Science.gov

Sample records for na osnove tin

  1. Octahedral tin dioxide nanocrystals as high capacity anode materials for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Wang, Chengyin; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang, Guoxiu

    2013-08-14

    Single crystalline SnO2 nanocrystals (~60 nm in size) with a uniform octahedral shape were synthesised using a hydrothermal method. Their phase and morphology were characterized by XRD and FESEM observation. TEM and HRTEM analyses identified that SnO2 octahedral nanocrystals grow along the [001] direction, consisting of dominantly exposed {221} high energy facets. When applied as anode materials for Na-ion batteries, SnO2 nanocrystals exhibited high reversible sodium storage capacity and excellent cyclability (432 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles). In particular, SnO2 nanocrystals also demonstrated a good high rate performance. Ex situ TEM analysis revealed the reaction mechanism of SnO2 nanocrystals for reversible Na ion storage. It was found that Na ions first insert into SnO2 crystals at the high voltage plateau (from 3 V to ~0.8 V), and that the exposed (1 × 1) tunnel-structure could facilitate the initial insertion of Na ions. Subsequently, Na ions react with SnO2 to form NaxSn alloys and Na2O in the low voltage range (from ~0.8 V to 0.01 V). The superior cyclability of SnO2 nanocrystals could be mainly ascribed to the reversible Na-Sn alloying and de-alloying reactions. Furthermore, the reduced Na2O "matrix" may help retard the aggregation of tin nanocrystals, leading to an enhanced electrochemical performance. PMID:23793542

  2. Superlative TINs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    TIN is short for 'triangulated irregular network,' which is a piecewise planar model of a surface. If properly constructed, a TIN can be more than 30 times as efficient as a regular triangulation. In our project (a ground combat simulation to support U.S. Army training exercises), the TIN is used to represent the Earth's surface and is used primarily to determine whether line of sight is blocked by terrain. High efficiency requires accurate identification of ridgelines with as few triangles as possible. The work currently in progress is the implementation of a TINning process that we hope will produce superlative TINs. This presentation describes that process.

  3. Synthesis and crystal structure of two tin fluoride materials: NaSnF 3 (BING-12) and Sn 3F 3PO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salami, Tolulope O.; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Oliver, Scott R. J.

    2004-03-01

    A new compound, sodium tin trifluoride (NaSnF 3, which we denote BING-12 for SUNY at Binghamton, Structure No. 12), was synthesized solvothermally from a pyridine-water solvent system. The new compound crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/ c (No. 15), with a=11.7429(12) Å, b=17.0104(18) Å, c=6.8528(7) Å, β=100.6969(2)°, V=1345.1(2) Å 3 and Z=16. The layered structure consists of outer pyramidal SnF 3 units, where the fluorides surround a central layer of six- and seven-coordinate sodium atoms. The layers are stabilized by charged Na + galleries that reside in the center of the layers. Tin trifluorophosphate (Sn 3F 3PO 4, Compound 2) was isolated from a related synthetic system, and crystallized in the rhombohedral space group R3 (No. 146), with a=11.8647(11) Å, c=4.6291(6) Å, V=564.34(10) Å 3 and Z=3. The framework is made up of helical -Sn-F- chains, which are connected by phosphate groups. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), variable temperature PXRD (VT-PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. The Southeast Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Rajah, S. S.; Askury, A. K.; Putthapiban, P.; Djaswadi, S.

    1995-07-01

    Range-type plutons (28% of tin production). Tin-mineralized plutons are characterized by high concentrations of SiO 2, K 2O, Rb, Sn, Th and U, whereas the concentrations of Fe 2O 3, MgO, CaO, Na 2O, Ba and Sr as well as the Fe2O3/FeO ratios are low. Tin-mineralized plutons are also distinguished by high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios low magnetic susceptibilities.

  5. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  6. Tin phosphide-based anodes for sodium-ion batteries: synthesis via solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and phase-dependent Na storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun-Seop; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Hansung; Lee, Jong-Won

    2016-05-01

    There is a great deal of current interest in the development of rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries (SIBs) for low-cost, large-scale stationary energy storage systems. For the commercial success of this technology, significant progress should be made in developing robust anode (negative electrode) materials with high capacity and long cycle life. Sn-P compounds are considered promising anode materials that have considerable potential to meet the required performance of SIBs, and they have been typically prepared by high-energy mechanical milling. Here, we report Sn-P-based anodes synthesised through solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and their electrochemical Na storage properties. The temperature and time period used for solvothermal treatment play a crucial role in determining the phase, microstructure, and composition of the Sn-P compound and thus its electrochemical performance. The Sn-P compound prepared under an optimised solvothermal condition shows excellent electrochemical performance as an SIB anode, as evidenced by a high reversible capacity of ~560 mAh g‑1 at a current density of 100 mA g‑1 and cycling stability for 100 cycles. The solvothermal route provides an effective approach to synthesising Sn-P anodes with controlled phases and compositions, thus tailoring their Na storage behaviour.

  7. Tin phosphide-based anodes for sodium-ion batteries: synthesis via solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and phase-dependent Na storage performance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Seop; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Hansung; Lee, Jong-Won

    2016-01-01

    There is a great deal of current interest in the development of rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries (SIBs) for low-cost, large-scale stationary energy storage systems. For the commercial success of this technology, significant progress should be made in developing robust anode (negative electrode) materials with high capacity and long cycle life. Sn-P compounds are considered promising anode materials that have considerable potential to meet the required performance of SIBs, and they have been typically prepared by high-energy mechanical milling. Here, we report Sn-P-based anodes synthesised through solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and their electrochemical Na storage properties. The temperature and time period used for solvothermal treatment play a crucial role in determining the phase, microstructure, and composition of the Sn-P compound and thus its electrochemical performance. The Sn-P compound prepared under an optimised solvothermal condition shows excellent electrochemical performance as an SIB anode, as evidenced by a high reversible capacity of ~560 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) and cycling stability for 100 cycles. The solvothermal route provides an effective approach to synthesising Sn-P anodes with controlled phases and compositions, thus tailoring their Na storage behaviour. PMID:27189834

  8. Tin phosphide-based anodes for sodium-ion batteries: synthesis via solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and phase-dependent Na storage performance

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-Seop; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Hansung; Lee, Jong-Won

    2016-01-01

    There is a great deal of current interest in the development of rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries (SIBs) for low-cost, large-scale stationary energy storage systems. For the commercial success of this technology, significant progress should be made in developing robust anode (negative electrode) materials with high capacity and long cycle life. Sn-P compounds are considered promising anode materials that have considerable potential to meet the required performance of SIBs, and they have been typically prepared by high-energy mechanical milling. Here, we report Sn-P-based anodes synthesised through solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and their electrochemical Na storage properties. The temperature and time period used for solvothermal treatment play a crucial role in determining the phase, microstructure, and composition of the Sn-P compound and thus its electrochemical performance. The Sn-P compound prepared under an optimised solvothermal condition shows excellent electrochemical performance as an SIB anode, as evidenced by a high reversible capacity of ~560 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 and cycling stability for 100 cycles. The solvothermal route provides an effective approach to synthesising Sn-P anodes with controlled phases and compositions, thus tailoring their Na storage behaviour. PMID:27189834

  9. Hollow tin/chromium whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jing; Vianco, Paul T.; Li, James C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Tin whiskers have been an engineering challenge for over five decades. The mechanism has not been agreed upon thus far. This experiment aimed to identify a mechanism by applying compressive stresses to a tin film evaporated on silicon substrate with an adhesion layer of chromium in between. A phenomenon was observed in which hollow whiskers grew inside depleted areas. Using focused ion beam, the hollow whiskers were found to contain both tin and chromium. At the bottom of the depleted areas, thin tin/tin oxide film remained over the chromium layer. It indicates that tin transport occurred along the interface between tin and chromium layers.

  10. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  11. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.

    2016-01-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator. PMID:27387140

  12. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks.

    PubMed

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N

    2016-01-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator. PMID:27387140

  13. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.

    2016-07-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator.

  14. Mineral of the month: tin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Tin was one of the first metals discovered by humans and, like most metals, tin is rarely used by itself. Most tin is used as a protective coating or as an alloy with other metals in a diverse range of commercial and defense applications.

  15. Sputtering of tin and gallium-tin clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Lill, T.; Calaway, W.F.; Ma, Z.; Pellin, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    Tin and gallium-tin clusters have been produced by 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline tin and the gallium-tin eutectic alloy and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sputtered neutral species were photoionized with 193 nm (6.4 eV) excimer laser light. Neutral tin clusters containing up to 10 atoms and mixed gallium-tin clusters Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} with n {<=} 4 for the neutrals and N {<=} 3 for the sputtered ionic species have been detected. Laser power density dependent intensity measurements, relative yields, and kinetic energy distributions have been measured. The abundance distributions of the mixed clusters have been found to be nonstatistical due to significant differences in the ionization efficiencies for clusters with equal nuclearity but different number of tin atoms. The results indicate that Ga{sub 2}Sn and Ga{sub 3}Sn like the all-gallium clusters have ionization potentials below 6.4 eV. In the case of Sn{sub 5}, Sn{sub 6}, GaSn and Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} clusters with n=2 to 4 and m>1, the authors detect species that have sufficient internal energy to be one photon ionized despite ionization potentials that are higher 6.4 eV. The tin atom signal that is detected can be attributed to photofragmentation of dimers for both sputtering from polycrystalline tin and from the gallium-tin eutectic alloy.

  16. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  17. Tin and Tin Compounds for Sodium Ion Battery Anodes: Phase Transformations and Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Ding, Jia; Mitlin, David

    2015-06-16

    Sodium ion batteries (NIB, NAB, SIB) are attracting interest as a potentially lower cost alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIB), with readily available and geographically democratic reserves of the metal. Tin is one of most promising SIB anode materials, which alloys with up to 3.75 Na, leading to a charge storage capacity of 847 mAh g(-1). In this Account, we outline the state-of-the-art understanding regarding the sodiation-induced phase transformations and the associated performance in a range of Sn-based systems, treating metallic Sn and its alloys, tin oxide (SnO2), tin sulfide (SnS2/SnS), and tin phosphide (Sn4P3). We first detail what is known about the sodiation sequence in metallic Sn, highlighting the most recent insight into the reactions prior to the terminal equilibrium Na15Sn4 intermetallic. We explain why researchers argue that the equilibrium (phase diagram) series of phase transitions does not occur in this system, and rather why sodiation/desodiation proceeds through a series of metastable crystalline and amorphous structures. We also outline the recent modeling-based insight regarding how this phase transition profoundly influences the mechanical properties of the alloy, progressively changing the bonding and the near neighbor arrangement from "Sn-like" to "Na-like" in the process. We then go on to discuss the sodiation reactions in SnO2. We argue that while a substantial amount of experimental work already exists where the focus is on synthesis and testing of tin oxide-based nanocomposites, the exact sodiation sequence is just beginning to be understood. Unlike in Sn and Sn alloys, where capacities near the theoretical are reached at least early during cycling, SnO2 never quite achieves anything close to the 1398 mAh g(-1) that would be possible with a combination of fully reversible conversion and alloying reactions. We highlight recent work demonstrating that contrary to general expectations, it is the Sn to Na15Sn4 alloying reaction that

  18. The Electrochemical Behavior of TiN/316LSS Material in Simulated Body Fluid Solution.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Dinh Thi Mai; Pham, Thi Nam; Huong, Ho Thu; Phuong, Nguyen Thu; Hang, To Thi Xuan; Vy, Uong Van; Hoang, Thai

    2015-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and the electrochemical behavior of TiN film on the 316L stainless steel (316LSS) material in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for implant application. The characterization results indicate that the coated TiN is completely crystalline with (111) crystal orientation. Electrochemical results of 316LSS and TiN/316LSS material after 21 days of immersion in SBF show that the durability of the TiN/316LSS is much higher than that of 316LSS, which registers a very low corrosion current density (about tens of nA cm(-2)). The formation of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the TiN/316LSS is also confirmed by SEM, EDX, X-ray and IR spectroscopy. PMID:26505019

  19. A new membrane electro-deposition based process for tin recovery from waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Jian-Guang, Yang; Jie, Lei; Si-Yao, Peng; Yuan-Lu, Lv; Wei-Qiang, Shi

    2016-03-01

    The current research investigated a process combining leaching, purification and membrane electrodeposition to recover tin from the metal components of WPCBs. Experimental results showed that with a solid liquid ratio of 1:4, applying 1.1 times of stoichiometric SnCl4 dosage and HCl concentration of 3.5-4.0 mol/L at a temperature of 60-90°C, 99% of tin can be leached from the metal components of WPCBs. The suitable purification conditions were obtained in the temperature range of 30-45°C with the addition of 1.3-1.4 times of the stoichiometric quantity of tin metal and stirring for a period of 1-2h; followed by adding 1.3 times of the stoichiometric quantity of Na2S for sulfide precipitation about 20-30 min at room temperature. The purified solution was subjected to membrane electrowinning for tin electrodeposition. Under the condition of catholyte Sn(2+) 60 g/L, HCl 3 mol/L and NaCl 20 g/L, current density 200 A/m(2) and temperature 35°C, a compact and smooth cathode tin layer can be obtained. The obtained cathode tin purity exceeded 99% and the electric consumption was less than 1200 kW h/t. The resultant SnCl4 solution generated in anode compartment can be reused as leaching agent for leaching tin again. PMID:26595900

  20. Tinning/Trimming Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    In a new surface mount assembly area at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), a tinning/trimming robot system tins and trims the gold-plated leads of surface mount technology (SMT) transistors. The KCD-designed system uses a Unimation PUMA 260 robot, a General Production Devices SP-2000 solder pot; water-soluble Blackstone No. 2508 flux; and a Virtual Industries high-temperature, ESD-conductive, miniature suction cup. After the manual cleaning operation, the processed SMT transistors go to the QUADSTAR Automated Component Placement System for a Radar Logic Assembly. The benefits are reductions in the cost of nonconformance, worker fatigue, and standard hours.

  1. 48 CFR 204.7202-3 - TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TINs. 204.7202-3 Section... OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Identification 204.7202-3 TINs. Requirements for use of TINs are in FAR subpart 4.9....

  2. Study of tin-sulphur-carbon nanocomposites based on electrically exploded tin as anode for sodium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, S. A.; Kim, D.; Lee, S.-M.; Doh, C.-H.; Lee, S.; Farooq, U.; Saleem, M.

    2016-05-01

    An electrochemical study of tin-sulphur-carbon nano-composites, based on electrically exploded tin-carbon nanoparticles as anode for sodium-ion battery (NIB), is carried out in electrolytes with and without fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC). The composites are synthesized through high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) of electrical exploded tin, sulphur nanoparticles and grinded carbon. The final product consists of tin sulfide nanoparticles embedded in amorphous carbon matrix. The results demonstrate an excellent response for the electrode materials in terms of initial discharge capacity (>425 mAhg-1) and cyclic performance (415 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles). Even more remarkably, at high current densities of 400, 600, and 800 mAg-1, electrodes still offer specific capacities of about 375, 355, and 315 mAhg-1, respectively, suggesting good rate capability of the materials. Furthermore, it is observed that the material response is much better when electrolyte has FEC as an additive which helped in the formation of an optimized SEI layer. Such an improved electrochemical performance of the electrode materials highlights their suitability for the recently emerging Na-ion battery technology.

  3. Tin dioxide nanoparticles: Reverse micellar synthesis and gas sensing properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Jahangeer; Vaidya, Sonalika; Ahmad, Tokeer; Sujatha Devi, P.; Das, Dipankar; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2008-02-05

    Tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been synthesized by reverse micellar route using cetyltrimethyl ammoniumbromide (CTAB) as the surfactant. Monophasic tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) was obtained using NaOH as the precipitation agent at 60 deg. C, however, when liquor NH{sub 3} was used as precipitating agent then crystalline SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are obtained at 500 deg. C. SnO{sub 2} prepared using NaOH show crystallite size of 4 and 12 nm after heating at 60 and 500 deg. C respectively using X-ray line broadening studies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show agglomerated particles of sizes 70 and 150 nm, respectively. The grain size was found to be 6-8 nm after heating the precursor obtained (using liquor NH{sub 3}) at 500 deg. C by X-ray line broadening and the TEM studies. Dynamic light-scattering (DLS) studies show the aggregates of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with uniform size distribution. Moessbauer studies show an increase of s-electron density at the Sn sites compared to bulk SnO{sub 2} and a finite quadrupole splitting indicative of lowering of symmetry around tin atoms. The gas sensing characteristics have also been investigated using n-butane which show high sensitivity and fast recovery time.

  4. Microstructure and electrical properties of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}(Ti{sub 0.98}Zr{sub 0.02})O{sub 3} thin film deposited on indium tin oxide/glass substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.H.; Sui, H.T.; Geng, F.J.; Feng, C.; Qian, J.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • NBTZr deposited on ITO/glass under O{sub 2} exhibits a phase-pure perovskite structure. • NBTZr shows a well-defined P–E with a remanent polarization of 11.5 μC/cm{sup 2}. • At 100 kHz and 14 V, the dielectric tunability is 44.97% and FOM is 3.58. • At 100 kHz, the ϵ{sub r} and tanδ are 205 and 0.092, respectively. - Abstract: Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}(Ti{sub 0.98}Zr{sub 0.02})O{sub 3} (NBTZr) thin film has been prepared by chemical solution deposition onto indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass under O{sub 2} atmosphere. The microstructure and related electrical performance are investigated. The film exhibits a phase-pure polycrystalline perovskite structure, with evenly distributed grain size and full compactness. A well-defined polarization-electric field (P–E) loop can be observed with a remanent polarization (P{sub r}) of 11.5 μC/cm{sup 2} and small gap. At 14 V and 100 kHz, the dielectric tunability as high as 44.97% can be achieved and the dielectric constant of 205, dissipation factor of 0.092 as well as figure of merit of 3.58 are obtained.

  5. Photovoltaic effect of lead-free (Na{sub 0.82}K{sub 0.18}){sub 0.5}Bi{sub 4.5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ferroelectric thin film using Pt and indium tin oxide top electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Seok Woo, Won; Sik Won, Sung; Won Ahn, Chang; Chae, Song A; Won Kim, Ill; Ullah, Aman

    2014-01-21

    We have grown a Bi-layer structure (Na{sub 0.82}K{sub 0.18}){sub 0.5}Bi{sub 4.5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (NKBiT) ferroelectric thin film on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrate by using the chemical solution deposition method and deposited two kinds of thin Pt and indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrodes. The photovoltaic behaviors of Pt/NKBiT/Pt and ITO/NKBit/Pt capacitors were investigated over the wavelength range of 300–500 nm. When NKBiT thin film is illuminated by the corresponding wavelength of the film's energy band gap (E{sub g}), a photocurrent is generated due to the Schottky barrier between electrode and film, and an internal electric field is originated by the depolarization field. The maximum photocurrent density and power conversion efficiency of the ITO/NKBiT/Pt capacitor in the poled-up state are obtained as 45.75 nA/cm{sup 2} and 0.035%, respectively, at 352 nm. The photocurrent density and power conversion efficiency of the ITO/NKBiT/Pt capacitor increased to 3.5 times higher than that of the Pt/NKBiT/Pt capacitor.

  6. Understanding tin plasmas in vacuum: A new approach to tin whisker risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, M. S.; Eng, G.

    2007-11-15

    This study examines the mechanisms governing sustained tin plasma formation in vacuum. The authors have experimentally demonstrated that sustained tin plasmas can form in vacuum at dc power supply voltages as low as 4 V, and present a qualitative model for the observed voltage and current signatures associated with tin plasma formation. Engineering estimates were developed to help quantify tin whisker risk as a function of power supply voltage. Implications for space applications are also discussed.

  7. Tin-germanium alloys as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Abel, Paul R; Fields, Meredith G; Heller, Adam; Mullins, C Buddie

    2014-09-24

    The sodium electrochemistry of evaporatively deposited tin, germanium, and alloys of the two elements is reported. Limiting the sodium stripping voltage window to 0.75 V versus Na/Na+ improves the stability of the tin and tin-rich compositions on repeated sodiation/desodiation cycles, whereas the germanium and germanium-rich alloys were stable up to 1.5 V. The stability of the electrodes could be correlated to the surface mobility of the alloy species during deposition suggesting that tin must be effectively immobilized in order to be successfully utilized as a stable electrode. While the stability of the alloys is greatly increased by the presence of germanium, the specific Coulombic capacity of the alloy decreases with increasing germanium content due to the lower Coulombic capacity of germanium. Additionally, the presence of germanium in the alloy suppresses the formation of intermediate phases present in the electrochemical sodiation of tin. Four-point probe resistivity measurements of the different compositions show that electrical resistivity increases with germanium content. Pure germanium is the most resistive yet exhibited the best electrochemical performance at high current densities which indicates that electrical resistivity is not rate limiting for any of the tested compositions. PMID:25158125

  8. Granites of southeast Asian tin belt

    SciTech Connect

    Cobbing, E.J.; Mallick, D.I.J.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Darbyshire, D.P.F.; Teoh, L.H.

    1986-07-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the essential granite geology of the southeast Asian tin belt, distinguishing plutons within batholiths and characterizing them by their component units, field relationships, lithology, texture, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, and mineral potential. To date, approximately 180 plutons have been recognized and partly or entirely described in the above terms. In addition, four granite provinces have been delineated, each with its own distinctive mineralization pattern. In all provinces, but particularly in the Main Range, granitoids designated as two-phase variants have been recognized where xenocrysts and xenoliths of coarse, primary texture granite are enclosed in and corroded by an invasive, equigranular quartzo-feldspathic matrix. These rocks form an essential part of the granite sequence in all provinces and have probably resulted from the infiltration and disruption of the host granite by late-stage magmatic fluids. Whole-rock geochemistry from peninsular Malaysia shows that the granites from the Main Range and Eastern provinces comprise two contrasted suites, which correspond approximately to the I- and S-type categories advocated by Chappell and White. In addition, individual plutons within batholiths in the two provinces have distinct geochemical parameters. Variation diagrams of plutons having the intrusive sequence primary texture granite-two-phase granite-microgranite show linear trends with increasing SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O, Rb, W, Sn, and U, and decreasing Sr, Ba, Th, and all other major elements.

