Sample records for n-methyl-n-butyl pyrrolidinium bistrifluoromethane

  1. Study of a Li-air battery having an electrolyte solution formed by a mixture of an ether-based aprotic solvent and an ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchetto, Laura; Salomon, Mark; Scrosati, Bruno; Croce, Fausto


    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that cyclic and linear carbonates are unstable when used in rechargeable Li-air batteries employing aprotic solvents mostly due to the cathodic formation of superoxide during the oxygen reduction reaction. In particular, it has been ascertained that nucleophilic attack by superoxide anion radical, O2-rad , at O-alkyl carbon is a common mechanism of decomposition of organic carbonates. Moreover, theoretical calculations showed that ether chemical functionalities are stable against nucleophilic substitution induced by superoxide. Aim of this study is to report on a new electrolyte solution for Li-air battery formed by a mixture of an ether-based aprotic solvent with an ionic liquid (IL). The IL-based electrolyte was obtained by mixing the pure ionic liquid N-methyl-(n-butyl) pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (here denoted as PYR14TFSI) to a 0.91 M solution of lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) in tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl etcher (TEGDME). We observed that the presence of IL beneficially affects the kinetics and the reversibility of the oxygen reactions involved at the cathode. The most significant result being a lower overvoltage for the charge reaction, compared to a Li/air cell containing the same electrolyte solution without IL.

  2. Antibacterial activities of imidazolium, pyrrolidinium and piperidinium salts.


    Iwai, Noritaka; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Kitazume, Tomoya


    The antibacterial activity of various types of imidazolium, pyrrolidinium and piperidinium salts with both propargyl group and alkyl and/or silylalkyl chains of different lengths, are described. Especially, the MIC (?g/ml) of prepared each compound for Escherichia coli and other several bacteria was determined. PMID:21324694

  3. Nitrile-functionalized pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium ionic liquids.


    Lethesh, Kallidanthiyil Chellappan; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Nockemann, Peter; Kirchner, Barbara; Zahn, Stefan; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N; Dehaen, Wim; Binnemans, Koen


    Two series of 1-alkylpyridinium and N-alkyl-N-methylpiperidinium ionic liquids functionalized with a nitrile group at the end of the alkyl chain have been synthesized. Structural modifications include a change of the alkyl spacer length between the nitrile group and the heterocycle of the cationic core, as well as adding methyl or ethyl substituents on different positions of the pyridinium ring. The anions are the bromide and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ion. All the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salts as well as the bromide salts with a long alkyl spacer were obtained as viscous liquids at room temperature, but some turned out to be supercooled liquids. In addition, pyrrolidinium and piperidinium ionic liquids with two nitrile functions attached to the heterocyclic core have been prepared. The crystal structures of seven pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salts are reported. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed on model cations and ion pairs with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion. A continuum model has been used to take solvation effects into account. These calculations show that the natural partial charge on the nitrogen atom of the nitrile group becomes more negative when the length of the alkyl spacer between the nitrile functional group and the heterocyclic core of the cation is increased. Methyl or methoxy substituents on the pyridinium ring slightly increase the negative charge on the nitrile nitrogen atom due to their electron-donating abilities. The position of the substituent (ortho, meta, or para) has only a very minor effect on the charge of the nitrogen atom. The (15)N NMR spectra of the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids were recorded with the nitrogen-15 nucleus at its natural abundance. The chemical shift of the (15)N nucleus of the nitrile nitrogen atom could be correlated with the calculated negative partial charge on the nitrogen atom. PMID:21609018

  4. Synthesis, growth, structural, thermal and optical studies of pyrrolidinium-2-carboxylate-4-nitrophenol single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarna Sowmya, N.; Sampathkrishnan, S.; Vidyalakshmi, Y.; Sudhahar, S.; Mohan Kumar, R.


    Organic nonlinear optical material, pyrrolidinium-2-carboxylate-4-nitrophenol (PCN) was synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the structure and lattice parameters of PCN crystals. Infrared, Raman and NMR spectral analyses were used to elucidate the functional groups present in the compound. The thermal behavior of synthesized compound was studied by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analyses. The photoluminescence property was studied by exciting the crystal at 360 nm. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal was estimated by using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.

  5. Thermal stability and crystallization of N -alkyl- N -alkyl?-pyrrolidinium imides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Simona Stefan; Daniel Lemordant; Philippe Biensan; Clémence Siret; Bénédicte Claude-Montigny


    A series of N-alkyl-N-alkyl?-pyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (TFSI?) room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning\\u000a calorimetry, FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. These compounds exhibit a thermal stability up to 548–573 K.\\u000a The mass loss starting temperature, T\\u000a ml, falls in a narrow range of temperatures: 578–594 K. FT-IR spectra, performed before and after 24 h

  6. The First Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Luminescent Multiferroic: (Pyrrolidinium)MnBr3.


    Zhang, Yi; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Liu, Cai-Ming; Chen, Zhong-Ning; Xiong, Ren-Gen


    A hybrid organic-inorganic compound, (pyrrolidinium)MnBr3 , distinguished from rare earth (RE)-doped inorganic perovskites, is discovered as a new member of the ferroelectrics family, having excellent luminescent properties and relatively large spontaneous polarization of 6 ?C cm(-2) , as well as a weak ferromagnetism at about 2.4 K. With a quantum yield of >28% and emission lifetime >0.1 ms, such multiferroic photoluminescence is a suitable candidate for future applications in luminescence materials, photovoltaics, and magneto-optoelectronic devices. PMID:26011784

  7. A comprehensive study on micellization of dissymmetric pyrrolidinium headgroup-based gemini surfactants.


    Zou, Min; Dong, Jinfeng; Yang, Guangfu; Li, Xuefeng


    Three groups of pyrrolidinium headgroup-based gemini surfactants of 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(1-alkyl pyrrolidinium) bromide, in categories of symmetric CmC3CmPB (m = 10, 12, 14), dissymmetric CmC3C14PB (m = 10, 12, 14) and CmC3CnPB (m = 8, 10, 12, m + n = 24) surfactants, are studied using equilibrium surface tension, conductivity, fluorescence, and NMR techniques. The importance of the dissymmetry on the micellization has been revealed in detail. The increase in the hydrophobic chain length m for CmC3CmPB and CmC3C14PB or in the dissymmetry (n/m) for CmC3CnPB can strengthen the aggregation ability and surface activity of the surfactants significantly, i.e., a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and a lower surface tension at cmc (?cmc). However, the aggregation number at cmc (N*) obeys the opposite variation tendency and it becomes smaller upon increasing m or n/m, due to the formation of premicelles. Thermodynamic results reveal that the contribution of enthalpy (?H) to the Gibbs free energy (?G) is strengthened by increasing m or n/m during the spontaneous micellization process. Moreover, (1)H NMR results confirm the microenvironment change of the surfactants from polar water to micelles during the micellization, and 2D Noesy NMR spectra suggest that the methylene groups in the ring should adopt a conformation toward the nonpolar micellar core rather than in the polar water. PMID:25799507

  8. New functionalized ionic liquids based on pyrrolidinium and piperidinium cations with two ether groups as electrolytes for lithium battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaohua Fang; Zhengxi Zhang; Yide Jin; Li Yang; Shin-ichi Hirano; Kazuhiro Tachibana; Shingo Katayama


    Four new functionalized ILs based on piperidinium and pyrrolidinium cations with two ether groups and TFSI? anion are synthesized and characterized. Physical and electrochemical properties of these ILs, including melting point, thermal stability, viscosity, conductivity and electrochemical stability, are investigated. All the ILs are liquids at room temperature, and the viscosities of P(2o1)2-TFSI and P(2o1)(2o2)-TFSI are 55 and 53mPas at

  9. Physico-Chemical Properties and Phase Behaviour of Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Doma?ska, Urszula


    A review of the relevant literature on 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids has been presented. The phase diagrams for the binary systems of {1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) [EMPYR][CF3SO3] + water, or + 1-butanol} and for the binary systems of {1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) [PMPYR][CF3SO3] + water, or + an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol)} have been determined at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. The influence of alcohol chain length was discussed for the [PMPYR][CF3SO3]. A systematic decrease in the solubility was observed with an increase of the alkyl chain length of an alcohol. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria with complete miscibility in the liquid phase region were observed for the systems involving water and alcohols. The solubility of the ionic liquid increases as the alkyl chain length on the pyrrolidinium cation increases. The correlation of the experimental data has been carried out using the Wilson, UNIQUAC and the NRTL equations. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared to the systems published earlier with the 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. The influence of the cation and anion on the phase behaviour has been discussed. The basic thermal properties of pure ILs, i.e., melting temperature and the enthalpy of fusion, the solid-solid phase transition temperature and enthalpy have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique. PMID:20480044

  10. Long term stability of superoxide ion in piperidinium, pyrrolidinium and phosphonium cations-based ionic liquids and its utilization in the destruction of chlorobenzenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maan Hayyan; Farouq S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; Inas M. AlNashef; Saeed M. AlZahrani; Kim Lam Chooi


    Investigation of the chemical generation and long term stability of superoxide ion, O2·-, in three bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [TFSI-] anion based ionic liquids, ILs, with cations of 1-(3-methoxypropyl)-1-methylpiperidinium [MOPMPip+], 1-hexyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium [HMPyrr+] and trihexyl (tetradecyl) phosphonium [P14,666+] has been conducted. The chemical generation of O2·- in ILs was carried out by dissolving potassium superoxide, KO 2, in the corresponding IL, while

  11. Growth of Gold Nanosheets and Nanopolyhedra in Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids: Investigation of the Cation Effect on the Resulting Morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bouvy, Claire [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Yin, Hongfeng [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL


    Large gold nanosheets and small gold polyhedra have been successfully synthesized in room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) by an ionothermal reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} under N{sub 2} atmosphere, without using any additives. The effect of the organic cation on the final morphologies of the gold particles has been studied, and a series of pyrrolidinium-, imidazolium-, and quaternary amine-based ionic liquids have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Our results show that these ILs favor the anisotropic growth of gold by acting as template agents and that only gold microspheres can be obtained with the IL containing a reductive functionality.

  12. H/D isotope effect of 1H MAS NMR spectra and 79Br NQR frequencies of piperidinium p-bromobenzoate and pyrrolidinium p-bromobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hisashi; Kyo, Shinshin; Akaho, Yousuke; Takamizawa, Satoshi; Terao, Hiromitsu


    H/D isotope effects onto 79Br NQR frequencies of piperidinium p-bromobenzoate were studied by deuterium substitution of hydrogen atoms which form two kinds of N-H?O type hydrogen bonds, and the isotope shift of ca. 100 kHz were detected for a whole observed temperature range. In addition, 1H MAS NMR spectra measurements of piperidinium and pyrrolidinium p-bromobenzoate were carried out and little isotope changes of NMR line shape were detected. In order to reveal effects of molecular arrangements into the obtained isotope shift of NQR frequencies, single-crystal X-ray measurement of piperidinium p-bromobenzoate- d2 and density-functional-theory calculation were carried out. Our estimation showed the dihedral-angle change between piperidine and benzene ring contributes to isotope shift rather than those of N-H lengths by deuterium substitution.

  13. Magnesium(II) bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide-based electrolytes with wide electrochemical windows for rechargeable magnesium batteries.


    Ha, Se-Young; Lee, Yong-Won; Woo, Sang Won; Koo, Bonjae; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Cho, Jaephil; Lee, Kyu Tae; Choi, Nam-Soon


    We present a promising electrolyte candidate, Mg(TFSI)2 dissolved in glyme/diglyme, for future design of advanced magnesium (Mg) batteries. This electrolyte shows high anodic stability on an aluminum current collector and allows Mg stripping at the Mg electrode and Mg deposition on the stainless steel or the copper electrode. It is clearly shown that nondendritic and agglomerated Mg secondary particles composed of ca. 50 nm primary particles alleviating safety concern are formed in glyme/diglyme with 0.3 M Mg(TFSI)2 at a high rate of 1C. Moreover, a Mg(TFSI)2-based electrolyte presents the compatibility toward a Chevrel phase Mo6S8, a radical polymer charged up to a high voltage of 3.4 V versus Mg/Mg(2+) and a carbon-sulfur composite as cathodes. PMID:24559269

  14. Spectroscopic and docking studies on the interaction between pyrrolidinium based ionic liquid and bovine serum albumin.


    Kumari, Meena; Maurya, Jitendra Kumar; Singh, Upendra Kumar; Khan, Abbul Bashar; Ali, Maroof; Singh, Prashant; Patel, Rajan


    The interaction of synthesized ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methyl-2-oxopyrrolidinium bromide (BMOP) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using UV-Vis, FT-IR, steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements and docking studies. Steady state spectra revealed that BMOP strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through dynamic quenching mechanism. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters; Gibbs free energy change (?G), entropy change (?S) and enthalpy change (?H) showed that the binding process was spontaneous and entropy driven. It is also indicated that hydrophobic forces play a key role in the binding of BMOP to BSA. The synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that the conformation of BSA changed in the presence of BMOP. The shift in amide I band of FT-IR spectrum of BSA suggested unfolding of the protein secondary structure upon the addition of BMOP. In addition, the molecular modeling study of BSA-BMOP system shows that BMOP binds with BSA at the interface between two sub domains IIA and IIIA, which is located just above the entrance of the binding pocket of IIA through hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions in which hydrophobic interaction are dominated. PMID:24508873

  15. Ternary polymer electrolytes containing pyrrolidinium-based polymeric ionic liquids for lithium batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Appetecchi; G.-T. Kim; M. Montanino; M. Carewska; R. Marcilla; D. Mecerreyes; I. De Meatza


    The electrochemical properties of solvent-free, ternary polymer electrolytes based on a novel poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) as polymer host and incorporating PYR14TFSI ionic liquid and LiTFSI salt are reported. The PIL–LiTFSI–PYR14TFSI electrolyte membranes were found to be chemically stable even after prolonged storage times in contact with lithium anode and thermally stable up to 300°C. Particularly, the PIL-based

  16. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    E-print Network


    thermal stability of electrolyte mixtures used in batteries.ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermalthermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries


    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E.


    Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

  18. FTIR and Raman Study of the LixTiyMn1-yO2 (y = 0, 0.11) Cathodes in Methylpropyl Pyrrolidinium Bis(fluoro-sulfonyl)imide, LiTFSI Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, L.J.; Lucas, I.T.; Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Saint, J.A.


    This work demonstrates the protective effect of partial titanium substitution in Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2} against surface decomposition in room-temperature ionic liquid (RTILs) cells. Raman microscopy and reflectance Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to analyze electrodes recovered from cycled Li/Li{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (y=0, 0.11) cells containing the 0.5 mol/kg LiTFSI in P{sub 13}FSI RTIL electrolyte. [TFSI=bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.] Raman and FTIR spectra of cycled Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} cathodes showed many distinct bands that can be attributed to both the electrolyte and electrode decomposition products. The thickness of the amorphous porous layer on the Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} cathode increased during cycling. The surface degradation of Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} and precipitation of electrolyte decomposition products contributed to the film growth. Improved cycling behavior was observed in cells containing Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2}, yet Raman spectroscopy also showed possible surface degradation. The FTIR spectra of cycled Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} and Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2} cathodes displayed bands characteristic for LiSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}, which originate from the reaction of the TFSI anion with traces of water present in the cell.

  19. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen [ORNL; Shao, Nan [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL


    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  20. Non-aggregated Zn(ii)octa(2,6-diphenylphenoxy) phthalocyanine as a hole transporting material for efficient perovskite solar cells.


    Javier Ramos, F; Ince, M; Urbani, M; Abate, Antonio; Grätzel, M; Ahmad, Shahzada; Torres, T; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja


    A non-aggregated Zn(ii)octa(2,6-diphenylphenoxy) phthalocyanine (coded as TT80) has been used as a hole-transporting material for perovskite solar cells. The cells were fabricated under three different configurations by changing the uptake solvent (chlorobenzene or toluene) and incorporating additives (bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide lithium salt (LiTFSI) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). A power conversion efficiency of 6.7% (AM1.5G standard conditions) was achieved for the best cell under optimized configuration. PMID:25815796

  1. Synthesis and characterisation of poly(methylalkoxysiloxane) solid polymer electrolytes incorporating different lithium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Morales; J. L Acosta


    Two comb polymers with oligo-oxyethylene side chains of the type ?O?(CH2?CH2?O)n?CH3 were prepared from poly(methylhydrosiloxane) (PMHS). Homogeneous polymer electrolytes were made from the two synthesised polymers and four lithium salts having different chemical structures, such as lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LIPF6) and lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonylimide) (LiN(SO2CF3)2) by solvent casting method, and their thermal, electrical and electrochemical

  2. Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL


    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

  3. Assessment of bromide-based ionic liquid toxicity toward aquatic organisms and QSAR analysis.


    Wang, Chao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao


    The toxicities of 24 bromide-based ionic liquids (Br-ILs) towards Vibrio fischeri (V. fischeri) and Daphnia magna (D. magna) were determined. These Br-ILs are composed of a bromide ion and a generic cation (i.e., pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, pyridinium or imidazolium) with different alkyl side chains. QSAR models with relatively high correlation coefficients, R(2), of 0.954 and 0.895 were developed for V. fischeri and D. magna. The model for V. fischeri indicated that the Br-IL toxicity towards V. fischeri was negatively correlated with the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (ELUMO) which reflects the electron affinities (EAs) and positively correlated with the volumes of Br-IL cations. For the D. magna model, the Br-IL toxicity was positively correlated with the dipole moment (?) and negatively correlated with the total energy (TE) that is highly correlated with the molecular volume (V). For Br-ILs with the same cation ring, the toxicity increased as the length of the alkyl chains increased. For the same alkyl chain length, the toxicity order for V. fischeri was pyridinium>imidazolium>piperidinium>pyrrolidinium, except for those containing octyl side chains, while the toxicity ranking for D. magna was imidazolium~pyridinium>piperidinium>pyrrolidinium. PMID:25682588

  4. Development and Characterization of Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) Copolymer Based Polymer Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Sa'adun, Nurul Nadiah; Subramaniam, Ramesh; Kasi, Ramesh


    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) are developed using poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [P(VP-co-VAc)] as the host polymer, lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide [LiTFSI] as the lithium salt and ionic liquid, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [EMImTFSI] by using solution casting technique. The effect of ionic liquid on ionic conductivity is studied and the optimum ionic conductivity at room temperature is found to be 2.14?×?10?6?S?cm?1 for sample containing 25?wt% of EMImTFSI. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity from 303?K to 353?K exhibits Arrhenius plot behaviour. The thermal stability of the polymer electrolyte system is studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) while the structural and morphological properties of the polymer electrolyte is studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. PMID:25431781

  5. Environmentally-friendly lithium recycling from a spent organic li-ion battery.


    Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina


    A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium. PMID:25170568

  6. B?O?-added lithium aluminium germanium phosphate solid electrolyte for Li-O? rechargeable batteries.


    Jadhav, Harsharaj S; Kalubarme, Ramchandra S; Jang, Seong-Yong; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Shin, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Chan-Jin


    B2O3-added Li(1.5)Al(0.5)Ge(1.5)(PO4)3 (LAGP) glass ceramics showing a room temperature ionic conductivity of 0.67 mS cm(-1) have been synthesized by using a melt-quenching method. The prepared glass ceramics are observed to be stable in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether containing lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide. The augmented conductivity of the B2O3-added LAGP glass ceramic has improved the plateau potential during discharge. Furthermore, the B2O3-added LAGP glass ceramics are successfully employed as a solid electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery to obtain a stable cycling lifetime of up to 15 cycles with the limited capacity protocol. PMID:24953185

  7. Amino Acid-based fluorescent chiral ionic liquid for enantiomeric recognition.


    Bwambok, David K; Challa, Santhosh K; Lowry, Mark; Warner, Isiah M


    We report on the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent chiral ionic liquid (FCIL), l-phenylalanine ethyl ester bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide (l-PheC(2)NTf(2)), capable of serving simultaneously as solvent, chiral selector, and fluorescent reporter in chiral analytical measurements. Enantiomers of different analytes, including fluorescent and nonfluorescent compounds, with a variety of structures were shown to induce wavelength- and analyte-dependent changes in the fluorescence intensity of this FCIL. This system may provide both chemo- and enantioselectivity toward multiple analytes simultaneously. The newly synthesized FCIL, derived from commercially available l-phenylalanine ethyl ester chloride and lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide, was obtained as liquid at room temperature and is stable to thermal decomposition up to 270 degrees C. Absorption and fluorescence properties of neat l-PheC(2)NTf(2) were complex. While the absorption properties were similar to phenylalanine with a weakly absorbing tail extending beyond 400 nm, multiple excitation and emission bands were observed in its Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM). A prominent excimer emission displayed the greatest intensity of all emission bands, and a long-wavelength emission shifted toward the red with increasing excitation wavelength. These different spectral regions were shown to respond differently toward several analytes, including sugars such as glucose and mannose, making this an ideal system to exploit the multidimensional properties of fluorescence. The unique properties of l-PheC(2)NTf(2) combined with EEMs resulted in reliable identification of different enantiomers and measurement of enantiomeric composition. Importantly, the choice of excitation and emission wavelength regions was an important variable shown to improve prediction of enantiomeric composition. PMID:20481519

  8. Thermal phase behaviour of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium and piperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, W. A.; Young, V. G., Jr.; Pearson, W.; Passerini, S.; DeLong, H. C.; Trulove, P. C.


    The phases, ion crystal packing and thermal properties of the N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium and piperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR1RTFSI and PIP1RTFSI (subscript R = 1 for methyl and 2 for ethyl), respectively) salts are compared using powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystal structure of PIP12TFSI has been determined at 123 K. The salt crystallizes in the triclinic space group P\\bar {1} with Z = 8. Structural data are also reported for PYR11TFSI at 153 K and PIP12TFSI at 223 K. PIP11TFSI has identical ion crystal packing to the analogous pyrrolidinium salt PYR11TFSI. Since increasing the cation alkyl chain length to propyl or butyl (R = 3 or 4) reduces the melting point of the salts below room temperature, this study may provide valuable insight into why these pyrrolidinium and piperidinium salts form room-temperature ionic liquids.

  9. Absorption ability and kinetics of a liquid electrolyte in PVDF-HFP copolymer containing or not SiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillon-Caravanier, M.; Claude-Montigny, B.; Lemordant, D.; Bosser, G.

    Gel polymer electrolytes have been prepared from PVDF-HFP copolymer with various silica contents incorporating Gamma valerolactone (VL) or VL/EC (80/20 in mole) (EC: ethylene carbonate) solutions of lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfone) imide (LiTFSI). The influence of temperature, salt content and silica addition on the kinetics of absorption and wettability of the copolymer has been investigated. An empirical model, taking into account gel swelling during the absorption allows us to relate, at constant temperature, the wetting time and the volumetric fraction of trapped electrolyte, which is a critical factor for ionic conductivity of the gel. Increasing the silica content in the dry copolymer increases the porosity and consequently the rate of absorption and thus the amount of incorporated liquid phase at saturation. To a lower extent, an increase in the temperature of absorption has the same effects. The prepared gels have good mechanicals properties and conductivities. As an example, a gel of composition: PVDF- HFP/ SiO2/ VL/ EC/ LiTFSI of molar percentages 36/6.7/42/10.5/4.8 exhibits a conductivity of 2.9 mS cm - 1 at 293 K.

  10. Preparation of ionic liquid based solid-phase microextraction fiber and its application to forensic determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human urine.


    He, Yi; Pohl, Jeremy; Engel, Robert; Rothman, Leah; Thomas, Marie


    A new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) procedure using an ionic liquid (IL) has been developed. Reusable IL-based SPME fiber was prepared for the first time by fixing IL through cross-linkage of IL impregnated silicone elastomer on the surface of a fused silica fiber. 1-Ethoxyethyl-3-methylimidazloium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonylimide ([EeMim][NTf(2)]) ionic liquid was employed as a demonstration and the prepared fiber was applied to the forensic headspace determination of methamphetamine (MAP) and amphetamine (AP) in human urine samples. Important extraction parameters including the concentration of salt and base in sample matrix, extraction temperature and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) working in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, the new method showed good linearity in the range of 20-1500 microg L(-1), good repeatability (RSD<7.5% for MAP, and <11.5% for AP, n=6), and low detection limits (0.1 microg L(-1) for MAP and 0.5 microg L(-1) for AP). Feasibility of the method was evaluated by analyzing human urine samples. Although IL-based SPME is still at the beginning of its development stage, the results obtained by this work showed that it is a promising simple, fast and sensitive sample preparation method. PMID:19426983

  11. Transport properties investigation of aqueous protic ionic liquid solutions through conductivity, viscosity, and NMR self-diffusion measurements.


    Anouti, Mérièm; Jacquemin, Johan; Porion, Patrice


    We present a study on the transport properties through conductivity (?), viscosity (?), and self-diffusion coefficient (D) measurements of two pure protic ionic liquids--pyrrolidinium hydrogen sulfate, [Pyrr][HSO(4)], and pyrrolidinium trifluoroacetate, [Pyrr][CF(3)COO]--and their mixtures with water over the whole composition range at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Based on these experimental results, transport mobilities of ions have been then investigated in each case through the Stokes-Einstein equation. From this, the proton conduction in these PILs follows a combination of Grotthuss and vehicle-type mechanisms, which depends also on the water composition in solution. In each case, the displacement of the NMR peak attributed to the labile proton on the pyrrolidinium cation with the PILs concentration in aqueous solution indicates that this proton is located between the cation and the anion for a water weight fraction lower than 8%. In other words, for such compositions, it appears that this labile proton is not solvated by water molecules. However, for higher water content, the labile protons are in solution as H(3)O(+). This water weight fraction appears to be the solvation limit of the H(+) ions by water molecules in these two PILs solutions. However, [Pyrr][HSO(4)] and [Pyrr][CF(3)COO] PILs present opposed comportment in aqueous solution. In the case of [Pyrr][CF(3)COO], ?, ?, D, and the attractive potential, E(pot), between ions indicate clearly that the diffusion of each ion is similar. In other words, these ions are tightly bound together as ion pairs, reflecting in fact the importance of the hydrophobicity of the trifluoroacetate anion, whereas, in the case of the [Pyrr][HSO(4)], the strong H-bond between the HSO(4)(-) anion and water promotes a drastic change in the viscosity of the aqueous solution, as well as on the conductivity which is up to 187 mS·cm(-1) for water weight fraction close to 60% at 298 K. PMID:22404286

  12. Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.


    Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

  13. A comparison of phosphorus and fluorine containing IL lubricants for steel on aluminium.


    Somers, Anthony E; Biddulph, Shannon M; Howlett, Patrick C; Sun, Jiazeng; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria


    Ionic liquids have been shown to be highly effective lubricants for a steel on aluminium system. This work shows that the chemistry of the anion and cation are critical in achieving maximum wear protection. The performance of the ILs containing a diphenylphosphate (DPP) anion all showed low wear, as did some of the tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (FAP) and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (NTf(2)) anion containing ILs. However, in the case of the FAP and NTf(2) based systems, a cation dependence was observed, with relatively poor wear resistance obtained in the case of an imidazolium FAP and two pyrrolidinium NTf(2) salts, probably due to tribocorrosion caused by the fluorine reaction with the aluminium substrate. The systems exhibiting poor performance generally had a lower viscosity, which also impacts on their tribological properties. Those ILs that exhibited low wear were shown to have formed protective tribofilms on the aluminium alloy surface. PMID:22555280

  14. Ionic liquids as lubricants or lubrication additives: an ecotoxicity and biodegradability assessment.


    Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Pagano, Francesco; Thöming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr; Igartua, Amaya


    This paper reports on the (eco)toxicity and biodegradability of ionic liquids considered for application as lubricants or lubrication additives. Ammonium- and pyrrolidinium-based cations combined with methylsulphate, methylsulphonate and/or (CF(3)SO(2))(2)N(-) anions were investigated in tests to determine their aquatic toxicity using water fleas Daphnia magna, green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Additional test systems with an isolated enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) and isolated leukaemia cells from rats (IPC-81) were used to assess the biological activity of the ionic liquids. These compounds generally exhibit low acute toxicity and biological activity. Their biodegradability was screened according to OECD test procedures 301 B and 301 F. For choline and methoxy-choline ionic liquids ready biodegradability was observed within 5 or 10 d, respectively. Some of the compounds selected have a considerable potential to contribute to the development of more sustainable products and processes. PMID:22749125

  15. Synthesis, characterization and radiolytic properties of bis(oxalato)borate containing ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall-Ramnarine, Sharon I.; Castano, Alejandra; Subramaniam, Gopal; Thomas, Marie F.; Wishart, James F.


