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Sample records for n-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors

  1. Altered Levels of Zinc and N-methyl-D-aspartic Acid Receptor Underlying Multiple Organ Dysfunctions After Severe Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanghuan; Yu, Xiaojun; Wang, Dian; Xu, Xiaohu; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe trauma can cause secondary multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Oxidative stress and/or excitatory neurotoxicity are considered as the final common pathway in nerve cell injuries. Zinc is the cofactor of the redox enzyme, and the effect of the excitatory neurotoxicity is related to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR). Material/Methods We investigated the levels of zinc and brainstem NMDAR in a rabbit model of severe trauma. Zinc and serum biochemical profiles were determined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect brainstem N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NR1), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2A (NR2A), and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) expression. Results Brain and brainstem Zn levels increased at 12 h, but serum Zn decreased dramatically after the trauma. NR1 in the brainstem dorsal regions increased at 6 h after injury and then decreased. NR2A in the dorsal regions decreased to a plateau at 12 h after trauma. The levels of NR2B were lowest in the death group in the brainstem. Serum zinc was positively correlated with NR2A and 2B and negatively correlated with zinc in the brain. Correlations were also found between the brainstem NR2A and that of the dorsal brainstem, as well as between brainstem NR2A and changes in NR2B. There was a negative correlation between zinc and NR2A. Conclusions Severe trauma led to an acute reduction of zinc enhancing oxidative stress and the changes of NMDAR causing the neurotoxicity of the nerve cells. This may be a mechanism for the occurrence of MODS or death after trauma. PMID:26335029

  2. Adolescent social defeat alters N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression and impairs fear learning in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew M; Mears, Mackenzie; Forster, Gina L; Lei, Yanlin; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Repeated social defeat of adolescent male rats results in adult mesocortical dopamine hypofunction, impaired working memory, and increased contextual anxiety-like behavior. Given the role of glutamate in dopamine regulation, cognition, and fear and anxiety, we investigated potential changes to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors following adolescent social defeat. As both NMDA receptors and mesocortical dopamine are implicated in the expression and extinction of conditioned fear, a separate cohort of rats was challenged with a classical fear conditioning paradigm to investigate whether fear learning is altered by adolescent defeat. Quantitative autoradiography was used to measure 3H-MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors in regions of the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus. Assessment of fear learning was achieved using an auditory fear conditioning paradigm, with freezing toward the auditory tone used as a measure of conditioned fear. Compared to controls, adolescent social defeat decreased adult NMDA receptor expression in the infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while increasing expression in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Previously defeated rats also displayed decreased conditioned freezing during the recall and first extinction periods, which may be related to the observed decreases and increases in NMDA receptors within the central amygdala and CA3, respectively. The alteration in NMDA receptors seen following adolescent social defeat suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic systems, combined with mesocortical dopamine deficits, likely plays a role in the some of the long-term behavioral consequences of social stressors in adolescence seen in both preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26876136

  3. Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced cellular response during chronic hypoxia in differentiated rat PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Millhorn, D E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic hypoxia on N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated cellular responses in differentiated PC12 cells. PC12 cells were differentiated by treatment with nerve growth factor. Patch-clamp analysis in differentiated PC12 cells showed that extracellularly applied N-methyl-D-aspartate induced an inward current that was abolished by the presence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801. Results from Ca(2+) imaging experiments showed that N-methyl-D-aspartate induced an elevation in intracellular free Ca(2+) which was also abolished by MK-801. We also examined the effect of hypoxia on the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced current in nerve growth factor-treated cells. We found that the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced inward current and the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced elevation in intracellular free Ca(2+) were markedly attenuated by chronic hypoxia. We next examined the possibility that the reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate responsiveness was due to down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor levels. Northern blot and immunoblot analyses showed that both messenger RNA and protein levels for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 were markedly decreased during hypoxia. However, the messenger RNA for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2C was increased, whereas the protein level for subunit 2C did not change. Our results indicate that differentiated PC12 cells express functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and that chronic exposure to hypoxia attenuates the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced Ca(2+) accumulation in these cells via down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1. This mechanism may play an important role in protecting PC12 cells against hypoxic stress. PMID:11113364

  4. Membrane cholesterol modulates {beta}-amyloid-dependent tau cleavage by inducing changes in the membrane content and localization of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Alexandra M; Methner, D Nicole Riherd; Ferreira, Adriana

    2011-01-14

    We have previously shown that β-amyloid (Aβ) treatment resulted in an age-dependent calpain activation leading to Tau cleavage into a neurotoxic 17-kDa fragment in a cellular model of Alzheimer disease. This detrimental cellular response was mediated by a developmentally regulated increase in membrane cholesterol levels. In this study, we assessed the molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol modulated Aβ-induced Tau cleavage in cultured hippocampal neurons. Our results indicated that these mechanisms did not involve the regulation of the binding of Aβ aggregates to the plasma membrane. On the other hand, experiments using N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor inhibitors suggested that these receptors played an essential role in cholesterol-mediated Aβ-dependent calpain activity and 17-kDa Tau production. Biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that decreasing membrane cholesterol levels in mature neurons resulted in a significant reduction of the NR1 subunit at the membrane as well as an increase in the number of large NR1, NR2A, and NR2B subunit clusters. Moreover, the majority of these larger N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunit immunoreactive spots was not juxtaposed to presynaptic sites in cholesterol-reduced neurons. These data suggested that changes at the synaptic level underlie the mechanism by which membrane cholesterol modulates developmental changes in the susceptibility of hippocampal neurons to Aβ-induced toxicity. PMID:21047784

  5. Pediatric anti-N methyl D aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Suri, Vinit; Sharma, Sushma; Gupta, Rohan; Sogani, S K; Mediratta, Sunit; Jadhao, Nilesh

    2013-05-01

    Anti-N Methyl D Aspartate Receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) is a recently defined disease, which is probably more under-recognized than rare. We report a case of anti-NMDARE in a 13-years-old girl, who presented with intractable seizures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of pediatric anti-NMDARE being reported from India. The need for a greater awareness of this disease and the subtle differences in clinical presentation between pediatric and adult patients are highlighted. PMID:24082929

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new set of pyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines as glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Varano, Flavia; Catarzi, Daniela; Colotta, Vittoria; Poli, Daniela; Filacchioni, Guido; Galli, Alessandro; Costagli, Chiara

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that 8-chloro-5,6-dihydro-5-oxo-pyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-2-carboxylates (PQZ series) represent a family of glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and/or (R,S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) and/or kainic acid (KA) receptor antagonists. Moreover, some groups have been identified that introduced in suitable positions of the PQZ 2-carboxylate framework shift affinity and selectivity toward glycine/NMDA receptor. These substituents are a carboxylate function at position-1 and/or a chlorine atom at position-9. In this paper we report a study on some new 5,6-dihydro-5-oxo-pyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-1-carboxylates bearing at position-2 a lipophilic amide group or lacking substituent at this same position. All the newly synthesised compounds were evaluated for their binding at glycine/NMDA, AMPA and KA receptors. These studies led to the identification of some new PQZ derivatives endowed with good glycine/NMDA receptor affinity and selectivity and to better definition of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this class of compounds. PMID:19652407

  7. Repeated ketamine administration alters N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit gene expression: Implication of genetic vulnerability for ketamine abuse and ketamine psychosis in humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Lipsky, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    For more than 40 years following its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an anesthetic, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been used as a tool of psychiatric research. As a psychedelic drug, ketamine induces psychotic symptoms, cognitive impairment, and mood elevation, which resemble some symptoms of schizophrenia. Recreational use of ketamine has been increasing in recent years. However, little is known of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for ketamine-associated psychosis. Recent animal studies have shown that repeated ketamine administration significantly increases NMDA receptor subunit gene expression, in particular subunit 1 (NR1 or GluN1) levels. This results in neurodegeneration, supporting a potential mechanism where up-regulation of NMDA receptors could produce cognitive deficits in chronic ketamine abuse patients. In other studies, NMDA receptor gene variants are associated with addictive behavior. Here, we focus on the roles of NMDA receptor gene subunits in ketamine abuse and ketamine psychosis and propose that full sequencing of NMDA receptor genes may help explain individual vulnerability to ketamine abuse and ketamine-associated psychosis. PMID:25245072

  8. Agmatine protects Müller cells from high-concentration glucose-induced cell damage via N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yu, Li; Song, Zhidu; Luo, Lifu; Wu, Yazhen

    2015-07-01

    Neural injury is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. Müller cells provide structural and metabolic support for retinal neurons. High glucose concentrations are known to induce Müller cell activity. Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine, which is enzymatically formed in the mammalian brain and has exhibited neuroprotective effects in a number of experimental models. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether agmatine protects Müller cells from glucose-induced damage and to explore the mechanisms underlying this process. Lactate dehydrogenase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression were significantly reduced in Müller cells exposed to a high glucose concentration, following agmatine treatment, compared with cells not treated with agmatine. In addition, agmatine treatment inhibited glucose-induced Müller cell apoptosis, which was associated with the regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expression. Agmatine treatment suppressed glucose-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein in Müller cells. The present study demonstrated that the protective effects of agmatine on Müller cells were inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). The results of the present study suggested that agmatine treatment protects Müller cells from high-concentration glucose-induced cell damage. The underlying mechanisms may relate to the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of agmatine, as well as to the inhibition of the MAPK pathway, via NMDA receptor suppression. Agmatine may be of use in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25816073

  9. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity Glufosinate (GLF) at high levels in mammals causes convulsions through a mechanism that is not completely understood. The structural similarity of GLF to glutamate (GLU) implicates the glutamate...

  10. Cholinesterase Inhibitor and N-Methyl-D-Aspartic Acid Receptor Antagonist Use in Older Adults with End-Stage Dementia: A Survey of Hospice Medical Directors

    PubMed Central

    Ellner, Lynn; Lau, Denys T.; Maxwell, Terri L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. As dementia progresses to the end stage and patients become hospice-eligible, clinicians consider whether or not to continue these therapies without the benefit of scientific evidence. We sought to describe hospice medical directors practice patterns and experiences in the use and discontinuation of cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA receptor antagonists in hospice patients that meet the Medicare hospice criteria for dementia. Study Design Mail survey of hospice medical directors from a random sample from the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization. Results Of the 413 eligible participants, 152 completed surveys were returned, yielding a response rate of 37%. Of the respondents, 75% and 33% reported that at least 20% of their patients were taking a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine, respectively, at the time of hospice admission. The majority of respondents do not consider these therapies effective in persons with end-stage dementia, however, a subset believe that these medications improved patient outcomes including stabilization of cognition (22%), decrease in challenging behaviors (28%), and maintenance of patient function (22%) as well as caregiver outcomes namely reduced caregiver burden (20%) and improved caregiver quality of life (20%). While 80% of respondents recommended discontinuing these therapies to families at the time of hospice enrollment, 72% of respondents reported that families experienced difficulty stopping these therapies. A subset of respondents observed accelerated cognitive (30%) and functional decline (26%) or emergence of challenging behaviors (32%) with medication discontinuation. Conclusions The findings from this survey indicate that cholinesterase inhibitors and/or NMDA receptor antagonists are prescribed for a

  11. Phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor-associated neuronal nitric oxide synthase depends on estrogens and modulates hypothalamic nitric oxide production during the ovarian cycle

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Jyoti; D'Anglemont De Tassigny, Xavier; Bellefontaine, Nicole; Campagne, Celine; Mazure, Danièle; Buée-Scherrer, Valérie; Prevot, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Within the preoptic region, nitric oxide (NO) production varies during the ovarian cycle and has the ability to impact hypothalamic reproductive function. One mechanism for the regulation of NO release mediated by estrogens during the estrous cycle includes physical association of the calcium-activated neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) enzyme with the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels via the postsynaptic density 95 (PSD 95) scaffolding protein. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous variations in estrogens levels during the estrous cycle also coincide with corresponding changes in the state of nNOS Ser1412 phosphorylation, the level of association of this isoform with the NMDA receptor/PSD-95 complex at the plasma membrane and the activity of NOS. Neuronal NOS Ser1412 phosphorylation is maximal on the afternoon of proestrus, when both the levels of estrogens and the physical association of nNOS with NMDA receptors are highest. Estradiol mimicked these effects in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. In addition, the catalytic activity of NOS in membrane protein extracts from the preoptic region, i.e., independent of any functional protein-protein interactions or cell-cell signaling, was significantly increased in estradioltreated OVX rats compared to OVX rats. Finally, λ phosphatase-mediated nNOS dephosphorylation dramatically impaired NOS activity in preoptic region protein extracts, thus demonstrating the important role of phosphorylation in the regulation of NO production in the preoptic region. Taken together, these results yield new insights into the regulation of neuron-derived NO production by gonadal steroids within the preoptic region and raise the possibility that changes in nNOS phosphorylation during fluctuating physiological conditions may be involved in the hypothalamic control of key neuroendocrine functions, such as reproduction. PMID:20371700

  12. Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in a Patient with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Postherpetic Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Jorge; Igartua Laraudogoitia, Jon; Montes Ros, Milagrosa

    2016-07-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a neuroimmunologic disorder that has been increasingly diagnosed during the past 5 years. It provokes a predictable syndrome treated with several immunomodulatory agents, such as corticosteroids and/or biologics. We managed a child with this disease who developed Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia as a direct infectious complication of the use of rituximab. PMID:27093160

  13. The competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (-)-6-phosphonomethyl-deca-hydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (LY235959) potentiates the antinociceptive effects of opioids that vary in efficacy at the mu-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard M; Granger, Arthur L; Dykstra, Linda A

    2003-11-01

    (-)-6-Phosphonomethyl-deca-hydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (LY235959) is a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist shown to prevent the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in rodents. Although administration of LY235959 alone generally does not produce antinociception, LY235959 potentiates the antinociceptive effects of morphine in squirrel monkeys. The present study was designed to determine whether LY235959 would potentiate the acute antinociceptive effects of morphine as well those of the opioid receptor agonists l-methadone, levorphanol, butorphanol, and buprenorphine. A squirrel monkey titration procedure was used in which shock (delivered to the tail) increased in intensity every 15 s (0.01-2.0 mA) in 30 increments. Five lever presses during any given 15-s shock period (fixed ratio 5) produced a 15-s shock-free period after which shock resumed at the next lower intensity. Morphine (0.3-3.0 mg/kg i.m.), l-methadone (0.1-0.56 mg/kg i.m.), levorphanol (0.1-1.0 mg/kg i.m.), butorphanol (1.0-10 mg/kg i.m.), and buprenorphine (0.01-0.03 mg/kg i.m.), but not LY235959 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg i.m.), dose and time dependently increased the intensity below which monkeys maintained shock 50% of the time (median shock level, MSL). LY235959 dose dependently potentiated the effect of each opioid agonist on MSL when concurrently administered to monkeys. Although LY235959 potentiated the antinociceptive effect of each opioid examined in a statistically significant manner, LY235959 seemed more potent and effective when combined with higher efficacy opioids. The present data suggest that the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, LY235959, can potentiate the antinociceptive effects of a range of opioid receptor agonists independently of nonspecific motor effects. PMID:12975489

  14. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Roger Kelsey

    2016-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune syndrome that presents with personality changes, autonomic dysfunction, and neurologic deterioration. Most patients with this syndrome progress from psychosis to seizure to catatonia, often associated with abnormal movements, autonomic instability, and hypoventilation. First-line treatment constitutes resection of the associated neoplasm, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange. Second-line treatment includes rituximab and cyclophosphamide. A case of confirmed anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is presented that illustrates the diagnostic and treatment challenges associated with this syndrome and underscores the nursing implications of medical management during immunosuppression. This case study recommends surface cooling and a pharmaceutical regimen for management of autonomic storming, which is a hallmark of this disorder. PMID:27579962

  15. N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate seizures and CA1 hippocampal damage induced by dendrotoxin-K in rats.

    PubMed

    Bagetta, G; Iannone, M; Palma, E; Nisticò, G; Dolly, J O

    1996-04-01

    The epileptogenic and neurodegenerative effects of dendrotoxin K, from Dendroaspis polylepis, a specific blocker of a non-inactivating, voltage-sensitive K+ channel, were studied after focal injection into one dorsal hippocampus in rats. Administration of 35 pmol dendrotoxin K elicited motor seizures and bilateral electrocortical discharges after a latent period (5.3 +/- 2.1 min), in all of the treated animals (n = 6). At 24 h, histological examination of brain (n = 5) coronal sections (10 microns; n = 6 per brain) detected bilateral damage to the hippocampal formation which extended 300 microns rostral and caudal to the injection tract. Quantitation of the damage revealed significant bilateral neuronal cell loss in the CA1 and CA4 pyramidal cell layer relative to the corresponding brain regions of rats (n = 3) injected with bovine serum albumin (105 pmol), which per se was ineffective in all respects. Dendrotoxin K (35 pmol) also caused a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons and dentate gyrus granule cells ipsilateral to the site of toxin injection. In one out of six rats, a lower dose (3.5 pmol) of dendrotoxin K produced convulsive behaviour and electrocortical seizures but after a longer latency and these were accompanied by significant neuronal loss in the CA1, CA3 and CA4 pyramidal cell layer ipsilateral to the injected side. The lowest dose (0.35 pmol; n = 6 rats) of dendrotoxin K used failed to induce seizures and did not cause hippocampal damage (n = 6 rats). Systemic (i.p.) treatment with dizocilpine maleate (3 mg/kg) or LY 274614 (5 mg/kg i.p.), two N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists (given 15 min beforehand), prevented dendrotoxin K (35 pmol)-induced motor seizures and electrocortical epileptogenic discharges in 100% of the animals (n = 6 per group) treated. Similarly, these antagonists minimized the damage typically produced in the rat hippocampus, with no significant neuronal loss being observed. By contrast, NBQX (30 mg/kg, i.p. given 15

  16. Liposome reconstitution and modulation of recombinant N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channels by membrane stretch

    PubMed Central

    Kloda, Anna; Lua, Linda; Hall, Rhonda; Adams, David J.; Martinac, Boris

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the heteromeric N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels composed of NR1a and NR2A subunits were expressed, purified, reconstituted into liposomes, and characterized by using the patch clamp technique. The protein exhibited the expected electrophysiological profile of activation by glutamate and glycine and internal Mg2+ blockade. We demonstrated that the mechanical energy transmitted to membrane-bound NMDA receptor channels can be exerted directly by tension developed in the lipid bilayer. Membrane stretch and application of arachidonic acid potentiated currents through NMDA receptor channels in the presence of intracellular Mg2+. The correlation of membrane tension induced by either mechanical or chemical stimuli with the physiological Mg2+ block of the channel suggests that the synaptic transmission can be altered if NMDA receptor complexes experience local changes in bilayer thickness caused by dynamic targeting to lipid microdomains, electrocompression, or chemical modification of the cell membranes. The ability to study gating properties of NMDA receptor channels in artificial bilayers should prove useful in further study of structure–function relationships and facilitate discoveries of new therapeutic agents for treatment of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity or analgesic therapies. PMID:17242368

  17. Key Amino Acid Residues within the Third Membrane Domains of NR1 and NR2 Subunits Contribute to the Regulation of the Surface Delivery of N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kaniakova, Martina; Krausova, Barbora; Vyklicky, Vojtech; Korinek, Miloslav; Lichnerova, Katarina; Vyklicky, Ladislav; Horak, Martin

    2012-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are glutamate ionotropic receptors that play critical roles in synaptic transmission, plasticity, and excitotoxicity. The functional NMDA receptors, heterotetramers composed mainly of two NR1 and two NR2 subunits, likely pass endoplasmic reticulum quality control before they are released from the endoplasmic reticulum and trafficked to the cell surface. However, the mechanism underlying this process is not clear. Using truncated and mutated NMDA receptor subunits expressed in heterologous cells, we found that the M3 domains of both NR1 and NR2 subunits contain key amino acid residues that contribute to the regulation of the number of surface functional NMDA receptors. These key residues are critical neither for the interaction between the NR1 and NR2 subunits nor for the formation of the functional receptors, but rather they regulate the early trafficking of the receptors. We also found that the identified key amino acid residues within both NR1 and NR2 M3 domains contribute to the regulation of the surface expression of unassembled NR1 and NR2 subunits. Thus, our data identify the unique role of the membrane domains in the regulation of the number of surface NMDA receptors. PMID:22711533

  18. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Helen; Byrne, Susan; Barrett, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kieran C.; Cotter, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis. PMID:26191419

  19. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis in a young Lebanese girl.

    PubMed

    Safadieh, Layal; Dabbagh, Omar

    2013-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a recently recognized autoimmune neurologic disorder that presents with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms in previously healthy children. A 4-year-old Lebanese girl presented with new-onset behavioral changes, orofacial dyskinesias, fluctuation in consciousness, inability to walk, and mutism. Antibodies directed against NMDA receptors were detected in the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Prompt treatment with a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in early complete recovery. This is the first case report of a Middle Eastern child affected with this condition. PMID:22992990

  20. Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade on breathing pattern in newborn cat.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, P; Pierrefiche, O; Foutz, A S; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1990-11-01

    We gave newborn kittens the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker MK-801 systemically while recording their breathing patterns by the barometric method. Unlike pentobarbital, MK-801 at an anaesthetic dose increased the relative length of inspiration within the respiratory cycle. The section of both vagus nerves under MK-801 produced apneustic breathing, whereas vagotomy under pentobarbital had no such effect. We conclude that the central inspiratory-termination mechanism mediated through NMDA receptors and the vagally-mediated mechanism that independently 'switches off' inspiration are both functional at birth. PMID:2148125

  1. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis, an Underappreciated Disease in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Lasoff, Daniel R.; Corbett-Detig, Jimmy; Sell, Rebecca; Nolan, Matthew; Wardi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Encephalitis is a novel disease discovered within the past 10 years. Antibodies directed at the NMDAR cause the patient to develop a characteristic syndrome of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Patients go on to develop autonomic dysregulation and often have prolonged hospitalizations and intensive care unit stays. There is little literature in the emergency medicine community regarding this disease process, so we report on a case we encountered in our emergency department to help raise awareness of this disease process. PMID:27330659

  2. Prevalence of serum N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoantibodies in refractory psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Katherine; Lally, John; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Bloomfield, Michael A. P.; MacCabe, James H.; Gaughran, Fiona; Howes, Oliver D.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) autoantibodies have been reported in people with acute psychosis. We hypothesised that their presence may be implicated in the aetiology of treatment-refractory psychosis. We sought to ascertain the point prevalence of NMDA-R antibody positivity in patients referred to services for treatment-refractory psychosis. We found that 3 (7.0%) of 43 individuals had low positive NMDA-R antibody titres. This suggests that NMDA-R autoantibodies are unlikely to account for a large proportion of treatment-refractory psychosis. PMID:25431428

  3. Dynamic Regulation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors by Posttranslational Modifications.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Marc P; Sanz-Clemente, Antonio; Roche, Katherine W

    2015-11-27

    Many molecular mechanisms underlie the changes in synaptic glutamate receptor content that are required by neuronal networks to generate cellular correlates of learning and memory. During the last decade, posttranslational modifications have emerged as critical regulators of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Notably, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and palmitoylation control the stability, trafficking, and synaptic expression of glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. In the current review, we will summarize some of the progress made by the neuroscience community regarding our understanding of phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and palmitoylation of the NMDA and AMPA subtypes of glutamate receptors. PMID:26453298

  4. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors increases paraoxon-induced apoptosis in cultured neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xuan; Tian Feng; Okagaki, Peter; Marini, Ann M. . E-mail: amarini@usuhs.mil

    2005-10-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds, used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents, are potent neurotoxins. We examined the neurotoxic effect of paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate), an organophosphate compound, and the role of NMDA receptors as a mechanism of action in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Paraoxon is neurotoxic to cultured rat cerebellar granule cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cerebellar granule cells are less sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of paraoxon on day in vitro (DIV) 4 than neurons treated on DIV 8. Surprisingly, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, enhances paraoxon-mediated neurotoxicity suggesting that NMDA receptors may play a protective role. Pretreatment with a subtoxic concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) [100 {mu}M] protects about 40% of the vulnerable neurons that would otherwise die from paraoxon-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, addition of a neuroprotective concentration of NMDA 3 h after treatment with paraoxon provides the same level of protection. Because paraoxon-mediated neuronal cell death is time-dependent, we hypothesized that apoptosis may be involved. Paraoxon increases apoptosis about 10-fold compared to basal levels. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor (Boc-D-FMK) and the caspase-9-specific inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) protect against paraoxon-mediated apoptosis, paraoxon-stimulated caspase-3 activity and neuronal cell death. MK-801 increases, whereas NMDA blocks paraoxon-induced apoptosis and paraoxon-stimulated caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that activation of NMDA receptors protect neurons against paraoxon-induced neurotoxicity by blocking apoptosis initiated by paraoxon.

  5. Targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors for treatment of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Yi; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Neuropathic pain remains a major clinical problem and a therapeutic challenge because existing analgesics are often ineffective and can cause serious side effects. Increased N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity contributes to central sensitization in certain types of neuropathic pain. NMDAR antagonists can reduce hyperalgesia and allodynia in animal models of neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury and diabetic neuropathy. Clinically used NMDAR antagonists, such as ketamine and dextromethorphan, are generally effective in patients with neuropathic pain, such as complex regional pain syndrome and painful diabetic neuropathy. However, patients with postherpetic neuralgia respond poorly to NMDAR antagonists. Recent studies on identifying NMDAR-interacting proteins and molecular mechanisms of increased NMDAR activity in neuropathic pain could facilitate the development of new drugs to attenuate abnormal NMDAR activity with minimal impairment of the physiological function of NMDARs. Combining NMDAR antagonists with other analgesics could also lead to better management of neuropathic pain without causing serious side effects. PMID:21686074

  6. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing-Jing; Lv, He; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Juan; Hao, Hong-Jun; Gao, Feng; Huang, Yi-Ning

    2016-07-01

    We described a female patient with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis occurring sequentially with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). The 19-year-old patient initially presented a diencephalic syndrome with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG) and brain lesions which involving bilateral medial temporal lobes and periependymal surfaces of the third ventricle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten months later, the patient developed cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms and dyskinesia with left basal ganglia lesions on brain MRI. Meanwhile, the anti-NMDAR antibodies were positive in the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid, while the screening tests for an ovarian teratoma and other tumors were all negative. Hence, the patient was diagnosed NMOSD and anti-NMDAR encephalitis followed by low-dose rituximab treatment with a good response. This case was another evidence for demyelinating syndromes overlapping anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Chinese patients. PMID:27456878

  7. Chronic periodic lateralised epileptic discharges and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Eisuke; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Murata, Yoshiko; Taniguchi, Go; Sone, Daichi; Watanabe, Masako

    2014-06-01

    Periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) are uncommon transient electroencephalographic findings accompanied by acute brain lesions. A small proportion of PLEDs persist for more than three months and are called "chronic" PLEDs, the pathophysiology of which is still debated. Herein, we report a man with right hemispheric PLEDs which lasted for more than 14 months and mild left hemispatial neglect after he experienced status epilepticus. Although MRI was normal, positron emission tomography revealed right temporo-parieto-occipital hypometabolism, which coincided with the source area of PLEDs estimated by magnetoencephalography. In addition, levels of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies and granzyme B were found to be high in the cerebrospinal fluid. Following two courses of steroid pulse therapy, the patient's left spatial neglect improved and the PLEDs were partially resolved. These findings suggest that the chronic PLEDs present in this case were an interictal phenomenon and that their pathophysiology involved autoimmune processes. PMID:24777148

  8. Effects of the abused solvent toluene on recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, S L; Mirshahi, T; Thomas, B; Balster, R L; Woodward, J J

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that toluene, which is commonly abused, depresses neuronal activity and causes behavioral effects in both animals and man similar to those observed for ethanol. In this study, the oocyte expression system was used to test the hypothesis that toluene, like ethanol, inhibits the function of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Oocytes were injected with mRNA for specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA subunits and currents were recorded using conventional two-electrode voltage clamp. To enhance the low water solubility of toluene, drug solutions were prepared by mixing toluene with alkamuls (ethoxylated castor oil) at a 1:1 ratio (v:v) and diluting this mixture to the appropriate concentration with barium-containing normal frog Ringer solution. Alkamuls, up to 0.1%, had no significant effects on membrane leak currents or on NMDA-induced currents. Toluene, up to approximately 9 mM, had only minor effects on membrane leak currents but dose-dependently inhibited NMDA-mediated currents in oocytes. The inhibition of NMDA receptor currents by toluene was rapid, reversible and the potency for toluene's effects was subunit dependent. The NR1/2B subunit combination was the most sensitive with an IC50 value for toluene-induced inhibition of 0.17 mM. The NR1/2A and NR1/2C receptors were 6- and 12-fold less sensitive with IC50 values of 1.4 and 2.1 mM, respectively. In contrast, toluene up to approximately 9 mM did not inhibit kainate-induced currents in oocytes expressing GluR1, GluR1(+)R2 or GluR6 subunits. These results suggest that some of the effects of toluene on neuronal activity and behavior may be mediated by inhibition of NMDA receptors. PMID:9655877

  9. Quantification of the novel N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor ligand [11C]GMOM in man.

    PubMed

    van der Doef, Thalia F; Golla, Sandeep Sv; Klein, Pieter J; Oropeza-Seguias, Gisela M; Schuit, Robert C; Metaxas, Athanasios; Jobse, Ellen; Schwarte, Lothar A; Windhorst, Albert D; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart Nm; Boellaard, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    [(11)C]GMOM (carbon-11 labeled N-(2-chloro-5-thiomethylphenyl)-N'-(3-[(11)C]methoxy-phenyl)-N'-methylguanidine) is a PET ligand that binds to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor with high specificity and affinity. The purpose of this first in human study was to evaluate kinetics of [(11)C]GMOM in the healthy human brain and to identify the optimal pharmacokinetic model for quantifying these kinetics, both before and after a pharmacological dose of S-ketamine. Dynamic 90 min [(11)C]GMOM PET scans were obtained from 10 subjects. In six of the 10 subjects, a second PET scan was performed following an S-ketamine challenge. Metabolite corrected plasma input functions were obtained for all scans. Regional time activity curves were fitted to various single- and two-tissue compartment models. Best fits were obtained using a two-tissue irreversible model with blood volume parameter. The highest net influx rate (Ki) of [(11)C]GMOM was observed in regions with high N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor density, such as hippocampus and thalamus. A significant reduction in the Ki was observed for the entire brain after administration of ketamine, suggesting specific binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This initial study suggests that the [(11)C]GMOM could be used for quantification of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. PMID:26661185

  10. Quantification of the novel N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor ligand [11C]GMOM in man

    PubMed Central

    van der Doef, Thalia F; Klein, Pieter J; Oropeza-Seguias, Gisela M; Schuit, Robert C; Metaxas, Athanasios; Jobse, Ellen; Schwarte, Lothar A; Windhorst, Albert D; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart NM; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    [11C]GMOM (carbon-11 labeled N-(2-chloro-5-thiomethylphenyl)-N′-(3-[11C]methoxy-phenyl)-N′-methylguanidine) is a PET ligand that binds to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor with high specificity and affinity. The purpose of this first in human study was to evaluate kinetics of [11C]GMOM in the healthy human brain and to identify the optimal pharmacokinetic model for quantifying these kinetics, both before and after a pharmacological dose of S-ketamine. Dynamic 90 min [11C]GMOM PET scans were obtained from 10 subjects. In six of the 10 subjects, a second PET scan was performed following an S-ketamine challenge. Metabolite corrected plasma input functions were obtained for all scans. Regional time activity curves were fitted to various single- and two-tissue compartment models. Best fits were obtained using a two-tissue irreversible model with blood volume parameter. The highest net influx rate (Ki) of [11C]GMOM was observed in regions with high N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor density, such as hippocampus and thalamus. A significant reduction in the Ki was observed for the entire brain after administration of ketamine, suggesting specific binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This initial study suggests that the [11C]GMOM could be used for quantification of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. PMID:26661185

  11. Cutoff in potency implicates alcohol inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1995-01-01

    As the number of carbon atoms in an aliphatic n-alcohol is increased from one to five, intoxicating potency, lipid solubility, and membrane lipid disordering potency all increase in a similar exponential manner. However, the potency of aliphatic n-alcohols for producing intoxication reaches a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then decreases. The molecular basis of this "cutoff" effect is not understood, as it is not correlated with either the lipid solubility or the membrane disordering potency of the alcohols, which continue to increase exponentially. Since it has been suggested that inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by alcohols may play a role in alcohol intoxication, we investigated whether a series of aliphatic n-alcohols would exhibit a cutoff in potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors. We found that although potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors increased exponentially for alcohols with one to five carbon atoms, potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors reached a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then abruptly disappeared. This cutoff for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors is consistent with an interaction of the alcohols with a hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. In addition, the similarity of the cutoffs for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors and alcohol intoxication suggests that the cutoff for NMDA receptor inhibition may contribute to the cutoff for alcohol intoxication, which is consistent with an important role of NMDA receptors in alcohol intoxication. PMID:7708732

  12. PSD-93 MEDIATES TYROSINE-PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuko; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Su, Qingning; Johns, Roger A

    2009-01-01

    Src family protein kinases (SFKs)-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor synaptic function. Some members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins bind to both SFKs and NMDA receptors, but it is unclear whether the MAGUK family of proteins is required for SFKs-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation of the NMDA receptors. Here, we showed by co-immunoprecipitation that PSD-93, a member of the MAGUK family of proteins, interacts with the NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B as well as with Fyn, a member of the SFKs, in mouse cerebral cortex. Using a biochemical fractionation approach to isolate subcellular compartments revealed that the expression of Fyn, but not of other members of the SFKs (Lyn, Src, and Yes), was significantly decreased in synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from the cerebral cortex of PSD-93 knockout mice. Interestingly, we found that PSD-93 disruption causes reduction of tyrosine-phosphorylated NR2A and NR2B in the same fraction. Moreover, PSD-93 deletion markedly blocked the SFKs-mediated increase in tyrosine-phosphorylated NR2A and NR2B through the protein kinase C pathway after induction with 4β-PMA in cultured cortical neurons. Our findings indicate that PSD-93 appears to mediate tyrosine-phosphorylation of the NMDA receptors and synaptic localization of Fyn. PMID:18423999

  13. Constitutive Activation of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor via Cleft-spanning Disulfide Bonds*

    PubMed Central

    Blanke, Marie L.; VanDongen, Antonius M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Although the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a critical role in the central nervous system, many questions remain regarding the relationship between its structure and functional properties. In particular, the involvement of ligand-binding domain closure in determining agonist efficacy, which has been reported in other glutamate receptor subtypes, remains unresolved. To address this question, we designed dual cysteine point mutations spanning the NR1 and NR2 ligand-binding clefts, aiming to stabilize these domains in closed cleft conformations. Two mutants, E522C/I691C in NR1 (EI) and K487C/N687C in NR2 (KN) were found to exhibit significant glycine- and glutamate-independent activation, respectively, and co-expression of the two subunits produced a constitutively active channel. However, both individual mutants could be activated above constitutive levels in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cleft closure does not completely prevent agonist association. Interestingly, whereas the NR2 KN disulfide was found to potentiate channel gating and M3 accessibility, NR1 EI exhibited the opposite phenotype, suggesting that the EI disulfide may trap the NR1 ligand-binding domain in a lower efficacy conformation. Furthermore, both mutants affected agonist sensitivity at the opposing subunit, suggesting that closed cleft stabilization may contribute to coupling between the subunits. These results support a correlation between cleft stability and receptor activation, providing compelling evidence for the Venus flytrap mechanism of glutamate receptor domain closure. PMID:18450751

  14. Human N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antibodies alter memory and behaviour in mice

    PubMed Central

    Planagumà, Jesús; Leypoldt, Frank; Mannara, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Martín-García, Elena; Aguilar, Esther; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Jain, Ankit; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lakadamyali, Melike; Graus, Francesc; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients’ antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface receptors. These effects and the frequent response to immunotherapy have suggested an antibody-mediated pathogenesis, but to date there is no animal model showing that patients’ antibodies cause memory and behavioural deficits. To develop such a model, C57BL6/J mice underwent placement of ventricular catheters connected to osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous infusion of patients’ or control cerebrospinal fluid (flow rate 0.25 µl/h, 14 days). During and after the infusion period standardized tests were applied, including tasks to assess memory (novel object recognition in open field and V-maze paradigms), anhedonic behaviours (sucrose preference test), depressive-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swimming tests), anxiety (black and white, elevated plus maze tests), aggressiveness (resident-intruder test), and locomotor activity (horizontal and vertical). Animals sacrificed at Days 5, 13, 18, 26 and 46 were examined for brain-bound antibodies and the antibody effects on total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and protein concentration using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. These experiments showed that animals infused with patients’ cerebrospinal fluid, but not control cerebrospinal fluid, developed progressive memory deficits, and anhedonic and depressive-like behaviours, without affecting other behavioural or locomotor tasks. Memory deficits gradually worsened until Day 18 (4 days after the infusion stopped) and all symptoms resolved over the next week. Accompanying brain tissue studies showed progressive increase of brain-bound human antibodies, predominantly in the hippocampus (maximal

  15. Sigma-1 and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptors: A Partnership with Beneficial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pabba, Mohan; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (σ-1R) are interorganelle signaling molecules, which have been implicated in synaptic plasticity, primarily by enhancing the function of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). On the other hand, excessive influx of calcium via activated NMDAR can cause excitotoxicity. Yet, despite their NMDAR-enhancing role, multiple lines of evidence suggest that σ-1Rs are involved in neuroprotection. The mechanism underlying these intriguing opposing effects is not known. Recent studies now suggest the possibility that σ-1Rs could exert neuroprotective effects via targeted disruption of protein-protein interactions between NMDARs and their associated intracellular signaling machinery, specifically the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This targeted disruption of protein-protein interactions between NMDARs and nNOS results in lower levels of nitric oxide generation, thus having a neuroprotective effect. Here, we briefly summarize aspects of σ-1R-mediated enhancement of NMDAR function and possible neuroprotection. In-depth mechanistic understanding of σ-1R modulation of NMDAR function, which preserves Ca2+ homoeostasis while limiting excitotoxicity would provide valuable information for designing novel as well as improving prevailing therapeutic strategies.