  9. SEPARATION OF TIN FROM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Kattner, W.T.

    1959-08-11

    A process is described for recovering tin from bronze comprising melting the bronze; slowly cooling the melted metal to from 280 to 240 deg C whereby eta- phase bronze crystallizes; separating the eta-bronze crystals from the liquid metal by mechanical means; melting the separated crystals; slowly cooling the melted eta-crystals to a temperature from 520 to 420 deg C whereby crystals of epsilonbronze precipitate; removing said epsilon-crystals from the remaining molten metal; and reintroducing the remaining molten metal into the process for eta-crystallization.

  10. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries. PMID:26093469

  11. Sorption of tin on human teeth.

    PubMed

    Helal, A A; Alian, Gh A; Madbouly, H A

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of tin ions on human teeth from water and other drinks has been studied by the radioactive tracer technique using the isotope 113Sn (T(1/2) = 115.1 d) as a tracer. The tooth holds a minimum amount of tin from coffee and a maximum amount is held from water and from tea with sugar. The same technique was also used to study the desorption of tin already taken up on the teeth. It has been found that sorbed tin is hardly desorbed from the teeth specimens. The high uptake of tin on human teeth from various drinks showed that teeth act as a natural sieve holding trace elements. PMID:11768790

  12. Nucleation and growth of tin whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jing; Vianco, Paul T.; Zhang, Bei; Li, James C. M.

    2011-06-01

    Pure tin film of one micron thick was evaporated onto a silicon substrate with chromium and nickel underlayers. The tinned silicon disk was bent by applying a dead load at the center and supported below around the edge to apply biaxial compressive stresses to the tin layer. After 180 C vacuum annealing for 1,2,4,6, and 8 weeks, tin whiskers/hillocks grew. A quantitative method revealed that the overall growth rate decreased with time with a tendency for saturation. A review of the literature showed in general, tin whisker growth has a nucleation period, a growth period and a period of saturation, very similar to recrystallization or phase transformation. In fact we found our data fit Avrami equation very well. This equation shows that the nucleation period was the first week.

  13. The inorganic speciation of tin(II) in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigala, Rosalia Maria; Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports new voltammetric measurements on the interactions between tin(II) and the most important natural inorganic ligands, OH-, Cl-, F-, CO32-, SO42- and PO43-. For a better understanding of tin(II) speciation, an analysis is also given of prior data on the same systems from the literature. The formation constants were determined at t = 25 °C in different ionic media and at different ionic strengths, specifically the following: Sn(OH)q (0.1 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 1.0 in NaNO3), SnClr and Sn(OH)Cl (0.1 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 2.3 in Na(NO3, Cl)), Sn(SO4)r (0.1 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 1.6 in Na(NO3, SO4)), SnHqCO3 and SnHqPO4 (0.15 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 1.0 in NaNO3), where the subscripts r and q represent the stoichiometric coefficients. Concerning the SnFr species, reliable literature values were considered (0.15 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 1.0 in NaClO4). Fifteen voltammetric measurements were performed in synthetic seawater; the total seawater binding ability was evaluated by a model in which synthetic seawater is expressed as a single salt, BA. The formation of species between tin(II) and the anion of the marine salt (A) was also proposed, and the corresponding stability constants at different salinities (5 ⩽ S ⩽ 50) were reported. In addition, studies on the solubility of Sn(OH)2(s) were carried out using voltammetry and light scattering measurements. The "extra-stability" of the mixed species with respect to the parent species was evaluated, in particular for Sn(OH)Cl and the corresponding species involving the anion of the marine salt (A). The dependence of the formation constants on ionic strength was analysed using extended Debye-Hückel and Specific ion Interaction Theory (SIT) type equations. Tin(II) speciation was also evaluated in different natural fluid conditions, where, in all cases, carbonate complexation was predominant, hampering the formation of hydrolytic species throughout the investigated pH range. Moreover, some formation enthalpy changes were calculated

  14. Pyrophosphate complexation of tin(II) in aqueous solutions as applied in electrolytes for the deposition of tin and tin alloys such as white bronze.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Magnus R; Kraus, Florian; Schmidbaur, Hubert

    2012-08-20

    Electrodeposition of tin and tin alloys from electrolytes containing tin(II) and pyrophosphates is an important process in metal finishing, but the nature of the tin pyrophosphate complexes present in these solutions in various pH regions has remained unknown. Through solubility and pH studies, IR and (31)P and (119)Sn NMR spectroscopic investigations of solutions obtained by dissolving Sn(2)P(2)O(7) in equimolar quantities of either Na(4)P(2)O(7)·10H(2)O or K(4)P(2)O(7) the formation of anionic 1:1 complexes {[Sn(P(2)O(7))]}(n)(2n-) has now been verified and the molecular structures of the monomer (n = 1) and the dimer (n = 2) have been calculated by density functional theory (DFT) methods. Whereas the alkali pyrophosphates Na/K(4)P(2)O(7) give strongly alkaline aqueous solutions (pH ∼13), because of partial protonation of the [P(2)O(7)](4-) anion, the [Sn(P(2)O(7))](2-) anion is not protonated and the solutions of Na/K(2)[Sn(P(2)O(7))] are almost neutral (pH ∼8). The monomeric dianion appears to have a ground state with C(2v) symmetry with the Sn atom in a square pyramidal coordination and the lone pair of electrons in the apical position, while the dimer approaches C(2) symmetry with the Sn atoms in a rhombic pyramidal coordination, also with a sterically active lone pair. A comparison of experimental and calculated IR details favors the monomer as the most abundant species in solution. With an excess of pyrophosphate, 3:2 and 2:1 complexes (P(2)O(7)):(Sn) are first formed, which, in the presence of more pyrophosphate, undergo rapid ligand exchange on the NMR time scale. The structure of the 2:1 complex [Sn(P(2)O(7))(2)](6-) was calculated to have a pyramidal complexation by two 1,5-chelating pyrophosphate ligands. Neutralization of these alkaline solutions by sulfuric or sulfonic acids (H(2)SO(4), MeSO(3)H), as also practiced in electroplating, appears to afford the tin(II) hydrogen pyrophosphates [Sn(P(2)O(7)H)](-) and [Sn(H(2)P(2)O(7))](0). The molecular

  15. Platelet Composite Coatings for Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-11-01

    Reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  16. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results formore » several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.« less

  17. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  18. Therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Atkins, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients.

  19. Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

    2004-09-01

    High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

  20. Synthesis of tin-containing polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezzell, S. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tin-containing polyimide films derived from either 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline have been synthesized and their electrical properties examined. Highest quality materials (i.e., homogeneous, smooth surface, flexible) with the best electrical properties were doped with either SnCl2.2H2O or (n-Bu)2SnCl2. In all cases, extensive reactivity of the tin dopant with water, air or polyamic acid during imidization is observed. Lowered electrical surface resistivities appear to be correlatable with the presence of surface tin oxide on the film surface.

  1. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  2. Taming Tin(IV) Polyazides.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rory; Davis, Martin F; Fazakerley, Mathew; Portius, Peter

    2015-12-14

    The first charge-neutral Lewis base adducts of tin(IV) tetraazide, [Sn(N3)4(bpy)], [Sn(N3)4(phen)] and [Sn(N3)4(py)2], and the salt bis{bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium} hexa(azido)stannate [(PPN)2Sn(N3)6] (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; py = pyridine; PPN = N(PPh3)2) have been prepared using covalent or ionic azide-transfer reagents and ligand-exchange reactions. The azides were isolated on the 0.3 to 1 g scale and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies, microanalytical and thermal methods and their molecular structures determined by single-crystal XRD. All complexes have a distorted octahedral Sn[N]6 coordination geometry and possess greater thermal stability than their Si and Ge homologues. The nitrogen content of the adducts of up to 44% exceed any Sn(IV) compound known hitherto. PMID:26767331

  3. Analysis of cell performance and thermal regeneration of a lithium-tin cell having an immobilized fused-salt electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Cell performance and thermal regeneration of a thermally regenerative cell uses lithium and tin and a fused-salt electrolyte. The emf of the Li-Sn cell, as a function of cathode-alloy composition, is shown to resemble that of the Na-Bi cell.

  4. An Investigation into Zinc Diffusion and Tin Whisker Growth for Electroplated Tin Deposits on Brass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Mark A.; Wilcox, Geoffrey D.; Higginson, Rebecca L.; Heath, Richard J.; Liu, Changqing

    2014-04-01

    It is widely documented that whisker growth is more rapid for tin deposits on brass compared with deposits produced on other substrate materials, such as copper. As a result, studies investigating the effect of process variables on tin whisker formation are often conducted on brass substrates to take advantage of the increased whisker growth rates. Although it has been understood since the 1960s that the increased whisker growth results from zinc diffusion, to date there has not been any detailed analysis of the zinc/zinc oxide distribution at the surface of the tin deposit. Using a commercial bright tin electroplating bath, the formation of zinc oxide at the surface of tin deposits on brass has been investigated. Analyses show that zinc oxide is present on the surface of the deposit within 1 day of electroplating. During storage at room temperature, a network of zinc oxide is formed at the surface grain boundaries, the extent of which increases with time. The critical role that zinc surface diffusion plays in whisker growth for tin deposits on brass has been demonstrated by electrochemical oxidation of the tin shortly after electroplating. This develops a tin oxide film that is thicker than the native air-formed oxide and subsequently serves as a diffusion barrier to zinc surface diffusion, thereby mitigating whisker growth.

  5. Friction and wear of tin and tin alloys from minus 100 C to 150 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron (110) single-crystal pin sliding on single and polycrystalline tin and tin alloys. Specimens were examined at various ambient temperatures from -100 to 150 C. Applied loads varied from 1 to 50 grams, and sliding velocity was constant at 0.7 mm/min. Results indicate that the crystal transformation of tin influences the friction coefficient. Friction was higher for the diamond structure (gray tin) than it was for the body-centered tetragonal structure (white tin). Bismuth arrested the crystal transformation, which resulted in constant friction over the temperature range -100 to 150 C. Both copper and aluminum enhanced the kinetics of transformation, with aluminum producing a nearly twofold change in friction with the crystal transformation.

  6. The impact of sodium contamination in tin sulfide thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Vera; Brandt, Riley E.; Chakraborty, Rupak; Jaramillo, R.; Young, Matthew; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K.; Yang, Chuanxi; Polizzotti, Alex; Nelson, Keith A.; Gordon, Roy G.; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-02-01

    Through empirical observations, sodium (Na) has been identified as a benign contaminant in some thin-film solar cells. Here, we intentionally contaminate thermally evaporated tin sulfide (SnS) thin-films with sodium and measure the SnS absorber properties and solar cell characteristics. The carrier concentration increases from 2 × 1016 cm-3 to 4.3 × 1017 cm-3 in Na-doped SnS thin-films, when using a 13 nm NaCl seed layer, which is detrimental for SnS photovoltaic applications but could make Na-doped SnS an attractive candidate in thermoelectrics. The observed trend in carrier concentration is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations, which predict an acceptor-type NaSn defect with low formation energy.

  7. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  8. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  9. S-process studies on tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, H.; Walter, G.; Kappler, F.

    1989-02-01

    The excitation function of the Sn-116(n, gamma) in the neutron energy range 3-200 keV was measured using the Karlsruhe pulsed 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator with the Li-7(p,n) reaction as a neutron source. Neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between 10 and 100 keV. The neutron capture cross section of Sn-116 in combination with s-process systematics was then used to determine solar tin abundance. The solar tin abundance value was found to be at least 23 percent lower than meteoritic tin abundance quoted by Anders (1988). This result is discussed with regard to the origin of Sn-115.

  10. The solar system abundance of tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loss, R. D.; Rosman, K. K. R.; de Laeter, J. R.

    1989-04-01

    The elemental abundance of tin has been determined by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique for four carbonaceous chondrites, including the Cl chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna. A solar system abundance of 3.98 (normalized to Si = 10 to the 6th atoms) can be derived from these data, which is in excellent agreement with the presently accepted value. Recently, a theoretical value of 2.82 + or - 0.21 (Si = 10 to the 6th atoms) has been proposed for the abundance of tin based on an s-process nucleosynthesis model. This value is 26 percent lower than the presently accepted solar system abundance. The present data confirm the higher value for tin and indicate that a reexamination of the assumptions on which the nucleosynthetic value is based is required.

  11. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1989-03-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  12. 99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1976-07-06

    An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

  13. Synchrotron characterization of functional tin dioxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Domashevskaya, E. P. Chuvenkova, O. A.; Turishchev, S. Yu.

    2015-12-31

    Wire-like crystals of tin dioxide were synthesized by a gas-transport technique. The wires, of mainly nanometric diameters, were characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques with the use of highly brilliant and intense synchrotron radiation. We studied the influence of the surface chemical state and the oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure of the nanowires. The surface of the nanowires is covered by a few nanometers of tin suboxides. The lack of oxygen over the surface layers leads to specific sub-zone formation in a gap, as shown by synchrotron studies.

  14. Electron beam induced growth of tin whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Vasko, A. C.; Karpov, V. G.; Warrell, G. R.; Parsai, E. I.; Shvydka, Diana

    2015-09-28

    We have investigated the influence of electron irradiation on tin whisker growth. Sputtered tin samples exposed to electron beam of 6 MeV energy exhibited fast whisker growth, while control samples did not grow any whiskers. The statistics of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects due to charges trapped in an insulating substrate. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  15. Electron beam induced growth of tin whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, A. C.; Warrell, G. R.; Parsai, E. I.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the influence of electron irradiation on tin whisker growth. Sputtered tin samples exposed to electron beam of 6 MeV energy exhibited fast whisker growth, while control samples did not grow any whiskers. The statistics of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects due to charges trapped in an insulating substrate. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  16. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    DOEpatents

    Marcinek, Marek; Kostecki, Robert

    2012-07-17

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Tin Whisker Formation - A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-07

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  18. Influence of current density on microstructure of pulse electrodeposited tin coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Sen, Ranjan; Reddy, B.S.B.; Fecht, H.-J.; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2012-06-15

    Pulse electrodeposited tin coatings on copper substrate have been synthesized from an aqueous solution containing sodium stannate (Na{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The effect of current density on surface morphology of the deposits has been investigated. As deposited coatings are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and line profile analysis. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposits consist of tetragonal ({beta}-Sn) structure with microcrystalline grains. The deposits plated at lower current density exhibit (110) texture which decreases with increasing current densities. The effects of current density on Cu-Sn diffusion and whisker growth of the electrodeposited tin coatings are also reported here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pulse electrodeposition of Sn from aqueous alkaline solution without adding any organic additive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of current density on morphology and whisker growth in tin coatings aged for 1 year. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution bath is stable and can be operated over a wide range of current density.

  19. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-04-01

    {sup 119}Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown.

  20. Physical characterization of tin composite oxides and related anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Gillian Ruth

    2000-10-01

    This thesis addresses the issues concerning the excellent electrochemical performance exhibited by the tin-composite-oxide glass, Sn1.0Al 0.42B0.56P0.40O3.6 as an anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The debate surrounding this material focuses on the nature of the lithium-tin interaction; whether it is ionic or intermetallic. The TCO anode material has been studied electrochemically, as well as by multinuclear Solid-State-NMR, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and X-ray Scattering including Pair Distribution Function analysis. By examining electrode materials at various stages of discharge, corresponding to various levels of lithium insertion, the interactions between lithium, tin, oxygen, and the other components of the glass have been ascertained. The inserted lithium remains highly ionic throughout the first cycle of the cell, with no evidence for the formation of alloy phases. Extended cycling of the cell results in the formation of alloy-like domains in the parent material, SnO, but not in the case of TCO. This demonstrates that the required structural rearrangements for the formation of Li-Sn phases are kinetically prohibited; and this to a greater extend in TCO than in SnO. Two key factors account for the electrochemical properties of TCO: (1) the participation of the glass framework in sequestering the electrochemically active tin centers and providing a flexible framework for the reversible insertion of lithium; (2) the proximity of oxygen to tin is maintained throughout lithium insertion process, thus oxygen may act as a charge carrier. These factors are developed in the context of several models for the interactions in the electrode, drawing on the data obtained from the physical characterizations implemented here. A comparative study of the anode material NaMoO3 is also described.

  1. Tin Oxide Microheater for Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharesi, Mohsen; Ansari, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Tin oxide is the main material utilized for the fabrication of chemical sensing pellets which operate at elevated temperatures. The heating is commonly carried out with ruthenium dioxide resistors. Here, a tin oxide-based microheater is developed for microsensor applications. These microheaters are fabricated on 0.5 mm thick alumina substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. The optimum SnO2 heaters have a sheet resistivity in the 40-70 Ω/a range. Ohmic Ag/SnO2 contacts are formed by silver paste printing followed by an appropriate thermal annealing, which provide connections to the external circuitry. Durability tests are carried out on several samples; the long-term performance of the fabricated devices is satisfactory. The method allows the elimination of the expensive ruthenium dioxide from the structure of generic gas sensors.

  2. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajachidambaram, Jaana Saranya; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Varga, Tamas; Flynn, Brendan T.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Herman, Gregory S.

    2012-06-12

    Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the effect of deposition and post annealing conditions on film structure, composition, surface contamination, and thin film transistor (TFT) device performance. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the ZTO films remain amorphous even after annealing to 600 °C. We found that the bulk Zn:Sn ratio of the sputter deposited films were slightly tin rich compared to the composition of the ceramic sputter target, and there was a significant depletion of zinc at the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also indicated that residual surface contamination depended strongly on the sample post-annealing conditions where water, carbonate and hydroxyl species were absorbed to the surface. Electrical characterization of ZTO films, using TFT test structures, indicated that mobilities as high as 17 cm2/Vs could be obtained for depletion mode devices.

  3. Dating of Malaysian fluvial tin placers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Daud A. F.

    The richest tin placers in Malaysia—fluviatile and piedmont fan placers—formed mainly within the "Boulder Beds" (BB fan facies), "Old Alluvium" (OA alluvial plain facies) and "Transitional Unit" (TU) which are regional lithostratigraphic units that can be correlated throughout western Peninsular Malaysia. Palaeomagnetic studies show that the TU was deposited during the early part of the Brunhes Normal Polarity Epoch (0-0.73 Ma) whereas the OA and BB mainly formed during the Matuyama Reversed Epoch (0.73-2.48 Ma). Present environments are mostly unfavorable for tin placer formation. Economic placers are generally covered on land by Young Alluvium (YA) overburden or are submerged offshore. As many of the rich OA/BB near-source placers are now largely worked out, the transported TU fluvial placers are becoming more important economically. The latest Pliocene to Mid Pleistocene period represented the principal phase of economic tin placer formation. Evidence from palaeomagnetism and the stratigraphic context of placers, and the relationship between sea level change, climatic change and placer genesis, suggest that the bulk of OA placers formed during a Lower Pleistocene interglacial period. A Mid Pleistocene age for TU placers is indicated by vertebrate fossils, palaeomagnetism, and their stratigraphic position below Upper Quaternary YA and above OA which is older than 0.73 Ma.

  4. Spectrofluorimetric determination of tin in canned foods.

    PubMed

    Manzoori, Jamshid L; Amjadi, Mohammad; Abolhasani, Djafar

    2006-10-11

    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of tin as its complex with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) in a mixed micellar medium was developed. The mixture of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100 and an anionic surfactant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) was used as a suitable micellar medium for solubilizing of complex and ligand and also for enhancing the fluorescence intensity of complex. In the optimum experimental conditions the maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of Sn-PAN complex were 300 and 360 nm, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.01-0.8 microg ml(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The detection limit was found to be 2 ng ml(-1). The relative standard deviation of the method for the determination of 0.1 microg ml(-1) tin was calculated to be 0.74%. The interferences caused by the presence of a number of common cations and anions were studied. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of tin in various canned products. PMID:16764988

  5. Tin recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2001-01-01

    This materials flow study includes a description of tin supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of tin recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the flow of materials from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of the use of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. The quantity of tin recycled in 1998 as a percentage of apparent tin supply was estimated to be about 22%, and recycling efficiency was estimated to be 75%. Of the total tin consumed in products for the U.S. market in 1998, an estimated 12% was consumed in products where the tin was not recyclable (dissipative uses).

  6. Tin oxidation mechanism in the Sn-Se alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhalde, S.; Arcondo, B.; Nassif, E.; Sirkin, H.

    1988-06-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies performed on powdered samples of Sn-Se alloys allowed us to determine the influence of the chalcogenide bonds in the tin oxidation mechanism. The weak bonds present in the SnSe2 compound increase the tin oxidation kinetics, an effect which is not found in pure tin samples maintained in the same conditions.

  7. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  8. The oxidation of carbon monoxide using tin oxide based catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Christopher F.; Jorgensen, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The preparation conditions for precious metal/tin oxide catalysts were optimized for maximum carbon monoxide/oxygen recombination efficiency. This was achieved by controlling the tin digestion, the peptization to form the sol, the calcination process and the method of adding the precious metals. Extensive studies of the tin oxide structure were carried out over the temperature range 20 to 500 C in air or hydrogen environments using Raman scattering and X ray diffraction. Adsorbed species on tin oxide, generated in an environment containing carbon monoxide, gave rise to a Raman band at about 1600 cm(exp -1) which was assigned to carbonaceous groups, possible carbonate.