    Previously unreported bis(oxalato)borate (BOB) ionic liquids (ILs) containing imidazolium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium cations were prepared from the corresponding halide salts by reaction with sodium bis(oxalato)borate (NaBOB), and their properties are reported. Pulse radiolysis experiments revealed that the BOB anion scavenges solvated electrons with rate constants of ˜3×10 8 M -1 s -1 in the ionic liquid C 4mpyrr NTf 2 and 2.8×10 7 M -1 s -1 in water. This reactivity indicates that BOB ILs may be too sensitive to be used as neat solvents for nuclear separations processes in high radiation fields but may still be useful for preventing criticality while processing relatively "cold" fissile actinides.

  16. Free Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate in Various Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongwei [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL


    Conventional free radical polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate was carried out in various room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The RTILs used in this research encompass a wide range of cations and anions. Typical cations include imidazolium, phosphonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium; typical anions include amide, borate, chloride, imide, phosphate, and phosphinate. Reactions are faster and polymers obtained usually have higher molecular weights when compared to polymerizations carried out in volatile organic solvents under the same conditions. This shows that rapid rates of polymerization and high molecular weights are general features of conventional radical polymerizations in RTILs. Attempts to correlate the polarities and viscosities of the RTILs with the polymerization behavior fail to yield discernible trends.

  17. Pseudocapacitive mechanism of manganese oxide in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ionic liquid electrolyte studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.


    Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Deng, Ming-Jay; Cheng, Hui-Fang; Sun, I-Wen


    The electrochemical behavior of anodically deposited manganese oxide was studied in pyrrolidinium formate (P-HCOO), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMI-PF6), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMI-SCN) ionic liquids (ILs). The experimental data indicate that the Mn oxide electrode showed ideal pseudocapacitive performance in aprotic EMI-SCN IL. In a potential window of approximately 1.5 V, the oxide specific capacitance, evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry, was about 55 F/g. The electrochemical energy storage reaction was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was confirmed that the SCN- anions, instead of the EMI+ cations, were the primary working species that can become incorporated into the oxide and thus compensate the Mn3+/Mn4+ valent state variation upon the charge-discharge process. According to the analytical results, a pseudocapacitive mechanism of Mn oxide in the SCN- based aprotic IL was proposed. PMID:19621902

  18. Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Interaction with Components Found in Typical Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids – a QCM-D and AFM Study †

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kervin O.


    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were combined to evaluate the defects created by an ionic liquid anion and a cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium (OMIM+) was shown to remove lipids from the bilayer, increase the roughness to approximately 2.8 nm (~0.2 for stable supported bilayer) and possibly redeposit lipids with entrapped water. The anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) was found to leave distinct defects within the bilayer that had large pore-like interiors which left the surrounding bilayer intact. However, the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMP-Tf2N) formed a film over the supported bilayer. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the direct effects common components of ionic liquids have on a supported phospholipids bilayer. PMID:19325765

  19. Melting-Point Estimation of Ionic Liquids by a Group Contribution Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Claudia L.; Cisternas, Luis A.; Valderrama, José O.


    Based on experimental data collected from the literature, a group contribution method for estimating the melting points of imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, phosphonium-, and piperidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with common anions is proposed. The method considers the contributions of ionic groups and methylene groups, as additive parameters, and two nonadditive characteristic geometric parameters of cations such as symmetry and flexibility. A total of 293 data points for 136 ILs were used in this study. The average relative deviation and the average absolute deviation of the proposed model are 7.8% and 22.6 K, respectively. It is concluded that the proposal is useful for the prediction of the melting points for a wide range of ILs.

  20. Study of cyclic quaternary ammonium bromides by B3LYP calculations, NMR and FTIR spectroscopies.


    Brycki, Bogumi?; Szulc, Adrianna; Kowalczyk, Iwona


    N,N-dioctyl-azepanium, -piperidinium and -pyrrolidinium bromides 1-3, have been obtained and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. DFT calculations have also been carried out. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles calculated by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach have been presented. Both FTIR and Raman spectra of 1-3 are consistent with the calculated structures in the gas phase. The screening constants for 13C and 1H atoms have been calculated by the GIAO/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach and analyzed. Linear correlations between the experimental 1H and 13C chemical shifts and the computed screening constants confirm the optimized geometry. PMID:20714318

  1. Estimation of toxicity of ionic liquids in Leukemia Rat Cell Line and Acetylcholinesterase enzyme by principal component analysis, neural networks and multiple lineal regressions.


    Torrecilla, José S; García, Julián; Rojo, Ester; Rodríguez, Francisco


    Multiple linear regression (MLR), radial basis network (RB), and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) models have been explored for the estimation of toxicity of ammonium, imidazolium, morpholinium, phosphonium, piperidinium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium and quinolinium ionic liquid salts in the Leukemia Rat Cell Line (IPC-81) and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using only their empirical formulas (elemental composition) and molecular weights. The toxicity values were estimated by means of decadic logarithms of the half maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) in microM (log(10)EC(50)). The model's performances were analyzed by statistical parameters, analysis of residuals and central tendency and statistical dispersion tests. The MLP model estimates the log(10)EC(50) in IPC-81 and AchE with a mean prediction error less than 2.2 and 3.8%, respectively. PMID:18805639

  2. Benzene solubility in ionic liquids: working toward an understanding of liquid clathrate formation.


    Pereira, Jorge F B; Flores, Luis A; Wang, Hui; Rogers, Robin D


    The solubility of benzene in 15 imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, pyridinium, and piperidinium ionic liquids has been determined; the resulting, benzene-saturated ionic liquid solutions, also known as liquid clathrates, were examined with (1) H and (19) F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to try and understand the molecular interactions that control liquid clathrate formation. The results suggest that benzene interacts primarily with the cation of the ionic liquid, and that liquid clathrate formation (and benzene solubility) is controlled by the strength of the cation-anion interactions, that is, the stronger the cation-anion interaction, the lower the benzene solubility. Other factors that were determined to be important in the final amount of benzene in any given liquid clathrate phase included attractive interactions between the anion and benzene (when significant), and larger steric or free volume demands of the ions, both of which lead to greater benzene solubility. PMID:25297708

  3. Reactions of solvated electrons with imidazolium cations in ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenji; Sato, Toshifumi; Katsumura, Yosuke; Yang, Jinfeng; Kondoh, Takafumi; Yoshida, Yoichi; Katoh, Ryuzi


    We examined formation of solvated electrons in several ionic liquids composed of ammonium, pyrrolidinium and piperidinium cations by observing absorption spectra in the visible and near-infrared regions using pulse radiolysi. We also examined reactions of the solvated electrons with imidazolium cations in the ionic liquids. The reaction rate constants were an order of magnitude faster than the diffusion-limited rate calculated from the viscosity. The electrons before full solvation (dry electrons) reacted efficiently with the imidazolium cations. These observations suggest that the electrons in the ionic liquids can move easily before solvation. The scavenging of the dry electron by the imidazolium cation was also examined using C2-alkylated-imidazolium cations. It is found that the alkylation of imidazolium suppresses the reactivity with the dry electron.

  4. In vitro cytotoxicities of ionic liquids: effect of cation rings, functional groups, and anions.


    Kumar, R Anand; Papaïconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Clark, Douglas S; Prausnitz, John M


    In vitro cytotoxicities were measured for ionic liquids (ILs) containing various cations and anions using the MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. We measured the cytotoxicities of ionic liquids containing the cations pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, or imidazolium with various alkyl chain lengths, and the anions bromide, bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide (Tf(2)N), trifluoromethylsulfonate (TfO), or nonafluoromethylsulfonate (NfO). Three new hydrophobic, task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs), namely, [MBCNPip](+)[Tf(2)N](-), [MPS(2)Pip](+)[Tf(2)N](-), and [MPS(2)Pyrro](+)[Tf(2)N](-) designed for metal-ion extraction were also evaluated. IC(50) values of the ionic liquids toward the MCF7 cells ranged from 8 microM to 44 mM. The toxicity depended significantly on the nature of the cations and anions, especially when the cations contained a long side chain. TSILs studied in this work were less toxic than the classical ILs. PMID:18825729

  5. Metsulfuron-methyl-based herbicidal ionic liquids.


    Pernak, Juliusz; Niemczak, Micha?; Shamshina, Julia L; Gurau, Gabriela; G?owacki, Grzegorz; Praczyk, Tadeusz; Marcinkowska, Katarzyna; Rogers, Robin D


    Ten sulfonylurea-based herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) were prepared by combining the metsulfuron-methyl anion with various cation types including quaternary ammonium ([bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyloleylammonium](+), [2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium](+)), pyridinium ([1-dodecylpyridinium](+)), piperidinium ([1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium](+)), imidazolium ([1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium](+), [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium](+)), pyrrolidinium ([1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium](+)), morpholinium ([4-decyl-4-methylmorpholinium](+)), and phosphonium ([trihexyltetradecylphosphonium](+) and [tetrabutylphosphonium](+)). Their herbicidal efficacy was studied in both greenhouse tests and field trials. Preliminary results for the greenhouse tests showed at least twice the activity for all HILs when compared to the activity of commercial Galmet 20 SG, with HILs with phosphonium cations being the most effective. The results of two-year field studies showed significantly less enhancement of activity than observed in the greenhouse; nonetheless, it was found that the herbicidal efficacy was higher than that of the commercial analog, and efficacy varied depending on the plant species. PMID:25734891

  6. Cytotoxicity estimation of ionic liquids based on their effective structural features.


    Fatemi, Mohammad H; Izadiyan, Parisa


    Cytotoxicity of a diverse set of 227 ionic liquids (taken from UFT/Merck Ionic Liquids Biological Effects Database) containing 94 imidazolium, 53 pyridinium, 23 pyrrolidinium, 22 ammonium, 15 piperidinium, 10 morpholinium, 5 phosphanium, and 5 quinolinium cations in combination with 25 different types of anions to Leukemia Rat Cell Line (IPC-81) was estimated from their structural parameters using quantitative structure - toxicity relationship "QSTR" methodology. Linear and nonlinear models were developed using genetic algorithm (GA), multiple linear regressions (MLR) and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) approaches. Robustness and reliability of the constructed models were evaluated through internal and external validation methods. Furthermore, chemical applicability domain was determined via leverage approach. In this work, it was revealed that the cationic moieties make the major contribution to cytotoxicity and the anionic parts play a secondary role in cytotoxicity of the ionic liquids studied here. Structural information represented in this work, can be used for a rational design of safer ILs. PMID:21549407

  7. Synthesis and characterization of 5-cyanotetrazolide-based ionic liquids.


    Bergholz, Timm; Oelkers, Benjamin; Huber, Benedikt; Roling, Bernhard; Sundermeyer, Jörg


    New salts based on imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, phosphonium, guanidinium, and ammonium cations together with the 5-cyanotetrazolide anion [C2 N5 ](-) are reported. Depending on the nature of cation-anion interactions, characterized by XRD, the ionic liquids (ILs) have a low viscosity and are liquid at room temperature or have higher melting temperatures. Thermogravimetric analysis, cyclic voltammetry, viscosimetry, and impedance spectroscopy display a thermal stability up to 230?°C, an electrochemical window of 4.5?V, a viscosity of 25?mPa?s at 20?°C, and an ionic conductivity of 5.4 mS cm(-1) at 20?°C for the IL 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium 5-cyanotetrazolide [BMPyr][C2 N5 ]. On the basis of these results, the synthesized compounds are promising electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25504790

  8. Spectroscopic and computational analysis of the molecular interactions in the ionic liquid ion pair [BMP]{sup +}[TFSI]{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, James X.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan


    1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMP]{sup +}[TFSI]{sup ?}) ion pairs were studied using DFT at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d) level. Nine locally stable conformations of the ion pair were located. In the most stable conformation, [TFSI]{sup ?} takes a cis conformation and lies below the pyrrolidinium ring. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of nine hydrogen bonds. Interaction energies were recalculated at the Second-order Møller–Plesset (MP2) level to show the importance of dispersion interaction. Further investigation through natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis provided insight into the importance of charge transfer interactions in the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were calculated and compared with vibrations of the free ions as well as the experimental infrared spectrum. Assignments and frequency shifts are discussed in light of the inter-ionic interactions.

  9. 3-Methylpiperidinium ionic liquids.


    Belhocine, Tayeb; Forsyth, Stewart A; Gunaratne, H Q Nimal; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Nockemann, Peter; Puga, Alberto V; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Whiston, Keith


    A wide range of room temperature ionic liquids based on the 3-methylpiperdinium cation core were produced from 3-methylpiperidine, which is a derivative of DYTEK® A amine. First, reaction with 1-bromoalkanes or 1-bromoalkoxyalkanes generated the corresponding tertiary amines (Rm?pip, R = alkyl or alkoxyalkyl); further quaternisation reactions with the appropriate methylating agents yielded the quaternary [Rmm?pip]X salts (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-); Tf = -SO2CF3), and [Rmm?pip][NTf2] were prepared by anion metathesis from the corresponding iodides. All [NTf2](-) salts are liquids at room temperature. [Rmm?pip]X (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-)) are low-melting solids when R = alkyl, but room temperature liquids upon introduction of ether functionalities on R. Neither of the 3-methylpiperdinium ionic liquids showed any signs of crystallisation, even well below 0 °C. Some related non-C-substituted piperidinium and pyrrolidinium analogues were prepared and studied for comparison. Crystal structures of 1-hexyl-1,3-dimethylpiperidinium tetraphenylborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpiperidinium bromide, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium chloride and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide are reported. Extensive structural and physical data are collected and compared to literature data, with special emphasis on the systematic study of the cation ring size and/or asymmetry effects on density, viscosity and ionic conductivity, allowing general trends to be outlined. Cyclic voltammetry shows that 3-methylpiperidinium ionic liquids, similarly to azepanium, piperidinium or pyrrolidinium counterparts, are extremely electrochemically stable; the portfolio of useful alternatives for safe and high-performing electrolytes is thus greatly extended. PMID:25669485

  10. Functionalized fullerenes in photodynamic therapy.


    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K; Yin, Rui; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Chiang, Long Y; Hamblin, Michael R


    Since the discovery of C60 fullerene in 1985, scientists have been searching for biomedical applications of this most fascinating of molecules. The unique photophysical and photochemical properties of C60 suggested that the molecule would function well as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT uses the combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species that kill unwanted cells. However the extreme insolubility and hydrophobicity of pristine CO60, mandated that the cage be functionalized with chemical groups that provided water solubility and biological targeting ability. It has been found that cationic quaternary ammonium groups provide both these features, and this review covers work on the use of cationic fullerenes to mediate destruction of cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms in vitro and describes the treatment of tumors and microbial infections in mouse models. The design, synthesis, and use of simple pyrrolidinium salts, more complex decacationic chains, and light-harvesting antennae that can be attached to C60, C70 and C84 cages are covered. In the case of bacterial wound infections mice can be saved from certain death by fullerene-mediated PDT. PMID:25544837

  11. Effect of cation type, alkyl chain length, adsorbate size on adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromide ionic liquids from aqueous solutions onto microporous fabric and granulated activated carbons.


    Hassan, Safia; Duclaux, Laurent; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Reinert, Laurence; Farooq, Amjad; Yasin, Tariq


    The adsorption from aqueous solution of imidazolium, pyrrolidinium and pyridinium based bromide ionic liquids (ILs) having different alkyl chain lengths was investigated on two types of microporous activated carbons: a fabric and a granulated one, well characterized in terms of surface chemistry by "Boehm" titrations and pH of point of zero charge measurements and of porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K and CO2 adsorption at 273 K. The influence of cation type, alkyl chain length and adsorbate size on the adsorption properties was analyzed by studying kinetics and isotherms of eight different ILs using conductivity measurements. Equilibrium studies were carried out at different temperatures in the range [25-55 °C]. The incorporation of ILs on the AC porosity was studied by N2 adsorption-desorption measurements at 77 K. The experimental adsorption isotherms data showed a good correlation with the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of ILs onto activated carbons was an exothermic process, and that the removal efficiency increased with increase in alkyl chain length, due to the increase in hydrophobicity of long chain ILs cations determined with the evolution of the calculated octanol-water constant (Kow). The negative values of free energies indicated that adsorption of ILs with long chain lengths having hydrophobic cations was more spontaneous at the investigated temperatures. PMID:24929502

  12. Inhibition of ( sup 3 H)dopamine uptake into rat striatal slices by quaternary N-methylated nicotine metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Dwoskin, L.P.; Leibee, L.L.; Jewell, A.L.; Fang, Zhaoxia; Crooks, P.A. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States))


    The effects of quaternary N-methylated nicotine derivatives were examined on in vitro uptake of ({sup 3}H)dopamine (({sup 3}H)DA) in rat striatal slices. Striatal slices were incubated with a 10 {mu}M concentration of the following compounds: N-methylnicotinium, N-methylnornicotinium, N-methylcotininium, N,N{prime}-dimethylnicotinium and N{prime}-methylnicotinium salts. The results clearly indicated that significant inhibition of ({sup 3}H)DA uptake occurred with those compounds possessing a N-methylpyridinium group; whereas, compounds that were methylated at the N{prime}-pyrrolidinium position were less effective or exhibited no inhibition of ({sup 3}H)DA uptake. The results suggest that high concentrations of quaternary N-methylated nicotine metabolites which are structurally related to the neurotoxin MPP{sup +}, and which may be formed in the CNS, may protect against Parkinson's Disease and explain the inverse relationship between smoking and Parkinsonism reported in epidemiologic studies.