  16. Clinical analysis on anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis cases: Chinese experience

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoqin; Fan, Chunqiu; Wu, Jian; Ye, Jing; Zhan, Shuqin; Song, Haiqing; Liu, Aihua; Su, Yingying; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of autoimmune encephalitis which was just identified, the clinical manifestations of the anti-N methyl-D aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis are complex, diverse and in severe condition. The immunotherapy has shown good effect on the treatment but in generally, the diagnosis and treatment are still in the experience accumulation stage. More clinical research in different population is necessary, for example, in the Chinese population. This study was completed in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis patients who were diagnosed in Beijing Xuan Wu Hospital (China) during the time from 2011 to 2013. Total 33 patients were involved with the average age of 29.7 years old when the diseases were onset. With diverse clinical manifestations, most patients displayed positively by NMDAR antibody test and 63.6% of them were associated with elevated CSF-lgA. Patients also showed abnormal MRI and EEG. Only three patients had teratomas. With hormone therapy, gamma globulin treatment or plasma exchange, more than three quarters of patients fully recovered and the others had moderate symptoms. Based on our results, we suggest that NMDAR antibody test would be helpful to make a timely diagnosis and to administer immunotherapy. PMID:26770517

  17. Selective Impairment of Spatial Cognition Caused by Autoantibodies to the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric H; Volpe, Bruce T; Mackay, Meggan; Aranow, Cynthia; Watson, Philip; Kowal, Czeslawa; Storbeck, Justin; Mattis, Paul; Berlin, RoseAnn; Chen, Huiyi; Mader, Simone; Huerta, Tomás S; Huerta, Patricio T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-07-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience cognitive abnormalities in multiple domains including processing speed, executive function, and memory. Here we show that SLE patients carrying antibodies that bind DNA and the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), termed DNRAbs, displayed a selective impairment in spatial recall. Neural recordings in a mouse model of SLE, in which circulating DNRAbs penetrate the hippocampus, revealed that CA1 place cells exhibited a significant expansion in place field size. Structural analysis showed that hippocampal pyramidal cells had substantial reductions in their dendritic processes and spines. Strikingly, these abnormalities became evident at a time when DNRAbs were no longer detectable in the hippocampus. These results suggest that antibody-mediated neurocognitive impairments may be highly specific, and that spatial cognition may be particularly vulnerable to DNRAb-mediated structural and functional injury to hippocampal cells that evolves after the triggering insult is no longer present. PMID:26286205

  18. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition. PMID:27025853

  19. Dysregulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors induced by amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Cong; Zhao, Jie; Li, Shao

    2013-12-01

    The toxicity of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has a high incidence in the elderly worldwide. Recent evidence showed that alteration in the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) plays a key role in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, the activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs has distinct consequences for plasticity, gene regulation, neuronal death, and Aβ production. This review focuses on the dysregulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs induced by Aβ. On one hand, Aβ downregulates the synaptic NMDAR response by promoting NMDAR endocytosis, leading to either neurotoxicity or neuroprotection. On the other hand, Aβ enhances the activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs by decreasing neuronal glutamate uptake and inducing glutamate spillover, subsequently causing neurotoxicity. In addition, selective enhancement of synaptic activity by low doses of NMDA, or reduction of extrasynaptic activity by memantine, a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, halts Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, future neuroprotective drugs for AD should aim at both the enhancement of synaptic activity and the disruption of extrasynaptic NMDAR-dependent death signaling. PMID:24136243

  20. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  1. Early Growth Response 1 (Egr-1) Regulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR)-dependent Transcription of PSD-95 and α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole Propionic Acid Receptor (AMPAR) Trafficking in Hippocampal Primary Neurons.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xike; Jiang, Yongjun; Tse, Yiu Chung; Wang, Yunling; Wong, Tak Pan; Paudel, Hemant K

    2015-12-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) controls synaptic plasticity and memory function and is one of the major inducers of transcription factor Egr-1 in the hippocampus. However, how Egr-1 mediates the NMDAR signal in neurons has remained unclear. Here, we show that the hippocampus of mice lacking Egr-1 displays electrophysiology properties and ultrastructure that are similar to mice overexpressing PSD-95, a major scaffolding protein of postsynaptic density involved in synapse formation, synaptic plasticity, and synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), which mediate the vast majority of excitatory transmission in the CNS. We demonstrate that Egr-1 is a transcription repressor of the PSD-95 gene and is recruited to the PSD-95 promoter in response to NMDAR activation. Knockdown of Egr-1 in rat hippocampal primary neurons blocks NMDAR-induced PSD-95 down-regulation and AMPAR endocytosis. Likewise, overexpression of Egr-1 in rat hippocampal primary neurons causes reduction in PSD-95 protein level and promotes AMPAR endocytosis. Our data indicate that Egr-1 is involved in NMDAR-mediated PSD-95 down-regulation and AMPAR endocytosis, a process important in the expression of long term depression. PMID:26475861

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Rondón, Netxibeth; Esquiva, Gema; Germain, Francisco; de la Villa, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies the pathophysiology of diseases affecting the retina and optic nerve. Several studies have previously evidenced the anti-apoptotic properties of the bile constituent, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, in diverse models of photoreceptor degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage in the rat retina using a functional and morphological approach. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was administered intraperitoneally before and after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Three days after insult, full-field electroretinograms showed reductions in the amplitudes of the positive and negative-scotopic threshold responses, scotopic a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials. Quantitative morphological evaluation of whole-mount retinas demonstrated a reduction in the density of retinal ganglion cells. Systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated the functional impairment induced by NMDA, which correlated with a higher retinal ganglion cell density. Our findings sustain the efficacy of tauroursodeoxycholic acid administration in vivo, suggesting it would be a good candidate for the pharmacological treatment of degenerative diseases coursing with retinal ganglion cell loss. PMID:26379056

  3. Arcaine uncovers dual interactions of polyamines with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, I.J. )

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between the polyamines spermine and spermidine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by using (+)-(3H)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-im ine maleate ((3H)MK801) binding to well washed rat brain membranes. The actions of arcaine, agmatine, diethylenetriamine and 1,8-octanediamine as polyamine antagonists were compared to use as tools in this study. Arcaine was found to be the antagonist of choice due to its greater potency. Several divalent cations, including Ba++, Ca++ and Sr++, but not Zn++, decreased the apparent potency of arcaine. These cations enhance (3H)MK801 binding in a similar fashion to spermidine and spermine suggesting that they may share a common site and mechanism of action. Moreover, arcaine competitively reduced the enhancement of (3H)MK801 binding produced by Sr++ did not alter the inhibition produced by higher concentrations of this cation, a phenomenon that also occurs with spermidine. The distinct arcaine sensitivity of the two separate phases of the concentration-response curves of both spermidine and Sr++ suggests two separate mechanisms underlying the action of spermidine-like drugs on the NMDA receptor. Further investigation of the increase in (3H)MK801 binding produced by spermidine revealed that spermidine increased the equilibrium affinity of this ligand by 2-fold without significantly altering the density of binding sites. In contrast, polyamine induced increases in the dissociation of (3H)MK801 required higher polyamine concentrations than necessary to increase ligand binding and were relatively insensitive to arcaine. These findings suggest that polyamines do not activate or promote the activation of the NMDA receptor, but instead enhance (3H)MK801 binding by allosterically increasing ligand affinity.

  4. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  5. Regulation of airway contractility by plasminogen activators through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Taher; Yarovoi, Serge; Fanne, Rami Abu; Akkawi, Sa'ed; Jammal, Mahmud; Allen, Timothy Craig; Idell, Steven; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2010-12-01

    Reactive airway disease is mediated by smooth muscle contraction initiated through several agonist-dependent pathways. Activation of type 1 N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R1s) by plasminogen activators (PAs) has been linked to control of vascular tone, but their effect on airway smooth muscle contractility has not previously been studied to our knowledge. We observed that NMDA-R1s are expressed by human airway smooth muscle cells and constitutively inhibit the contraction of isolated rat tracheal rings in response to acetylcholine (Ach). Both tissue-type PA (tPA) and urokinase-type PA (uPA) bind to NMDA-R1 and reverse this effect, thereby enhancing Ach-induced tracheal contractility. Tracheal contractility initiated by Ach is reduced in rings isolated from tPA(-/-) and uPA(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. The procontractile effect of uPA or tPA was mimicked and augmented by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, l-NAME. uPA and tPA further enhanced the contractility of rings denuded of epithelium, an effect that was inhibited by the NMDA-R antagonist, MK-801. Binding of PAs to NMDA-R1 and the subsequent activation of the receptor were inhibited by PA inhibitor type 1, by a PA inhibitor type 1-derived hexapeptide that recognizes the tPA and uPA docking domains, as well as by specific mutations within the docking site of tPA. These studies identify involvement of PAs and NMDA-R1 in airway contractility, and define new loci that could lead to the development of novel interventions for reactive airway disease. PMID:20097831

  6. A case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting as a neuropsychiatric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Marek; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis can often be a paraneoplastic manifestation of occult malignancy such as ovarian teratoma and rarely teratoma of mediastinum or testis and small cell lung carcinoma. We report a case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody–positive autoimmune encephalitis in a young patient who presented with neuropsychiatric features and made a very good recovery following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. The case highlights the need for increased vigilance for the condition in young females with or without a previous psychiatric history and emphasises the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this challenging disorder with a good prognosis. PMID:27489663

  7. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Andrea P; Grebenciucova, Elena; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis is a new autoimmune disorder, often paraneoplastic in nature, presenting with complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. Diagnosed serologically, this disorder is often responsive to immunosuppressant treatment. The objective of this review is to educate clinicians on the challenges of diagnosis and management of this disorder. Materials and methods A review of the relevant literature on clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and recommended management was conducted using a PubMed search. Examination of the results identified articles published between 2007 and 2014. Results The literature highlights the importance of recognizing early common signs and symptoms, which include hallucinations, seizures, altered mental status, and movement disorders, often in the absence of fever. Although the presence of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies confirms diagnosis, approximately 15% of patients have only positive cerebrospinal fluid titers. Antibody detection should prompt a search for an underlying teratoma or other underlying neoplasm and the initiation of first-line immunosuppressant therapy: intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasmapheresis, or a combination thereof. Second-line treatment with rituximab or cyclophosphamide should be implemented if no improvement is noted after 10 days. Complications can include behavioral problems (eg, aggression and insomnia), hypoventilation, catatonia, and autonomic instability. Those patients who can be managed outside an intensive care unit and whose tumors are identified and removed typically have better rates of remission and functional outcomes. Conclusion There is an increasing need for clinicians of different specialties, including psychiatrists, neurologists, oncologists, neurooncologists, immunologists, and intensivists to become familiar with this disorder and its potential complications. Remission can be optimized with

  8. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Newly Recognized Inflammatory Brain Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia; Daengsuwan, Tassalapa; Dalmau, Josep; Jones, Kevin; deVeber, Gabrielle; Kobayashi, Jeffrey; Laxer, Ronald M.; Benseler, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a newly recognized anti-neuronal antibody-mediated inflammatory brain disease causing severe psychiatric and neurological deficits in previously healthy children. The aim of this study was to report characteristic clinical features and outcomes of children diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Methods Consecutive children presenting with newly acquired psychiatric and/or neurologic deficits consistent with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and evidence of CNS inflammation were screened over a 12-month period. Children were included in the study if they had confirmatory evidence of anti-NMDAR antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Details of clinical presentation and results of investigations were reported. Type and duration of treatment and outcomes at last follow-up were documented. Results Seven children were screened and three children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were identified. All patients presented with neurological or psychiatric (‘neuropsychiatric’) abnormalities, seizures, speech disorder, sleep disturbance, and fluctuating level of consciousness. The two older patients also had more prominent psychiatric features, while the younger child had significant autonomic instability and prominent involuntary movement disorder. None had an underlying tumor. Immunosuppressive therapies resulted in near or complete recovery; however, two of the patients had early relapse requiring re-treatment. Conclusion Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an important cause of neuropsychiatric deficits in children that must be included in the differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitis and other inflammatory brain diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for neurologic recovery. PMID:21547896

  9. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors strongly regulate postsynaptic activity levels during optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kolls, Brad J; Meyer, Ronald L

    2013-10-01

    During development, neuronal activity is used as a cue to guide synaptic rearrangements to refine connections. Many studies, especially in the visual system, have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) plays a key role in mediating activity-dependent refinement through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like processes. Adult goldfish can regenerate their optic nerve and utilize neuronal activity to generate precise topography in their projection onto tectum. Although the NMDAr has been implicated in this process, its precise role in regeneration has not been extensively studied. In examining NMDAr function during regeneration, we found salient differences compared with development. By using field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recordings, the contribution of the NMDAr at the primary optic synapse was measured. In contrast to development, no increase in NMDAr function was detectable during synaptic refinement. Unlike development, LTP could not be reliably elicited during regeneration. Unexpectedly, we found that NMDAr exerted a major effect on regulating ongoing tectal (postsynaptic) activity levels during regeneration. Blocking NMDAr strongly suppressed spontaneous activity during regeneration but had no significant effect in the normal projection. This difference could be attributed to an occlusion effect of strong optic drive in the normal projection, which dominated ongoing tectal activity. During regeneration, this optic drive is largely absent. Optic nerve stimulation further indicated that the NMDAr had little effect on the ability of optic fibers to evoke early postsynaptic impulse activity but was important for late network activity. These results indicate that, during regeneration, the NMDAr may play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of ongoing activity and network excitability. PMID:23873725

  10. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Mediated Neurologic Relapse Post Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Walsh, Aoibhinn; King, Mary D; Lynch, Bryan; Webb, David; Twomey, Eilish; Ronan Leahy, T; Butler, Karina; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advent of antiviral therapy, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurologic relapse after initial improvement is generally attributed to herpes simplex virus reactivation. In 2013, inflammation caused by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies was reported in association with cases of neurologic relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis. We present 3 such cases and discuss diagnostic and management dilemmas. PMID:27171680

  11. Investigations on CXCL13 in Anti–N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, Frank; Höftberger, Romana; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Armangue, Thaís; Gresa-Arribas, Nuria; Jahn, Holger; Rostásy, Kevin; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Meyer, Thomas; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Graus, Francesc; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune encephalitis affecting mainly young adults and children. The lack of suitable biomarkers of disease activity makes treatment decisions and identification of relapses challenging. OBJECTIVE To determine the levels of the B-cell–attracting C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) in serum samples and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and whether they can be used as biomarkers of treatment response and outcome. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of 167 patients consecutively diagnosed as having anti-NMDAR encephalitis between May 1, 2008, and January 31, 2013. Concentration of CXCL13 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all available patients’ samples (272 CSF and 55 serum samples). Samples from 25 patients with noninflammatory neurological disorders and 9 with neuroborreliosis served as controls. Expression of CXCL13 in the brain biopsy of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis was determined by immunohistochemistry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Percentage of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and elevated CXCL13 in CSF. RESULTS Compared with control individuals, 70% of patients with early-stage anti-NMDAR encephalitis had increased CXCL13 in CSF (>7 pg/mL; P < .001) but none in serum samples (>1047 pg/mL; P > .99). High concentration of CSF CXCL13 was associated with the presence of prodromal fever or headache (P = .01), limited response to therapy (P = .003), clinical relapses (P = .03), and intrathecal NMDAR-antibody synthesis (P < .001). Among patients with monophasic disease assessed 2 to 6 months after starting treatment, 10 of 15 with limited treatment response vs 0 of 13 with favorable response had increased CSF CXCL13 (specificity, 100%; 95% CI, 75–100 and sensitivity, 67%; 95% CI, 38–88; P = .02). Six of 12 patients had elevated CSF CXCL13 at relapse including 3 with

  12. Human T lymphocytes express N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors functionally active in controlling T cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Miglio, Gianluca; Varsaldi, Federica; Lombardi, Grazia . E-mail: lombardi@pharm.unipmn.it

    2005-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the functional role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in human T cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that human resting peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and Jurkat T cells express genes encoding for both NR1 and NR2B subunits: phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated PBL also expresses both these genes and the NR2A and NR2D genes. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed that NR1 expression increases as a consequence of PHA (10 {mu}g/ml) treatment. D-(-)-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), and (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine [(+)-MK 801], competitive and non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists, respectively, inhibited PHA-induced T cell proliferation, whereas they did not affect IL-2 (10 U/ml)-induced proliferation of PHA blasts. These effects were due to the prevention of T cell activation (inhibition of cell aggregate formation and CD25 expression), but not to cell cycle arrest or death. These results demonstrate that human T lymphocytes express NMDA receptors, which are functionally active in controlling cell activation.

  13. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor requires two distinct agonists to operate. Glycine is assumed to be the endogenous ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine site, but this notion has been challenged by the discovery of high levels of endogenous d-serine in the mammalian forebrain. I have outlined an evolutionary framework for the appearance of a glycine site in animals and the metabolic events leading to high levels of D-serine in brain. Sequence alignments of the glycine-binding regions, along with the scant experimental data available, suggest that the properties of invertebrate NMDA receptor glycine sites are probably different from those in vertebrates. The synthesis of D-serine in brain is due to a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (B(6))-requiring serine racemase in glia. Although it remains unknown when serine racemase first evolved, data concerning the evolution of B(6) enzymes, along with the known occurrences of serine racemases in animals, point to D-serine synthesis arising around the divergence time of arthropods. D-Serine catabolism occurs via the ancient peroxisomal enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), whose ontogenetic expression in the hindbrain of mammals is delayed until the postnatal period and absent from the forebrain. The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics. PMID:15306409

  14. Modulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity alters the subunit assembly in native N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Ferrani-Kile, Karima; Leslie, Steven W

    2005-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is crucial for development and neuroplasticity as well as excitotoxicity. The biochemical basis of the disassembly and reassembly of NMDA receptor has never been reported. Using coimmunoprecipitation, Western blotting, and mass spectrometry, we show that inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases triggers disassembly of NR1, NR2A, and NR2B in cortical NMDA receptor complexes. Furthermore, the disassembly of the NMDA receptor subunits is immediate, dose-dependent, and reversible and seems to occur through mechanisms linked to Src kinases. Together, these results define a novel role for tyrosine phosphatases in the complex mechanism of NMDA receptor regulation. PMID:15837820

  15. Psychotic symptoms in anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis: A case report and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Sagar, Rajesh; Patra, Bichitrananda; Saini, Lokesh; Gulati, Sheffali; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2016-08-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, only recently first described, is an increasingly well-recognized inflammatory encephalitis that is seen in children and adults. An 11-year old girl admitted to the psychiatry ward with a presentation of acute psychosis was diagnosed with NMDA receptor encephalitis following neurology referral and was treated accordingly. This case highlights psychiatric manifestations in encephalitis and the need for the psychiatrist to have high index of suspicion when atypical symptoms (e.g., dyskinesia, seizure, fever etc.) present in acutely psychotic patients. PMID:27520914

  16. Iron Mediates N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor-dependent Stimulation of Calcium-induced Pathways and Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity*

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Pablo; Humeres, Alexis; Elgueta, Claudio; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T.

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency hinders hippocampus-dependent learning processes and impairs cognitive performance, but current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique role of iron in neuronal function is sparse. Here, we investigated the participation of iron on calcium signal generation and ERK1/2 stimulation induced by the glutamate agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), and the effects of iron addition/chelation on hippocampal basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). Addition of NMDA to primary hippocampal cultures elicited persistent calcium signals that required functional NMDA receptors and were independent of calcium influx through L-type calcium channels or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors; NMDA also promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine or inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated calcium release with ryanodine-reduced calcium signal duration and prevented NMDA-induced ERK1/2 activation. Iron addition to hippocampal neurons readily increased the intracellular labile iron pool and stimulated reactive oxygen species production; the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the hydroxyl radical trapper MCI-186 prevented these responses. Iron addition to primary hippocampal cultures kept in calcium-free medium elicited calcium signals and stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation; RyR inhibition abolished these effects. Iron chelation decreased basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices, inhibited iron-induced synaptic stimulation, and impaired sustained LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons induced by strong stimulation. In contrast, iron addition facilitated sustained LTP induction after suboptimal tetanic stimulation. Together, these results suggest that hippocampal neurons require iron to generate RyR-mediated calcium signals after NMDA receptor stimulation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 activation, an essential step of sustained LTP. PMID:21296883

  17. [Two cases of autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Mataam, K; Ilboudo, J-C; Gazaigne, L; Wafo, E; Angenard, F

    2012-05-01

    We report here two cases of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The primary cause was an ovarian teratoma in one case. The outcomes were good. The first case was a late diagnosis, despite a typical clinical presentation. The clinical presentation of this disease remains unknown, especially in the intensive care unit. The treatment was recently codified and transformed the prognosis of this encephalitis. The second case was early treated in the course of the disease, due to the experience related to the previous case. In case of unexplained acute or subacute encephalitis or psychiatric-like disorders without prior medical history, the determination of the level of expression of antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and other antineuroreceptors antibodies can help to identify this diagnosis. The initial picture of the disease, its variability and the unawareness of the recent reports on this encephalitis may lead to a wrong diagnosis and inappropriate management. PMID:22475576

  18. Prebiotic feeding elevates central brain derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits and D-serine.

    PubMed

    Savignac, Helene M; Corona, Giulia; Mills, Henrietta; Chen, Li; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Tzortzis, George; Burnet, Philip W J

    2013-12-01

    The influence of the gut microbiota on brain chemistry has been convincingly demonstrated in rodents. In the absence of gut bacteria, the central expression of brain derived neurotropic factor, (BDNF), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits are reduced, whereas, oral probiotics increase brain BDNF, and impart significant anxiolytic effects. We tested whether prebiotic compounds, which increase intrinsic enteric microbiota, also affected brain BDNF and NMDARs. In addition, we examined whether plasma from prebiotic treated rats released BDNF from human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, to provide an initial indication of mechanism of action. Rats were gavaged with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or water for five weeks, prior to measurements of brain BDNF, NMDAR subunits and amino acids associated with glutamate neurotransmission (glutamate, glutamine, and serine and alanine enantiomers). Prebiotics increased hippocampal BDNF and NR1 subunit expression relative to controls. The intake of GOS also increased hippocampal NR2A subunits, and frontal cortex NR1 and d-serine. Prebiotics did not alter glutamate, glutamine, l-serine, l-alanine or d-alanine concentrations in the brain, though GOSfeeding raised plasma d-alanine. Elevated levels of plasma peptide YY (PYY) after GOS intake was observed. Plasma from GOS rats increased the release of BDNF from SH-SY5Y cells, but not in the presence of PYY antisera. The addition of synthetic PYY to SH-SY5Y cell cultures, also elevated BDNF secretion. We conclude that prebiotic-mediated proliferation of gut microbiota in rats, like probiotics, increases brain BDNF expression, possibly through the involvement of gut hormones. The effect of GOS on components of central NMDAR signalling was greater than FOS, and may reflect the proliferative potency of GOS on microbiota. Our data therefore, provide a sound basis to further investigate the utility of prebiotics in the maintenance of brain health and

  19. Evidence for spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor involvement in prolonged chemical nociception in the rat.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jane E; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2016-08-15

    We used in vivo electrophysiology and a model of more persistent nociceptive inputs to monitor spinal cord neuronal activity in anaesthetised rats to reveal the pharmacology of enhanced pain signalling. The study showed that all responses were blocked by non-selective antagonism of glutamate receptors but a selective and preferential role of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the prolonged plastic responses was clearly seen. The work lead to many publications, initially preclinical but increasingly from patient studies, showing the importance of the NMDA receptor in central sensitisation within the spinal cord and how this could relate to persistent pain states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. PMID:26892026

  20. Neurosteroid-like Inhibitors of N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor: Substituted 2-Sulfates and 2-Hemisuccinates of Perhydrophenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Slavikova, Barbora; Chodounska, Hana; Nekardova, Michaela; Vyklicky, Vojtech; Ladislav, Marek; Hubalkova, Pavla; Krausova, Barbora; Vyklicky, Ladislav; Kudova, Eva

    2016-05-26

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) display a critical role in various diseases of the central nervous system. The activity of NMDARs can be modulated by neurosteroids. Herein, we report a structure-activity relationship study for perhydrophenanthrene analogues possessing a framework that mimics the steroidal ring system. This study comprises the design, synthesis, and assessment of the biological activity of a library of perhydrophenanthrene 2-sulfates and 2-hemisuccinates (1-10). Their ability to modulate NMDAR-induced currents was tested on recombinant GluN1/GluN2B receptors. Our results demonstrate that such structural optimization leads to compounds that are inhibitors of NMDARs. Notably, compound 9 (IC50 = 15.6 μM) was assessed as a more potent inhibitor of NMDAR-induced currents than the known endogenous neurosteroid, pregnanolone sulfate (IC50 = 24.6 μM). PMID:27064517

  1. A region of the rat N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit that is sufficient for potentiation by phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Grant, E R; Guttmann, R P; Seifert, K M; Lynch, D R

    2001-09-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are modulated by protein kinase C (PKC) in vivo and in heterologous expression systems. In heterologous expression systems, PKC-mediated modulation is subunit specific with NR2A-containing receptors being potentiated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), while NR2C-containing receptors are inhibited or unaffected. In the present study we have produced chimeric receptors containing NR2A and NR2C to define the components of NR2A which are sufficient for potentiation by PMA. Amino acids 1105-1400 of NR2A placed onto the C-terminus of NR2C at amino acid 1102 was the minimum region sufficient for producing a PMA-stimulated receptor. This suggests that this region contains structural determinants for PKC-mediated potentiation of NR2A receptors. PMID:11524145

  2. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dextromethorphan selectively reduces temporal summation of second pain in man.

    PubMed

    Price, D D; Mao, J; Frenk, H; Mayer, D J

    1994-11-01

    Oral doses of dextromethorphan (DM), a common cough suppressant and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and their vehicle control were given on a double-blind basis to normal volunteer human subjects who rated intensities of first and second pain in response to repeated painful electric shocks and repeated 52 degrees C heat pulses. Doses of 30 and 45 mg, but not 15 mg, were effective in attenuating temporal summation of second pain, a psychophysical correlate of temporal summation of C afferent-mediated responses of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons, termed 'wind-up'. By contrast, neither first nor second pain evoked by the first stimulus in a train of stimuli were affected by any of these doses of DM. These results further confirm temporal summation of second pain as a psychophysical correlate of wind-up by providing evidence that DM selectively reduces temporal summation of second pain, as has been shown for wind-up. PMID:7892014

  3. Mismatch responses and deviance detection in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction and developmental models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harms, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    Reductions in the size of the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential component elicited in response to unexpected stimuli, are arguably the most robust neurophysiological findings in schizophrenia. Several studies have now demonstrated that 'true' human-like deviance detection mismatch responses (MMRs) can be generated in the rodent brain and therefore that animal models can be used to examine the neurobiology of schizophrenia-like MMR impairments and investigate the efficacy of new treatments in addressing underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Two broad categories of animal models have been examined for schizophrenia-like MMRs: models involving N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, and models involving an insult or exposure during development. While these models have been shown to exhibit reductions in MMRs, it is still unclear whether or not these reductions involve changes to neural adaptation to repetitive stimuli or whether they reflect impairments in the response to unexpected deviations in regular patterns. PMID:26159809

  4. The brain as immunoprecipitator of serum autoantibodies against N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gomez, Esther; Kästner, Anne; Steiner, Johann; Schneider, Anja; Hettling, Bilke; Poggi, Giulia; Ostehr, Kristin; Uhr, Manfred; Asif, Abdul R; Matzke, Mike; Schmidt, Ulrike; Pfander, Viktoria; Hammer, Christian; Schulz, Thomas F; Binder, Lutz; Stöcker, Winfried; Weber, Frank; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies (AB) against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 (NMDAR1) are highly seroprevalent in health and disease. Symptomatic relevance may arise upon compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, it remained unknown whether circulating NMDAR1 AB appear in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Of n = 271 subjects with CSF-serum pairs, 26 were NMDAR1 AB seropositive, but only 1 was CSF positive. Contrariwise, tetanus AB (non-brain-binding) were present in serum and CSF of all subjects, with CSF levels higher upon BBB dysfunction. Translational mouse experiments proved the hypothesis that the brain acts as an 'immunoprecipitator'; simultaneous injection of NMDAR1 AB and the non-brain-binding green fluorescent protein AB resulted in high detectability of the former in brain and the latter in CSF. PMID:26505629

  5. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blocker-like discriminative stimulus effects of nitrous oxide gas.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kellianne J; Shelton, Keith L

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) gas is a widely used anesthetic adjunct in dentistry and medicine that is also commonly abused. Studies have shown that N2O alters the function of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), GABAA, opioid, and serotonin receptors among others. However, the receptors systems underlying the abuse-related central nervous system effects of N2O are unclear. The present study explores the receptor systems responsible for producing the discriminative stimulus effects of N2O. B6SJLF1/J male mice trained to discriminate 10 minutes of exposure to 60% N2O + 40% oxygen versus 100% oxygen served as subjects. Both the high-affinity NMDA receptor channel blocker (+)-MK-801 maleate [(5S,10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] and the low-affinity blocker memantine partially mimicked the stimulus effects of N2O. Neither the competitive NMDA antagonist, CGS-19755 (cis-4-[phosphomethyl]-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), nor the NMDA glycine-site antagonist, L701-324 [7-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-(3-phenoxy)phenyl-2(1H)-quinolinone], produced N2O-like stimulus effects. A range of GABAA agonists and positive modulators, including midazolam, pentobarbital, muscimol, and gaboxadol (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol), all failed to produce N2O-like stimulus effects. The μ-, κ-, and δ-opioid agonists, as well as 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 1B/2C (5-HT1B/2C) and 5-HT1A agonists, also failed to produce N2O-like stimulus effects. Ethanol partially substituted for N2O. Both (+)-MK-801 and ethanol but not midazolam pretreatment also significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of N2O. Our results support the hypothesis that the discriminative stimulus effects of N2O are at least partially mediated by NMDA antagonist effects similar to those produced by channel blockers. However, as none of the drugs tested fully mimicked the stimulus effects of N2O, other mechanisms may also be involved. PMID:25368340

  6. Propofol effectively inhibits lithium-pilocarpine- induced status epilepticus in rats via downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henglin; Wang, Zhuoqiang; Mi, Weidong; Zhao, Cong; Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Yongan; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Status epilepticus was induced via intraperitoneal injection of lithium-pilocarpine. The inhibitory effects of propofol on status epilepticus in rats were judged based on observation of behavior, electroencephalography and 24-hour survival rate. Propofol (12.5–100 mg/kg) improved status epilepticus in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the number of deaths within 24 hours of lithium-pilocarpine injection. Western blot results showed that, 24 hours after induction of status epilepticus, the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A and 2B subunits were significantly increased in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Propofol at 50 mg/kg significantly suppressed the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit levels, but not the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit levels. The results suggest that propofol can effectively inhibit status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine. This effect may be associated with downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression after seizures. PMID:25737709

  7. Src, a Molecular Switch Governing Gain Control of Synaptic Transmission Mediated by N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xian-Min; Salter, Michael W.

    1999-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a principal subtype of glutamate receptor mediating fast excitatory transmission at synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and other regions of the central nervous system. NMDA receptors are crucial for the lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission that occurs both physiologically and in pathological conditions such as chronic pain. Over the past several years, evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of NMDA receptors is regulated by the protein tyrosine kinase, Src. Recently it has been discovered that, by means of up-regulating NMDA receptor function, activation of Src mediates the induction of the lasting enhancement of excitatory transmission known as long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Also, Src has been found to amplify the up-regulation of NMDA receptor function that is produced by raising the intracellular concentration of sodium. Sodium concentration increases in neuronal dendrites during high levels of firing activity, which is precisely when Src becomes activated. Therefore, we propose that the boost in NMDA receptor function produced by the coincidence of activating Src and raising intracellular sodium may be important in physiological and pathophysiological enhancement of excitatory transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and elsewhere in the central nervous system.

  8. H-Ras Modulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Function via Inhibition of Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Claire; Yaka, Rami; Dinh, Son; Ron, Dorit

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by Src protein-tyrosine kinases modulates receptor channel activity and is necessary for the induction of long term potentiation (LTP). Deletion of H-Ras increases both NR2 tyrosine phosphorylation and NMDA receptor-mediated hippocampal LTP. Here we investigated whether H-Ras regulates phosphorylation and function of the NMDA receptor via Src family protein-tyrosine kinases. We identified Src as a novel H-Ras binding partner. H-Ras bound to Src but not Fyn both in vitro and in brain via the Src kinase domain. Cotransfection of H-Ras and Src inhibited Src activity and decreased NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of rat brain slices with Tat-H-Ras depleted NR2A from the synaptic membrane, decreased endogenous Src activity and NR2A phosphorylation, and decreased the magnitude of hip-pocampal LTP. No change was observed for NR2B. We suggest that H-Ras negatively regulates Src phosphorylation of NR2A and retention of NR2A into the synaptic membrane leading to inhibition of NMDA receptor function. This mechanism is specific for Src and NR2A and has implications for studies in which regulation of NMDA receptor-mediated LTP is important, such as synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and addiction. PMID:12695509

  9. Electrophysiological actions of phenytoin on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated responses in rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Laffling, A. J.; Scherr, P.; McGivern, J. G.; Patmore, L.; Sheridan, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of the anticonvulsant, phenytoin, have been examined on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated population spikes in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus in vitro. 2. The 'conventional' (AMPA receptor-mediated) CA1 population spike, evoked by electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway, was abolished by 5 min treatment with 5 x 10(-6) M 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), after which superfusion with a nominally Mg(2+)-free Krebs solution (containing 5 x 10(-6) M CNQX) led to the appearance of an epileptiform population spike which was fully developed by 30-40 min. 3. The epileptiform population spike was abolished by the non-competitive NMDA antagonist, dizocilpine (1 x 10(-6) M, 20-30 min) and inhibited by the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, D-CPP (IC50 for reducing the amplitude of the first spike in the train = 8.3 x 10(-7) M), demonstrating that the response was mediated by activation of NMDA receptors and validating its use as an assay for antagonists acting at the NMDA receptor/channel complex. 4. Phenytoin (0.1, 0.3 and 1 x 10(-4) M applied cumulatively for 30 min at each concentration) failed to inhibit the NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform population response (n = 7 slices).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7647985

  10. (/sup 3/H)TCP as a potential anatomical marker for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Maragos, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) binding sites and dissociative anesthetic (DSA) sites were anatomically associated in rat brain tissue. Binding to the NMDA receptor was accomplished by incubating the brain sections with (/sup 3/H)-glutamate under NMDA preferring conditions. The high affinity phencyclidine (PCP) derivative (/sup 3/H) N-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclohexy 1)3,4-piperidine (TCP) was used to label the DSA sites. In the normal rat brain the relative binding pattern of (/sup 3/H)TCP was virtually identical to that of NMDA receptor distribution. Only in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum was there a lack of concordance between the two receptors. The stoichiometry of binding indicated that there are 4-5 NMDA sites for every one dissociative anesthetic binding site. In order to determine whether NMDA and DSA receptors existed on pre- or postsynaptic elements, autoradiography of both sites was carried out in rats which had previously received selective lesions of either cortical or hippocampal afferent pathways or lesions which destroyed only the intrinsic neurons in these structures.

  11. An Integrated Approach for Screening and Identification of Positive Allosteric Modulators of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Jambrina, Enrique; Cerne, Rok; Smith, Emery; Scampavia, Louis; Cuadrado, Maria; Findlay, Jeremy; Krambis, Michael J; Wakulchik, Mark; Chase, Peter; Brunavs, Michael; Burris, Kevin D; Gallagher, Peter; Spicer, Timothy P; Ursu, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that play an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory formation. Malfunctioning of NMDARs, in particular the reduction in NMDAR activity, is thought to be implicated in major neurological disorders. NMDAR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) represent potential therapeutic interventions for restoring normal NMDAR function. We report a novel screening approach for identification and characterization of NMDAR-PAMs. The approach combines high-throughput fluorescence imaging with automated electrophysiological recording of glutamate-evoked responses in HEK-293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A NMDAR subunits. Initial high-throughput screening (HTS) of a chemical library containing >810,000 compounds using a calcium flux assay in 1536-well plate format identified a total of 864 NMDAR-PAMs. Concentration response determination in both calcium flux and automated electrophysiological assays found several novel chemical series with EC50 values between 0.49 and 10 µM. A small subset (six series) was selected and analyzed for pharmacological properties, subtype selectivity, mode of action, and activity at native NMDARs. Our approach demonstrates the successful application of HTS functional assays that led to identification of NMDAR-PAMs providing the foundation for further medicinal chemistry work that may lead to novel therapies for treatment of cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:26838761

  12. Separable features of visual cortical plasticity revealed by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2A signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fagiolini, Michela; Katagiri, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hisashi; Grant, Seth G. N.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Hensch, Takao K.

