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Study of a Li-air battery having an electrolyte solution formed by a mixture of an ether-based aprotic solvent and an ionic liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that cyclic and linear carbonates are unstable when used in rechargeable Li-air batteries employing aprotic solvents mostly due to the cathodic formation of superoxide during the oxygen reduction reaction. In particular, it has been ascertained that nucleophilic attack by superoxide anion radical, O2-rad , at O-alkyl carbon is a common mechanism of decomposition of organic carbonates. Moreover, theoretical calculations showed that ether chemical functionalities are stable against nucleophilic substitution induced by superoxide. Aim of this study is to report on a new electrolyte solution for Li-air battery formed by a mixture of an ether-based aprotic solvent with an ionic liquid (IL). The IL-based electrolyte was obtained by mixing the pure ionic liquid N-methyl-(n-butyl) pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (here denoted as PYR14TFSI) to a 0.91 M solution of lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) in tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl etcher (TEGDME). We observed that the presence of IL beneficially affects the kinetics and the reversibility of the oxygen reactions involved at the cathode. The most significant result being a lower overvoltage for the charge reaction, compared to a Li/air cell containing the same electrolyte solution without IL.

Cecchetto, Laura; Salomon, Mark; Scrosati, Bruno; Croce, Fausto



Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]+, 1-methyl-1-octyl pyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]+ and 1-methyl-1-octyl piperidinium [MOPip]+ cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal

Justin Salminen; Nicolas Papaiconomou; R. Anand Kumar; Jong-Min Lee; John Kerr; John Newman; John M. Prausnitz



Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.



Pyrrolidinium fullerene induces apoptosis by activation of procaspase-9 via suppression of Akt in primary effusion lymphoma.  


Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma and is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients. In general, PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B-cells and are infected with KSHV. To evaluate potential novel anti-tumor compounds against KSHV-associated PEL, seven water-soluble fullerene derivatives were evaluated as potential drug candidates for the treatment of PEL. Herein, we discovered a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative, 1,1,1',1'-tetramethyl [60]fullerenodipyrrolidinium diiodide, which induced apoptosis of PEL cells via a novel mechanism, the caspase-9 activation by suppressing the caspase-9 phosphorylation, causing caspase-9 inactivation. Pyrrolidinium fullerene treatment reduced significantly the viability of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected lymphoma cells, and induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-9 via procaspase-9 cleavage. Pyrrolidinium fullerene additionally reduced the Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt and Ser196 of procaspase-9. Ser473-phosphorylated Akt (i.e., activated Akt) phosphorylates Ser196 in procaspase-9, causing inactivation of procaspase-9. We also demonstrated that Akt inhibitors suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected cells. Our data therefore suggest that Akt activation is essential for cell survival in PEL and a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative induced apoptosis by activating caspase-9 via suppression of Akt in PEL cells. In addition, we evaluated whether pyrrolidinium fullerene in combination with the HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin; GA) or valproate, potentiated the cytotoxic effects on PEL cells. Compared to treatment with pyrrolidinium fullerene alone, the addition of low-concentration GA or valproate enhanced the cytotoxic activity of pyrrolidinium fullerene. These results indicate that pyrrolidinium fullerene could be used as a novel therapy for the treatment of PEL. PMID:25063029

Watanabe, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ono, Toshiya; Ui, Sadaharu; Yagi, Syota; Kagawa, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hisami; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Mashino, Tadahiko; Fujimuro, Masahiro



Synthesis, growth, structural, thermal and optical studies of pyrrolidinium-2-carboxylate-4-nitrophenol single crystals.  


Organic nonlinear optical material, pyrrolidinium-2-carboxylate-4-nitrophenol (PCN) was synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the structure and lattice parameters of PCN crystals. Infrared, Raman and NMR spectral analyses were used to elucidate the functional groups present in the compound. The thermal behavior of synthesized compound was studied by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analyses. The photoluminescence property was studied by exciting the crystal at 360nm. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal was estimated by using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064nm. PMID:25795607

Swarna Sowmya, N; Sampathkrishnan, S; Vidyalakshmi, Y; Sudhahar, S; Mohan Kumar, R



Thermal stability and crystallization of N -alkyl- N -alkyl?-pyrrolidinium imides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of N-alkyl-N-alkyl?-pyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (TFSI?) room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning\\u000a calorimetry, FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. These compounds exhibit a thermal stability up to 548–573 K.\\u000a The mass loss starting temperature, T\\u000a ml, falls in a narrow range of temperatures: 578–594 K. FT-IR spectra, performed before and after 24 h

Claudia Simona Stefan; Daniel Lemordant; Philippe Biensan; Clémence Siret; Bénédicte Claude-Montigny



A comprehensive study on micellization of dissymmetric pyrrolidinium headgroup-based gemini surfactants.  


Three groups of pyrrolidinium headgroup-based gemini surfactants of 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(1-alkyl pyrrolidinium) bromide, in categories of symmetric CmC3CmPB (m = 10, 12, 14), dissymmetric CmC3C14PB (m = 10, 12, 14) and CmC3CnPB (m = 8, 10, 12, m + n = 24) surfactants, are studied using equilibrium surface tension, conductivity, fluorescence, and NMR techniques. The importance of the dissymmetry on the micellization has been revealed in detail. The increase in the hydrophobic chain length m for CmC3CmPB and CmC3C14PB or in the dissymmetry (n/m) for CmC3CnPB can strengthen the aggregation ability and surface activity of the surfactants significantly, i.e., a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and a lower surface tension at cmc (?cmc). However, the aggregation number at cmc (N*) obeys the opposite variation tendency and it becomes smaller upon increasing m or n/m, due to the formation of premicelles. Thermodynamic results reveal that the contribution of enthalpy (?H) to the Gibbs free energy (?G) is strengthened by increasing m or n/m during the spontaneous micellization process. Moreover, (1)H NMR results confirm the microenvironment change of the surfactants from polar water to micelles during the micellization, and 2D Noesy NMR spectra suggest that the methylene groups in the ring should adopt a conformation toward the nonpolar micellar core rather than in the polar water. PMID:25799507

Zou, Min; Dong, Jinfeng; Yang, Guangfu; Li, Xuefeng



Physico-Chemical Properties and Phase Behaviour of Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids  

PubMed Central

A review of the relevant literature on 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids has been presented. The phase diagrams for the binary systems of {1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) [EMPYR][CF3SO3] + water, or + 1-butanol} and for the binary systems of {1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) [PMPYR][CF3SO3] + water, or + an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol)} have been determined at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. The influence of alcohol chain length was discussed for the [PMPYR][CF3SO3]. A systematic decrease in the solubility was observed with an increase of the alkyl chain length of an alcohol. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria with complete miscibility in the liquid phase region were observed for the systems involving water and alcohols. The solubility of the ionic liquid increases as the alkyl chain length on the pyrrolidinium cation increases. The correlation of the experimental data has been carried out using the Wilson, UNIQUAC and the NRTL equations. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared to the systems published earlier with the 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. The influence of the cation and anion on the phase behaviour has been discussed. The basic thermal properties of pure ILs, i.e., melting temperature and the enthalpy of fusion, the solid-solid phase transition temperature and enthalpy have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique. PMID:20480044

Doma?ska, Urszula



Effect of Titanium Substitution on the Compatiblity of Electrodeswith Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquid Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The quest for the development of rechargeable lithium-metal batteries has attracted vigorous worldwide research efforts because this system offers the highest theoretical specific energy [1]. For this to be achieved, the repetitive deposition and stripping of lithium must be close to fully reversible. Thus, alternative electrolytes have been investigated, such as the room-temperature ionic liquid (RTILs). Lithium can be cycled with a high degree of reversibility with efficiencies exceeding 99% using systems based on N-methyl N-alkyl pyrrolidinium (P{sub 1X}{sup +}) combined with the TFSI anion [2]. More recent efforts have been directed towards systems based on P{sub 1X}{sup +} cations with the FSI anion and appear to be even more promising [3,4]. In this work, we discuss to what extent RTILs based on P{sub 1X}{sup +} cations with TFSI or FSI anions can be used as electrolytes for rechargeable Li batteries. In particular, their physical and chemical properties are thoroughly discussed so as to explain the difference observed in their electrochemical behavior. Although these two systems seem to be stable against lithium, their compatibilities with cathode materials require full assessment as well. Thus, various manganese oxide cathodes are investigated in this study. Strategies to minimize cathode dissolution are also debated, such as the substitution of part of the manganese for titanium.

Saint, Juliette A.; Shin, Joon-Ho; Best, Adam; Hollenkamp,Anthony; Kerr, John; Doeff, Marca M.



Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids doped with lithium salts: how does Li(+) coordination affect its diffusivity?  