  13. Evaluation of cation-anion interaction strength in ionic liquids.


    Fernandes, Ana M; Rocha, Marisa A A; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M; Coutinho, João A P; Santos, Luís M N B F


    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with variable collision induced dissociation of the isolated [(cation)(2)anion](+) and/or [(anion)(2)cation](-) ions of imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, and piperidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) combined with a large set of anions, such as chloride, tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, trifluoromethanesulfonate, and bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, was used to carry out a systematic and comprehensive study on the ionic liquids relative interaction energies. The results are interpreted in terms of main influences derived from the structural characteristics of both anion and cation. On the basis of quantum chemical calculations, the effect of the anion upon the dissociation energies of the ionic liquid pair, and isolated [(cation)(2)anion](+) and/or [(anion)(2)cation](-) aggregates, were estimated and are in good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and computational results indicate an energetic differentiation between the cation and the anion to the ionic pair. Moreover, it was found that the quantum chemical calculations can describe the trend obtained for the electrostatic cation-anion attraction potential. The impact of the cation-anion interaction strengths in the surface tension of ionic liquids is further discussed. The surface tensions dependence on the cation alkyl chain length, and on the anion nature, follows an analogous pattern to that of the relative cation-anion interaction energies determined by mass spectrometry. PMID:21425809

  14. Correlating the structure and composition of ionic liquids with their toxicity on Vibrio fischeri: A systematic study.


    Viboud, Sylvie; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Cortesi, Aurélien; Chatel, Grégory; Draye, Micheline; Fontvieille, Dominique


    A systematic screening of the toxicity of ionic liquids (IL) towards Vibrio fischeri, a bioluminescent marine bacteria generally used in ecotoxicological bioassays, was carried out. The objectives of this work were to find hydrophilic or hydrophobic low toxicity IL and to investigate structure-toxicity relationship of IL. Toxicity of 54 IL to V. fischeri have been measured, some referring to new IL based on quinuclidinol or tropinol and some to generic IL (i.e., imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium or piperidinium). For 47 of them, toxicity values have not been reported elsewhere. Water-soluble IL containing hydrophilic anions halide, thiocyanate, dicyanamide, trifluoromethansulfonate were studied. Some IL were found to exhibit very low toxicity towards V. fisheri. Hydrophobic IL based on bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, tetrafluoroborate tetraphenylborate and tetracyanoborate were also studied. Toxicity was measured in a consistent way starting from aqueous solutions saturated with IL. The least toxic hydrophobic IL found in this study was [EMIM][B(CN)(4)]. A multifactorial analysis was found to be convenient for finding relevant structure parameters influencing the toxicity of IL. From this analysis, the planarity of the cation ring appeared to be a relevant parameter. Finally, good linear correlations were found when toxicity of IL was plotted either against the number of aliphatic carbons surrounding a pyridinium cation or the total number of carbons of a cation. PMID:22417395

  15. Separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen or methane by supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs): influence of the cation charge of the ionic liquid.


    Hojniak, Sandra D; Khan, Asim Laeeq; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Kirchner, Barbara; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Dehaen, Wim; Binnemans, Koen


    Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are promising tools for the separation of carbon dioxide from other gases. In this paper, new imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, and morpholinium ionic liquids with a triethylene glycol side chain and tosylate anions, as well as their symmetrical dicationic analogues, have been synthesized and incorporated into SILMs. The selectivities for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 separations have been measured. The selectivities exhibited by the dicationic ionic liquids are up to two times higher than the values of the corresponding monocationic ionic liquids. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to investigate the difference in the interaction of carbon dioxide with monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids. The reason for the increased gas separation selectivity of the dicationic ionic liquids is two-fold: (1) a decrease in permeance of nitrogen and methane through the ionic liquid layer, presumably due to their less favorable interactions with the gases, while the permeance of carbon dioxide is reduced much less; (2) an increase in the number of interaction sites for the interactions with the quadrupolar carbon dioxide molecules in the dicationic ionic liquids, compared to the monocationic analogues. PMID:24199938

  16. Effect of cationic head group on micellization behavior of new amide-functionalized surface active ionic liquids.


    Kamboj, Raman; Bharmoria, Pankaj; Chauhan, Vinay; Singh, Gurbir; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Sukhprit; Kang, Tejwant Singh


    Amide-functionalized surface active ionic liquids (SAILs), 1-methyl-1-dodecyl piperidinium chloride, [C12APip][Cl]; 1-methyl-1-dodecyl pyrrolidinium chloride, [C12APyrr][Cl]; 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazolium chloride, [C12Amim][Cl], and 1-methyl-1-dodecyl morpholinium chloride, [C12AMorph][Cl], have been synthesized, characterized and investigated for thermal stability, and micellization behavior in aqueous medium. The introduction of an amide moiety in the alkyl chain decreased the thermal stability of the functionalized SAILs compared to non-functionalized SAILs bearing a simple alkyl chain. A variety of state of the art techniques, viz. tensiometry, conductometry, steady-state fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), have been employed to investigate the micellization behavior. Amide-functionalized SAILs have shown much lower critical micelle concentration, cmc, and better surface active properties as compared to homologous non-functionalized SAILs. Steady-state fluorescence has provided information about cmc, aggregation number (Nagg) and polarity of the cybotactic region of the micelles, whereas ITC has provided insights into the thermodynamics of micellization. Furthermore, the size and shape of the micelles have been investigated using DLS and AFM techniques. PMID:25361232

  17. A study of the influence of ionic liquids properties on the Kemp elimination reaction.


    D'Anna, Francesca; La Marca, Sandra; Lo Meo, Paolo; Noto, Renato


    The morpholino-induced elimination of 5-nitrobenzisoxazole into the relevant 2-cyano-4-nitrophenolate has been used as a sample reaction in order to investigate molecular properties of some room temperature ionic liquids. The kinetic study was carried out at 298 K by means of spectrophotometric measurements. Ionic liquids, which differ in both their cation and anion properties, were used as solvent systems. In particular, aliphatic (pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, and ammonium) and aromatic (imidazolium and pyridinium) ionic liquids were used. For aromatic cations, imidazolium ions having different hydrogen-bond donor ability or a different alkyl-chain length were taken into account. The anions chosen ([BF(4)(-)], [PF(6)(-)], [SbF(6)(-)], and [NTf(2)(-)]; where NTf(2) = bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide) showed different shape, size, and coordination ability. Solvent parameters of all ionic liquids used were determined by using spectroscopic probes, such as 4-nitroaniline, N,N-diethyl-4-nitroaniline, Nile Red, and Reichardt's dye. Finally, in order to obtain information on the structural organization of the solvent systems, resonance light-scattering measurements were carried out. The collected data provide evidence that ionic liquids are solvent media which exhibit peculiar features, whose effects can be rationalized only considering all parameters affecting their three-dimensional structure. PMID:19562783

  18. Composition and structural effects on the adsorption of ionic liquids onto activated carbon.


    Lemus, Jesús; Neves, Catarina M S S; Marques, Carlos F C; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P; Palomar, Jose


    The applications and variety of ionic liquids (ILs) have increased during the last few years, and their use at a large scale will require their removal/recovery from wastewater streams. Adsorption on activated carbons (ACs) has been recently proposed for this aim and this work presents a systematic analysis of the influence of the IL chemical structures (cation side chain, head group, anion type and the presence of functional groups) on their adsorption onto commercial AC from water solution. Here, the adsorption of 21 new ILs, which include imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, piperidinium-, phosphonium- and ammonium-based cations and different hydrophobic and hydrophilic anions, has been experimentally measured. This contribution allows an expansion of the range of IL compounds studied in previous works, and permits a better understanding of the influence of the IL structures through the adsorption on AC. In addition, the COSMO-RS method was used to analyze the measured adsorption isotherms, allowing the understanding of the role of the cationic and anionic structures in the adsorption process, in terms of the different interactions between the IL compound and AC surface/water solvent. The results of this work provide new insights for the development of adsorption as an effective operation to remove/recover ILs with very different chemical nature from water solution. PMID:23896624

  19. Designing ionic liquids: the chemical structure role in the toxicity.


    Ventura, Sónia P M; Gonçalves, Ana M M; Sintra, Tânia; Pereira, Joana L; Gonçalves, Fernando; Coutinho, João A P


    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a novel class of solvents with interesting physicochemical properties. Many different applications have been reported for ILs as alternatives to organic solvents in chemical and bioprocesses. Despite the argued advantage of having low vapor pressure, even the most hydrophobic ILs show some degree of solubility in water, allowing their dispersion into aquatic systems and raising concerns on its pollutant potential. Moreover, nowadays most widespread notion concerning the ILs toxicity is that there is a direct relationship with their hydrophobicity/lipophilicity. This work aims at enlarging the currently limited knowledge on ILs toxicity by addressing negative impacts in aquatic ecosystems and investigating the possibility of designing hydrophobic ILs of low ecotoxicity, by the manipulation of their chemical structures. The impact of aromaticity on the toxicity of different cations (pyridinium, piperidinium, pyrrolidinium and imidazolium) and hydrophobic anions (bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [NTf(2)] and hexafluorophosphate [PF(6)]) was analysed. Concomitantly, several imidazolium-based ILs of the type [C( n )C( m )C( j )im][NTf(2)] were also studied to evaluate the effects of the position of the alkyl chain on the ILs' toxicity. For that purpose, standard assays were performed using organisms of different trophic levels, Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna, allowing to evaluate the consistency of the structure-activity relationships across different biological targets. The results here reported suggest the possibility of designing ILs with an enhanced hydrophobic character and lower toxicity, by elimination of their aromatic nature. PMID:23010869