    2003-01-01

    How individual receptive field properties are formed in the maturing sensory neocortex remains largely unknown. The shortening of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor currents by 2A subunit (NR2A) insertion has been proposed to delimit the critical period for experience-dependent refinement of circuits in visual cortex. In mice engineered to maintain prolonged NMDA responses by targeted deletion of NR2A, the sensitivity to monocular deprivation was surprisingly weakened but restricted to the typical critical period and delayed normally by dark rearing from birth. Orientation preference instead failed to mature, occluding further effects of dark rearing. Interestingly, a full ocular dominance plasticity (but not orientation bias) was selectively restored by enhanced inhibition, reflecting an imbalanced excitation in the absence of NR2A. Many of the downstream pathways involved in NMDA signaling are coupled to the receptor through a variety of protein–protein interactions and adaptor molecules. To further investigate a mechanistic dissociation of receptive field properties in the developing visual system, mice carrying a targeted disruption of the NR2A-associated 95-kDa postsynaptic density (PSD95) scaffolding protein were analyzed. Although the development and plasticity of ocular dominance was unaffected, orientation preference again failed to mature in these mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the cellular basis generating individual sensory response properties is separable in the developing neocortex. PMID:12591944

  13. Influence of Genetic Variants of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor on Emotion and Social Behavior in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Ching; Cho, Ying-Chun; Lin, Pei-Jung; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has suggested that the epigenetic regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors plays a crucial role in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous exploratory studies have been primarily based on evidence from patients and have rarely sampled the general population. This exploratory study examined the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in the genes encoding the NMDA receptor (i.e., GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, GRIN2C, and GRIN2D) with emotion and social behavior in adolescents. For this study, 832 tenth-grade Taiwanese volunteers were recruited, and their scores from the Beck Youth Inventories were used to evaluate their emotional and social impairments. Based on these scores, GRIN1 (rs4880213) was significantly associated with depression and disruptive behavior. In addition, GRIN2B (rs7301328) was significantly associated with disruptive behavior. Because emotional and social impairment greatly influence learning ability, the findings of this study provide important information for clinical treatment and the development of promising prevention and treatment strategies, especially in the area of psychological adjustment. PMID:26819771

  14. Influence of Genetic Variants of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor on Emotion and Social Behavior in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Ching; Cho, Ying-Chun; Lin, Pei-Jung; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has suggested that the epigenetic regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors plays a crucial role in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous exploratory studies have been primarily based on evidence from patients and have rarely sampled the general population. This exploratory study examined the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in the genes encoding the NMDA receptor (i.e., GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, GRIN2C, and GRIN2D) with emotion and social behavior in adolescents. For this study, 832 tenth-grade Taiwanese volunteers were recruited, and their scores from the Beck Youth Inventories were used to evaluate their emotional and social impairments. Based on these scores, GRIN1 (rs4880213) was significantly associated with depression and disruptive behavior. In addition, GRIN2B (rs7301328) was significantly associated with disruptive behavior. Because emotional and social impairment greatly influence learning ability, the findings of this study provide important information for clinical treatment and the development of promising prevention and treatment strategies, especially in the area of psychological adjustment. PMID:26819771

  15. c-Fos expression mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors following anodal polarization in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Islam, N; Moriwaki, A; Hattori, Y; Hayashi, Y; Lu, Y F; Hori, Y

    1995-05-01

    c-Fos protein-like immunoreactivity (IR) was investigated in the rat brain following an application of weak anodal direct current to the surface of the unilateral sensorimotor cortex in an attempt to elucidate the cellular and molecular bases of central plasticity. Anodal polarization resulted in a massive increase in c-Fos protein-like IR in neurons of the cingulate, piriform, frontoparietal cortices, and hippocampus ipsilateral to the polarization. The effects were dependent upon the duration and intensity of currents applied. The time-dependent induction of c-Fos protein-like IR was maximal at 1 h, became weaker by 6 h, and almost returned to the baseline within 24 h following polarization. When MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-di-hydro-5H- dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate], a noncompetitive antagonist for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, was injected intraperitoneally, the induction of this nuclear protein was reduced or completely blocked in both hemispheres, except around the polarized point itself, as a function of the time and dosage. These results suggest that the proto-oncogene c-fos is rapidly and transiently activated in the brain following anodal polarization and this activation is mediated by NMDA receptors. PMID:7601260

  16. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis presenting to the emergency department with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Brodie; Plenk, Katharina; Carr, David

    2014-09-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently described and underdiagnosed entity that typically affects young, previously healthy individuals. Patients usually present in phases, which may include refractory seizures, psychosis, unresponsiveness, and autonomic instability. The diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is challenging; however, prompt diagnosis and early treatment can lead to complete recovery. The incidence of anti-NMDAR encephalitis may be as high as four times that of encephalitis from herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, and West Nile viruses; however, it remains an underrecognized disorder. Early initiation of immunotherapy in anti-NMDAR encephalitis has been found to improve patient outcomes. Because of this, emergency physicians must be vigilant and consider this diagnosis in patients with altered mental status in whom a toxicologic or other etiology is not suspected. Early consideration of this diagnosis can facilitate urgent neurology consultation and prevent diagnostic delays arising from psychiatric referrals. It is essential to consider this diagnosis in suspicious emergency department presentations, particularly young patients who present with altered mental status, psychosis, or new-onset seizure activity when other obvious causes are ruled out. Emergency physicians should discuss the possibility of empirical intravenous immunoglobulin administration with neurology consultants if anti-NMDAR encephalitis is suspected. We describe the case of a 20-year-old man with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who presented to the emergency department with status epilepticus. PMID:25227654

  17. Nuclear Compartmentalization of Serine Racemase Regulates D-Serine Production: IMPLICATIONS FOR N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE (NMDA) RECEPTOR ACTIVATION.

    PubMed

    Kolodney, Goren; Dumin, Elena; Safory, Hazem; Rosenberg, Dina; Mori, Hisashi; Radzishevsky, Inna; Radzishevisky, Inna; Wolosker, Herman

    2015-12-25

    D-Serine is a physiological co-agonist that activates N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and is essential for neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. D-Serine may also trigger NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity, and its dysregulation may play a role in neurodegeneration. D-Serine is synthesized by the enzyme serine racemase (SR), which directly converts L-serine to D-serine. However, many aspects concerning the regulation of D-serine production under physiological and pathological conditions remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms regulating the synthesis of D-serine by SR in paradigms relevant to neurotoxicity. We report that SR undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and that this process is dysregulated by several insults leading to neuronal death, typically by apoptotic stimuli. Cell death induction promotes nuclear accumulation of SR, in parallel with the nuclear translocation of GAPDH and Siah proteins at an early stage of the cell death process. Mutations in putative SR nuclear export signals (NESs) elicit SR nuclear accumulation and its depletion from the cytosol. Following apoptotic insult, SR associates with nuclear GAPDH along with other nuclear components, and this is accompanied by complete inactivation of the enzyme. As a result, extracellular D-serine concentration is reduced, even though extracellular glutamate concentration increases severalfold. Our observations imply that nuclear translocation of SR provides a fail-safe mechanism to prevent or limit secondary NMDAR-mediated toxicity in nearby synapses. PMID:26553873

  18. N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Excessive Activation Inhibited Fetal Rat Lung Development In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhengchang; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Luo, Ziqiang; Huo, Huiyi; Wang, Mingjie; Yu, Xiaohe; Cao, Chuanding; Ding, Ying; Xiong, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intrauterine hypoxia is a common cause of fetal growth and lung development restriction. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are distributed in the postnatal lung and play a role in lung injury, little is known about NMDAR's expression and role in fetal lung development. Methods. Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were performed to detect NMDARs between embryonic days (E) 15.5 and E21.5 in fetal rat lungs. NMDAR antagonist MK-801's influence on intrauterine hypoxia-induced retardation of fetal lung development was tested in vivo, and NMDA's direct effect on fetal lung development was observed using fetal lung organ culture in vitro. Results. All seven NMDARs are expressed in fetal rat lungs. Intrauterine hypoxia upregulated NMDARs expression in fetal lungs and decreased fetal body weight, lung weight, lung-weight-to-body-weight ratio, and radial alveolar count, whereas MK-801 alleviated this damage in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that NMDA decreased saccular circumference and area per unit and downregulated thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant protein-C mRNA expression. Conclusions. The excessive activation of NMDARs contributed to hypoxia-induced fetal lung development retardation and appropriate blockade of NMDAR might be a novel therapeutic strategy for minimizing the negative outcomes of prenatal hypoxia on lung development. PMID:27478831

  19. Simultaneous measurement of Ca2+ influx and reversal potentials in recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Schneggenburger, R

    1996-01-01

    The Ca(2+) permeability of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) channels was studied in human embryonic kidney cells transfected with the NR1-NR2A subunit combination. To determine the fractional Ca(2+) current (P(f)), measurements of fura-2-based Ca(2+) influx and whole-cell currents were made in symmetrical monovalent ion concentrations at membrane potentials between -50 mV and the reversal potential. The ratios of Ca(2+) flux over net whole-cell charge at 2, 5, and 10 mM external Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca](o)) were identical at a membrane potential close to the reversal potential of the monovalent current component. Assuming unity of P(f) at this potential, the percentage of current carried by Ca(2+) was found to be 18.5 +/- 1.3% at 2 mM [Ca](o) and -50 mV. This value, which is higher than the ones reported previously, was confirmed in independent experiments in which a pure flux of Ca(2+) through NMDA-R channels was used to calibrate the Ca(2+) influx signals. The measured values of fractional Ca(2+) currents, which agree with the predictions of the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equations, are also compatible with a two-barrier model for ion permeation, in which the differences between the energy barriers for Ca(2+) and monovalent ions are similar on the external and internal membrane sides. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:9172740

  20. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor's neglected subunit - GluN1 matters under normal and hyperbaric conditions.

    PubMed

    Bliznyuk, Alice; Aviner, Ben; Golan, Hava; Hollmann, Michael; Grossman, Yoram

    2015-10-01

    Professional deep-water divers exposed to hyperbaric pressure (HP) above 1.1 MPa develop high-pressure neurological syndrome, which is associated with central nervous system hyperexcitability. It was previously reported that HP augments N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) synaptic responses, increases neuronal excitability, and potentially causes irreversible neuronal damage. In addition, we have reported that HP (10.1 MPa) differentially affects ionic currents, measured by the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, of eight specific NMDAR subtypes generated by the co-expression of GluN1-1a or GluN1-1b with one of the four GluN2(A-D) subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We now report that eight GluN1 splice variants, when co-expressed with GluN2A, mediate different ionic currents at normal and HP (5.1 MPa). These data, in conjunction with our previous results, indicate that both GluN1 and GluN2 subunits play a critical role in determining NMDAR currents under normal and HP conditions. These data, given the differential spatial distribution of the different NMDAR subtypes in the central nervous system, may offer a partial explanation for the mechanism governing the complex signs and symptoms of high-pressure neurological syndrome, and an explanation for the suspected long-term HP health decrement due to repetitive deep dives by professional divers. PMID:26202884

  1. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A New Challenging Entity for Consultation-Liaison Psychiatrist

    PubMed Central

    Maccaferri, GE; Rossetti, AO; Dalmau, J; Berney, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a relatively newly identified autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder that predominantly affects children and young adults. Although psychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent and frequently severe, it has mainly been reported in neurological, but not psychiatric, literature. Understanding this form of encephalitis, its quick diagnosis and which treatment to provide are of utmost importance for consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatrists. The aim of this paper was to describe a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with severe psychiatric manifestations, who showed impressive recovery but required intensive involvement of the C-L psychiatry team. We emphasise the behavioural aspects, psychiatric symptoms and challenges faced by the CL consultant across the different phases of the treatment. Methods We report the different treatment phases for a young woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who developed severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, with a focus on the role and challenges faced by the C-L psychiatrist. The literature is reviewed for each of these challenges. Results This case illustrated that even extremely severely affected patients may show impressive recovery, but require long lasting psychiatric care. C-L psychiatrists are faced with numerous challenges where only little literature is available. Conclusion C-L psychiatrists play a pivotal role throughout the multidisciplinary care of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and should be informed about this entity. PMID:27468380

  2. Kinetic contributions to gating by interactions unique to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.

    PubMed

    Borschel, William F; Cummings, Kirstie A; Tindell, LeeAnn K; Popescu, Gabriela K

    2015-10-30

    Among glutamate-gated channels, NMDA receptors produce currents that subside with unusually slow kinetics, and this feature is essential to the physiology of central excitatory synapses. Relative to the homologous AMPA and kainate receptors, NMDA receptors have additional intersubunit contacts in the ligand binding domain that occur at both conserved and non-conserved sites. We examined GluN1/GluN2A single-channel currents with kinetic analyses and modeling to probe these class-specific intersubunit interactions for their role in glutamate binding and receptor gating. We found that substitutions that eliminate such interactions at non-conserved sites reduced stationary gating, accelerated deactivation, and imparted sensitivity to aniracetam, an AMPA receptor-selective positive modulator. Abolishing unique contacts at conserved sites also reduced stationary gating and accelerated deactivation. These results show that contacts specific to NMDA receptors, which brace the heterodimer interface within the ligand binding domain, stabilize actively gating receptor conformations and result in longer bursts and slower deactivations. They support the view that the strength of the heterodimer interface modulates gating in both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors and that unique interactions at this interface are responsible in part for basic differences between the kinetics of NMDA and non-NMDA currents at glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26370091

  3. Developmental and cell-selective variations in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor degradation by calpain

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi Na; Wu, Hai-Yan; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Coulter, Douglas A.; Lynch, David R.

    2008-01-01

    NMDA receptors play critical roles in synaptic modulation and neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the developmental changes in NR2 cleavage by NMDA receptor-activated calpain in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. Calpain activity increased with development, associated with increased expression of NMDA receptors but not of calpain I. The activation of calpain in immature and mature cortical cultures was inhibited by antagonists of NR1/2B and NR1/2A/2B receptors, whereas the inhibition of NR1/2B receptors did not alter calpain activation in mature hippocampal cultures. The degradation of NR2 subunits by calpain differed with developmental age. NR2A was not a substrate of calpain in mature hippocampal cultures, but was cleaved in immature cortical and hippocampal cultures. NR2B degradation by calpain in cortical cultures decreased with development, but the level of degradation of NR2B in hippocampal cultures did not change. The kinetics of NMDA receptor-gated whole cell currents were also modulated by calpain activation in a manner that varied with developmental stage in vitro. In early (but not later) developmental stages, calpain activation altered the NMDA-evoked current rise time and time constants for both desensitization and deactivation. Our data suggest that the susceptibility of the NMDA receptor to cleavage by calpain varies with neuronal maturity in a manner that may alter its electrophysiological properties. PMID:16899064

  4. Molecular interactions of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus transregulatory protein Tat with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Chandra, T; Maier, W; König, H-G; Hirzel, K; Kögel, D; Schüler, T; Chandra, A; Demirhan, I; Laube, B

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) regulatory protein Tat on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by voltage-clamp recording and its role in NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity using cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Tat (0.01-1muM) potentiated NMDA-induced currents of recombinant NMDA receptors. However, in the presence of Zn(2+), the potentiating effect of Tat was much more pronounced, indicating an additional Zn(2+)-related effect on NMDA receptors. Consistently, Tat potentiated currents of the particularly Zn(2+)-sensitive NR1/NR2A NMDA receptor with a higher efficacy, whereas currents from a Zn(2+)-insensitive mutant were only marginally augmented. In addition, chemical-modified Tat, deficient for metal binding, did not reverse Zn(2+)-mediated inhibition of NMDA responses, demonstrating that Tat disinhibits NMDA receptors from Zn(2+)-mediated antagonism by complexing the cation. We therefore investigated the interplay of Tat and Zn(2+) in NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity using cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Zn(2+) exhibited a prominent rescuing effect when added together with the excitotoxicant NMDA, which could be reverted by the Zn(2+)-chelator tricine. Similar to tricine, Tat enhanced NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity in the presence of neuroprotective Zn(2+) concentrations. Double-staining with antibodies against Tat and the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor revealed partial colocalization of the immunoreactivities in membrane patches of hippocampal neurons, supporting the idea of a direct interplay between Tat and glutamatergic transmission. We therefore propose that release of Zn(2+)-mediated inhibition of NMDA receptors by HIV-1 Tat contributes to the neurotoxic effect of glutamate and may participate in the pathogenesis of AIDS-associated dementia. PMID:15964699

  5. N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation Mediate Bilirubin-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Maria A; Vaz, Ana R; Silva, Sandra L; Falcão, Ana S; Fernandes, Adelaide; Silva, Rui FM; Brites, Dora

    2010-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia may lead to neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Although the mechanisms of nerve cell damage by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) appear to involve a disruption of the redox status and excitotoxicity, the contribution of nitric oxide (NO·) and of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors is unclear. We investigated the role of NO· and NMDA glutamate receptors in the pathways of nerve cell demise by UCB. Neurons were incubated with 100 μmol/L UCB, in the presence of 100 μmol/L human serum albumin for 4 h at 37ºC, alone or in combination with N-ω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase [nNOS]), hemoglobin (an NO· scavenger) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801) (an NMDA-receptor antagonist). Exposure to UCB led to increased expression of nNOS and production of both NO· and cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), along with protein oxidation and depletion of glutathione. These events concurred for cell dysfunction and death and were counteracted by l-NAME. Moreover, the UCB-induced loss of neuronal viability was abolished by hemoglobin, whereas the activation of nNOS and production of both NO· and cGMP were counteracted by MK-801, resulting in significant protection from cell dysfunction and death. These results reinforce the involvement of oxidative stress by showing that nerve cell damage by UCB is mediated by NO· and therefore is counteracted by NO· inhibitors or scavengers. Our findings strongly suggest that the activation of nNOS and neurotoxicity occur through the engagement of NMDA receptors. These data reveal a role for overstimulation of glutamate receptors in mediating oxidative damage by UCB. PMID:20593111

  6. Enantiomeric Propanolamines as selective N-Methyl-d-aspartate 2B Receptor Antagonists†

    PubMed Central

    Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Geballe, Matthew; Gruszecka-Kowalik, Ewa; Myers, Scott J.; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Le, Phuong; French, Adam; Irier, Hasan; Choi, Woo-baeg; Easterling, Keith; Yuan, Hongjie; Wilson, Lawrence J.; Kotloski, Robert; McNamara, James O.; Dingledine, Raymond; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Snyder, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Enantiomeric propanolamines have been identified as a new class of NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. The most effective agents are biaryl structures, synthesized in six steps with overall yields ranging from 11–64%. The compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of NR2B-containing recombinant NMDA receptors with IC50 values between 30–100 nM. Potency is strongly controlled by substitution on both rings and the centrally located amine nitrogen. SAR analysis suggests that well-balanced polarity and chain-length factors provide the greatest inhibitory potency. Structural comparisons based on 3D shape analysis and electrostatic complementarity support this conclusion. The antagonists are neuroprotective in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic cell death. In addition, some compounds exhibit anticonvulsant properties. Unlike earlier generation NMDA receptor antagonists and some NR2B-selective antagonists, the present series of propanolamines does not cause increased locomotion in rodents. Thus, the NR2B-selective antagonists exhibit a range of therapeutically interesting properties. PMID:18800760

  7. Different oxysterols have opposing actions at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, Andrew J.; Taylor, Amanda; Emnett, Christine M.; Doherty, James J.; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Covey, Douglas F.; Paul, Steven M.; Zorumski, Charles F.; Mennerick, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Oxysterols have emerged as important biomarkers in disease and as signaling molecules. We recently showed that the oxysterol 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, the major brain cholesterol metabolite, potently and selectively enhances NMDA receptor function at a site distinct from other modulators. Here we further characterize the pharmacological mechanisms of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and its synthetic analogue SGE201. We describe an oxysterol antagonist of this positive allosteric modulation, 25-hydroxycholesterol. We found that 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and SGE201 primarily increased the efficacy of NMDAR agonists but did not directly gate the channel or increase functional receptor number. Rather than binding to a direct aqueous-accessible site, oxysterols may partition into the plasma membrane to access the NMDAR, likely explaining slow onset and offset kinetics of modulation. Interestingly, oxysterols were ineffective when applied to the cytosolic face of inside-out membrane patches or through a whole-cell pipette solution, suggesting a non-intracellular site. We also found that another natural oxysterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, although exhibiting slight potentiation on its own, non-competitively and enantioselectively antagonized the effects of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol analogues. In summary, we suggest two novel allosteric sites on NMDARs that separately modulate channel gating, but together oppose each other. PMID:24878244

  8. Intrathecal treatment of anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in children.

    PubMed

    Tatencloux, Sarah; Chretien, Pascale; Rogemond, Veronique; Honnorat, Jerome; Tardieu, Marc; Deiva, Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Anti-NDMA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an auto-immune condition. There is no uniformly agreed treatment strategy for the disorder in children. We report the use of intrathecal treatment with methotrexate and methylprednisolone in three children (one male, two females, age 10y, 11y, and 14y) with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, who did not respond to steroids, plasmapheresis, or rituximab. There was significant clinical improvement and stabilization of the anti-NMDAR antibody titers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in two patients. In the third patient, although anti-NMDAR antibody titers in CSF decreased, clinical recovery was less satisfactory. Intrathecal treatment with methotrexate and methylprednisolone seems to be a promising alternative treatment for some paediatric cases of resistant anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:25040285

  9. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and memantine treatment for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Olivares, David; Deshpande, Varun K; Shi, Ying; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Greig, Nigel H; Rogers, Jack T; Huang, Xudong

    2012-07-01

    Memantine, a partial antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), approved for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment within the U.S. and Europe under brand name Namenda (Forest), Axura and Akatinol (Merz), and Ebixa and Abixa (Lundbeck), may have potential in alleviating additional neurological conditions, such as vascular dementia (VD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In various animal models, memantine has been reported to be a neuroprotective agent that positively impacts both neurodegenerative and vascular processes. While excessive levels of glutamate result in neurotoxicity, in part through the over-activation of NMDARs, memantine-as a partial NMDAR antagonist, blocks the NMDA glutamate receptors to normalize the glutamatergic system and ameliorate cognitive and memory deficits. The key to memantine's therapeutic action lies in its uncompetitive binding to the NMDAR through which low affinity and rapid off-rate kinetics of memantine at the level of the NMDAR-channel preserves the physiological function of the receptor, underpinning memantine's tolerability and low adverse event profile. As the biochemical pathways evoked by NMDAR antagonism also play a role in PD and since no other drug is sufficiently effective to substitute for the first-line treatment of L-dopa despite its side effects, memantine may be useful in PD treatment with possibly fewer side effects. In spite of the relative modest nature of its adverse effects, memantine has been shown to provide only a moderate decrease in clinical deterioration in AD and VD, and hence efforts are being undertaken in the design of new and more potent memantine-based drugs to hopefully provide greater efficacy. PMID:21875407

  10. Ketamine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in the treatment of depression: a perspective review

    PubMed Central

    Iadarola, Nicolas D.; Niciu, Mark J.; Richards, Erica M.; Vande Voort, Jennifer L.; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Lundin, Nancy B.; Nugent, Allison C.; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapies for major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression (BDep) have a distinct lag of onset that can generate great distress and impairment in patients. Furthermore, as demonstrated by several real-world effectiveness trials, their efficacy is limited. All approved antidepressant medications for MDD primarily act through monoaminergic mechanisms, agonists or antagonists with varying affinities for serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. The glutamate system has received much attention in recent years as an avenue for developing novel therapeutics. A single subanesthetic dose infusion of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine has been shown to have rapid and potent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant MDD and BDep. In a reverse translational framework, ketamine’s clinical efficacy has inspired many preclinical studies to explore glutamatergic mechanisms of antidepressant action. These studies have revealed enhanced synaptic plasticity/synaptogenesis via numerous molecular and cellular mechanisms: release of local translational inhibition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and secretion from dendritic spines, mammalian target of rapamycin activation and glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition. Current efforts are focused on extending ketamine’s antidepressant efficacy, uncovering the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for ketamine’s antidepressant activity in biologically enriched subgroups, and identifying treatment response biomarkers to personalize antidepressant selection. Other NMDA receptor antagonists have been studied both preclinically and clinically, which have revealed relatively modest antidepressant effects compared with ketamine but potentially other favorable characteristics, for example, decreased dissociative or psychotomimetic effects; therefore, there is great interest in developing novel glutamatergic antidepressants with greater target specificity and

  11. Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-Bisphosphate Regulation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Channels in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Madhuchhanda

    2009-01-01

    The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) has been implicated in the regulation of several ion channels and transporters. In this study, we examined the impact of PIP2 on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in cortical neurons. Blocking PIP2 synthesis by inhibiting phosphoinositide-4 kinase, or stimulating PIP2 hydrolysis via activation of phospholipase C (PLC), or blocking PIP2 function with an antibody caused a significant reduction of NMDAR-mediated currents. On the other hand, inhibition of PLC or application of PIP2 caused an enhancement of NMDAR currents. These electrophysiological effects were accompanied by changes in NMDAR surface clusters induced by agents that manipulate PIP2 levels. The PIP2 regulation of NMDAR currents was abolished by the dynamin inhibitory peptide, which blocks receptor internalization. Agents perturbing actin stability prevented PIP2 regulation of NMDAR currents, suggesting the actin-dependence of this effect of PIP2. Cofilin, a major actin depolymerizing factor, which has a common binding sequence for actin and PIP2, was required for PIP2 regulation of NMDAR currents. It is noteworthy that the PIP2 regulation of NMDAR channels was impaired in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, probably because of the amyloid-β disruption of PIP2 metabolism. Taken together, our data suggest that continuous synthesis of PIP2 at the membrane might be important for the maintenance of NMDARs at the cell surface. When PIP2 is lost, cofilin is released from the PIP2 complex and is rendered free to depolymerize actin. With the actin cytoskeleton no longer intact, NMDARs are internalized via a dynamin/clathrin-dependent mechanism, leading to reduced NMDAR currents. PMID:19770351

  12. Gene profiling reveals hydrogen sulphide recruits death signaling via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor identifying commonalities with excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minghui Jessica; Peng, Zhao Feng; Manikandan, Jayapal; Melendez, Alirio J; Tan, Gek San; Chung, Ching Ming; Li, Qiu-Tian; Tan, Theresa M; Deng, Lih Wen; Whiteman, Matthew; Beart, Philip M; Moore, Phillip K; Cheung, Nam Sang

    2011-05-01

    Recently the role of hydrogen sulphide (H(2) S) as a gasotransmitter stimulated wide interest owing to its involvement in Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke. Previously we demonstrated the importance of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) by neurons is critical for H(2) S-mediated dose- and time-dependent injury. Moreover N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists abolished the consequences of H(2) S-induced neuronal death. This study focuses on deciphering the downstream effects activation of NMDAR on H(2) S-mediated neuronal injury by analyzing the time-course of global gene profiling (5, 15, and 24 h) to provide a comprehensive description of the recruitment of NMDAR-mediated signaling. Microarray analyses were performed on RNA from cultured mouse primary cortical neurons treated with 200 µM sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) or NMDA over a time-course of 5-24 h. Data were validated via real-time PCR, western blotting, and global proteomic analysis. A substantial overlap of 1649 genes, accounting for over 80% of NMDA global gene profile present in that of H(2) S and over 50% vice versa, was observed. Within these commonly occurring genes, the percentage of transcriptional consistency at each time-point ranged from 81 to 97%. Gene families involved included those related to cell death, endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium homeostasis, cell cycle, heat shock proteins, and chaperones. Examination of genes exclusive to H(2) S-mediated injury (43%) revealed extensive dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These data form a foundation for the development of screening platforms and define targets for intervention in H(2) S neuropathologies where NMDAR-activated signaling cascades played a substantial role. PMID:20945398

  13. Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor downregulates inflammasome activity and liver inflammation via a β-arrestin-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Ahmad; Hoque, Rafaz; Ouyang, Xinshou; Farooq, Ahsan; Ghani, Ayaz; Ahsan, Kaimul; Guerra, Mateus; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the cytosolic inflammasome machinery is responsible for acute and chronic liver inflammation, but little is known about its regulation. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor families are heterotetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by a range of metabolites, including aspartate, glutamate, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the brain NMDA receptors are present on neuronal and nonneuronal cells and regulate a diverse range of functions. We tested the role of the NMDA receptor and aspartate in inflammasome regulation in vitro and in models of acute hepatitis and pancreatitis. We demonstrate that the NMDA receptor is present on Kupffer cells, and their activation on primary mouse and human cells limits inflammasome activation by downregulating NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 and procaspase-1. The NMDA receptor pathway is active in vivo, limits injury in acute hepatitis, and can be therapeutically further activated by aspartate providing protection in acute inflammatory liver injury. Downregulation of inflammasome activation by NMDA occurs via a β-arrestin-2 NF-kβ and JNK pathway and not via Ca(2+) mobilization. We have identified the NMDA receptor as a regulator of inflammasome activity in vitro and in vivo. This has identified a new area of immune regulation associated by metabolites that may be relevant in a diverse range of conditions, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and total parenteral nutrition-induced immune suppression. PMID:25104498

  14. Bryonolic Acid, a Triterpenoid, Protect Against N-methyl-d-Aspartate-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Que, Jinhua; Ye, Miao; Zhang, Yuqin; Xu, Wen; Li, Huang; Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium overload is considered to be one of the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia. Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation are considered to be involved in N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced apoptosis process. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of bryonolic acid (BA) in an NMDA-induced rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) cells and the potential mechanism. PC12 was treated by NMDA to establish an excitotoxicity model. BA (110,100 and 1000 μM final concentration) was added to the medium 24 h prior to the addition of NMDA. Subsequently, a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were performed. Ca(2+) concentration was demonstrated using a scanning-dual wavelength fluorimetric method. In addition, protein and mRNA levels were determined via Western blot and real-time PCR. In the presence of BA, MTT assay and LDH assay showed that more cells were viable in comparison with the NMDA group. Moreover, the concentration of Ca(2+) decreased with the addition of BA in culture. Furthermore, BA could upregulate protein expressions of Bcl-2, p-CREB, and p-CaMKII and downregulate protein expression of Bax. The mRNA results showed that the pattern of mRNA expression were similar to their respective protein levels. All these results indicate that BA protected PC12 cells against NMDA-induced apoptosis by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx and regulating gene expression in the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB signal pathway. Therefore, the present study supports the notion that BA may be a promising neuroprotective agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia disease. PMID:27043504

  15. Involvement of glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the expression of increased head-dipping behaviors in the hole-board tests of olfactory bulbectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Noritaka; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Kamei, Junzo

    2016-10-01

    Olfactory bulbectomized (OB) mice produce agitated anxiety-like behaviors in the hole-board test, which was expressed by an increase in head-dipping counts and a decrease in head-dipping latencies. However, the associated mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, MK-801 (10, 100μg/kg), a selective N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, significantly and dose-dependently suppressed the increased head-dipping behaviors in OB mice, without affecting sham mice. Similar results were obtained with another selective NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 treatment in OB mice. On the other hand, muscimol, a selective aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor agonist produced no effects on these hyperemotional behaviors in OB mice at a dose (100μg/kg) that produced anxiolytic-like effects in sham mice. Interestingly, glutamine contents and glutamine/glutamate ratios were significantly increased in the amygdala and frontal cortex of OB mice compared to sham mice. Based on these results, we concluded that the glutamatergic NMDA receptors are involved in the expression of increased head-dipping behaviors in the hole-board tests of OB mice. Accordingly, the changes in glutamatergic transmission in frontal cortex and amygdala may play important roles in the expression of these abnormal behaviors in OB mice. PMID:27353857

  16. Mechanism for Noncompetitive Inhibition by Novel GluN2C/D N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Subunit-Selective ModulatorsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Acker, Timothy M.; Yuan, Hongjie; Hansen, Kasper B.; Vance, Katie M.; Ogden, Kevin K.; Jensen, Henrik S.; Burger, Pieter B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Snyder, James P.; Liotta, Dennis C.

    2011-01-01

    The compound 4-(5-(4-bromophenyl)-3-(6-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-oxobutanoic acid (DQP-1105) is a representative member of a new class of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. DQP-1105 inhibited GluN2C- and GluN2D-containing receptors with IC50 values that were at least 50-fold lower than those for recombinant GluN2A-, GluN2B-, GluA1-, or GluK2-containing receptors. Inhibition was voltage-independent and could not be surmounted by increasing concentrations of either coagonist, glutamate or glycine, consistent with a noncompetitive mechanism of action. DQP-1105 inhibited single-channel currents in excised outside-out patches without significantly changing mean open time or single-channel conductance, suggesting that DQP inhibits a pregating step without changing the stability of the open pore conformation and thus channel closing rate. Evaluation of DQP-1105 inhibition of chimeric NMDA receptors identified two key residues in the lower lobe of the GluN2 agonist binding domain that control the selectivity of DQP-1105. These data suggest a mechanism for this new class of inhibitors and demonstrate that ligands can access, in a subunit-selective manner, a new site located in the lower, membrane-proximal portion of the agonist-binding domain. PMID:21807990

  17. N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS AND LARGE CONDUCTANCE CALCIUM-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNELS INHIBIT THE RELEASE OF OPIOID PEPTIDES THAT INDUCE μ-OPIOID RECEPTOR INTERNALIZATION IN THE RAT SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    SONG, B.; MARVIZÓN, J. C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the μ-opioid receptor, we measured μ-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced μ-opioid receptor internalization in half of the μ-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-d-aspartate (IC50=2 μM), and N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. μ-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-d-aspartate did not affect μ-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase μ-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-d-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked μ-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since μ-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  18. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and large conductance calcium-sensitive potassium channels inhibit the release of opioid peptides that induce mu-opioid receptor internalization in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Song, B; Marvizón, J C G

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the mu-opioid receptor, we measured mu-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced mu-opioid receptor internalization in half of the mu-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-D-aspartate (IC50=2 microM), and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. mu-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-D-aspartate did not affect mu-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-D-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase mu-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-D-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked mu-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since mu-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  19. Pathologically activated neuroprotection via uncompetitive blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with fast off-rate by novel multifunctional dimer bis(propyl)-cognitin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

    2010-06-25

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [(3)H]MK-801 with a K(i) value of 0.27 mum, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation. PMID:20404346

  20. Pathologically Activated Neuroprotection via Uncompetitive Blockade of N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptors with Fast Off-rate by Novel Multifunctional Dimer Bis(propyl)-cognitin*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W.; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

    2010-01-01

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [3H]MK-801 with a Ki value of 0.27 μm, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation. PMID:20404346

  1. THE EFFECT OF N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ON ACETYLCHOLINE EFFLUX IN THE DORSOMEDIAL STRIATUM DURING RESPONSE REVERSAL LEARNING

    PubMed Central

    Palencia, C. A.; Ragozzino, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Separate experiments found that activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors or increased acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the rat dorsomedial striatum is critical for learning when conditions require a shift in strategies. Increasing evidence indicates that NMDA receptor activity affects cholinergic efflux in the basal ganglia. The present studies determined whether NMDA receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum with dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5) affects dorsomedial striatal ACh output in a resting condition, as well as during response reversal learning. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of AP-5 (12.5, 25 or 50 µM) infused into the dorsomedial striatum on ACh output in a resting condition. AP-5 infusion at 25 and 50 µM led to a 20% and 40% decrease in dorsomedial striatal ACh output, respectively. AP-5 (12.5 µM) infusion did not change dorsomedial striatal ACh output from basal levels. Experiment 2 determined whether dorsomedial striatal ACh efflux increases during response reversal learning and whether AP-5, at a dose that does not affect basal levels, modifies response reversal learning and ACh efflux. Following acquisition of a response discrimination, rats had microdialysis probes bilaterally inserted into the dorsomedial striatum prior to the reversal learning test. After baseline samples, rats received a response reversal learning test for 30 min. Control rats rapidly improved in the reversal learning session while simultaneously exhibiting an approximately 40% increase in ACh output compared with baseline levels. AP-5 (12.5 µM) treatment during testing significantly impaired response reversal learning while concomitantly blocking an increase in ACh output. These findings suggest that NMDA receptor activation in the dorsomedial striatum may facilitate a shift in response patterns, in part, by increasing ACh efflux. PMID:17000053

  2. Ethanol withdrawal is required to produce persisting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent hippocampal cytotoxicity during chronic intermittent ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Anna R.; Berry, B. Jennifer N.; Sharrett-Field, Lynda; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intermittent ethanol consumption is associated with neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits in preclinical laboratory animals and in the clinical population. While previous work suggests a role for neuroadaptations in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the development of ethanol dependence and manifestation of withdrawal, the relative roles of ethanol exposure and ethanol withdrawal in producing these effects have not been fully characterized. To examine underlying cytotoxic mechanisms associated with CIE exposure, organotypic hippocampal slices were exposed to 1–3 cycles of ethanol (50 mM) in cell culture medium for 5 days, followed by 24-hours of ethanol withdrawal in which a portion of slices were exposed to competitive NMDA receptor antagonist (2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV; 40 µM). Cytotoxicity was assessed using immunohistochemical labeling of neuron specific nuclear protein (NeuN; Fox-3), a marker of mature neurons, and thionine (2%) staining of Nissl bodies. Multiple cycles of CIE produced neurotoxicity, as reflected in persisting losses of neuron NeuN immunoreactivity and thionine staining in each of the primary cell layers of the hippocampal formation. Hippocampi aged in vitro were significantly more sensitive to the toxic effects of multiple CIEs than were non-aged hippocampi. This effect was not demonstrated in slices exposed to continuous ethanol, in the absence of withdrawal, or to a single exposure/withdrawal regimen. Exposure to APV significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity observed in the primary cell layers of the hippocampus. The present findings suggest that ethanol withdrawal is required to produce NMDA receptor-dependent hippocampal cytotoxicity, particularly in the aging hippocampus in vitro. PMID:25746220

  3. N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors Contribute to Complex Spike Signaling in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells: An In vivo Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heng; Lan, Yan; Bing, Yan-Hua; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are post-synaptically expressed at climbing fiber-Purkinje cell (CF-PC) synapses in cerebellar cortex in adult mice and contributed to CF-PC synaptic transmission under in vitro conditions. In this study, we investigated the role of NMDARs at CF-PC synapses during the spontaneous complex spike (CS) activity in cerebellar cortex in urethane-anesthetized mice, by in vivo whole-cell recording technique and pharmacological methods. Under current-clamp conditions, cerebellar surface application of NMDA (50 μM) induced an increase in the CS-evoked pause of simple spike (SS) firing accompanied with a decrease in the SS firing rate. Under voltage-clamp conditions, application of NMDA enhanced the waveform of CS-evoked inward currents, which expressed increases in the area under curve (AUC) and spikelet number of spontaneous CS. NMDA increased the AUC of spontaneous CS in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 of NMDA for increasing AUC of spontaneous CS was 33.4 μM. Moreover, NMDA significantly increased the amplitude, half-width and decay time of CS-evoked after-hyperpolarization (AHP) currents. Blockade of NMDARs with D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-APV, 250 μM) decreased the AUC, spikelet number, and amplitude of AHP currents. In addition, the NMDA-induced enhancement of CS activity could not be observed after α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors were blocked. The results indicated that NMDARs of CF-PC synapses contributed to the spontaneous CS activity by enhancing CS-evoked inward currents and AHP currents. PMID:27445699

  4. Effect of disrupting N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor/postsynaptic density protein -95 interactions on the threshold for halothane anesthesia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Feng; Johns, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Our previous studies have shown that clinically relevant concentrations of inhalational anesthetics dose-dependently and specifically inhibit the PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-mediated protein interactions between postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, and that the knockdown of spinal PSD-95 by intrathecal injection of PSD-95 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide significantly reduces the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration for isoflurane in rats. Methods We constructed a fusion peptide Tat-PSD-95 PDZ2 comprising the second PDZ domain of PSD-95, which can specifically disrupt PSD-95 PDZ2-mediated protein interactions by binding to interaction partner. By intraperitoneal injection of this fusion peptide into mice, we investigated the effect of disrupting the PSD-95 PDZ2-mediated protein interactions on the threshold for halothane anesthesia. Results Systemically injected fusion peptide Tat-PSD-95 PDZ2 was delivered into the central nervous system, disrupted the protein-protein interactions between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2 subunits and PSD-95, and significantly reduced the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration and righting reflex EC50 for halothane. Conclusions By disrupting PSD-95 PDZ2 domain-mediated protein interactions, intraperitoneal injection of cell-permeant fusion peptide Tat-PSD-95 PDZ2 dose-dependently reduces the threshold for halothane anesthesia. These results suggest that PDZ domain-mediated protein interactions at synapses in the central nervous system might play an important role in the molecular mechanisms of halothane anesthesia. PMID:18431124

  5. Local N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonism in the Prefrontal Cortex Attenuates Spatial Cognitive Deficits Induced by Gonadectomy in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Locklear, Mallory N.; Bhamidipaty, Surya; Kritzer, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    Gonadectomy in adult male rats significantly impairs spatial working memory, behavioral flexibility and other functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, intracortical drug challenge with the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) was combined with Barnes maze testing, gonadectomy and hormone replacement (17β estradiol, testosterone propionate) to explore the contributions of NMDAR-mediated activity within the PFC to hormone effects on spatial cognition in adult male rats. Previous studies have shown that Barnes maze testing reveals significant estrogen-dependent, gonadectomy-induced deficits in spatial working memory and androgen-sensitive, gonadectomy-induced deficits in spatial search strategy. Here we found that bilateral infusion of APV into the medial prefrontal cortex prior to testing significantly improved both sets of behaviors in gonadectomized rats and significantly worsened performance measures in gonadally intact controls. In hormone-replaced cohorts, we further found that behaviors that are normally similar to controls were significantly disrupted by APV, and those that are normally similar to gonadectomized rats were rescued by intracortical APV infusion. There were, however, no residual effects of APV on retention testing conducted 24 hours later. Together these findings suggest that hormone regulation of NMDAR-mediated activity specifically within the PFC may be fundamental to the effects of gonadal steroids on spatial cognition in males. Our findings further identify NMDAR antagonists as potentially novel, non-steroidal means of attenuating the cognitive deficits that can accompany gonadal hormone decline in human males in aging, clinical cases of hypogonadalism and in certain neurologic and psychiatric illnesses. Accordingly, it may be important to obtain in males the kind of

  6. Evaluation of natural and nitramine binding energies to 3-D models of the S1S2 domains in the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

    PubMed

    Ford-Green, Jason; Isayev, Olexandr; Gorb, Leonid; Perkins, Edward J; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-04-01

    Overactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in postsynaptic neurons leads to glutamate-related excitotoxicity in the central nervous system of mammals. We have built 3-D models of each domain for the universal screening of potential toxicants and their binding mechanisms. Our docking results show that the calculated pK (i) values of glycine and L: -glutamate significantly increase (>1) when the NR1 and NR2A S1S2 domains are closing, respectively. Inversely, D: -cycloserine (DCS) and 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (5,7-DCKA) do not show such a dependence on domain closure. Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) confirmed 5 different conformational states of the S1S2 domain along the 308.2 K temperature trajectory. Analysis of residue fluctuations during this temperature trajectory showed that residues in loop 1, loop 2, the amino terminal domain (ATD), and the area linked to ion channel α-helices are involved in this movement. This further implicates the notion that efficacious ligands act through S1S2 lobe movement which can culminate in the opening or closing of the ion channel. We further tested this by docking hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) to the S1S2 domain. Our results predict that these nitramines are not efficacious and thus do not produce excitoxicity when they bind to the S1S2 domain of the NMDAR. PMID:21735122

  7. Presynaptic N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Activity Is Increased Through Protein Kinase C in Paclitaxel-induced Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing-Dun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Zeng, Wei-An; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy is a severe adverse effect of chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel (Taxol). The glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critically involved in the synaptic plasticity associated with neuropathic pain. However, paclitaxel treatment does not alter the postsynaptic NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons. In this study, we determined whether paclitaxel affects presynaptic NMDAR activity by recording excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of dorsal horn neurons in spinal cord slices. In paclitaxel-treated rats, the baseline frequency of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) was significantly increased; the NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) completely normalized this frequency. Also, AP5 significantly reduced the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs evoked by dorsal root stimulation and reversed the reduction in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in paclitaxel-treated rats. Blocking GluN2A-containing, but not GluN2B-containing, NMDARs largely decreased the frequency of mEPSCs and the amplitude of evoked EPSCs of dorsal horn neurons in paclitaxel-treated rats. Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C fully reversed the increased frequency of mEPSCs and the amplitude of evoked EPSCs in paclitaxel-treated rats. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the protein level of GluN2A and phosphorylated GluN1 in the dorsal root ganglion. In addition, intrathecal injection of AP5 or systemic administration of memantine profoundly attenuated pain hypersensitivity induced by paclitaxel. Our findings indicate that paclitaxel treatment induces tonic activation of presynaptic NMDARs in the spinal cord through protein kinase C to potentiate nociceptive input from primary afferent nerves. Targeting presynaptic NMDARs at the spinal cord level may be an effective strategy for treating chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:27458019

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a series of diarylguanidines that are noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists with neuroprotective properties

    SciTech Connect

    Keana, J.F.W.; McBurney, R.N.; Scherz, M.W.; Fischer, J.B.; Hamilton, P.N.; Smith, S.M.; Server, A.C.; Finkbeiner, S.; Stevens, C.F.; Jahr, C.; Weber, E. )

    1989-07-01

    Four diarylguanidine derivatives were synthesized. These compounds were found to displace, at submicromolar concentrations, {sup 3}H-labeled 1-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine and (+)-({sup 3}H)MK-801 from phencyclidine receptors in brain membrane preparations. In electrophysiological experiments the diarylguanidines blocked N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated ion channels. These dairylguanidines also protected rat hippocampal neurons in vitro from glutamate-induced cell death. The results show that some diarylguanidines are noncompetitive antagonists of NMDA receptor-mediated responses and have the neuroprotective property that is commonly associated with blockers of the NMDA receptor-gated cation channel. Diarylguanidines are structurally unrelated to known blockers of NMDA channels and, therefore, represent a new compound series for the development of neuroprotective agents with therapeutic value in patients suffering from stroke, from brain or spinal cord trauma, from hypoglycemia, and possibly from brain ischemia due to heart attack.

