp (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) fauna of New Caledonia using this new model for species description. Descriptive matrices, specimen data, and taxonomic nomenclature are gathered in a unified Web-based application, mx, then exported as both traditional taxonomic treatments and semantic statements using the OWL Web Ontology Language. Character:character-state combinations are then annotated following the entity–quality phenotype model, originally developed to represent mutant model organism phenotype data; concepts of anatomy are drawn from the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and linked to phenotype descriptors from the Phenotypic Quality Ontology. The resulting set of semantic statements is provided in Resource Description Framework format. Applying the model to real data, that is, specimens, taxonomic names, diagnoses, descriptions, and redescriptions, provides us with a foundation to discuss limitations and potential benefits such as automated data integration and reasoner-driven queries. Four species of ensign wasp are now known to occur in New Caledonia: Szepligetella levipetiolata, Szepligetella deercreeki Deans and Mikó sp. nov., Szepligetella irwini Deans and Mikó sp. nov., and the nearly cosmopolitan Evania appendigaster. A fifth species, Szepligetella sericea, including Szepligetella impressa, syn. nov., has not yet been collected in New Caledonia but can be found on islands throughout the Pacific and so is included in the diagnostic key. [Biodiversity informatics; Evaniidae; New Caledonia; new species; ontology; semantic

  19. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders. Mecoptera was recovered as the

  20. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

  1. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  2. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded

    PubMed Central

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  3. Comparison of the host searching and oviposition behaviors of the tephtitid (Diptera) parasitoids Aganaspis pelleranoi and Odontosema anastrephae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the host-searching and oviposition behaviors of two Neotropical figitid parasitoids (Hymenoptera) that exploit the same resource: ripe fruit infested by fruit fly larvae (Tephritidae) that have fallen to the ground. Sexually mature Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes) and Odontosema anastreph...

  4. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  5. Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

  6. Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Te...

  7. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  8. A new species and additional records of the genus Collyria Schiødte, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yurtcan, Murat; Kolarov, Janko

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Collyria pronotalis Yurtcan and Kolarov sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Collyriinae), from Turkey is described and illustrated. A key for identification of the species of Collyria Schiødte, 1839 is provided. Moreover, additional records are reported for Collyria coxator (Villers, 1789) from Turkey. PMID:26250026

  9. Consideration of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell, a eurytomid (Hymenoptera) with unusual foraging behaviors, as a biological control agent of tephritid (Diptera) fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe some aspects of the oviposition bevavior and demography of a recently discovered Mexican parasitoid species, Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), exhibiting the novel behavior of attacking tephritid fruit fly pupae (Anastrepha spp.) buried in the soil. Rates...

  10. The genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with an emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (...