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Sample records for na placenta durante

  1. Placenta abruptio

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000901.htm Placenta abruption - definition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The placenta is the organ that supplies food and oxygen ...

  2. Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Harry

    1963-01-01

    Five cases of placenta accreta are reviewed. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds by intrauterine examination. Two of the five patients were managed conservatively, thus preserving the uterus. The conservative approach entails leaving the pathologically involved portion of accreta placenta in situ. The only indications for hysterectomy are hemorrhage and infection. Conservative management is justified by the successful outcome and lack of puerperal morbidity noted in this study and reported by others. PMID:14042801

  3. Placenta previa

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding. This can be deadly to both the mother and baby. If the placenta is near or covering part of the cervix, your doctor may recommend: Reducing your activities Bed rest Pelvic rest, which means no sex, no tampons, and no douching Nothing should be ...

  4. What is the placenta?

    PubMed

    Burton, Graham J; Jauniaux, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Discarded at birth, the placenta is a highly complex and fascinating organ. During the course of a pregnancy, it acts as the lungs, gut, kidneys, and liver of the fetus. The placenta also has major endocrine actions that modulate maternal physiology and metabolism and provides a safe and protective milieu in which the fetus can develop. The human placenta undergoes dramatic transformations in form and function between the first trimester, when organogenesis occurs, and the remainder of pregnancy that reflect evolutionary responses to changing oxygen concentrations in the earth's atmosphere. Recent research indicates a more interactive dialogue between the placenta and the maternal tissues than previously recognized. The endometrial glands provide histotrophic support during the first weeks of pregnancy, and the placenta appears able to stimulate its own development by up-regulating gland activity in response to endocrine signals. Extravillous trophoblast cells migrate from the placenta into the uterine wall, in which they interact with cells of the maternal innate immune system. These interactions have a physiological, rather than a classical immunological, outcome and most probably mediate remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries that supply the placenta. Furthermore, deportation of aggregates of transcriptionally active trophoblast nuclei, and the release of exosomes carrying microribonucleic acids challenge our perceptions of fetal-maternal signaling and where the placental interface actually lies. Here we reconsider definitions of the placenta in the light of these recent advances. PMID:26428504

  5. Mesenchymal dysplasia of placenta.

    PubMed

    Balachandran Nair, Krishna G; Srinish, Minu; Balan, Preesha; Sadasivan, Santha

    2015-01-01

    A rare case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) in a 26-year-old patient is reported. Ultrasound scan at 17 weeks of gestation showed placenta with multiple cystic spaces and a normal appearing fetus. Following delivery of a term live baby, histological examination of the placenta was suggestive of PMD. The early recognition of this rare condition by characteristic ultrasonographic findings is herein emphasized and hence that PMD is distinguished from molar pregnancy. PMID:26275269

  6. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  7. [Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta].

    PubMed

    Malinova, M

    2014-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a potentially life-threatening obstetric condition. Diagnosis of placenta accreta before delivery allows multidisciplinary planning in an attempt to minimize potential maternal or neonatal morbidity and mortality The diagnosis is usually established by 2D, 3D Ultrasonography and Color Doppler ultrasonography and occasionally supplemented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PMID:25510048

  8. Retained Placenta Accreta Mimicking Choriocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kohi, Maureen P.; Rizzuto, Gabrielle A.; Fidelman, Nicholas; Lucero, Jennifer; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2015-01-01

    This case demonstrates a rare event of retained invasive placenta masquerading as choriocarcinoma. The patient presented with heavy vaginal bleeding following vaginal delivery complicated by retained products of conception. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated a vascular endometrial mass, invading the uterine wall and raising suspicion for choriocarcinoma. Hysterectomy revealed retained invasive placenta. PMID:26495146

  9. Placenta accreta and anesthesia: A multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, RS; Baaj, J; Khan, MU; Dammas, FA; Rashid, N

    2016-01-01

    Placenta accreta (an abnormally adherent placenta) is one of the two leading causes of peripartum hemorrhage and the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta accreta may be associated with significant maternal hemorrhage at delivery owing to the incomplete placental separation. When placenta accreta is diagnosed before delivery, a multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome. PMID:27375391

  10. Urological Manifestations of Placenta Percreta

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mina A.; Liu, Angela; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar A.

    2015-01-01

    Placenta percreta is a condition of pregnancy associated with abnormal decidua placenta. It is characterized by invasion of chorionic villi past the myometrium and serosa, towards urogenital organs. Complications include massive hemorrhage, bladder dysfunction, and severe infections during delivery. Reports suggest an increasing prevalence of this condition. From a urological perspective, this review suggests how early diagnostic modalities, effective treatment plans, and appropriate surgical methods may aid in decreasing the morbidity and mortality of placenta percreta. The importance of maintaining bladder integrity during hysterectomy is emphasized. PMID:26889119

  11. Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159075.html Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta Researchers find the virus ... research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells. ...

  12. Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159075.html Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta Researchers find the virus ... research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells. ...

  13. Placenta accreta: adherent placenta due to Asherman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kjer, Jens Joergen; Istre, Olav

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery. PMID:25838908

  14. Development of the Pig Placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Placental insufficiency results in a myriad of negative consequences, including death of the fetus or low birth weight of the piglet, which increases the risk of stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and poor growth potential. Placental function is controlled by the size of the placenta, its structural...

  15. Optimal transport and the placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Simon; Xia, Qinglan; Salafia, Carolym

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the expected effects of (i) placental size, (ii) placental shape and (iii) the position of insertion of the umbilical cord on the work done by the foetus heart in pumping blood across the placenta. We use optimal transport theory and modeling to quantify the expected effects of these factors . Total transport cost and the shape factor contribution to cost are given by the optimal transport model. Total placental transport cost is highly correlated with birth weight, placenta weight, FPR and the metabolic scaling factor beta. The shape factor is also highly correlated with birth weight, and after adjustment for placental weight, is highly correlated with the metabolic scaling factor beta.

  16. Transthyretin and the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Landers, K A; Mortimer, R H; Richard, K

    2013-07-01

    Since its discovery, transthyretin (TTR) has been regarded as an important hepatically derived protein carrier of thyroid hormones and retinol in blood. However, in more recent years it has been shown that TTR has other important functions. TTR is abundant in cerebrospinal fluid, where it may be involved in transport of thyroid hormones into the brain. TTR derived amyloid is associated with diseases such as senile systemic amyloidosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and familial amyloid cardiomyopathy. Recently, synthesis, secretion and uptake of TTR by human placenta have been reported. TTR appears to play an important role in the delivery of maternal thyroid hormone to the developing fetus. This review explores the various proposed roles of TTR and more recent findings on TTR synthesis and expression in the placenta. PMID:23664144

  17. TPRV-1 expression in human preeclamptic placenta.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nora; Abán, Cyntia E; Leguizamón, Gustavo F; Damiano, Alicia E; Farina, Mariana G

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy, characterized by abnormal placentation. Although its causes remain unclear, it is known that the expression of several transporters is altered. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1) is a nonselective cation channel, present in human placenta. Here, we evaluated the expression of TRPV-1 in preeclamptic placentas. We observed a deregulation in TRPV-1 expression in these placentas which may explain the impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis found in preeclampsia. PMID:27016779

  18. Dynamic tensile properties of human placenta.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah J; Bisplinghoff, Jill A; McNally, Craig; Kemper, Andrew R; Santago, Anthony C; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-12-01

    Automobile crashes are the largest cause of injury death for pregnant females and the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States. Computational models, useful tools to evaluate the risk of fetal loss in motor vehicle crashes, are based on a limited number of quasi-static material tests of the placenta. This study presents a total of 20 dynamic uniaxial tensile tests on the maternal side of the placenta and 10 dynamic uniaxial tensile tests on the chorion layer of the placenta. These tests were completed from 6 human placentas to determine material properties at a strain rate of 7.0 strains/s. The results show that the average peak strain at failure for both the maternal portion and the chorion layer of the placenta are similar with a value of 0.56 and 0.61, respectively. However, the average failure stress for the chorion layer, 167.8 kPa, is much higher than the average failure stress for the placenta with the chorionic plate removed, 18.6 kPa. This is due to differences in the structure and function of these layers in the placenta. In summary, dynamic loading data for the placenta have been determined for use in computational modeling of pregnant occupant kinematics in motor vehicle crashes. Moreover the computational model should utilize the material properties for the placenta without the chorion layer. PMID:18996533

  19. Fertility sparing surgery on placenta invasion anomalies and placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Karateke, Ateş; Küçükbaş, Mehmet; Sozen, Hamdullah; Namazov, Ahmed; Çakır, Seda; Akdemir, Yesim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormal placental invasion has increased parallel with persistent rise in Caesarean delivery. Management relies on accurate diagnosis and delivery should be planned at an institution with appropriate expertise and resources for managing this condition. Case: We present a case of a placenta invasion anomaly which is the major risk factors of peripartum deaths. In this case we try to explain our approach which reduces unnecessary hysterectomy rates. Conclusion: In order to avoid postpartum hemorrhage and hysterectomy protocols, our approach which consists bilateral hypogastric arterial ligation, Bakri balloon tamponade and ıf necessary methotrexate therapy can be applied succesfully. PMID:25243004

  20. Regeneration of ascorbic acid in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.C.; Bode, A.M. )

    1990-02-26

    The free radical scavenging function of ascorbic acid (AA) results in the formation of the oxidized form of the vitamin, dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (DHAA). The enzymatic reduction of DHAA may be an important means of recycling and conserving ascorbic acid in various tissues. The role of the human placenta in the enzymatic reduction of the potentially toxic oxidized form was examined in tissue homogenized in 50 mM MOPs buffer. Assay of DHAA, AA, DKG (diketogulonic acid) were made by HPLC and liquid scintillation counting. Activity of the placental factor in reducing DHAA was dependent on the presence of both NADPH and GSH. Activity was reduced 81% by incubation with 2% trypsin and was unaffected by BSA, glycerol, EtOH, or Na-AZIDE. Inhibition was observed with 10 mM EDTA and 0.2M KCI but not with 1 mM EDTA or 0.1 M KCI or less. Studies are underway to further purify and characterize the enzyme(s) responsible for the observed activity.