  9. The corrosion behavior of TiN coated and uncoated Incoloy 800 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yilbas, B.S.; Khaled, M.M.; Kahraman, R.; Qutub, A.; Khan, Z.; Abdulaleem, B.J.; Ouerfelli, M.

    1998-12-01

    Incoloy alloy 800 is used in a variety of applications in industry as well as in domestic appliances for sheeting on electric heating elements. The composition of the alloy enables it to resist deterioration in many corrosive environments. However, resistance of the alloy to corrosion in aqueous media needs to be further examined. The present study examines the corrosion properties of Incoloy 800 alloy of both coated and uncoated workpieces obtained in a 0.1N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.05N NaCl solution. TiN coating is achieved using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique while corrosion tests are carried out using electrochemical polarization methods. Moreover, in order to examine the influence of hydrogen diffusion, reduction of hydrogen at the Incoloy 800 surface is carried out in a solution of 0.1N HNO{sub 3} + 1 g/L thiourea. Tensile tests are conducted on the workpieces to determine the influence of hydrogen embrittlement on the resulting mechanical properties of the substrate. To examine the pit formation and stress induced microcracking, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis is carried out. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the alloy improves after TiN coating. In addition, no specific pattern or differentiation on the pit geometry is observed. The pitting rate and its size reduce considerably for TiN coated workpieces.

  10. Dynamic reflectance of tin shocked from its beta to BCT phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Gerald; La Lone, Brandon; Veeser, Lynn; Turley, Dale

    2015-06-01

    Shock-induced phase transitions have historically been inferred by features in loading/unloading velocity wave profiles, which arise due to volume or sound speed differences between phases. In 2010, we used a flash-lamp illuminated multi-band reflectometer to demonstrate that iron, tin, cerium, and gallium have measureable reflectance changes at phase boundaries. We have improved upon our prior technique, utilizing an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flash lamp to illuminate a shocked metal beneath a LiF window. The new reflectance system is insensitive to motion, tilt, or curvature and measures the absolute (not relative) reflectance within five bands centered at 500, 700, 850, 1300, and 1550 nm. We have made dynamic reflectance measurements of tin samples shocked to pressures above and below the beta-bct phase transition using either high explosives or a gas gun. Below the transition, the visible reflectance decreases with pressure. At and above the transition, the visible reflectance increases to values higher than the ambient values. Reflectance can therefore be used to locate the beta-bct phase transition boundary for tin, independent of the velocity wave profile. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy, and supported by the Site-Directed Research and Development Program.

  11. Placer tin deposits in central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Robert Mills; Coats, Robert Roy; Payne, Thomas G.

    1963-01-01

    Placer tin, in the form of cassiterite (Sn02) and (or) tinstone (fragments including cassiterite and some vein or rock material), is known or reported in deposits that have been prospected or mined for placer gold in four areas adjacent to the Yukon River in central Alaska, 120 to 240 miles west of Fairbanks. These areas are: the Morelock Creek area, on the north side of the Yukon River about 30 miles upstream from Tanana; the Moran Dome area, about 16 miles north of the Yukon River and 25 miles northwest of Tanana; the Mason Creek area, on the north side of the Yukon River about 36 miles west of Tanana; and the Ruby-Long area, on the south side of the Yukon River near Ruby and about 40 miles east of Galena. The only extensive placer mining in these areas has been in the Ruby-Long area. Other placer deposits including some cassiterite are known in central Alaska but are not discussed in this report. Bedrock in these areas is predominantly schist of various types with some associated greenstone and other metamorphic rocks. Some granite is exposed in the Moran Dome and Ruby-Long areas and in areas close to Morelock and Mason Creeks. Barren, milky quartz veins and veinlets transecting the metamorphic rocks are common. No cassiterite was found in the bedrock, and no bedrock source of the tin has been reported. In the Moran Dome and Mason Creek areas, and in part of the Ruby-Long area, tourmaline is present in the rocks of the tin-bearing drainage basins, and apparently absent elsewhere in these areas. The placer deposits are in both valley floor and bench alluvium, which are predominantly relatively thin, rarely exceeding a thickness of 30 feet. Most of the alluvium deposits are not perennially frozen. In the Morelock Creek area tin-bearing deposits are 5 to 5? miles above the mouth of the creek, and meager evidence indicates that cassiterite and gold are present in Morelock Creek valley and some of the tributaries both upstream and downstream from these deposits. The

  12. Tool For Tinning Integrated-Circuit Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Gregory N.

    1988-01-01

    As many as eight flatpacks held. Tool made of fiberglass boards. Clamps row of flatpacks by their leads so leads on opposite side of packages dipped. After dipping, nuts on boards loosened, flatpacks turned around, nuts retightened, and untinned leads dipped. Strips of magnetic material grip leads of flatpacks (made of Kovar, magnetic iron/nickel/cobalt alloy) while boards repositioned. Micrometerlike screw used to adjust exposed width of magnetic strip to suit dimensions of flatpacks. Holds flatpack integrated circuits so leads tinned. Accommodates several flatpacks for simultaneous dipping of leads in molten solder. Adjusts to accept flatpacks in range of sizes.

  13. Synthesis of tin and tin oxide nanoparticles of low size dispersity for application in gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Nayral, C; Viala, E; Fau, P; Senocq, F; Jumas, J C; Maisonnat, A; Chaudret, B

    2000-11-17

    Nanocomposite core-shell particles that consist of a Sn0 core surrounded by a thin layer of tin oxides have been prepared by thermolysis of [(Sn(NMe2)2)2] in anisole that contains small, controlled amounts of water. The particles were characterized by means of electronic microscopies (TEM, HRTEM, SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The TEM micrographs show spherical nanoparticles, the size and size distribution of which depends on the initial experimental conditions of temperature, time, water concentration, and tin precursor concentration. Nanoparticles of 19 nm median size and displaying a narrow size distribution have been obtained with excellent yield in the optimized conditions. HRTEM, XPS, XRD and Mossbauer studies indicate the composite nature of the particles that consist of a well-crystallized tin beta core of approximately equals 11 nm covered with a layer of approximately equals 4 nm of amorphous tin dioxide and which also contain quadratic tin monoxide crystallites. The thermal oxidation of this nanocomposite yields well-crystallized nanoparticles of SnO2* without coalescence or size change. XRD patterns show that the powder consists of a mixture of two phases: the tetragonal cassiterite phase, which is the most abundant, and an orthorhombic phase. In agreement with the small SnO2 particle size, the relative intensity of the adsorbed dioxygen peak observed on the XPS spectrum is remarkable, when compared with that observed in the case of larger SnO2 particles. This is consistent with electrical conductivity measurements, which demonstrate that this material is highly sensitive to the presence of a reducing gas such as carbon monoxide. PMID:11151840

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method.

    PubMed

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V; Lutz, Victoriya A; Dontsova, Tatiana A; Astrelin, Igor M

    2016-12-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parameters of tin(IV) oxide samples were defined, the bandgap of samples were calculated. PMID:27456501

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V.; Lutz, Victoriya A.; Dontsova, Tatiana A.; Astrelin, Igor M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parameters of tin(IV) oxide samples were defined, the bandgap of samples were calculated.

  16. Tin LPP plasma control in the argon cusp source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGeoch, Malcolm W.

    2016-03-01

    The argon cusp plasma has been introduced [1,2] for 500W class tin LPP exhaust control in view of its high power handling, predicted low tin back-scatter from a beam dump, and avoidance of hydrogen usage. The physics of tin ion control by a plasma is first discussed. Experimentally, cusp stability and exhaust disc geometry have previously been proved at full scale [2], the equivalent of 300W-500W usable EUV. Here we verify operation of the plasma barrier that maintains a high argon density next to the collector, for its protection, and a low density in the long path toward the intermediate focus, for efficiency. A pressure differential of 2Pa has been demonstrated in initial work. Other aspects of tin LPP plasma control by the cusp have now been demonstrated using tin ions from a low Hz 130mJ CO2 laser pulse onto a solid tin surface at the cusp center. Plasma is rejected at the <0.5% level at the collector mirror location using the cusp magnetic field alone. Plasma also is rejected using a low argon density (<1x1014cm-3). We have measured the tin ion flow pattern toward the large area annular beam dump. Scaling of the cusp design to match a specified exhaust power is discussed. In view of this work, argon cusp exhaust control appears to be very promising for 500W class tin LPP sources.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10230 - Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the substance referred to in 40 CFR 721.10231 (PMN P-06-37; CAS No. 389623-07-8) combined. Persons who... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. 721... Substances § 721.10230 Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10230 - Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the substance referred to in 40 CFR 721.10231 (PMN P-06-37; CAS No. 389623-07-8) combined. Persons who... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. 721... Substances § 721.10230 Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  19. Growth of TiN films at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L. I.; Jun-Fang, Chen

    2007-06-01

    Thermodynamic analysis on growth of TiN films was given. The driving force for deposition of TiN is dependent on original Ti(g)/N(g) ratio and original partial pressure of N(g). TiN films were deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation system under suitable nitrogen gas flow rate at 523 K while the density of plasma varied with diverse discharge pressure had been investigated by the Langmuir probe. TiN films were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by means of atom force microscopy (AFM). The results of these measurements indicated preferential TiN(1 1 1) films were deposited on substrate of Si(1 0 0) and glass by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation system at low temperature, and it was possible for the deposition of TiN films with a preferential orientation or more orientations if the nitrogen gas flow rate increased enough. Sand Box was used to characterize the fractal dimension of surface of TiN films. The results showed the fractal dimension was a little more than 1.7, which accorded with the model of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), and the fractal dimension of TiN films increased with increase of the temperature of deposition.

  20. [Biological functions of tin and disease].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yasuaki; Tomiyama, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    Tin generates a wide variety of biological functions due to its chemical character. In this article, the modes of the biological functions of tin(especially organotin compounds) are reviewed, with special emphasis on the connection with the immune system, brain nervous system and endocrine system, on the basis of our data. To sum up this article, the biological functions of organotin compounds appear to be due to the following several processes: (1) their incorporation into the cells in vesicle form through fusion or in a similar manner to their incorporation in cationic form; (2) transport to and accumulation in the regions of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but not to or in the plasma membrane or nucleus because of their hydrophobicity; (3) inhibition of intracellular phospholipid transport between organelles due to impairment of the structures and functions of the Golgi apparatus and ER; (4) inhibition of the membrane-mediated signal transduction system leading to DNA synthesis via phospholipid turnover and Ca2+ mobilization, as in cell proliferation systems; (5) disturbance of the trace element balance and the localization of certain elements; (6) disorders of membrane-mediated Ca2+ homeostasis via various channel functions including Zn modulation on the plasma and organelle membranes, and protein phosphorylation, as in the signal transduction systems of memory and olfaction; (7) necrosis or apoptosis in vivo or toxic cell death in vitro. PMID:27455812

  1. Radiolytic preparation of anhydrous tin (2) chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Anhydrous tin (2) chloride (SnCl2) is prepared by radiolysis with high energy electrons of a tin (4) chloride (SnCl4) solution in heptane. The SnCl4 is reduced to insoluble SNCl2. The energy yield, G(SnCl2), molecules of SnCl2, produced per 100 eV, increases with SnCl4 concentration from 1.6 at 0.15 M SnCl4 to 3.1 at 3.0 M SnCl4. Other parameters such as temperature total dose and beam current have little influence on G(SnCl2). The method may be used to prepare other metal halides if the higher valence, more covalent metal halide is soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lower more ionic metal halide is insoluble. The reaction mechanism is discussed; the radiolysis of both heptane and SnCl4 is involved. At high SnCl4 concentration G(SnCl2) appears to be limited by the yield of SnC13 radicals.

  2. Discovery of Cadmium, Indium, and Tin Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Stephanie; Thoennessen, Michael

    2009-10-01

    As of today, no comprehensive study has been made covering the initial observations and identifications of isotopes. A project has been undertaken at MSU to document the discovery of all the known isotopes. The criteria defining discovery of a given isotope is the publication of clear mass and element assignment in a refereed journal. Prior to the current work the documentation of the discovery of eleven elements had been completed^1. These elements are cerium^2, arsenic, gold, tungsten, krypton, silver, vanadium, einsteinium, iron, barium, and cobalt. We will present the new documentation for the cadmium, indium, and tin isotopes. Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes, thirty-eight indium isotopes, and thirty-eight tin isotopes have been discovered so far. The description for each discovered isotope includes the year of discovery, the article published on the discovery, the article's author, the method of production, the method of identification, and any previous information concerning the isotope discovery. A summary and overview of all ˜500 isotopes documented so far as a function of discovery year, method and place will also be presented. ^1http://www.nscl.msu.edu/˜thoennes/2009/discovery.htm ^2J.Q. Ginepro, J. Snyder, and M. Thoennessen, At. Data Nucl. Data. Tables, in press (2009), doi:10.1016/j.adt.2009.06.002

  3. Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A relatively rapid, economical process has been devised for patterning a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) that has been deposited on a polyester film. ITO is a transparent, electrically conductive substance made from a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide that is commonly used in touch panels, liquid-crystal and plasma display devices, gas sensors, and solar photovoltaic panels. In a typical application, the ITO film must be patterned to form electrodes, current collectors, and the like. Heretofore it has been common practice to pattern an ITO film by means of either a laser ablation process or a photolithography/etching process. The laser ablation process includes the use of expensive equipment to precisely position and focus a laser. The photolithography/etching process is time-consuming. The present process is a variant of the direct toner process an inexpensive but often highly effective process for patterning conductors for printed circuits. Relative to a conventional photolithography/ etching process, this process is simpler, takes less time, and is less expensive. This process involves equipment that costs less than $500 (at 2005 prices) and enables patterning of an ITO film in a process time of less than about a half hour.

  4. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  5. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  6. Characterization of Sodium Ion Electrochemical Reaction with Tin Anodes: Experiment and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Meisner, Roberta A; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Unocic, Raymond R; Bridges, Craig A; Jumas, Dr. Jean-Claude; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    Tin anodes show a rich structure and reaction chemistry which we have investigated in detail. Upon discharge five plateaus are observed corresponding to -Sn, an unidentified phase (Na/Sn = 0.6), an amorphous phase (Na/Sn = 1.2), a hexagonal R-3m Na5Sn2, and fully sodiated Na15Sn 4. With charging there are six plateaus, which are related to the formation of Na5Sn2 followed by the formation of amorphous phases and -Sn. Upon cycling the formation of metastable Na5Sn2 seems to be suppressed, leading to a single charge plateau at 0.2 V. Theoretical voltages calculated from existing crystal structures using DFT provide a good match with constant current measurements, however, the voltage is more negative compared to quasi-equilibrium measurements (GITT). Search for additional (meta)stable phases using cluster-expansion method predicts many phases lower in energy than the convex hull, including the R-3m Na5Sn2 phase characterized experimentally. The presence of multiple phases in varying lattices with very similar formation energy suggests why the reaction mechanism is non-reversible. Interpretation of M ssbauer spectroscopy data is not yet elucidated due to the very low recoil-free fraction of the materials. The electrode surface is terminated with a SEI layer rich in carbonates such as Na2CO3 and Na alkyl carbonates as evidenced by XPS. After a full charge at 2V, strong evidence for the formation of oxidized Sn4+ is obtained. Subjecting the electrode to a rest after a full charge at 2 V reveals that aging in the electrolyte reduces the oxidized Sn4+ into Sn2+ and Sn0, and concomitantly suppresses the electrolyte decomposition represented by an anomalous discharge plateau at 1.2 V. Thereby, the catalytic decomposition of the electrolyte during discharge is caused by nanosized Sn particles covered by oxidized Sn4+ and not by pure metallic Sn.

  7. Effects of Substrate Quenching after TiN Coating on Tribological Properties of TiN Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Miyoshi, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Tohru; Sagara, Syuichi

    To investigate the effects of post-coat substrate quenching on the tribological properties of TiN film, a specimen was prepared in which the steel substrate (carbon tool steel, JIS SK3) was quenched after TiN coating, and the ball-on-disk type wear test was carried out using a ZrO2 ball. The delamination initiation life of TiN film was improved by the high adhesive strength of TiN film obtained by post-coat substrate quenching. The specific wear rate was also improved by post-coat substrate quenching, although TiN hardness was lower than that of the conventional type specimen, which was coated with TiN after substrate quenching. The improvement in the specific wear rate could be explained as follows. In the post-coat substrate quenching process, TiN was partly oxidized and titanium oxide, which acted as a lubricant, was formed on the TiN surface. The formation of titanium oxide resulted in a reduction in the friction coefficient and consequently a lower specific wear rate was obtained.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ellis J.; Gladfelter, Wayne L.; Johnson, Forrest; Campbell, Stephen A.

    2015-03-15

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were coated with thin films of SnO{sub 2}. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O{sub 3} among the TET:O{sub 3} pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. % Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically n{sub TET}:(n{sub TET} + n{sub DEZ}) where n{sub TET} and n{sub DEZ} are the number of precursor/O{sub 3} subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO{sub 2} on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 10{sup 17} and 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO.

  9. The tin zone: sediment-hosted hydrothermal tin mineralization at Rooiberg, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, A.; Misiewicz, J. E.; Scheepers, R.

    1995-04-01

    The Rooiberg tin field, also known as the Rooiberg Fragment, is located within the western lobe of the Bushveld Complex. The fragment is triangular-shaped, consists of early Proterozoic Transvaal Sequence volcano-sedimentary rocks, and is surrounded by granitoid intrusives of the Lebowa Granite Suite. Practically all the significant tin deposits are hosted by arkoses, located towards the transition with shaly arkoses at the stratigraphic top of the Boschoffsberg Quartzite Member. This stratabound distribution of individual deposits gave rise to the concept of a regionally developed continuous stanniferous zone. On regional scale, the individual deposits are broadly similar and are collectively classified as replacement and open space-filling type. Particular styles of mineralization such as tourmaline pockets/orbicules, disseminated cassiterite, steep and flat dipping sulphidic fractures and hydrothermal carbonate breccias appear to dominate each mine. Petrological and geochemical investigations of four mineralized centres, indicated the presence of a 500 600 m thick stratified zone of pervasively altered clastic sedimentary rocks of possible arkosic precursor composition. Alteration displays a distinct zonal distribution consisting of a grey-green sodic (albitized) foot wall, an approximately 80 m transitional sericitized-tourmalinized sulphidic tin zone and red hematitic potassic hanging wall. The observed zonal pattern and localization of economically significant cassiterite, is explained by the evolutionary path of magmatic stanniferous hydrothermal fluids genetically related to the surrounding acid phase of the Bushveld Complex. Areas of high fracture density, the tectonic focal points, acted as conduits for the ascending reactive fluids. Factors such as fluid-lithostatic pressure equilibration, limited fracture evolution and/or impermeable shaly arkose retarded this ascent. As a result accumulation, lateral spreading of fluid and pervasive alteration occurred

  10. Silver-tin alloys and amalgams: electrochemical considerations.

    PubMed

    Mueller, H J

    1980-01-01

    The corrosion potential and anodic polarization profiles of a representative number of silver-tin alloys and their corresponding amalgams in a physiological solution were determined and compared to their microstructures. For the alloys with tin-content greater than 27%(wt) and for all amalgams, the corrosion process is related to the attack of free tin for the alloys and to the gamma-2 tin for the amalgams. The gamma-2 concentration in the amalgams increases with an increase in tin-content. For alloys with tin-content less than 27%, the corrosion process is even more restricted than for the process observed with pure silver. From a developed theory based upon the potential-time and polarization results, association of the O2 reduction process on a SnO cathodic film to an intermediate specie of H2O2 is made. The rate of H2O2 decomposition on a SnO surface in a four electron process is thought to control the O2 reduction overvoltage. The O2 reduction overvoltage decreases with increases in the silver-content of the amalgam, particularily seen with the 8 and 12% tin compositions. Due to the polarization induced corrosion process, a phase with high silver and high mercury concentrations was observed over the unreacted particles. PMID:7362862

  11. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T.

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  12. Tin impurity centers in glassy germanium chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Bordovsky, G. A.; Gladkikh, P. V.; Kozhokar, M. Yu.; Marchenko, A. V.; Seregin, P. P.; Terukov, E. I.

    2011-10-15

    Tin atoms produced by radioactive decay of {sup 119mm}Sn and {sup 119}Sn impurity atoms in the structure of Ge{sub x}S{sub 1-x} and Ge{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} glasses are stabilized in the form of Sn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions and correspond to ionized states of the amphoteric two-electron center with negative correlation energy (Sn{sup 2+} is an ionized acceptor, and Sn{sup 4+} is an ionized donor), whereas the neutral state of the Sn{sup 3+} center appears to be unstable. {sup 119}Sn atoms produced by radioactive decay of {sup 119m}Te impurity atoms in the structure of Ge{sub x}S{sub 1-x} and Ge{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} glasses are stabilized at both chalcogen sites (they are electrically inactive) and germanium sites.

  13. Other Oxides Pre-removed from Bangka Tin Slag to Produce a High Grade Tantalum and Niobium Oxides Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, S.; Soedarsono, J. W.; Rustandi, A.; Maksum, A.