We present the characterization of LiX-doped room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) based on the N-butyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium (PYR14) cation with two fluorinated anions: (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl)imide (X?IM14) and bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)imide (X?BETI). The new data are also compared with previous results on PYR14TFSI (bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide). Their local organization has been investigated via NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments for {(1)H-(19)F} and {(1)H-(7)Li} that give us details on PYR14(+)/X(-) and PYR14(+)/Li(+) contacts. We confirm the presence of [Li(X)2](-) coordinated species in all systems. The long-range, intermolecular NOEs have been detected and provide information on the ions' organization beyond the first solvation sphere. The ionic conductivity, viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients of the ionic mixtures have also been measured. The activation energies for the diffusion of the individual ions and for the fluidity are compared with those for the pure ILs. Finally, density functional calculations on [Li(BETI)2](-), [Li(IM14)2](-), and [Li(TFSI)2](-) complexes demonstrate that the minimum energy structures for all systems correspond to a tetrahedral coordination of the Li-ion by four oxygen atoms of the anions. Assuming very simple key steps for the Li(+) diffusion process (i.e., the concerted breaking and formation of Li-O bonds or the rearrangement around a tetrahedrally coordinated Li(+)), we calculate activation barriers that agree well with the experimental results (approximately 46 kJ/mol, in all systems). PMID:25368963

Castiglione, Franca; Famulari, Antonino; Raos, Guido; Meille, Stefano V; Mele, Andrea; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Passerini, Stefano



Highly Efficient Red-Light Emission in An Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ferroelectric: (Pyrrolidinium)MnCl3.  


Luminescence of ferroelectric materials is one important property for technological applications, such as low-energy electron excitation. However, the vast majority of doped inorganic ferroelectric materials have low luminescent efficiency. The past decade has envisaged much progress in the design of both ferroelectric and luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid complexes for optoelectronic applications. The combination of ferroelectricity and luminescence within organic-inorganic hybrids would lead to a new type of luminescent ferroelectric multifunctional materials. We herein report a hybrid molecular ferroelectric, (pyrrolidinium)MnCl3, which exhibits excellent ferroelectricity with a saturation polarization of 5.5 ?C/cm(2) as well as intense red luminescence with high quantum yield of 56% under a UV excitation. This finding may extend the application of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds to the field of ferroelectric luminescence and/or multifunctional devices. PMID:25806664

Zhang, Yi; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Chen, Zhong-Ning; Xiong, Ren-Gen



Growth of Gold Nanosheets and Nanopolyhedra in Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids: Investigation of the Cation Effect on the Resulting Morphologies  

SciTech Connect

Large gold nanosheets and small gold polyhedra have been successfully synthesized in room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) by an ionothermal reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} under N{sub 2} atmosphere, without using any additives. The effect of the organic cation on the final morphologies of the gold particles has been studied, and a series of pyrrolidinium-, imidazolium-, and quaternary amine-based ionic liquids have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Our results show that these ILs favor the anisotropic growth of gold by acting as template agents and that only gold microspheres can be obtained with the IL containing a reductive functionality.

Bouvy, Claire [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Yin, Hongfeng [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL



H/D isotope effect of 1H MAS NMR spectra and 79Br NQR frequencies of piperidinium p-bromobenzoate and pyrrolidinium p-bromobenzoate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H/D isotope effects onto 79Br NQR frequencies of piperidinium p-bromobenzoate were studied by deuterium substitution of hydrogen atoms which form two kinds of N-H?O type hydrogen bonds, and the isotope shift of ca. 100 kHz were detected for a whole observed temperature range. In addition, 1H MAS NMR spectra measurements of piperidinium and pyrrolidinium p-bromobenzoate were carried out and little isotope changes of NMR line shape were detected. In order to reveal effects of molecular arrangements into the obtained isotope shift of NQR frequencies, single-crystal X-ray measurement of piperidinium p-bromobenzoate- d2 and density-functional-theory calculation were carried out. Our estimation showed the dihedral-angle change between piperidine and benzene ring contributes to isotope shift rather than those of N-H lengths by deuterium substitution.

Honda, Hisashi; Kyo, Shinshin; Akaho, Yousuke; Takamizawa, Satoshi; Terao, Hiromitsu



Structure and properties of Li-ion conducting polymer gel electrolytes based on ionic liquids of the pyrrolidinium cation and the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the structure and physical properties of Li-ion conducting polymer gel electrolytes functionalized with ionic liquid/lithium salt mixtures. The membranes are based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) copolymer, PVdF-HFP, and two ionic liquids: pyrrolidinium cations, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (PyR14+), N-butyl-N-ethylpyrrolidinium (PyR24+), and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion (TFSI). The ionic liquids where doped with 0.2 mol kg--1 LiTFSI. The resulting membranes are freestanding, flexible, and nonvolatile. The structure of the polymer and the interactions between the polymer and the ionic liquid electrolyte have been studied using Raman spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity of the membranes has been studied using dielectric spectroscopy whereas the thermal properties were investigated using differential scanning caloriometry (DSC). These results show that there is a weak, but noticeable, influence on the physical properties of the ionic liquid by the confinement in the membrane. We observe a change in the Li-ion coordination, conformation of the anion, the fragility and a slight increase of the glass transition temperatures for IL/LiTFSI mixtures in the membranes compared to the neat mixtures. The effect can be related to the confinement of the liquid in the membrane and/or to interactions with the PVdF-HFP polymer matrix where the crystallinity is decreased compared to the starting polymer powder.

Pitawala, Jagath; Navarra, Maria Assunta; Scrosati, Bruno; Jacobsson, Per; Matic, Aleksandar



Rotational and Translational Dynamics of Rhodamine 6G in a Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquid: A Combined Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy Decay and NMR Study  

SciTech Connect

NMR spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay (TRFAD) are two of the most commonly used methods to study solute-solvent interactions. However, only a few studies have been reported to date using a combined NMR and TRFAD approach to systematically investigate the overall picture of diffusional and rotational dynamics of both the solute and solvent. In this paper, we combined NMR and TRFAD to probe fluorescent rhodamine dyes in a pyrrolidinium-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), an emergent environmentally-friendly solvent type used in several energy-related applications. A specific interaction of the R6G cation and [Tf2N]- anion was identified, resulting in near-stick boundary condition rotation of R6G in this RTIL. The diffusional rates of the R6G solute and [C4mpyr][Tf2N] solvent derived from 1H NMR suggest the rates are proportional to their corresponding hydrodynamic radii. The 1H and 13C NMR studies of self-rotational dynamics of [C4mpyr][Tf2N] showed that the self-rotational correlation time of [C4mpyr]+ is 47 2 ps at 300 K. At the same temperature, we find that the correlation time for N-CH3 rotation in [C4mpyr]+ is 77 2 ps, comparable to overall molecular reorientation. This slow motion is attributed to properties of the cation structure.

Guo, Jianchang [ORNL; Han, Kee Sung [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL



Pentaborate(1-) salts templated by substituted pyrrolidinium cations: synthesis, structural characterization, and modelling of solid-state H-bond interactions by DFT calculations.  


The synthesis and characterization of a series of pentaborate(1-) salts of substituted pyrrolidinium cations [C4H8NH2][B5O6(OH)4] (), [C4H8NMe2][B5O6(OH)4] () [C4H8NMeH][B5O6(OH)4] (), [(2-CH2OH)C4H7NH2][B5O6(OH)4] () is reported. All compounds were characterized by single-crystal XRD studies with (1/2CH3COCH3) and (1/2H2O) solvated. TGA/DSC analysis of the pentaborates showed that they thermally decomposed in air at 800 °C to 2.5 B2O3, in a 2 step process involving dehydration (<250 °C) and oxidative decomposition (250-600 °C). BET analysis of materials derived thermally from the pentaborates and had internal porosities of <1 m(2) g(-1), indicating they were non-porous. All compounds show extensive supramolecular H-bonded anionic lattices. H-bond interactions are described in detail and motifs found in these and in other pentaborate structures have been examined and modelled by DFT calculations. These calculations confirm that H-bonds interactions in pentaborates are moderately strong (ca. -10 to -21 kJ mol(-1)) and are likely to dominate the energetics of their templated syntheses. PMID:25785672

Beckett, Michael A; Coles, Simon J; Davies, R Andrew; Horton, Peter N; Jones, Charlotte L



Analysis of the solid electrolyte interphase formed with an ionic liquid electrolyte for lithium-sulfur batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on lithium electrodes in the presence of an ionic liquid electrolyte with a particular focus on the influence of polysulfides present in the electrolyte on the SEI. The electrochemical performance of symmetric cells with lithium electrodes and electrolytes composed of N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14-TFSI) and LiTFSI, with and without the addition of polysulfides, were analyzed as well as the chemical composition of the SEI, before and after cycling. The cycling behavior of the symmetrical cells shows that the SEI films are relatively stable in the ionic liquid electrolyte, also in the presence of polysulfides. However, the presence of polysulfides results in a higher SEI layer resistance (RSEI) and a higher activation energy. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), with argon-ion sputtering for depth profiling, we find that the SEI is formed by decomposition products from both cations and anions of the electrolyte. The XPS spectra show that the presence of polysulfides alters the decomposition process of the electrolyte, resulting in a SEI film with different chemical composition and structure, in line with the results from the electrochemical performance.

Xiong, Shizhao; Xie, Kai; Blomberg, Erik; Jacobsson, Per; Matic, Aleksandar



Homogeneous lithium electrodeposition with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolytes.  


In this study, we report on the electroplating and stripping of lithium in two ionic liquid (IL) based electrolytes, namely N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (Pyr14FSI) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI), and mixtures thereof, both on nickel and lithium electrodes. An improved method to evaluate the Li cycling efficiency confirmed that homogeneous electroplating (and stripping) of Li is possible with TFSI-based ILs. Moreover, the presence of native surface features on lithium, directly observable via scanning electron microscope imaging, was used to demonstrate the enhanced electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability, that is, fast cathodic reactivity of this class of electrolytes and the suppressed dendrite growth. Finally, the induced inhomogeneous deposition enabled us to witness the SEI cracking and revealed previously unreported bundled Li fibers below the pre-existing SEI and nonrod-shaped protuberances resulting from Li extrusion. PMID:25714124

Grande, Lorenzo; von Zamory, Jan; Koch, Stephan L; Kalhoff, Julian; Paillard, Elie; Passerini, Stefano



Surface properties of Gemini surfactants with pyrrolidinium head groups.  


Gemini surfactants C(n)-4-(n)PB (where n represents the alkyl chain length of 10, 12, 14 and 16) were synthesized and characterized. Their surface activity, thermodynamic properties, and aggregation behavior were investigated by means of surface tension, electrical conductivity, and steady-state fluorescence. It was found that the Gemini surfactants C(n)-4-(n)PB have superior surface activity to their corresponding monomer surfactants C(n)MPB as expected. Additionally, these compounds have lower cmc and surface tension in comparison with conventional cationic Gemini surfactants m-4-m. Thermodynamic parameters (?G(m)(0),?H(m)(0),T?S(m)(0)) show that the micellization is an entropy driven process with shorter hydrophobic chain lengths but instead is enthalpy driven for longer hydrophobic chain lengths. The effect of the hydrophobic alkyl chain length and the addition of inorganic salt NaBr on the surface activity and micellization are in line with the conventional cationic Gemini surfactants. PMID:22261268

Cai, Bo; Li, Xuefeng; Yang, Yi; Dong, Jinfeng



Ternary polymer electrolytes containing pyrrolidinium-based polymeric ionic liquids for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical properties of solvent-free, ternary polymer electrolytes based on a novel poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) as polymer host and incorporating PYR14TFSI ionic liquid and LiTFSI salt are reported. The PIL–LiTFSI–PYR14TFSI electrolyte membranes were found to be chemically stable even after prolonged storage times in contact with lithium anode and thermally stable up to 300°C. Particularly, the PIL-based

G. B. Appetecchi; G.-T. Kim; M. Montanino; M. Carewska; R. Marcilla; D. Mecerreyes; I. De Meatza



Photodetachment and electron reactivity in 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient absorption spectrum in the range 500 nm-1000 nm was measured with ultrafast time resolution on a flowing neat, aliphatic, room-temperature ionic liquid following anion photodetachment. In this region the spectrum was shown to be a combination of absorption from the electron and the hole. Spectrally-resolved electron quenching determined a bimodal shape for the hole spectrum in agreement with recent computational predictions on a smaller aliphatic ionic liquid [Margulis et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 20186 (2011)], 10.1021/ja203412v. For time delays beyond 15 ps, spectral evolution qualitatively agrees with recent radiolysis experiments [Wishart et al., Faraday Discuss. 154, 353 (2012), 10.1039/c1fd00065a]. However, the shape of the spectrum is different, reflecting the contrast in ionization energy between the two methods. Previously unobserved reactivity of the electron was found with a time constant of 300 fs. The results demonstrate solvent control of the rate coefficient for reaction between the electron and proton, with a rapid decline in the rate within the first picosecond.

Molins i Domenech, Francesc; FitzPatrick, Benjamin; Healy, Andrew T.; Blank, David A.



Communication: X-ray Scattering from Ionic Liquids with Pyrrolidinium Cations  

SciTech Connect

We report the structure functions obtained from x-ray scattering experiments on a series of four homologous ionic liquids. The ionic liquids are 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion, with alkyl chain lengths of n = 4, 6, 8, and 10. The structure functions display two intense diffraction peaks for values of the scattering vector q in the range from 0.6 to 1.5 {angstrom}{sup -1} for all samples. Both diffraction peaks shift to lower values of q for increasing temperature. First sharp diffraction peaks are observed in the structure functions for q < 0.5 {angstrom}{sup -1} for liquids with n = 6, 8, and 10.

C Santos; N Murthy; G Baker; E Castner



Influence of Solute Charge and Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquid Alkyl Chain Length on Probe Rotational Reorientation Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the effect of molecular charge on the rotational dynamics of probe solutes in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been a subject of growing interest. For the purpose of extending our understanding of charged solute behavior within RTILs, we have studied the rotational dynamics of three illustrative xanthene fluorescent probes within a series of N-alkylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Cnmpyr][Tf2N]) RTILs with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, or 10) using time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay. The rotational dynamics of the neutral probe rhodamine B dye lies between the stick and slip boundary conditions due to the influence of specific hydrogen bonding interactions. The rotation of the negatively-charged sulforhodamine 640 is slower than that of its positively-charged counterpart rhodamine 6G. An analysis based upon Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamics indicates that SR640 adheres to stick boundary conditions due to specific interactions, whereas the faster rotation of R6G is attributed to weaker electrostatic interactions. No dependence of the rotational dynamics on the solvent alkyl chain length was observed for any of the three dyes, suggesting that the specific interactions between dyes and RTILs are independent of this solvent parameter.

Guo, Jianchang [ORNL] [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL] [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL] [ORNL



‘Bucky gel’ of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as electrodes for high performance, flexible electric double layer capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preparation of a gelled form of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI)), referred to as ‘bucky gel’, to be used as binderless electrodes in electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The characteristics of gelled MWCNTs are compared with pristine MWCNTs using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman studies. A gel polymer electrolyte film consisting of a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and BMPTFSI, exhibiting a room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.5 × 10-3 S cm-1, shows its suitability as an electrolyte/separator in flexible EDLCs. The performance of EDLCs, assembled with bucky gel electrodes, using impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge analyses, are compared with those fabricated with pristine MWCNT-electrodes. An improvement in specific capacitance (from 19.6 to 51.3 F g-1) is noted when pristine MWCNTs are replaced by gelled MWCNT-binderless electrodes. Although the rate performance of the EDLCs with gelled MWCNT-electrodes is reduced, the pulse power of the device is sufficiently high (˜10.5 kW kg-1). The gelled electrodes offer improvements in energy and power densities from 2.8 to 8.0 Wh kg-1 and 2.0 to 4.7 kW kg-1, respectively. Studies indicate that the gel formation of MWCNTs with ionic liquid is an excellent route to obtain high-performance EDLCs.

Singh, Manoj K.; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S. A.



Azepanium-based ionic liquids as green electrolytes for high voltage supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work provides a first-time-study of Azepanium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as electrolyte components for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Herein, two Azepanium-based ILs, namely N-methyl, N-butyl-azepanium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Azp14TFSI) and N-methyl, N-hexyl-azepanium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Azp16TFSI) were compared with the established IL N-butyl, N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) in terms of viscosity, conductivity, thermal stability and electrochemical behavior in EDLC systems. The ILs' operative potentials were found to be comparable, leading to operative voltages up to 3.5 V without significant electrolyte degradation.

Pohlmann, S.; Olyschläger, T.; Goodrich, P.; Alvarez Vicente, J.; Jacquemin, J.; Balducci, A.




SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

Fox, E.



Alkyl Chain Length and Temperature Effects on Structural Properties of Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids: A Combined Atomistic Simulation and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study.  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium 12 bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([CnMPy][Tf2N], n = 3, 4, 6, 8, 10) were conducted 13 using an all-atom model. Radial distribution functions (RDF) were computed and structure 14 functions were generated to compare with new X-ray scattering experimental results, 15 reported herein. The scattering peaks in the structure functions generally shift to lower Q 16 values with increased temperature for all the liquids in this series. However, the first sharp 17 diffraction peak (FSDP) in the longer alkyl chain liquids displays a marked shift to higher Q 18 values with increasing temperature. Alkyl chain-dependent ordering of the polar groups and 19 increased tail aggregation with increasing alkyl chain length were observed in the partial pair 20 correlation functions and the structure functions. The reasons for the observed alkyl chain- 21 dependent phenomena and temperature effects were explored.