  1. Genomic imprinting in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Monk, David

    2015-10-01

    With the launch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institutes of Health Human Placenta Project, the anticipation is that this often-overlooked organ will be the subject of much intense research. Compared with somatic tissues, the cells of the placenta have a unique epigenetic profile that dictates its transcription patterns, which when disturbed may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. One major class of genes that is dependent on strict epigenetic regulation in the placenta is subject to genomic imprinting, the parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic gene expression. This review discusses the differences in allelic expression and epigenetic profiles of imprinted genes that are identified between different species, which reflect the continuous evolutionary adaption of this form of epigenetic regulation. These observations divulge that placenta-specific imprinted gene that is reliant on repressive histone signatures in mice are unlikely to be imprinted in humans, whereas intense methylation profiling in humans has uncovered numerous maternally methylated regions that are restricted to the placenta that are not conserved in mice. Imprinting has been proposed to be a mechanism that regulates parental resource allocation and ultimately can influence fetal growth, with the placenta being the key in this process. Furthermore, I discuss the developmental dynamics of both classic and transient placenta-specific imprinting and examine the evidence for an involvement of these genes in intrauterine growth restriction and placenta-associated complications. Finally, I focus on examples of genes that are regulated aberrantly in complicated pregnancies, emphasizing their application as pregnancy-related disease biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies early in gestation. PMID:26428495

  2. Intracellular and extracellular pH dynamics in the human placenta from diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Silva, Luis; Salsoso, Rocío; Sáez, Tamara; Barros, Eric; Toledo, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sanhueza, Carlos; Sobrevia, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The placenta is a vital organ whose function in diseases of pregnancy is altered, resulting in an abnormal supply of nutrients to the foetus. The lack of placental vasculature homeostasis regulation causes endothelial dysfunction and altered vascular reactivity. The proper distribution of acid- (protons (H(+))) and base-equivalents through the placenta is essential to achieve physiological homeostasis. Several membrane transport mechanisms that control H(+) distribution between the extracellular and intracellular spaces are expressed in the human placenta vascular endothelium and syncytiotrophoblast, including sodium (Na(+))/H(+) exchangers (NHEs). One member of the NHEs family is NHE isoform 1 (NHE1), whose activity results in an alkaline intracellular pH (high intracellular pH (pHi)) and an acidic extracellular pH (pHo). Increased NHE1 expression, maximal transport activity, and turnover are reported in human syncytiotrophoblasts and lymphocytes from patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DMT1), and a positive correlation between NHEs activity and plasma factors, such as that between thrombin and platelet factor 3, has been reported in diabetes mellitus type II (DMT2). However, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could result in a higher sensitivity of the human placenta to acidic pHo. We summarized the findings on pHi and pHo modulation in the human placenta with an emphasis on pregnancies in which the mother diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A potential role of NHEs, particularly NHE1, is proposed regarding placental dysfunction in DMT1, DMT2, and GDM. PMID:27324099

  3. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    PubMed Central

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C.; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naı¨ve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622

  4. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  5. Toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Derek E.

    2012-01-01

    The placenta is fundamentally important for the success of pregnancy. Disruptions outside the normal range for placenta function can result in pregnancy failure and other complications. The anatomy of the placenta varies greatly across mammals, as do key parameters in pregnancy such as neonatal body mass, length of gestation and number of offspring per pregnancy. An accurate understanding of the evolution of the mammalian placenta will require at minimum the integration of anatomical, developmental, physiological, genetic, and epigenetic data. Currently available data suggest that the placenta is a dynamic organ that has evolved rapidly in a lineage specific manner. Examination of the placenta from the perspective of human evolution shows that many anatomical features of the human placenta are relatively conserved. Despite the anatomical conservation of the human placenta there are many recently evolved placenta specific genes (e.g. CGB, LGALS13, GH2) that are important in the development and function of the human placenta. Other mammalian genomes have also evolved specific suites of placenta-expressed genes. For example, rodents have undergone expansions of the cathepsin and prolactin families, and artiodactyls have expanded their suite of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. In addition to lineage-specific birth-and-death of gene family members, the pattern of imprinted loci varies greatly among species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a strategy reliant upon the sampling of placenta expressed and imprinted genes from a phylogenetically diverse range of species is appropriate for unraveling the conserved and derived aspects of placenta biology. PMID:21306776

  6. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Tian, Fu-Ju; Lin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed. PMID:26693479

  7. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Tian, Fu-Ju; Lin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed. PMID:26693479

  8. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta.

    PubMed

    Can, Nhu Thuy T; Robertson, Patricia; Zaloudek, Charles J; Gill, Ryan M

    2013-09-01

    A pregnant 29-year-old gravida 4, para 3 woman with Stage IIB cervical cancer was admitted at 33 weeks and 4 days of gestation and delivered a healthy neonate. Her placenta was small but otherwise grossly unremarkable. Microscopic examination revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. An immunohistochemical stain for p16 was positive in the carcinoma cells, supporting metastasis from the cervical tumor. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta is very rare. We report a case and discuss metastatic cancer during pregnancy with recommendations for infant follow-up. PMID:23896714

  9. Escalating placenta invasiveness: repeated placenta accreta at the limit of viability

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Shirley; Khashper, Alla; Leron, Elad; Ohana, Eric; Meirovitz, Mihai; Hershkovitz, Reli; Erez, Offer

    2016-01-01

    Placenta percreta is an obstetric condition in which the placenta invades through the myometrium. This is the most severe form of placenta accreta and may result in spontaneous uterine rupture, a rare complication that threatens the life of both mother and fetus. In this case report, we describe a 32-year-old woman in her fourth pregnancy, diagnosed with repeated placenta accreta, which was eventually complicated by spontaneous uterine rupture at 24 weeks’ gestation. This patient had a history of abnormal placentation in prior pregnancies and previous uterine injuries. This case demonstrates a pattern of escalating placental invasiveness, and raises questions regarding the process of abnormal placentation and the manifestation of uterine rupture in scarred uteri. PMID:27143953

  10. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  11. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV: Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta.

    PubMed

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, vessels, glands, membranes, and many others. It may be expected that in many cases the relevance of results obtained from human placenta will be higher than those from animal models due to species specificity of metabolism and placental structure. For practical and economical reasons, we propose to apply a battery of sequential experiments for analysis of potential toxicants. This should start with using cell lines, followed by testing placenta tissue explants and isolated placenta cells, and finally by application of single and dual side ex vivo placenta perfusion. With each of these steps, the relative workload increases while the number of feasible repeats decreases. Simultaneously, the predictive power enhances by increasing similarity with in vivo human conditions. Toxic effects may be detected by performing proliferation, vitality and cell death assays, analysis of protein and hormone expression, immunohistochemistry or testing functionality of signaling pathways, gene expression, transport mechanisms, and so on. When toxic effects appear at any step, the subsequent assays may be cancelled. Such a system may be useful to reduce costs and increase specificity in testing questionable toxicants. Nonetheless, it requires further standardization and end point definitions for better comparability of results from different toxicants and to estimate the respective in vivo translatability and predictive value. PMID:23548605

  12. Fine structural abnormalities of the placenta in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gewolb, I H; Merdian, W; Warshaw, J B; Enders, A C

    1986-11-01

    In the streptozocin-induced diabetic rat, the placenta is larger and the fetus is smaller than normal. To study cellular differences that might contribute to the size and functional disparity between diabetic and control placentas, a light- and electron-microscopic analysis was performed on 14-, 18-, and 22-day (term) control and diabetic placentas. Diabetic placentas, especially later in gestation, were marked by the presence of large numbers of glycogen-distended cells in the basal zone. Within the placental labyrinth, the trophoblastic layers of the interhemal membrane were significantly thicker in the diabetic placentas on days 18 and 22, and large accumulations of liid droplets were present, especially in the inner two trophoblastic layers. In normal placentas there is a marked thinning of the placental barrier in the labyrinth by day 22 of gestation, making the thickness of the labyrinthine layers in age-matched diabetic placentas even more impressive. Finally, the labyrinth of 22-day diabetic placentas contained more glycogen and rough endoplasmic reticulum in the inner trophoblastic layer, a feature that is found in less-mature (18-day) control placentas. Thus, the diabetic placentas have a number of features that are consistent with functional immaturity/dysmaturity. Cytologic evidence confirms the presence of increased glycogen and lipid reserves in both the junctional zone and the cellular area between maternal and fetal blood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3758495

  13. Adenosine diphosphate-degrading activity in placenta.

    PubMed

    Barradas, M; Khokher, M; Hutton, R; Craft, I L; Dandona, P

    1983-02-01

    1. The degradation of ADP by the placenta and umbilical artery was investigated. 2. Supernatants from incubations of finely chopped placental and umbilical arterial tissue were incubated with [14C]ADP for various durations from 0 to 30 min. 3. Products of ADP degradation were separated by thin-layer chromatography and radioactivity incorporated into each product was measured. 4. Placental supernatants induced a more rapid degradation of ADP than the umbilical artery supernatants. The main product of ADP degradation by placental supernatants at 30 min was adenosine, whereas that of umbilical artery was AMP. 5. This conversion by placenta of ADP, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor, into adenosine, a potent platelet anti-aggregator and vasodilator, may be important in the maintenance of perfusion of the foetoplacental unit. PMID:6822058