  20. Factors stabilizing the gas-phase ionic species of crystals of organic salts - Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka B.; Spiteller, Michael


    The paper studied factors of the gas phase (GP) ionic stabilization of molecular organic crystals of salts. The single crystal X-ray diffraction, electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric (MS) methods are employed. The GP phenomena are explained by the comprehensive quantum-chemical theoretical models, providing significant information for the electronic structures and thermodynamics of the observed MS species. The n-chloro-alkyl aliphatic heterocyclic 5-sulfosalicylates i.e. 1-(2-chloroethyl) pyrrolidinium 5-sulfosalicylicilate (1), 1-(2-chloroethyl)-piperidinium 5-sulfosalicylicilate (2), and 1-(3-chloropropyl) piperidinium 5-sulfosalicylicilate (3) are examined. The ionic systems that contain N+H-heterocyclic fragments, a complex MS image variety of monocations, quaternary ammonium dications and hydrogen bonded molecular complexes revealed. Their stabilization is explained by proton transfer (PT), charge-transfer (CT) and Jahn-Teller (JT) effects. The 4-(2-chloroethyl) morpholinium hydrochloride crystals (4) yielded quaternary ammonium adduct which structure is crystallographically determined. In parallel the GP stabilized ions of 4 are analyzed. The complementary application of the single-crystal X-ray diffraction and MS methods provided unique structural evidences in condenses and in the GP able to understand the competitive intramolecular and environmental factors contributing to the thermodynamics stability of the ionic species. Therefore, the data reported are helped for more comprehensive knowledge of the basic mass spectrometric GP and phase transition phenomena with both its methodological development and used robust analytical technique application.

  1. Effects of Two Fullerene Derivatives on Monocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pacor, Sabrina; Grillo, Alberto; ?or?evi?, Luka; Zorzet, Sonia; Da Ros, Tatiana; Prato, Maurizio


    Two fullerene derivatives (fullerenes 1 and 2), bearing a hydrophilic chain on the pyrrolidinic nitrogen, were developed with the aim to deliver anticancer agents to solid tumors. These two compounds showed a significantly different behaviour on human neoplastic cell lines in vitro in respect to healthy leukocytes. In particular, the pyrrolidinium ring on the fullerene carbon cage brings to a more active compound. In the present work, we describe the effects of these fullerenes on primary cultures of human monocytes and macrophages, two kinds of immune cells representing the first line of defence in the immune response to foreign materials. These compounds are not recognized by circulating monocytes while they get into macrophages. The evaluation of the pronecrotic or proapoptotic effects, analysed by means of analysis of the purinergic receptor P2X7 activation and of ROS scavenging activity, has allowed us to show that fullerene 2, but not its analogue fullerene 1, displays toxicity, even though at concentrations higher than those shown to be active on neoplastic cells. PMID:26090460

  2. Compatiblitity of hydrophobic ionic liquids with high performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes-Mason, Ezekial Robert

    Lithium batteries are widely seen as the best choice for the future of energy storage but significant improvements are still required. One important area for improvement is searching for new cathode materials that incorporate lithium at higher capacities and voltages. This increases the energy and power available from an individual electrochemical cell, which reduces the number of cells required thereby reducing the size of a battery pack. While several high voltage cathode materials have been discovered, research has been hindered due to safety concerns with current standard electrolytes at high voltages. Ionic liquids are a new class of materials that exhibit excellent electrochemical and thermal stability as well as high ionic conductivity. These qualities make them excellent candidates to replace current battery electrolytes but difficulties in purification and the sheer number of possible chemistries have inhibited their study. In this study four hydrophobic ionic liquids based on pyrrolidinium and piperidinium cations paired with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions were synthesized using bench top methods. These ionic liquids were successfully incorporated into working half-cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co 1/3O2, a high capacity layered cathode and LiNi0.5Mn 1.5O4, a high voltage spinel type cathode. By comparing the behavior of the ionic liquids a clear relationship between cation size and rate capability was shown. The improved performance and safety at elevated temperatures was also demonstrated showing that ionic liquids are excellent candidates for use as battery electrolytes.

  3. The effect of the cation alkyl chain branching on mutual solubilities with water and toxicities.


    Kurnia, Kiki A; Sintra, Tânia E; Neves, Catarina M S S; Shimizu, Karina; Canongia Lopes, José N; Gonçalves, Fernando; Ventura, Sónia P M; Freire, Mara G; Santos, Luís M N B F; Coutinho, João A P


    The design of ionic liquids has been focused on the cation-anion combinations but other more subtle approaches can be used. In this work the effect of the branching of the cation alkyl chain on the design of ionic liquids (ILs) is evaluated. The mutual solubilities with water and toxicities of a series of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-based ILs, combined with imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium cations with linear or branched alkyl chains, are reported. The mutual solubility measurements were carried out in the temperature range from (288.15 to 323.15) K. From the obtained experimental data, the thermodynamic properties of the solution (in the water-rich phase) were determined and discussed. The COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to predict the liquid-liquid equilibrium. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations were also carried out aiming to get a deeper understanding of these fluids at the molecular level. The results show that the increase in the number of atoms at the cation ring (from five to six) leads to a decrease in the mutual solubilities with water while increasing their toxicity, and as expected from the well-established relationship between toxicities and hydrophobicities of ILs. The branching of the alkyl chain was observed to decrease the water solubility in ILs, while increasing the ILs solubility in water. The inability of COSMO-RS to correctly predict the effect of branching alkyl chains toward water solubility on them was confirmed using molecular dynamic simulations to be due to the formation of nano-segregated structures of the ILs that are not taken into account by the COSMO-RS model. In addition, the impact of branched alkyl chains on the toxicity is shown to be not trivial and to depend on the aromatic nature of the ILs. PMID:25119425

  4. Facile synthesis of carbon-11-labeled cholesterol-based cationic lipids as new potential PET probes for imaging of gene delivery in cancer.


    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Miller, Kathy D; Sledge, George W; Hutchins, Gary D; Zheng, Qi-Huang


    Gene therapy based on gene delivery is a promising strategy for the treatment of various human diseases such as cancer. Cationic lipids represent one of the important synthetic gene delivery systems. There is a great interest in imaging of gene therapy using the biomedical imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET). Carbon-11-labeled cholesterol-based cationic lipids were first designed and synthesized as new potential PET probes for imaging of gene delivery in cancer. The [(11)C-methyl]quaternary amine target tracers, N-[(11)C]methyl-N-[4-(cholest-5-en-3beta-yloxycarbonyl)butyl]pyrrolidinium iodide ([(11)C]4a), N-[(11)C]methyl-N'-[4-(cholest-5-en-3beta-yloxycarbonyl)butyl]imidazolium iodide ([(11)C]4b), N-[(11)C]methyl-N-[4-(cholest-5-en-3beta-yloxycarbonyl)butyl]piperidinium iodide ([(11)C]4c), N-[(11)C]methyl-N-[4-(cholest-5-en-3beta-yloxycarbonyl)butyl]-4-methylpiperidinium iodide ([(11)C]4d), and N-[(11)C]methyl-N-[4-(cholest-5-en-3beta-yloxycarbonyl)butyl]morpholinium iodide ([(11)C]4e), were prepared from their corresponding tertiary amine precursors with [(11)C]methyl iodide ([(11)C]CH(3)I) through N-[(11)C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a Silica Sep-Pak cartridge in 50-60% radiochemical yields decay corrected to end-of-bombardment (EOB), based on [(11)C]CO(2), and 111-185GBq/mumol specific activity at the end of synthesis (EOS). PMID:20451540

  5. Identification of degradation products of ionic liquids in an ultrasound assisted zero-valent iron activated carbon micro-electrolysis system and their degradation mechanism.


    Zhou, Haimei; Lv, Ping; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jianji; Fan, Jing


    Ionic liquids (ILs) have potential applications in many areas of chemical industry because of their unique properties. However, it has been shown that the ILs commonly used to date are toxic and not biodegradable in nature, thus development of efficient chemical methods for the degradation of ILs is imperative. In this work, degradation of imidazolium, piperidinium, pyrrolidinium and morpholinium based ILs in an ultrasound and zero-valent iron activated carbon (ZVI/AC) micro-electrolysis system was investigated, and some intermediates generated during the degradation were identified. It was found that more than 90% of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Cnmim]Br, n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) could be degraded within 110 min, and three intermediates 1-alkyl-3-methyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine, 1-alkyl-3-methylurea and N-alkylformamide were detected. On the other hand, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bromide ([C4mpip]Br), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide ([C4mpyr]Br) and N-butyl-N-methylmorpholinium bromide ([C4mmor]Br) were also effectively degraded through the sequential oxidization into hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups in different positions of the butyl side chain, and then the N-butyl side chain was broken to form the final products of N-methylpiperidinium, N-methylpyrrolidinium and N-methylmorpholinium, respectively. Based on these intermediate products, degradation pathways of these ILs were suggested. These findings may provide fundamental information on the assessment of the factors related to the environmental fate and environmental behavior of these commonly used ILs. PMID:23623468

  6. The effect of the cation alkyl chain branching on mutual solubilities with water and toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Kurnia, Kiki A.; Sintra, Tânia E.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Shimizu, Karina; Lopes, José N. Canongia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Freire, Mara G.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Coutinho, João A. P.