Li, Song [ORNL] [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL] [ORNL; Guo, Jianchang [ORNL] [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL] [ORNL; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL] [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL] [ORNL



FTIR and Raman Study of the LixTiyMn1-yO2 (y = 0, 0.11) Cathodes in Methylpropyl Pyrrolidinium Bis(fluoro-sulfonyl)imide, LiTFSI Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

This work demonstrates the protective effect of partial titanium substitution in Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2} against surface decomposition in room-temperature ionic liquid (RTILs) cells. Raman microscopy and reflectance Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to analyze electrodes recovered from cycled Li/Li{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (y=0, 0.11) cells containing the 0.5 mol/kg LiTFSI in P{sub 13}FSI RTIL electrolyte. [TFSI=bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.] Raman and FTIR spectra of cycled Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} cathodes showed many distinct bands that can be attributed to both the electrolyte and electrode decomposition products. The thickness of the amorphous porous layer on the Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} cathode increased during cycling. The surface degradation of Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} and precipitation of electrolyte decomposition products contributed to the film growth. Improved cycling behavior was observed in cells containing Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2}, yet Raman spectroscopy also showed possible surface degradation. The FTIR spectra of cycled Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} and Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2} cathodes displayed bands characteristic for LiSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}, which originate from the reaction of the TFSI anion with traces of water present in the cell.

Hardwick, L.J.; Lucas, I.T.; Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Saint, J.A.



Roles of viscosity, polarity, and hydrogen-bonding ability of a pyrrolidinium ionic liquid and its binary mixtures in the photophysics and rotational dynamics of the potent excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer probe 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol.  


The room-temperature ionic liquid [C3mpyr][Tf2N] and its binary mixtures with methanol and acetonitrile provide microenvironments of varying viscosity, polarity, and hydrogen-bonding ability. The present work highlights their effects on the photophysics and rotational dynamics of a potent excited-state intramolecular double-proton-transfer (ESIDPT) probe, 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol [BP(OH)2]. The rotational diffusion of the proton-transferred diketo (DK) tautomer in [C3mpyr][Tf2N] ionic liquid was analyzed for the first time from the experimentally obtained temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropy data using Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory and Gierer-Wirtz quasihydrodynamic theory (GW-QHT). It was found that the rotation of the DK tautomer in neat ionic liquid is governed solely by the viscosity of the medium, as the experimentally observed boundary-condition parameter, Cobs, was very close to the GW boundary-condition parameter (CGW). On the basis of photophysical studies of BP(OH)2 in IL-cosolvent binary mixtures, we suggest that methanol molecules form hydrogen bonds with the cationic counterpart of the DK tautomers, as evidenced by the greater extent of the decrease in the fluorescence lifetime of BP(OH)2 upon addition of methanol compared to acetonitrile. It is also possible for the methanol molecules to form hydrogen bonds with the constituents of the RTIL, which is supported by the lesser extent of the decrease in the viscosity of the medium upon addition of methanol, leading to a less effective decrease in the rotational relaxation time compared to that observed upon acetonitrile addition. PMID:23668553

Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Sarkar, Nilmoni



The preparation of quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquid containing a cyano group and its properties in a lithium battery electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

A room temperature ionic liquid consisting of N,N,N,N-cyanomethyl trimethyl ammonium (CTMA) cation and bis(trifluoromethane sulfone)imide (TFSI) anion was newly synthesized, and its electrochemical properties were investigated. This ionic liquid has a melting point of 35°C and an order of conductivity of 10?4Scm?1. Lithium deposition\\/dissolution tests in 0.2moldm?3 LiTFSI\\/CTMATFSI electrolytes showed an improved cycle behavior compared with that of a Li

Minato Egashira; Shigeto Okada; Jun-ichi Yamaki; Diego Alejandro Dri; Francesco Bonadies; Bruno Scrosati



Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Shao, Nan [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL



Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL



Ionic liquids based on (fluorosulfonyl)(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)imide with various oniums  

Microsoft Academic Search

New hydrophobic ionic liquids based on (fluorosulfonyl)(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([(FSO2)(C2F5SO2)N]?, FPFSI?) anion with various oniums, including imidazolium, tetraalkyl ammonium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium, were prepared and characterized. Their physicochemical and electrochemical properties, including phase transitions, thermal stability, viscosity, density, specific conductivity and electrochemical windows, were extensively characterized, and were comparatively studied with the corresponding ionic liquids containing the isomeric but symmetric TFSI? ([(CF3SO2)2N]?)

Kai Liu; Yi-Xuan Zhou; Hong-Bo Han; Si-Si Zhou; Wen-Fang Feng; Jin Nie; Hong Li; Xue-Jie Huang; Michel Armand; Zhi-Bin Zhou



Room temperature lithium polymer batteries based on ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this manuscript are reported the results of an investigation performed on rechargeable, all-solid-state, solvent-free, Li\\/LiFePO4 polymer batteries incorporating N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, PYR14TFSI, ionic liquid (IL). The tests show clearly the beneficial effect due to the incorporation of ionic liquids on room temperature battery performance that, conversely, results extremely poor in IL-free lithium polymer batteries. The theoretical capacity is delivered at

G. B. Appetecchi; G. T. Kim; M. Montanino; F. Alessandrini; S. Passerini



Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF, BMIMBF, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF-LiBF, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured

Justin Salminen; Nicolas Papaiconomou; John Kerr; John Prausnitz; John Newman



On the thermal behavior of model Li–Li x CoO 2 systems containing ionic liquids in standard electrolyte solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report herein on the possibility of using ionic liquids (ILs) as additives to conventional electrolyte solutions, based on alkyl carbonates and LiPF6 for attenuating thermal reactions in Li battery systems. As a model, a Li–Li0.5CoO2 system was used. The ionic liquids chosen included cations based on derivatives of pyrrolidinium and imidazolium, and the anions bioxalato borate (C4O8B?, BOB), (CH3SO2)2N?

L. Larush; V. Borgel; E. Markevich; O. Haik; E. Zinigrad; D. Aurbach; G. Semrau; M. Schmidt



A new family of ionic liquids based on N,N-dialkyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanium cations: organic plastic crystal behaviour and highly reversible lithium metal electrodeposition.  


A new family of ionic liquids based on N,N-dialkyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanium cations exhibits wide electrochemical windows, excellent lithium deposition-stripping behaviour and plastic crystal properties and therefore these cation structures, which are extensions from pyrrolidinium- and piperidinium-based cations, complement a set of related structures for a systematic study on the physicochemical properties of ionic liquids. PMID:18060150

Rüther, Thomas; Huang, Junhua; Hollenkamp, Anthony F



Electron Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity in Ionic Liquids Observed by Picosecond RadiolysisTechniques  

SciTech Connect

On time scales of a nanosecond or less, radiolytically-generated excess electrons in ionic liquids undergo solvation processes and reactions that determine all subsequent chemistry and the accumulation of radiolytic damage. Using picosecond pulse radiolysis detection methods, we observed and quantified the solvation response of the electron in 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and used it to understand electron scavenging by a typical solute, duroquinone.

Wishart J. F.; Funston, A.M.; Szreder, T.; Cook, A.R.; Gohdo, M.



Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Separating Organics from Produced Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of polar organic compounds typical of water contaminants (organic acids, alcohols, and aromatic compounds) associated with oil and gas production was measured between water and nine hydrophobic, room?temperature ionic liquids. The ionic liquids used in this study were 1?butyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?hexyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?octyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?butyl?3?methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?butyl?1?methyl?pyrrolidinium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, tributyltetradecylphosphonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate. Sensitivity

J. McFarlane; W. B. Ridenour; H. Luo; R. D. Hunt; D. W. DePaoli; R. X. Ren



Assessment of bromide-based ionic liquid toxicity toward aquatic organisms and QSAR analysis.  


The toxicities of 24 bromide-based ionic liquids (Br-ILs) towards Vibrio fischeri (V. fischeri) and Daphnia magna (D. magna) were determined. These Br-ILs are composed of a bromide ion and a generic cation (i.e., pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, pyridinium or imidazolium) with different alkyl side chains. QSAR models with relatively high correlation coefficients, R(2), of 0.954 and 0.895 were developed for V. fischeri and D. magna. The model for V. fischeri indicated that the Br-IL toxicity towards V. fischeri was negatively correlated with the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (ELUMO) which reflects the electron affinities (EAs) and positively correlated with the volumes of Br-IL cations. For the D. magna model, the Br-IL toxicity was positively correlated with the dipole moment (?) and negatively correlated with the total energy (TE) that is highly correlated with the molecular volume (V). For Br-ILs with the same cation ring, the toxicity increased as the length of the alkyl chains increased. For the same alkyl chain length, the toxicity order for V. fischeri was pyridinium>imidazolium>piperidinium>pyrrolidinium, except for those containing octyl side chains, while the toxicity ranking for D. magna was imidazolium~pyridinium>piperidinium>pyrrolidinium. PMID:25682588

Wang, Chao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao



Environmentally-friendly lithium recycling from a spent organic li-ion battery.  