  14. Placenta accreta in a separate uterine horn.

    PubMed

    Baughn, Mariah R; Vaux, Keith; Masliah, Eliezer

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with intrauterine fetal demise of a 17-2/7-week male fetus. The patient failed misoprostol induction and was taken for surgical evaluation. At the time of surgery an ectopic pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn was found. Histologic examination of the excised remnant uterine horn showed there was a placenta accreta. PMID:19642813

  15. Biological Functions of Thyroid Hormone in Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chie-Pein; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormone, 3,3,5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), modulates several physiological processes, including cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism, inflammation and proliferation, via interactions with thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. Infection and inflammation are critical processes in placental development and pregnancy-related diseases. In particular, infection is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, to date, no successful approach has been developed for the effective diagnosis of infection in preterm infants. Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious disorder that adversely affects ~5% of human pregnancies. Recent studies identified a multiprotein complex, the inflammasome, including the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1, which plays a vital role in the placenta. The thyroid hormone modulates inflammation processes and is additionally implicated in placental development and disease. Therefore, elucidation of thyroid hormone receptor-regulated inflammation-related molecules, and their underlying mechanisms in placenta, should facilitate the identification of novel predictive and therapeutic targets for placental disorders. This review provides a detailed summary of current knowledge with respect to identification of useful biomarkers and their physiological significance in placenta. PMID:25690032

  16. Automated vasculature extraction from placenta images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almoussa, Nizar; Dutra, Brittany; Lampe, Bryce; Getreuer, Pascal; Wittman, Todd; Salafia, Carolyn; Vese, Luminita

    2011-03-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental blood vessels, which supply a fetus with all of its oxygen and nutrition. An essential step in the analysis of the vascular network pattern is the extraction of the blood vessels, which has only been done manually through a costly and time-consuming process. There is no existing method to automatically detect placental blood vessels; in addition, the large variation in the shape, color, and texture of the placenta makes it difficult to apply standard edge-detection algorithms. We describe a method to automatically detect and extract blood vessels from a given image by using image processing techniques and neural networks. We evaluate several local features for every pixel, in addition to a novel modification to an existing road detector. Pixels belonging to blood vessel regions have recognizable responses; hence, we use an artificial neural network to identify the pattern of blood vessels. A set of images where blood vessels are manually highlighted is used to train the network. We then apply the neural network to recognize blood vessels in new images. The network is effective in capturing the most prominent vascular structures of the placenta.

  17. The placenta: a multifaceted, transient organ.

    PubMed

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L

    2015-03-01

    The placenta is arguably the most important organ of the body, but paradoxically the most poorly understood. During its transient existence, it performs actions that are later taken on by diverse separate organs, including the lungs, liver, gut, kidneys and endocrine glands. Its principal function is to supply the fetus, and in particular, the fetal brain, with oxygen and nutrients. The placenta is structurally adapted to achieve this, possessing a large surface area for exchange and a thin interhaemal membrane separating the maternal and fetal circulations. In addition, it adopts other strategies that are key to facilitating transfer, including remodelling of the maternal uterine arteries that supply the placenta to ensure optimal perfusion. Furthermore, placental hormones have profound effects on maternal metabolism, initially building up her energy reserves and then releasing these to support fetal growth in later pregnancy and lactation post-natally. Bipedalism has posed unique haemodynamic challenges to the placental circulation, as pressure applied to the vena cava by the pregnant uterus may compromise venous return to the heart. These challenges, along with the immune interactions involved in maternal arterial remodelling, may explain complications of pregnancy that are almost unique to the human, including pre-eclampsia. Such complications may represent a trade-off against the provision for a large fetal brain. PMID:25602070

  18. The placenta: a multifaceted, transient organ

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Graham J.; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is arguably the most important organ of the body, but paradoxically the most poorly understood. During its transient existence, it performs actions that are later taken on by diverse separate organs, including the lungs, liver, gut, kidneys and endocrine glands. Its principal function is to supply the fetus, and in particular, the fetal brain, with oxygen and nutrients. The placenta is structurally adapted to achieve this, possessing a large surface area for exchange and a thin interhaemal membrane separating the maternal and fetal circulations. In addition, it adopts other strategies that are key to facilitating transfer, including remodelling of the maternal uterine arteries that supply the placenta to ensure optimal perfusion. Furthermore, placental hormones have profound effects on maternal metabolism, initially building up her energy reserves and then releasing these to support fetal growth in later pregnancy and lactation post-natally. Bipedalism has posed unique haemodynamic challenges to the placental circulation, as pressure applied to the vena cava by the pregnant uterus may compromise venous return to the heart. These challenges, along with the immune interactions involved in maternal arterial remodelling, may explain complications of pregnancy that are almost unique to the human, including pre-eclampsia. Such complications may represent a trade-off against the provision for a large fetal brain. PMID:25602070

  19. Isolation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) from human placenta. Evidence for vitronectin/PAI-2 complexes in human placenta extract.

    PubMed

    Radtke, K P; Wenz, K H; Heimburger, N

    1990-12-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2), found in human placenta and pregnancy plasma, was prepared in a highly purified and functionally active form from human placenta. The purification was achieved by a combination of Rivanol and ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by chromatography on DEAE Affigel Blue, hydroxylapatite and phenylalanine-Sepharose. PAI-2, which is precipitated by low Rivanol concentrations, can be selectively redissolved from the pellet by increasing the Rivanol concentration in the presence of a reducing agent, i.e. dithiothreitol. The purified protein shows a molecular mass of 45 kDa in SDS PAGE, cross-reacts with monoclonal antibodies against PAI-2 (Mab'PAI-2), and inhibits the amidolytic activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) towards the chromogenic substrate Glu-Gly-Arg-pNA (S-2444). The specific activity of the purified inhibitor was 52,300 units/mg, attaining 71,000 units/mg in peak fractions. In the immunopurification of placental extract on anti-PAI-2 Sepharose, the eluate showed the expected reaction with Mab' PAI-2, and it also cross-reacted with anti-vitronectin serum. In order to complement these results, anti-vitronectin Sepharose was used for immunopurification of placenta extract. In Western Blot experiments the eluates of anti PAI-2 Sepharose and anti-vitronectin Sepharose both showed a heterogeneous pattern of high molecular weight bands recognized by either polyclonal antiserum against vitronectin or Mab'PAI-2. In either case, reduction of the eluates releases mainly a 45-kDa band, which is recognized by Mab'PAI-2, or 80-kDa and 76-kDa bands recognized by anti-serum against vitronectin. These data suggest that the predominant form of PAI-2 in placenta extract is heterogeneous and of high molecular mass, containing complexes in which vitronectin is covalently bound to PAI-2 by disulfide bridges. PMID:1708670

  20. Retained placenta: will medical treatment ever be possible?

    PubMed

    Akol, Achier D; Weeks, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    The standard treatment for retained placenta is manual removal whatever its subtype (adherens, trapped or partial accreta). Although medical treatment should reduce the risk of anesthetic and surgical complications, they have not been found to be effective. This may be due to the contrasting uterotonic needs of the different underlying pathologies. In placenta adherens, oxytocics have been used to contract the retro-placental myometrium. However, if injected locally through the umbilical vein, they bypass the myometrium and perfuse directly into the venous system. Intravenous injection is an alternative but exacerbates a trapped placenta. Conversely, for trapped placentas, a relaxant could help by resolving cervical constriction, but would worsen the situation for placenta adherens. This confusion over medical treatment will continue unless we can find a way to diagnose the underlying pathology. This will allow us to stop treating the retained placenta as a single entity and to deliver targeted treatments. PMID:26765548

  1. Per operative discovery of Placenta Praevia Percreta: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Morfaw, Frederick Lifangi-Ikomi

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is a rare pathological entity with challenging diagnostic and therapeutic requirements especially for resource limited settings. We present here the case of a 40 year old woman with a per operative diagnosis of placenta accreta during a caesarian section indicated for placenta praevia. We highlight the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties associated with this condition especially in low resource settings. Physicians performing caesarian sections should be prepared for complex intra-operative findings in high risk patients. PMID:24672624

  2. Vascular anastomoses in dichorionic diamniotic-fused placentas.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Maria P; Gabrielli, Liliana; Dorji, Tshering; Kos, Marina; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Lanari, Marcello; Landini, Maria P

    2003-10-01

    A case of fetal twin-to-twin cytomegalovirus infection through a dichorionic diamniotic (DiDi)-fused placenta prompted our search for possible vascular anastomoses in this type of placenta. This case and three additional DiDi-fused placentas were studied with gross (macro) sections and a three-dimensional (3D) stereomicroscopic technique. Two twins were dizygotic (they differed in gender and blood groups) and the other two were probably monozygotic. Macrosections and 3D-image analysis demonstrated side-to-side connections between small subchorionic vessels. These findings demonstrate that vascular anastomoses are present in DiDi-fused placentas. PMID:14501816

  3. Ultrastructure of Placenta of Gravidas with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qian; Shao, Li; Luo, Xiucui; Mu, Yingping; Xu, Wen; Gao, Chao; Gao, Li; Liu, Jiayin; Cui, Yugui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) leads to an abnormal placental environment which may cause some structural alterations of placenta and affect placental development and function. In this study, the ultrastructural appearances of term placentas from women with GDM and normal pregnancy were meticulously compared. Materials and Methods. The placenta tissues of term birth from 10 women with GDM and 10 women with normal pregnancy were applied with the signed informed consent. The morphology of fetomaternal interface of placenta was examined using light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results. On LM, the following morphological changes in villous tissues were found in the GDM placentas when compared with the control placentas: edematous stroma, apparent increase in the number of syncytial knots, and perivillous fibrin deposition. On TEM, the distinct ultrastructural alterations indicating the degeneration of terminal villi were found in the GDM placentas as follows: thickening of the basal membrane (BM) of vasculosyncytial membrane (VSM) and the VSM itself, significantly fewer or even absent syncytiotrophoblastic microvilli, swollen or completely destroyed mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and syncytiotrophoblasts with multiple vacuoles. Conclusion. Ultrastructural differences exist between GDM and control placentas. The differences of placenta ultrastructure are likely responsible for the impairment of placental barrier and function in GDM. PMID:26379710

  4. [CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PLACENTA ACCRETE DURING VAGINAL DELIVERY].