  9. Ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenesis and the role of the hippocampal glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-nitric oxide synthase system.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K A; Reynolds, J N; Brien, J F

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate a proposed mechanism for ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenesis in the hippocampus, involving suppression of the glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system. It is postulated that suppression of this signal transduction system in the fetus by chronic maternal consumption of ethanol plays a key role in hippocampal dysmorphology and dysfunction in postnatal life. This mechanism is evaluated critically based on the current literature and our research findings. In view of the apparent time course for loss of CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus produced by chronic prenatal ethanol exposure that manifests in early postnatal life, it is proposed that therapeutic intervention, which targets the glutamate-NMDA receptor-NOS system, may prevent or lessen the magnitude of postnatal hippocampal dysfunction. PMID:11106855

  10. Synthesis, radiolabeling and evaluation of novel amine guanidine derivatives as potential positron emission tomography tracers for the ion channel of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor.

    PubMed

    Klein, Pieter J; Chomet, Marion; Metaxas, Athanasios; Christiaans, Johannes A M; Kooijman, Esther; Schuit, Robert C; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart N M; Windhorst, Albert D

    2016-08-01

    The N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand to assess the bio-availability of the NMDAR ion channel in vivo. A series of tri-N-substituted diarylguanidines was synthesized and their in vitro binding affinities for the NMDAR ion channel assessed in rat forebrain membrane fractions. Compounds 21, 23 and 26 were radiolabeled with either carbon-11 or fluorine-18 and ex vivo biodistribution and metabolite studies were performed in Wistar rats. Biodistribution studies showed high uptake especially in prefrontal cortex and lowest uptake in cerebellum. Pre-treatment with MK-801, however, did not decrease uptake of the radiolabeled ligands. In addition, all three ligands showed fast metabolism. PMID:27128179

  11. Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action

    SciTech Connect

    Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M. )

    1990-12-01

    This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 (cis-(+-)-4-((2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of (3H) CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in (3H)alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or (3H)kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity.

  12. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives: A novel class of non-competitive NR2C/D subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Cara A.; Acker, Timothy M.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Andersen, Karen T.; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives is non-competitive and voltage-independent, suggesting that this family of compounds does not exert action on the agonist binding site of the receptor or block the channel pore. The compounds described here resemble CP-465,022 ((S)-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-[2-(6-diethylaminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-vinyl]-6-fluoro-3H-quinazolin-4-one), a non-competitive antagonist of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors. However, modification of ring substituents resulted in analogues with greater than 100-fold selectivity for recombinant NMDA receptors over AMPA and kainate receptors. Furthermore, within this series of compounds, analogues were identified with 50-fold selectivity for recombinant NR2C/D-containing receptors over NR2A/B containing receptors. These compounds represent a new class of non-competitive subunit-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:20684595

  13. Treadmill exercise inhibits hippocampal apoptosis through enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by abnormal mental functioning and disruptive behaviors. Abnormal expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, one of the glutamate receptor subtypes, has also been suggested to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The effect of treadmill exercise on schizophrenia-induced apoptosis in relation with NMDA receptor has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus using MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. MK-801 was intraperitoneally injected once a day for 2 weeks. The mice in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill exercise for 60 min, once a day for 2 weeks. In the present results, repeated injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 reduced expression of NMDA receptor in hippocampal CA2-3 regions. MK-801 injection increased casapse-3 expression and enhanced cytochrome c release in the hippocampus. The ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 was higher in the MK-801-induced schizophrenia mice than the normal mice. In contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced NMDA receptor expression, suppressed caspae-3 activation and cytochrome c release, and inhibited the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Based on present finding, we concluded that NMDA receptor hypofunctioning induced neuronal apoptosis in MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. Treadmill exercise suppressed neuronal apoptosis through enhancing NMDA receptor expression in schizophrenic mice. PMID:25210696

  14. Fluoxetine reverses the behavioral despair induced by neurogenic stress in mice: role of N-methyl-d-aspartate and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Dehpour, AhmadReza

    2016-06-01

    Opioid and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate different effects of fluoxetine. We investigated whether opioid and NMDA receptors are involved in the protective effect of fluoxetine against the behavioral despair induced by acute physical stress in male mice. We used the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open-field test (OFT) for behavioral evaluation. We used fluoxetine, naltrexone (opioid receptor antagonist), MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist), morphine (opioid receptor agonist), and NMDA (NMDA receptor agonist). Acute foot-shock stress (FSS) significantly induced behavioral despair (depressive-like) and anxiety-like behaviors in tests. Fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) reversed the depressant-like effect of FSS, but it did not alter the locomotion and anxiety-like behavior in animals. Acute administration of subeffective doses of naltrexone (0.3 mg/kg) or MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg) potentiated the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine, while subeffective doses of morphine (1 mg/kg) and NMDA (75 mg/kg) abolished this effect of fluoxetine. Also, co-administration of subeffective doses of naltrexone (0.05 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.003 mg/kg) with fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) induced a significant decrease in the immobility time in FST and TST. Our results showed that opioid and NMDA receptors (alone or in combination) are involved in the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine against physical stress. PMID:27010380

  15. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitory potencies of aromatic inhaled drugs of abuse: evidence for modulation by cation-pi interactions.

    PubMed

    Raines, Douglas E; Gioia, Fredrick; Claycomb, Robert J; Stevens, Renna J

    2004-10-01

    Benzene and several close structural analogs are inhaled drugs of abuse with general anesthetic activity. By virtue of their pi electron clouds, they may engage in attractive electrostatic interactions with cationic atomic charges on protein targets. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhaled drugs of abuse inhibit human N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors with potencies that correlate with their abilities to engage in cation-pi interactions. Electrophysiological techniques were used to define the NR1/NR2B NMDA receptor inhibitory concentrations of volatile benzene analogs, and computer modeling was used to quantify their abilities to engage in cation-pi interactions and their molecular volumes. In addition, each compound's octanol/gas partition coefficient (a measure of hydrophobicity) was quantified. All 18 compounds inhibited human NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors reversibly and in a concentration-dependent manner. NMDA receptor inhibitory potency correlated strongly with the ability to engage in cation-pi interactions, weakly with hydrophobicity, and was independent of molecular volume. This is consistent with the hypothesis that cation-pi interactions enhance the binding of inhaled drugs of abuse to the NMDA receptor and suggests that the receptor binding site(s) for these drugs possesses significant cationic character. PMID:15166258

  16. Expression of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene in primary neurons and increase in SMN levels by activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Catia; Patrizi, Anna Letizia; Monani, Umrao R; Burghes, A H M; Brahe, Christina; Eboli, Maria Luisa

    2002-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common motor neuron degenerative disease caused by mutations of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene. The SMN protein is expressed ubiquitously as part of a 300-kilodalton multi-protein complex, incorporating several proteins critically required in pre-mRNA splicing. Although SMN mutations render SMN defective in this role, the specific alpha-motor neuron degenerative phenotype seen in the disease remains unexplained. During the differentiation process of spinal motor neurons and cerebellar granule cells, the acquisition of mature electrophysiological and molecular properties is linked to the activation of the glutamate receptors of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype. We have used primary cultures of rat cerebellar granules to study SMN expression during neuronal differentiation in vitro and in response to the activation of the NMDA receptor. We report that the expression of gems, the nuclear structures where SMN concentrates, is developmentally regulated. The highest expression is associated with the cell clustering phase and expression of NMDA receptors. Stimulation of the NMDA receptor induces an increase in gem number and in SMN transcription, through activation of its promoter. These results demonstrate that SMN levels are dependent on synaptic activity, implying that SMN may have important neuron-specific functions downstream of synaptic activation. PMID:12030329

  17. Approach to the Management of Pediatric-Onset Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (Anti-NMDA) Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Kim, Joshua; Schwartz, Richard H

    2016-08-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a treatable cause of autoimmune encephalitis. It remains unclear if the natural history of this disease is altered by choice of acute therapy or the employment of chronic immunotherapy. Chart review was undertaken for pediatric patients diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Data obtained included patient demographics, disease manifestations, treatment course, and clinical outcomes. Ten patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis were identified. All patients were treated with immunotherapy in the acute period, and all patients experienced good recovery. Neurologic relapse did not occur in any patient. All patients received varied forms of chronic immunosuppression to prevent relapses. Complications of chronic immunotherapy occurred in 50% of patients. The benefits of chronic immunotherapy and the duration of use should be carefully weighed against the risks. Complications from immunotherapy are not uncommon and can be serious. Clinical trials assessing the benefit of long-term immunotherapy in this population are needed. PMID:27121044

  18. Ketamine-Induced Apoptosis in Normal Human Urothelial Cells: A Direct, N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor-Independent Pathway Characterized by Mitochondrial Stress.

    PubMed

    Baker, Simon C; Shabir, Saqib; Georgopoulos, Nikolaos T; Southgate, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Recreational abuse of ketamine has been associated with the emergence of a new bladder pain syndrome, ketamine-induced cystitis, characterized by chronic inflammation and urothelial ulceration. We investigated the direct effects of ketamine on normal human urothelium maintained in organ culture or as finite cell lines in vitro. Exposure of urothelium to ketamine resulted in apoptosis, with cytochrome c release from mitochondria and significant subsequent caspase 9 and 3/7 activation. The anesthetic mode-of-action for ketamine is mediated primarily through N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism; however, normal (nonimmortalized) human urothelial cells were unresponsive to NMDAR agonists or antagonists, and no expression of NMDAR transcript was detected. Exposure to noncytotoxic concentrations of ketamine (≤1 mmol/L) induced rapid release of ATP, which activated purinergic P2Y receptors and stimulated the inositol trisphosphate receptor to provoke transient release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. Ketamine concentrations >1 mmol/L were cytotoxic and provoked a larger-amplitude increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration that was unresolved. The sustained elevation in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was associated with pathological mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP deficiency. Damage to the urinary barrier initiates bladder pain and, in ketamine-induced cystitis, loss of urothelium from large areas of the bladder wall is a reported feature. This study offers first evidence for a mechanism of direct toxicity of ketamine to urothelial cells by activating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:27001627

  19. Improving solubility of NR2B amino-terminal domain of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ng, Fui-Mee; Soh, Wanqin; Geballe, Matthew T; Low, Chian-Ming

    2007-10-12

    The amino-terminal domains (ATDs) of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contain binding sites for modulators and may serve as potential drug targets in neurological diseases. Here, three fusion tags (6xHis-, GST-, and MBP-) were fused to the ATD of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit (ATD2B) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Each tag's ability to confer enhanced solubility to ATD2B was assessed. Soluble ATD2B was successfully obtained as a MBP fusion protein. Dynamic light scattering revealed the protein (1mg/ml) exists as monodispersed species at 25 degrees C. Functional studies using circular dichroism showed that the soluble MBP-ATD2B bound ifenprodil in a dose-dependent manner. The dissociation constants obtained for ifenprodil were similar in the absence (64nM) and presence (116nM) of saturating concentration of maltose. Moreover, the yield of soluble MBP-ATD2B is 18 times higher than the refolded 6xHis-ATD2B. We have reported a systematic comparison of three different affinity tagging strategies and identified a rapid and efficient method to obtain large amount of ATD2B recombinant protein for biochemical and structural studies. PMID:17706601

  20. A novel phosphorylation site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor GluN2B at S1284 is regulated by Cdk5 in neuronal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Ai, Heng; Peng, Lin; Wang, Jie-jie; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Xiao; Luo, Jian-hong

    2015-09-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are a key player in synaptic and several neurological diseases, such as stroke. Phosphorylation of NMDAR subunits at their cytoplasmic carboxyl termini has been considered to be an important mechanism to regulate the receptor function. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been demonstrated to be responsible for regulating phosphorylation and function of NMDARs. Besides, it is also suggested that Cdk5 is involved in ischemic insult. In the present study, we showed that GluN2B subunit serine 1284 at its cytoplasmic carboxyl termini was regulated by Cdk5 in neuronal ischemia. Interestingly, both oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured hippocampal neurons and transient global ischemia in mice induce dramatic changes in the phosphorylated level of GluN2B at S1284. However, no significant changes in the phosphorylation of this site are found neither in chemical LTP stimulation in cultured hippocampal neurons nor fear conditioning in adult mice. Taken together, our study identified NMDAR GluN2B S1284 as a novel phosphorylation site regulated by Cdk5 with implication in neuronal ischemia. PMID:26093036

  1. Developmental Expression of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Subunits in Human White and Gray Matter: Potential Mechanism of Increased Vulnerability in the Immature Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jantzie, Lauren L.; Talos, Delia M.; Jackson, Michele C.; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Graham, Dionne A.; Lechpammer, Mirna; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Volpe, Joseph J.; Jensen, Frances E.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury is multifactorial and involves hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and inflammation. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are present on neurons and glia in immature rodents, and NMDAR antagonists are protective in HI models. To enhance clinical translation of rodent data, we examined protein expression of 6 NMDAR subunits in postmortem human brains without injury from 20 postconceptional weeks through adulthood and in cases of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We hypothesized that the developing brain is intrinsically vulnerable to excitotoxicity via maturation-specific NMDAR levels and subunit composition. In normal white matter, NR1 and NR2B levels were highest in the preterm period compared with adult. In gray matter, NR2A and NR3A expression were highest near term. NR2A was significantly elevated in PVL white matter, with reduced NR1 and NR3A in gray matter compared with uninjured controls. These data suggest increased NMDAR-mediated vulnerability during early brain development due to an overall upregulation of individual receptors subunits, in particular, the presence of highly calcium permeable NR2B-containing and magnesium-insensitive NR3A NMDARs. These data improve understanding of molecular diversity and heterogeneity of NMDAR subunit expression in human brain development and supports an intrinsic prenatal vulnerability to glutamate-mediated injury; validating NMDAR subunit-specific targeted therapies for PVL. PMID:24046081

  2. The N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist MK-801 Prevents Thallium-Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Alterations in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Rico, Laura; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Santamaría, Abel; Königsberg, Mina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Thallium (Tl(+)) is a toxic heavy metal capable of increasing oxidative damage and disrupting antioxidant defense systems. Thallium invades the brain cells through potassium channels, increasing neuronal excitability, although until now the possible role of glutamatergic transmission in this event has not been investigated. Here, we explored the possible involvement of a glutamatergic component in the Tl(+)-induced toxicity through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) in rats. The effects of MK-801 (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) on early (24 hours) motor alterations, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH peroxidase activity induced by Tl(+) acetate (32 mg/kg, ip) were evaluated in adult rats. MK-801 attenuated the Tl(+)-induced hyperactivity and lipid peroxidation in the rat striatum, hippocampus and midbrain, and produced mild effects on other end points. Our findings suggest that glutamatergic transmission via NMDA receptors might be involved in the Tl(+)-induced altered regional brain redox activity and motor performance in rats. PMID:26350230

  3. Developmental expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in human white and gray matter: potential mechanism of increased vulnerability in the immature brain.

    PubMed

    Jantzie, Lauren L; Talos, Delia M; Jackson, Michele C; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Graham, Dionne A; Lechpammer, Mirna; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Volpe, Joseph J; Jensen, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury is multifactorial and involves hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and inflammation. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are present on neurons and glia in immature rodents, and NMDAR antagonists are protective in HI models. To enhance clinical translation of rodent data, we examined protein expression of 6 NMDAR subunits in postmortem human brains without injury from 20 postconceptional weeks through adulthood and in cases of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We hypothesized that the developing brain is intrinsically vulnerable to excitotoxicity via maturation-specific NMDAR levels and subunit composition. In normal white matter, NR1 and NR2B levels were highest in the preterm period compared with adult. In gray matter, NR2A and NR3A expression were highest near term. NR2A was significantly elevated in PVL white matter, with reduced NR1 and NR3A in gray matter compared with uninjured controls. These data suggest increased NMDAR-mediated vulnerability during early brain development due to an overall upregulation of individual receptors subunits, in particular, the presence of highly calcium permeable NR2B-containing and magnesium-insensitive NR3A NMDARs. These data improve understanding of molecular diversity and heterogeneity of NMDAR subunit expression in human brain development and supports an intrinsic prenatal vulnerability to glutamate-mediated injury; validating NMDAR subunit-specific targeted therapies for PVL. PMID:24046081

  4. Role of Autoantibodies to N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor in Relapsing Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Retrospective, One-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Sutcu, Murat; Akturk, Hacer; Somer, Ayper; Tatli, Burak; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Yıldız, Edibe Pembegul; Şık, Guntulu; Citak, Agop; Agacfidan, Ali; Salman, Nuran

    2016-03-01

    Post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis relapses have been recently associated with autoimmunity driven by autoantibodies against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Because it offers different treatment options, determination of this condition is important. Between 2011 and 2014, 7 children with proven diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis were identified in a university hospital of Istanbul. Two patients had neurologic relapse characterized mainly by movement disorders 2 to 3 weeks after initial encephalitis. The first patient received a second 14 days of acyclovir treatment together with antiepileptic drugs and left with severe neurologic sequelae. The second patient was found to be NMDA receptors antibody positive in the cerebrospinal fluid. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and prednisolone. She showed substantial improvement, gradually regaining lost neurologic abilities. Post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis relapses may frequently be immune-mediated rather than a viral reactivation, particularly in children displaying movement disorders like choreoathetosis. Immunotherapy may provide benefit for this potentially devastating condition, like the case described in this report. PMID:26184485

  5. A New Class of Potent N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Inhibitors: Sulfated Neuroactive Steroids with Lipophilic D-Ring Modifications.

    PubMed

    Kudova, Eva; Chodounska, Hana; Slavikova, Barbora; Budesinsky, Milos; Nekardova, Michaela; Vyklicky, Vojtech; Krausova, Barbora; Svehla, Pavel; Vyklicky, Ladislav

    2015-08-13

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that play a crucial role in excitatory synaptic transmission. However, the overactivation of NMDARs can lead to excitotoxic cell damage/death, and as such, they play a role in numerous neuropathological conditions. The activity of NMDARs is known to be influenced by a wide variety of allosteric modulators, including neurosteroids, which in turn makes them promising therapeutic targets. In this study, we describe a new class of neurosteroid analogues which possess structural modifications in the steroid D-ring region. These analogues were tested on recombinant GluN1/GluN2B receptors to evaluate the structure-activity relationship. Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between this new structural feature and the in vitro activity, as all tested compounds were evaluated as more potent inhibitors of NMDA-induced currents (IC50 values varying from 90 nM to 5.4 μM) than the known endogeneous neurosteroid-pregnanolone sulfate (IC50 = 24.6 μM). PMID:26171651

  6. Isolation of 2000-kDa complexes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and postsynaptic density 95 from mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Husi, H; Grant, S G

    2001-04-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors in vivo are linked to intracellular adaptor proteins and signalling molecules driving downstream pathways. Methods for physical isolation are essential to answer fundamental questions about the size, structure and composition of in vivo complexes and complement the widely used yeast 2-hybrid method. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) binds postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein; both are required for synaptic plasticity and learning and participate in other important pathophysiological functions. Here we describe the development and optimization of novel methods for large-scale isolation of NMDAR--PSD-95 complexes from mouse brain including immunoaffinity, immunoprecipitation, ligand-affinity and immobilized PSD-95 binding peptides. Short PDZ binding peptides modelled on NMDAR subunits were shown to isolate NMDAR complexes. Gel filtration indicated the native NMDAR--PSD-95 complexes were 2000 kDa, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a complexity suggesting a huge network of both structural components and signalling enzymes. These methods can be used to define the structure of the complexes at different synapses and in mice carrying gene mutations as well as new tools for drug discovery. PMID:11279284

  7. Novel approach to probe subunit-specific contributions to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor trafficking reveals a dominant role for NR2B in receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tina Tze-Tsang; Badger, John D; Roche, Paul A; Roche, Katherine W

    2010-07-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are expressed at excitatory synapses throughout the brain and are essential for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Functional NMDA receptors are tetramers, typically composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits (NR2A-D). NR2A and NR2B are expressed in the forebrain and are thought to assemble as diheteromers (NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B) and triheteromers (NR1/NR2A/NR2B). NR2A and NR2B contain cytosolic domains that regulate distinct postendocytic sorting events, with NR2A sorting predominantly into the degradation pathway, and NR2B preferentially trafficking through the recycling pathway. However, the interplay between these two subunits remains an open question. We have now developed a novel approach based on the dimeric feature of the alpha- and beta-chains of the human major histocompatibility complex class II molecule. We created chimeras of alpha- and beta-chains with the NR2A and NR2B C termini and evaluated endocytosis of dimers. Like chimeric proteins containing only a single NR2A or NR2B C-terminal domain, major histocompatibility complex class II-NR2A homodimers sort predominantly to late endosomes, whereas NR2B homodimers traffic to recycling endosomes. Interestingly, NR2A/NR2B heterodimers traffic preferentially through the recycling pathway, and NR2B is dominant in regulating dimer trafficking in both heterologous cells and neurons. In addition, the recycling of NR2B-containing NMDARs in wild-type neurons is not significantly different from NR2A(-/-) neurons. These data support a dominant role for NR2B in regulating the trafficking of triheteromeric NMDARs in vivo. Furthermore, our molecular approach allows for the direct and selective evaluation of dimeric assemblies and can be used to define dominant trafficking domains in other multisubunit protein complexes. PMID:20427279

  8. Mechanisms of HIV-tat-Induced Phosphorylation of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Subunit 2A in Human Primary Neurons

    PubMed Central

    King, Jessie E.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Hazleton, Joy E.; Morgello, Susan; Berman, Joan W.

    2010-01-01

    HIV infection of the central nervous system results in neurological dysfunction in a large number of individuals. NeuroAIDS is characterized by neuronal injury and loss, yet there is no evidence of HIV-infected neurons. Neuronal damage and dropout must therefore be due to indirect effects of HIV infection of other central nervous system cells through elaboration of inflammatory factors and neurotoxic viral proteins, including the viral transactivator, tat. We previously demonstrated that HIV-tat-induced apoptosis in human primary neurons is dependent on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity. NMDAR activity is regulated by various mechanisms including NMDAR phosphorylation, which may lead to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis in pathological conditions. We now demonstrate that tat treatment of human neurons results in tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation of the NMDAR subunit 2A (NR2A) in a src kinase–dependent manner. In vitro kinase assays and in vivo data indicated that NR2A Y1184, Y1325, and Y1425 are phosphorylated. Tat treatment of neuronal cultures enhanced phosphorylation of NR2A Y1325, indicating that this site is tat sensitive. Human brain tissue sections from HIV-infected individuals with encephalitis showed an increased phosphorylation of NR2A Y1325 in neurons as compared with uninfected and HIV-infected individuals without encephalitis. These findings suggest new avenues of treatment for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. PMID:20448061

  9. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography Findings with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis that Showed Variable Degrees of Catatonia: Three Cases Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kang, Joong Koo; Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung; Shin, Yong-Wook; Kim, Chang-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Catatonia is one of the main symptoms of anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. However, it is unknown whether metabolic changes observed with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) are correlated with the severity of the catatonic symptoms and clinical course. Three patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis showing variable degrees of catatonia were performed with FDG-PET scans during the acute and recovery phase. PET findings showed hypermetabolism in the frontotemporoparietal regions and bilateral basal ganglia in the patient with mild catatonia, but more widespread hypermetabolic regions including the thalamus and brainstem were observed in the patients with more severe catatonia. Follow-up PET scans in one patient showed mild hypermetabolism in the right basal ganglia that correlated with mild rigidity and tonic posturing in the left extremities. Extent of cerebral metabolic changes correlates with the severity of catatonia accompanied by behavioural, motor, autonomic, and breathing abnormalities in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:25625091

  10. Role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the neuroprotective activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 by cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Gozdz, Agata; Habas, Agata; Jaworski, Jacek; Zielinska, Magdalena; Albrecht, Jan; Chlystun, Marcin; Jalili, Ahmad; Hetman, Michal

    2003-10-31

    Neurons are exposed to damaging stimuli that can trigger cell death and subsequently cause serious neurological disorders. Therefore, it is important to define defense mechanisms that can be activated in response to damage to reduce neuronal loss. Here we report that cisplatin (CPDD), a neurotoxic anticancer drug that damages DNA, triggered apoptosis and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway in cultured rat cortical neurons. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using either pharmacological inhibitors or a dominant-negative mutant of the ERK1/2 activator, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1, increased the toxicity of CPDD. Interestingly, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) antagonists reduced the ERK1/2 activation and exacerbated apoptosis in CPDD-treated neurons. Pre-treatment with CPDD increased ERK1/2 activation triggered by exogenous NMDA, suggesting that CPDD augmented NMDAR responsiveness. CPDD-enhanced response of NMDAR and CPDD-mediated ERK1/2 activation were both decreased by inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Interestingly, PARP activation did not produce ATP depletion, suggesting involvement of a non-energetic mechanism in NMDAR regulation by PARP. Finally, CPDD toxicity was reduced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and this protection required ERK1/2. In summary, our data identify a novel compensatory circuit in central nervous system neurons that couples the DNA injury, through PARP and NMDAR, to the defensive ERK1/2 activation. PMID:12930843

  11. Formation of NR1/NR2 and NR1/NR3 heterodimers constitutes the initial step in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor assembly.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Thomas; Mesic, Ivana; Madry, Christian; Bartholomäus, Ingo; Laube, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are tetrameric protein complexes composed of the glycine-binding NR1 subunit with a glutamate-binding NR2 and/or glycine-binding NR3 subunit. Tri-heteromeric receptors containing NR1, NR2, and NR3 subunits reconstitute channels, which differ strikingly in many properties from the respective glycine- and glutamate-gated NR1/NR2 complexes and the NR1/NR3 receptors gated by glycine alone. Therefore, an accurate oligomerization process of the different subunits has to assure proper NMDA receptor assembly, which has been assumed to occur via the oligomerization of homodimers. Indeed, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of differentially fluorescence-tagged subunits and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after metabolic labeling and affinity purification revealed that the NR1 subunit is capable of forming homo-oligomeric aggregates. In contrast, both the NR2 and the NR3 subunits formed homo- and hetero-oligomers only in the presence of the NR1 subunit indicating differential roles of the subunits in NMDA receptor assembly. However, co-expression of the NR3A subunit with an N-terminal domain-deleted NR1 subunit (NR1(DeltaNTD)) abrogating NR1 homo-oligomerization did not affect NR1/NR3A receptor stoichiometry or function. Hence, homo-oligomerization of the NR1 subunit is not essential for proper NR1/NR3 receptor assembly. Because identical results were obtained for NR1(DeltaNTD)/NR2 NMDA receptors (Madry, C., Mesic, I., Betz, H., and Laube, B. (2007) Mol. Pharmacol., 72, 1535-1544) and NR1-containing hetero-oligomers are readily formed, we assume that heterodimerization of the NR1 with an NR3 or NR2 subunit, which is followed by the subsequent association of two heterodimers, is the key step in determining proper NMDA receptor subunit assembly and stoichiometry. PMID:17959602

  12. The N-terminal domains of both NR1 and NR2 subunits determine allosteric Zn2+ inhibition and glycine affinity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    PubMed

    Madry, Christian; Mesic, Ivana; Betz, Heinrich; Laube, Bodo

    2007-12-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) is a tetrameric protein composed of homologous NR1 and NR2 subunits, which require the binding of glycine and glutamate, respectively, for efficient channel gating. The extracellular N-terminal domains (NTDs) of iGluR subunits show sequence homology to the bacterial periplasmic leucine/isoleucine/valine binding protein (LIVBP) and have been implicated in iGluR assembly, trafficking, and function. Here, we investigated how deletion of the NR1- and NR2-NTDs affects the expression and function of NMDA receptors. Both proteolytic cleavage of the NR1-NTD from assembled NR1/NR2 receptors and coexpression of the NTD-deleted NR1 subunit with wild-type or NTD-deleted NR2 subunits resulted in agonist-gated channels that closely resembled wild-type receptors. This indicates that the NTDs of both NMDA receptor subunits are not essential for receptor assembly and function. However, deletion of either the NR1 or the NR2 NTD eliminated high-affinity, allosteric inhibition of agonist-induced currents by Zn2+ and ifenprodil, consistent with the idea that interdomain interactions between these domains are important for allosteric receptor modulation. Furthermore, by replacing the NR2A-NTD with the NR2B NTD, and vice versa, the different glycine affinities of NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B receptors were found to be determined by their respective NR2-NTDs. Together, these data show that the NTDs of both the NR1 and NR2 subunits determine allosteric inhibition and glycine potency but are not required for NMDA receptor assembly. PMID:17878266

  13. Involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 antagonists in mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) antagonists such as ondansetron and tropisetron exert positive behavioral effects in animal models of depression. Due to the ionotropic nature of 5-HT3 and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, plus their contribution to the pathophysiology of depression, we investigated the possible role of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in male mice. In order to evaluate the animals' behavior in response to different treatments, we performed open-field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and tail-suspension test (TST), which are considered as valid tasks for measuring locomotor activity and depressive-like behaviors in mice. Our data revealed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of tropisetron (5, 10, and 30mg/kg) and ondansetron (0.01, and 0.1μg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in FST and TST. Also, co-administration of subeffective doses of tropisetron (1mg/kg, i.p.) or ondansetron (0.001μg/kg, i.p.) with subeffective doses of NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine (1mg/kg, i.p.), MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.) and magnesium sulfate (10mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a reduced immobility time both in FST and TST. The subeffective dose of NMDA (NMDA receptor agonist, 75mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the effects of 5-HT3 antagonists in FST and TST, further supporting the presumed interaction between 5-HT3 and NMDA receptors. These treatments did not affect the locomotor behavior of animals in OFT. Finally, the results of our study suggest that the positive effects of 5-HT3 antagonists on the coping behavior of mice in FST and TST are at least partly mediated through NMDA receptors participation. PMID:26604075

  14. Control of N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Function by the NR2 Subunit Amino-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongjie; Hansen, Kasper B.; Vance, Katie M.; Ogden, Kevin K.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    NMDA receptors comprised of different NR2 subunits exhibit strikingly unique biophysical and pharmacological properties. Here we report that the extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) of the NR2 subunit controls pharmacological and kinetic properties of recombinant NMDA receptors, such as agonist potency, deactivation time course, open probability (POPEN), and mean open/shut duration. Using ATD deletion mutants of NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, NR2D and chimeras of NR2A and NR2D with interchanged ATD (NR2A-(2D-ATD) and NR2D-(2A-ATD)), we show that the ATD contributes to the low glutamate potency of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors and the high glutamate potency of NR2D-containing receptors. The ATD influences the deactivation time courses of NMDA receptors, as removal of the ATD from NR2A slows the deactivation rate, while removal of the ATD from NR2B, NR2C and NR2D accelerates the deactivation rate. Open probability also is influenced by the ATD. Removal of the ATD from NR2A or replacement of the NR2A-ATD with that of NR2D decreases POPEN in single channel recordings from outside-out patches of HEK 293 cells. By contrast, deletion of the ATD from NR2D or replacement of the NR2D ATD with that of NR2A increases POPEN and mean open duration. These data demonstrate the modular nature of NMDA receptors and show that the ATD of the different NR2 subunits plays an important role in fine-tuning the functional properties of the individual NMDA receptor subtypes. PMID:19793963

  15. Role of N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the cardiovascular effects of L-glutamate microinjection into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Busnardo, Cristiane; Tavares, Rodrigo F; Corrêa, Fernando M A

    2009-07-01

    We report on the cardiovascular effects of L-glutamate (L-glu) microinjection into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) as well as the mechanisms involved in their mediation. L-glu microinjection into the PVN caused dose-related pressor and tachycardiac responses in unanesthetized rats. These responses were blocked by intravenous (i.v.) pretreatment with the ganglion blocker pentolinium (PE; 5 mg/kg), suggesting sympathetic mediation. Responses to L-glu were not affected by local microinjection of the selective non-NMDA receptor antagonist NBQX (2 nmol) or by local microinjection of the selective NMDA receptor antagonist LY235959 (LY; 2 nmol). However, the tachycardiac response was changed to a bradycardiac response after treatment with LY235959, suggesting that NMDA receptors are involved in the L-glu heart rate response. Local pretreatment with LY235959 associated with systemic PE or dTyr(CH(2))(5)(Me)AVP (50 microg/kg) respectively potentiated or blocked the response to L-glu, suggesting that L-glu responses observed after LY235959 are vasopressin mediated. The increased pressor and bradycardiac responses observed after LY + PE was blocked by subsequent i.v. treatment with the V(1)-vasopressin receptor antagonist dTyr(CH(2))(5)(Me)AVP, suggesting vasopressin mediation. The pressor and bradycardiac response to L-glu microinjection into the PVN observed in animals pretreated with LY + PE was progressively inhibited and even blocked by additional pretreatment with increasing doses of NBQX (2, 10, and 20 nmol) microinjected into the PVN, suggesting its mediation by local non-NMDA receptors. In conclusion, results suggest the existence of two glutamatergic pressor pathways in the PVN: one sympathetic pathway that is mediated by NMDA receptors and a vasopressinergic pathway that is mediated by non-NMDA receptors. PMID:19229989

  16. Antiphospholipid antibodies bind to rat cerebellar granule cells: the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    PubMed

    Riccio, A; Andreassi, C; Eboli, M L

    1998-11-27

    IgGs from sera containing antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), detected as antibodies to cardiolipin, or control sera were incubated with rat cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. Using a mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity assay (MTT test), aPL IgGs were shown to decrease MTT metabolism after 24 h incubation with the cells, and to cause non-toxic amounts of glutamate to become neurotoxic when added to the cells for 45 min. Acute and chronic aPL toxicity were prevented by MK-801. Sera containing aPL bound to intact cerebellar neurons, as revealed by an immunofluorescent technique. These results suggest that antiphospholipid antibodies interfere with excitatory pathways in glutamatergic cerebellar granule cells by a mechanism involving overactivation of the NMDA glutamate receptor. PMID:9865941

  17. Modafinil restores methamphetamine induced object-in-place memory deficits in rats independent of glutamate N-methyl d-aspartate receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Carmela M.; Gilstrap, Meghin G.; Ramsey, Lauren A.; See, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic methamphetamine (meth) abuse in humans can lead to various cognitive deficits, including memory loss. We previously showed that chronic meth self-administration impairs memory for objects relative to their location and surrounding objects. Here, we demonstrate that the cognitive enhancer, modafinil, reversed this cognitive impairment independent of glutamate N-methyl d-aspartate (GluN) receptor expression. Methods Male, Long-Evans rats underwent a noncontingent (Experiment 1) or contingent (Experiment 2) meth regimen. After one week of abstinence, rats were tested for object-in-place recognition memory. Half the rats received either vehicle or modafinil (100 mg/kg) immediately after object familiarization. Rats (Experiment 2) were sacrificed immediately after the test and brain areas that comprise the key circuitry for object in place performance were manually dissected. Subsequently, glutamate receptor expression was measured from a crude membrane fraction using western blot procedures. Results Saline-treated rats spent more time interacting with the objects in changed locations, while meth-treated rats distributed their time equally among all objects. Meth-treated rats that received modafinil showed a reversal in the deficit, whereby they spent more time exploring the objects in the new locations. GluN2B receptor subtype was decreased in the perirhinal cortex, yet remained unaffected in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of meth rats. This meth-induced down regulation occurred whether or not meth experienced rats received vehicle or modafinil. Conclusions These data support the use of modafinil for memory impairment in meth addiction. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural mechanisms of modafinil reversal of cognitive impairments. PMID:24120858

  18. Control of βAR- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-Dependent cAMP Dynamics in Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Chay, Andrew; Zamparo, Ilaria; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela; Blackwell, Kim T

    2016-02-01

    Norepinephrine, a neuromodulator that activates β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), facilitates learning and memory as well as the induction of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Several forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral CA1 synapse require stimulation of both βARs and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To understand the mechanisms mediating the interactions between βAR and NMDAR signaling pathways, we combined FRET imaging of cAMP in hippocampal neuron cultures with spatial mechanistic modeling of signaling pathways in the CA1 pyramidal neuron. Previous work implied that cAMP is synergistically produced in the presence of the βAR agonist isoproterenol and intracellular calcium. In contrast, we show that when application of isoproterenol precedes application of NMDA by several minutes, as is typical of βAR-facilitated LTP experiments, the average amplitude of the cAMP response to NMDA is attenuated compared with the response to NMDA alone. Models simulations suggest that, although the negative feedback loop formed by cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and type 4 phosphodiesterase may be involved in attenuating the cAMP response to NMDA, it is insufficient to explain the range of experimental observations. Instead, attenuation of the cAMP response requires mechanisms upstream of adenylyl cyclase. Our model demonstrates that Gs-to-Gi switching due to PKA phosphorylation of βARs as well as Gi inhibition of type 1 adenylyl cyclase may underlie the experimental observations. This suggests that signaling by β-adrenergic receptors depends on temporal pattern of stimulation, and that switching may represent a novel mechanism for recruiting kinases involved in synaptic plasticity and memory. PMID:26901880

  19. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload in acute excitotoxic motor neuron death: a mechanism distinct from chronic neurotoxicity after Ca(2+) influx.