A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium. PMID:25170568

Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina



Lithium insertion in graphite from ternary ionic liquid-lithium salt electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the results of chemical-physical investigation performed on ternary room temperature ionic liquid–lithium salt mixtures as electrolytes for lithium-ion battery systems. The ternary electrolytes were made by mixing N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (PYR13FSI) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) ionic liquids with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) or lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The mixtures were developed based on preliminary results

Giovanni B. Appetecchi; Maria Montanino; Andrea Balducci; Simon F. Lux; Martin Winterb; Stefano Passerini



Sol–gel synthesis of vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles in air- and water-stable ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanoparticles were synthesized at moderate reaction temperatures by hydrolysis of VO[OCH(CH3)2]3 in two different air- and water-stable ionic liquids with the same anion: 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide\\u000a ([Py1,4]Tf2N) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([EMIM]Tf2N) via the sol–gel method using acetone and isopropanol either as refluxing solvents or as co-solvents. The cation type of\\u000a the ionic liquid affects the crystallinity, morphology,

Mohammad Al Zoubi; Hala K. Farag; Frank Endres



Cycling and rate performance of Li–LiFePO 4 cells in mixed FSI–TFSI room temperature ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is conducted of the performance of lithium iron(II) phosphate, LiFePO4, as a cathode material in a lithium secondary battery that features an ionic liquid electrolyte solution and a metallic lithium anode. The electrolyte solution comprises an ionic liquid of a N-methyl-N-alkyl-pyrrolidinium (alkyl=n-propyl or n-butyl) cation and either the bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide [(FSO2)2N?] or bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [(F3CSO2)2N?] anion, together with 0.5molkg?1 of

A. P. Lewandowski; A. F. Hollenkamp; S. W. Donne; A. S. Best



Method for measuring surface temperature  


The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)



Carboxyl-functionalized task-specific ionic liquids for solubilizing metal oxides.  


Imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium, and quaternary ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salts were functionalized with a carboxyl group. These ionic liquids are useful for the selective dissolution of metal oxides and hydroxides. Although these hydrophobic ionic liquids are immiscible with water at room temperature, several of them form a single phase with water at elevated temperatures. Phase separation occurs upon cooling. This thermomorphic behavior has been investigated by (1)H NMR, and it was found that it can be attributed to the temperature-dependent hydration and hydrogen-bond formation of the ionic liquid components. The crystal structures of four ionic liquids and five metal complexes have been determined. PMID:18841931

Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Tinant, Bernard; Hartenbach, Ingo; Schleid, Thomas; Ngan, Vu Thi; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Binnemans, Koen



Gas Permeation through Polystyrene-Poly(ethylene oxide) Block Copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium air batteries are a potential technology for affordable energy storage. They consist of a lithium metal anode and a porous air cathode separated by a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, such as PEO/LiTFSI (PEO = poly(ethylene oxide), LiTFSI = lithium bis-trifluoromethane sulfonimide). For extended operation of such a battery, the polymer electrolyte must conduct lithium ions while blocking electrons and gases present in air. In order to maintain a pressure difference the membrane must be mechanically robust, which can be achieved by incorporating the PEO into a block copolymer with a glassy block such as PS (PS = polystyrene). To protect the lithium electrode, the membrane must have low permeability to gases in air such as CO2, N2, and O2. We have therefore studied the permeation of pure gases through a PS-PEO block copolymer. A high molecular weight, symmetric block copolymer with a lamellar morphology was used to cast free-standing membranes. Gas permeability was measured through these membranes with a standard, pressure-based technique. A model was developed to account for transport through the polymer membrane consisting of semi-crystalline PEO lamellae and amorphous PS lamellae. PEO crystallinity was extracted from the permeation model and compares well with values from differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

Hallinan, Daniel, Jr.; Minelli, Matteo; Giacinti-Baschetti, Marco; Balsara, Nitash



Pseudocapacitive mechanism of manganese oxide in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ionic liquid electrolyte studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.  


The electrochemical behavior of anodically deposited manganese oxide was studied in pyrrolidinium formate (P-HCOO), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMI-PF6), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMI-SCN) ionic liquids (ILs). The experimental data indicate that the Mn oxide electrode showed ideal pseudocapacitive performance in aprotic EMI-SCN IL. In a potential window of approximately 1.5 V, the oxide specific capacitance, evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry, was about 55 F/g. The electrochemical energy storage reaction was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was confirmed that the SCN- anions, instead of the EMI+ cations, were the primary working species that can become incorporated into the oxide and thus compensate the Mn3+/Mn4+ valent state variation upon the charge-discharge process. According to the analytical results, a pseudocapacitive mechanism of Mn oxide in the SCN- based aprotic IL was proposed. PMID:19621902

Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Deng, Ming-Jay; Cheng, Hui-Fang; Sun, I-Wen



Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.  


In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate. PMID:25328075

Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A



In vitro cytotoxicities of ionic liquids: effect of cation rings, functional groups, and anions.  


In vitro cytotoxicities were measured for ionic liquids (ILs) containing various cations and anions using the MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. We measured the cytotoxicities of ionic liquids containing the cations pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, or imidazolium with various alkyl chain lengths, and the anions bromide, bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide (Tf(2)N), trifluoromethylsulfonate (TfO), or nonafluoromethylsulfonate (NfO). Three new hydrophobic, task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs), namely, [MBCNPip](+)[Tf(2)N](-), [MPS(2)Pip](+)[Tf(2)N](-), and [MPS(2)Pyrro](+)[Tf(2)N](-) designed for metal-ion extraction were also evaluated. IC(50) values of the ionic liquids toward the MCF7 cells ranged from 8 microM to 44 mM. The toxicity depended significantly on the nature of the cations and anions, especially when the cations contained a long side chain. TSILs studied in this work were less toxic than the classical ILs. PMID:18825729

Kumar, R Anand; Papaïconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Clark, Douglas S; Prausnitz, John M



Metsulfuron-methyl-based herbicidal ionic liquids.  


Ten sulfonylurea-based herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) were prepared by combining the metsulfuron-methyl anion with various cation types including quaternary ammonium ([bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyloleylammonium](+), [2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium](+)), pyridinium ([1-dodecylpyridinium](+)), piperidinium ([1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium](+)), imidazolium ([1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium](+), [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium](+)), pyrrolidinium ([1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium](+)), morpholinium ([4-decyl-4-methylmorpholinium](+)), and phosphonium ([trihexyltetradecylphosphonium](+) and [tetrabutylphosphonium](+)). Their herbicidal efficacy was studied in both greenhouse tests and field trials. Preliminary results for the greenhouse tests showed at least twice the activity for all HILs when compared to the activity of commercial Galmet 20 SG, with HILs with phosphonium cations being the most effective. The results of two-year field studies showed significantly less enhancement of activity than observed in the greenhouse; nonetheless, it was found that the herbicidal efficacy was higher than that of the commercial analog, and efficacy varied depending on the plant species. PMID:25734891

Pernak, Juliusz; Niemczak, Micha?; Shamshina, Julia L; Gurau, Gabriela; G?owacki, Grzegorz; Praczyk, Tadeusz; Marcinkowska, Katarzyna; Rogers, Robin D



Spectroscopic and computational analysis of the molecular interactions in the ionic liquid ion pair [BMP]{sup +}[TFSI]{sup -}  

SciTech Connect

1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMP]{sup +}[TFSI]{sup ?}) ion pairs were studied using DFT at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d) level. Nine locally stable conformations of the ion pair were located. In the most stable conformation, [TFSI]{sup ?} takes a cis conformation and lies below the pyrrolidinium ring. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of nine hydrogen bonds. Interaction energies were recalculated at the Second-order Møller–Plesset (MP2) level to show the importance of dispersion interaction. Further investigation through natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis provided insight into the importance of charge transfer interactions in the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were calculated and compared with vibrations of the free ions as well as the experimental infrared spectrum. Assignments and frequency shifts are discussed in light of the inter-ionic interactions.

Mao, James X.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan



Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.



A sulfide/polysulfide-based ionic liquid electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.  


Further development of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) will require long-term stability in addition to the continuous increase of photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiency achieved in the last years. We report a robust S(2-)/S(n)(2-) electrolyte that has been specifically designed for compatibility with CdSe quantum dots in sensitized solar cells. The new pyrrolidinium ionic liquid reaches 1.86% efficiency and a short-circuit current close to 14 mA·cm(-2) under air-mass 1.5 global illumination and improves the device lifetime with good photoanode stability over 240 h. PV characterization showed that the solar cell limitations relate to poor catalysis of regeneration at the counter electrode and high recombination. Further improvement of these factors in the robust electrolyte configuration may thus have a significant impact for advancing the state-of-the-art in QDSCs. PMID:22107441

Jovanovski, Vasko; González-Pedro, Victoria; Giménez, Sixto; Azaceta, Eneko; Cabañero, Germán; Grande, Hans; Tena-Zaera, Ramon; Mora-Seró, Iván; Bisquert, Juan



Synthesis and characterization of 5-cyanotetrazolide-based ionic liquids.  