    The design of ionic liquids has been focused on the cation-anion combinations but other more subtle approaches can be used. In this work the effect of the branching of the cation alkyl chain on the design of ionic liquids (ILs) is evaluated. The mutual solubilities with water and toxicities of a series of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-based ILs, combined with imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium cations with linear or branched alkyl chains, are reported. The mutual solubility measurements were carried out in the temperature range from (288.15 to 323.15) K. From the obtained experimental data, the thermodynamic properties of the solution (in the water-rich phase) were determined and discussed. The COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to predict the liquid-liquid equilibrium. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations were also carried out aiming to get a deeper understanding of these fluids at the molecular level. The results show that the increase in the number of atoms at the cation ring (from five to six) leads to a decrease in the mutual solubilities with water while increasing their toxicity, and as expected from the well-established relationship between toxicities and hydrophobicities of ILs. The branching of the alkyl chain was observed to decrease the water solubility in ILs, while increasing the ILs solubility in water. The inability of COSMO-RS to correctly predict the effect of branching alkyl chains toward water solubility on them was confirmed using molecular dynamic simulations to be due to the formation of nano-segregated structures of the ILs that are not taken into account by the COSMO-RS model. In addition, the impact of branched alkyl chains on the toxicity is shown to be not trivial and to depend on the aromatic nature of the ILs. PMID:25119425

  7. Electrodeposition of Al in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ionic liquids: in situ STM and EQCM studies.


    Moustafa, E M; El Abedin, S Zein; Shkurankov, A; Zschippang, E; Saad, A Y; Bund, A; Endres, F


    In the present paper, the electrodeposition of Al on flame-annealed Au(111) and polycrystalline Au substrates in two air- and water-stable ionic liquids namely, 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, [Py(1,4)]Tf(2)N, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, [EMIm]Tf(2)N, has been investigated by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), and cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammogram of aluminum deposition and stripping on Au(111) in the upper phase of the biphasic mixture of AlCl(3)/[EMIm]Tf(2)N at room temperature (25 degrees C) shows that the electrodeposition process is completely reversible as also evidenced by in situ STM and EQCM studies. Additionally, a cathodic peak at an electrode potential of about 0.55 V vs Al/Al(III) is correlated to the aluminum UPD process that was evidenced by in situ STM. A surface alloying of Al with Au at the early stage of deposition occurs. It has been found that the Au(111) surface is subject to a restructuring/reconstruction in the upper phase of the biphasic mixture of AlCl(3)/[Py(1,4)]Tf(2)N at room temperature (25 degrees C) and that the deposition is not fully reversible. Furthermore, the underpotential deposition of Al in [Py(1,4)]Tf(2)N is not as clear as in [EMIm]Tf(2)N. The frequency shift in the EQCM experiments in [Py(1,4)]Tf(2)N shows a surprising result as an increase in frequency and a decrease in damping with bulk aluminum deposition at potentials more negative than -1.8 V was observed at room temperature. However, at 100 degrees C there is a frequency decrease with ongoing Al deposition. At -2.0 V vs Al/Al(III), a bulk aluminum deposition sets in. PMID:17388503

  8. Effects of Aromaticity in Cations and Their Functional Groups on the Low-Frequency Spectra and Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids.


    Shirota, Hideaki; Matsuzaki, Hironori; Ramati, Sharon; Wishart, James F


    We have critically investigated the low-frequency spectra of six ionic liquids (ILs) consisting of systematically different cations having benzyl moieties or comparable-sized saturated cyclohexylmethyl groups, by means of femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (fs-RIKES). The target ionic liquids are bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([NTf2](-)) salts of the 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium ([BzMIm](+)), 1-benzyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ([BzMPyrr](+)), 1-benzylpyridinium ([BzPy](+)), 1-cyclohexylmethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([CHxmMIm](+)), 1-cyclohexylmethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ([CHxmMPyrr](+)), and 1-cyclohexylmethylpyridinium ([CHxmPy](+)) cations. The primary purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of charged and neutral aromatic moieties on the low-frequency spectrum and bulk properties such as liquid density, surface tension, shear viscosity, glass transition temperature, and melting point. We found that ILs with benzyl groups have larger surface tensions than those with the same cation bearing the cyclohexylmethyl group. The trend in the glass transition temperatures, comparing ILs having the same side group, is pyridinium > imidazolium > pyrrolidinium. The effects of a single aromatic moiety on the shear viscosity are inconclusive, although the viscosities of the ILs with aromatic moieties on both the cation and the benzyl group, i.e., [BzMIm][NTf2] and [BzPy][NTf2], are substantially lower than those of the other ILs at room temperature, as a consequence of their higher fragilities. In the low-frequency Kerr spectra in the frequency range of approximately 0.1 to 200 cm(-1) measured by fs-RIKES, the ILs possessing two aromatic groups show the largest relative intensity of the nuclear response to the electronic response. Both the charged and neutral aromatic rings show signals due to the ring libration; the neutral one appears at a lower frequency than the charged one. The relationship between the first moment of the broad low-frequency spectrum band and the bulk parameter consisting of the square root of the surface tension divided by the liquid density is obeyed by the cyclohexylmethyl derivatives whether the cation is aromatic or not, but not by the ILs with the neutral aromatic benzyl group. Quantum chemistry calculations have been also performed to understand the vibrational modes of the ionic species in the ILs. PMID:25389916

  9. Influence of structural variations in cationic and anionic moieties on the polarity of ionic liquids.


    Chiappe, Cinzia; Pomelli, Christian Silvio; Rajamani, Sunita


    The polarity of a series of ionic liquids (ILs) arising from the quaternarization of N-methylmorpholine, N-methylpyrrolidine, N-methylpiperidine, N-methylazepane, 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine, 1,2-dimethylimidazole, and 1-methylimidazole with simple alkyl chains and/or hydroxyl (mono- or dihydroxyl) functionalized alkyl chains and having bistriflimide, dicyanamide, or nitrate as counteranions has been investigated using solvatochromic dyes and expressed in terms of E(T)(N) and Kamlet-Taft parameters (dipolarity/polarizability (?*), hydrogen bond donor acidity (?), and hydrogen bond basicity (?)). Significant variations of polarity were observed on changing the anion and cation combination. The resulting E(T)(N) and ? values were strongly anion dependent; on going from bistriflimide to dicyanamide, a significant decrease in E(T)(N) and ? values was observed. On the other hand, the alkyl chain length has only a moderate effect on these parameters; either an increase or decrease in E(T)(N) and ? values was observed on increasing the alkyl chain length, depending on the cation core. In the case of cyclic onium salts, the size of the cation ring affected the ? parameter; the ILs based on the seven-membered ring system N-methyl-N-butylazepanium (also named N-methyl-N-butylhexamethyleneiminium, [HME(1,4)](+)) have high polarity values, comparatively to the ILs based on analogous five- and six-membered cyclic cations (pyrrolidinium and piperidinium). The introduction of the OH groups on the cation alkyl chain increases the polarity; the effect is substantial for the first OH group and more moderate for the second. Also, the thermosolvatochromism (changes in solvatochromic properties with the change in temperature) was studied for four dihydroxyl functionalized ILs. Finally, the principal component analysis (PCA) carried out on 67 ILs has shown that there are only two statistically relevant parameters: PC1, a weighted sum of E(T)(N) and ?, which is able to discern between the cation core structure, functionalization, and cation-anion association, and PC2, very close to ?, which is related principally to the anion nature. PMID:21721537

  10. Kinetics and thermodynamics of H-/H•/H+ transfer from a rhodium(III) hydride.


    Hu, Yue; Norton, Jack R


    The thermodynamics and kinetics of all three cleavage modes for Rh-H, the transfer of H(-), H(+), or H•, have been studied for the Rh(III) hydride complex Cp*Rh(2-(2-pyridyl)phenyl)H (1a). The thermodynamic hydricity, ?G°H(-), for 1a has been measured (49.5(1) kcal/mol) by heterolytic cleavage of H2 with Et3N in CH3CN. The transfer of H(-) from 1a to 1-(1-phenylethylidene)pyrrolidinium is remarkably fast (kH(-) = 3.5(1) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), making 1a a very efficient catalyst for the ionic hydrogenation of iminium cations. The pKa of 1a in CH3CN has been measured as 30.3(2) with (tert-butylimino)tris(pyrrolidino)phosphorane (12), and the rate constant for H(+) transfer from 1a to 12 has been estimated (kH(+) = 5(1) × 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1)) from the half-life of the equilibration. Thus, 1a is a poor H(+) donor both thermodynamically and kinetically. However, 1a transfers H• to TEMPO smoothly, forming a stable Rh(II) radical Cp*Rh(2-(2-pyridyl)phenyl)• (14a) that can activate H2 at room temperature and 1 atm. The metalloradical 14a has a g value of 2.0704 and undergoes reversible one-electron reduction at -1.85 V vs Fc(+)/Fc in benzonitrile, implying a bond-dissociation enthalpy for the Rh-H bond of 1a of 58.2(3) kcal/mol--among the weakest Rh(III)-H bonds reported. The transfer of H• from 1a to Ar3C• (Ar = p-(t)BuC6H4) is fast, with kH• = 1.17(3) × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1). Thus, 1a is a good H(-) and H• donor but a poor H(+) donor, a combination that reflects the high energy of the Rh(I) anion [Cp*Rh(2-(2-pyridyl)phenyl)](-). PMID:24666137