    PubMed

    Dimirov, A; Garnizov, T; Zlatkov, V; Frundeva, B; Masseva, A

    2016-01-01

    Conservative management of placenta accrete consists in leaving the entire placenta accreta in situ after vaginal delivery of the fetus. This behavior requires active monitoring the vital signs of mother, genital status and paraclinical indicators for an extended period after birth. Monitoring is suspended after full absorption of the placenta. The success of the conservative approach depends on: the adopted protocol formanagement of placenta accreta, whether the diagnosis is known before birth, the possible of application techniques, reducing blood flow to the uterus, keeping the placental period and others. The smallest success with vaginal birth, is when the diagnosis of placenta accreta is not know in advance and proceed with aggressive attempts to extract the placenta, followed by profuse bleeding from the uterus. As additional methods of securing conservative management is reported use of Methotrexate, with unproven effectiveness and embolization of a. Iliaca interna and a. uterine, which require a qualified team and have a lot of complications. Complications of conservative management of placenta accreta are: febrility and genital bleeding, which are the cause of late hysterectomy in about 35% of cases. lnfestion may be not always prevent by application of broad spectrum antibiotics. Late bleeding is usually associated with an active inflammatory process. Low-grade and low grade temperature increase of leukocytes and CRP may be due to necrotic changes in the placenta without the infection process. Tracking involution of the placenta is through abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, magnetic resonance, using hysteroscopy through serial monitoring the level of hCG. From literature data the time for resorption of the placenta varies from 4 months to 1 year. It is essential to determine the time when it is safely to extract the placenta move in order to prevent late complications of conservative management. Our experience and some authors suggest that there may

  5. Placenta changes in pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Edu, Antoine; Teodorescu, Cristina; Dobjanschi, Carmen Gabriela; Socol, ZiŢa Zsuzsana; Teodorescu, Valeriu; Matei, Alexandru; Albu, Dinu Florin; Radulian, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Placental damage may be responsible for the fetal complications in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We have analyzed the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD) in a population of 109 pregnant women, the risk factors and the placental changes associated with gestational diabetes. Tests carried out were oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation, using the IADPSG (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups) criteria for gestational diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and, also, there were analyzed macro and microscopic placental fragments from pregnant women with÷without GD. It has been recorded the weight of placenta at birth and there were analyzed the possible pathological changes. The prevalence of GD was 11.9%. We have applied the direct logistic regression to determine the impact of some factors over the probability of association with gestational diabetes. The most powerful predictor was the placental maturity grade, the patients with decreased maturity grade having chances 52.6 times higher than those with an increased placental maturity grade to associate gestational diabetes. Sizes of placentas in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were significantly increased than in patients without this diagnosis (p=0.012) from week 24-28. Pathological changes were discovered in six of the 13 placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, independent of the level of glycated hemoglobin (p=0.72). The level of hyperglycemia is only partially associated with the presence of placental changes, which may be caused by other maternal factors. PMID:27516026

  6. A comprehensive analysis of the human placenta transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the conduit for nutrients and growth signals, the placenta is critical to establishing an environment sufficient for fetal growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms regulating placental development and gene expression, we characterized the transcriptome of term placenta from 20 ...

  7. Caesarean section in cases of placenta praevia and accreta.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Jaraquemada, José M

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, the incidence of placenta praevia and placenta accreta has increased and seems to be associated with induced labour, termination of pregnancy, caesarean section and pregnancy at older age. These factors imply some degree of tissue damage, which can modify the decidualisation process, and produce excessive vascular remodelling. Placenta praevia and accreta are mainly located in the lower segment, a place that predisposes to persistent uterine bleeding because of the development of new vessels and because it is a poorly contractile area of the uterus. The complexity, determined by tissue destruction, newly formed vessels, and vascular invasion of surrounding tissues, warrants multi-disciplinary management. When resective procedures are undertaken, a suitable plan to tackle surgical problems allows better control of bleeding and avoids unnecessary hysterectomies. In cases of placenta accrete, and especially when skills or institutional resources are not available, leaving the placenta in situ may be the best option until definitive treatment is undertaken. PMID:23127895

  8. The Programming Power of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Camm, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring. PMID:27014074

  9. Placenta accreta: diagnosis, management and the molecular biology of the morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    Goh, William A; Zalud, Ivica

    2016-06-01

    Placenta accreta is now the chief cause of postpartum hemorrhage resulting in maternal and neonatal morbidity. Prenatal diagnosis decreases blood loss at delivery and intra and post-partum complications. Ultrasound is critical for diagnosis and MRI is a complementary tool when the diagnosis is uncertain. Peripartum hysterectomy has been the standard of therapy but conservative management is increasingly being used. The etiology of accreta is due to a deficiency of maternal decidua resulting in placental invasion into the uterine myometrium. The molecular basis for the development of invasive placentation is yet to be elucidated but may involve abnormal paracrine/autocrine signaling between the deficient maternal decidua and the trophoblastic tissue. The interaction of hormones such as Relaxin which is abundant in maternal decidua and insulin-like 4, an insulin-like peptide found in placental trophoblastic tissue may play role in the formation of placenta accreta. PMID:26135782

  10. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi . E-mail: tkhoda.epgn@tmd.ac.jp; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2006-10-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones.

  11. Origin stories from a regional placenta tissue collection

    PubMed Central

    Fannin, Maria; Kent, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-three years ago when women and their children were recruited to a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study during pregnancy, placentas were collected at birth. This paper explores the history of a regional placenta biobank and contemporary understandings of its value for the constitution of a research population. We draw on interviews with some of the mothers and those responsible for the establishment and curation of the placenta collection in order to explore the significance and meaning of the collection for them. Given its capacity to stand in for the study cohort of mothers and children, we argue that the material significance of the placenta biobank as a research tool seems far less important than the work it does in constituting a population. The stories about this collection may be understood within the wider context of developments in biobanking and the bioeconomy. PMID:25745355

  12. [A case report of placenta percreta with bladder invasion].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Takafumi; Furuta, Akira; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Tadao

    2012-06-01

    A 33-year-old British woman who had undergone caesarean section at 31 years of age was admitted to our hospital at 28 weeks of gestation due to a large amount of genital hemorrhage induced by total placenta previa. Magnetic resonance imaging showed placenta percreta with bladder invasion. To control the sudden hemorrhage at 31 weeks of gestation, we performed an operation emergently. An occlusion ballon was inserted into the bilateral internal iliac arteries by radiologists, caesarian section followed by simple hysterectomy was performed by gynecologists, and then the bladder wall with placenta percreta was removed by urologists. Although the operation was carefully undertaken with multi-department cooperation, 11,550 ml of blood was lost during the 6.5-hour operation. There are few reports of placenta percreta with bladder invasion, about 30 cases including 3 cases in our country have been reported around the world until now. PMID:22874507

  13. The chemical status of cadmium ion in the placenta. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Specht, C.; Ferm, V.H.

    1982-02-01

    The chemical status of cadmium ion in the chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentas of SWV strain mice during the critical phase of embryonic organogenesis was investigated. Twenty-four hours after a single teratogenic dose of cadmium ion, both placentas contained significant amounts of a macromolecular chelator. Gel filtration data and disc electrophoresis data suggest that the cadmium-binding macromolecule of the chorioallantois (which binds 61% of the cadmium ion content of the tissues) is a metallothionein dimer.

  14. Histopathological, Ultrastructural and Apoptotic Changes in Diabetic Rat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Mehmet; Bayat, Nuray; Çetin, Aslı; Kepekçi, Remziye Aysun; Şimşek, Yavuz; Kayhan, Başak; Turhan, Uğur; Otlu, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exchange of substances between mother and fetus via the placenta plays a vital role during development. A number of developmental disorders in the fetus and placenta are observed during diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes, together with placental apoptosis, can lead to developmental and functional disorders. Aims: Histological, ultrastructural and apoptotic changes were investigated in the placenta of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: In this study, a total of 12 female Wistar Albino rats (control (n=6) and diabetic (n=6)) were used. Rats in the diabetic group, following the administration of a single dose of STZ, showed blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL after 72 hours. When pregnancy was detected after the rats were bred, two pieces of placenta and the fetuses were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy by cesarean incision under ketamine/ xylazine anesthesia from in four rats from the control and diabetic groups. Placenta tissues were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid Schiff-diastase (PAS-D) staining for light microscopic and caspase-3 staining for immunohistochemical investigations were performed for each placenta. Electron microscopy was performed on thin sections contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead nitrate. Results: Weight gain in the placenta and fetuses of diabetic rats and thinning of the decidual layer, thickening of the hemal membrane, apoptotic bodies, congestion in intervillous spaces, increased PAS-D staining in decidual cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were observed in the diabetic group. After the ultrastructural examination, the apoptotic appearance of the nuclei of trophoblastic cells, edema and intracytoplasmic vacuolization, glycogen accumulation, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum and myelin figures were observed. In addition, capillary basement membrane thickening, capillary