    2016-05-01

    Indonesia, as the second largest tin producer in the world, has a byproduct from the production of tin. This byproduct is in the forms of tin slag containing tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) and niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5). This study focuses on the recovery of tantalum pentoxide and niobium pentoxide from the tin slag. In the process, one part of the tin slag sample was sieved only (BTS), and the other was roasted at 900°C, water quenched and then sieved (BTS-RQS). Samples BTS and BTS-RQS were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray flourence (XRF). One part of BTS-RQS sample was dissolved in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and the other was dissolved in hydrochloric acid (HCl), washed with distilled water, then dissolved into sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Each sample was characterized by using XRF. The BTS sample produced the highest recovery of 0.3807 and 0.6978% for Ta2O5 and Nb2O5, respectively, from the particle size of -1.00+0.71 and a fraction of 47.29%, while BTS-RQS produced the highest recovery of 0.3931 and 0.8994% for Ta2O5 and Nb2O5, respectively, on the particle size of -0.71+0350 and a fraction of 21%. BTS-RQS, dissolved with 8% hydro fluoride acid, yields tantalum pentoxide and niobium pentoxide with a ratio of 2.01 and 2.09, respectively. For the sample BTS-RQS dissolve first with 6M hydrochloric acid, washed with distilled water, then dissolved with sodium hydroxide 10M, the yield ratios are 1.60 and 1.84 for tantalum pentoxide and niobium pentoxide, respectively. In this study, it is found that the dissolution by using hydrofluoric acid 8% yields the best ratio.

  14. 40 CFR 421.290 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tin subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary tin subcategory. 421.290 Section 421.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Tin Subcategory § 421.290 Applicability: Description of the secondary tin subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of tin at secondary...

  15. Porcelain enamelled absorbers, coated by spectral selective tin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Simonis, F.; Faber, A.J.; Hoogendoorn, C.J.

    1987-02-01

    The use of porcelain enamelled absorbers in flat plate collectors features longevity thanks to the durability and thermal stability of the enamel finish. The porcelain enamel can be made spectral selective by coating with doped tin oxide or indium oxide. The application procedure involves an enamelling step followed by a pyrosol process with tin or indium compounds. The optical properties of tin oxide coated enamel yield values of 0.90-0.92 absorptance and 0.13-0.18 hemispherical emittance. The temperature dependence of the emittance is very small. The thermal stability has been proved up to 400/sup 0/C in air.

  16. PROCESS OF PRODUCING A NIOBIUM-TIN COMPOUND

    DOEpatents

    Zegler, S.T.; Darby, J.B. Jr.

    1963-04-01

    This patent deals with a process of preparing pure Nb/sub 3/Sn. The process comprises heating powders of niobium and excess tin to 900 to 1000 deg C, whereby niobium reacts with the molten tin under the formation of Nb/sub 3/Sn; cooling and powdering the product and immersing the powder in concentrated hydrochloric acid for removal of excessive tin; separating the Nb/sub 3/Sn, rinsing and drying it and sintering it in an inert atmosphere at 900 to 1300 deg C. (AEC)

  17. Tin-silver-bismuth solders for electronics assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.

    1995-08-08

    A lead-free solder alloy is disclosed for electronic assemblies composed of a eutectic alloy of tin and silver with a bismuth addition, x, of 0tin effective to depress the melting point of the tin-silver composition to a desired level. Melting point ranges from about 218 C down to about 205 C depending an the amount of bismuth added to the eutectic tin-silver alloy as determined by DSC analysis, 10 C/min. A preferred alloy composition is 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (weight percent based on total alloy weight). 4 figs.

  18. Tin-silver-bismuth solders for electronics assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, Paul T.; Rejent, Jerome A.

    1995-01-01

    A lead-free solder alloy for electronic assemblies composed of a eutectic alloy of tin and silver with a bismuth addition, x, of 0tin effective to depress the melting point of the tin-silver composition to a desired level. Melting point ranges from about 218.degree. C. down to about 205.degree. C. depending an the amount of bismuth added to the eutectic tin-silver alloy as determined by DSC analysis, 10.degree. C./min. A preferred alloy composition is 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (weight percent based on total alloy weight).

  19. Process for making a noble metal on tin oxide catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quantity of reagent grade tin metal or compound, chloride-free, and high-surface-area silica spheres are placed in deionized water, followed by deaerating the mixture by boiling and adding an oxidizing agent, such as nitric acid. The nitric acid oxidizes the tin to metastannic acid which coats the spheres because the acid is absorbed on the substrate. The metastannic acid becomes tin oxide upon drying and calcining. The tin-oxide coated silica spheres are then placed in water and boiled. A chloride-free precious metal compound in aqueous solution is then added to the mixture containing the spheres, and the precious metal compound is reduced to a precious metal by use of a suitable reducing agent such as formic acid. Very beneficial results were obtained using the precious metal compound tetraammine platinum(II) hydroxide.

  20. EUV resists based on tin-oxo clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardineau, Brian; Del Re, Ryan; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Marnell, Miles; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Sarma, Chandra; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the photolysis of tin clusters of the type [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2 using extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) light, and developed these clusters into novel high-resolution photoresists. A thin film of [(BuSn)12O14(OH)6][p-toluenesulfonate]2 (1) was prepared by spin coating a solution of (1) in 2-butanone onto a silicon wafer. Exposure to EUV light caused the compound (1) to be converted into a substance that was markedly less soluble in aqueous isopropanol. To optimize the EUV lithographic performance of resists using tin-oxo clusters, and to gain insight into the mechanism of their photochemical reactions, we prepared several compounds based on [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2. The sensitivity of tin-oxide films to EUV light were studied as a function of variations in the structure of the counter-anions (X, primarily carboxylates) and organic ligands bound to tin (R). Correlations were sought between the EUV sensitivity of these complexes vs. the strength of the carbon-carboxylate bonds in the counteranions and vs. the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. No correlation was observed between the strength of the carboncarboxylate bonds in the counter-anions (X) and the EUV photosensitivity. However, the EUV sensitivity of the tinoxide films appears to be well-correlated with the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. We hypothesize this correlation indicates a mechanism of carbon-tin bond homolysis during exposure. Using these tin clusters, 18-nm lines were printed showcasing the high resolution capabilities of these materials as photoresists for EUV lithography.

  1. Vacuum Carbothermal Reduction for Treating Tin Anode Slime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Weizhong; Qiu, Keqiang

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a process of vacuum carbothermal reduction was proposed for treating tin anode slime containing antimony and lead. During vacuum carbothermal reduction, the antimony and lead were selectively removed simultaneously by reducing and decomposing the less volatile mixed oxide of lead and antimony into the more volatile Sb2O3 and PbO. Then the tin was enriched in the distilland and primarily present as SnO2. Crude tin was obtained via vacuum reduction of the residual SnO2. The results showed that 92.85% by weight of antimony and 99.58% by weight of lead could be removed at 850°C for 60 min with 4 wt.% of reductant and air flow rate at 400 mL/min corresponding to the residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-150 Pa. Under these conditions, an evaporation ratio of 52.7% was achieved. Crude tin with a tin content of 94.22 wt.% was obtained at temperature of 900°C, reduction time of 60 min, reductant dosage of 12.5 wt.%, and a residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-400 Pa. Correspondingly, the direct recovery of tin was 94.35%.

  2. A Study of Melt Inclusions in Tin-Mineralized Granites From Zinnwald, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sookdeo, C. A.; Webster, J. D.; Eschen, M. L.; Tappen, C. M.

    2001-12-01

    We have analyzed silicate melt inclusions from drill core samples from the eastern Erzgebirge region, Germany, to investigate magmatic-hydrothermal and mineralizing processes in compositionally evolved, tin-bearing granitic magmas. Silicate melt inclusions are small blebs of glass that are trapped or locked within phenocrysts and may contain high concentrations of volatiles that usually leave magma via degassing. Quartz phenocrysts were carefully hand picked from crushed samples of albite-, zinnwaldite- +/- lepidolite-bearing granitic dikes from Zinnwald and soaked in cold dilute HF to remove any attached groundmass. The cleaned phenocrysts were loaded into precious metal capsules with several drops of immersion oil to create a reducing environment at high temperature. The quartz-bearing capsules were inserted into quartz glass tubes, loaded into a furnace for heating at temperatures of 1025\\deg and 1050\\deg C (1atm) for periods of 20 to 30 hours, and subsequently the inclusions were quenched to glass. The inclusions were analyzed for major and minor elements (including F, Cl, and P) by electron microprobe and for H2O, trace elements, and ore elements by ion microprobe. The melt inclusion compositions are similar to that of the whole-rock sample from which the quartz separates were extracted. The average melt inclusion and whole-rock compositions are peraluminous, high in silica and rare alkalis, and low in MgO, CaO, FeO, MnO, and P2O5. Unlike the whole-rock sample, the melt inclusions contain from 0.5 to more than 4 wt.% F. The Cl contents of the inclusions are variable and range from hundreds of ppm to several thousand ppm. The variable and strong enrichments in F of the melt inclusions may correlate with (Na2O/Na2O+K2O) in the inclusions which is consistent with crystal fractionation of feldspars which drives the residual melt to increasing Na contents. Overall, the compositions of these melt inclusions are different from melt inclusions extracted from the

  3. The toxicology of indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M

    2016-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a technologically important semiconductor. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or interstitial fibrosis) in ITO-exposed workers warrants a review of the toxicological hazards. Short- and long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice revealed persistent alveolar proteinosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs down to concentrations as low as 0.01mg/m(3). In rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased at all concentrations. In mice, ITO was not carcinogenic. A few bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas occurring after repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters have to be interpreted as treatment-related. In vitro and in vivo studies on the formation of reactive oxygen species suggest epigenetic effects as cause of the lung tumor development. Repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters slightly affected the male sexual organs, which might be interpreted as a secondary effect of the lung damage. Epidemiological and medical surveillance studies, serum/blood indium levels in workers as well as data on the exposure to airborne indium concentrations indicate a need for measures to reduce exposure at ITO workplaces. PMID:27343753

  4. Tin isotope fractionation in terrestrial cassiterites

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, N.J. ); Rosman, K.J.R. )

    1991-02-01

    The isotopic composition of tin has been measured in a range of cassiterites and pure reagents to assess the extent to which this element is isotopically fractionated in natural processes. Only two samples showed evidence of isotopic fractionation, and it is concluded that natural Sn isotope fractionation is small and uncommon. This feature reflects the world dominance of Sn-oxide ores Sn-sulfide ores, and the highly efficient processes of Sn dissolution and precipitation which negate equilibrium and kinetic fractionation of Sn isotopes, respectively. The two samples which show slight fractionation are a highly purified and cassiterite from the Archaean Greenbushes pegmatite, Western Australia. The latter Sn is 0.15{per thousand} per mass unit heavier than the authors laboratory standard, whereas the former is 0.12{per thousand} per mass unit lighter. Although the cassiterite fractionation is considered to result from natural geological processes, the fractionation of purified Sn may be either natural or relate to the purification process, the fractionation of this magnitude has a negligible effect on the current best estimate of the atomic weight of Sn, but it does place a lower limit on its associated accuracy.

  5. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colas, Rafael

    2012-02-15

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  6. X-ray diffraction of solid tin to 1.2 TPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazicki, Amy; Rygg, Ryan; Coppari, Federica; Smith, Ray; Fratanduono, Dayne; Braun, Dave; Kraus, Richard; Swift, Damian; Collins, Gilbert; Eggert, Jon

    2015-06-01

    We present x-ray diffraction studies of solid crystal structure at the highest stress state where such measurements have ever been performed. Using laser-driven ramp compression methods coupled with angle-resolved powder x-ray diffraction at the Omega laser facility, we explore the phase diagram of tin below the melting curve between 0.1 and 1.2 terapascals (TPa). We demonstrate that, at dynamic-compression rates on the order of 107 s-1, tin transforms from the ambient tetragonal beta-Sn phase to the stable high pressure body-centered cubic (bcc) phase with densities consistent with static-compression measurements. Above 0.16 TPa our experiments identify a new feature in the phase diagram: a crystal structure clearly inconsistent with the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) phase identified at these conditions by ambient-temperature static-compression measurements and by zero-kelvin density functional theory structure predictions. Our results suggest that the bcc phase is stabilized relative to hcp at high temperature, analogous to the heavier group IV metal Pb and numerous other elemental metals, and retains this phase during ramp compression to 1.2 TPa. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. A TIN2 dyskeratosis congenita mutation causes telomerase-independent telomere shortening in mice.

    PubMed

    Frescas, David; de Lange, Titia

    2014-01-15

    The progressive bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is often caused by mutations in telomerase or the factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and trafficking. However, a subset of DC patients is heterozygous for mutations in the shelterin component TIN2. To determine how the TIN2-DC mutations affect telomere function, we generated mice with the equivalent of the TIN2 K280E DC allele (TIN2(DC)) by gene targeting. Whereas homozygous TIN2(DC/DC) mice were not viable, first-generation TIN2(+/DC) mice were healthy and fertile. In the second and third generations, the TIN2(+/DC) mice developed mild pancytopenia, consistent with hematopoietic dysfunction in DC, as well as diminished fecundity. Bone marrow telomeres of TIN2(+/DC) mice shortened over the generations, and immortalized TIN2(+/DC) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed telomere shortening with proliferation. Unexpectedly, telomere shortening was accelerated in TIN2(+/DC) mTR(-/-) mice and MEFs compared with TIN2(+/+) mTR(-/-) controls, establishing that the TIN2(DC) telomere maintenance defect was not solely due to diminished telomerase action. The TIN2(DC) allele induced mild ATR kinase signaling at telomeres and a fragile telomere phenotype, suggestive of telomere replication problems. These data suggest that this TIN2-DC mutation could induce telomeric dysfunction phenotypes in telomerase-negative somatic cells and tissues that further exacerbate the telomere maintenance problems in telomerase-positive stem cell compartments. PMID:24449270

  8. Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qinyuan; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Kang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on 1625 data collected from the published literature, the geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals, including the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, genetic types and combustion behavior, was discussed to make a better understanding. Our statistic showed the average Sn of Chinese coal was 3.38 mg/kg, almost two times higher than the world. Among all the samples collected, Guangxi coals occupied an extremely high Sn enrichment (10.46 mg/kg), making sharp contrast to Xinjiang coals (0.49 mg/kg). Two modes of occurrence of Sn in Chinese coals were found, including sulfide-bounded Sn and clay-bounded Sn. In some coalfields, such as Liupanshui, Huayingshan and Haerwusu, a response between REEs distribution and Sn content was found which may caused by the transportation of Sn including clay minerals between coal seams. According to the responses reflecting on REEs patterns of each coalfield, several genetic types of Sn in coalfields were discussed. The enrichment of Sn in Guangxi coals probably caused by Sn-rich source rocks and multiple-stage hydrothermal fluids. The enriched Sn in western Guizhou coals was probably caused by volcanic ashes and sulfide-fixing mechanism. The depletion of Sn in Shengli coalfield, Inner Mongolia, may attribute to hardly terrigenous input and fluids erosion. As a relative easily volatilized element, the Sn-containing combustion by-products tended to be absorbed on the fine particles of fly ash. In 2012, the emission flux of Sn by Chinese coal combustion was estimated to be 0.90 × 10(9) g. PMID:25686909

  9. Epigenetic lead, zinc, silver, antimony, tin, and gold veins in Boulder Basin, Blaine and Custer counties, Idaho; potential for economic tin mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratchford, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Boulder Basin is in a northwest-trending belt of allochthonous Paleozoic rocks in the Boulder Mountains of central Idaho. Regional Tertiary extension resulted in widespread normal faulting and coeval emplacement of shallow-level intrusions and extrusive rocks of the Challis Volcanic Group. Epigenetic lead-zinc-silver-antimony-tin-gold vein deposits formed during Tertiary extension and are hosted within Paleozoic strata. The major orebodies are in the lower plate of the Boulder Basin thrust fault, in massive quartzite of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Wood River Formation. Anomalous concentrations of tin are present in the base-metal mineral assemblage of the Boulder Basin ore deposits. The tin-bearing veins in Boulder Basin are strikingly similar to Bolivian tin deposits. The deposit model for Bolivian tin deposits identifies buried tin porphyry below the tin-bearing vein system.

  10. Non-hydrolytic Sol-gel Synthesis of Tin Sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajvinder

    The non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) process is an effective low temperature route well known for preparing homogeneous metal oxides. Thermodynamically as well as kinetically favored products, which cannot be prepared with the traditional solid-state routes, can be produced using NHSG. This project is focused on the exploration of NHSG synthesis of binary tin sulfides. In the past few years, metal sulfides have been the subject of significant interest. Much effort has been devoted to understand these materials because of their potential applications in electronic, optical, and superconductor devices.4 Among these materials, tin sulfides are materials of technological importance, which are being explored as semiconductors, anode materials for Li ion batteries, photoconductors, photocatalysts and absorber layer materials in photovoltaic solar cell devices. All of these applications depend upon features like homogeneity, oxidation state, high surface area and purity of the materials. These properties can be difficult to achieve by employing traditional synthetic routes, which require high temperatures due to slow diffusion, limiting the products to thermodynamically stable phases and prohibiting control over properties like particle size and surface area. A variety of low temperature methods are being explored due to the increased demand for such advanced materials. This project is focused on exploring the NHSG approach to synthesize binary tin sulfides, with the main goal of establishing conditions for the targeted synthesis of different tin sulfide polymorphs with controlled particle size. Being non-oxide materials, tin sulfides can be air sensitive, which requires special attention in handling. All reactions were carried out in absence of oxygen. This project explores the reaction of tin halides with thioethers in a dry solvent medium, leading to the formation of tin sulfides. There are a number of synthetic parameters that can be varied for the NHSG approach. A

  11. Influence of Fretting Wear on Lifetime of Tin Plated Connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hirosaka; Ito, Tetsuya; Sawada, Shigeru; Hattori, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Yasushi; Tamai, Terutaka; Iida, Kazuo

    Due to the recent increase in electronic devices mounted on automobiles, a large number of connectors, especially low-cost tin plated connectors are being used. As a result, their contact reliability has become problematic. Furthermore, for the connectors which are subjected to fretting wear caused by heat cycle and vibrations, the contact resistance increases because of wear of tin and deposition of oxides, which generates problems of poor contact. This study is intended to analyze the change in contact resistance of tin plated connectors from the start of fretting wear to the end of their lifetime from the viewpoint of practical reliability, and to observe the trace and the characteristics of fretting wear microscopically. This study found that wear and oxidation of tin plated connectors start immediately with fretting wear, and thus accumulation of abrasion powder on fretting areas causes connectors to reach to the end of their useful lifetime quickly. Especially, it was demonstrated that amplitude of fretting has a considerable influence on a connector's lifetime. It is made clear that air-tightness, so-called “gas-tight” of tin in a fretting area influences fretting wear considerably.

  12. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Conformal Coatings as Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sungwon; Osterman, Michael; Meschter, Stephan; Pecht, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The application of a conformal coat has been considered as a mitigation strategy to prevent unintended shorting events induced by tin whisker formation in electronic products. While various conformal coatings have been shown to be effective at containing tin whiskers on treated coupons, the effectiveness of conformal coating on actual assembled hardware has not been adequately examined. In this study, the ability of six types of conformal coatings to contain tin whiskers was examined through their application to assembled gull-wing lead quad flat package test specimens. Nonuniform coverage of conformal coating on the gull-wing leads was found to be a primary concern. Quantitative image analysis using scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode was developed to aid in quantifying coating coverage. The ability of applied coatings to contain tin whiskers was examined after specimens were subjected to sequential temperature cycling and elevated temperature/humidity conditions as well as exposure to corrosive gases. For all but one coating, tin whiskers were observed to escape areas of relatively thin coating. Parylene C coating was found to be the most effective coating in providing uniform coverage and thickness, and containing whiskers.

  13. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Margolin, Len G.; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Reinovsky, Robert Emil; Turchi, Peter John

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  14. DEM Based Modeling: Grid or TIN? The Answer Depends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, F. L.; Moreno, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of petascale supercomputing power has enabled process-based hydrological simulations on large watersheds and two-way coupling with mesoscale atmospheric models. Of course with increasing watershed scale come corresponding increases in watershed complexity, including wide ranging water management infrastructure and objectives, and ever increasing demands for forcing data. Simulations of large watersheds using grid-based models apply a fixed resolution over the entire watershed. In large watersheds, this means an enormous number of grids, or coarsening of the grid resolution to reduce memory requirements. One alternative to grid-based methods is the triangular irregular network (TIN) approach. TINs provide the flexibility of variable resolution, which allows optimization of computational resources by providing high resolution where necessary and low resolution elsewhere. TINs also increase required effort in model setup, parameter estimation, and coupling with forcing data which are often gridded. This presentation discusses the costs and benefits of the use of TINs compared to grid-based methods, in the context of large watershed simulations within the traditional gridded WRF-HYDRO framework and the new TIN-based ADHydro high performance computing watershed simulator.

  15. Radiation-induced deposition of transparent conductive tin oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umnov, S.; Asainov, O.; Temenkov, V.

    2016-04-01

    The study of tin oxide films is stimulated by the search for an alternative replacement of indium-tin oxide (ITO) films used as transparent conductors, oxidation catalysts, material gas sensors, etc. This work was aimed at studying the influence of argon ions irradiation on optical and electrical characteristics of tin oxide films. Thin films of tin oxide (without dopants) were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature using reactive magnetron sputtering. After deposition, the films were irradiated with an argon ion beam. The current density of the beam was (were) 2.5 mA/cm2, and the particles energy was 300-400 eV. The change of the optical and electrical properties of the films depending on the irradiation time was studied. Films optical properties were investigated by photometry in the range of 300-1100 nm. Films structural properties were studied using X-ray diffraction. The diffractometric research showed that the films, deposited on a substrate, had a crystal structure, and after argon ions irradiation they became quasi-crystalline (amorphous). It has been found that the transmission increases proportionally with the irradiation time, however the sheet resistance increases disproportionally. Tin oxide films (thickness ~30 nm) with ~100% transmittance and sheet resistance of ~100 kOhm/sq. were obtained. The study has proved to be prospective in the use of ion beams to improve the properties of transparent conducting oxides.