    PubMed

    Urushitani, M; Nakamizo, T; Inoue, R; Sawada, H; Kihara, T; Honda, K; Akaike, A; Shimohama, S

    2001-03-01

    Mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+) has recently been found to play an important role in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (GNT) as well as in the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent molecules, such as calmodulin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), in the cytoplasm. Prolonged exposure to glutamate injures motor neurons predominantly through the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-nNOS, as previously reported, and is, in part, associated with the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the present study, we investigated how mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+) is involved in GNT in spinal motor neurons. Acute excitotoxicity induced by exposure to 0.5 mM glutamate for 5 min was found in both motor and nonmotor neurons in cultured spinal cords from rat embryos and was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. Mitochondrial uncouplers markedly blocked acute excitotoxicity, and membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimics attenuated acute excitotoxicity induced by glutamate and NMDA but not by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) or kainate. Fluorimetric analysis showed that mitochondrial Ca(2+) was elevated promptly with subsequent accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria. An NMDA receptor antagonist and a mitochondrial uncoupler eliminated the increase in fluorescence of mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS indicators. These data indicate that acute excitotoxicity in spinal neurons is mediated by mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and ROS generation through the activation of NMDA receptors. This mechanism is different from that of chronic GNT. PMID:11223912

  20. The inverse link between genetic risk for schizophrenia and migraine through NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor activation via D-serine.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Teumer, Alexander; Hertel, Johannes; Homuth, Georg; Völker, Uwe; Lucht, Michael J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Schulze, Thomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus M; John, Ulrich; Nauck, Matthias; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia has a considerable genetic background. Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse clinical association between schizophrenia and migraine. However, it is unclear to what extent this inverse comorbidity can be explained by genetic mechanisms or by schizophrenia-related behavioral factors. For both disorders hypotheses of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dysfunction have been developed in the past. We hypothesized that both conditions share common genetic factors with inverse effects, primary in the glutamatergic system and genes involved in NMDA activation. Data from the population based Study of Health in Pomerania (N=3973) were used. Based on the results from the recent genome-wide association study for schizophrenia, we calculated polygenic scores (PRS) for subsets of SNPs with different p-value cutoffs and for biological sub-entities. These scores were tested for an association of distinct biological pathways with migraine. The PRS for schizophrenia was inversely associated with migraine in our sample. This association was exclusively based on the genome-wide hits and on single nucleotide polymorphisms near or within genes encoding proteins involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission. This association could be attributed to a single intronic variant rs4523957 in SRR encoding serine-racemase. Additional expression quantitative trait loci analyses of functional variants in SRR and gene-by-gene interaction analyses further supported the validity of this finding. SRR represents the rate limiting enzyme for the synthesis of D-serine, an important co-agonist of the NMDA receptor. According to our results, a decreased versus increased activation of NMDA receptors may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as in migraine. PMID:27394076

  1. N-Methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Antagonists and Memantine Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease, Vascular Dementia and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, David; Deshpande, Varun K.; Shi, Ying; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Greig, Nigel H.; Rogers, Jack T.; Huang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Memantine, a partial antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), approved for moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment within the US and Europe under brand name Namenda (Forest), Axura and Akatinol (Merz), and Ebixa and Abixa (Lundbeck), may have potential in alleviating additional neurological conditions, such as vascular dementia (VD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). In various animal models, memantine has been reported to be a neuroprotective agent that positively impacts both neurodegenerative and vascular processes. While excessive levels of glutamate result in neurotoxicity, in part through the over-activation of NMDARs, memantine—as a partial NMDAR antagonist, blocks the NMDA glutamate receptors to normalize the glutamatergic system and ameliorate cognitive and memory deficits. The key to memantine’s therapeutic action lies in its uncompetitive binding to the NMDAR through which low affinity and rapid off-rate kinetics of memantine at the level of the NMDAR-channel preserves the physiological function of the receptor, underpinning memantine’s tolerability and low adverse event profile. As the biochemical pathways evoked by NMDAR antagonism also play a role in PD and since no other drug is sufficiently effective to substitute for the first-line treatment of L-dopa despite its side effects, memantine may be useful in PD treatment with possibly fewer side effects. In spite of the relative modest nature of its adverse effects, memantine has been shown to provide only a moderate decrease in clinical deterioration in AD and VD, and hence efforts are being undertaken in the design of new and more potent memantine-based drugs to hopefully provide greater efficacy. PMID:21875407

  2. The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor as a Neurobiological Intersection Between Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Mismatch Negativity Study

    PubMed Central

    Lagopoulos, Jim; Kaur, Manreena; Hickie, Ian B; Hermens, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid risky alcohol use in bipolar disorder (BD) is recognized for its high prevalence and clinical relevance, though understanding of its neurobiological underpinning is limited. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has recognized alterations in BD and is a major site of ethanol’s effects in the brain. The present study aimed to examine the NMDA receptor system in adolescents and young adults with BD by evaluating the longitudinal changes in a robust marker of NMDA function, mismatch negativity (MMN), in relation to changes in alcohol use patterns. Methods: Forty-six BD patients (aged 16–30) were recruited at baseline and 59% (n = 27) returned for follow-up 17.9 +/- 7.3 months later. At both time-points a two-tone, passive, duration-deviant MMN paradigm was conducted and alcohol measures were collected. Pearson’s correlations were performed between changes in MMN amplitudes and changes in alcohol use. Multiple regression was used to assess whether MMN amplitudes at baseline could predict alcohol use at follow-up. Results: Reduction in risky drinking patterns was associated with increased temporal MMN and decreased fronto-central MMN. Larger temporal MMN at baseline was a significant predictor of greater alcohol use at follow-up. Conclusions: Results suggest risky alcohol use in BD may further compound pre-existing NMDA receptor abnormalities and, importantly, reducing alcohol use early in stages of illness is associated with changes in MMN. This highlights the importance of monitoring alcohol use from first presentation. In addition, preliminary results present an exciting potential for utility of MMN as a neurobiological marker used to determine risk for alcohol misuse in BD. PMID:25603860

  3. Control of βAR- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-Dependent cAMP Dynamics in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chay, Andrew; Zamparo, Ilaria; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2016-01-01

    Norepinephrine, a neuromodulator that activates β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), facilitates learning and memory as well as the induction of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Several forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral CA1 synapse require stimulation of both βARs and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To understand the mechanisms mediating the interactions between βAR and NMDAR signaling pathways, we combined FRET imaging of cAMP in hippocampal neuron cultures with spatial mechanistic modeling of signaling pathways in the CA1 pyramidal neuron. Previous work implied that cAMP is synergistically produced in the presence of the βAR agonist isoproterenol and intracellular calcium. In contrast, we show that when application of isoproterenol precedes application of NMDA by several minutes, as is typical of βAR-facilitated LTP experiments, the average amplitude of the cAMP response to NMDA is attenuated compared with the response to NMDA alone. Models simulations suggest that, although the negative feedback loop formed by cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and type 4 phosphodiesterase may be involved in attenuating the cAMP response to NMDA, it is insufficient to explain the range of experimental observations. Instead, attenuation of the cAMP response requires mechanisms upstream of adenylyl cyclase. Our model demonstrates that Gs-to-Gi switching due to PKA phosphorylation of βARs as well as Gi inhibition of type 1 adenylyl cyclase may underlie the experimental observations. This suggests that signaling by β-adrenergic receptors depends on temporal pattern of stimulation, and that switching may represent a novel mechanism for recruiting kinases involved in synaptic plasticity and memory. PMID:26901880

  4. μ-Opioid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the amygdala contribute to minocycline-induced potentiation of morphine analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghazvini, Hamed; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the amygdala in the potentiative effect of minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic, on morphine analgesia in male Wistar rats. We also examined the involvement of the amygdala μ-opioid and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the minocycline-induced potentiation of morphine analgesia. Intraperitoneal administration of morphine (3-9 mg/kg) induced analgesia in a tail-flick test. Bilateral intra-amygdala injection of minocycline (10-20 μg/rat) enhanced the analgesic response of an ineffective dose of morphine (3 mg/kg). Injection of a higher dose of minocycline into the amygdala also induced analgesia. Moreover, bilateral intra-amygdala injection of naloxone (0.5-1.5 µg/rat) reversed minocycline-induced potentiation of morphine analgesia. Pretreatment of animals with NMDA (0.01-0.1 μg/rat, intra-amygdala) also inhibited the potentiative effect of minocycline on morphine response. Bilateral intra-amygdala injection of the same doses of naloxone or NMDA plus morphine had no effect on the tail-flick latency in the absence of minocycline. It can be concluded that the amygdala has a key role in the potentiative effect of minocycline on morphine analgesia. In addition, amygdala opioidergic and glutamatergic mechanisms may be involved, probably through μ-opioid and NMDA receptors, in the modulation of the minocycline-induced potentiation of morphine analgesia in the tail-flick test. PMID:25563202

  5. Expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits in the bovine ovum: ova as a potential source of autoantigens causing anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Naoko; Kinoshita, Michiaki; Kametani, Fuyuki; Tanaka, Keiko; Une, Yumi; Komatsu, Yotaro; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune synaptic encephalitis is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against synaptic constituent receptors and manifests as neurological and psychiatric disorders. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is such an autoimmune disorder that predominantly affects young women. It is associated with antibodies against the extracellular region of the NR1 subunit of postsynaptic NMDAR. Each NMDAR functions as a heterotetrameric complex that is composed of four subunits, including NR1 and NR2A, NR2B, or NR2C. Importantly, ovarian teratoma is a typical complication of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in female patients and may contain antigenic neural tissue; however, antigenic sites remain unknown in female patients without ovarian teratoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of NMDARs in the ovum. We detected NR1 and NR2B immunoreactivity in protein fractions extracted from the bovine ovary and ova by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Immunoprecipitates digested with trypsin were analyzed by reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We obtained the following five peptides: SPFGRFK and KNLQDR, which are consistent with partial sequences of human NR1, and GVEDALVSLK, QPTVAGAPK, and NEVMSSK, which correspond to those of NR2A, NR2B and NR2C, respectively. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the bovine ovum was stained with the immunoglobulin G purified from the serum of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Taken together, we propose that the normal ovum expresses NMDARs that have strong affinity for the disease-specific IgG. The presence of NMDARs in ova may help explain why young females without ovarian teratomas are also affected by anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:25786541

  6. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a patient with a 7-year history of being diagnosed as schizophrenia: complexities in diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chaohua; Kang, Yukun; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bin; Qiu, Changjian; Liu, Shanming; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Xiehe; Li, Tao; Guo, Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a form of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against the NR1 subunits of NMDARs. Although new-onset acute prominent psychotic syndromes in patients with NMDAR encephalitis have been well documented, there is a lack of case studies on differential diagnosis and treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis after a long-term diagnostic history of functional psychotic disorders. The present study reports an unusual case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The patient had been diagnosed with schizophrenia 7 years earlier, and was currently hospitalized for acute-onset psychiatric symptoms. The diagnosis became unclear when the initial psychosis was confounded with considerations of other neurotoxicities (such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome). Finally, identification of specific immunoglobulin G NR1 autoantibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and greater effectiveness of immunotherapy over antipsychotics alone (which has been well documented in anti-NMDAR encephalitis) indicated the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in this case. Based on the available evidence, however, the relationship between the newly diagnosed anti-NMDAR encephalitis and the seemingly clear, long-term history of schizophrenia in the preceding 7 years is uncertain. This case report illustrates that psychiatrists should consider anti-NMDAR encephalitis and order tests for specific immunoglobulin G NR1 autoantibodies in patients presenting with disorientation, disturbance of consciousness, cognitive deficit, dyskinesia, autonomic disturbance, or rapid deterioration, even with a seemingly clear history of a psychiatric disorder and no specific findings on routine neuroimaging, electroencephalography, or cerebrospinal fluid tests in the early stage of the illness. PMID:26089673

  7. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine in adolescence leads to impaired exploratory behavior in adult rats without altering social interaction or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding levels.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, A; Willems, R; Kooijman, E J M; Renjaän, V A; Klein, P J; Windhorst, A D; Donck, L Ver; Leysen, J E; Berckel, B N M van

    2014-11-01

    Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence. Male 35-42-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously administered either saline (10 ml · kg(-1) ) or PCP hydrochloride (10 mg · kg(-1) ) once daily for a period of 14 days (n = 6/group). The animals were allowed to withdraw from treatment for 2 weeks, and their social and exploratory behaviors were subsequently assessed in adulthood by using the social interaction test. To examine the effects of adolescent PCP administration on the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), quantitative autoradiography was performed on brain sections of adult, control and PCP-withdrawn rats by using 20 nM (3) H-MK-801. Prior subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence had no enduring effects on the reciprocal contact and noncontact social behavior of adult rats. Spontaneous rearing in response to the novel testing arena and time spent investigating its walls and floor were reduced in PCP-withdrawn animals compared with control. The long-term behavioral effects of PCP occurred in the absence of persistent deficits in spontaneous locomotion or self-grooming activity and were not mediated by altered NMDAR density. Our results document differential effects of adolescent PCP administration on the social and exploratory behaviors of adult rats, suggesting that distinct neurobiological mechanisms are involved in mediating these behaviors. PMID:24953757

  8. Altered mnemonic functions and resistance to N-METHYL-d-Aspartate receptor antagonism by forebrain conditional knockout of glycine transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Yee, B K; Feldon, J; Iwasato, T; Itohara, S; Grampp, T; Prenosil, G; Benke, D; Möhler, H; Boison, D

    2009-06-30

    Converging evidence from pharmacological and molecular studies has led to the suggestion that inhibition of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) constitutes an effective means to boost N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by increasing the extra-cellular concentration of glycine in the vicinity of glutamatergic synapses. However, the precise extent and limitation of this approach to alter cognitive function, and therefore its potential as a treatment strategy against psychiatric conditions marked by cognitive impairments, remain to be fully examined. Here, we generated mutant mice lacking GlyT1 in the entire forebrain including neurons and glia. This conditional knockout system allows a more precise examination of GlyT1 downregulation in the brain on behavior and cognition. The mutation was highly effective in attenuating the motor-stimulating effect of acute NMDAR blockade by phencyclidine, although no appreciable elevation in NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSC) was observed in the hippocampus. Enhanced cognitive performance was observed in spatial working memory and object recognition memory while spatial reference memory and associative learning remained unaltered. These findings provide further credence for the potential cognitive enhancing effects of brain GlyT1 inhibition. At the same time, they indicated potential phenotypic differences when compared with other constitutive and conditional GlyT1 knockout lines, and highlighted the possibility of a functional divergence between the neuronal and glia subpopulations of GlyT1 in the regulation of learning and memory processes. The relevance of this distinction to the design of future GlyT1 blockers as therapeutic tools in the treatment of cognitive disorders remains to be further investigated. PMID:19332109

  9. Availability of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Coagonists Affects Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference and Locomotor Sensitization: Implications for Comorbid Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Matthew D; Berg, Alexandra R; Bechtholt, Anita J; Coyle, Joseph T

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with high prevalence of substance abuse. Recent research suggests that dysregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function may play a role in the pathophysiology of both schizophrenia and drug addiction, and thus, may account for this high comorbidity. Our laboratory has developed two transgenic mouse lines that exhibit contrasting NMDAR activity based on the availability of the glycine modulatory site (GMS) agonists d-serine and glycine. Glycine transporter 1 knockdowns (GlyT1(+/-)) exhibit NMDAR hyperfunction, whereas serine racemase knockouts (SR(-/-)) exhibit NMDAR hypofunction. We characterized the behavior of these lines in a cocaine-induced (20 mg/kg) conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor sensitization paradigm. Compared with wild-type mice, GlyT1(+/-) mice displayed hastened extinction of CPP and robust cocaine-induced reinstatement. SR(-/-) mice appeared to immediately "forget" the learned preference, because they did not exhibit cocaine-induced reinstatement and also displayed attenuated locomotor sensitization. Treatment of GlyT1(+/-) mice with gavestinel (10 mg/kg on day 1; 5 mg/kg on days 2-17), a GMS antagonist, attenuated cocaine-induced CPP and caused them to immediately "forget" the learned preference. Treatment of SR(-/-) mice with d-serine (300 mg/kg on day 1; 150 mg/kg on days 2-17) to normalize brain levels caused them to avoid the cocaine-paired side of the chamber during extinction. These results highlight NMDAR dysfunction as a possible neural mechanism underlying comorbid schizophrenia and substance abuse. Also, these findings suggest drugs that directly or indirectly activate the NMDAR GMS could be an effective treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25788713

  10. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated neurological disease: results of a UK-based surveillance study in children

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Sukhvir; Hacohen, Yael; Jacobson, Leslie; Agrawal, Shakti; Gupta, Rajat; Philip, Sunny; Smith, Martin; Lim, Ming; Wassmer, Evangeline; Vincent, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR-Ab) encephalitis is a well-recognised clinico-immunological syndrome that presents with neuropsychiatric symptoms cognitive decline, movement disorder and seizures. This study reports the clinical features, management and neurological outcomes of paediatric NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological disease in the UK. Design A prospective surveillance study. Children with NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological diseases were voluntarily reported to the British Neurological Surveillance Unit (BPNSU) from November 2010 to December 2011. Initial and follow-up questionnaires were sent out to physicians. Results Thirty-one children fulfilled the criteria for the study. Eight presented during the study period giving an incidence of 0.85 per million children per year (95% CI 0.64 to 1.06); 23 cases were historical. Behavioural change and neuropsychiatric features were present in 90% of patients, and seizures and movement disorders both in 67%. Typical NMDAR-Ab encephalitis was reported in 24 children and partial phenotype without encephalopathy in seven, including predominantly psychiatric (four) and movement disorder (three). All patients received steroids, 22 (71%) received intravenous immunoglobulin, 9 (29%) received plasma exchange,and 10 (32%) received second-line immunotherapy. Of the 23 patients who were diagnosed early, 18 (78%) made a full recovery compared with only 1 of 8 (13%) of the late diagnosed patients (p=0.002, Fisher's exact test). Seven patients relapsed, with four needing additional second-line immunotherapy. Conclusions Paediatric NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological disease appears to be similar to adult NMDAR-Ab encephalitis, but some presented with a partial phenotype. Early treatment was associated with a quick and often full recovery. PMID:25637141

  11. Age- and Hormone-Regulation of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Subunit NR2b in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus of the Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Maffucci, J. A.; Noel, M. L.; Gillette, R.; Wu, D.; Gore, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate, acting through its N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors in the hypothalamus, regulates reproductive neuroendocrine functions via direct and indirect actions upon gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. Previous studies indicate that the NMDA receptor subunit NR2b undergoes changes in protein and gene expression in the hypothalamus in general, and on GnRH neurones in particular, during reproductive ageing. In the present study, we examined whether the NR2b-expressing cell population, both alone and in association with the NR1 subunit (i.e. the latter subunit is necessary for a functional NMDA receptor), is altered as a function of age and/or steroid hormone treatment. Studies focused on the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus of the hypothalamus, a region critically involved in the control of reproduction. Young (3-5 months), middle-aged (9-12 months), and aged (approximately 22 months) female rats were ovariectomised and, 1 month later, they were treated sequentially with oestradiol plus progesterone, oestradiol plus vehicle, or vehicle plus vehicle, then perfused. Quantitative stereologic analysis of NR2b-immunoreactive cell numbers in the AVPV showed an age-associated decrease in the density of NR2b-immunoreactive cells, but no effect of hormone treatment. In a second study, immunofluorescent double labelling of NR2b and NR1 was analysed by confocal microscopy of fraction volume, a semi-quantitative measure of fluorescence intensity. No effect of ageing was detected for immunofluorescent NR1 or NR2b alone, whereas the NR2b fraction volume increased in the oestradiol plus vehicle group. With ageing, the fraction volume of the NR2b/NR1-colocalised subunits increased. Together with the stereology results, this suggests that, although fewer cells express the NR2b subunit in the ageing AVPV, a greater percentage of these subunits are co-expressed with NR1. Our results suggest that the subunit composition of NMDA receptors in

  12. Association Study of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit 2B (GRIN2B) Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia Symptoms in the Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yang, Ge; Wang, Xiujuan; Ding, Minli; Jiang, Tianzi; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a common and complex psychiatric disorder that has a significant genetic component. The glutamatergic system is the major excitatory neurotransmitter system in the central nervous system, and is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Disturbances in this system have been hypothesized to play a major role in SZ pathogenesis. Several studies have revealed that the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GRIN2B) potentially associates with SZ and its psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we performed a case–control study to identify polymorphisms of the GRIN2B gene that may confer susceptibility to SZ in the Han Chinese population. Thirty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 control subjects. A significant association was observed in allele and genotype between SZ and controls at rs2098469 (χ2 = 8.425 and 4.994; p = 0.025 and 0.014, respectively). Significant associations were found in the allele at rs12319804 (χ2 = 4.436; p = 0.035), as well as in the genotype at rs12820037 and rs7298664 between SZ and controls (χ2 = 11.162 and 38.204; p = 0.003 and 4.27×10-8, respectively). After applying the Bonferroni correction, rs7298664 still had significant genotype associations with SZ (p = 1.71×10-7). In addition, rs2098469 genotype and allele frequencies, and 12820037 allele frequencies were nominally associated with SZ. Three haplotypes, CGA (rs10845849—rs12319804—rs10845851), CC (rs12582848—rs7952915), and AAGAC (rs2041986—rs11055665—rs7314376—rs7297101—rs2098469), had significant differences between SZ and controls (χ2 = 4.324, 4.582, and 4.492; p = 0.037, 0.032, and 0.034, respectively). In addition, three SNPs, rs2098469, rs12820037, and rs7298664, were significantly associated with cognition factors PANSS subscores in SZ (F = 16.799, 7.112, and 13.357; p = 0.000, 0.017, and 0.000, respectively). In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for an association between

  13. Association Study of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit 2B (GRIN2B) Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia Symptoms in the Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongfeng; Li, Wenqiang; Zhang, Hongxing; Yang, Ge; Wang, Xiujuan; Ding, Minli; Jiang, Tianzi; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a common and complex psychiatric disorder that has a significant genetic component. The glutamatergic system is the major excitatory neurotransmitter system in the central nervous system, and is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Disturbances in this system have been hypothesized to play a major role in SZ pathogenesis. Several studies have revealed that the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GRIN2B) potentially associates with SZ and its psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we performed a case-control study to identify polymorphisms of the GRIN2B gene that may confer susceptibility to SZ in the Han Chinese population. Thirty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 control subjects. A significant association was observed in allele and genotype between SZ and controls at rs2098469 (χ2 = 8.425 and 4.994; p = 0.025 and 0.014, respectively). Significant associations were found in the allele at rs12319804 (χ2 = 4.436; p = 0.035), as well as in the genotype at rs12820037 and rs7298664 between SZ and controls (χ2 = 11.162 and 38.204; p = 0.003 and 4.27×10(-8), respectively). After applying the Bonferroni correction, rs7298664 still had significant genotype associations with SZ (p = 1.71×10(-7)). In addition, rs2098469 genotype and allele frequencies, and 12820037 allele frequencies were nominally associated with SZ. Three haplotypes, CGA (rs10845849-rs12319804-rs10845851), CC (rs12582848-rs7952915), and AAGAC (rs2041986-rs11055665-rs7314376-rs7297101-rs2098469), had significant differences between SZ and controls (χ2 = 4.324, 4.582, and 4.492; p = 0.037, 0.032, and 0.034, respectively). In addition, three SNPs, rs2098469, rs12820037, and rs7298664, were significantly associated with cognition factors PANSS subscores in SZ (F = 16.799, 7.112, and 13.357; p = 0.000, 0.017, and 0.000, respectively). In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for an association between GRIN2B

  14. GluN2B-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists derived from 3-benzazepines: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of benzo[7]annulen-7-amines.

    PubMed

    Benner, Andre; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Shirataki, Chikako; Temme, Louisa; Schepmann, Dirk; Quaglia, Wilma; Shoji, Osami; Watanabe, Yoshihito; Daniliuc, Constantin; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    Given their high neuroprotective potential, ligands that block GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by interacting with the ifenprodil binding site located on the GluN2B subunit are of great interest for the treatment of various neuronal disorders. In this study, a novel class of GluN2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists with the benzo[7]annulene scaffold was prepared and pharmacologically evaluated. The key intermediate, N-(2-methoxy-5-oxo-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzo[7]annulen-7-yl)acetamide (11), was obtained by cyclization of 3-acetamido-5-(3-methoxyphenyl)pentanoic acid (10 b). The final reaction steps comprise hydrolysis of the amide, reduction of the ketone, and reductive alkylation, leading to cis- and trans-configured 7-(ω-phenylalkylamino)benzo[7]annulen-5-ols. High GluN2B affinity was observed with cis-configured γ-amino alcohols substituted with a 3-phenylpropyl moiety at the amino group. Removal of the benzylic hydroxy moiety led to the most potent GluN2B antagonists of this series: 2-methoxy-N-(3-phenylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzo[7]annulen-7-amine (20 a, Ki =10 nM) and 2-methoxy-N-methyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzo[7]annulen-7-amine (23 a, Ki =7.9 nM). The selectivity over related receptors (phencyclidine binding site of the NMDA receptor, σ1 and σ2 receptors) was recorded. In a functional assay measuring the cytoprotective activity of the benzo[7]annulenamines, all tested compounds showed potent NMDA receptor antagonistic activity. Cytotoxicity induced via GluN2A subunit-containing NMDA receptors was not inhibited by the new ligands. PMID:24677663

  15. Non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide (NBQX) decreases functional disorders in cytotoxic brain oedema.

    PubMed

    Häntzschel, A; Andreas, K

    2000-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors were found to be involved in development of functional disorders caused by hexachlorophene. In order to specify the role of glutamate receptors we studied the protective effects of the selective antagonist of the kainate/(+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor/channel 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2, 3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide disodium (NBQX) and of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil tartrate on coordinative motor behaviour of adult male Wistar rats as assessed in a simple 'ladder-test'. Neurotoxic injury of the cerebrum after hexachlorophene administration and putative amelioration after treatment with test substances was demonstrated histologically. Hexachlorophene-induced motor disturbance remitted spontaneously when stopping the noxis, but remittance occurred significantly earlier when NBQX [0.45 and 0.6 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)] was applied as well. Ifenprodil (0.15 to 1.2 mg/kg) did not improve the motor function. Vacuolation of white matter of the whole cerebrum was observed after 3 weeks of treatment with hexachlorophene. These morphological alterations caused by hexachlorophene treatment [central nervous system (CNS) vacuolation] spontaneously revert only after 5-6 weeks. The 5-day duration with test substances was too short for remission of vacuolation which thus may not apply to the situation after treatment with glutamate antagonists, despite improvement of motor function. The results suggest that kainate/AMPA receptor channels are at least partially involved in the mechanism of brain damage induced by hexachlorophene, however, the polyamine binding site of the NMDA receptor evidently is not involved. PMID:10663390

  16. N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor NR2 Subunit Selectivity of a Series of Novel Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylate Derivatives: Preferential Blockade of Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3-CA1 Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bihua; Tsintsadze, Timur S.; Morley, Richard M.; Irvine, Mark W.; Tsintsadze, Vera; Lozovaya, Natasha A.; Jane, David E.; Monaghan, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists that are highly selective for specific NMDA receptor 2 (NR2) subunits have several potential therapeutic applications; however, to date, only NR2B-selective antagonists have been described. Whereas most glutamate binding site antagonists display a common pattern of NR2 selectivity, NR2A > NR2B > NR2C > NR2D (high to low affinity), (2S*,3R*)-1-(phenanthrene-2-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PPDA) has a low selectivity for NR2C- and NR2D-containing NMDA receptors. A series of PPDA derivatives were synthesized and then tested at recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In addition, the optical isomers of PPDA were resolved; the (−) isomer displayed a 50- to 80-fold greater potency than the (+) isomer. Replacement of the phenanthrene moiety of PPDA with naphthalene or anthracene did not improve selectivity. However, phenylazobenzoyl (UBP125) or phenylethynylbenzoyl (UBP128) substitution significantly improved selectivity for NR2B-, NR2C-, and NR2D-containing receptors over NR2A-containing NMDA receptors. Phenanthrene attachment at the 3 position [(2R*,3S*)-1-(phenanthrene-3-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP141); (2R*,3S*)-1-(9-bromophenanthrene-3-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP145); (2R*,3S*)-1-(9-chlorophenanthrene-3-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP160); and (2R*,3S*)-1-(9-iodophenanthrene-3-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP161)] displayed improved NR2D selectivity. UBP141 and its 9-brominated homolog (UBP145) both display a 7- to 10- fold selectivity for NR2D-containing receptors over NR2B- or NR2A-containing receptors. Schild analysis indicates that these two compounds are competitive glutamate binding site antagonists. Consistent with a physiological role for NR2D-containing receptors in the hippocampus, UBP141 (5 μM) displayed greater selectivity than PPDA for inhibiting the slow-decaying component of the NMDA receptor

  17. Lithium stimulates glutamate "release" and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate accumulation via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in monkey and mouse cerebral cortex slices.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, J F; Los, G V; Hokin, L E

    1994-01-01

    Beginning at therapeutic concentrations (1-1.5 mM), the anti-manic-depressive drug lithium stimulated the release of glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, in monkey cerebral cortex slices in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and this was associated with increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] accumulation. (+/-)-3-(2-Carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphoric acid (CPP), dizocilpine (MK-801), ketamine, and Mg(2+)-antagonists to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor/channel complex selectively inhibited lithium-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation. Antagonists to cholinergic-muscarinic, alpha 1-adrenergic, 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (serotoninergic), and H1 histaminergic receptors had no effect. Antagonists to non-NMDA glutamate receptors had no effect on lithium-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation. Possible reasons for this are discussed. Similar results were obtained in mouse cerebral cortex slices. Carbetapentane, which inhibits glutamate release, inhibited lithium-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation in this model. It is concluded that the primary effect of lithium in the cerebral cortex slice model is stimulation of glutamate release, which, presumably via activation of the NMDA receptor, leads to Ca2+ entry. Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation increases due to the presumed increased influx of intracellular Ca2+, which activates phospholipase C. These effects may have relevance to the therapeutic action of lithium in the treatment of manic depression as well as its toxic effects, especially at lithium blood levels above 1.5 mM. Images PMID:8078888

  18. Occurrence of D-aspartic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in rat neuroendocrine tissues and their role in the modulation of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone release.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, A; Di Fiore, M M; Fisher, G H; Milone, A; Seleni, A; D'Aniello, S; Perna, A F; Ingrosso, D

    2000-04-01

    Using two specific and sensitive fluorometric/HPLC methods and a GC-MS method, alone and in combination with D-aspartate oxidase, we have demonstrated for the first time that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), in addition to D-aspartate (D-Asp), is endogenously present as a natural molecule in rat nervous system and endocrine glands. Both of these amino acids are mostly concentrated at nmol/g levels in the adenohypophysis, hypothalamus, brain, and testis. The adenohypophysis maximally showed the ability to accumulate D-Asp when the latter is exogenously administered. In vivo experiments, consisting of the i.p. injection of D-Asp, showed that D-Asp induced both growth hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH) release. However, in vitro experiments showed that D-Asp was able to induce LH release from adenohypophysis only when this gland was co-incubated with the hypothalamus. This is because D-Asp also induces the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, which in turn is directly responsible for the D-Asp-induced LH secretion from the pituitary gland. Compared to D-Asp, NMDA elicits its hormone release action at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than D-Asp. D-AP5, a specific NMDA receptor antagonist, inhibited D-Asp and NMDA hormonal activity, demonstrating that these actions are mediated by NMDA receptors. NMDA is biosynthesized from D-Asp by an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent enzyme, which we tentatively denominated as NMDA synthase. PMID:10744627

  19. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) enhances hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function via d-serine and adenosine receptor type A2 (A2AR) activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play fundamental roles in basic brain functions such as excitatory neurotransmission and learning and memory processes. Their function is largely regulated by factors released by glial cells, including the coagonist d-serine. We investigated whether the activation of microglial CX3CR1 induces the release of factors that modulate NMDAR functions. Methods We recorded the NMDAR component of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA-fEPSPs) elicited in the CA1 stratum radiatum of mouse hippocampal slices by Shaffer collateral stimulation and evaluated d-serine content in the extracellular medium of glial primary cultures by mass spectrometry analysis. Results We demonstrated that CX3CL1 increases NMDA-fEPSPs by a mechanism involving the activity of the adenosine receptor type A2 (A2AR) and the release of the NMDAR coagonist d-serine. Specifically (1) the selective A2AR blocker 7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261) and the genetic ablation of A2AR prevent CX3CL1 action while the A2AR agonist 5-(6-amino-2-(phenethylthio)-9H-purin-9-yl)-N-ethyl-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (VT7) mimics CX3CL1 effect, and (2) the selective blocking of the NMDAR glycine (and d-serine) site by 5,7-dicholorokynurenic acid (DCKA), the enzymatic degradation of d-serine by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and the saturation of the coagonist site by d-serine, all block the CX3CL1 effect. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that stimulation of microglia and astrocytes with CX3CL1 or VT7 increases d-serine release in the extracellular medium. Conclusions CX3CL1 transiently potentiates NMDAR function though mechanisms involving A2AR activity and the release of d-serine. PMID:23981568

  20. Mechanisms responsible for the effect of median nerve electrical stimulation on traumatic brain injury-induced coma: orexin-A-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhen; Du, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the median nerve is a noninvasive technique that facilitates awakening from coma. In rats with traumatic brain injury-induced coma, median nerve stimulation markedly enhances prefrontal cortex expression of orexin-A and its receptor, orexin receptor 1. To further understand the mechanism underlying wakefulness mediated by electrical stimulation of the median nerve, we evaluated its effects on the expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 in the prefrontal cortex in rat models of traumatic brain injury-induced coma, using immunohistochemistry and western blot assays. In rats with traumatic brain injury, NR1 expression increased with time after injury. Rats that underwent electrical stimulation of the median nerve (30 Hz, 0.5 ms, 1.0 mA for 15 minutes) showed elevated NR1 expression and greater recovery of consciousness than those without stimulation. These effects were reduced by intracerebroventricular injection of the orexin receptor 1 antagonist SB334867. Our results indicate that electrical stimulation of the median nerve promotes recovery from traumatic brain injury-induced coma by increasing prefrontal cortex NR1 expression via an orexin-A-mediated pathway. PMID:27482224