  15. Effect of Placenta Previa on Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hao; Lu, Yi; Dong, Yi-Nuo; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation between gestational hypertension-preeclampsia (GH-PE) and placenta previa (PP) is controversial. Specifically, it is unknown whether placenta previa has any effect on the various types of preeclampsia (PE), and the role PP with concurrent placenta accreta (PA) play in the occurrence of GH-PE are not well understood. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the effects of PP on GH, mild and severe preeclampsia (MPE and SPE), and early- and late-onset preeclampsia (EPE and LPE). Another aim of the study was to determine if concurrent PA impacts the relationship between PP and GH-PE. Methods A retrospective single-center study of 1,058 patients having singleton pregnancies with PP was performed, and 2,116 pregnant women were randomly included as controls. These cases were collected from a tertiary hospital and met the inclusion criteria for the study. Clinical information, including PP and the gestational age at the onset of GH-PE were collected. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted after the confounding variables were controlled to assess the effects of PP on different types of GH-PE. Results There were 155 patients with GH-PE in the two groups. The incidences of GH-PE in the PP group and the control group were 2.5% (26/1058) and 6.1% (129/2116), respectively (P = 0.000). Binary and multiple regression analyses were conducted after controlling for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, in the PP group, the risk of GH-PE was reduced significantly by 78% (AOR: 0.216; 95% CI: 0.135–0.345); the risks of GH and PE were reduced by 55% (AOR: 0.451; 95% CI: 0.233–0.873) and 86% (AOR: 0.141; 95% CI: 0.073–0.271), respectively; the risks of MPE and SPE were reduced by 73% (AOR: 0.269; 95% CI: 0.087–0828) and 88% (AOR: 0.123; 95% CI: 0.055–0.279), respectively; and the risks of EPE and LPE were reduced by 95% (AOR: 0.047; 95% CI: 0.012–0.190) and 67% (AOR: 0.330; 95% CI: 0.153–0

  16. TonEBP and SMIT expression in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-A; Kwon, Hyug-Moo; Han, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Hwa-Young

    2012-09-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a signal transcription factor of transporters such as sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), aldose reductase. TonEBP has a variety of functions such as control of intracellular osmolytes and immunomodulating. It is known that TonEBP is abundant in the placenta, but location and function aren't known. The aim of this study is to describe the localization of TonEBP in the placenta. We assayed the immunohistochemistry of TonEBP and performed in situ hybridization of SMIT in normal human full term placenta. In normal human full term placenta, TonEBP was in villous trophoblasts, extravillous trophoblasts and some endothelial cells. The result of the in situ hybridization of SMIT was similar to that of immunohistochemistry of TonEBP. Neither TonEBP nor SMIT was present in TonEBP knockout mouse placenta. This shows TonEBP is a key factor in SMIT transcription. TonEBP may play an important role in transporting of inositol to fetus in placenta. PMID:23094203

  17. Retroviruses facilitate the rapid evolution of the mammalian placenta

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian placenta exhibits elevated expression of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), but the evolutionary significance of this feature remains unclear. I propose that ERV-mediated regulatory evolution was, and continues to be, an important mechanism underlying the evolution of placenta development. Many recent studies have focused on the co-option of ERV-derived genes for specific functional adaptations in the placenta. However, the co-option of ERV-derived regulatory elements has the potential to co-opt entire gene regulatory networks, which, I argue, would facilitate relatively rapid developmental evolution of the placenta. I suggest a model in which an ancient retroviral infection led to the establishment of the ancestral placental developmental gene network through the co-option of ERV-derived regulatory elements. Consequently, placenta development would require elevated tolerance to ERV activity, which in turn would expose a continuous stream of novel ERV mutations that may have catalyzed the developmental diversification of the mammalian placenta. PMID:23873343

  18. Multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta complicated by embolic phenomena.

    PubMed

    Styron, A G; George, R B; Allen, T K; Peterson-Layne, C; Muir, H A

    2008-07-01

    Hemorrhage and thrombosis are major causes of maternal mortality. This case discusses the management of a woman with placenta percreta complicated by intraoperative pulmonary embolism. A 39-year-old gravida 3 with two previous cesarean deliveries presented at 34 weeks of gestation with an antepartum hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed placenta percreta. The multidisciplinary group including obstetricians, gynecological oncologists, interventional radiologists and anesthesiologists developed a delivery plan. Cesarean delivery was performed with internal iliac artery occlusion and embolization catheters in place. After the uterine incision our patient experienced acute hypotension and hypoxia associated with a drop in the end-tidal carbon dioxide and sinus tachycardia. She was resuscitated and the uterus closed with the placenta in situ. Postoperatively, uterine bleeding was arrested by immediate uterine artery embolization. With initiation of embolization, hypotension and hypoxia recurred. Oxygenation and hemodynamics slowly improved, the case continued and the patient was extubated uneventfully at the end of the procedure. Computed tomography revealed multiple pulmonary emboli. The patient was anticoagulated with low-molecular-weight heparin and returned six weeks later for hysterectomy. Placenta percreta with invasion into the bladder can be catastrophic if not recognized before delivery. The chronology of events suggests that this may have been amniotic fluid emboli. An intact placenta with abnormal architecture, such as placenta percreta, may increase the risk of amniotic fluid embolus. The clinical findings and co-existing filling defects on computed tomography may represent a spectrum of amniotic fluid embolism syndrome. PMID:18501584

  19. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  20. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  1. DNA methylation in placentas of interspecies mouse hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Schütt, Sabine; Florl, Andrea R; Shi, Wei; Hemberger, Myriam; Orth, Annie; Otto, Sabine; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Fundele, Reinald H

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization in the genus Mus results in several hybrid dysgenesis effects, such as male sterility and X-linked placental dysplasia (IHPD). The genetic or molecular basis for the placental phenotypes is at present not clear. However, an extremely complex genetic system that has been hypothesized to be caused by major epigenetic changes on the X chromosome has been shown to be active. We have investigated DNA methylation of several single genes, Atrx, Esx1, Mecp2, Pem, Psx1, Vbp1, Pou3f4, and Cdx2, and, in addition, of LINE-1 and IAP repeat sequences, in placentas and tissues of fetal day 18 mouse interspecific hybrids. Our results show some tendency toward hypomethylation in the late gestation mouse placenta. However, no differential methylation was observed in hyper- and hypoplastic hybrid placentas when compared with normal-sized littermate placentas or intraspecific Mus musculus placentas of the same developmental stage. Thus, our results strongly suggest that generalized changes in methylation patterns do not occur in trophoblast cells of such hybrids. PMID:14504229

  2. A Comprehensive Surgical Procedure in Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Kelekci, Sefa; Ekmekci, Emre; Aydogmus, Serpil; Gencdal, Servet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to present a combined surgical procedure in conservative treatment of placenta accreta based on surgical outcomes in our cohort of patients. The study was designed as a prospective cohort series study. The setting involved two education and research hospitals in Turkey. This study included 12 patients with placenta accreta who were prenatally diagnosed and managed. We offered the patients the choice of conservative or nonconservative treatment. We then offered 2 choices for patients who had preferred conservative treatment, leaving the placenta in situ as is the classical procedure, or our surgical procedure. One patient preferred nonconservative treatment, the others opted for our procedure. We evaluated demographic and obstetric characteristics of patients, sonographic and operative parameters of patients, and surgical outcomes. We operated on 11 patients using this surgical procedure that we have developed for placenta accreta cases. We found that there was no need for hysterectomy in any patient, and we preserved the uterus for all of these patients. No patient presented any septic complication or secondary vaginal bleeding. Our surgical procedure seems to be effective and useful in the conservative treatment of placenta accreta. PMID:25700315

  3. DNA methylation profiles in preeclampsia and healthy control placentas.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Kristen R; Chiu, Christine L; Pidsley, Ruth; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2016-05-15

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that affects 3-5% of all pregnancies. There is evidence to suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, play a role in placental development and function. This study compared DNA methylation profiles of placentas from preeclampsia-affected pregnancies with placentas from healthy pregnancies to identify gene-specific changes in DNA methylation that may contribute to the development of preeclampsia. The methylation status of eight placental biopsies taken from preeclampsia-affected and 16 healthy pregnancies was analyzed using the Illumina Infinium Methylation 450 BeadChip array. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to confirm regions found to be differentially methylated between preeclampsia and healthy placentas. A total of 303 differentially methylated regions, 214 hypermethylated and 89 hypomethylated, between preeclampsia cases and controls were identified, after adjusting for gestational age (adjusted P < 0.05). Functional annotation found cell adhesion, wingless type MMTV Integration Site family member 2 (Wnt) signaling pathway, and regulation of transcription were significantly enriched in these gene regions. Hypermethylation of WNT2, sperm equatorial segment protein (SPESP1), NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5), and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) in preeclampsia placentas was confirmed with pyrosequencing. This study found differences in methylation in gene regions involved in cell signaling (WNT2), fertilization and implantation (SPESP1), reactive oxygen species signaling (NOX5), and cell adhesion (ALCAM). These results build on recently published studies that have reported significant differences in DNA methylation in preeclampsia placentas. PMID:26968548

  4. Transplacental transfer and metabolism of buprenorphine in preterm human placenta.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Valentina M; Patrikeeva, Svetlana L; Zharikova, Olga L; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Hankins, Gary V D; Ahmed, Mahmoud S

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine whether gestational age affects the transplacental transfer and metabolism of buprenorphine (BUP). Transfer of BUP (10 ng/mL) and its [ (3)H]-isotope was determined across placentas of 30 to 34 weeks of gestation utilizing the technique of dual perfusion of placental lobule. Concentration of the drug in trophoblast tissue and in maternal and fetal circuits was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Microsomes prepared from placentas of 17 to 37 weeks of gestation were divided into three groups: late second, early third, and late third trimesters. Antibodies raised against human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms were utilized to identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing BUP biotransformation by preterm placental microsomes. The amount of norbuprenorphine formed was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). BUP transfer across the placentas of 30 to 34 weeks of gestation was similar to those at term. CYP19 antibodies caused 60% inhibition of BUP metabolism by microsomes of late second and early third trimesters and 85% by microsomes of late third trimester. The developmental changes occurring in human placenta between 30 weeks of gestation through term do not affect the transfer of BUP across human placenta. CYP19 is the major enzyme responsible for biotransformation of BUP beginning at 17 weeks of gestation until term. PMID:20607647

  5. Transplacental differences in Ca, Na, K, and electropotential in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Twardock, A.R.