New salts based on imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, phosphonium, guanidinium, and ammonium cations together with the 5-cyanotetrazolide anion [C2 N5 ](-) are reported. Depending on the nature of cation-anion interactions, characterized by XRD, the ionic liquids (ILs) have a low viscosity and are liquid at room temperature or have higher melting temperatures. Thermogravimetric analysis, cyclic voltammetry, viscosimetry, and impedance spectroscopy display a thermal stability up to 230?°C, an electrochemical window of 4.5?V, a viscosity of 25?mPa?s at 20?°C, and an ionic conductivity of 5.4 mS cm(-1) at 20?°C for the IL 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium 5-cyanotetrazolide [BMPyr][C2 N5 ]. On the basis of these results, the synthesized compounds are promising electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25504790

Bergholz, Timm; Oelkers, Benjamin; Huber, Benedikt; Roling, Bernhard; Sundermeyer, Jörg



3-Methylpiperidinium ionic liquids.  


A wide range of room temperature ionic liquids based on the 3-methylpiperdinium cation core were produced from 3-methylpiperidine, which is a derivative of DYTEK® A amine. First, reaction with 1-bromoalkanes or 1-bromoalkoxyalkanes generated the corresponding tertiary amines (Rm?pip, R = alkyl or alkoxyalkyl); further quaternisation reactions with the appropriate methylating agents yielded the quaternary [Rmm?pip]X salts (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-); Tf = -SO2CF3), and [Rmm?pip][NTf2] were prepared by anion metathesis from the corresponding iodides. All [NTf2](-) salts are liquids at room temperature. [Rmm?pip]X (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-)) are low-melting solids when R = alkyl, but room temperature liquids upon introduction of ether functionalities on R. Neither of the 3-methylpiperdinium ionic liquids showed any signs of crystallisation, even well below 0 °C. Some related non-C-substituted piperidinium and pyrrolidinium analogues were prepared and studied for comparison. Crystal structures of 1-hexyl-1,3-dimethylpiperidinium tetraphenylborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpiperidinium bromide, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium chloride and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide are reported. Extensive structural and physical data are collected and compared to literature data, with special emphasis on the systematic study of the cation ring size and/or asymmetry effects on density, viscosity and ionic conductivity, allowing general trends to be outlined. Cyclic voltammetry shows that 3-methylpiperidinium ionic liquids, similarly to azepanium, piperidinium or pyrrolidinium counterparts, are extremely electrochemically stable; the portfolio of useful alternatives for safe and high-performing electrolytes is thus greatly extended. PMID:25669485

Belhocine, Tayeb; Forsyth, Stewart A; Gunaratne, H Q Nimal; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Nockemann, Peter; Puga, Alberto V; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Whiston, Keith



Control of the recombination rate by changing the polarity of the electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Recombination in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) is an electron transfer process critical for high efficiency. The chemical nature of the electron acceptor is known to have an important impact on recombination and, hence, limits the choice of hole conductors in DSCs and related solar cells. In this respect, Room Temperature Ionic liquids (RTILs) have been recognized as an alternative to volatile organic solvents due to their negligible vapor pressure, which offers the chance for long-term stability. However, RTIL-based electrolytes lead to lower performance, a feature that has been attributed to the high viscosity of ionic liquids and the mass-transport limitation associated with it. In this work we show that the origin of the lower performance is also related to an increase in the recombination loss due to the polar nature of the RTIL and the influence of the reorganization energy of the electron acceptor in a polar environment. To investigate this chemical effect, different mixing ratios of RTILs and an organic solvent (acetonitrile) have been considered. The fabricated devices have been characterized by small-perturbation techniques (Impedance Electrochemical Spectroscopy and Intensity-Modulated Photovoltage and Photocurrent Spectroscopies) and Open-Circuit Voltage Decay measurements, which have been used to extract electron lifetimes at different applied voltages. Two different ruthenium dyes (hydrophilic N719 and hydrophobic Z907) and two different cations in the RTIL (imidazolium- and pyrrolidinium-based) have been considered. The results obtained show that for pure ionic liquids the lifetime-voltage curve is exponential, which is a signature of large reorganization energies for electron transfer. In contrast, pure acetonitrile exhibits a non-exponential behavior, which is consistent with relatively low reorganization energy. Interestingly, and as a general rule, we find that recombination is faster in systems with higher reorganization energies. This is interpreted as a consequence of the availability of more acceptor states for electron transfer. In addition, it is found that mixing RTILs and acetonitrile is an interesting strategy to increase the stability of DSCs without significant recombination losses, provided that the right dye and RTIL, in particular, a pyrrolidinium component, are used. PMID:25184736

Idigoras, Jesús; Tena-Zaera, Ramón; Anta, Juan A



Secondary and tertiary polydiallylammonium salts: novel polymers with high antimicrobial activity.  


Antimicrobial activity of secondary and tertiary poly(diallylammonium) salts (PDAAs) had not been reported before. Due to difficulties with preparation of polymers from the monomers of the diallylamine (DAA) series in the nonquaternary form, up to recently it was not possible to obtain PDAAs with a sufficiently high molecular mass. Here, we describe the investigations of antimicrobial activity of novel water-soluble cationic polyelectrolytes of the PDAA series, namely secondary poly(diallylammonium trifluoroacetate) (PDAATFA) and tertiary poly(diallylmethylammonium trifluoroacetate) (PDAMATFA), in synthesis of which we have recently succeeded, against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. We have studied the effect of molecular weight (polymeric chain length) and ionic strength of solution on the biocidal efficiency of those polymers; in addition, the concentration dependences of PDAATFA reduced viscosity in salt-free and KCl aqueous solutions have been investigated. The antimicrobial properties of polybase polydiallylamine (BPDAA), which was obtained in an aqueous solution of PDAATFA in presence of alkali, have been also studied as well as biocidal activity of commercial open-chain polybase branched PEI. Those PDAATFA, BPDAA and PEI polymers served as the systems to study the structure-activity relationships. Transmission electronic microscopy study was carried out to characterize the mode of antimicrobial action of PDAATFA using E. coli . It was shown that the synthesized PDAATFA and PDAMATFA exhibit, unlike the quaternary polymers of this series, a rather high biocidal efficiency that is comparable with the activity of known effective cationic polymer biocides or exceeds it. Novel polyelectrolytes exhibit quite strong biocidal properties at different conditions including aqueous solutions of moderate ionic strength (serum, 0.01 M/0.1 M) and aqueous-alkaline solutions (pH 10.5) until the macrochain retains some positive charge, but complete neutralization of the polyelectrolyte in a 1 M salt solution results in the loss of its biocidal activity. The obtained results evidence that the structure of links, which combine the hydrophobic pyrrolidinium rings with the hydrophilic secondary/tertiary ammonium groups, is responsible for the high biocidal activity of the PDAAs. Polymeric nature of the synthesized compounds is one of the most significant factors of their bactericidal efficiency, unlike their high fungicidal activity, which is evidently related to the secondary/tertiary pyrrolidinium cycle. PMID:19795886

Timofeeva, Larisa M; Kleshcheva, Natalia A; Moroz, Antonina F; Didenko, Lyubov V



Effect of cation type, alkyl chain length, adsorbate size on adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromide ionic liquids from aqueous solutions onto microporous fabric and granulated activated carbons.  


The adsorption from aqueous solution of imidazolium, pyrrolidinium and pyridinium based bromide ionic liquids (ILs) having different alkyl chain lengths was investigated on two types of microporous activated carbons: a fabric and a granulated one, well characterized in terms of surface chemistry by "Boehm" titrations and pH of point of zero charge measurements and of porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K and CO2 adsorption at 273 K. The influence of cation type, alkyl chain length and adsorbate size on the adsorption properties was analyzed by studying kinetics and isotherms of eight different ILs using conductivity measurements. Equilibrium studies were carried out at different temperatures in the range [25-55 °C]. The incorporation of ILs on the AC porosity was studied by N2 adsorption-desorption measurements at 77 K. The experimental adsorption isotherms data showed a good correlation with the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of ILs onto activated carbons was an exothermic process, and that the removal efficiency increased with increase in alkyl chain length, due to the increase in hydrophobicity of long chain ILs cations determined with the evolution of the calculated octanol-water constant (Kow). The negative values of free energies indicated that adsorption of ILs with long chain lengths having hydrophobic cations was more spontaneous at the investigated temperatures. PMID:24929502

Hassan, Safia; Duclaux, Laurent; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Reinert, Laurence; Farooq, Amjad; Yasin, Tariq



Structure of 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ionic liquids with linear, branched, and cyclic alkyl groups.  


X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate structural differences and similarities in the condensed phase between pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (NTf2(-)) anion where the cationic tail is linear, branched, or cyclic. This is important in light of the charge and polarity type alternations that have recently been shown to be present in the case of liquids with cations of moderately long linear tails. For this study, we have chosen to use the 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, Pyrr(1,n(+)) with n = 5 or 7, as systems with linear tails, 1-(2-ethylhexyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium, Pyrr(1,EtHx(+)), as a system with a branched tail, and 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium, Pyrr(1,ChxMe(+)), as a system with a cyclic tail. We put these results into context by comparing these data with recently published results for the Pyrr(1,n(+))/NTf2(-) ionic liquids with n = 4, 6, 8, and 10.1,2 General methods for interpreting the structure function S(q) in terms of q-dependent natural partitionings are described. This allows for an in-depth analysis of the scattering data based on molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories that highlight the effect of modifying the cationic tail. PMID:23750608

Kashyap, Hemant K; Santos, Cherry S; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Hettige, Jeevapani J; Kerr, Kijana; Ramati, Sharon; Gwon, JinHee; Gohdo, Masao; Lall-Ramnarine, Sharon I; Wishart, James F; Margulis, Claudio J; Castner, Edward W



Methane-oxygen electrochemical coupling in an ionic liquid: a robust sensor for simultaneous quantification.  