  1. Mechanisms responsible for the effect of median nerve electrical stimulation on traumatic brain injury-induced coma: orexin-A-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhen; Du, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the median nerve is a noninvasive technique that facilitates awakening from coma. In rats with traumatic brain injury-induced coma, median nerve stimulation markedly enhances prefrontal cortex expression of orexin-A and its receptor, orexin receptor 1. To further understand the mechanism underlying wakefulness mediated by electrical stimulation of the median nerve, we evaluated its effects on the expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 in the prefrontal cortex in rat models of traumatic brain injury-induced coma, using immunohistochemistry and western blot assays. In rats with traumatic brain injury, NR1 expression increased with time after injury. Rats that underwent electrical stimulation of the median nerve (30 Hz, 0.5 ms, 1.0 mA for 15 minutes) showed elevated NR1 expression and greater recovery of consciousness than those without stimulation. These effects were reduced by intracerebroventricular injection of the orexin receptor 1 antagonist SB334867. Our results indicate that electrical stimulation of the median nerve promotes recovery from traumatic brain injury-induced coma by increasing prefrontal cortex NR1 expression via an orexin-A-mediated pathway. PMID:27482224

  2. Disruption of performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task induced by administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists: relevance to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Nurith; Markou, Athina

    2010-07-01

    Schizophrenia patients suffer from cognitive impairments that are not satisfactorily treated by currently available medications. Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia encompasses deficits in several cognitive modalities that can be differentially responsive to different medications and are likely to be mediated by different neurobiological substrates. Translational animal models of cognitive deficits with relevance to schizophrenia are critical for gaining insights into the mechanisms underlying these impairments and developing more effective treatments. The five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a cognitive task used in rodents that allows simultaneous assessment of several cognitive modalities, including attention, response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists disrupts multiple 5-CSRTT performance measures in a way that mirrors various cognitive deficits exhibited by schizophrenia patients. Some of these disruptions are partially attenuated by antipsychotic medications that exhibit partial effectiveness on cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, suggesting that the model has predictive validity. Examination of the effects of pharmacological manipulations on 5-CSRTT performance disruptions induced by NMDA antagonists have implicated a range of brain regions, neurotransmitter systems, and specific receptor subtypes in schizophrenia-like impairment of different cognitive modalities. Thus, disruption of 5-CSRTT performance by NMDA antagonists represents a valuable tool for exploring the neurobiological bases of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:20488434

  3. Phosphorylation of Tyrosine 1070 at the GluN2B Subunit Is Regulated by Synaptic Activity and Critical for Surface Expression of N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Fang, Weiqing; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qian; Yan, Xunyi; Peng, Lin; Ai, Heng; Wang, Jie-jie; Liu, Xiao; Luo, Jianhong; Yang, Wei

    2015-09-18

    The number and subunit composition of synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play critical roles in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and are implicated in neurological disorders. Tyrosine phosphorylation provides a powerful means of regulating NMDAR function, but the underling mechanism remains elusive. In this study we identified a tyrosine site on the GluN2B subunit, Tyr-1070, which was phosphorylated by a proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein (Fyn) kinase and critical for the surface expression of GluN2B-containing NMDARs. The phosphorylation of GluN2B at Tyr-1070 was required for binding of Fyn kinase to GluN2B, which up-regulated the phosphorylation of GluN2B at Tyr-1472. Moreover, our results revealed that the phosphorylation change of GluN2B at Tyr-1070 accompanied the Tyr-1472 phosphorylation and Fyn associated with GluN2B in synaptic plasticity induced by both chemical and contextual fear learning. Taken together, our findings provide a new mechanism for regulating the surface expression of NMDARs with implications for synaptic plasticity. PMID:26229100

  4. Synthesis, structure activity relationship, radiolabeling and preclinical evaluation of high affinity ligands for the ion channel of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor as potential imaging probes for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Klein, Pieter J; Christiaans, Johannes A M; Metaxas, Athanasios; Schuit, Robert C; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart N M; Windhorst, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) is involved in many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Currently, it is not possible to assess NMDAr availability in vivo. The purpose of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for the NMDAr ion channel. A series of di- and tri-N-substituted diarylguanidines was synthesized. In addition, in vitro binding affinity for the NMDAr ion channel in rat forebrain membrane fractions was assessed. Compounds 10, 11 and 32 were radiolabeled with either carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Ligands [(11)C]10 and [(18)F]32 were evaluated ex vivo in B6C3 mice. Biodistribution studies showed higher uptake of [(11)C]10 and [(18)F]32 in forebrain regions compared with cerebellum. In addition, for [(11)C]10 54% and for [(18)F]32 70% of activity in the brain at 60min was due to intact tracer. Pre-treatment with MK-801 (0.6mg·kg(-1), ip) slightly decreased uptake in NMDAr-specific regions for [(18)F]32, but not for [(11)C]10. As such [(18)F]32 has the best characteristics as a PET tracer for the ion channel of the NMDAr. PMID:25648682

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a young male patient with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and uncommon cerebellar involvement: A case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Alessandra; Felli, Valentina; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Gennarelli, Antonio; Patriarca, Lucia; Stratta, Paolo; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Rossi, Alessandro; Massimo, Gallucci

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 17-year-old man presenting with new onset psychiatric symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy revealed some lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and ipsilateral cerebellar tonsil suggestive of encephalitis. An extensive workup was negative for both infectious and neoplastic diseases and he was afterward diagnosed with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. This disorder is an autoimmune encephalitis, highly lethal but curable, predominantly found in young female with ovarian teratoma. He received methylprednisolone. His clinical findings gradually improve and he made a complete recovery. Accordingly, repeated brain MRI and proton MR spectroscopy showed a gradual reduction of the lesions; MRI taken six months after starting therapy showed complete resolution of the lesions. Our case shows that, although rare, anti-NMDAR encephalitis should be considered also in young men for whom a rapid onset of psychiatric neurological disorders cannot be explained by more frequent causes. Our report underlines also the usefulness of MRI and proton MR spectroscopic findings in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. PMID:26613928

  6. Ghrelin receptor activity amplifies hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents and increases phosphorylation of the GluN1 subunit at Ser896 and Ser897.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Brandon G; Isokawa, Masako

    2015-12-01

    Although ghrelin and its cognate receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a) are highly localized in the hypothalamic nuclei for the regulation of metabolic states and feeding, GHSR1a is also highly localized in the hippocampus, suggesting its involvement in extra-hypothalamic functions. Indeed, exogenous application of ghrelin has been reported to improve hippocampal learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanism of ghrelin regulation of hippocampal functions is poorly understood. Here, we report ghrelin-promoted phosphorylation of GluN1 and amplified N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in the CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in slice preparations. The ghrelin-induced responses were sensitive to a GHSR1a antagonist and inverse agonist, and were absent in GHSR1a homozygous knock-out mice. These results indicated that activation of GHSR1a was critical in the ghrelin-induced enhancement of the NMDAR function. Interestingly, heterozygous mouse hippocampi were also insensitive to ghrelin treatment, suggesting that a slight reduction in the availability of GHSR1a may be sufficient to negate the effect of ghrelin on GluN1 phosphorylation and NMDAR channel activities. In addition, NMDAR-mediated spike currents, which are of dendritic origin, were blocked by the GHSR1a antagonist, suggesting the presence of GHSR1a on the pyramidal cell dendrites in physical proximity to NMDAR. Together with our findings on the localization of GHSR1a in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, which was shown by fluorescent ghrelin binding, immunoreactivity, and enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene expression, we conclude that the activation of GHSR1a favours rapid modulation of the NMDAR-mediated glutamatergic synaptic transmission by phosphorylating GluN1 in the hippocampus. PMID:26490687

  7. Slice orientation and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation determine the involvement of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit GluN2B in hippocampal area CA1 long-term depression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The contribution of different GluN2 subunits of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to the induction of bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity is a controversial topic. As both supporting and refuting evidence for the hypothesis of subunit specialization in opposing directions of plasticity has accumulated since it was first proposed a few years ago, we hypothesize that differences in experimental conditions may have in part contributed to some of the inconsistent results from these studies. Here we investigate the controversial hypothesis that long-term depression (LTD) is preferentially induced by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in area CA1 of hippocampal slices. Results We find that brain slices from 2-3 week old rats prepared in the sagittal orientation have GluN2B-independent LTD whereas slices prepared in the coronal orientation have GluN2B-dependent LTD. There was no difference between the orientations in the fraction of the NMDAR EPSC sensitive to a GluN2B-selective antagonist, leading us to believe that the intracellular signaling properties of the NMDARs were different in the two preparations. Coronal slices had greater association of LTD-related intracellular signaling protein RasGRF1 with GluN2B relative to sagittal slices. Antagonism of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the sagittal slices returned LTD to a GluN2B-dependent form and increased the association of GluN2B with RasGRF1. Conclusions These results suggest a novel form of NMDAR modulation by mAChRs and clarify some disagreement in the literature. PMID:22082088

  8. Effect of Histone Acetylation on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate 2B Receptor Subunits and Interleukin-1 Receptors in Association with Nociception-Related Somatosensory Cortex Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yukio; Yoshikawa, Nao; Murkami, Yuki; Mitani, Satoko; Matsumoto, Naoya; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Yamada, Tomoki; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Junichiro; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi; Jin, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Whole-body inflammation (i.e., sepsis) often results in brain-related sensory dysfunction. We previously reported that interleukin (IL)-1 resulted in synaptic dysfunction of septic encephalopathy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown, as do effective treatments. Using mice, we examined immunohistochemistry, co-immunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and behavior analyses, and investigated the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B subunit (NR2B) of NMDA receptor, IL-1 receptor, and histone acetylation in the pathophysiology underlying sensory dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice groups of sham-operated, LPS, LPS with an NR2B antagonist, or LPS with resveratrol (a histone acetylation activator) were analyzed. We found that LPS increased NR2B and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) immunoreactivity. The expression of Iba1, a marker for microglia and/or macrophages, increased more significantly in the brain than in the spinal cord, implicating NR2B and IL-1R in brain inflammation. Immunoprecipitation with NR2B and IL-1R revealed related antibodies. Blood levels of IL-1β (i.e., the IL-1R ligand) increased, though not significantly, suggesting that inflammation peaked at 20 h. Behavioral assessments of central (CNS) and peripheral sensory (PNS) function indicated that LPS delayed CNS but not PNS escape latency. Finally, NR2B antagonist or resveratrol in the lateral ventricle antagonized the effects of LPS in the brain and improved animal survival. In summary, histone acetylation may control expression of NR2B and IL-1R, alleviating inflammation-induced sensory neuronal dysfunction caused by LPS. PMID:26682951

  9. Phenserine, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, attenuates impaired learning of rats in a 14-unit T-maze induced by blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Spangler, E L; Greig, N H; Yu, Q S; Ingram, D K; Meyer, R C

    1998-01-01

    The present study evaluated the interaction of the glutamatergic and acetylcholinergic systems in memory formation, with an overall emphasis on developing multi-system approaches for treating age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer' s disease. Specifically, we used a 14-unit T-maze to investigate whether phenserine (PHEN), a long-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, could overcome a learning deficit in rats induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist, 3-(+/-) 2-carboxypiperzin-4-yl) propyl phosphonic acid (CPP). Prior to drug treatment, 3-month-old male Fischer-344 rats were trained to criterion (13 of 15 shock avoidances) in a straight runway. Twenty-four hours later, rats were given i.p. injections of saline (SAL), CPP (9 mg/kg) + SAL or CPP + PHEN (0.25, 0.5 or 0.75 mg/kg) and received 15 massed training trials in a 14-unit T-maze. CPP significantly increased the number of errors made in the maze relative to controls, and phenserine significantly reduced the number of errors made relative to rats receiving CPP only, with the lowest dose being the most effective. These results provide further support of phenserine's potent, cognitive-enhancing properties, and suggest that combined modulation of glutamatergic and acetylcholinergic systems may be of potential benefit in developing new pharmacotherapies for Alzheimer's disease and age-related cognitive decline. PMID:9592071

  10. The upregulation of NR2A-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function by tyrosine phosphorylation of postsynaptic density 95 via facilitating Src/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Du, Cai-Ping; Peng, Yan; Xu, Zhen; Sun, Chang-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Hou, Xiao-Yu

    2015-04-01

    The activation of postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is required for long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) serves as a scaffold protein that tethers NMDA receptor subunits, kinases, and signal molecules. Our previous study proves that PSD-95 is a substrate of Src/Fyn and identifies Y523 on PSD-95 as a principal phosphorylation site. In this paper, we try to define an involvement and molecular consequences of PSD-95 phosphorylation by Src in NMDA receptor regulation. We found that either NMDA or chemical LTP induction leads to rapid phosphorylation of PSD-95 by Src in cultured cortical neurons. The phosphorylation of Y523 on PSD-95 potentiates NR2A-containing NMDA receptor current amplitude, implying an important role of Src-mediated PSD-95 phosphorylation in NMDA receptor activation. Comparing to wild-type PSD-95, overexpression of nonphosphorylatable mutant PSD-95Y523F attenuated the NMDA-stimulated NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation that enhances electrophysiological responses of NMDA receptor channels, while did not affect the membrane localization of NR2A subunits. PSD-95Y523D, a phosphomimetic mutant of PSD-95, induced NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation even if there was no NMDA treatment. In addition, the deficiency of Y523 phosphorylation on PSD-95 impaired the facilitatory effect of PSD-95 on the activation of Src and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) and decreased the binding of Pyk2 with PSD-95. These results indicate that PSD-95 phosphorylation by Src facilitates the integration of Pyk2 to PSD-95 signal complex, the activation of Pyk2/Src, as well as the subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A, which ultimately results in the upregulation of NMDA receptor function and synaptic transmission. PMID:24981431

  11. The Serine Protease Plasmin Cleaves the Amino-terminal Domain of the NR2A Subunit to Relieve Zinc Inhibition of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptors*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongjie; Vance, Katie M.; Junge, Candice E.; Geballe, Matthew T.; Snyder, James P.; Hepler, John R.; Yepes, Manuel; Low, Chian-Ming; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is hypothesized to be co-released with glutamate at synapses of the central nervous system. Zinc binds to NR1/NR2A N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors with high affinity and inhibits NMDAR function in a voltage-independent manner. The serine protease plasmin can cleave a number of substrates, including protease-activated receptors, and may play an important role in several disorders of the central nervous system, including ischemia and spinal cord injury. Here, we demonstrate that plasmin can cleave the native NR2A amino-terminal domain (NR2AATD), removing the functional high affinity Zn2+ binding site. Plasmin also cleaves recombinant NR2AATD at lysine 317 (Lys317), thereby producing a ∼40-kDa fragment, consistent with plasmin-induced NR2A cleavage fragments observed in rat brain membrane preparations. A homology model of the NR2AATD predicts that Lys317 is near the surface of the protein and is accessible to plasmin. Recombinant expression of NR2A with an amino-terminal deletion at Lys317 is functional and Zn2+ insensitive. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings show that Zn2+ inhibition of agonist-evoked NMDA receptor currents of NR1/NR2A-transfected HEK 293 cells and cultured cortical neurons is significantly reduced by plasmin treatment. Mutating the plasmin cleavage site Lys317 on NR2A to alanine blocks the effect of plasmin on Zn2+ inhibition. The relief of Zn2+ inhibition by plasmin occurs in PAR1-/- cortical neurons and thus is independent of interaction with protease-activated receptors. These results suggest that plasmin can directly interact with NMDA receptors, and plasmin may increase NMDA receptor responses through disruption or removal of the amino-terminal domain and relief of Zn2+ inhibition. PMID:19240037

  12. Activity and protein kinase C regulate synaptic accumulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors independently of GluN1 splice variant.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joana S; Rooyakkers, Amanda; She, Kevin; Ribeiro, Luis; Carvalho, Ana Luísa; Craig, Ann Marie

    2011-08-12

    NMDA receptors are calcium-permeable ionotropic receptors that detect coincident glutamate binding and membrane depolarization and are essential for many forms of synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain. The obligatory GluN1 subunit of NMDA receptors is alternatively spliced at multiple sites, generating forms that vary in N-terminal N1 and C-terminal C1, C2, and C2' cassettes. Based on expression of GluN1 constructs in heterologous cells and in wild type neurons, the prevalent view is that the C-terminal cassettes regulate synaptic accumulation and its modulation by homeostatic activity blockade and by protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we tested the role of GluN1 splicing in regulated synaptic accumulation of NMDA receptors by lentiviral expression of individual GluN1 splice variants in hippocampal neurons cultured from GluN1 (-/-) mice. High efficiency transduction of GluN1 at levels similar to endogenous was achieved. Under control conditions, the C2' cassette mediated enhanced synaptic accumulation relative to the alternate C2 cassette, whereas the presence or absence of N1 or C1 had no effect. Surprisingly all GluN1 splice variants showed >2-fold increased synaptic accumulation with chronic blockade of NMDA receptor activity. Furthermore, in this neuronal rescue system, all GluN1 splice variants were equally rapidly dispersed upon activation of PKC. These results indicate that the major mechanisms mediating homeostatic synaptic accumulation and PKC dispersal of NMDA receptors occur independently of GluN1 splice isoform. PMID:21676872

  13. Modulating the Intrinsic Disorder in the Cytoplasmic Domain Alters the Biological Activity of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate-sensitive Glutamate Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ucheor B.; Kazi, Rashek; Stenzoski, Natalie; Wollmuth, Lonnie P.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Bowen, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    The NMDA-sensitive glutamate receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system. Extracellular zinc allosterically regulates the NMDA receptor by binding to the extracellular N-terminal domain, which inhibits channel gating. Phosphorylation of the intrinsically disordered intracellular C-terminal domain alleviates inhibition by extracellular zinc. The mechanism for this functional effect is largely unknown. Proline is a hallmark of intrinsic disorder, so we used proline mutagenesis to modulate disorder in the cytoplasmic domain. Proline depletion selectively uncoupled zinc inhibition with little effect on receptor biogenesis, surface trafficking, or ligand-activated gating. Proline depletion also reduced the affinity for a PDZ domain involved in synaptic trafficking and affected small molecule binding. To understand the origin of these phenomena, we used single molecule fluorescence and ensemble biophysical methods to characterize the structural effects of proline mutagenesis. Proline depletion did not eliminate intrinsic disorder, but the underlying conformational dynamics were changed. Thus, we altered the form of intrinsic disorder, which appears sufficient to affect the biological activity. These findings suggest that conformational dynamics within the intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domain are important for the allosteric regulation of NMDA receptor gating. PMID:23782697

  14. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Produces an Antidepressant-Like Effect and Elicits N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Independent Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission in Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-lei; Colechio, Elizabeth M.; Ghoreishi-Haack, Nayereh; Gross, Amanda; Kroes, Roger A.; Stanton, Patric K.; Moskal, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play an important role in regulating neurogenesis and synapse formation and may be involved in regulating the antidepressant response to conventional antidepressants. To date, Insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) is the only growth factor that has shown antidepressant properties in human clinical trials. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods: The antidepressant-like effect of a single IV dose of IGFI was determined using a chronic unpredictable stress paradigm in the rat Porsolt, sucrose preference, novelty-induced hypophagia, and ultrasonic vocalization models. The dependence of the medial prefrontal cortex for these effects was determined by direct medial prefrontal cortex injection followed by Porsolt testing as well as IGFI receptor activation in the medial prefrontal cortex following an optimal IV antidepressant-like dose of IGFI. The effect of IGFI on synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength was assessed in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The dependence of these effects on IGFI and AMPA receptor activation and protein synthesis were also determined. Results: IGFI produced a rapid-acting and long-lasting antidepressant-like effect in each of the depression models. These effects were blocked by IGFI and AMPA receptor antagonists, and medial prefrontal cortex was localized. IGFI robustly increased synaptic strength in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex and these effects were IGFI receptor and protein synthesis-dependent but N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor independent. IGFI also robustly facilitated hippocampal metaplasticity 24 hours postdosing. Conclusions: These data support the conclusion that the antidepressant-like effects of IGFI are mediated by a persistent, LTP-like enhancement of synaptic strength requiring both IGFIR activation and ongoing protein synthesis. PMID:26374350

  15. Comparison of the neuropsychological mechanisms of 2,6-diisopropylphenol and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist against electroconvulsive therapy-induced learning and memory impairment in depressed rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, GANG; LIU, CHAO; NING-ZHANG, XUE

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the neurophysiological mechanisms of the 2,6-diisopropylphenol and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist against learning and memory impairment, induced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A total of 48 adult depressed rats without olfactory bulbs were randomly divided into six experimental groups: i) saline; ii) 10 mg/kg MK-801; iii) 10 mg/kg MK-801 and a course of ECT; iv) 200 mg/kg 2,6-diisopropylphenol; v) 200 mg/kg 2,6-diisopropylphenol and a course of ECT; and vi) saline and a course of ECT. The learning and memory abilities of the rats were assessed using a Morris water maze 1 day after a course of ECT. The hippocampus was removed 1 day after assessment using the Morris water maze assessment. The content of glutamate in the hippocampus was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression levels of p-AT8Ser202 and GSK-3β1H8 in the hippocampus were determined using immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that the 2,6-diisopropylphenol NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 and ECT induced learning and memory impairment in the depressed rats. The glutamate content was significantly upregulated by ECT, reduced by 2,6-diisopropylphenol, and was unaffected by the NMDA receptor antagonist in the hippocampus of the depressed rats. Tau protein hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus was upregulated by ECT, but was reduced by 2,6-diisopropylphenol and the MK-801 NMDA receptor antagonist. It was also demonstrated that 2,6-diisopropylphenol prevented learning and memory impairment and reduced the hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, which was induced by eECT. GSK-3β was found to be the key protein involved in this signaling pathway. The ECT reduced the learning and memory impairment, caused by hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, in the depressed rats by upregulating the glutamate content. PMID:25998151

  16. Hydrolysis of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-stimulated cAMP and cGMP by PDE4 and PDE2 phosphodiesterases in primary neuronal cultures of rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Suvarna, Neesha U; O'Donnell, James M

    2002-07-01

    Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors on neurons activates both cAMP and cGMP signaling pathways. Experiments were carried out to determine which phosphodiesterase (PDE) families are involved in the hydrolysis of the cyclic nucleotides formed via this mechanism, using primary neuronal cultures prepared from rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The nonselective PDE inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) potentiated the ability of NMDA to increase cAMP and cGMP. However, among the family-selective inhibitors, only the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram enhanced the ability of NMDA to increase cAMP in the neurons. In contrast, only the PDE2 inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA) enhanced the ability of NMDA to increase cGMP. Neither adenosine nor an adenosine deaminase inhibitor mimicked the effect of EHNA; this suggests that EHNA's inhibition of PDE2, not its effects on adenosine metabolism, mediates its effects on NMDA-stimulated cGMP concentrations. The PDE inhibitor-augmented effects of NMDA on cAMP and cGMP formation were antagonized by 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801), verifying NMDA receptor mediation. In contrast, only NMDA-mediated cGMP formation was affected by altering either nitric oxide signaling or guanylyl cyclase; this suggests that NMDA-induced changes in cAMP are not secondary to altered cGMP concentrations. Overall, the present findings indicate that cAMP and cGMP formed in neurons as a result of NMDA receptor stimulation are hydrolyzed by PDE4 and PDE2, respectively. Selective inhibitors of the two PDE families will differentially affect the functional consequences of activation of these two signaling pathways by NMDA receptor stimulation. PMID:12065724

  17. Design and synthesis of skeletal analogues of gambierol: attenuation of amyloid-β and tau pathology with voltage-gated potassium channel and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor implications.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Eva; Fuwa, Haruhiko; Vale, Carmen; Suga, Yuto; Goto, Tomomi; Konno, Yu; Sasaki, Makoto; LaFerla, Frank M; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Botana, Luis M

    2012-05-01

    Gambierol is a potent neurotoxin that belongs to the family of marine polycyclic ether natural products and primarily targets voltage-gated potassium channels (K(v) channels) in excitable membranes. Previous work in the chemistry of marine polycyclic ethers has suggested the critical importance of the full length of polycyclic ether skeleton for potent biological activity. Although we have previously investigated structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the peripheral functionalities of gambierol, it remained unclear whether the whole polycyclic ether skeleton is needed for its cellular activity. In this work, we designed and synthesized two truncated skeletal analogues of gambierol comprising the EFGH- and BCDEFGH-rings of the parent compound, both of which surprisingly showed similar potency to gambierol on voltage-gated potassium channels (K(v)) inhibition. Moreover, we examined the effect of these compounds in an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) obtained from triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice, which expresses amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation. In vitro preincubation of the cells with the compounds resulted in significant inhibition of K(+) currents, a reduction in the extra- and intracellular levels of Aβ, and a decrease in the levels of hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition, pretreatment with these compounds reduced the steady-state level of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2A without affecting the 2B subunit. The involvement of glutamate receptors was further suggested by the blockage of the effect of gambierol on tau hyperphosphorylation by glutamate receptor antagonists. The present study constitutes the first discovery of skeletally simplified, designed polycyclic ethers with potent cellular activity and demonstrates the utility of gambierol and its synthetic analogues as chemical probes for understanding the function of K(v) channels as well as the molecular mechanism of Aβ metabolism modulated by

  18. Brain-specific Phgdh deletion reveals a pivotal role for L-serine biosynthesis in controlling the level of D-serine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor co-agonist, in adult brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jung Hoon; Wada, Akira; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Miyoshi, Yurika; Sayano, Tomoko; Esaki, Kayoko; Kinoshita, Masami O; Tomonaga, Shozo; Azuma, Norihiro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Hamase, Kenji; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi; Machida, Takeo; Messing, Albee; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Furuya, Shigeki

    2010-12-31

    In mammalian brain, D-serine is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase, and it functions as an obligatory co-agonist at the glycine modulatory site of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective glutamate receptors. Although diminution in D-serine level has been implicated in NMDA receptor hypofunction, which is thought to occur in schizophrenia, the source of the precursor L-serine and its role in D-serine metabolism in adult brain have yet to be determined. We investigated whether L-serine synthesized in brain via the phosphorylated pathway is essential for D-serine synthesis by generating mice with a conditional deletion of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh; EC 1.1.1.95). This enzyme catalyzes the first step in L-serine synthesis via the phosphorylated pathway. HPLC analysis of serine enantiomers demonstrated that both L- and D-serine levels were markedly decreased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of conditional knock-out mice, whereas the serine deficiency did not alter protein expression levels of serine racemase and NMDA receptor subunits in these regions. The present study provides definitive proof that L-serine-synthesized endogenously via the phosphorylated pathway is a key rate-limiting factor for maintaining steady-state levels of D-serine in adult brain. Furthermore, NMDA-evoked transcription of Arc, an immediate early gene, was diminished in the hippocampus of conditional knock-out mice. Thus, this study demonstrates that in mature neuronal circuits L-serine availability determines the rate of D-serine synthesis in the forebrain and controls NMDA receptor function at least in the hippocampus. PMID:20966073

  19. Inhibition of NR2B-Containing N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors (NMDARs) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, a Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Farjam, Mojtaba; Beigi Zarandi, Faegheh Baha'addini; Farjadian, Shirin; Geramizadeh, Bita; Nikseresht, Ali Reza; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is the pathophysiological basis for permanent neurological disabilities in multiple sclerosis (MS); thus neuroprotection is emerging as a therapeutic approach in MS research. Modulation of excitotoxicity by inhibition of NMDARs has been suggested for neuroprotection, but selective antagonisation of the NR2B subtype of these receptors, a subtype believed to play a more pivotal role in neurodegeneration, has not been tested in MS. In this study inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR was evaluated on the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE induction was done using MOG in C57BL/6 mice. Therapeutic administration of different doses of highly selective NR2B-containing NMDAR inhibitor (RO25-6981) was compared with memantine (non-selective NMDAR antagonist) and vehicle. Neurological deficits in EAE animals were more efficiently decreased by selective inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDARs. Histological studies of the spinal cords also showed decreased inflammation, myelin degradation and neuro-axonal degeneration when RO25-6981was administered with higher doses. The effects were dose dependent. Regarding the role of NR2B-containing NMDARs in excitotoxicity, selective inhibition of these receptor subtypes seems to modulate the neurological disabilities and pathological changes in EAE. Further elucidation of the exact mechanism of action as well as more experimental studies can suggest NR2B-containing NMDAR inhibition as a potentially effective treatment strategy for slowing down the clinical deterioration of disability in MS. PMID:25237366

  20. Selective NR1/2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists among indole-2-carboxamides and benzimidazole-2-carboxamides.

    PubMed

    Borza, István; Bozó, Eva; Barta-Szalai, Gizella; Kiss, Csilla; Tárkányi, Gábor; Demeter, Adám; Gáti, Tamás; Háda, Viktor; Kolok, Sándor; Gere, Anikó; Fodor, László; Nagy, József; Galgóczy, Kornél; Magdó, Ildikó; Agai, Béla; Fetter, József; Bertha, Ferenc; Keserü, György M; Horváth, Csilla; Farkas, Sándor; Greiner, István; Domány, György

    2007-03-01

    (4-Benzylpiperidine-1-yl)-(6-hydroxy-1H-indole-2-yl)-methanone (6a) derived from (E)-1-(4-benzylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propenone (5) was identified as a potent NR2B subunit-selective antagonist of the NMDA receptor. To establish the structure-activity relationship (SAR) and to attempt the improvement of the ADME properties of the lead, a series of compounds were prepared and tested. Several derivatives showed low nanomolar activity both in the binding and in the functional assay. In a formalin-induced hyperalgesia model in mice, 6a and (4-benzylpiperidine-1-yl)-[5(6)-hydroxy-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]-methanone (60a) were as active as besonprodil (2) after oral administration. A CoMSIA model was developed based on binding data of a series of indole- and benzimidazole-2-carboxamides. PMID:17290978

  1. Relationship between mRNA expression of splice forms of the zeta1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and spatial memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Siba R; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2008-05-01

    Age-related changes in the protein and mRNA expression of some of the splice forms of the zeta1 (NR1) subunit of the NMDA receptor have been seen in mice and rats. The present study was designed to determine whether individual splice forms of the zeta1 subunit of the NMDA receptor within prefrontal/frontal cortical regions contribute to memory deficits during aging and whether experience in learning tasks can influence the expression of the splice forms. mRNA expression of 4 splice forms (zeta1-1, zeta1-3, zeta1-a and zeta1-b) and mRNA for all known splice forms (zeta1-pan) were examined by in situ hybridization. mRNA for C-terminal splice forms, zeta1-1 (+ C1 and + C2 cassettes) and zeta1-3 (+ C1 and + C2'), showed significant declines during aging in several brain regions even though overall zeta1-pan mRNA expression was not significantly affected by aging. This suggests that these splice forms are more influenced by aging than the subunit as a whole. There was an increase in the expression of zeta1-a (-N1 cassette) splice form in the behaviorally-experienced old mice relative to the younger groups. Old mice with high levels of mRNA expression for the zeta1-a splice form in orbital cortex showed the best performances in the working memory task, but the poorest performances in the cued, associative learning task. These results suggest that there is a complex interaction between zeta1 splice form expression and performance of memory tasks during aging. PMID:18374315

  2. Amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 causes microtubule deregulation through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in mature hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Mota, Sandra I; Ferreira, Ildete L; Pereira, Claudia; Oliveira, Catarina R; Rego, A Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder among the elderly. Nmethyl- D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) overactivation has been implicated in early synaptic dysfunction that precedes late neurodegeneration in AD. Moreover, oligomers of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) 1-42 are considered the most synaptotoxic forms, responsible for early cognitive deficits in AD. In this work we evaluate the role of NMDARs on Aβ-evoked neuronal dysfunction and cell death through changes in microtubule polymerization in mature hippocampal cultures. Exposure to Aβ 1-42 caused a decrease in total and polymerized levels of beta-III tubulin and polymerized alpha-tubulin, suggesting microtubule disassembly. Moreover, Aβ induced DNA fragmentation in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Indeed, the effects of Aβ on beta-III tubulin polymerization were significantly correlated with reduced neurite length and neuronal DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, these effects were prevented by MK-801 and memantine, suggesting a role for extrasynaptic NMDARs in Aβ toxicity, and by ifenprodil, further indicating the involvement of GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Nevertheless, exposure to Aβ did not potentiate the effects caused by selective activation of NMDARs. Data largely suggest that Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal dysfunction occurs through NMDAR-dependent microtubule disassembly associated to neurite retraction and DNA fragmentation in mature hippocampal cells. PMID:22631440

  3. Anti-ischaemic efficacy of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in models of transient and permanent focal cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D A; Graham, D I; McCulloch, J; Macrae, I M

    1994-09-01

    1. We have recently developed a new model of transient focal ischaemia in the rat utilising topical application of endothelin-1 to the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). In order to validate this approach the present study assessed the neuroprotective efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) in the endothelin-1 model. The anti-ischaemic efficacy of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was subsequently evaluated, and contrasted with its efficacy against permanent focal ischaemia, to determine the utility of the endothelin-1 model for identification of novel pharmacoprotective agents. 2. MK-801 (0.12 mg kg-1 bolus, 108 micrograms kg-1 h-1 infusion i.v., either 1 or 2.5 h pre-transient MCA occlusion (MCAO)) induced hypotension that persisted for approximately 1.5 h so that mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) at the time of MCAO was significantly lower in the 1 h group compared with control (MABP: 86 +/- 11, 68 +/- 6 and 84 +/- 4 mmHg (mean +/- s.d.) for saline, 1 h MK-801 and 2.5 h MK-801 groups respectively). The 2.5 h pretreatment schedule resulted in significant reduction (71%) in the volume of hemispheric damage (assessed 4 h post onset of ischaemia) while the 1 h pretreatment schedule did not (volumes of hemispheric damage: 59 +/- 38, 51 +/- 51 and 17 +/- 28 mm3 for saline, 1 h and 2.5 h MK-801 groups). 3. Thus the considerable neuroprotective effect of MK-801 in the endothelin-1 model of transient focal cerebral ischaemia was highly sensitive to drug-induced hypotension. This result is in contrast to previous studies of permanent MCAO where MK-801-induced hypotension did not compromise its neuroprotective action.4. L-NAME (3 mg kg-1, i.v. 30 min pre-MCAO) moderately, but significantly, reduced (16%) the volume of ischaemic damage 4 h post-permanent MCA occlusion, whereas the 29% reduction in volume of damage achieved in the model of transient focal ischaemia did not attain significance due to the

  4. Dissecting the age-related decline on spatial learning and memory tasks in rodent models: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in senescent synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, heterogeneity in the decline of hippocampal-dependent episodic memory is observed during aging. Rodents have been employed as models of age-related cognitive decline and the spatial water maze has been used to show variability in the emergence and extent of impaired hippocampal-dependent memory. Impairment in the consolidation of intermediate-term memory for rapidly acquired and flexible spatial information emerges early, in middle-age. As aging proceeds, deficits may broaden to include impaired incremental learning of a spatial reference memory. The extent and time course of impairment has been be linked to senescence of calcium (Ca2+) regulation and Ca2+-dependent synaptic plasticity mechanisms in region CA1. Specifically, aging is associated with altered function of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) linked to intracellular Ca2+ stores (ICS). In young animals, NMDAR activation induces long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission (NMDAR-LTP), which is thought to mediate the rapid consolidation of intermediate-term memory. Oxidative stress, starting in middle-age, reduces NMDAR function. In addition, VDCCs and ICS can actively inhibit NMDAR-dependent LTP and oxidative stress enhances the role of VDCC and RyR-ICS in regulating synaptic plasticity. Blockade of L-type VDCCs promotes NMDAR-LTP and memory in older animals. Interestingly, pharmacological or genetic manipulations to reduce hippocampal NMDAR function readily impair memory consolidation or rapid learning, generally leaving incremental learning intact. Finally, evidence is mounting to indicate a role for VDCC-dependent synaptic plasticity in associative learning and the consolidation of remote memories. Thus, VDCC-dependent synaptic plasticity and extrahippocampal systems may contribute to incremental learning deficits observed with advanced aging. PMID:22307057

  5. Structural Changes of Regulatory Domain Heterodimer of N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Subunits GluN1 and GluN2B through the Binding of Spermine and Ifenprodil

    PubMed Central

    Tomitori, Hideyuki; Suganami, Akiko; Saiki, Ryotaro; Mizuno, Satomi; Yoshizawa, Yuki; Masuko, Takashi; Tamura, Yutaka; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Williams, Keith; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Modeling the binding sites for spermine and ifenprodil on the regulatory (R) domains of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor GluN1 and GluN2B subunits was carried out after measuring spermine stimulation and ifenprodil inhibition at receptors containing GluN1 and GluN2B R domain mutants. Models were constructed based on the published crystal structure of the GluN1 and GluN2B R domains, which form a heterodimer (Nature 475:249–253, 2011). The experimental results and modeling suggest that a binding site for spermine was formed by the residues near the cleft between the R1 and R2 lobes of the GluN1 R domain (GluN1R) together with residues on the surface of the R2 (C-terminal side) lobe of the GluN2B R domain (GluN2BR). The ifenprodil binding site included residues on the surface of the R1 lobe (N-terminal side) of GluN1R together with residues near the cleft between the R1 and R2 lobes of GluN2BR. It was confirmed using a Western blot analysis that GluN1R and GluN2BR formed a heterodimer. Models of spermine and ifenprodil binding to the heterodimer were constructed. The modeling suggests that an open space between the two R1 lobes of GluN1R and GluN2BR is promoted through spermine binding and that the R1 lobes of GluN1R and GluN2BR approach each other through ifenprodil binding—an effect opposite to that seen with the binding of spermine. PMID:22743575

  6. Intra-cornu ammonis 1 administration of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transcription factor Tat exacerbates the ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rodents and activates N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors to produce persisting spatial learning deficits

    PubMed Central

    Self, Rachel L.; Smith, Katherine J.; Butler, Tracy R.; Pauly, James R.; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection may produce neurological deficits, such as cognitive decline, that may be worsened by concurrent ethanol (EtOH) abuse. Among the many biochemical cascades likely mediating HIV-1 associated neuronal injury is enhancement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function and progression to excitotoxicity, an effect that may be directly or indirectly related to accumulation in brain of the HIV-1 transcription factor Tat. The present studies were designed to examine the hypothesis that binge-like EtOH pre-exposure would enhance effects of Tat on NMDA receptor function. These studies employed a modified in vivo binge EtOH exposure regimen designed to produce peak blood EtOH levels (B.E.L.) of <200 mg/dl in adult male rats and were designed to examine effects of intra-hippocampal injection of Tat (0.5 µl/500 pM/2 min) on EtOH withdrawal-related behavior, spatial learning, and histological measures. Unilateral cannulae were implanted into the cornu ammonus 1 (CA1) pyramidal cell layer of animals prior to beginning a 4-day binge EtOH regimen. EtOH was administered via intragastric intubation (~3.0–5.0g/kg) with dose determined by behavioral ratings of intoxication daily for four days (at 0800, 1600, and 2400 hrs). EtOH withdrawal behaviors were monitored 12 hr after the last administration of EtOH. Morris water maze learning was assessed during the following 4 days, at which times brains were harvested for autoradiographic measurement of NMDA receptor density and neuroinflammation. Maximal B.E.L.s of 187.69 mg/dl were observed 60 min after EtOH administration on Day 2 of the regimen. In contrast, peak B.E.L.s of approximately 100 mg/dl were observed 60 min after EtOH administration on Day 4 of the regimen, suggesting development of metabolic tolerance. Significant behavioral abnormalities were observed in EtOH withdrawn animals, including tremor and seizures. Intra-CA1 region injection of Tat significantly potentiated Et

  7. Identification and characterization of 4-methylbenzyl 4-[(pyrimidin-2-ylamino)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate, an orally bioavailable, brain penetrant NR2B selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Liverton, Nigel J; Bednar, Rodney A; Bednar, Bohumil; Butcher, John W; Claiborne, Christopher F; Claremon, David A; Cunningham, Michael; DiLella, Anthony G; Gaul, Stanley L; Libby, Brian E; Lyle, Elizabeth A; Lynch, Joseph J; McCauley, John A; Mosser, Scott D; Nguyen, Kevin T; Stump, Gary L; Sun, Hong; Wang, Hao; Yergey, James; Koblan, Kenneth S

    2007-02-22

    The discovery of a novel series of NR2B subtype selective N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists is reported. Initial optimization of a high-throughput screening lead afforded an aminopyridine derivative 13 with significant NR2B antagonist potency but limited selectivity over hERG-channel and other off-target activities. Further structure-activity studies on the aminoheterocycle moiety and optimization of the carbamate led to the highly potent 2-aminopyrimidine derivative 20j with a significantly improved off-target activity profile and oral bioavailability in multiple species coupled with good brain penetration. Compound 20j demonstrated efficacy in in vivo rodent models of antinociception, allodynia, and Parkinson's disease. PMID:17249648

  8. Blockade by ifenprodil of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat and mouse cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurones: comparison with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist actions.