  16. Tin Nitride as an Earth Abundant Photoanode for Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caskey, Christopher; Ma, Ming; Stephanovic, Vladan; Laney, Stephan; Ginley, David; Richards, Ryan; Smith, Wilson; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2014-03-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting-the conversion of water to hydrogen and oxygen using light-is an attractive route to the chemical storage of solar energy. We demonstrate that spinel tin nitride (Sn3N4) has conduction and valence bands that straddle the redox potentials of water and we study it as a photoannode material. Sn3N4 thin films have been grown on glass at ambient temperature by reactive sputtering of tin in a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting materials were n-type semiconductors. Carrier concentration, carrier mobility, work function, and optical properties were measured. Results indicate that tin nitride has a band gap of ~ 1.7 eV aligned around water's redox potentials. GW-corrected DFT-surface calculations that take into account water surface dipole interactions are consistent with experiment. Early PEC devices were made from Sn3N4 on fluorinated tin oxide with cobalt oxide catalysts and show a small but promising photoresponse (~ 0.1 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE) under AM 1.5 illumination in 0.1 M potassium phosphate (pH= 7.25). Further work will focus on increasing the photocurrent in tin nitride devices by increasing film quality and identifying the proper catalyst. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), VENI scheme.

  17. Mimicking high-silica zeolites: highly stable germanium- and tin-rich zeolite-type chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qipu; Bu, Xianhui; Mao, Chengyu; Zhao, Xiang; Sasan, Koroush; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-05-20

    High-silica zeolites, as exemplified by ZSM-5, with excellent chemical and thermal stability, have generated a revolution in industrial catalysis. In contrast, prior to this work, high-silica-zeolite-like chalcogenides based on germanium/tin remained unknown, even after decades of research. Here six crystalline high-germanium or high-tin zeolite-type sulfides and selenides with four different topologies are reported. Their unprecedented framework compositions give these materials much improved thermal and chemical stability with high surface area (Langmuir surface area of 782 m(2)/g(-1)) comparable to or better than zeolites. Among them, highly stable CPM-120-ZnGeS allows for ion exchange with diverse metal or complex cations, resulting in fine-tuning in porosity, fast ion conductivity, and photoelectric response. Being among the most porous crystalline chalcogenides, CPM-120-ZnGeS (exchanged with Cs(+) ions) also shows reversible adsorption with high capacity and affinity for CO2 (98 and 73 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 and 298 K, respectively, isosteric heat of adsorption = 40.05 kJ mol(-1)). Moreover, CPM-120-ZnGeS could also function as a robust photocatalyst for water reduction to generate H2. The overall activity of H2 production from water, in the presence of Na2S-Na2SO3 as a hole scavenger, was 200 μmol h(-1)/(0.10 g). Such catalytic activity remained undiminished under illumination by UV light for as long as measured (200 h), demonstrating excellent resistance to photocorrosion even under intense UV radiation. PMID:25950820

  18. Photoelectrochemical salt water splitting using ternary silver-tin-selenide photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kong-Wei; Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Chiu, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Ternary AgSnSe2 and Ag8SnSe6 semiconductor photoelectrodes are prepared on various substrates via the selenization of thermally evaporation of silver-tin metal precursors. The structural, optical and electrical properties of ternary AgSnSe2 and Ag8SnSe6 samples are investigated as a function of the [Ag]/[Ag + Sn] molar ratio in the metal precursors. X-ray diffraction patterns of samples show that the phases of samples change from cubic AgSnSe2 to cubic Ag8SnSe6 phase at a selenization temperature of 410 °C when the molar ratio of [Ag]/[Ag + Sn] in silver-tin metal precursors increase from 0.51 to 0.68. The images obtained from a field-emission scanning electron microscopy show that the surface microstructures of samples change from plate-like microstructures with some pinholes to polygonal microstructures with increasing [Ag]/[Ag + Sn] molar ratios in samples. The energy bang gaps, carrier concentrations and mobilities of the samples are in the ranges of 0.86-1.19 eV, 1.27 × 1011-2.39 × 1012 cm-3 and 238-655 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The highest photo-enhanced current densities of the samples in aqueous Na2S + K2SO3 and NaCl solutions are 3.34 and 0.61 mA cm-2 at an applied voltage of 0 and + 0.4 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode under 100 mW cm-2 light illumination from a Xe lamp source, respectively.

  19. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monique; To, An; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Talbot, Prue

    2015-01-01

    Background Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC) fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components. Methods Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol. Conclusions Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality. PMID:26406602

  20. /TiN Resistive RAM (RRAM) Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. X.; Fang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Kamath, A.; Wang, X. P.; Singh, N.; Lo, G.-Q.; Kwong, D.-L.; Wu, Y. H.

    2014-11-01

    We present a study of Ni silicide as the bottom electrode in HfO2-based resistive random-access memory cells. Various silicidation conditions were used for each device, yielding different Ni concentrations within the electrode. A higher concentration of Ni in the bottom electrode was found to cause a parasitic SET operation during certain RESET operation cycles, being attributed to field-assisted Ni cation migration creating a Ni filament. As such, the RESET is affected unless an appropriate RESET voltage is used. Bottom electrodes with lower concentrations of Ni were able to switch at ultralow currents (RESET current <1 nA) by using a low compliance current (<500 nA). The low current is attributed to the tunneling barrier formed by the native SiO2 at the Ni silicide/HfO2 interface.

  1. Synthesis and conductivity of indium-doped tin pyrophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, Fernando H; Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L

    2008-01-01

    We have synthesized indium-doped tin pyrophosphates as high-temperature anhydrous proton conductors. The ratio of tin to indium was varied using two different synthetic methods. The first is a high-temperature reaction in which a paste containing the reactants in excess phosphoric acid was heated for various amounts of time at various temperatures. The second method is a solution precipitation procedure followed by calcination, which offers several advantages over traditional synthetic techniques. These advantages inc 1 ude better stoichiometric control, lower temperature requirements, and chemically uniform products. Several phosphate sources were investigated, including phosphoric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, and potassium pyrophosphate. The resulting indium-doped tin pyrophosphates had good proton conductivity over a wide temperature range with no humidification.

  2. States of antimony and tin atoms in lead chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Bordovsky, G. A.; Nemov, S. A.; Marchenko, A. V.; Zaiceva, A. V.; Kozhokar, M. Yu.; Seregin, P. P.

    2011-04-15

    It is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy of the {sup 119}Sb({sup 119m}Sn) isotope that impurity antimony atoms in PbS, PbSe, and PbTe lattices are distributed between cation and anion sublattices. In n-type samples, the greatest part of antimony is located in the anion sublattice; in hole ones, in the cation sublattice. The tin atoms formed as a result of radioactive decay of {sup 119}Sb (antisite state) are electrically inactive in the anion sub-lattice of PbS and PbSe, while, in the cation sublattice, they form donor U{sup -} centers. Electron exchange between the neutral and doubly ionized tin U{sup -} centers via the allowed band states is observed. The tin atoms formed after radioactive decay of {sup 119}Sb are electrically inactive in the anion and cation sublattices of PbTe.

  3. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-08-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction.

  4. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, A. V.; Mityakhina, V. S.; Krasnikov, L. V.; Galkin, B. Ya.; Besnosyuk, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of 125Sb from tin using highly basic, medium-basic, and weakly basic ion-exchangers was studied. The best results were obtained for AN-31 weakly basic anion exchanger. The yield of 125Sb was 95-98% of the initial activity, the yield of tin, 98±0.5% of the initial amount. The separation coefficient is 106-107 for one cycle. A procedure based on ion exchange was developed. Extraction procedures of separation of 125Sb from tin were studied. Isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and di- n-butyl ether were used as extracting agents. The most efficient extracting agent is di- n-butyl ether. Carrier-free radiochemically pure sample of 125Sb was produced. More than 20 mCi of the target product was recovered. The extraction recovery procedure of 125Sb has been developed.

  5. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Beaudette, C; Guo, J; Bozhilov, K; Mangolini, L

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive "dead spots" in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  6. Stabilized tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  7. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  8. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwib, Lawrence L.; Zapata, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  9. Solidification mechanism of highly undercooled metal alloys. [tin-lead and nickel-tin alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiohara, Y.; Chu, M. G.; Macisaac, D. G.; Flemings, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on metal droplet undercooling, using Sn-25wt%Pb and Ni-34wt%Sn alloys. To achieve the high degree of undercooling, emulsification treatments were employed. Results show the fraction of supersaturated primary phase is a function of the amount of undercooling, as is the fineness of the structures. The solidification behavior of the tin-lead droplets during recalescence was analyzed using three different hypotheses; (1) solid forming throughout recalescence is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; (2) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature, and solid forming thereafter is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; and (3) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature with solid forming thereafter that is of the maximum thermodynamically metastable composition that is possible. The T sub o temperature is calculated from the equal molar free energies of the liquid solid using the regular solution approximation.

  10. Tin(II) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin(II) oxide.

    PubMed

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Davaasuren, Bambar; Alshankiti, Buthainah Ameen; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2015-12-14

    Tin(II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn (R = Me 1, CH2Ph 2) and (MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn](-) NH4(+)·2H2O 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH2 (R = H, Me) with tin(II) chloride dihydrate SnCl2·2H2O. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HON=C(Me)COO]2Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO2 in ambient atmosphere. PMID:26528675

  11. X-ray TV study of the penetration of tin into a steel melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, A. V.; Panfilov, A. M.; Semenova, N. S.

    2016-02-01

    A technique is developed and an X-ray TV study is performed to investigate the penetration of spherical tin samples into the steel 40Kh melt at a temperature of 1550°C. Cold spherical tin particles 1-2 in weight are found to dissolve in the tin-free steel at an initial rate of 180 ± 50 mol/(m2 s). A sample dissolves fully in less than 2 s. When a sample reaches the steel-gas phase interface, its dissolution rate decreases by many times. Separation with the formation of a two-phase system occurs at 1.6-1.9 mol % tin in steel. The density of the iron-based alloy is lower than that of the tin-based alloy. Pure tin and the saturated solution of iron in tin wet Al2O3-based refractory ceramic better than pure iron or its alloy with tin.

  12. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Brito, Neliza; Melendez, Anamaris; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J.

    2007-03-01

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600°C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature.

  13. Tin oxide-carbon nanotube composite for NOx sensing.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong Mi; Jung, Hyuck; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Kim, Dojin; Hong, Soon-Ku; Kim, Hyojin

    2012-02-01

    Tin oxide-single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) nano composites are synthesized for gas sensor application. The fabrication includes deposition of porous SWCNTs on thermally oxidized SiO2 substrates followed by rheotaxial growth of Sn and thermal oxidation at 300, 400, 500, and 600 degrees C in air. The effects of oxidation temperature on morphology, microstructure, and gas sensing properties are investigated for process optimization. The tin monoxide oxidized at 400 degrees C showed the highest response at the operating temperature of 200 degrees C. Under the optimized test condition, the composite structure showed better response than both structures of SWCNTs and thin film SnO. PMID:22629971

  14. Ovonic type switching in tin selenide thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxter, C. R.; Mclennan, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Amorphous tin selenide thin films which possess Ovonic type switching properties are fabricated using vacuum deposition techniques. The devices are fabricated in a planar configuration and consist of amorphous tin selenide deposited over silver contacts. Results obtained indicate that Ovonic type memory switching does occur in these films with the energy density required for switching from a high impedance to a low impedance state being dependent on the spacing between the electrodes of the device. There is also a strong implication that the switching is a function of the magnitude of the applied voltage pulse.

  15. Reductive precipitation of metals photosensitized by tin and antimony porphyrins

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Gong, Weiliang; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Lutze, Werner

    2003-09-30

    A method for reducing metals using a tin or antimony porphyrin by forming an aqueous solution of a tin or antimony porphyrin, an electron donor, such as ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid, triethylamine, triethanolamine, and sodium nitrite, and at least one metal compound selected from a uranium-containing compound, a mercury-containing compound, a copper-containing compound, a lead-containing compound, a gold-containing compound, a silver-containing compound, and a platinum-containing compound through irradiating the aqueous solution with light.

  16. Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chien-Hao; Chen, Hao; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Albert T.

    2011-09-01

    This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.

  17. Micro-mechanical properties of commercial TiN coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Berriche, R.; Au, P.; Koul, A.K.; Immarigeon, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Vickers hardness HV, elastic modulus E and interfacial fracture toughness K{sub ic} of four commercial TiN coatings applied to a 17-4 PH stainless steel substrate were evaluated using a Nanomechanical Probe (NMP). The HV values of the TiN layers deposited by different methods varied between about 28 and 41 GPa, depending on the deposition process. The elastic modulus, on the other hand, appeared to remain constant at 320-330 GPa for all coatings examined. Finally, distinct differences between the K{sub ic} values representing the bond strength of the coating/substrate interface were observed.

  18. An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  19. A review of tin oxide-based catalytic systems: Preparation, characterization and catalytic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflund, Gar B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the important aspects of the preparation, characterization and catalytic behavior of tin oxide-based catalytic systems including doped tin oxide, mixed oxides which contain tin oxide, Pt supported on tin oxide and Pt/Sn supported on alumina. These systems have a broad range of applications and are continually increasing in importance. However, due to their complex nature, much remains to be understood concerning how they function catalytically.

  20. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This empirical model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models. FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  6. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  7. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  8. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3406(j)-1 - Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching... Number (TIN) matching program. (a) The matching program. Under section 3406(i), the Commissioner has the authority to establish Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching programs. The Commissioner...

  10. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  11. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  12. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brusse, Jay; Sampson, Mike; Leidecker, Henning; Kadesch, Jong

    2004-01-01

    This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

  13. Properties of TiN and TiN deposited by CVD on graphite for pyrochemical applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P. S.; Moon, B. M.

    1997-12-17

    High-density TiN (>98% of theoretical) has been prepared by hot pressing TiN powder with 2-4 wt.% Li{sub 2}C0{sub 3} at temperatures between 1150-1550 C and pressures of {approx}40-50 MPa. The Li{sub 2}C0{sub 3} served as a fugitive sintering aid, enabling attainment of high density at low temperatures without adversely affecting the inherently good properties. Variation in processing variables and TiN powder characteristics resulted in material with various porosities. Measurement of mechanical properties such as flexural strength and fracture toughness showed that the high-density material has mechanical properties that are superior to those of several oxide ceramics. We have also quantified the effects of porosity on mechanical properties. In addition, adhesion and chemical stability tests were used to investigate graphite coated with TiN by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Pin-pull tests were used to determine coating adhesion and failure stresses were analyzed by Weibull statistics. All pin-pull tests resulted in fracture of the graphite substrate, rather than separation at the TiN/graphite interface. The data showed a good fit to the two-parameter Weibull expression, with a failure strength of 16.4 MPa and Weibull modulus of 9.3. Both the high-density TiN and the TiN coating on the graphite were exposed to a corrosive molten salt CaCl{sub 2}-7 wt.% CaO and a liquid metal alloy (Zn-10 wt.% Mg) at 800 C for 168 h to determine chemical interactions. No reaction was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Thus, graphite coated with TiN by CVD combines the thermodynamic stability of TiN when exposed to reactive molten metals and salts, with the excellent machinability of graphite, and hence is promising for use in container vessels for pyrochemical processing of certain rare-earth and nuclear metals, where chemical inertness and good matching of thermal expansion coefficients are required.

  14. Low gravity solidification structures in the tin-15 wt pct lead and tin-3 wt pct bismuth alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. H.; Parr, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The tin-15 wt pct lead and tin-3 wt pct bismuth alloys have been solidified in the low-gravity environment provided by the Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR), on the KC-135 airplane, and at high 'g' levels in a centrifuge furnace. In each case the resultant cast structure was significantly different from that obtained in ground based experiments. Earlier low-gravity studies with the metal-model system NH4Cl-H2O presaged these results. This paper presents and discusses the influence of changes in the gravity force on the grain structure of these materials.

  15. 3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP IS LOCATED IN LINE WITH 'Y' BRANCH AND THE TAILING PILE FOR TIP TOP IS VISIBLE JUST TO RIGHT OF IT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. Replacing the Tin Can: Creating an Effective Electronic Communication Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Susan M.; Dutt-Doner, Karen M.

    Electronic communication tools may have more in common with the old communication game where tin cans were connected by a string than with traditional classroom communication. The charge is to find ways to make the communication more like, and possibly better, than effective classroom communication. Creating a firm foundation for successful…

  17. On the low-lying states of TiN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A series of CAS SCF and multi-reference CI calculations are used to describe the lowest states of TiN. The bonding in all states is described as a triple bond involving the Ti 3d orbitals. The system has some ionic character as seen from both population analysis and dipole moment. The origins of the excited states are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Tin Plating for Multi Canister Overpack Seals

    SciTech Connect

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-12-07

    The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) incorporates plated seals for use with (1) the port cover plates, (2) process valves of the shield plug, and (3) test plug ofthe cover cap. These seals are required to maintain leakage rates as low as 10{sup -7} scc/atm-sec. in the cover cap to test plug seal. The seals are manufactured by EG&G division of Perkin Elmer. Currently, the MCO design calls for use of silver or gold plated seals in these locations. The seal plating materials are deposited on Inconel 718 or X-750 substrates. Some of these seals are reused several times in service on the MCO. The MCO manufacturer has built several MCOs and is in the leak testing stage and has had great difficulty obtaining acceptable leakage rates at their plant in Camden, New Jersey. The seal manufacturer was called in to evaluate the situation and now the seal manufacturer recommends tin plated seals. This evaluation examines the Corrosion resistance and thermal stability of tin plating on the seals. The use of tin plating on MCO seals was evaluated for corrosion resistance and thermal stability. The corrosion resistance of tin in the expected MCO environments is acceptable. The effect of radiation hardening will offset creep deformation results. However, a low melting point indicates unsuitability at significantly elevated temperatures.

  19. Effects of Conformal Coat on Tin Whisker Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadesch, Jong S.; Leidecker, Henning; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A whisker from a tin plated part was blamed for the loss of a commercial spacecraft in 1998. Although pure tin finishes are prohibited by NASA, tin plated parts, such as hybrids, relays and commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts, are something discovered to have been installed in NASA spacecraft. Invariably, the assumption is that a conformal coat will prevent the growth of, or short circuits caused by, tin whiskers. This study measures the effect a Uralane coating has on the initiation and growth of tin whiskers, on the ability of this coating to prevent a tin whisker from emerging from the coating, and on the ability to prevent shorting. A sample of fourteen brass substrates (1 inch by 4 inches by 1/16 inch) were plated by two separate processes: half of the specimens were 'bright' tin plated directly over the brass substrate and half received a copper flash over the brass substrate prior to 'bright' tin plating. Each specimen was coated on one half of the substrate with three bi-directional sprays of Uralane 5750 to a nominal thickness of 25 to 75 micrometers (1 to 3 mils). Several specimens of both types, Cu and non-Cu flashed, were placed in an oven maintained at 50 C as others' work suggests that this is the optimal temperature for whisker formation. The remaining specimens were maintained at room ambient conditions. The surfaces of each specimen have been regularly inspected using both optical (15 to 400x power) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). Many types of growths, including needle-like whiskers, first appeared approximately three months after plating on the non-conformally coated sides of all specimens. At four months, 4 to 5 times more growth sites were observed on the coated side; however, the density of growth sites on the non-conformally coated side has since increased rapidly, and now, at one year, is about the same for both sides. The density of growth sites is estimated at 90/sq mm with 30 percent of the sites growing whiskers (needle

  20. Micro/nano-scale investigation on tin alloys and tin dioxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong

    Tin (Sn) and its alloys have been at people's service since 3000 BC when bronze (alloy of tin and copper) was produced in large scale. They have unique properties and find applications in various engineering fields. Correspondingly, there is abundant information waiting to be clarified surrounding these Sn-related materials. As the key element used for solder alloys, the properties of Sn alloys have been of great interest to the electronic packaging community. At the same time, the intriguing phenomenon of spontaneous Sn whisker growth from Sn / Sn-alloy thin films have bothered, yet also inspired materials scientists for over 60 years. The most commonly seen Sn-containing compound, SnO 2, is in high demand as well due to its exceptional electronic and chemical properties. In addition, nanostructures of SnO2 are intensively studied for their potential applications as solid-state sensors, transparent conducting materials, lithium-ion batteries, high-efficiency solar cell and recently, supercapacitors. The objective of this proposed research is to explore the amazing properties of Sn and Sn-alloys from several different perspectives. Firstly, ever since the banish of lead in solder alloys, lead-free alloys such as Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) has been put under the spotlight. We intend to use our expertise in nanomechanics to give an in-depth and thorough investigation on a popular SAC387 alloy. The mechanical properties of each phase and the local deformation mechanisms have been considered. Secondly, the Sn whisker growth phenomenon is to be re-visited. With the aid of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques, it was found that magnitude of the strain gradient plays an important role in whisker growth. Moreover, DIC helps to visualize the dynamic growth process in which the alteration of strain field has been identified to cause growth of subsequent whiskers. Last but not least, the performance of SnO2 nanowires is to be evaluated in several aspects including mechanical

  1. Synthesis and characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles via the Co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazikeh, Simin; Akbari, Amir; Talebi, Amin; Talebi, Emad

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the characteristics and co-precipitation method for synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles. The tin oxide nanoparticles were produced using tin chloride, Triton X-100 and ammonia precipitators. Structure, size and surface morphology of the tin oxide was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show sphere shaped tin oxide nanoparticles without chlorine contamination. The crystallite size determined by the Scherrer formula is about 23 nm. Lattice parameters calculated by Nelson-Riley equation show high quality of crystallization.