    1983-07-01

    The fetal side of hemochorial placentas from guinea pigs between 58 and 62 days gestation were perfused in situ. Concurrent measurements were made of the clearances of radiocalcium and tritiated water from maternal to fetal circulation of the placenta, transplacental potential difference (TPD), maternal plasma and perfusate Ca, Na, and K concentrations, maternal blood pressure, gross permeability of albumin in the placenta, and net water movements. Movement of Ca from dam to fetus appeared to occur against an electrochemical gradient and was not associated with the movements of Na and K across the placenta. A negative correlation between perfusate Na and K concentrations, not dependent on maternal plasma Na and K concentrations and abolished by high concentrations of Ca in the fetal circulation of the placenta, strongly supports the concept of a Na-K exchange mechanism in the placenta directed so that K is moved against a concentration gradient towards the dam. There was no evidence that the TPD existed at the site of maternal-fetal exchange for Ca, Na, or K.

  6. Efficient production of Aschersonia placenta protoplasts for transformation using optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiuyan; Song, Xinyue; Dong, Dong; Keyhani, Nemat O; Yao, Lindan; Zang, Xiangyun; Dong, Lili; Gu, Zijian; Fu, Delai; Liu, Xingzhong; Qiu, Junzhi; Guan, Xiong

    2016-07-01

    The insect pathogenic fungus Aschersonia placenta is a highly effective pathogen of whiteflies and scale insects. However, few genetic tools are currently available for studying this organism. Here we report on the conditions for the production of transformable A. placenta protoplasts using an optimized protocol based on the response surface method (RSM). Critical parameters for protoplast production were modelled by using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) involving 3 levels of 3 variables that was subsequently tested to verify its ability to predict protoplast production (R(2) = 0.9465). The optimized conditions resulted in the highest yield of protoplasts ((4.41 ± 0.02) × 10(7) cells/mL of culture, mean ± SE) when fungal cells were treated with 26.1 mg/mL of lywallzyme for 4 h of digestion, and subsequently allowed to recover for 64.6 h in 0.7 mol/L NaCl-Tris buffer. The latter was used as an osmotic stabilizer. The yield of protoplasts was approximately 10-fold higher than that of the nonoptimized conditions. Generated protoplasts were transformed with vector PbarGPE containing the bar gene as the selection marker. Transformation efficiency was 300 colonies/(μg DNA·10(7) protoplasts), and integration of the vector DNA was confirmed by PCR. The results show that rational design strategies (RSM and BBD methods) are useful to increase the production of fungal protoplasts for a variety of downstream applications. PMID:27192440

  7. A case of placenta increta mimicking submucous leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Ali; Polat, Ibrahim; Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Aydiner, Burchan; Ozdemir, Cagdas; Arslan, Hilal Serap

    2014-01-01

    In recent years with the increase in cesarean section rates, the frequency of placenta accreta cases rises. It causes 33-50% of all emergency peripartum hysterectomies. We present a 42-year-old case who was caught with early postpartum hemorrhage due to retained placental products. The ultrasonography showed a 65 × 84 mm mass in the uterine cavity after the delivery. Due to presence of early postpartum hemorrhage which needs transfusion, an intervention decision was made. The patient underwent curettage but the mass could not be removed so that placental retention was ruled out. Submucous leiomyoma was made as first-prediagnosis. Hysterectomy operation was performed as a curative treatment. Placenta increta diagnosis was made as a final diagnosis with pathological examination. As a result, placental attachment disorders may be overlooked if it is not a placenta previa case. PMID:25544918

  8. A Case of Placenta Increta Mimicking Submucous Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Ibrahim; Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Aydiner, Burchan; Ozdemir, Cagdas; Arslan, Hilal Serap

    2014-01-01

    In recent years with the increase in cesarean section rates, the frequency of placenta accreta cases rises. It causes 33–50% of all emergency peripartum hysterectomies. We present a 42-year-old case who was caught with early postpartum hemorrhage due to retained placental products. The ultrasonography showed a 65 × 84 mm mass in the uterine cavity after the delivery. Due to presence of early postpartum hemorrhage which needs transfusion, an intervention decision was made. The patient underwent curettage but the mass could not be removed so that placental retention was ruled out. Submucous leiomyoma was made as first-prediagnosis. Hysterectomy operation was performed as a curative treatment. Placenta increta diagnosis was made as a final diagnosis with pathological examination. As a result, placental attachment disorders may be overlooked if it is not a placenta previa case. PMID:25544918

  9. Pregnancy hemoperitoneum and placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure

    SciTech Connect

    Pridjian, G.; Rich, N.E.; Montag, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation has never been described. Reported is a case of placenta percreta with hemoperitoneum associated with a second-trimester incomplete abortion in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure.

  10. Advanced MR Imaging of the Placenta: Exploring the in utero placenta-brain connection

    PubMed Central

    Andescavage, Nickie Niforatos; DuPlessis, Adre; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is a vital organ necessary for the healthy neurodevelopment of the fetus. Despite the known associations between placental dysfunction and neurologic impairment, there is a paucity of tools available to reliably assess in vivo placental health and function. Existing clinical tools for placental assessment remain insensitive in predicting and assessing placental well-being. Advanced MRI techniques hold significant promise for the dynamic, non-invasive, real-time assessment of placental health and identification of early placental-based disorders. In this review, we summarize the available clinical tools for placental assessment including ultrasound, Doppler, and conventional MRI. We then explore the emerging role of advanced placental MR imaging techniques for supporting the developing fetus, appraise the strengths and limitations of quantitative MRI in identifying early markers of placental dysfunction for improved pregnancy monitoring and fetal outcomes. PMID:25765905

  11. Effects of chemotherapy during pregnancy on the placenta.

    PubMed

    Abellar, Rosanna G; Pepperell, John R; Greco, David; Gundogan, Fusun; Kostadinov, Stefan; Schwartz, Joanna; Tantravahi, Umadevi; De Paepe, Monique E

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the effects of chemotherapy during pregnancy for mother and fetus are well described, its effects on the placenta remain largely undetermined. We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of the placenta following chemotherapy. Charts were reviewed for type of malignancy, type and timing of chemotherapy, and fetal and pregnancy outcome. Placentas were studied by standard pathologic analysis as well as computer-assisted morphometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Patients (n = 13) underwent chemotherapy during pregnancy for carcinoma of breast (3), ovary (2), cervix (2), salivary gland (1), lymphoma/leukemia (4), or rhabdomyosarcoma (1). Eleven patients were treated with DNA-active cytotoxic agents during the 2nd and/or 3rd trimesters; their placentas showed nonspecific findings, including villous hypermaturity, distal villous hypoplasia, villous edema, and excessive extravillous trophoblast, and 4/11 (36%) were small-for-age. In one case (rhabdomyosarcoma), the mother was exposed to cytotoxic agents throughout the entire pregnancy. In this case, associated with severe congenital anomalies, the placenta showed striking nuclear pleomorphism of the extravillous trophoblast of the chorion laeve, associated with FISH-demonstrated hyperpolyploidy. One patient was treated with the targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, in 2 consecutive pregnancies; these placentas showed no specific anomalies. Our findings suggest that chemotherapy during the 1st trimester induces excessive polyploidization of the chorion laeve trophoblast, likely representing an adaptive response to intraamniotic toxins. Second and 3rd trimester exposure to cytotoxic agents may predispose to placental underdevelopment. However, without appropriate controls (untreated patients with equivalent malignancies), the specific effects of chemotherapy in this group are difficult to assess. PMID:18462010

  12. Conservative multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta following in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong Yun; Won, Hye-Sung; Lee, Pil Ryang; Kim, Ahm

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is an extremely rare and the most severe form of placental invasion, that is associated with severe maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a case of nulliparous woman who underwent 10 cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) without any known risk factors. We conserved her uterus by spontaneous vaginal delivery, leaving the placenta in situ, pelvic arterial embolization, and primary resection of the remaining placental tissues. This case demonstrates that repetitive IVF is a possible risk factor for placental invasion, and that conservation of the uterus can be achieved in such cases using a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24328001

  13. Implantation and the placenta: Key pieces of the development puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.C.; Werb, Z.; Fisher, S.J.

    1994-12-02

    The mammalian embryo cannot develop without the placenta. Its specialized cells (trophoblast, endoderm, and extraembryonic mesoderm) form early in development. They attach the embryo to the uterus (implantation) and form vascular connections necessary for nutrient transport. In addition, the placenta redirects maternal endocrine, immune, and metabolic functions to the embryo`s advantage. These complex activities are sensitive to disruption, as shown by the high incidence of early embryonic mortality and pregnancy diseases in humans, as well as the numerous peri-implantation lethal mutations in mice. Integration of molecular and developmental approaches has recently produced insights into the molecules that control these processes.

  14. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyman, A.; Gabriel, C.; Benedickter, H. R.; Fröhlich, J.

    2011-04-01

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 °C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields.