Current sensor devices for the detection of methane or natural gas emission are either expensive and have high power requirements or fail to provide a rapid response. This report describes an electrochemical methane sensor utilizing a non-volatile and conductive pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte and an innovative internal standard method for methane and oxygen dual-gas detection with high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability. At a platinum electrode in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2)-based ILs, methane is electro-oxidized to produce CO2 and water when an oxygen reduction process is included. The in situ generated CO2 arising from methane oxidation was shown to provide an excellent internal standard for quantification of the electrochemical oxygen sensor signal. The simultaneous quantification of both methane and oxygen in real time strengthens the reliability of the measurements by cross-validation of two ambient gases occurring within a single sample matrix and allows for the elimination of several types of random and systematic errors in the detection. We have also validated this IL-based methane sensor employing both conventional solid macroelectrodes and flexible microfabricated electrodes using single- and double-potential step chronoamperometry. PMID:25093213

Wang, Zhe; Guo, Min; Baker, Gary A; Stetter, Joseph R; Lin, Lu; Mason, Andrew J; Zeng, Xiangqun



Structural and electrochemical properties of succinonitrile-based gel polymer electrolytes: role of ionic liquid addition.  


Experimental studies on the novel compositions of gel polymer electrolytes, comprised of plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN) dispersed with pyrrolidinium and imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) entrapped in a host polymer poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), are reported. The gel electrolytes are in the form of free-standing films with excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical stability. The introduction of even a small content (~1 wt %) of ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMITf) in the PVdF-HFP/SN system (1:4 w/w) enhances the electrical conductivity by 4 orders of magnitude, that is, from ~10(-7) to ~10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The structural changes due to the entrapment of SN or SN/ILs mixtures and ion-SN-polymer interactions are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimmetry (DSC). Various physicochemical properties and fast ion conduction in the gel polymer membranes show their promising characteristics as electrolytes in different ionic devices including supercapacitors. PMID:23758408

Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S A



Ionic liquids as antiwear additives in base oils: influence of structure on miscibility and antiwear performance for steel on aluminum.  


The use of ionic liquids as additives to base oil for the lubrication of steel on aluminum was investigated. The miscibility and wear performance of various phosphonium, imidazolium, and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids in a range of polar and nonpolar base oils was determined. The structure and ion pairing of the ionic liquids was found to be important in determining their miscibility in the base oils. In wear tests, some of the miscible base oil/IL blends reduced the aluminum wear depth when compared to that found with the base oil alone. The nonpolar base oil/IL blends were able to withstand higher wear-test loads than the polar base oil/IL blends. At 10 N, as little as 0.01 mol/kg of IL, or 0.7-0.9 wt %, in the nonpolar base oils was enough to drastically reduce the wear depth on the aluminum. XPS analysis of the wear surfaces suggested that the adsorbing of the IL to the surface, where it can form low-shear layers and also react to form tribofilms, is important in reducing friction and wear. The largest reductions in wear at the highest load tested were found for a mineral oil/P6,6,6,14 (i)(C8)2PO2 blend. PMID:24187923

Somers, Anthony E; Khemchandani, Bhawna; Howlett, Patrick C; Sun, Jiazeng; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria



Benzyl-Functionalized Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for CO2/N2 Separation  

SciTech Connect

In this work, three classes of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), including imidazolium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids with a benzyl group appended to the cation, were synthesized and tested for their performance in separating CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. All RTILs contained the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, permitting us to distinguish the impact of the benzyl moiety attached to the cation on gas separation performance. In general, the attachment of the benzyl group increased the viscosity of the ionic liquid compared with the unfunctionalized analogs and decreased the CO{sub 2} permeability. However, all of the benzyl-modified ionic liquids exhibited enhanced CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities compared with alkyl-based ionic liquids, with values ranging from 22.0 to 33.1. In addition, CO{sub 2} solubilities in the form of Henry's constants were also measured and compared with unfunctionalized analogs. Results of the membrane performance tests and CO{sub 2} solubility measurements demonstrate that the benzyl-functionalized RTILs have significant potential for use in the separation of carbon dioxide from combustion products.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Dai, Thomas N [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL



Extraction separation of rare-earth ions via competitive ligand complexations between aqueous and ionic-liquid phases.  


The extraction separation of rare earth elements is one of the most challenging separation processes in hydrometallurgy and advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The TALSPEAK process (trivalent actinide lanthanide separations by phosphorus-reagent extraction from aqueous komplexes) is a prime example of these separation processes. The objective of this paper is to explore the use of ionic liquids (ILs) for the TALSPEAK-like process, to further enhance its extraction efficiencies for lanthanides, and to investigate the potential of using this modified TALSPEAK process for separation of lanthanides among themselves. Eight imidazolium ILs ([C(n)mim][NTf(2)] and [C(n)mim][BETI], n = 4,6,8,10) and one pyrrolidinium IL ([C(4)mPy][NTf(2)]) were investigated as diluents using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant for the separation of lanthanide ions from aqueous solutions of 50 mM glycolic acid or citric acid and 5 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). The extraction efficiencies were studied in comparison with diisopropylbenzene (DIPB), an organic solvent used as a diluent for the conventional TALSPEAK extraction system. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for a number of lanthanide ions using HDEHP as an extractant in these ILs. The effects of different alkyl chain lengths in the cations of ILs and of different anions on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of lanthanide ions are also presented in this paper. PMID:21735029

Sun, Xiaoqi; Bell, Jason R; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng



LDI and ESI MS as well as low energy CID of a self-assembling nanorod-forming fullerene derivative.  


An amphiphatic fullerene derivative (8-(N-Methyl-Fullero-Pyrrolidinium-1-yl-chloride)-3,6-Dioxaoctan-1-Ammonium Chloride (MFPDAC)), which is of great interest in nanotechnology due to the fact that it forms self-assembling fullerenic nanorods, has been structurally characterized with emphasis to its purity and thermal treatment of a formed nanorod film (on a LDI target) by means of laser desorption/ionization (LDI) coupled with high-resolution curved field reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, and by low energy MS/MS as well as in-source fragmentation experiments applying an quadrupole ion trap (QIT) combined with a two-stage reflectron TOF analyzer. The interpretation of LDI results has been supplemented by ESI QIT MS(n) (n = 1-3), as well as high-resolution ESI reflectron TOF mass spectrometric experiments. Based on the experimental data obtained by both desorption/ionization techniques, various types of analyzers and sample treatments, we could completely characterize MFPDAC and further found out that the investigated sample was not entirely free of impurities. Furthermore, the envisaged loss of the derivative sidechain upon the heat treatment in vacuum of the self-assembled nanorod sample film on a metallic substrate could be successfully monitored by LDI MS. PMID:22124981

Rechthaler, Justyna; Pelzing, Matthias; Ingendoh, Arndt; Kukovecz, Akos; Prato, Maurizio; Kuzmany, Hans; Allmaier, Günter



Effects of ionic liquids on membrane fusion and lipid aggregation of egg-PC liposomes.  


In this study we have explored the effects of different groups of ionic liquids (ILs) on membrane fusion. The ILs used contain different head groups: N-methylimidazolium, 3-methylpyridinium and N-methylpyrrolidinium; short alkyl or ether functionalized side chains (with one or two ethoxy functionalities), paired with chloride anion. These ILs have been compared with 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as example of a highly lipophilic IL. The effect of ILs on membrane fusion was investigated through pyrene steady state fluorescence probing, using the IE factor and excimer/monomer ratio (IE/IM) as parameters. The ratio between the vibronic bands of pyrene (I1/I3 ratio) has been used to monitor the effect of ILs on the aggregation properties of egg-PC liposomes. The effect of different ILs' families was evident; the pyridinium ILs induced a greater extent of fusion than pyrrolidinium and imidazolium ILs having the same side chain. Marginal effect could be attributed to different anions. ILs with short alkyl chains were usually more effective than ether functionalized ones. The aggregation behaviors of ILs having dioxygenated chains have been measured in buffer solution. PMID:25483843

Galletti, Paola; Malferrari, Danilo; Samorì, Chiara; Sartor, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Emilio



Characterization of phosphonium ionic liquids through a linear solvation energy relationship and their use as GLC stationary phases.  