  2. Biosorption of inorganic tin and methyltin compounds by estuarine macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Weber, J.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Biosorption kinetics of total recoverable inorganic tin (TRISn), MeSn{sup 3+}, Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+}, and Me{sub 3}Sn{sup +} compounds onto tissue from the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus and onto a mixed community of Enteromorpha spp. (a filamentous genus) showed that after 48-h accumulation of tin compounds followed the trend TRISn {approximately} MeSn{sup 3+} > Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+} > Me{sub 3}Sn{sup +}. Uptake of tin compounds onto F. vesiculosus consisted of three phases: rapid phase 1, intermediate phase 2 (modeled by first-order kinetics). Uptake of tin compounds by Enteromorpha spp. occurred in rapid phase 1 and intermediate, saturating phase 2, which was complete in 3 h for TRISn and MeSn{sup 3+} and in 18 h for Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+} and Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+} and Me{sub 3}Sn{sup +}. After 24 h, (TRISn) and (MeSn{sup 3+}) in dark-incubated plants, suggesting active uptake processes during phase 3. Enteromorpha spp. incubated in the dark for 1 h contained significantly less TRISn and MeSn{sup 3+}, but not less Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+} and Me{sub 3}Sn{sup +}, than light-incubated plants. Interactions with different compartments of the algal thallus account for differences in amounts of biosorbed tin compounds. Initial phase 1 biosorption by both algae was probably adsorption onto the thallus surface.

  3. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  4. Comparison of alpha and beta tin for lithium, sodium, and magnesium storage: An ab initio study including phonon contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Legrain, F.; Manzhos, S.; Malyi, O. I.; Persson, C.

    2015-11-28

    We present a comparative ab initio study of Li, Na, and Mg storage in tin, including phononic effects and phase competition between α and β Sn. Mg doping at low concentration is found to stabilize the β phase. On the contrary, Li and Na doping is shown to reverse the stability of the phases at room temperature: Li/Na-doped α-Sn is more stable than Li/Na-doped β-Sn up to a temperature of around 380/400 K. This may rationalize the formation of α-Sn upon lithiation and delithiation of β-Sn anodes reported in experimental studies. The changes in phase stability with Li/Na/Mg doping are directly related to the intercalation energies of Li/Na/Mg in one phase versus the other: at 300 K, Li/Na is easier intercalated in α-Sn (−0.37/−0.08 eV) than in β-Sn (0.06/0.49 eV), while Mg intercalation energy is, although positive (i.e., unfavored intercalation), lower in β-Sn (0.53 eV) than in α-Sn (0.66 eV). The temperature effect is found to affect significantly the intercalation energy, by up to 0.13 eV at 300 K. Analysis of diffusion barriers shows that Li, Na, and Mg diffusion in β-Sn is anisotropic with migration barriers along the (001) direction (respectively, 0.01, 0.22, and 0.07 eV) significantly lower than those in α-Sn (respectively, 0.20, 0.52, and 0.40 eV)

  5. 78 FR 16048 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for e-Services Registration TIN Matching-Application and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for e-Services Registration TIN Matching--Application and Screens for TIN Matching Interactive AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... INFORMATION: Title: e-Services Registration TIN Matching--Application and Screens for TIN Matching...

  6. Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.J.; Evans, H.T., Jr.; Mrose, M.E.; Aruscavage, P.

    1985-01-01

    Abhurite is a new mineral species found in blister-like protuberances on the surface of tin ingots submerged at a depth of 35 m in the Red Sea. It forms 1.5 mm diameter hexagonal plates bounded by the negative rhombohedron (0115); is colourless, transparent with opalescent lustre, white streak, hackly fracture, with no cleavage, and H.approx 2; D(calc) 4.34, D(meas) 4.29 g/cm3; epsilon approx 2.11, omega 2.06. Chemical analysis gave 73.4 wt.% Sn, 15.7 Cl, 11.0 0 and 0.4 H. leading to the formula Sn3O(OH)2Cl2. DTA shows release of H2O at 235oC and SnCl2 at 525oC. Indexed XRD powder data are tabulated; prominent lines 2.5313(100), 2.8915(70), 4.139(50), 3.404(50), 2.8175(50) A; a 10.0175(3), c 44.014(2) A; space group R3m, R3m or R32; Z = 21. Comparison is made with a hexagonal synthetic dimorph. The name refers to the geographical origin, an arm of the Red Sea known as Sharm Abhur.-L.T.T.

  7. Charge–discharge properties of tin dioxide for sodium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinsoo; Park, Jin-Woo; Han, Jeong-Hui; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Ki-Young; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Kim, Ki-Won; Wang, Guoxiu; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The electrochemical reaction of SnO2 as an anode for Na-ion batteries was studied. • The SnO2 electrode delivered the initial discharge capacity of 747 mAh/g. • Alarge irreversible capacity (597 mAh/g)was observedin the first cycle. • The in-plain crack in the electrode caused the incompletereduction of SnO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Tin dioxide was investigated as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries. The Na/SnO{sub 2} cell delivered a first discharge capacity of 747 mAh/g, but the first charge capacity was 150 mAh/g. The irreversible capacity in the first cycle was examined through characterization by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the SnO{sub 2} active material was not reduced fully to metallic Sn. Furrows and wrinkles were formed on the electrode surface owing to the volumetric expansion upon first discharge, which led to a deterioration of the electrode structure and a loss of electrical contact between the active materials. The analysis is summarized in the schematic drawing.

  8. Accommodation of tin in tetragonal ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, B. D. C.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R.

    2015-02-01

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The S nZ r × defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with S nZ r ″ charge compensated by VO • • occurring at partial pressures below 10-31 atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical partial pressure at which S nZ r ″ is stable. Recently developed low-Sn nuclear fuel cladding alloys have demonstrated an improved corrosion resistance and a delayed transition compared to Sn-containing alloys, such as Zircaloy-4. The interaction between the positive charge and the tin defect is discussed in the context of alloying additions, such as niobium and their influence on corrosion of cladding alloys.

  9. The role of layer structure in tin oxidation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhalde, S.; Arcondo, B.; Sirkin, H.

    1991-11-01

    Tin exhibits different oxidation kinetics which are composition dependent, when it forms intermetallic compounds with the chalcogenides S and Se. This phenomenon is related to the layer compounds SnS2 and SnSe2 crystalline structure. These minerals have anisotropic bonding characteristics, due to Van der Waals bonds presence between chalcogenides adjoining planes. The mentioned weak bonds allow the oxygen diffusion to the bulk, favouring the reaction with the inner tin atoms. In this work we study samples of Sn-S alloy with different thermal treatment by XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Results are discussed and compared with those obtained for Sn-Se alloy in an early work [1].

  10. Brush plating of tin(II) selenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, B.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Jayachandran, M.

    2002-01-01

    Brush plating technique has been adopted for the first time to coat tin selenide thin film on tin oxide coated conducting substrates at room temperature, 50°C and 60°C. Uniform and pinhole free films were deposited at potentials 5.0 V. XRD analyses show the polycrystalline nature of the films with orthorhombic structure. Optical studies show the indirect nature with a bandgap of 1.0 eV. SEM pictures show smooth and uniform surface morphology with a grain size of about 0.3 μm. Film roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy. Mott-Schottky plot has been drawn to evaluate the semiconductor parameters.

  11. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K. L.; Ahn, S.H.; Allmond, James M; Ayres, A.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Beene, James R; Berryman, J. S.; Bey, A.; Bingham, C. R.; Cartegni, L.; Chae, K. Y.; Gade, A.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Howard, Meredith E; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J Felix; Manning, Brett M; Matos, M.; McDaniel, S.; Miller, D.; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Padgett, S; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth; Pain, Steven D; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, David C; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J; Schmitt, Kyle; Smith, Michael Scott; Stracener, Daniel W; Stroberg, S.; Tostevin, Jeffrey A; Varner Jr, Robert L; Weisshaar, D.; Wimmer, K.

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  12. Direct reaction experimental studies with beams of radioactive tin ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K. L. Ayres, A.; Bey, A.; Burcher, S.; Cartegni, L.; Cerizza, G.; Ahn, S.; Allmond, J. M.; Beene, J. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Liang, J. F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pain, S. D.; Radford, D. C.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S.; Stracener, D. W.; Varner, R. L.; Bardayan, D. W.; Baugher, T.; and others

    2015-10-15

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at {sup 100}Sn, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at {sup 132}Sn out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich {sup 130}Sn. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of γ rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  13. Combinatorial study of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, M. G.; Sanderson, R. J.; Hill, I. G.

    2008-01-07

    Groups of thin-film transistors using a zinc tin oxide semiconductor layer have been fabricated via a combinatorial rf sputtering technique. The ZnO:SnO{sub 2} ratio of the film varies as a function of position on the sample, from pure ZnO to SnO{sub 2}, allowing for a study of zinc tin oxide transistor performance as a function of channel stoichiometry. The devices were found to have mobilities ranging from 2 to 12 cm{sup 2}/V s, with two peaks in mobility in devices at ZnO fractions of 0.80{+-}0.03 and 0.25{+-}0.05, and on/off ratios as high as 10{sup 7}. Transistors composed predominantly of SnO{sub 2} were found to exhibit light sensitivity which affected both the on/off ratios and threshold voltages of these devices.

  14. Investigation of tungsten doped tin oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianwen; Meng, Ting; Yang, Zhao; Cui, Can; Zhang, Qun

    2015-11-01

    Tungsten doped tin oxide thin film transistors (TWO-TFTs) were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. With TWO thin films as the channel layers, the TFTs show lower off-current and positive shift turn-on voltage than the intrinsic tin oxide TFTs, which can be explained by the reason that W doping is conducive to suppress the carrier concentration of the TWO channel layer. It is important to elect an appropriate channel thickness for improving the TFT performance. The optimum TFT performance in enhancement mode is achieved at W doping content of 2.7 at% and channel thickness of 12 nm, with the saturation mobility, turn-on voltage, subthreshold swing value and on-off current ratio of 5 cm2 V-1 s-1, 0.4 V, 0.4 V/decade and 2.4  ×  106, respectively.

  15. Silver diffusion over silicon surfaces with adsorbed tin atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dolbak, A. E. Olshanetskii, B. Z.

    2015-02-15

    Silver diffusion over the (111), (100), and (110) surfaces of silicon with preliminarily adsorbed tin atoms is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Diffusion is observed only on the surface of Si(111)-2√3 × 2√3-Sn. The diffusion mechanism is established. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends on the concentration of diffusing atoms. The diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing silver concentration, while the activation energy and the preexponential factor increase.

  16. A characterization study of a hydroxylated polycrystalline tin oxide surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflund, Gar B.; Grogan, Austin L., Jr.; Asbury, Douglas A.; Schryer, David R.

    1989-01-01

    In this study Auger electron spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) have been used to examine a polycrystalline tin oxide surface before and after annealing in vacuum at 500 C. Features due to surface hydroxyl groups are present in both the ESCA and ESD spectra, and ESD shows that several chemical states of hydrogen are present. Annealing at 500 C causes a large reduction in the surface hydrogen concentration but not complete removal.

  17. Tin Whiskers: A History of Documented Electrical System Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Brusse, Jay

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of tin and other metal whiskers, and the damage they have caused equipment. There are pictures of whiskers on various pieces of electronic equipment, and microscopic views of whiskers. There is also a chart with information on the documented failures associated with metal whiskers. There are also examples of on-orbit failures believed to be caused by whiskers.

  18. Gravitational macrosegregation in unidirectionally solidified lead-tin alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.; Laxmanan, V.; Wallace, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Nine small samples of binary lead-tin alloys were solidifed unidirectionally upward, with both cooling rate and thermal gradient being closely controlled. Results presented include thermal measurements, chemical composition measurements, and microstructural characterization. In the six Pb-15 wt pct Sn ingots, normal macrosegregation was observed, with Sn content being highest at the top of the ingot. No significant macrosegretation was noted in the three ingots of nominal composition Sn-15 wt pct Sn.

  19. Restricting the high-temperature growth of nanocrystalline tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, S.; Chadwick, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of tin oxide is dependent on various factors, one of which is the grain size. Three methods have been investigated with the aim of stabilising the grain size in the nanometer range, namely; (i) encapsulation within a silica matrix, (ii) coating the crystallites with hexamethyldisilazane and (iii) pinning the grain boundaries with a second metal oxide nanocrystal. The resulting materials have been characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and conductivity measurements.

  20. Chemical state of vanadium in tin-based yellow pigment

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiyoshi, Kaichi; Yokoyama, Hisanori ); Ren, Feng; Ishida, Shingo . Dept. of Chemistry and Materials Technology)

    1993-04-01

    Vanadium-tin composite oxides are rather widely used as, for example, yellow pigments for coloring glazes and selective oxidation catalysts for hydrocarbons. Physicochemical states of vanadium in V-doped SnO[sub 2] were studied to clarify the origin of the color of vanadium-tin yellow pigment and its color instability when fired with glaze material. Precision measurements of lattice parameters of V-doped SnO[sub 2] revealed that vanadium was dissolved as V[sup 4+] and its solubility limit was 0.9 wt% as V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. It was found that the color of vanadium-tin yellow was produced by two types of undissolved vanadium on SnO[sub 2] grains. One is poorly crystallized vanadium oxide (v), (V[sub 2]O[sub 5])[prime], having a yellow color, and the other is orange-colored crystalline V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. The structure of (V[sub 2]O[sub 5])[prime] was discussed in connection with its color.

  1. Electrochemical deposition of subnanometer Ni films on TiN.

    PubMed

    Vanpaemel, Johannes; Sugiura, Masahito; Cuypers, Daniel; van der Veen, Marleen H; De Gendt, Stefan; Vereecken, Philippe M

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we show the electrochemical deposition of a subnanometer film of nickel (Ni) on top of titanium nitride (TiN). We exploit the concept of cluster growth inhibition to enhance the nucleation of new nuclei on the TiN substrate. By deliberately using an unbuffered electrolyte solution, the degree of nucleation is enhanced as growth is inhibited more strongly. This results in a very high particle density and therefore an ultralow coalescence thickness. To prevent the termination of Ni deposition that typically occurs in unbuffered solutions, the concentration of Ni(2+) in solution was increased. We have verified with RBS and ICP-MS that the deposition of Ni on the surface in this case did not terminate. Furthermore, annealing experiments were used to visualize the closed nature of the Ni film. The closure of the deposited film was also confirmed by TOF-SIMS measurements and occurs when the film thickness is still in the subnanometer regime. The ultrathin Ni film was found to be an excellent catalyst for carbon nanotube growth on conductive substrates and can also be applied as a seed layer for bulk deposition of a smooth Ni film on TiN. PMID:24520857

  2. Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

  3. Tunable Near-Infrared Luminescence in Tin Halide Perovskite Devices.

    PubMed

    Lai, May L; Tay, Timothy Y S; Sadhanala, Aditya; Dutton, Siân E; Li, Guangru; Friend, Richard H; Tan, Zhi-Kuang

    2016-07-21

    Infrared emitters are reasonably rare in solution-processed materials. Recently, research into hybrid organo-lead halide perovskite, originally popular in photovoltaics,1-3 has gained traction in light-emitting diodes (LED) due to their low-cost solution processing and good performance.4-9 The lead-based electroluminescent materials show strong colorful emission in the visible region, but lack emissive variants further in the infrared. The concerns with the toxicity of lead may, additionally, limit their wide-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate tunable near-infrared electroluminescence from a lead-free organo-tin halide perovskite, using an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3Sn(Br1-xIx)3/F8/Ca/Ag device architecture. In our tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) LEDs, we achieved a 945 nm near-infrared emission with a radiance of 3.4 W sr(-1) m(-2) and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 0.72%, comparable with earlier lead-based devices. Increasing the bromide content in these tin perovskite devices widens the semiconductor bandgap and leads to shorter wavelength emissions, tunable down to 667 nm. These near-infrared LEDs could find useful applications in a range of optical communication, sensing and medical device applications. PMID:27336412

  4. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  5. Analyzing the kinetic response of tin oxide-carbon and tin oxide-CNT composites gas sensors for alcohols detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Vinayak; Umarji, Arun

    2015-03-01

    Tin oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using solution combustion technique and tin oxide - carbon composite thick films are fabricated with amorphous carbon as well as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and porosity measurements show that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are having rutile phase with average crystallite size ˜7 nm and ˜95 m2/g surface area. The difference between morphologies of the carbon doped and CNT doped SnO2 thick films, are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption-desorption kinetics and transient response curves are analyzed using Langmuir isotherm curve fittings and modeled using power law of semiconductor gas sensors.

  6. Analyzing the kinetic response of tin oxide-carbon and tin oxide-CNT composites gas sensors for alcohols detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kamble, Vinayak Umarji, Arun

    2015-03-15

    Tin oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using solution combustion technique and tin oxide – carbon composite thick films are fabricated with amorphous carbon as well as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and porosity measurements show that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are having rutile phase with average crystallite size ∼7 nm and ∼95 m{sup 2}/g surface area. The difference between morphologies of the carbon doped and CNT doped SnO{sub 2} thick films, are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption-desorption kinetics and transient response curves are analyzed using Langmuir isotherm curve fittings and modeled using power law of semiconductor gas sensors.

  7. The surface and materials science of tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzill, Matthias; Diebold, Ulrike

    The study of tin oxide is motivated by its applications as a solid state gas sensor material, oxidation catalyst, and transparent conductor. This review describes the physical and chemical properties that make tin oxide a suitable material for these purposes. The emphasis is on surface science studies of single crystal surfaces, but selected studies on powder and polycrystalline films are also incorporated in order to provide connecting points between surface science studies with the broader field of materials science of tin oxide. The key for understanding many aspects of SnO 2 surface properties is the dual valency of Sn. The dual valency facilitates a reversible transformation of the surface composition from stoichiometric surfaces with Sn 4+ surface cations into a reduced surface with Sn 2+ surface cations depending on the oxygen chemical potential of the system. Reduction of the surface modifies the surface electronic structure by formation of Sn 5s derived surface states that lie deep within the band gap and also cause a lowering of the work function. The gas sensing mechanism appears, however, only to be indirectly influenced by the surface composition of SnO 2. Critical for triggering a gas response are not the lattice oxygen concentration but chemisorbed (or ionosorbed) oxygen and other molecules with a net electric charge. Band bending induced by charged molecules cause the increase or decrease in surface conductivity responsible for the gas response signal. In most applications tin oxide is modified by additives to either increase the charge carrier concentration by donor atoms, or to increase the gas sensitivity or the catalytic activity by metal additives. Some of the basic concepts by which additives modify the gas sensing and catalytic properties of SnO 2 are discussed and the few surface science studies of doped SnO 2 are reviewed. Epitaxial SnO 2 films may facilitate the surface science studies of doped films in the future. To this end film growth

  8. Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liuh-Yow; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Qinfen; Li, Hongzhi; Luo, Zhenhua; Fang, Hezhi; Kim, Sok Ho; Qin, Li; Yotnda, Patricia; Xu, Jianmin; Tu, Benjamin P.; Bai, Yidong; Songyang, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Summary Both mitochondria, which are metabolic powerhouses, and telomeres, which help maintain genomic stability, have been implicated in cancer and aging. However, the signaling events that connect these two cellular structures remain poorly understood. Here we report that the canonical telomeric protein TIN2 is also a regulator of metabolism. TIN2 is recruited to telomeres and associates with multiple telomere regulators including TPP1. TPP1 interacts with TIN2 N-terminus, which contains overlapping mitochondrial and telomeric targeting sequences, and controls TIN2 localization. We have found that TIN2 is post-translationally processed in mitochondria, and regulates mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation. Reducing TIN2 expression by RNAi knockdown inhibited glycolysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production, and enhanced ATP levels and oxygen consumption in cancer cells. These results suggest a link between telomeric proteins and metabolic control, providing an additional mechanism by which telomeric proteins regulate cancer and aging. PMID:22885005

  9. The Mechanism of Residual Stress Relief for Various Tin Grain Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cheng-Fu; Hsieh, Ker-Chang

    2010-08-01

    A pure tin deposition process was developed with various tin grain structures to study tin whisker formation. Samples were tested for 4000 h to examine whisker formation, grain structures, and intermetallic formation using a focused ion beam (FIB). The lateral side of the FIB-cut cavity displayed tin protrusions after 6 days. These phenomena, along with the growth of tin whiskers and/or hillocks, could illustrate the residual stress relief behavior of various tin grain structures. In full columnar structures, whiskers formed normal to the deposition surface and relieved most of the stress. In contrast, stress relaxation in semicolumnar and random structures is highly likely to occur, and proceeds rapidly in the direction parallel to the deposition surface after only a few days. In comparing mixed grain structures, it is apparent that stress is more likely to be rapidly relieved within structures with fewer grain boundaries.

  10. A Model for Rapid Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of ErSn3 Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hu; Xu, Guangchen; Song, Yonglun; Shi, Yaowu; Guo, Fu

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous growth of tin whiskers on the finish of leadframes is an extremely slow process under moderate temperature conditions. It therefore becomes difficult to track the continuous growth of tin whiskers and to vary the experimental conditions to determine their root causes. Accordingly, the fundamental growth behaviors of tin whiskers are still not fully understood. In this study, rapid tin whisker growth was achieved by adding 1 wt.% Er to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder alloy. The results showed unique tin whisker morphology with nonconstant cross-section. An explanation is proposed by adding kinetic energy to the conventional energy balance equation. In addition, a double compressive stress zone is proposed to demonstrate the driving force for tin whisker growth in rare-earth-bearing phases.