  15. Comparison Between Monochorionic and Dichorionic Placentas With Special Attention to Vascular Anastomoses and Placental Share.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Depeng; Lipa, Michal; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Cohen, Danielle; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    Placental vascular anastomoses in twins lead to a shared circulation and may subsequently enable the development of severe complications such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS). The presence of vascular anastomoses has frequently and systematically been studied in monochorionic (MC) placentas, but only rarely in dichorionic (DC) placentas. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of vascular anastomoses and evaluate the sharing discordance in MC and DC placentas. All consecutive placentas of MC and DC twins delivered at the Leiden University Medical Center (the Netherlands) and Medical University of Warsaw (Poland) from 2012 to 2015 were routinely injected with colored dye and included in the study. We excluded twin pregnancies treated with fetoscopic laser surgery. A total of 258 placentas were analyzed in this study, including 134 MC placentas and 124 DC placentas. Vascular anastomoses were present in 99% (133/134) of MC placentas and 0% of DC placentas (p < .01). Placental share discordance between MC twins was significantly larger compared to DC twins, 19.8 (interquartile range [IQR] 8.1-33.3) and 10.8 (IQR 6.2-19.0), respectively (p < .01). Vascular anastomoses associated complications occurred in 16% (22/134) MC twins. Our findings show that vascular anastomoses are almost ubiquitous in MC placentas, but non-existent in DC placentas. In addition, unequal placental sharing appears to be more common in MC than in DC placentas. PMID:27068823

  16. Pervasive polymorphic imprinted methylation in the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Courtney W.; Peñaherrera, Maria S.; Saadeh, Heba; Andrews, Simon; McFadden, Deborah E.; Kelsey, Gavin; Robinson, Wendy P.

    2016-01-01

    The maternal and paternal copies of the genome are both required for mammalian development, and this is primarily due to imprinted genes, those that are monoallelically expressed based on parent-of-origin. Typically, this pattern of expression is regulated by differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that are established in the germline and maintained after fertilization. There are a large number of germline DMRs that have not yet been associated with imprinting, and their function in development is unknown. In this study, we developed a genome-wide approach to identify novel imprinted DMRs in the human placenta and investigated the dynamics of these imprinted DMRs during development in somatic and extraembryonic tissues. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in 134 human tissue samples, publicly available reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in the human embryo and germ cells, and targeted bisulfite sequencing in term placentas. Forty-three known and 101 novel imprinted DMRs were identified in the human placenta by comparing methylation between diandric and digynic triploid conceptions in addition to female and male gametes. Seventy-two novel DMRs showed a pattern consistent with placental-specific imprinting, and this monoallelic methylation was entirely maternal in origin. Strikingly, these DMRs exhibited polymorphic imprinted methylation between placental samples. These data suggest that imprinting in human development is far more extensive and dynamic than previously reported and that the placenta preferentially maintains maternal germline-derived DNA methylation. PMID:26769960

  17. Epidemiology, Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Garmi, Gali; Salim, Raed

    2012-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a severe pregnancy complication and is currently the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. It is becoming an increasingly common complication mainly due to the increasing rate of cesarean delivery. Main risk factor for placenta accreta is a previous cesarean delivery particularly when accompanied with a coexisting placenta previa. Antenatal diagnosis seems to be a key factor in optimizing maternal outcome. Diagnosis can be achieved by ultrasound in the majority of cases. Women with placenta accreta are usually delivered by a cesarean section. In order to avoid an emergency cesarean and to minimize complications of prematurity it is acceptable to schedule cesarean at 34 to 35 weeks. A multidisciplinary team approach and delivery at a center with adequate resources, including those for massive transfusion are both essential to reduce neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The optimal management after delivery of the neonate is vague since randomized controlled trials and large cohort studies are lacking. Cesarean hysterectomy is probably the preferable treatment. In carefully selected cases, when fertility is desired, conservative management may be considered with caution. The current review discusses the epidemiology, predisposing factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, clinical implications and management options of this condition. PMID:22645616

  18. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Robert; Gläser, Marcus; Göhner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Hofmann, Andreas; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ≈10-8 Am2) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100-150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  19. Can we make the pig placenta work better?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of piglets born alive at each parity contributes to the efficiency of swine production. Moreover, piglet birth weights affect both survival to weaning and future growth rate. Litter size and birth weight are influenced by placental function. The pig placenta is classified as diffuse epith...

  20. Microsomal and lysosomal enzymes of triacylglycerol metabolism in rat placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, R A; Haynes, E B

    1984-01-01

    The placenta plays a major role in transporting lipid to the developing foetus. Since previous studies have suggested that placental lipid transport involves intermediate esterification steps, we investigated selected microsomal and lysosomal enzymes of triacylglycerol metabolism in rat placenta. Between gestational days 10 and 14, microsomal phosphatidic acid phosphatase specific activity was 6-fold greater than the activity in adult rat liver. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity decreased 50% on day 15. Studies employing several different phosphorylated substrates indicated a high degree of substrate specificity. Lysosomal triacylglycerol lipase and cholesterol esterase activities decreased about 50% between days 15 and 18, then rose late in gestation. No changes were observed in the specific activities of fatty acid: CoA ligase, glycerolphosphate acyltransferase, lysophosphatidate acyltransferase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase or diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase during the final 12 days of gestation. Kinetic observations (competitive inhibition by alternative substrates, pH-dependence and thermal inactivation) were consistent with the hypothesis that glycerol phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be acylated by a single microsomal enzyme in placenta. Except for fatty acid: CoA ligase, the activities of microsomal and lysosomal enzymes of triacylglycerol metabolism were comparable with those in adult rat liver. These observations are consistent with physiological studies suggesting that triacylglycerol synthetic and degradative pathways are very active in rat placenta. PMID:6696738

  1. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    PubMed

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  2. Stress state and strain rate dependence of the human placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal trauma (MT) in automotive collisions is a source of injury, morbidity, and mortality for both mothers and fetuses. The primary associated pathology is placental abruption in which the placenta detaches from the uterus leading to hemorrhaging and termination of pregnancy. In this study, we f...

  3. Pervasive polymorphic imprinted methylation in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Courtney W; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Saadeh, Heba; Andrews, Simon; McFadden, Deborah E; Kelsey, Gavin; Robinson, Wendy P

    2016-06-01

    The maternal and paternal copies of the genome are both required for mammalian development, and this is primarily due to imprinted genes, those that are monoallelically expressed based on parent-of-origin. Typically, this pattern of expression is regulated by differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that are established in the germline and maintained after fertilization. There are a large number of germline DMRs that have not yet been associated with imprinting, and their function in development is unknown. In this study, we developed a genome-wide approach to identify novel imprinted DMRs in the human placenta and investigated the dynamics of these imprinted DMRs during development in somatic and extraembryonic tissues. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in 134 human tissue samples, publicly available reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in the human embryo and germ cells, and targeted bisulfite sequencing in term placentas. Forty-three known and 101 novel imprinted DMRs were identified in the human placenta by comparing methylation between diandric and digynic triploid conceptions in addition to female and male gametes. Seventy-two novel DMRs showed a pattern consistent with placental-specific imprinting, and this monoallelic methylation was entirely maternal in origin. Strikingly, these DMRs exhibited polymorphic imprinted methylation between placental samples. These data suggest that imprinting in human development is far more extensive and dynamic than previously reported and that the placenta preferentially maintains maternal germline-derived DNA methylation. PMID:26769960

  4. Antepartum embolization in management of labor induction in placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Huang, L L; Tang, H; Awale, R; Zeng, Z S; Li, F R; Chen, Y

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 29-year-old woman, gravid 2 para 1, who experienced complete placenta previa and underwent vaginal delivery, after performing antepartum uterine artery embolization and rivanol amniotic injection due to contraindication of obstetric surgery. In this case, treatment was successful despite thromboembolism. Hypercoagulability in pregnancy needs to be addressed. PMID:24283189

  5. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G.; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A.; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F.; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  6. Placenta accreta: spectrum of US and MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Baughman, W Christopher; Corteville, Jane E; Shah, Rajiv R

    2008-01-01

    Placenta accreta (PA) encompasses various types of abnormal placentation in which chorionic villi attach directly to or invade the myometrium. PA is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and is now the most common reason for emergent postpartum hysterectomy. Its prevalence has risen tenfold in the United States over the past 50 years, primarily due to the increasing percentage of pregnant patients undergoing primary and repeat cesarean sections. Placenta previa and previous cesarean section are the two most important known risk factors for PA. Accurate prenatal identification of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Ultrasonography (US) remains the diagnostic standard, and routine US examination at 18-20 weeks gestation affords an ideal opportunity to screen for the disorder. Placental lacunae and abnormal color Doppler imaging patterns are the most helpful US markers for PA. In recent years, there has been increased interest in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the evaluation of PA, since it can provide information on depth of invasion and more clearly depict posterior placentas. The most reliable MR imaging findings are uterine bulging, heterogeneous placenta, and placental bands. Focal interruptions in the hypointense myometrial border may also be helpful. PA is a clinical and diagnostic challenge that is being encountered with increasing frequency. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical issues, risk factors, and imaging findings associated with PA to facilitate optimal case management. PMID:19001647

  7. Retained placenta accreta after a first-trimester abortion manifesting as an uterine mass.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soyi; Ha, Seung-Yeon; Lee, Kwang-Beom; Lee, Ji-Sung

    2013-05-01

    Placenta accreta during the first trimester of pregnancy is rare. Only a few cases of placenta accreta manifesting as a uterine mass have been published. Most patients with placenta accreta present with vaginal bleeding during or after pregnancy. This report describes a patient with placenta accreta that caused vaginal bleeding three years after a first trimester abortion. The patient had regular menstruation for three years after the abortion. Initially endometrial cancer or a uterine myoma with degeneration was suspected. This is the first report of a placenta accreta detected as a uterine mass long after a first trimester abortion with delayed vaginal bleeding. PMID:24328004