    PubMed Central

    Church, J; Fletcher, E J; Baxter, K; MacDonald, J F

    1994-01-01

    1. The block by ifenprodil of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels was investigated in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) evoked by 50 mM K+ (high-[K+]o) in Fura-2-loaded rat hippocampal pyramidal neurones in culture and on currents carried by Ba2+ ions (IBa) through Ca2+ channels in mouse cultured hippocampal neurones under whole-cell voltage-clamp. The effects of ifenprodil on voltage-activated Ca2+ channels were compared with its antagonist actions on N-methyl-D-aspartate- (NMDA) evoked responses in the same neuronal preparations. 2. Rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by transient exposure to high-[K+]o in our preparation of rat cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurones are mediated predominantly by Ca2+ flux through nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, with smaller contributions from nifedipine-resistant, omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ channels sensitive to crude funnel-web spider venom (Church et al., 1994). Ifenprodil (0.1-200 microM) reversibly attenuated high-[K+]o-evoked rises in [Ca2+]i with an IC50 value of 17 +/- 3 microM, compared with an IC50 value of 0.7 +/- 0.1 microM for the reduction of rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by 20 microM NMDA. Tested in the presence of nifedipine 10 microM, ifenprodil (1-50 microM) produced a concentration-dependent reduction of the dihydropyridine-resistant high-[K+]o-evoked rise in [Ca2+]i with an IC50 value of 13 +/- 4 microM. The results suggest that ifenprodil blocks Ca2+ flux through multiple subtypes of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. 3. Application of the polyamine, spermine (0.25-5 mM), produced a concentration-dependent reduction of rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by high-[K+]o.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834201

  9. Solubilization, partial purification, and reconstitution of glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated cation channels from brain synaptic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ly, A.M.; Michaelis, E.K. )

    1991-04-30

    L-Glutamate-activated cation channel proteins from rat brain synaptic membranes were solubilized, partially purified, and reconstituted into liposomes. Optimal conditions for solubilization and reconstitution included treatment of the membranes with nonionic detergents in the presence of neutral phospholipids plus glycerol. Quench-flow procedures were developed to characterize the rapid kinetics of ion flux induced by receptor agonists. ({sup 14}C)Methylamine, a cation that permeates through the open channel of both vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate receptors, was used to measure the activity of glutamate receptor-ion channel complexes in reconstituted liposomes. L-Glutamate caused an increase in the rate of ({sup 14}C)methylamine influx into liposomes reconstituted with either solubilized membrane proteins or partially purified glutamate-binding proteins. Of the major glutamate receptor agonists, only N-methyl-D-aspartate activated cation fluxes in liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins. In liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate- or glutamate-induced influx of NA{sup +} led to a transient increase in the influx of the lipid-permeable anion probe S{sup 14}CN{sup {minus}}. These results indicate the functional reconstitution of N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptors and the role of the {approximately}69-kDa protein in the function of these ion channels.

  10. Discriminative stimulus effects of magnesium chloride: substitution studies with monoamine uptake inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kantak, K M; Edwards, M A; Wilcox, K M; Kitchel, E

    1997-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that magnesium chloride may have discriminative stimulus effects that partially overlap with those of noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists as well as certain monoamine uptake inhibitors. In our study, rats were trained to discriminate 100 mg/kg magnesium chloride from saline and its discriminative stimulus effects were characterized with respect to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and monoamine transporter functions in substitution tests. The discriminative stimulus effects of magnesium chloride were acquired within a moderate number of training sessions and showed dose-related substitution after either subcutaneous (3-300 mg/kg) or intracerebroventricular (0.3-300 microg) administration. The intracerebroventricular administration of magnesium chloride was over 4000 times more potent than its s.c. administration. The monoamine uptake inhibitors cocaine, GBR 12909, talsupram and citalopram fully substituted (> or =90% magnesium-appropriate responses) for magnesium chloride in the majority of subjects tested and the group averages reached a maximum of 72 to 82% responses on the magnesium-appropriate lever. Based on relative potency analysis, the rank order of potency of these four drugs for producing magnesium-appropriate responses was talsupram = cocaine > citalopram = GBR 12909. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists dizocilpine, phencyclidine and NPC 17742 engendered maximum group averages of 49 to 65% responses on the magnesium-appropriate lever. The results suggest that the centrally mediated discriminative stimulus effects of magnesium chloride may be more directly related to interactions with monoamine neurotransmitter functions than to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade. PMID:9336325

  11. Memantine delayed N-methyl-D-aspartate -induced convulsions in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2015-02-01

    Memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane) is a moderate-affinity uncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In this study, we have explored the effect of memantine against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced seizures in neonatal rats. Here, we evaluated various behavioral seizure abnormalities in neonatal rats (Sprague-Dawley; postnatal day 9) after an intraperitoneal administration of NMDA. Further, we explored whether an acute administration of memantine could protect these neonates against different phases of convulsions induced by NMDA. In a separate study, we have compared the effect of levetiracetam in the same animal model. Exogenous administration of NMDA (30 mg/kg., i.p.) in neonatal rats resulted in arrest of activity, emprosthotonos curvature (trunk is bent forward by the entire muscles), myoclonic jerks, and forelimb/hindlimb clonus. The clonus phase in neonates was followed by loss of righting reflex and continuous seizures (for more than 5 min) suggesting status epilepticus, tonic extension, and death. Pretreatment of memantine hydrochloride (10-30 mg/kg., i.p.) dose-dependently delayed the onset of different phases of convulsions induced by NMDA. Memantine at the highest dose was found to be ataxic in rat neonates, while lower doses were free of any observed behavioral signs of toxicity. Levetiracetam (25 mg/kg., i.p.) when administered 30 min before the NMDA challenge blocked only the jerk phase and did not affect other phases of NMDA-induced convulsions. These data indicated that memantine and other safer uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists may be protective in the management of neonatal seizures. PMID:25196574

  12. The anticonvulsant and behavioural profile of L-687,414, a partial agonist acting at the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tricklebank, M D; Bristow, L J; Hutson, P H; Leeson, P D; Rowley, M; Saywell, K; Singh, L; Tattersall, F D; Thorn, L; Williams, B J

    1994-01-01

    1. The anticonvulsant and behavioural effects of the glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist, L-687,414 (R(+)-cis-beta-methyl-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) have been investigated in rodents. 2. L-687,414 dose-dependently antagonized seizures induced by N-methyl-D,L- aspartic acid (NMDLA, ED50 = 19.7 mg kg-1), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, ED50 = 13.0 mg kg-1) and electroshock (ED50 = 26.1 mg kg-1) when given intravenously 15 min before test, in male Swiss Webster mice but was most potent against audiogenic seizures induced by a 120 dB bell in DBA/2 mice (ED50 = 5.1 mg kg-1, i.p., 30 min before test). 3. L-687,414 also induced impairments of performance in a rotarod test in both Swiss Webster and DBA/2 mice and the ratio [rotarod MED:anticonvulsant ED50] varied between 0.9 and 5, depending on the convulsant used. 4. Similar behaviours to those seen after administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (head weaving, body rolling, hyperlocomotion) were seen in the mouse after giving L-687,414, although the peak effect occurred at a dose (100 mg kg-1) which was 5-20 times the anticonvulsant ED50S, depending on the convulsant used. Unlike MK-801, however, doses of L-687,414 that were behaviourally stimulant did not increase dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens. 5. Consistent with the interaction of L-687,414 with the glycine/NMDA receptor, the anticonvulsant, ataxic and motor stimulant effects of the compound were significantly attenuated by the glycine/NMDA receptor agonist, D-serine (10-100 micrograms per mouse, i.c.v.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858861

  13. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Modulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-dependent Intracellular Signaling and NMDA-induced Regulation of Postsynaptic Protein Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Chikako; Kulik, Akos; Frotscher, Michael; Herz, Joachim; Schäfer, Michael; Bock, Hans H.; May, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The lipoprotein receptor LRP1 is essential in neurons of the central nervous system, as was revealed by the analysis of conditional Lrp1-deficient mouse models. The molecular basis of its neuronal functions, however, is still incompletely understood. Here we show by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and postsynaptic density preparation that LRP1 is located postsynaptically. Basal and NMDA-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) as well as NMDA target gene transcription are reduced in LRP1-deficient neurons. In control neurons, NMDA promotes γ-secretase-dependent release of the LRP1 intracellular domain (LRP1-ICD). However, pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed no direct interaction between the LRP1-ICD and either CREB or target gene promoters. On the other hand, NMDA-induced degradation of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 was impaired in the absence of LRP1, whereas its ubiquitination was increased, indicating that LRP1 influences the composition of postsynaptic protein complexes. Accordingly, NMDA-induced internalization of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 was impaired in LRP1-deficient neurons. These results show a role of LRP1 in the regulation and turnover of synaptic proteins, which may contribute to the reduced dendritic branching and to the neurological phenotype observed in the absence of LRP1. PMID:23760271

  14. The anticonvulsant and behavioural profile of L-687,414, a partial agonist acting at the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Tricklebank, M D; Bristow, L J; Hutson, P H; Leeson, P D; Rowley, M; Saywell, K; Singh, L; Tattersall, F D; Thorn, L; Williams, B J

    1994-11-01

    1. The anticonvulsant and behavioural effects of the glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist, L-687,414 (R(+)-cis-beta-methyl-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) have been investigated in rodents. 2. L-687,414 dose-dependently antagonized seizures induced by N-methyl-D,L- aspartic acid (NMDLA, ED50 = 19.7 mg kg-1), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, ED50 = 13.0 mg kg-1) and electroshock (ED50 = 26.1 mg kg-1) when given intravenously 15 min before test, in male Swiss Webster mice but was most potent against audiogenic seizures induced by a 120 dB bell in DBA/2 mice (ED50 = 5.1 mg kg-1, i.p., 30 min before test). 3. L-687,414 also induced impairments of performance in a rotarod test in both Swiss Webster and DBA/2 mice and the ratio [rotarod MED:anticonvulsant ED50] varied between 0.9 and 5, depending on the convulsant used. 4. Similar behaviours to those seen after administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (head weaving, body rolling, hyperlocomotion) were seen in the mouse after giving L-687,414, although the peak effect occurred at a dose (100 mg kg-1) which was 5-20 times the anticonvulsant ED50S, depending on the convulsant used. Unlike MK-801, however, doses of L-687,414 that were behaviourally stimulant did not increase dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens. 5. Consistent with the interaction of L-687,414 with the glycine/NMDA receptor, the anticonvulsant, ataxic and motor stimulant effects of the compound were significantly attenuated by the glycine/NMDA receptor agonist, D-serine (10-100 micrograms per mouse, i.c.v.). 6. The results show that L-687,414 is a potent, orally active anticonvulsant with a more benign pharmacological profile than antagonists acting at the ion channel of the NMDA receptor complex. The compound is a useful tool with which to probe the functional role of the glycine co-agonist site in vivo. PMID:7858861

  15. Subunit-selective N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Signaling through Brefeldin A-resistant Arf Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors BRAG1 and BRAG2 during Synapse Maturation.

    PubMed

    Elagabani, Mohammad Nael; Briševac, Dušica; Kintscher, Michael; Pohle, Jörg; Köhr, Georg; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kornau, Hans-Christian

    2016-04-22

    The maturation of glutamatergic synapses in the CNS is regulated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs) that gradually change from a GluN2B- to a GluN2A-dominated subunit composition during postnatal development. Here we show that NMDARs control the activity of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) by consecutively recruiting two related brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors, BRAG1 and BRAG2, in a GluN2 subunit-dependent manner. In young cortical cultures, GluN2B and BRAG1 tonically activated Arf6. In mature cultures, Arf6 was activated through GluN2A and BRAG2 upon NMDA treatment, whereas the tonic Arf6 activation was not detectable any longer. This shift in Arf6 regulation and the associated drop in Arf6 activity were reversed by a knockdown of BRAG2. Given their sequential recruitment during development, we examined whether BRAG1 and BRAG2 influence synaptic currents in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using patch clamp recordings in acute slices from mice at different ages. The number of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) miniature events was reduced by depletion of BRAG1 but not by depletion of BRAG2 during the first 2 weeks after birth. In contrast, depletion of BRAG2 during postnatal weeks 4 and 5 reduced the number of AMPAR miniature events and compromised the quantal sizes of both AMPAR and NMDAR currents evoked at Schaffer collateral synapses. We conclude that both Arf6 activation through GluN2B-BRAG1 during early development and the transition from BRAG1- to BRAG2-dependent Arf6 signaling induced by the GluN2 subunit switch are critical for the development of mature glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26884337

  16. Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists on different measures of motion sickness in cats.

    PubMed

    Lucot, J B

    1998-11-15

    Because N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists prevent cisplatin-induced emesis and NMDA receptors are in both emetic pathways and structures associated with the final common pathway for vomiting, they have the potential to be broad-spectrum antiemetics. This was evaluated by determining their effects on motion sickness in cats. The measures included the number vomiting, the number of symptom points, which reflect activity early in the final common path and the duration of the retch/vomit sequence, which reflects activity late in the path. Dextrorphan, ketamine and dextromethorphan decreased the number vomiting with the same rank order of potency as at NMDA receptors. Additional studies with 1,3-dio-tolylguaninidine (DTG) and haloperidol ruled out a role for sigma receptors. The NMDA antagonists produced a nonsignificant dose-dependent decrease in symptoms and had no effects on the duration of vomiting. They also produced motor abnormalities at the highest doses. The competitive antagonist LY 233053 also decreased the number vomiting without altering the duration. It produced a nonsignificant non-dose-dependent decrease in symptoms and had no effects on gross motor output. The results are consistent with a broad spectrum of antiemetic efficacy with at least a part of its action in the early to middle portions of the final common pathway for vomiting. Additional actions on the vestibular nuclei are possible. PMID:10052568

  17. N-methyl-D-aspartate antibody encephalitis: temporal progression of clinical and paraclinical observations in a predominantly non-paraneoplastic disorder of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Irani, Sarosh R; Bera, Katarzyna; Waters, Patrick; Zuliani, Luigi; Maxwell, Susan; Zandi, Michael S; Friese, Manuel A; Galea, Ian; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Beeson, David; Lang, Bethan; Bien, Christian G; Vincent, Angela

    2010-06-01

    Antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor have been associated with a newly-described encephalopathy that has been mainly identified in young females with ovarian tumours. However, the full clinical spectrum and treatment responses are not yet clear. We established a sensitive cell-based assay for detection of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid, and a quantitative fluorescent immunoprecipitation assay for serial studies. Although there was marked intrathecal synthesis of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies, the absolute levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were higher in serum than in cerebrospinal fluid. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 subclass and were able to activate complement on N-methyl d-aspartate receptor-expressing human embryonic kidney cells. From questionnaires returned on 44 N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody-positive patients, we identified a high proportion without a detected tumour (35/44, 80%: follow-up 3.6-121 months, median 16 months). Among the latter were 15 adult females (43%), 10 adult males (29%) and 10 children (29%), with four in the first decade of life. Overall, there was a high proportion (29%) of non-Caucasians. Good clinical outcomes, as defined by reductions in modified Rankin scores, correlated with decreased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody levels and were associated with early (<40 days) administration of immunotherapies in non-paraneoplastic patients (P < 0.0001) and earlier tumour removal in paraneoplastic patients (P = 0.02). Ten patients (23%) who were first diagnosed during relapses had no evidence of tumours but had received minimal or no immunotherapy during earlier episodes. Temporal analysis of the onset of the neurological features suggested progression through two main stages. The time of onset of the early features, characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms and seizures preceded by a

  18. Effects of acute and repeated administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) into the ventral tegmental area: locomotor activating effects of NMDA and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Schenk, S; Partridge, B

    1997-09-26

    Repeated, intermittent administration of psychostimulants produces an enhancement of the subsequent behavioral effects of these drugs. This behavioral sensitization has been implicated in maintenance of and relapse to drug-taking. As a result, there has been great interest in elucidating the mechanisms underlying both the development and expression of sensitization. An accumulation of data from studies of stimulant-induced locomotor activity has implicated excitatory amino acids in the development of behavioral sensitization. In the present study, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) (0.6, 1.25 or 2.5 microg) infused bilaterally into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) produced dose-dependent locomotor activation. The locomotor activating effect of NMDA was increased following repeated NMDA administration (two exposures to intra-VTA NMDA), suggesting sensitization. However, repeated intra-VTA NMDA failed to sensitize rats to the locomotor activating effects of systemically administered cocaine (5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 mg/kg). These findings are consistent with the notion that repeated activation of NMDA receptors is sufficient for the development of behavioral sensitization to NMDA. Other neuroadaptations produced by repeated psychostimulant administration are required in order for the development of sensitization to the behavioral effects of those drugs. PMID:9374190

  19. Protective effect of donepezil in primary-cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Akasofu, Shigeru; Kimura, Manami; Kosasa, Takashi; Ogura, Hiroo; Sawada, Kohei

    2006-01-20

    Donepezil has a neuroprotective effect against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury and glutamate toxicity in cultured cortical neurons. In this study, we further characterized the neuroprotective properties of donepezil in rat cortical cell cultures using glutamate receptor-specific agonists (N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazolepropionate (AMPA) and kainate). Pretreatment with donepezil (1 microM) for 12 h significantly decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in response to NMDA (100 microM) by 43.8%, and reduced the LDH release in response to kainate (100 microM) and AMPA (100 microM) by 11.9% and 7.5% (without statistical significance), respectively. Donepezil appeared to inhibit LDH release in a concentration-dependent manner at 0.1-10 microM. Cortical neurons exposed to NMDA retained a normal morphological appearance in the presence of 10 microM donepezil. In binding assay for glutamate receptors, donepezil at 100 microM only slightly inhibited binding to the glycine and polyamine sites on NMDA receptor complex. On the other hand, 12 h pretreatment with donepezil at 10 and 100 microM significantly decreased the NMDA-induced increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In conclusion, our results show that donepezil has protective activity against NMDA toxicity in cortical neurons, and this neuroprotection seems to be partially mediated by inhibition of the increase of [Ca2+]i. PMID:16406045

  20. Spermidine reverses arcaine's inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced hippocampal ( sup 3 H)norepinephrine release

    SciTech Connect

    Sacaan, A.I.; Johnson, K.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced ({sup 3}H)norepinephrine (({sup 3}H)NE) release by a putrescine analog was studied. We report that arcaine, diguanidinobutane, a putative competitive polyamine antagonist, completely and noncompetitively antagonized NMDA-induced ({sup 3}H)NE release from rat hippocampal minces with an IC50 value of 102 microM. Arcaine did not alter kainate- or potassium-induced ({sup 3}H)NE release suggesting a specific effect on NMDA-mediated responses. Spermidine did not alter NMDA-induced ({sup 3}H)NE release, nor did it reverse the effect of arcaine when introduced in a normal physiologic superfusion buffer. However, spermidine reversed the effect of arcaine when superfusing with buffer that contained 5% (v/v) of the organic solvent dimethylsulfoxide. This finding suggests that the polyamine site may be located at the intracellular surface of the cell membrane. Our results provide the first evidence for polyamine modulation of the NMDA receptor ionophore complex in a functional physiologic system.

  1. Comparison of the Spinal Neuropathic Pain Induced by Intraspinal Injection of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate and Quisquate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Soo; Min, Hong-Gi; Leem, Jeong-Gil

    2011-01-01

    Objective Excitatory amino acids play important roles in the development of secondary pathology following spinal cord injury (SCI). This study was designed to evaluate morphological changes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and assess profiles of pain behaviors following intraspinal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or quisqualate (QUIS) in rats. Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups : a sham, and two experimental groups receiving injections of 125 mM NMDA or QUIS into their spinal dorsal horn. Following injection, hypersensitivity to cold and mechanical stimuli, and excessive grooming behaviors were assessed serially for four weeks. At the end of survival periods, morphological changes in the spinal cord were evaluated. Results Cold allodynia was developed in both the NMDA and QUIS groups, which was significantly higher in the QUIS group than in the NMDA group. The mechanical threshold for the ipsilateral hind paw in both QUIS and NMDA groups was significantly lower than that in the control group. The number of groomers was significantly higher in the NMDA group than in the QUIS group. The size of the neck region of the spinal dorsal horn, but not the superficial layer, was significantly smaller in the NMDA and QUIS groups than in the control group. Conclusion Intraspinal injection of NMDA or QUIS can be used as an excitotoxic model of SCI for further research on spinal neuropathic pain. PMID:22259688

  2. Alpha1-Adrenoceptor Antagonists Improve Memory by Activating N-methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Ion Currents in the Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Il Gyu; Kim, Sung Eun; Shin, Mal Soon; Kang, Yeon Ho; Cho, Jung Wan; Shin, Key Moon; Kim, Chang Ju; Lim, Baek Vin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Alpha1 (α1)-adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. These drugs not only act on peripheral tissues, but also cross the blood-brain barrier and affect the central nervous system. Therefore, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists may enhance brain functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, on short-term memory, as well as spatial learning and memory, in rats. Methods: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, and an eight-arm radial maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) staining was performed in order to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin on apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Patch clamp recordings were used to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin on ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), and kainate receptors, in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Results: Tamsulosin treatment improved short-term memory, as well as spatial learning and memory, without altering apoptosis. The amplitudes of NMDA-induced ion currents were dose-dependently increased by tamsulosin. However, the amplitudes of AMPA- and kainate-induced ion currents were not affected by tamsulosin. Conclusions: Tamsulosin enhanced memory function by activating NMDA receptor-mediated ion currents in the hippocampus without initiating apoptosis. The present study suggests the possibility of using tamsulosin to enhance memory under normal conditions, in addition to its use in treating overactive bladder. PMID:26739177

  3. N-methyl-D-aspartate preconditioning improves short-term motor deficits outcome after mild traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tayana; Constantino, Leandra C; Mendonça, Bruna P; Pereira, Josimar G; Herculano, Bruno; Tasca, Carla I; Boeck, Carina R

    2010-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes impairment of fine motor functions in humans and nonhuman mammals that often persists for months after the injury occurs. Neuroprotective strategies for prevention of the sequelae of TBI and understanding the molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways are related to the glutamatergic system. It has been suggested that cellular damage subsequent to TBI is mediated by the excitatory neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate, through the excessive activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Thus, preconditioning with a low dose of NMDA was used as a strategy for protection against locomotor deficits observed after TBI in mice. Male adult mice CF-1 were preconditioned with NMDA (75 mg/kg) 24 hr before the TBI induction. Under anesthesia with O(2)/N(2)O (33%: 66%) inhalation, the animals were subjected to the experimental model of trauma that occurs by the impact of a 25 g weight on the skull. Sensorimotor gating was evaluated at 1.5, 6, or 24 hr after TBI induction by using footprint and rotarod tests. Cellular damage also was assessed 24 hr after occurrence of cortical trauma. Mice preconditioned with NMDA were protected against all motor deficits revealed by footprint tests, but not those observed in rotarod tasks. Although mice showed motor deficits after TBI, no cellular damage was observed. These data corroborate the hypothesis that glutamatergic excitotoxicity, especially via NMDA receptors, contributes to severity of trauma. They also point to a putative neuroprotective mechanism induced by a sublethal dose of NMDA to improve motor behavioral deficits after TBI. PMID:19998488

  4. Development of a mouse model of infantile spasms induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Tomonoh, Yuko; Hu, Lin-Yan; Ju, Jun; Hirose, Shinichi; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Using N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injection, we attempt to develop a mouse model for infantile spasms (IS). Experiments were performed in postnatal 11- to 13-day-old C57 and Balbc mice. In the pilot experiment, mice were injected with different doses of NMDA (7, 15, and 30 mg/kg) to determine the optimal age and convulsant doses of NMDA. In further experiment optimal age mice were divided into five groups: group A, control group that received intraperitoneal injection of physiological saline; group B, convulsion group that was given intraperitoneal NMDA; group C, pretreatment group that received adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) injection (100 IU/kg) 30 min before NMDA administration; group D, electroencephalogram (EEG) group that received EEG recording, group E, performance group that received motor and learning test at different time point after NMDA administration. The behaviors of each group were observed continuously for 3h, the latency and the total numbers of spasms were recorded. Pilot experiments showed that a 15 mg/kg dose of NMDA could induce typical spasm-like seizures in P13 C57 mice, NMDA administration caused anxiety and deficits in motor and cognitive functions at early time and that large doses of ACTH reduced the number of seizures and rating scale (P<0.05). The NMDA mouse model has the following characteristics: age dependency, spasm-like seizures, cognitive impairment and response to ACTH, which fulfills the criteria of an IS model. PMID:26600368

  5. Minocycline provides neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia.

    PubMed

    Tikka, T M; Koistinaho, J E

    2001-06-15

    Glutamate excitotoxicity to a large extent is mediated through activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-gated ion channels in several neurodegenerative diseases and ischemic stroke. Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative with antiinflammatory effects, inhibits IL-1beta-converting enzyme and inducible nitric oxide synthase up-regulation in animal models of ischemic stroke and Huntington's disease and is therapeutic in these disease animal models. Here we report that nanomolar concentrations of minocycline protect neurons in mixed spinal cord cultures against NMDA excitotoxicity. NMDA treatment alone induced microglial proliferation, which preceded neuronal death, and administration of extra microglial cells on top of these cultures enhanced the NMDA neurotoxicity. Minocycline inhibited all these responses to NMDA. Minocycline also prevented the NMDA-induced proliferation of microglial cells and the increased release of IL-1beta and nitric oxide in pure microglia cultures. Finally, minocycline inhibited the NMDA-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in microglial cells, and a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor, but not a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor, reduced the NMDA toxicity. Together, these results suggest that microglial activation contributes to NMDA excitotoxicity and that minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, represents a potential therapeutic agent for brain diseases. PMID:11390507

  6. Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    El-Remessy, Azza B; Khalil, Ibrahim E; Matragoon, Suraporn; Abou-Mohamed, Gamal; Tsai, Nai-Jer; Roon, Penny; Caldwell, Ruth B; Caldwell, Robert W; Green, Keith; Liou, Gregory I

    2003-11-01

    In glaucoma, the increased release of glutamate is the major cause of retinal ganglion cell death. Cannabinoids have been demonstrated to protect neuron cultures from glutamate-induced death. In this study, we test the hypothesis that glutamate causes apoptosis of retinal neurons via the excessive formation of peroxynitrite, and that the neuroprotective effect of the psychotropic Delta9-tetrahydroxycannabinol (THC) or nonpsychotropic cannabidiol (CBD) is via the attenuation of this formation. Excitotoxicity of the retina was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in rats, which also received 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-n-oxyl (TEMPOL,a superoxide dismutase-mimetic), N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), THC, or CBD. Retinal neuron loss was determined by TDT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, inner retinal thickness, and quantification of the mRNAs of ganglion cell markers. NMDA induced a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of nitrite/nitrate, lipid peroxidation, and nitrotyrosine (foot print of peroxynitrite), and a dose-dependent apoptosis and loss of inner retinal neurons. Treatment with L-NAME or TEMPOL protected retinal neurons and confirmed the involvement of peroxynitrite in retinal neurotoxicity. The neuroprotection by THC and CBD was because of attenuation of peroxynitrite. The effect of THC was in part mediated by the cannabinoid receptor CB1. These results suggest the potential use of CBD as a novel topical therapy for the treatment of glaucoma. PMID:14578199

  7. N-methyl-D-aspartate increases acetylcholine release from rat striatum and cortex: its effect is augmented by choline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulus, I. H.; Buyukuysal, R. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, and of glutamate itself, on acetylcholine (ACh) release from superfused rat striatal slices. In a Mg(++)-free medium, NMDA (32-1000 microM) as well as glutamate (1 mM) increased basal ACh release by 35 to 100% (all indicated differences, P less than .05), without altering tissue ACh or choline contents. This augmentation was blocked by Mg++ (1.2 mM) or by MK-801 (10 microM). Electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 75 mA) increased ACh release 9-fold (from 400 to 3660 pmol/mg of protein): this was enhanced (to 4850 pmol/mg of protein) by NMDA (100 microM). ACh levels in stimulated slices fell by 50 or 65% depending on the absence or presence of NMDA. The addition of choline (40 microM) increased ACh release both basally (570 pmol/mg of protein) and with electrical stimulation (6900 pmol/mg of protein). In stimulated slices choline acted synergistically with NMDA, raising ACh release to 10,520 pmol/mg of protein. The presence of choline also blocked the fall in tissue ACh. No treatment affected tissue phospholipid or protein levels. NMDA (32-320 microM) also augmented basal ACh release from cortical but not hippocampal slices. Choline efflux from striatal and cortical (but not hippocampal) slices decreased by 34 to 50% in Mg(++)-free medium. These data indicate that NMDA-like drugs may be useful, particularly in combination with choline, to enhance striatal and cortical cholinergic activity. ACh release from rat hippocampus apparently is not affected by NMDA receptors.

  8. Regression of retinal capillaries following N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced neurotoxicity in the neonatal rat retina.

    PubMed

    Asano, Daiki; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Ishii, Kunio

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of retinal capillaries occurs following N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal neurotoxicity, and the degree of capillary degeneration decreases in an age-dependent manner. To determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the high susceptibility of capillaries to neuronal damage during the early postnatal stage, this study compares the vascular regression patterns between NMDA-treated retinas and retinas treated with N-[2-chloro-4-{(6,7-dimethoxy-4-quinazolinyl)oxy}phenyl]-N'-propylurea (KRN633), a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in neonatal rats. Two days after a single intravitreal injection of NMDA (200 nmol/eye) on postnatal day (P) 7, substantial retinal neuron loss and delayed expansion of the retinal vascular bed were observed. The reduction in the capillary density in the central retina reached statistical significance 4 days after NMDA treatment. In retinas of rats injected subcutaneously with KRN633 (10 mg/kg) on P7 and P8, simplified vasculature attributable to capillary regression and prevention of endothelial cell growth were seen on P9, whereas no visible changes in the morphology of the retinal layers were observed. The degree of capillary degeneration in NMDA-treated retinas was less than that in KRN633-treated retinas. No apparent changes in immunoreactivities for VEGF were found 2 days after NMDA treatment. These results indicate that neuronal cell loss in the retina precedes retinal capillary degeneration following NMDA treatment, and VEGF-dependent immature capillaries might be more susceptible to NMDA-induced neuronal damage. PMID:25284371

  9. Excitotoxicity in the lung: N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced, nitric oxide-dependent, pulmonary edema is attenuated by vasoactive intestinal peptide and by inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Said, S I; Berisha, H I; Pakbaz, H

    1996-01-01

    Excitatory amino acid toxicity, resulting from overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, is a major mechanism of neuronal cell death in acute and chronic neurological diseases. We have investigated whether excitotoxicity may occur in peripheral organs, causing tissue injury, and report that NMDA receptor activation in perfused, ventilated rat lungs triggered acute injury, marked by increased pressures needed to ventilate and perfuse the lung, and by high-permeability edema. The injury was prevented by competitive NMDA receptor antagonists or by channel-blocker MK-801, and was reduced in the presence of Mg2+. As with NMDA toxicity to central neurons, the lung injury was nitric oxide (NO) dependent: it required L-arginine, was associated with increased production of NO, and was attenuated by either of two NO synthase inhibitors. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide and inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase also prevented this injury, but without inhibiting NO synthesis, both acting by inhibiting a toxic action of NO that is critical to tissue injury. The findings indicate that: (i) NMDA receptors exist in the lung (and probably elsewhere outside the central nervous system), (ii) excessive activation of these receptors may provoke acute edematous lung injury as seen in the "adult respiratory distress syndrome," and (iii) this injury can be modulated by blockade of one of three critical steps: NMDA receptor binding, inhibition of NO synthesis, or activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8643465

  10. Excitotoxicity in the Lung: N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced, Nitric Oxide-Dependent, Pulmonary Edema is Attenuated by Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and by Inhibitors of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Sami I.; Berisha, Hasan I.; Pakbaz, Hedayatollah

    1996-05-01

    Excitatory amino acid toxicity, resulting from overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, is a major mechanism of neuronal cell death in acute and chronic neurological diseases. We have investigated whether excitotoxicity may occur in peripheral organs, causing tissue injury, and report that NMDA receptor activation in perfused, ventilated rat lungs triggered acute injury, marked by increased pressures needed to ventilate and perfuse the lung, and by high-permeability edema. The injury was prevented by competitive NMDA receptor antagonists or by channel-blocker MK-801, and was reduced in the presence of Mg2+. As with NMDA toxicity to central neurons, the lung injury was nitric oxide (NO) dependent: it required L-arginine, was associated with increased production of NO, and was attenuated by either of two NO synthase inhibitors. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide and inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase also prevented this injury, but without inhibiting NO synthesis, both acting by inhibiting a toxic action of NO that is critical to tissue injury. The findings indicate that: (i) NMDA receptors exist in the lung (and probably elsewhere outside the central nervous system), (ii) excessive activation of these receptors may provoke acute edematous lung injury as seen in the ``adult respiratory distress syndrome,'' and (iii) this injury can be modulated by blockade of one of three critical steps: NMDA receptor binding, inhibition of NO synthesis, or activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

  11. Frequency dependent activation of a slow N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent excitatory postsynaptic potential in turtle cerebellum by mossy fibre afferents.