  11. Effect of doping of tin on optoelectronic properties of indium oxide: DFT study

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Madhvendra Nath

    2015-06-24

    Indium tin oxide is widely used transparent conductor. Experimentally observed that 6% tin doping in indium oxide is suitable for optoelectronic applications and more doping beyond this limit degrades the optoelectronic property. The stoichiometry (In{sub 32-x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 48+x/2}; x=0-6) is taken to understand the change in lattice parameter, electronic structure, and optical property of ITO. It is observed that lattice parameter increases and becomes constant after 6% tin doping that is in good agreement of the experimental observation. The electronic structure calculation shows that the high tin doping in indium oxide adversely affects the dispersive nature of the bottom of conduction band of pure indium oxide and decreases the carrier mobility. Optical calculations show that transmittance goes down upto 60% for the tin concentration more than 6%. The present paper shows that how more than 6% tin doping in indium oxide adversely affects the optoelectronic property of ITO.

  12. Effect of manganese sulfide on the precipitation behavior of tin in steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gui-lin; Song, Bo; Yang, Ling-zhi; Tao, Su-fen; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Tramp elements such as tin are considered harmful to steel because of hot brittleness they induce at high temperatures. Because tramp elements retained in steel scrap will be enriched in new steel due to the difficultly of their removal, studies on the precipitation behavior of tin are essential. In this study, the effects of different inclusions on the precipitation behavior of tin in steel were studied. The results show that the tin-rich phase precipitates at austenite grain boundaries in an Fe-5%Sn alloy without MnS precipitates, whereas Sn precipitates at the boundaries of MnS inclusions in steel that contains MnS precipitates. MnS is more effective than silicon dioxide or aluminum oxide as a nucleation site for the precipitation of the tin phase, which is consistent with the disregistry between the lattice parameters of the tin phase and those of the inclusions.

  13. Comparison of several analytical methods for the determination of tin in geochemical samples as a function of tin speciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.; Evans, J.R.; Jackson, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate and precise determinations of tin in geological materials are needed for fundamental studies of tin geochemistry, and for tin prospecting purposes. Achieving the required accuracy is difficult because of the different matrices in which Sn can occur (i.e. sulfides, silicates and cassiterite), and because of the variability of literature values for Sn concentrations in geochemical reference materials. We have evaluated three methods for the analysis of samples for Sn concentration: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HGA-AAS) following iodide extraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Two of these methods (HGA-AAS and ICP-OES) required sample decomposition either by acid digestion or fusion, while the third (EDXRF) was performed directly on the powdered sample. Analytical details of all three methods, their potential errors, and the steps necessary to correct these errors were investigated. Results showed that similar accuracy was achieved from all methods for unmineralized samples, which contain no known Sn-bearing phase. For mineralized samples, which contain Sn-bearing minerals, either cassiterite or stannous sulfides, only EDXRF and fusion ICP-OES methods provided acceptable accuracy. This summary of our study provides information which helps to assure correct interpretation of data bases for underlying geochemical processes, regardless of method of data collection and its inherent limitations. ?? 1989.

  14. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles... Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.301 Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one or both sides with a thin...

  15. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  16. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  17. Effect of alloying elements on the physicomechanical properties of copper and tin bronze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ri, Kh.; Komkov, V. G.; Ri, E. Kh.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of alloying elements (Al, Si, Mn, Zn, Ni, As) on the physicomechanical properties of copper and tin bronze (6 wt % Sn) is studied. These alloying elements are found to increase the hardness and the microhardness of the structural constituents of Cu- X alloys due to hardening the α solid solution and eutectoid, and this effect of alloying elements is most effective in tin bronze. Alloyed copper and tin bronze have a lower thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance as compared to plain copper and tin bronze.

  18. Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) Growth and Characterization of Thin Films of Semiconductor Tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkes, P.; Taylor, P.; Rong, C.; Nichols, B.; Hier, H.; Burke, R.; Neupane, M.

    Recent theoretical predictions that a two-dimensional monolayer of semiconductor tin is a two-dimensional topological insulator and experimental evidence of three-dimensional topological insulator behavior in strained ultrathin films of semiconductor tin grown by MBE on InSb has generated intense research interest. This research is primarily focused on the MBE growth and topological characteristics of ultrathin films of semiconductor tin. In this talk we present results of a study on the MBE growth and the transport, structural and optical characterization of thin films of semiconductor tin on several different substrates.

  19. Fundamental studies of tin whiskering in microelectronics finishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinol, Lesly Agnes

    Common electronics materials, such as tin, copper, steel, and brass, are ambient reactive under common use conditions, and as such are prone to corrosion. During the early 1940s, reports of failures due to electrical shorting of components caused by 'whisker' (i.e., filamentary surface protrusion) growth on many surface types---including the aforementioned metals---began to emerge. Lead alloying of tin (3--10% by weight, typically in the eutectic proportion) eliminated whiskering risk for decades, until the July 2006 adoption of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive was issued by the European Union. This directive, which has since been adopted by California and parts of China, severely restricted the use of lead (<1000 ppm) in all electrical and electronics equipment being placed on the EU market, imposing the need for developing reliable new "lead-free" alternatives to SnPb. In spite of the abundance of modern-day anecdotes chronicling whisker-related failures in satellites, nuclear power stations, missiles, pacemakers, and spacecraft navigation equipment, pure tin finishes are still increasingly being employed today, and the root cause(s) of tin whiskering remains elusive. This work describes a series of structured experiments exploring the fundamental relationships between the incidence of tin whiskering (as dependent variable) and numerous independent variables. These variables included deposition method (electroplating, electroless plating, template-based electrochemical synthesis, and various physical vapor deposition techniques, including resistive evaporation, electron beam evaporation, and sputtering), the inclusion of microparticles and organic contamination, the effects of sample geometry, and nanostructuring. Key findings pertain to correlations between sample geometry and whisker propensity, and also to the stress evolution across a series of 4"-diameter silicon wafers of varying thicknesses with respect to the degree of post

  20. Cathodic deposition and characterization of tin oxide coatings on graphite for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengqiang; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Dongmei; Xiao, Chao; Zhang, Shuren

    Amorphous tin oxide (SnO x) was cathodically deposited onto graphite electrode in a bath containing 0.1 M stannous chloride (SnCl 2), 0.5 M sodium nitrate (NaNO 3), and 0.4 M nitric acid (HNO 3) in an aqueous solution of 50% (v/v) ethanol. The SnO x coatings grown on graphite were characterized as typical capacitive behaviors by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometric (CP) in 0.5 M KCl. Specific capacitance (in milli-farad per square centimeter, C a) changes linearly with the deposition charge up to 4.5 C cm -2, and a maximum of as high as 355 mF cm -2 was obtained with the SnO x coating grown at around 5 C cm -2. For the SnO x coating deposited at 0.2 C cm -2, a maximum specific capacitance (in farad per gram, C m) of 298 and 125 F g -1 was achieved from CVs at a scan rate of 10, and 200 mV s -1, respectively. The value of C m significantly gets lower from 265 to around 95 F g -1 when the deposition charge increases from 0.2 to around 6.0 C cm -2. The long cycle-life and stability of the SnO x coatings on graphite via the presented cathodic deposition were also demonstrated.

  1. Mechanical and Numerical Analysis Concerning Compressive Properties of Tin-Lead Open-Cell Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhadj, Abd-Elmouneïm; Gavrus, Adinel; Bernard, Fabrice; Azzaz, Mohammed

    2015-10-01

    The design of new or innovative materials has to meet two essential criteria: increased mechanical performance and minimization of the mass. This dual requirement leads to interest in the study of various classes of metallic foams. The actual research is focused on open-cell Tin-Lead foams manufactured by replication process using NaCl preform. A mechanical press equipped with a load cell and a local extensometer with a controlled deformation rate is used. Experimental tests were carried out in order to study the influences of both the cell size and of the relative density on the mechanical behavior during a compression deformation and to analyze the obtained properties variation within a new framework. This study has three main sections which start with the manufacturing description and mechanical characterization of the proposed metallic foams followed by the understanding and modeling of their response to a compression load via a Gibson-Ashby model, a Féret law, a proposed simple Avrami model, and a generalized Avrami model. Finally, an exposition of a numerical simulation analyzing the compression of the Sn-Pb foams concerning the variation of the relative densities with respect to the plastic strain is proposed.

  2. Study of Sodium Ion Selective Electrodes and Differential Structures with Anodized Indium Tin Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jyh-Ling; Hsu, Hsiang-Yi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is the study and characterization of anodized indium tin oxide (anodized-ITO) as a sodium ion selective electrode and differential structures including a sodium-selective-membrane/anodized-ITO as sensor 1, an anodized-ITO membrane as the contrast sensor 2, and an ITO as the reference electrode. Anodized-ITO was fabricated by anodic oxidation at room temperature, a low cost and simple manufacture process that makes it easy to control the variation in film resistance. The anodized-ITO based on EGFET structure has good linear pH sensitivity, approximately 54.44 mV/pH from pH 2 to pH 12. The proposed sodium electrodes prepared by PVC-COOH, DOS embedding colloid, and complex Na-TFBD and ionophore B12C4, show good sensitivity at 52.48 mV/decade for 10−4 M to 1 M, and 29.96 mV/decade for 10−7 M to 10−4 M. The sodium sensitivity of the differential sodium-sensing device is 58.65 mV/decade between 10−4 M and 1 M, with a corresponding linearity of 0.998; and 19.17 mV/decade between 10−5 M and 10−4 M. PMID:22294900

  3. Peroxide induced tin oxide coating of graphene oxide at room temperature and its application for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladkevich, S.; Gun, J.; Prikhodchenko, P. V.; Gutkin, V.; Mikhaylov, A. A.; Novotortsev, V. M.; Zhu, J. X.; Yang, D.; Hng, H. H.; Tay, Y. Y.; Tsakadze, Z.; Lev, O.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a new, simple and low-temperature method for ultra-thin coating of graphene oxide (GO) by peroxostannate, tin oxide or a mixture of tin and tin oxide crystallites by different treatments. The technique is environmentally friendly and does not require complicated infrastructure, an autoclave or a microwave. The supported peroxostannate phase is partially converted after drying to crystalline tin oxide with average, 2.5 nm cassiterite crystals. Mild heat treatment yielded full coverage of the reduced graphene oxide by crystalline tin oxide. Extensive heat treatment in vacuum at >500  °C yielded a mixture of elemental tin and cassiterite tin oxide nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The usefulness of the new approach was demonstrated by the preparation of two types of lithium ion anodes: tin oxide-rGO and a mixture of tin oxide and tin coated rGO composites (SnO2-Sn-rGO). The electrodes exhibited stable charge/discharge cyclability and high charging capacity due to the intimate contact between the conductive graphene and the very small tin oxide crystallites. The charging/discharging capacity of the anodes exceeded the theoretical capacity predicted based on tin lithiation. The tin oxide coated rGO exhibited higher charging capacity but somewhat lower stability upon extended charge/discharge cycling compared to SnO2-Sn-rGO.

  4. Beryllium resources of the tin-spodumene belt, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, Wallace R.

    1954-01-01

    Pegmatite dikes in the tin-spodumene belt of North and South Carolina uniformly contain about 0.05 percent BeO. The most abundant minerals in the pegmatite contain from 0. 0001 to 0.01 percent BeO. Beryl, having 12.0 to 12.3 percent BeO, is the only beryllium-rich mineral and contains more than 80 percent of the total beryllium in the rock. Beryl-bearing pegmatite crops out on hillsides near streams that flow through the pegmatite belt. Much of the pegmatite contains spodumene, feldspar, mica, cassiterite, and columbite, as well as beryl, but separating these minerals will require milling. The minable spodumene ore in the Kings Mountain area, above a depth of 300 feet contains about 40,000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 6, 000 tons of BeO, if 80 percent of the BeO is assumed to be in beryl. Other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 238,000 tons of beryl, or 35, 900 tons of BeO. On the basis of the same assumptions the spodumene ore above a depth of 300 feet 1 in the Beaverdam Creek area contains 6, 000 tons of beryl, or 800 tons of BeO, and all other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 13, 000 tons of beryl, or 1, 700 tons of BeO. The entire tin-spodumene belt contains 823, 000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 122,800 tons of BeO. Little beryllium was found in the Piedmont province outside of the tin-spodumene belt.

  5. Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana; Lee, Jae-chun; Kumar, Vinay; Jeong, Jinki

    2012-10-15

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5 M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5 M HCl at 90 Degree-Sign C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1 M nitric acid at 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10 g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment.

  6. Platinum/Tin Oxide/Silica Gel Catalyst Oxidizes CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Davis, Patricia P.; Schryer, David R.; Miller, Irvin M.; Brown, David; Van Norman, John D.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst of platinum, tin oxide, and silica gel combines small concentrations of laser dissociation products, CO and O2, to form CO22 during long times at ambient temperature. Developed as means to prevent accumulation of these products in sealed CO2 lasers. Effective at ambient operating temperatures and installs directly in laser envelope. Formulated to have very high surface area and to chemisorb controlled quantities of moisture: chemisorbed water contained within and upon its structure, makes it highly active and very longlived so only small quantity needed for long times.

  7. Pretreatment of Platinum/Tin Oxide-Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Robert V.; Paulin, Patricia A.; Miller, Irvin M.; Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Wood, George M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of CO to He pretreatment doubles catalytic activity. In sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser, CO and O2 form as decomposition products of CO2 in laser discharge zone. Products must be recombined, because oxygen concentration of more than few tenths of percent causes rapid deterioration of power, ending in unstable operation. Promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide. New development increases activity of catalyst so less needed for recombination process.

  8. Solvent free tin oxide nanoparticle for gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Pranay; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2016-05-01

    A new modified technique of synthesizing tin oxide nanoparticles with crystallite size of 2 nm to 6 nm has been developed. Surface area of the nanoparticle has been increased as we approached towards the Debye length. Such a techniques for approaching the Debye length is expected to bring remarkable changes in the properties of resistive based gas sensors. The technique used here is less toxic, economical and has high yield. Phase purity, size, shape and composition has been investigated using x-ray diffraction, micro Raman, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy. While surface area has been calculated through Brunaur-Emmett-Teller (BET).

  9. Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties of tin oxide nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Meenakshi; Mishra, V. N.; Dwivedi, R.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, tin oxide nanopowder has been synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. The as-prepared pure and palladium doped (0.5 and 1%) powders have been used for the fabrication of thick film sensors. The influence of particle size of powders and morphology of the thick films has been studied on the sensing performance of thick film sensor. It is observed that the sensors produced from the SnO2 doped with 1% palladium have an excellent ability for the detection of hydrogen gas.

  10. High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2015-12-15

    A dislocation density of as high as 10{sup 17} /m{sup 2} in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10{sup 3} A/ cm{sup 2}. The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining.

  11. Reactivation of a tin oxide-containing catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Hess, Robert V. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Sidney, Barry D. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Paulin, Patricia A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method for the reactivation of a tin oxide-containing catalyst of a CO.sub.2 laser is provided. First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during usage, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature which is the operating temperature of the laser and 400.degree. C. for approximately one hour. The catalyst is exposed to the same laser gas mixture during this period. The temperature of the heated zone is then lowered to the operating temperature of the CO.sub.2 laser.

  12. Low-temperature measurements on shock loaded tin.

    SciTech Connect

    Seifter, A.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Payton, J. R.; Rodriguez, P.; Obst, A. W.; Turley, D.; Grover, M.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to understand the influence of different surface finishes and the effect of ejecta mass on free surface temperature measurements, we performed a series of high-explosively (HE) shocked tin experiments. In this series of experiments the surface finish (i.e, specular, shallow grooves (16 {mu}inch), deep grooves (200 {mu}inch) and 'ball-rolled' surfaces) and the ambient atmosphere (from 1.2 torr, to atmospheric air, as well as 1 atm helium) were varied. With a {approx}180 kbar shock pressure the temperature results agreed for all but the very deep groove (>200 {mu}inch) surfaces investigated.

  13. Coating power RF components with TiN

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used.

  14. Tin Whisker Growth on NdSn3 Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hong-Chang; Xian, Ai-Ping

    2011-09-01

    Tin whiskers grew rapidly and spontaneously on NdSn3 powder under atmospheric conditions. By in situ optical microscopy observation, the incubation period of whisker growth was found to be very short, only about 10 min to 30 min, and the whisker growth rate was very high (up to 73 Å/s). It is proposed that the strong tendency for whisker growth on NdSn3 powder indicates that such growth is closely related to decomposition of NdSn3 under atmospheric conditions. An electron beam irradiation effect on whisker growth was also observed, in which the whiskers cease to grow after observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  15. Microstructures of duplex (beta + gamma) silver-tin alloys.

    PubMed

    Abbott, J R; Miller, D R; Netherway, D J

    1985-05-01

    The microstructures of (beta + gamma) silver-tin alloys are especially influenced by both homogenization temperature and subsequent heat treatment. When the alloy is cooled from homogenization temperatures above approximately 200 degrees C, lenticular regions of the ordered orthorhombic gamma phase precipitate from within the disordered h.c.p. beta phase on three structurally equivalent planes, (1210), (1120), and (2110), to form a Widmanstatten structure. When the duplex alloys were homogenized at temperatures below approximately 200 degrees C, where the beta/(beta + gamma) phase boundary is vertical, these structures were not observed. PMID:3858310

  16. Study of indium tin oxide films exposed to atomic axygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Paul G.; De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.; Coutts, T. J.; Li, X.

    1989-01-01

    A qualitative simulation of the effects of atomic oxygen has been conducted on indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared by dc sputtering onto room-temperature substrates, by exposing them to an RF-excited oxygen plasma and characterizing the resulting changes in optical, electrical, and structural properties as functions of exposure time with ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, resistivity, and X-ray measurements. While the films thus exposed exhibit reduced resistivity and optical transmission; both of these effects, as well as partial crystallization of the films, may be due to sample heating by the plasma. Film resistivity is found to stabilize after a period of exposure.

  17. Carbon Encapsulated Tin Oxide Nanocomposites: An Efficient Anode for High Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalubarme, Ramchandra S; Lee, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Jin

    2015-08-12

    The major obstacle in realizing sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) is the absence of suitable negative electrodes. This is because graphite, a commercially well known anode material for lithium-ion batteries, cannot be utilized as an insertion host for Na ions due to its large ionic size. In this study, a simple and cost-effective hydrothermal method to prepare carbon coated tin oxide (SnO2) nanostructures as an efficient anode material for NIBs was reported as a function of the solvent used. A single phase SnO2 resulted for the ethanol solvent, while a blend of SnO and SnO2 resulted for the DI water and ethylene glycol solvents. The elemental mapping in the transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of carbon coating on the SnO2 nanoparticles. In cell tests, the anodes of carbon coated SnO2 prepared in ethanol solvent exhibited stable cycling performance and attained a capacity of about 514 mAh g(-1) on the first charge. With the help of the conductive carbon coating, the SnO2 delivers more capacity at high rates: 304 mAh g(-1) at the 1 C rate, 213 mAh g(-1) at the 2 C rate and 133 mAh g(-1) at the 5 C rate. The excellent cyclability and high rate capability are the result of the formation of a mixed conducting network and uniform carbon coating on the SnO2 nanoparticles. PMID:26186401

  18. Distribution of beryllium, tin, and tungsten in the Lake George area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawley, C.C.; Griffitts, Wallace R.

    1968-01-01

    rocks and greisen deposits near Tappan Mountain that contain tin and tungsten minerals are associated with the Silver Plume (?) Granite. Samples of stream sediments and soils locally show anomalous concentrations of beryllium, tin, copper, lead, and molybdenum. Some of the areas of anomalous concentrations correlate with known deposits; others do not, and this fact suggests that further prospecting is warranted.

  19. 3D Scaffolded Nickel-Tin Li-Ion Anodes with Enhanced Cyclability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huigang; Shi, Tan; Wetzel, David J; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Braun, Paul V

    2016-01-27

    A 3D mechanically stable scaffold is shown to accommodate the volume change of a high-specific-capacity nickel-tin nanocomposite during operation as a Li-ion battery anode. The nickel-tin anode is supported by an electrochemically inactive conductive scaffold with an engineered free volume and controlled characteristic dimensions, which engender the electrode with significantly improved cyclability. PMID:26618617

  20. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  1. 78 FR 52802 - Tin T. Win, M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Tin T. Win, M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding On February 27, 2013, I, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Tin T. Win, M.D....

  2. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a...

  3. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a...

  4. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10231 - Rutile, tin zinc, sodium-doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... referred to in 40 CFR 721.10230 (PMN P-06-36; CAS No. 389623-01-2) combined. Persons who wish to pursue... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rutile, tin zinc, sodium-doped. 721... Substances § 721.10231 Rutile, tin zinc, sodium-doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10231 - Rutile, tin zinc, sodium-doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... referred to in 40 CFR 721.10230 (PMN P-06-36; CAS No. 389623-01-2) combined. Persons who wish to pursue... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rutile, tin zinc, sodium-doped. 721... Substances § 721.10231 Rutile, tin zinc, sodium-doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  7. Optical and chemical methods of metal ash analysis and tin recovery.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sabir

    2007-07-01

    'Metal ash' presents a waste disposal problem in most of the developing countries as the industries employ obsolete technologies. In this paper we describe analysis of tin ash, zinc ash and aluminium ash by means of optical methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical methods. The results of tin ash obtained by XRD method matched well with the cassiterite, a naturally occurring mineral of tin. ICP-MS studies reveal the presence of a large number of tracer metals, which may cause pollution by tertiary dispersion and this aspect is discussed. Conversely, the data generated by chemical methods are limited. However, the methods are simple and cost-effective. Then, they can easily be adopted by low-budget industries. Simple and cost-effective process to recover tin from tin ash is described. It is based on heating tin ash with sodium cyanide to about 900 degrees C to separate tin component from the metal ash. The process recovers good quality tin and offers a very high yield. The process can be scaled up to small pilot plant. PMID:17057954

  8. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage.