In recent years, room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have proven to be of great interest to analytical chemists. One important development is the use of RTILs as highly thermally stable GLC stationary phases. To date, nearly all of the RTIL stationary phases have been nitrogen-based (ammonium, pyrrolidinium, imidazolium, etc.). In this work, eight new monocationic and three new dicationic phosphonium-based RTILs are used as gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) stationary phases. Inverse gas chromatography (GC) analyses are used to study the solvation properties of the phosphonium RTILs through a linear solvation energy model. This model describes the multiple solvation interactions that the phosphonium RTILs can undergo and is useful in understanding their properties. In addition, the phosphonium-based stationary phases are used to separate complex analyte mixtures by GLC. Results show that the small differences in the solvent properties of the phosphonium ILs compared with ammonium-based ILs will allow for different and unique separation selectivities. Also, the phosphonium-based stationary phases tend to be more thermally stable than nitrogen-based ILs, which is an advantage in many GC applications. PMID:18274737

Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W



Inhibition of ( sup 3 H)dopamine uptake into rat striatal slices by quaternary N-methylated nicotine metabolites  

SciTech Connect

The effects of quaternary N-methylated nicotine derivatives were examined on in vitro uptake of ({sup 3}H)dopamine (({sup 3}H)DA) in rat striatal slices. Striatal slices were incubated with a 10 {mu}M concentration of the following compounds: N-methylnicotinium, N-methylnornicotinium, N-methylcotininium, N,N{prime}-dimethylnicotinium and N{prime}-methylnicotinium salts. The results clearly indicated that significant inhibition of ({sup 3}H)DA uptake occurred with those compounds possessing a N-methylpyridinium group; whereas, compounds that were methylated at the N{prime}-pyrrolidinium position were less effective or exhibited no inhibition of ({sup 3}H)DA uptake. The results suggest that high concentrations of quaternary N-methylated nicotine metabolites which are structurally related to the neurotoxin MPP{sup +}, and which may be formed in the CNS, may protect against Parkinson's Disease and explain the inverse relationship between smoking and Parkinsonism reported in epidemiologic studies.

Dwoskin, L.P.; Leibee, L.L.; Jewell, A.L.; Fang, Zhaoxia; Crooks, P.A. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States))



Characteristics of aggregation in aqueous solutions of dialkylpyrrolidinium bromides.  


Three pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids-N-dodecyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide, N-butyl-N-octylpyrrolidinium bromide, and N-butyl-N-dodecylpyrrolodinium bromide-were synthesized and characterized by their decomposition temperatures (T(d)) measured by thermogravimetric analysis, and by their melting point (T(m)), glass transition (T(g)) and crystallization temperatures (T(cryst)) determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Their self-aggregation properties in aqueous solution were studied and their behavior is compared with that of analogous conventional cationic surfactants, namely tetra-alkylammonium bromide salts. The critical micellar concentration, cmcs were obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC); which were further validated by measurements of interfacial tension, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. Enthalpies of micellization were measured at three different temperatures using ITC. The Taylor dispersion method and DOSY NMR were used to determine diffusion coefficients of the ionic liquid surfactants in aqueous solution at 298.15K. Several correlations between structural features of the surfactant species, such as the number and size of their alkyl chains, and the thermodynamic quantities of micellization-expressed by experimental values of cmc, counter-ion binding fraction, ?(mic)G°, ?(mic)°, and ?(mic)S°-are established. We could interpret the different contributions of the two alkyl side chains to the aggregation properties in terms of the balance of interactions in homogeneous and micellar phases, contributing to understanding the aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in water and the parallel between these systems and traditional ionic surfactants. PMID:21601215

Tariq, M; Podgoršek, A; Ferguson, J L; Lopes, A; Costa Gomes, M F; Pádua, A A H; Rebelo, L P N; Canongia Lopes, J N



The effect of the cation alkyl chain branching on mutual solubilities with water and toxicities.  


The design of ionic liquids has been focused on the cation-anion combinations but other more subtle approaches can be used. In this work the effect of the branching of the cation alkyl chain on the design of ionic liquids (ILs) is evaluated. The mutual solubilities with water and toxicities of a series of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-based ILs, combined with imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium cations with linear or branched alkyl chains, are reported. The mutual solubility measurements were carried out in the temperature range from (288.15 to 323.15) K. From the obtained experimental data, the thermodynamic properties of the solution (in the water-rich phase) were determined and discussed. The COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to predict the liquid-liquid equilibrium. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations were also carried out aiming to get a deeper understanding of these fluids at the molecular level. The results show that the increase in the number of atoms at the cation ring (from five to six) leads to a decrease in the mutual solubilities with water while increasing their toxicity, and as expected from the well-established relationship between toxicities and hydrophobicities of ILs. The branching of the alkyl chain was observed to decrease the water solubility in ILs, while increasing the ILs solubility in water. The inability of COSMO-RS to correctly predict the effect of branching alkyl chains toward water solubility on them was confirmed using molecular dynamic simulations to be due to the formation of nano-segregated structures of the ILs that are not taken into account by the COSMO-RS model. In addition, the impact of branched alkyl chains on the toxicity is shown to be not trivial and to depend on the aromatic nature of the ILs. PMID:25119425

Kurnia, Kiki A; Sintra, Tânia E; Neves, Catarina M S S; Shimizu, Karina; Canongia Lopes, José N; Gonçalves, Fernando; Ventura, Sónia P M; Freire, Mara G; Santos, Luís M N B F; Coutinho, João A P



The Influence of receptor kinetics on the onset and duration of action and the therapeutic index of NVA237 and tiotropium.  


Studies under nonphysiological conditions suggest that long receptor residency time is responsible for the 24-h duration of action of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) tiotropium. Our aim was to determine how clinically relevant dissociation rates under more physiological conditions influence the differences in onset of action between tiotropium and 3-[(cyclopentylhydroxyphenylacetyl oxy]-1,1-dimethyl-pyrrolidinium bromide (NVA237), a once-daily dry-powder formulation of the LAMA glycopyrronium bromide in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, we have investigated kinetic selectivity at each of the muscarinic receptor subtypes to determine whether the improved cardiovascular therapeutic index obtained with NVA237 in animal models is attributable to differences in kinetic rate constants. The binding of radioligand [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine was measured in the presence/absence of several concentrations of unlabeled competitors, and data were analyzed using a competition kinetic model to provide on/off rates for the competitor. We found shorter dissociation half-lives for NVA237 and tiotropium under physiological (11.4 and 46.2 min, respectively) versus nonphysiological conditions (173 and 462 min, respectively). NVA237 had a more rapid onset of action (3-4.8 times) versus tiotropium, determined in an vitro calcium and rat tracheal strip assay. Simulations suggested that the more rapid onset of NVA237 action could be explained by differences in kinetic parameters. NVA237 had greater equilibrium binding and kinetic selectivity for muscarinic type 3 (M3) versus muscarinic type 2 (M2) receptors, with a faster off rate from M2 versus M3 receptors than tiotropium, potentially affording it a more favorable therapeutic index. This study suggests that the 24-h duration of action of NVA237 and tiotropium is not solely the result of their slow dissociation from the M3 receptor and highlights the importance of conducting in vitro experiments in conditions reflecting those in vivo. PMID:22854200

Sykes, David A; Dowling, Mark R; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Kent, Toby C; Fawcett, Lindsay; Renard, Emilie; Trifilieff, Alexandre; Charlton, Steven J



Functionalized fullerenes mediate photodynamic killing of cancer cells: Type I versus Type II photochemical mechanism  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill cells. Most clinically studied PS are based on the tetrapyrrole structure of porphyrins, chlorins and related molecules, but new non-tetrapyrrole PS are being sought. Fullerenes are soccer-ball shaped molecules composed of sixty or seventy carbon atoms and have attracted interest in connection with the search for biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Fullerenes are biologically inert unless derivatized with functional groups, whereupon they become soluble and can act as PS. We have compared the photodynamic activity of six functionalized fullerenes with 1, 2, or 3 hydrophilic or 1, 2, or 3 cationic groups. The octanol-water partition coefficients were determined and the relative contributions of Type I photochemistry (photogeneration of superoxide in the presence of NADH) and Type II photochemistry (photogeneration of singlet oxygen) were studied by measurement of oxygen consumption, 1270-nm luminescence and EPR spin-trapping of the superoxide product. We studied three mouse cancer cell lines: (J774, LLC and CT26) incubated for 24 h with fullerenes and illuminated with white light. The order of effectiveness as PS was inversely proportional to the degree of substitution of the fullerene nucleus for both the neutral and cationic series. The mono-pyrrolidinium fullerene was the most active PS against all cell lines and induced apoptosis 4–6 hours after illumination. It produced diffuse intracellular fluorescence when dichlorodihydrofluorescein was added as an ROS probe suggesting a Type I mechanism for phototoxicity. We conclude that certain functionalized fullerenes have potential as novel PDT agents and phototoxicity may be mediated both by superoxide and by singlet oxygen. PMID:17664135

Mroz, Pawel; Pawlak, Anna; Satti, Minahil; Lee, Haeryeon; Wharton, Tim; Gali, Hariprasad; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.