    PubMed

    Larson-Prior, L J; Morrison, P D; Bushey, R M; Slater, N T

    1995-08-01

    The synaptic responses of turtle cerebellar Purkinje cells to stimulation of localized mossy fibre systems have been studied by use of intrasomatic and intradendritic recordings in a brainstem-cerebellum preparation in vitro. Activation of mossy fibre inputs from the spinocerebellar pathway evoked fast, disynaptic postsynaptic potentials which were graded in amplitude with stimulus intensity and elicited at latencies consistent with those reported for peripheral nerve stimulation. Repetitive activation (50-100 Hz, 2-10 stimuli) of both spinocerebellar and trigeminocerebellar pathways evoked a slow, long-lasting excitatory postsynaptic potential regardless of whether single stimuli resulted in excitatory, inhibitory, or no postsynaptic responses. This slow potential was capable of triggering dendritic pacemaker discharges in recorded Purkinje cells in addition to volleys of simple spikes when activated at or near resting membrane potential. The fast excitatory synaptic potentials evoked by spinocerebellar stimulation were blocked by the glutamate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, consistent with the hypothesis that they are mediated by activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisox-azole-4-proprionic acid subtype at the mossy fibre-granule cell synapse and the subsequent parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapse. The slow excitatory synaptic potential evoked by repetitive stimulation of either the spinocerebellar tract or trigeminal nerve was blocked by DL-2-amino-5-phosphonvalerate, indicating that this potential is primarily dependent upon N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at the mossy fibre-granule cell synapse for its expression. This slow potential was reversibly potentiated by L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate and bicuculline; the metabotropic glutamate antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine did not block this potentiation. The ability of mossy fibre inputs to drive long, slow excitatory events in

  12. Blockade by sigma site ligands of N-methyl-D-aspartate-evoked responses in rat and mouse cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, E. J.; Church, J.; Abdel-Hamid, K.; MacDonald, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of a range of structurally-dissimilar compounds which possess affinity for sigma binding sites were examined on the responses of cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurones to the excitatory amino acid analogues N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate and (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). 2. In mouse hippocampal neurones under whole-cell voltage-clamp, the compounds tested reversibly attenuated NMDA-, but not kainate- or AMPA-, evoked currents with a rank order potency (IC50 values in microM): ifenprodil (0.8) > (+)-N-allylnormetazocine (1.1) > dextromethorphan (1.8) = haloperidol (1.9) > (+)-pentazocine (7.2) > 1S,2R-(-)-cis-N-methyl-N-[2-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl) ethyl]-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexylamine (17) = rimcazole (18) > 1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (37) > opipramol (96) > caramiphen (110) = carbetapentane (112) > > (+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine (485). 3. The attenuation of NMDA-evoked responses was not mediated through interactions with the agonist, glycine (except haloperidol) or polyamine (except ifenprodil) binding sites on the NMDA receptor-channel complex but, in the light of the voltage- and, in some cases, use-dependent nature of their antagonism, an interaction with the ion channel appears to be a likely mechanism of action for many of the compounds. 4. Micromolar concentrations of selected sigma site ligands also reduced NMDA-evoked rises in intracellular free calcium concentration in Fura-2-loaded cultured hippocampal neurones of the rat with the same rank order potency as observed in the electrophysiological studies. 5. The data indicate that, at micromolar concentrations, the sigma site ligands tested act as NMDA receptor antagonists, an action which does not appear to be mediated by high-affinity sigma binding site(s). The functional effects of micromolar concentrations of sigma site ligands cannot, therefore, be attributed exclusively to interactions with high-affinity sigma binding sites

  13. The Role of Gastrodin on Hippocampal Neurons after N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Excitotoxicity and Experimental Temporal Lobe Seizures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shi-Bing; Hung, Wei-Chen; Min, Ming-Yuan

    2016-06-30

    Tian ma (Gastrodia elata, GE) is an ancient Chinese herbal medicine that has been suggested to be effective as an anticonvulsant and analgesic, and to have sedative effects against vertigo, general paralysis, epilepsy and tetanus. The primary active ingredient isolated from GE is termed gastrodin, which is the glucoside of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (4-HBA). Gastrodin can abolish hypoxia-, glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-induced toxicity in primary culture of rat cortical neurons, and reduces seizure severity in seizure-sensitive gerbils. We evaluated the effect of gastrodin on NMDA excitotoxicity in hippocampal slice cultures (HSCs) with propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence measurement. We also evaluated the effects of gastrodin for treating active in vivo temporal lobe seizures induced by lithium/pilocarpine. Seizure severity, time span to seizure onset, mortality rate and hippocampal histology for survivors were compared. The effect of gastrodin was evaluated for treating in vitro seizures induced by Mg²⁺-free medium in hippocampal slices. Frequencies and amplitudes of epileptiform discharges were compared. The effect of gastrodin on synaptic transmission was evaluated on hippocampal CA1 Schaffer collaterals. Application of 25 μM gastrodin significantly suppressed NMDA excitotoxicity in CA3 but not in CA1 hippocampus and dentate gyrus. Intraventricular gastrodin accelerated seizure onset for 12 min after intraperitoneal pilocarpine injection (P = 0.051). Three of five rats (60%) in the gastrodin group, and three of four (75%) in the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group died within 3 days after status epilepticus (SE). Gastrodin also failed to inhibit epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices induced by Mg²⁺-free medium, believed to be NMDA receptor-mediated spontaneous activity. The frequencies of the spontaneous epileptiform discharges were similar under treatments with 25 μM gastrodin, 200 μM gastrodin and DMSO. For the evaluation of

  14. Taurine reduces ammonia- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced accumulation of cyclic GMP and hydroxyl radicals in microdialysates of the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Hilgier, Wojciech; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo; Albrecht, Jan

    2003-05-01

    Acute ammonia neurotoxicity caused by intraperitoneal administration of ammonium salts is mediated by overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, with ensuing generation of free radicals and extracellular accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) arising from stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. In this study, infusion of ammonium chloride or NMDA into the striata of rats via microdialysis probes increased the contents of cyclic GMP and hydroxyl radicals in the microdialysates. Co-infusion of taurine virtually abolished both the ammonia- and NMDA-induced accumulation of cGMP. Taurine also attenuated accumulation of hydroxyl radicals evoked by either treatment. This result is the first evidence of a potential of taurine to attenuate the effects of NMDA receptor overactivation by ammonia in vivo and points to the inhibition of the NMDA receptor-mediated NO synthesis as a possible mechanism of its neuroprotective action. Taurine or its blood-brain barrier penetrating analogues may be applicable in treatment of ammonia-induced neurological deficits. PMID:12729839

  15. From Antiquity to the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor: A History of Delirium Tremens.

    PubMed

    Porcel, F J Rodriguez; Schutta, H S

    2015-01-01

    Delirium associated with excessive alcohol consumption has been known since antiquity. This condition became more common as the supply of distilled fermented liquors increased. Delirium, including delirium associated with excessive alcohol consumption, was for many centuries regarded as a form of brain inflammation - "phrenitis" - and was treated with depletion. At the end of the eighteenth century treatment by depletion of alcohol-related delirium began to be replaced by sedation and led to significantly better outcomes. Thomas Sutton established that alcohol-related delirium was a disease sui generis, distinct from phrenitis, and he named it delirium tremens. Because historical accounts of this disease are rare, brief, and not easily accessible, we offer this account of events that culminated in the discovery of the molecular basis of delirium tremens. PMID:26444921

  16. Distinct intrathecal interleukin-17/interleukin-6 activation in anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jung-Ick; Lee, Soon-Tae; Moon, Jangsup; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Lim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Tae-Joon; Shin, Yong-Won; Lee, Keon-Joo; Jun, Jin-Sun; Lee, Han Sang; Lee, Woo-Jin; Kim, Young-Sook; Kim, Soyun; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Kyung-Il; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Manho; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this study was to compare serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine/chemokine levels between anti-NMDAR and anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients. Samples from fourteen anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients, ten anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients, and ten controls were analyzed for the following cytokines/chemokines: IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-23, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and CXCL13. Compared with controls, CSF IL-17A, IL-6 and CXCL13 were elevated in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients (post-hoc p-values 0.002, 0.011, and 0.011, respectively) but not in anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients. In the serum, only IL-2 was increased in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Intrathecal IL-17/IL-6 activation is a characteristic of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:27397087

  17. Marked diversity in the action of growth factors on N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced neuronal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Prehn, J H

    1996-06-13

    Neuronal degeneration was induced in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by a 20-min exposure to the glutamatergic agonist, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 100 microM), and the neuroprotective activity of a set growth factors and cytokines was compared. During the early stages of degeneration, NMDA induced changes that were characteristic of neuronal necrosis, including swelling and darkening of the neuronal soma and swelling of neurites, leading to the formation of beaded varicosities ('blebs'). These changes were followed by nuclear pyknosis, formation of double-stranded DNA breaks and loss of membrane integrity. Only transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1; 1-10 ng/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 30 ng/ml) protected the hippocampal neurons against NMDA neurotoxicity after short-term (60 min) pre-treatments. Interleukin-1 beta (10-100 ng/ml) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 50 ng/ml) were clearly effective when administered 24 h prior to the NMDA exposure, but not when given 60 min before the insult. Interestingly, the protective effect of interleukin-1 beta was significantly reduced in the presence of a neutralizing antibody to TGF-beta. Of note, short-term pre-treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; 5-50 ng/ml) significantly potentiated NMDA-induced neurodegeneration. These experiments demonstrate marked diversity in the actions of growth factors on NMDA-induced neuronal degeneration. PMID:8813618

  18. Amygdala Infusions of an NR2B-Selective or an NR2A-Preferring NMDA Receptor Antagonist Differentially Influence Fear Conditioning and Expression in the Fear-Potentiated Startle Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David L.; Davis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Within the amygdala, most N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors consist of NR1 subunits in combination with either NR2A or NR2B subunits. Because the particular subunit composition greatly influences the receptors' properties, we investigated the contribution of both subtypes to fear conditioning and expression. To do so, we infused the…

  19. In vitro effects of glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism on human tendon derived cells.

    PubMed

    Dean, Benjamin John Floyd; Snelling, Sarah J B; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Carr, Andrew Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    It is known that extracellular glutamate concentrations are increased in tendinopathy but the effects of glutamate upon human tendon derived cells are unknown. The primary purpose was to investigate the effect of glutamate exposure on human tendon-derived cells in terms of viability, protein, and gene expression. The second purpose was to assess whether NMDAR antagonism would affect the response of tendon-derived cells to glutamate exposure. Human tendon-derived cells were obtained from supraspinatus tendon tissue obtained during rotator cuff repair (tendon tear derived cells) and from healthy hamstring tendon tissue (control cells). The in vitro impact of glutamate exposure and NMDAR antagonism (MK-801) was measured using the Alamar blue cell viability assay, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Glutamate reduced cell viability at 24 h in tendon tear derived cells but not in control cells at concentrations of 7.5 mM and above. Cell viability was significantly reduced after 72 h of 1.875 mM glutamate in both cell groups; this deleterious effect was attenuated by NMDAR antagonism with 10 µM MK-801. Both 24 and 72 h of 1.875 mM glutamate exposure reduced Type 1 alpha 1 collagen (COL1A1) and Type 3 alpha 1 collagen (COL3A1) gene expression, but increased Aggrecan gene expression. We propose that these effects of glutamate on tendon derived cells including reduced cell viability and altered matrix gene expression contribute to the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. PMID:26041147

  20. Amino acid receptors mediate calcium permeability in synaptosomes from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pastuszko, A.; Wilson, D.F.

    1986-05-01

    Selected acidic amino acids and amino acid analogues were shown to increase the Ca/sup 2 +/ permeability of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes isolated from rat brain. Increased synaptosomal Ca/sup 2 +/ content was measured by uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Increased intrasynaptosomal free calcium was measured by the fluorescent calcium indicators indo 1 and quin 2. The increase in calcium permeability was maximal within 0.5 seconds (the limit of resolution of the methods used). The calcium permeability system(s) being modulated by the receptors appears to be Ca/sup 2 +/ channels but has properties different from the voltage dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ channels. Four different types of receptors have been observed; a kainate receptor antagonized by quisqualate, an L-cysteine sulfinate receptor, a 2-amino-2-phosphono-valerate receptor and an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Each type of receptor is highly specific in ligand binding and none were activated or antagonized by aspartate or glutamate at concentrations up to 10 mM. Currently available data indicate substantial differences in ligand specificity between these presynaptic receptors and the postsynaptic receptors which have been classified by electrophysiological and radio-ligand binding studies. The neurotoxicity of kainate, L-cysteine sulfinate and N-methyl-D-aspartate may be due in part to metabolic and electrophysiological disturbances resulting from increased calcium in neurons having these receptors.

  1. CRITICAL ROLE OF LARGE CONDUCTANCE VOLTAGE- AND CALCIUM-ACTIVATED POTASSIUM CHANNELS IN LEPTIN-INDUCED NEUROPROTECTION OF N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE-EXPOSED CORTICAL NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Maria; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Gessner, Guido; Wissuwa, Bianka; Barrese, Vincenzo; Boscia, Francesca; Secondo, Agnese; Miceli, Francesco; Franco, Cristina; Ambrosino, Paolo; Canzoniero, Lorella MariaTeresa; Bauer, Michael; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of the adipokine leptin, and the molecular mechanism involved, have been studied in rat and mice cortical neurons exposed to N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, leptin elicited neuroprotective effects against NMDA-induced cell death which were concentration-dependent (10–100 ng/ml) and largest when the adipokine was preincubated for 2 hours before the neurotoxic stimulus. In both rat and mouse cortical neurons, leptin-induced neuroprotection was fully antagonized by Paxilline (Pax, 0.01–1 μM) and Iberiotoxin (Ibtx, 1–100 nM), two blockers of Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ channels (Slo1 BK channels), with EC50s (38±10 nM and 5±2 nM for Pax and Ibtx, respectively) close to those reported for Pax- and Ibtx-induced BK channel blockade; the BK channel opener NS1619 (1–30 μM) induced a concentration-dependent protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Moreover, cortical neurons from mice lacking one or both alleles coding for Slo1 BK channel pore-forming subunits were insensitive to leptin-induced neuroprotection. Finally, leptin exposure dose-dependently (10–100 ng/ml) increased intracellular Ca2+ levels in rat cortical neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that Slo1 BK channel activation following increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels is a critical step for leptin-induced neuroprotection in NMDA-exposed cortical neurons in vitro, thus highlighting leptin-based intervention via BK channel activation as a potential strategy to counteract neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24973659

  2. Effects of ketamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate on fluoxetine-induced antidepressant-related behavior using the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Rotimi Adegbenga; Akanmu, Moses Atanda; Adeyemi, Oluwole Isaac

    2014-04-30

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine on fluoxetine-induced antidepressant behavior using the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. In order to understand the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) neurotransmission in the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine, different groups of mice (n=10) were administered with acute ketamine (3mg/kg, i.p.), acute NMDA (75mg/kg and 150mg/kg, i.p.) and a 21-day chronic ketamine (15mg/kg, i.p./day) were administered prior to the administration of fluoxetine (20mg/kg, i.p.) in the mice. Antidepressant related behavior (immobility score) was measured using the forced swimming test. The results showed that the acute ketamine and fluoxetine alone treatments elicited a significant (p<0.05) reduction in immobility score compared with saline control. Furthermore, pre-treatment with acute ketamine significantly enhanced by the fluoxetine-induced decrease in immobility score. In contrast, pre-treatment with NMDA (150mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) reversed fluoxetine-induced decrease in immobility score. On the other hand, chronic administration of ketamine significantly elicited an increase in immobility score as well as reversed the reduction induced by fluoxetine. Similarly, NMDA administration at both 75mg/kg and 150mg/kg increased immobility score in chronically administered ketamine groups. Furthermore, chronic administration of ketamine, followed by NMDA (75mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly elevated the immobility score when compared with the group that received NMDA and fluoxetine but not chronically treated with ketamine. It can be suggested) that facilitation of NMDA transmission blocked fluoxetine-induced reduction in immobility score, while down-regulation of NMDA transmission is associated with increase in fluoxetine-induced antidepressant-related behavior in mice. Down-regulation of the NMDA transmission is proposed as an essential component of mechanism of suppression of depression related behaviors by

  3. Modulation of DL-. alpha. -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/quisqualate receptors by phospholipase A sub 2 : A necessary step in long-term potentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Massicotte, G.; Baudry, M. ); Vanderklish, P.; Lynch, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The effects of kainate (KA)-induced epileptic seizures on the binding properites of hippocampal glutamate receptors, on the modulation of DL-{alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/quisqualate receptor by phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}), and on the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP) were studied in hippocampal membranes and hippocampal slices. Systemic administration of KA produced specific changes in the binding properties of the AMPA/quisqualate receptors and its regulation. Whereas the binding of various ligands to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors was not modified by KA treatment, there was a singificant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites for ({sup 3}H)AMPA. The loss of LTP was not due to changes in postsynaptic responses elicited by the bursts that trigger the potentiation effect, thus suggesting that KA treatment disrupts processes that follow N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. Systemic administration of KA was associated with calpain activation as the amount of spectrin breakdown products was increased severalfold in hippocampus but not in cerebellum. Pretreatment of telencephalic membranes with calpain greatly reduced the PLA{sub 2}-induced increase in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding. The results provide evidence in favor of an essential role of PLA{sub 2} in the development of LTP and suggest that the order of activation of different calcium-dependent processes is critical for producing the final changes underlying LTP.

  4. Neuroendothelial NMDA receptors as therapeutic targets in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Macrez, Richard; Ortega, Maria C; Bardou, Isabelle; Mehra, Anupriya; Fournier, Antoine; Van der Pol, Susanne M A; Haelewyn, Benoit; Maubert, Eric; Lesept, Flavie; Chevilley, Arnaud; de Castro, Fernando; De Vries, Helga E; Vivien, Denis; Clemente, Diego; Docagne, Fabian

    2016-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is among the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults. Here we provide the preclinical proof of concept of the benefit of a novel strategy of treatment for multiple sclerosis targeting neuroendothelial N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. We designed a monoclonal antibody against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, which targets a regulatory site of the GluN1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor sensitive to the protease tissue plasminogen activator. This antibody reverted the effect of tissue plasminogen activator on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function without affecting basal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity (n = 21, P < 0.01). This antibody bound N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on the luminal surface of neurovascular endothelium in human tissues and in mouse, at the vicinity of tight junctions of the blood-spinal cord barrier. Noteworthy, it reduced human leucocyte transmigration in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (n = 12, P < 0.05). When injected during the effector phase of MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (n = 24), it blocked the progression of neurological impairments, reducing cumulative clinical score (P < 0.001) and mean peak score (P < 0.001). This effect was observed in wild-type animals but not in tissue plasminogen activator knock-out animals (n = 10). This therapeutic effect was associated to a preservation of the blood-spinal cord barrier (n = 6, P < 0.001), leading to reduced leucocyte infiltration (n = 6, P < 0.001). Overall, this study unveils a critical function of endothelial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in multiple sclerosis, and highlights the therapeutic potential of strategies targeting the protease-regulated site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. PMID:27435092

  5. Comprehensive Evaluation of microRNA Expression Profiling Reveals the Neural Signaling Specific Cytotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) through N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Rui; Ye, Nan; Xiao, Zhong-Dang

    2015-01-01

    Though nanomaterials are considered as drug carriers or imaging reagents targeting the central nervous system their cytotoxicity effect on neuronal cells has not been well studied. In this study, we treated PC12 cells, a model neuronal cell line, with a nanomaterial that is widely accepted for medical use, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Our results suggest that, after treated with SPIONs, the expression pattern of the cellular miRNAs changed widely in PC12 cells. As potential miRNA targets, NMDAR, one of the candidate mRNAs that were selected using GO and KEGG pathway enrichment, was significantly down regulated by SPIONs treatment. We further illustrated that SPIONs may induce cell death through NMDAR suppression. This study revealed a NMDAR neurotoxic effect of SPIONs and provides a reliable approach for assessing the neurocytotoxic effects of nanomaterials based on the comprehensive annotation of miRNA profiling. PMID:25798908

  6. Palmitoylation-dependent regulation of glutamate receptors and their PDZ domain-containing partners

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Gareth M.; Huganir, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that both AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid)- and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate)-type glutamate receptors, and many of their interacting partners, are palmitoylated proteins. Interfering with palmitoylation dramatically affects receptor trafficking and distribution and, in turn, can profoundly alter synaptic transmission. Increased knowledge of synaptic palmitoylation not only will aid our understanding of physiological neuronal regulation, but also may provide insights into, and even novel treatments for, neuropathological conditions. In the present paper, we review recent advances regarding the regulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor trafficking and function by palmitoylation. PMID:23356261

  7. Effects of colistin on amino acid neurotransmitters and blood-brain barrier in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Yi, Meishuang; Chen, Xueping; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Liu, Fangping; Li, Rui; Li, Jian; Li, Jichang

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is one of the major potential side effects of colistin therapy. However, the mechanistic aspects of colistin-induced neurotoxicity remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of colistin on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and amino acid neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex of mouse. Mice were divided into four groups (n=5) and were administrated intravenously with 15mg/kg/day of colistin sulfate for 1, 3 and 7days successively while the control group was administrated intravenously with saline solution. The permeability and ultrastructure of the BBB were detected using the Evans blue (EB) dye and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the expression of Claudin-5 were determined by real-time PCR examination and western blotting. The brain uptake of colistin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of colistin on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors were also examined by HPLC and real-time PCR. The results of EB extravasation, TEM and expression of Claudin-5 showed that colistin treatment did not affect the BBB integrity. In addition, multiple doses of colistin could induce accumulation of this compound in the brain parenchyma although there was poor brain uptake of colistin. Moreover, colistin exposure significantly increased the contents of glutamate (Glu) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), and enhanced the mRNA expression levels of gamma aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR), gamma aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABABR), N-methyl-d-aspartate 1 receptor (NR1), N-methyl-d-aspartate 2A receptor (NR2A) and N-methyl-d-aspartate 2B receptor (NR2B) in the cerebral cortex. Our data demonstrate that colistin is able to accumulate in the mouse brain and elevate the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters. These findings may be associated with colistin-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27018023

  8. [Interactions between dopamine receptor and NMDA/type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Ying; Wei, Ting-Jia; Weng, Jing-Jin; Qin, Jiang-Yuan; Huang, Xi; Su, Ji-Ping

    2016-04-25

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are the major inhibitory and excitatory receptors in the central nervous system, respectively. Co-expression of the receptors in the synapse may lead to functional influence between receptors, namely receptor interaction. The interactions between GABAAR and NMDAR can be either positive or negative. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the two receptors remain poorly understood, and potential mechanisms include (1) through a second messenger; (2) by receptors trafficking; (3) by direct interaction; (4) by a third receptor-mediation. Dopamine is the most abundant catecholamine neurotransmitter in the brain, and its receptors, dopamine receptors (DR) can activate multiple signaling pathways. Earlier studies on the interaction between DR and GABAAR/NMDAR have shown some underlying mechanisms, suggesting that DR could mediate the interaction between GABAAR and NMDAR. This paper summarized some recent progresses in the studies of the interaction between DR and NMDAR/GABAAR, providing a further understanding on the interaction between NMDAR and GABAAR mediated by DR. PMID:27108906

  9. Synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid 1,1-dioxides and their evaluation as ligands for NMDA receptor glycine binding site.

    PubMed

    Bluke, Zanda; Paass, Einars; Sladek, Meik; Abel, Ulrich; Kauss, Valerjans

    2016-08-01

    A series of 2-substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid 1,1-dioxides were synthesized and evaluated for their affinity to the glycine binding site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The binding affinity was determined by the displacement of radioligand [(3)H]MDL-105,519 from rat cortical membrane preparations. The most attractive structures in the search for prospective NMDA receptor ligands were identified to be 2-arylcarbonylmethyl substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid 1,1-dioxides. It has been demonstrated for the first time that the replacement of NH group in the ligand by sp(3) CH2 is tolerated. This finding may pave the way for previously unexplored approaches for designing new ligands of the NMDA receptor. PMID:26114309

  10. Response of Purkinje neurons to hypobaric hypoxic exposure as shown by alteration in expression of glutamate receptors, nitric oxide synthases and calcium binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Singh, G; Singh, J; Ling, E A

    2005-01-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia is known to impair muscular coordination. It is not known whether hypobaric hypoxia causes any damage to the Purkinje neurons which may be responsible for impairment of muscular coordination. Expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid GluR2/3, calcium binding proteins and nitric oxide synthases in the Purkinje neurons was examined in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. The mRNA expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, GluR2, GluR3 and nitric oxide synthases [neuronal, endothelial and inducible] was upregulated at 3 h peaking at 24 h after the exposure. This was sustained up to 3 days; thereafter, it was comparable to the controls. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed a marked expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 and GluR2/3 at the above time intervals. Immunoexpression of calbindin-D28k (calbindin) and parvalbumin was intense in the soma of Purkinje neurons in the control rats. It was, however, drastically downregulated up to 3 days after exposure. At 3 days the neuronal dendrites showed intense expression of calbindin which returned to control levels at 7 days. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase was markedly upregulated from 3 h to 3 days whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, localized in the blood vessels and Purkinje neurons, remained elevated up to 24 h after the exposure. A progressive darkening of the Purkinje neuron cell bodies was observed at ultrastructural level up to 3 days but degenerating cells were not observed. A salient alteration was the dilation and stacking of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the dendrites up to 14 days after the exposure. The present results suggest that hypobaric hypoxia leads to overexpression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 and GluR2/3 in Purkinje neurons that may be responsive to altered calcium levels as

  11. Unexpected effects of peripherally administered kynurenic acid on cortical spreading depression and related blood–brain barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Gáspár; Herédi, Judit; Menyhárt, Ákos; Czinege, Zsolt; Nagy, Dávid; Fuzik, János; Kocsis, Kitti; Knapp, Levente; Krucsó, Erika; Gellért, Levente; Kis, Zsolt; Farkas, Tamás; Fülöp, Ferenc; Párdutz, Árpád; Tajti, János; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József

    2013-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) involves a slowly-propagating depolarization wave in the cortex, which can appear in numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as migraine with aura, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Neurons and glial cells are also depolarized transiently during the phenomena. CSD is followed by a massive increase in glutamate release and by changes in the brain microcirculation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, endogenous kynurenic acid (KYNA) and dizocilpine, on CSD and the related blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability in rats. In intact animals, KYNA hardly crosses the BBB but has some positive features as compared with its precursor L-Kynurenine, which is frequently used in animal studies (KYNA cannot be metabolized to excitotoxic agents such as 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and quinolinic acid). We therefore investigated the possible effects of peripherally administered KYNA. Repetitive CSD waves were elicited by the application of 1 M KCl solution to the cortex. Direct current-electrocorticograms were measured for 1 hour. Four parameters of the waves were compared. Evans blue dye and fluorescent microscopy were used to study the possible changes in the permeability of the BBB. The results demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists can reduce the number of CSD waves and decrease the permeability of the BBB during CSD. These results suggest that KYNA itself or its derivatives may offer a new approach in the therapy of migraines. PMID:24068867

  12. Coantagonism of Glutamate Receptors and Nicotinic Acetylcholinergic Receptors Disrupts Fear Conditioning and Latent Inhibition of Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Thomas J.; Lewis, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that both nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChRs) and glutamate receptors ([alpha]-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPARs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs)) are involved in fear conditioning, and may modulate similar processes. The effects of the…

  13. Ionic Mechanisms of Neuronal Excitation by Inhibitory GABA_A Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Kevin J.; Soldo, Brandi L.; Proctor, William R.

    1995-08-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA_A) receptors are the principal mediators of synaptic inhibition, and yet when intensely activated, dendritic GABA_A receptors excite rather than inhibit neurons. The membrane depolarization mediated by GABA_A receptors is a result of the differential, activity-dependent collapse of the opposing concentration gradients of chloride and bicarbonate, the anions that permeate the GABA_A ionophore. Because this depolarization diminishes the voltage-dependent block of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by magnesium, the activity-dependent depolarization mediated by GABA is sufficient to account for frequency modulation of synaptic NMDA receptor activation. Anionic gradient shifts may represent a mechanism whereby the rate and coherence of synaptic activity determine whether dendritic GABA_A receptor activation is excitatory or inhibitory.

  14. Spinal D1-like dopamine receptors modulate NMDA receptor-induced hyperexcitability and NR1 subunit phosphorylation at serine 889.

    PubMed

    Aira, Zigor; Barrenetxea, Teresa; Buesa, Itsaso; Martínez, Endika; Azkue, Jon Jatsu

    2016-04-01

    Activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in dorsal horn neurons is recognized as a fundamental mechanism of central sensitization and pathologic pain. This study assessed the influence of dopaminergic, D1-like receptor-mediated input to the spinal dorsal horn on NMDAR function. PMID:26957228

  15. Memantine and Kynurenic Acid: Current Neuropharmacological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Majláth, Zsófia; Török, Nóra; Toldi, József; Vécsei, László

    2016-01-01

    Glutamatergic neurotransmission, of special importance in the human brain, is implicated in key brain functions such as synaptic plasticity and memory. The excessive activation of N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may result in excitotoxic neuronal damage; this process has been implicated in the pathomechanism of different neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Memantine is an uncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and is therefore clinically well tolerated. Memantine is approved for the treatment of AD, but may additionally be beneficial for other dementia forms and pain conditions. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of NMDA receptors which has been demonstrated under experimental conditions to be neuroprotective. The development of a well-tolerated NMDA antagonist may offer a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease and pain syndromes. KYNA may be a valuable candidate for future drug development. PMID:26564141

  16. Domain interaction between NMDA receptor subunits and the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95.

    PubMed

    Kornau, H C; Schenker, L T; Kennedy, M B; Seeburg, P H

    1995-09-22

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subserves synaptic glutamate-induced transmission and plasticity in central neurons. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to show that the cytoplasmic tails of NMDA receptor subunits interact with a prominent postsynaptic density protein PSD-95. The second PDZ domain in PSD-95 binds to the seven-amino acid, COOH-terminal domain containing the terminal tSXV motif (where S is serine, X is any amino acid, and V is valine) common to NR2 subunits and certain NR1 splice forms. Transcripts encoding PSD-95 are expressed in a pattern similar to that of NMDA receptors, and the NR2B subunit co-localizes with PSD-95 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The interaction of these proteins may affect the plasticity of excitatory synapses. PMID:7569905

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclopropyl analogues of 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Dappen, M.S.; Pellicciari, R.; Natalini, B.; Monahan, J.B.; Chiorri, C.; Cordi, A.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A series of cyclopropyl analogues related to 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) were synthesized and their biological activity was assessed as competitive antagonists for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In vitro receptor binding using (3H)-L-glutamate as the radioligand provided affinity data, while modulation of (3H)MK-801 binding was used as a functional assay. The analogues were also evaluated in (3H)kainate binding to assess selectivity over non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Of the compounds tested, 4,5-methano-AP5 analogue 26 was the most potent selective NMDA antagonist; however, potency was lower than that for (((+/-)-2-carboxypiperidin-4-yl)methyl)phosphonic acid (CGS 19755, 5).

  18. Okadaic acid induces epileptic seizures and hyperphosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor in rat hippocampus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arias, Clorinda; Montiel, Teresa; Peña, Fernando; Ferrera, Patricia; Tapia, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    Overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors is closely related to epilepsy and excitotoxicity, and the phosphorylation of these receptors may facilitate glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission. Here we show that in awake rats the microinjection into the hippocampus of okadaic acid, a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, induces in about 20 min intense electroencephalographic and behavioral limbic-type seizures, which are suppressed by the systemic administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate and by the intrahippocampal administration of 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine, an inhibitor of protein kinases. Two hours after okadaic acid, when the EEG seizures were intense, an increased serine phosphorylation of some hippocampal proteins, including an enhancement of the serine phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, was detected by immunoblotting. Twenty-four hours after okadaic acid a marked destruction of hippocampal CA1 region was observed, which was not prevented by the receptor antagonists. These findings suggest that hyperphosphorylation of glutamate receptors in vivo may result in an increased sensitivity to the endogenous transmitter and therefore induce neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy. PMID:12429230

  19. Time and space profiling of NMDA receptor co-agonist functions.

    PubMed

    Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Le Bail, Matildé; Billard, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    The N-Methyl D-Aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors (NMDAR) are key tetrameric ionotropic glutamate receptors that transduce glutamatergic signals throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord. Although NMDARs are diverse in their subunit composition, subcellular localization, and biophysical and pharmacological properties, their activation always requires the binding of a co-agonist that has long been thought to be glycine. However, intense research over the last decade has challenged this classical model by showing that another amino acid, d-serine, is the preferential co-agonist for a subset of synaptic NMDARs in many areas of the adult brain. Nowadays, a totally new picture of glutamatergic synapses at work is emerging where both glycine and d-serine are involved in a complex interplay to regulate NMDAR functions in the CNS following time and space constraints. The purpose of this review was to highlight the particular role of each co-agonist in modulating NMDAR-dependent activities in healthy and diseased brains. We have herein integrated our most advanced knowledge of how glycine and d-serine may orchestrate synapse dynamics and drive neuronal network activity in a time- and synapse-specific manner and how changes in synaptic availability of these amino acids may contribute to cognitive impairments such as those associated with healthy aging, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. The N-Methyl D-Aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors are central to many physiological functions and are linked to brain disorders. Their functions require glutamate and a co-agonist d-serine or glycine. After years of intense research and controversy on the identity of the amino acid that serves as the right co-agonist, we are just entering a new era of consensus where glycine and d-serine are teaming up to regulate the function of different subsets of NMDA receptors and at different synapses during different time windows of brain development. PMID:26088787

  20. Role of nitric oxide in the convulsive seizures induced by fluoroquinolones coadministered with 4-biphenyl acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Kohno, K; Niwa, M; Nozaki, M; Uematsu, T; Fujimura, H

    1997-11-01

    1. Contribution of nitric oxide to the convulsive seizures induced by fluoroquinolones (FQs) coadministered with 4-biphenyl acetic acid (BPAA), the active metabolite of fenbufen, was assessed in mice. 2. Enoxacin + 4-biphenyl acetic acid caused clonic seizures in all treated mice, followed by tonic seizures and death. These events were associated with a significant increase in intracerebellar cyclic GMP. 3. Pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), but not with D-NAME, significantly reduced the incidence of convulsions and lethality, as well as the increase in cyclic GMP. 4. Pretreatment with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-receptor antagonist, MK-801, inhibited only the transition of clonic seizure to tonic seizure without affecting the incidence of clonic seizure and lethality. 5. These findings suggest that FQs + BPAA exert convulsions by activating NOS partly through the mediation of the NMDA receptor in the brain cells. PMID:9347323

  1. Differential Involvement of Amygdala and Cortical NMDA Receptors Activation upon Encoding in Odor Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guilaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the…

  2. Reconsolidation after Remembering an Odor-Reward Association Requires NMDA Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Tronel, Sophie; Sara, Susan J.; Lelong, Julien

    2005-01-01

    A rapidly learned odor discrimination task based on spontaneous foraging behavior of the rat was used to evaluate the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) in ongoing memory consolidation. Rats were trained in a single session to discriminate among three odors, one of which was associated with palatable food reward. Previous…

  3. Impaired Discrimination Learning in Mice Lacking the NMDA Receptor NR2A Subunit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Feyder, Michael; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. We used a touchscreen system to assess NR2A subunit knockout mice (KO) for (1) pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning and (2) acquisition and extinction of an instrumental response requiring no pairwise discrimination. NR2A KO mice…

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency alters levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jadavji, N.M.; Wieske, F.; Dirnagl, U.; Winter, C.

    2015-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an enzyme key regulator in folate metabolism. Deficiencies in MTHFR result in increased levels of homocysteine, which leads to reduced levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). In the brain, SAM donates methyl groups to catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which is involved in neurotransmitter analysis. Using the MTHFR-deficient mouse model the purpose of this study was to investigate levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and amino acid levels in brain tissue. MTHFR deficiency affected levels of both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in within the cerebellum and hippocampus. Mthfr−/− mice had reduced levels of glutamate in the amygdala and γ-aminobutyric acid in the thalamus. The excitatory mechanisms of homocysteine through activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in brain tissue might alter levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid. PMID:26937386

  5. Synthesis, structural activity-relationships, and biological evaluation of novel amide-based allosteric binding site antagonists in NR1A/NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors☆

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Cara A.; Myers, Scott J.; Murray, Ernest E.; Santangelo, Rose; Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Kurtkaya, Natalie; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Yuan, Hongjie; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Le, Phuong; Wilson, Lawrence J.; Yepes, Manuel; Dingledine, Ray; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Liotta, Dennis C.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis and structure–activity relationship analysis of a novel class of amide-based biaryl NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists are presented. Some of the studied compounds are potent, selective, non-competitive, and voltage-independent antagonists of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. Like the founding member of this class of antagonists (ifenprodil), several interesting compounds of the series bind to the amino terminal domain of the NR2B subunit to inhibit function. Analogue potency is modu-lated by linker length, flexibility, and hydrogen bonding opportunities. However, unlike previously described classes of NR2B-selective NMDA antagonists that exhibit off-target activity at a variety of monoamine receptors, the compounds described herein show much diminished effects against the hERG channel and α1-adrenergic receptors. Selections of the compounds discussed have acceptable half-lives in vivo and are predicted to permeate the blood–brain barrier. These data together suggest that masking charged atoms on the linker region of NR2B-selective antagonists can decrease undesirable side effects while still maintaining on-target potency. PMID:19648014

  6. The Effect of Glutamate Receptor Agonists on Mouse Retinal Astrocyte [Ca2+]i

    PubMed Central

    Blandford, Stephanie N.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-imaging techniques were used to determine if mouse retinal astrocytes in situ respond to agonists of ionotropic (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA; N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA) and metabotropic (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, DHPG; trans-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid, ACPD) glutamate receptors. In most cases we found no evidence that retinal astrocyte intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) increased in response to these glutamate agonists. The one exception was AMPA that increased [Ca2+]i in some, but not all, mouse retinal astrocytes in situ. However, AMPA did not increase [Ca2+]i in mouse retinal astrocytes in vitro, suggesting that the effect of AMPA in situ may be indirect. PMID:27413752

  7. Spatial Discrimination Reversal Learning in Weanling Rats Is Impaired by Striatal Administration of an NMDA-Receptor Antagonist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Deborah J.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    The striatum plays a major role in both motor control and learning and memory, including executive function and "behavioral flexibility." Lesion, temporary inactivation, and infusion of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist into the dorsomedial striatum (dmSTR) impair reversal learning in adult rats. Systemic administration of MK-801…

  8. Ethanol directly depresses AMPA and NMDA glutamate currents in spinal cord motor neurons independent of actions on GABAA or glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, M Y; Rampil, I J; Kendig, J J

    1999-07-01

    Ethanol is a general anesthetic agent as defined by abolition of movement in response to noxious stimulation. This anesthetic endpoint is due to spinal anesthetic actions. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ethanol acts directly on motor neurons to inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission at glutamate receptors. Whole cell recordings were made in visually identified motor neurons in spinal cord slices from 14- to 23-day-old rats. Currents were evoked by stimulating a dorsal root fragment or by brief pulses of glutamate. Ethanol at general anesthetic concentrations (50-200 mM) depressed both responses. Ethanol also depressed glutamate-evoked responses in the presence of tetrodotoxin (300 nM), showing that its actions are postsynaptic. Block of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidA and glycine receptors by bicuculline (50 microM) and strychnine (5 microM), respectively, did not significantly reduce the effects of ethanol on glutamate currents. Ethanol also depressed glutamate-evoked currents when the inhibitory receptors were blocked and either D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (40 microM) or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium (10 microM) were applied to block N-methyl-D-aspartate or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate receptors, respectively. The results show that ethanol exerts direct depressant effects on both alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate currents in motor neurons. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and glycine inhibition is not required for this effect. Direct depression of glutamatergic excitatory transmission by a postsynaptic action on motor neurons thus may contribute to general anesthesia as defined by immobility in response to a noxious stimulus. PMID:10381800

  9. Genetic Inactivation of D-Amino Acid Oxidase Enhances Extinction and Reversal Learning in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Viviane; Duffy, Steven; Wang, Wei; Barger, Steven W.; Baker, Glen B.; Roder, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine site has been shown to accelerate adaptive forms of learning that may benefit psychopathologies involving cognitive and perseverative disturbances. In this study, the effects of increasing the brain levels of the endogenous NMDAR glycine site agonist D-serine, through the genetic…

  10. Dynamic changes of excitatory amino acid receptors in the rat hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Westerberg, E.; Monaghan, D.T.; Kalimo, H.; Cotman, C.W.; Wieloch, T.W.

    1989-03-01

    The changes in excitatory amino acid receptor ligand binding induced by transient cerebral ischemia were studied in the rat hippocampal subfields. Ten minutes of ischemia was induced by common carotid artery occlusion combined with hypotension, and the animals were allowed variable periods of recovery ranging from 1 day to 4 weeks. The binding of 3H-AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) to quisqualate receptors, 3H-kainic acid (KA) to kainate receptors, and 3H-glutamate to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors as determined by quantitative autoradiography. One week following ischemia the CA1 region of the hippocampus displayed a severe (90%) dendrosomatic lesion with preservation of presynaptic terminals. This was associated with a 60% decrease in AMPA binding and a 25% decrease in glutamate binding to NMDA receptors. At 4 weeks postischemia, both AMPA and NMDA sites were greatly reduced. Although the dentate gyrus granule cells are resistant to an ischemic insult of this magnitude, this region showed marked changes in receptor binding. One week following ischemia, the AMPA and NMDA binding decreased by approximately 40 and 20%, respectively. Following 2 weeks of recovery, the NMDA binding was not significantly different from control level, while the AMPA binding remained depressed up to 4 weeks postischemia. The high density of KA binding sites in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was unaffected by the ischemic insult, despite an extensive degeneration of cells in the hilus of dentate gyrus which projects glutamatergic afferents to this area.