  9. Sol gel synthesis and characterization of tin oxide and doped-tin oxide nanosized materials used for gas-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei

    SnO2-based gas sensors have been shown to be convenient tools for detecting inflammable or toxic gases diluted in air. Grain size reduction and mixed tin oxidation states are two of the main factors enhancing sensor properties of undoped and doped tin oxides. Two tin(II) halide precursors were utilized along with variations in solvent, aging times, drying atmosphere and annealing temperatures to synthesize SnO, SnO2 or the SnO/SnO2 mixed powders by a modified sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction and UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy were the primary techniques used to characterize powder structure and properties. It has been found that SnCl2 is a suitable precursor for synthesis of nanocrystalline mixed Sn(II)/Sn(IV) oxide powders. The ratio of SnO to SnO2 can be adjusted by sintering/annealing of the SnO/SnO 2 mixture in air. A rarely observed form of Sn3O4 and another intermediate phase, orthorhombic SnO2, can be generated at the range of 500--600°C. SnBr2 and SnBr4 can be used as precursors for an efficient low-temperature, atmospheric pressure vapor deposition of nanocrystalline SnO2, most likely via a partially hydrolyzed Sn(IV) bromide intermediate. As vapor-deposited, the average SnO 2 crystallite size is approximately 3 nm, and can be increased systematically from 3 nm to 16 nm by annealing in air. The presence of amorphous material and the remaining hydroxyl groups in the SnO2 crystals are possible causes of the crystalline deformation of SnO/SnO2 materials precipitated from SnCl2. SnO 2 obtained from the SnO/SnO2 mixture are more disordered than that from tin(H) oxyhydroxide and from SnO2 gel heated at the same sintering temperature. The more disordered material has lower band gaps and bigger Urbach energies. Coprecipitation of a second metal, such as Cr, Fe, Zn, Co, K and Cu, results in variations in SnO2 crystallite growth patterns, depending on identity of the added dopant. Metal oxide materials mixed with polypyrrole were tested as composite

  10. Synthesis and Shape Control of Copper Tin Sulphide Nanocrystals and Formation of Gold-Copper Tin Sulphide Hybrid Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Jürgen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu3SnS4 nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn4+ ions leads to the formation of Cu3SnS4. These Cu3SnS4 nanocrystals form Au-Cu3SnS4 hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds

  11. Combined Tin-Containing Fluoride Solution and CO2 Laser Treatment Reduces Enamel Erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Witulski, Nadine; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Apel, Christian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of combined CO2 laser and tin-containing fluoride treatment on the formation and progression of enamel erosive lesions. Ninety-six human enamel samples were obtained, stored in thymol solution and, after surface polishing, randomly divided into 6 different surface treatment groups (n = 16 in each group) as follows: no treatment, control (C); one CO2 laser irradiation (L1); two CO2 laser irradiations (L2); daily application of fluoride solution (F); combined daily fluoride solution + one CO2 laser irradiation (L1F), and combined daily fluoride solution + two CO2 laser irradiations (L2F). Laser irradiation was performed at 0.3 J/cm2 (5 µs/226 Hz/10.6 µm) on day 1 (L1) and day 6 (L2). The fluoride solution contained AmF/NaF (500 ppm F), and SnCl2 (800 ppm Sn) at pH 4.5. After surface treatment the samples were submitted to an erosive cycling over 10 days, including immersion in citric acid (2 min/0.05 M/pH = 2.3) 6 times daily and storage in remineralization solution (≥1 h) between erosive attacks. At the end of each cycling day, the enamel surface loss (micrometers) was measured using a 3D laser profilometer. Data were statistically analyzed by means of a 2-level mixed effects model and linear contrasts (α = 0.05). Group F (-3.3 ± 2.0 µm) showed significantly lower enamel surface loss than groups C (-27.22 ± 4.1 µm), L1 (-18.3 ± 4.4 µm) and L2 (-16.3 ± 5.3 µm) but higher than L1F (-1.0 ± 4.4 µm) and L2F (1.4 ± 3.2 µm, p < 0.05). Under the conditions of this in vitro study, the tin-containing fluoride solution caused 88% reduction of enamel surface loss, while its combination with CO2 laser irradiation at 0.3 J/cm2 hampered erosive loss almost completely. PMID:26418736

  12. Mechanism for the formation of tin oxide nanoparticles and nanowires inside the mesopores of SBA-15

    SciTech Connect

    Satishkumar, G.; Titelman, L.; Landau, M.V.

    2009-10-15

    The formation of polycrystalline tin oxide nanoparticles (NP) and nanowires was investigated using nanocasting approach included solid-liquid strategy for insertion of SnCl{sub 2} precursor and SBA-15 silica as a hard template. HR-TEM and XRD revealed that during the thermal treatment in air 5 nm tin oxide NP with well defined Cassiterite structure were formed inside the SBA-15 matrix mesopores at 250 deg. C. After air calcination at 700 deg. C the NP assembled inside the SBA-15 mesopores as polycrystalline nanorods with different orientation of atomic layers in jointed nanocrystals. It was found that the structure silanols of silica matrix play a vital role in creating the tin oxide NP at low temperature. The pure tin chloride heated in air at 250 deg. C did not react with oxygen to yield tin oxide. Tin oxide NP were also formed during the thermal treatment of the tin chloride loaded SBA-15 in helium atmosphere at 250 deg. C. Hence, it is well evident that silanols present in the silica matrix not only increase the wetting of tin chloride over the surface of SBA-15 favoring its penetration to the matrix pores, but also react with hydrated tin chloride according to the proposed scheme to give tin oxide inside the mesopores. It was confirmed by XRD, N{sub 2}-adsorption, TGA-DSC and FTIR spectra. This phenomenon was further corroborated by detecting the inhibition of SnO{sub 2} NP formation at 250 deg. C after inserting the tin precursor to SBA-15 with reduced silanols concentration partially grafted with tin chloride. - Graphical abstract: The mechanism of formation of polycrystalline tin oxide nanoparticles (NP) and nanowires was investigated using nanocasting approach included solid-liquid strategy for insertion of SnCl{sub 2} precursor and SBA-15 silica as a hard template. It was found that the structure silanols of silica matrix play a vital role in creating the tin oxide NP during thermal treatment.

  13. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Kaeppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

    1996-09-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 114}Sn, {sup 115}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, and {sup 120}Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li({ital p},{ital n}){sup 7}Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes {sup 114}Sn and {sup 115}Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1{endash}2{percent}, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between {ital kT}=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic {ital s}- and {ital r}-process components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Electron-Beam Induced Transformations of Layered Tin Dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Sutter, E; Huang, Y; Komsa, H-P; Ghorbani-Asl, M; Krasheninnikov, A V; Sutter, P

    2016-07-13

    By combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated analytical methods with first-principles calculations, we study the behavior of layered tin dichalcogenides under electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate that the controllable removal of chalcogen atoms due to electron irradiation, at both room and elevated temperatures, gives rise to transformations in the atomic structure of Sn-S and Sn-Se systems so that new phases with different properties can be induced. In particular, rhombohedral layered SnS2 and SnSe2 can be transformed via electron beam induced loss of chalcogen atoms into highly anisotropic orthorhombic layered SnS and SnSe. A striking dependence of the layer orientation of the resulting SnS-parallel to the layers of ultrathin SnS2 starting material, but slanted for transformations of thicker few-layer SnS2-is rationalized by a transformation pathway in which vacancies group into ordered S-vacancy lines, which convert via a Sn2S3 intermediate to SnS. Absence of a stable Sn2Se3 intermediate precludes this pathway for the selenides, hence SnSe2 always transforms into basal plane oriented SnSe. Our results provide microscopic insights into the transformation mechanism and show how irradiation can be used to tune the properties of layered tin chalcogenides for applications in electronics, catalysis, or energy storage. PMID:27336595

  15. Recent Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Radioactive Tin Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K. L.; Ahn, S.; Allmond, J. M.; Ayres, A.; Bardayan, D. W.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Bey, A.; Bingham, C.; Cartegni, L.; Cerizza, G.; Chae, K. Y.; Cizewski, J. A.; Gade, A.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garcia-Ruiz, R. F.; Grzywacz, R.; Howard, M. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J. F.; Manning, B.; Matoš, M.; McDaniel, S.; Miller, D.; Nesaraja, C. D.; O'Malley, P. D.; Padgett, S.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pain, S. D.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, D. C.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Schmitt, K. T.; Shore, A.; Smith, M. S.; Stracener, D. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Tostevin, J.; Varner, R. L.; Weisshaar, D.; Wimmer, K.; Winkler, R.

    2015-01-01

    Direct reaction techniques are powerful tools to study the single-particle nature of nuclei. Performing direct reactions on short-lived nuclei requires radioactive ion beams produced either via fragmentation or the Isotope Separation OnLine (ISOL) method. Some of the most interesting regions to study with direct reactions are close to the magic numbers where changes in shell structure can be tracked. These changes can impact the final abundances of explosive nucleosynthesis. The structure of the chain of tin isotopes is strongly influenced by the Z = 50 proton shell closure, as well as the neutron shell closures lying in the neutron-rich, N = 82, and neutron-deficient, N = 50, regions. Here, we present two examples of direct reactions on exotic tin isotopes. The first uses a one-neutron transfer reaction and a low-energy reaccelerated ISOL beam to study states in Sn-131 from across the N = 82 shell closure. The second example utilizes a one-neutron knockout reaction on fragmentation beams of neutron-deficient Sn-106,108Sn. In conclusion, In both cases, measurements of γ rays in coincidence with charged particles proved to be invaluable.

  16. The interstellar abundances of tin and four other heavy elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, L. M.; Welty, D. E.; Morton, D. C.; Spitzer, L.; York, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra recorded at 1150-1600 A with an instrumental resolution near 16 km/s were obtained with the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph on board the HST. The gaseous interstellar abundances of five heavy elements along the light paths to 23 Ori, 15 Mon, 1 Sco, Pi Sco, and Pi Aqr were determined from the observations. The 1400.450 A line of Sn II was detected and identified toward three stars; at Z = 50, tin is the first element from the fifth row of the periodic table to be identified in the interstellar medium. One spectral line of each of Cu II (Z = 29) and Ga II (Z = 31), three lines of Ge II (Z = 32), and two lines of Kr I (Z = 36) were also detected toward some or all of the five stars. The depletions of these five heavy elements generally decrease monotonically with increasing atomic number toward each of the six stars, and tin is generally undepleted within the observational errors. The depletions of 26 elements from the interstellar gas in an average dense interstellar cloud appear to correlate with the elemental 'nebular' condensation temperatures more closely than with the first ionization potentials.

  17. Recent Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Radioactive Tin Beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jones, K. L.; Ahn, S.; Allmond, J. M.; Ayres, A.; Bardayan, D. W.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Bey, A.; Bingham, C.; et al

    2015-01-01

    Direct reaction techniques are powerful tools to study the single-particle nature of nuclei. Performing direct reactions on short-lived nuclei requires radioactive ion beams produced either via fragmentation or the Isotope Separation OnLine (ISOL) method. Some of the most interesting regions to study with direct reactions are close to the magic numbers where changes in shell structure can be tracked. These changes can impact the final abundances of explosive nucleosynthesis. The structure of the chain of tin isotopes is strongly influenced by the Z = 50 proton shell closure, as well as the neutron shell closures lying in the neutron-rich, Nmore » = 82, and neutron-deficient, N = 50, regions. Here, we present two examples of direct reactions on exotic tin isotopes. The first uses a one-neutron transfer reaction and a low-energy reaccelerated ISOL beam to study states in Sn-131 from across the N = 82 shell closure. The second example utilizes a one-neutron knockout reaction on fragmentation beams of neutron-deficient Sn-106,108Sn. In conclusion, In both cases, measurements of γ rays in coincidence with charged particles proved to be invaluable.« less

  18. Superconductivity of novel tin hydrides (SnnHm) under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi Davari Esfahani, M.; Wang, Zhenhai; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Huafeng; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Shengnan; Rakitin, Maksim S.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng

    2016-03-01

    With the motivation of discovering high-temperature superconductors, evolutionary algorithm USPEX is employed to search for all stable compounds in the Sn-H system. In addition to the traditional SnH4, new hydrides SnH8, SnH12 and SnH14 are found to be thermodynamically stable at high pressure. Dynamical stability and superconductivity of tin hydrides are systematically investigated. Im2-SnH8, C2/m-SnH12 and C2/m-SnH14 exhibit higher superconducting transition temperatures of 81, 93 and 97 K compared to the traditional compound SnH4 with Tc of 52 K at 200 GPa. An interesting bent H3–group in Im2-SnH8 and novel linear H in C2/m-SnH12 are observed. All the new tin hydrides remain metallic over their predicted range of stability. The intermediate-frequency wagging and bending vibrations have more contribution to electron-phonon coupling parameter than high-frequency stretching vibrations of H2 and H3.

  19. Tin-porphyrin-assisted formation of coordination frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titi, Hatem M.

    2016-09-01

    Novel 3D networks synthesized by two different methods are reported in this article. Structure 1 {[CdL2]·(solvent)}n consists of CdII-single metallic nodes held together by coordinated isonicotinate ligands (L) to form a 3D chiral framework (P41212). The resulting structure exhibits threefold-interpenetrated dia coordination networks. After a few weeks the crystals were re-measured to form 1a {[Cd(L)2(H2O)]·DMF}n with two interpenetrated dia nets which is thermodynamically more stable. On the other hand, the addition of the tin(IV)-porphyrin to the same reaction mixture led to the formation of 3D pseudo-isostructures, based on oxo-centered CdII and MnII/III cluster nodes, 2 {[Cd3(OH)L4(H2O)3](ClO4)}n and 3 {[Mn3(O)L4(DMF)3](ClO4)}n. These structures represent topologically bcg nets. Possible synthetic mechanism was proposed to emphasize the role of the tin(IV)-porphyrin that led to the construction of oxo-centered trinuclear clusters in 2 and 3.

  20. Accommodation of tin in tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, B. D. C.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.

    2015-02-28

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The Sn{sub Zr}{sup ×} defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} charge compensated by V{sub O}{sup ••} occurring at partial pressures below 10{sup −31 }atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical partial pressure at which Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} is stable. Recently developed low-Sn nuclear fuel cladding alloys have demonstrated an improved corrosion resistance and a delayed transition compared to Sn-containing alloys, such as Zircaloy-4. The interaction between the positive charge and the tin defect is discussed in the context of alloying additions, such as niobium and their influence on corrosion of cladding alloys.

  1. Superconductivity of novel tin hydrides (SnnHm) under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi Davari Esfahani, M.; Wang, Zhenhai; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Huafeng; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Shengnan; Rakitin, Maksim S.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng

    2016-01-01

    With the motivation of discovering high-temperature superconductors, evolutionary algorithm USPEX is employed to search for all stable compounds in the Sn-H system. In addition to the traditional SnH4, new hydrides SnH8, SnH12 and SnH14 are found to be thermodynamically stable at high pressure. Dynamical stability and superconductivity of tin hydrides are systematically investigated. Im2-SnH8, C2/m-SnH12 and C2/m-SnH14 exhibit higher superconducting transition temperatures of 81, 93 and 97 K compared to the traditional compound SnH4 with Tc of 52 K at 200 GPa. An interesting bent H3–group in Im2-SnH8 and novel linear H in C2/m-SnH12 are observed. All the new tin hydrides remain metallic over their predicted range of stability. The intermediate-frequency wagging and bending vibrations have more contribution to electron-phonon coupling parameter than high-frequency stretching vibrations of H2 and H3. PMID:26964636

  2. Periodic macroporous nanocrystalline antimony-doped tin oxide electrode.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Eric; Soheilnia, Navid; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2011-04-26

    Optically transparent and electrically conductive electrodes are ubiquitous in the myriad world of devices. They are an indispensable component of solar and photoelectrochemical cells, organic and polymer light emitting diodes, lasers, displays, electrochromic windows, photodetectors, and chemical sensors. The majority of the electrodes in such devices are made of large electronic band-gap doped metal oxides fashioned as a dense low-surface-area film deposited on a glass substrate. Typical transparent conducting oxide materials include indium-, fluorine-, or antimony-doped tin oxides. Herein we introduce for the first time a transparent conductive periodic macroporous electrode that has been self-assembled from 6 nm nanocrystalline antimony-doped tin oxide with high thermal stability, optimized electrical conductivity, and high quality photonic crystal properties, and present an electrochemically actuated optical light switch built from this electrode, whose operation is predicated on its unique combination of electrical, optical, and photonic properties. The ability of this macroporous electrode to host active functional materials like dyes, polymers, nanocrystals, and nanowires provides new opportunities to create devices with improved performance enabled by the large area, spatially accessible and electroactive internal surface. PMID:21391718

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of nanostructured indium-tin-oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Thian Kok; Nee, Chen Hon; Yap, Seong Shan; Siew, Wee Ong; Sáfran, György; Yap, Yoke Kin; Tou, Teck Yong

    2010-08-01

    Effects of O2, N2, Ar and He on the formation of micro- and nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were investigated in pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition on glass substrate. For O2 and Ar, ITO resistivity of <= 4 × 10-4 Ωcm and optical transmittance of > 90% were obtained with substrate temperature of 250 °C. For N2 and He, low ITO resisitivity could be obtained but with poor optical transmittance. SEM images show nano-structured ITO thin films for all gases, where dense, larger and highly oriented, microcrystalline structures were obtained for deposition in O2 and He, as revealed from the XRD lines. EDX results indicated the inclusion of Ar and N2 at the expense of reduced tin (Sn) content. When the ITO films were applied for fabrication of organic light emitting devices (OLED), only those deposited in Ar and O2 produced comparable performance to single-layer OLED fabricated on the commercial ITO.

  4. Sol-gel synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic tin oxide based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ribot, F.O.; Banse, F.; Sanchez, C.

    1994-12-31

    RSn(OAm{sup t}){sub 3} with R = n-butyl, n-butenyl or para-styryl, which are monomeric precursors, have been hydrolyzed. The so-obtained products have been characterized mainly by {sup 119}Sn NMR. In every case, tin expands its coordination from 4 to 5 and 6, and hydrolysis yields tin oxo-hydroxo species of small size. For n-butyl and n-butenyl, a cage-like tin oxo-hydroxo cluster, {l_brace}(RSn){sub 12}({mu}{sub 3}-O){sub 14}({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 6}{r_brace}{sup 2+}, was evidenced as the major compound formed. Organic polymerization of the unsaturated organic groups linked to tin was initiated on the hydrolysis products and yielded hybrid systems which can be pictured as tin oxo-hydroxo oligomers attached together by polymeric chains.

  5. Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harilal, S. S.; O'Shay, Beau; Tao, Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S.

    2006-04-01

    Controlling the debris from a laser-generated tin plume is one of the prime issues in the development of an extreme ultraviolet lithographic light source. An ambient gas that is transparent to 13.5 nm radiation can be used for controlling highly energetic particles from the tin plume. We employed a partial ambient argon pressure for decelerating various species in the tin plume. The kinetic energy distributions of tin species were analyzed at short and large distances using time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and a Faraday cup, respectively. A fast-gated intensified charged coupled device was used for understanding the hydrodynamics of the plume's expansion into argon ambient. Our results indicate that the tin ions can be effectively mitigated with a partial argon pressure ~65 mTorr. Apart from thermalization and deceleration of plume species, the addition of ambient gas leads to other events such as double peak formation in the temporal distributions and ambient plasma formation.

  6. Synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles by the nitrate-citrate combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianrong; Gao Lian . E-mail: Liangaoc@online.sh.cn

    2004-12-02

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles having rutile structure have been synthesized by the combustion method using citric acid (CA) as fuel and nitrate as an oxidant, the metal sources were granulated tin and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The influence of citric acid (fuel) to metal ratio on the average crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles has been investigated. X-ray diffraction showed the tin ions were reduced to elemental tin during combustion reaction. The average ATO crystallite size increased with the increase of citric acid (fuel). Powder morphology and the comparison of crystallite size and grain size shows that the degree of agglomeration of the powder decreased with an increase of the ratio. The highest specific surface area was 37.5 m{sup 2}/g when the citric acid to tin ratio was about 6.

  7. Effect of the chemical state of tin-117m atoms on their probability of decay

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarevskii, S.I.; Eremin, V.V.; Murin, A.N.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of the valence state of the tin atoms on the probability of radioactive decay has been studied by the ..delta..lambda/lambda and ..delta..I/I methods for the case of the isomeric M4-transition in the nucleus of tin-117m. The two methods gave concordant results: lambda(SnC/sub 2/O/sub 4/ x 2H/sub 2/O)-lambda(SnO/sub 2/) = + (7.5 +/- 1.5) x 10/sup -4/ x anti lambda; I (Sn(II) solution) - I (Sn(IV) solution) = + (7.0 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -4/ x anti I. The values of the measured effects correspond, according to our estimates, to an overall decrease in electron density on the tin nucleus of 90 atomic units on transition from tin (II) to tin (IV).

  8. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  9. NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage http://nepp.nasa.gov/whisker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry

    2000-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage provides general information and GSFC Code 562 experimentation results regarding the well known phenomenon of tin whisker formation from pure tin plated substrates. The objective of this www site is to provide a central repository for information pertaining to this phenomenon and to provide status of the GSFC experiments to understand the behavior of tin whiskers in space environments. The Tin Whisker www site is produced by Code 562. This www site does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in this www site is at the level of that produced by industry and university researchers and is published at international conferences.

  10. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements. [Patent application; continuous process

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R.A.

    1980-12-19

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support te liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.