  8. Functional imaging of the human placenta with magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Siauve, Nathalie; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Deloison, Benjamin; Alison, Marianne; Clement, Olivier; Ville, Yves; Salomon, Laurent J

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal placentation is responsible for most failures in pregnancy; however, an understanding of placental functions remains largely concealed from noninvasive, in vivo investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is safe in pregnancy for magnetic fields of up to 3 Tesla and is being used increasingly to improve the accuracy of prenatal imaging. Functional MRI (fMRI) of the placenta has not yet been validated in a clinical setting, and most data are derived from animal studies. FMRI could be used to further explore placental functions that are related to vascularization, oxygenation, and metabolism in human pregnancies by the use of various enhancement processes. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is best able to quantify placental perfusion, permeability, and blood volume fractions. However, the transplacental passage of Gadolinium-based contrast agents represents a significant safety concern for this procedure in humans. There are alternative contrast agents that may be safer in pregnancy or that do not cross the placenta. Arterial spin labeling MRI relies on magnetically labeled water to quantify the blood flows within the placenta. A disadvantage of this technique is a poorer signal-to-noise ratio. Based on arterial spin labeling, placental perfusion in normal pregnancy is 176 ± 91 mL × min(-1) × 100 g(-1) and decreases in cases with intrauterine growth restriction. Blood oxygen level-dependent and oxygen-enhanced MRIs do not assess perfusion but measure the response of the placenta to changes in oxygen levels with the use of hemoglobin as an endogenous contrast agent. Diffusion-weighted imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion MRI do not require exogenous contrast agents, instead they use the movement of water molecules within tissues. The apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction are significantly lower in placentas of growth-restricted fetuses when compared with normal pregnancies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the ability to extract

  9. [Placenta and preeclampsia: relationships between anatomical lesions and clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Marcorelles, P

    2010-03-01

    The histopathological examination of the placenta is part of the investigational workout since it is a convenient method of examining the central organ involved in the disease process. Characteristic lesions are the vascular placental lesions, and even though their discovery is neither necessary nor specific, they become all the more suggestive of the disease as they are found to be numerous. These vascular lesions are characterized by a microscopic involvement of the basal layer also termed atherosis, associated with uteroplacental artery displasia and its consequences: Infarction, retroplacental haematoma plus all other microscopic injuries of the placenta. These are mainly found in the severe forms of the disease and are usually associated with a placental underdevelopment and IUGR. PMID:20338716

  10. Uterine artery suture: a preventive approach for pernicious placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoe; Wang, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Pernicious placenta previa is an obstetric complication that results in a crisis situation for many patients. Most existing options deal with the problems after delivery leading to unfavorable outcomes. To circumvent this situation, a few preventive simple surgical options have been discussed in this paper. The highlight of the approach is the application of ascending uterine artery suture that drastically reduced the amount of bleeding as compared to that observed in regular surgeries. Combined with the placenta accrete location, wedge resection and 'patch' homeostasis of the serous membrane, the surgical modifications adopted effectively reduced the need for hysterectomy thus preserving the fertility of the patients for the future. Since fetuses were safely removed within 1-2 min, the Apgar scores of the neonates were also largely unaffected. PMID:23949849

  11. Funisitis associated with leptospiral abortion in an equine placenta.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, M; Giles, R; Roberts, J; Poonacha, K; Harrison, L; Donahue, J; Benirschke, K

    2005-09-01

    Funisitis, inflammation of the umbilical cord, is well recognized in human placentas. This report describes a case of funisitis associated with leptospiral infection in the placenta of a Thoroughbred foal born prematurely. The umbilical cord had diffuse superficial yellow discoloration along its entire length. Microscopic evaluation showed an exudate of neutrophils admixed with fibrin on the surface. Warthin-Starry staining showed spirochetes in the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord. A locally extensive, severe placentitis not involving the star and allantoic cystic hyperplasia were the other lesions observed in the allantochorion. Leptospira funisitis is similar to the funisitis of congenital syphilis in humans, although there are some major microscopic differences. In Leptospira funisitis, lesions were limited to the cord surface, whereas in lesions in human umbilical cords with Treponema pallidum infection, the changes are observed mostly around the vessels and in the Wharton's jelly. PMID:16145212

  12. Structure of the definitive placenta of the tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Blankenship, T N; Künzle, H; Enders, A C

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, tenrecs were classified with insectivores in the order Lipotyphla, but nucleotide sequence data suggest they have closer affinities with a group of African mammals called Afrotheria. The placenta of Echinops has not been described and no studies involving electron microscopy of the placenta of any species of tenrec have been published. We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine fixed placentae of embryos ranging from 25-66 mm in length. The placental disk is situated in the antimesometrial portion of the bicornuate uterus. The greater part of the disk consists of a labyrinth underlain by a spongy zone. The interhaemal barrier is unusual in that the trophoblastic component is a single layer of cytotrophoblast. These trophoblast cells have thick areas especially near the nuclei and extensive thin flanges but only occasionally have membrane-closed pore regions. The luminal surface has isolated patches of microvilli, and pinocytotic vesicles are numerous both apically and basally. In the centre of the placental disk is an elaborately folded haemophagous region. The primary folds have allantoic endoderm at one surface and columnar cytotrophoblast at the other. These trophoblast cells have numerous lipid droplets and vesicles, and often contain large yellow pigment crystalloids. The labyrinthine zone ends abruptly at the margins of the placental disk. However, the endoderm and connective tissue of the allantois and a layer of cytotrophoblast extend beyond the placental disk as a paraplacental region. Some of these distinctive features of Echinops placenta are shared with individual afrotherians, but no significant characteristic of definitive placentation is shared by all the Afrotheria. PMID:14972454

  13. A Marked Increase in Obstetric Hysterectomy for Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Yu-Ping; Zheng, Zheng; Tian, Yan; Hu, Ying-Ying; Han, Su-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstetric hysterectomy (OH) as a lifesaving measure to manage uncontrolled uterine hemorrhage appears to be increasing recently. The objective of this study was to determine the etiology and changing trends of OH and to identify those at particular risk of OH to enhance the early involvement of multidisciplinary intensive care. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in patients who had OH in China-Japan Friendship Hospital from 2004 to 2014. Maternal characteristics, preoperative evaluation, operative reports, and prenatal outcomes were studied in detail. Results: There were 19 cases of OH among a total of 18,838 deliveries. Comparing the study periods between 2004–2010 and 2011–2014, OH increased from 0.8/1000 (10/12,890) to 1.5/1000 (9/5948). Indications for OH have changed significantly during this study period with uterine atony decreasing from 50.0% (5/10) to 11.1% (1/9) (P < 0.05), and placenta accreta as the indication for OH has increased significantly from 20.0% (2/10) to 77.8% (7/9) (P < 0.05). Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to make an exact antepartum diagnosis of placenta accreta. A multidisciplinary management led to improved outcomes for patients with placenta accreta. Conclusion: As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen, there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta. An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography, and MRI, and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients’ safety and outcome. PMID:26265612

  14. Obstetric and perinatal complications in placentas with fetal thrombotic vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Saleemuddin, Aasia; Tantbirojn, Patou; Sirois, Kathleen; Crum, Christopher P; Boyd, Theonia K; Tworoger, Shelley; Parast, Mana M

    2010-01-01

    Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) is a placental lesion characterized by regionally distributed avascular villi and is often accompanied by upstream thrombosis in placental fetal vessels. Previous studies, using preselected populations, have shown associations of this lesion with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and potentially obstructive lesions of the umbilical cord. We investigated the prevalence of obstetric complications, perinatal disease, and placental abnormalities in cases with FTV. One hundred thirteen cases of placentas with FTV were identified in our pathology database over an 18-year period. Two hundred sixteen placentas without the diagnosis of FTV, frequency matched on year of birth, were selected as controls. Electronic medical records and pathology reports were used to extract maternal and gestational age, method of delivery, neonatal outcome, lesions of the umbilical cord, obstetric complications, and fetal abnormalities. Placentas with FTV were associated with a 9-fold increase in rate of stillbirth and a 2-fold increase in intrauterine growth restriction. The increase in pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia was not significant when adjusted for maternal and gestational age. Although the rate of potentially obstructive cord lesions was similar in both groups, there was an almost 6-fold increase in the presence of oligohydramnios in FTV placentas, compared with controls. Finally, FTV was associated with a 6-fold increase in fetal cardiac abnormalities. Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy is associated with a significantly higher rate of obstetric and perinatal complications. This study points to abnormal fetal circulation, either in the form of congenital heart disease or oligohydramnios predisposing to cord compression, as a risk factor for FTV. PMID:20438299

  15. Expression of natural antimicrobials by human placenta and fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    King, A E; Paltoo, A; Kelly, R W; Sallenave, J-M; Bocking, A D; Challis, J R G

    2007-01-01

    Preterm birth associated with infection is a major clinical problem. We hypothesized that this condition is associated with altered expression of natural antimicrobial molecules (beta-defensins (HBD), elafin). Therefore, we examined expression of these molecules and their regulation by proinflammatory cytokines in placentae and fetal membranes from term pregnancy. HBD1-3 and elafin were localized by immunohistochemistry in fetal membranes and placenta. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine mRNA expression in primary trophoblast cells treated with inflammatory molecules. HBD1-3 and elafin were immunolocalized to placental and chorion trophoblast layers of fetal membranes and placenta. Immunoreactivity was also observed in amnion epithelium and decidua. No differences were noted between samples from women who were not in labour compared to those in active labour. In in vitro cultures of primary trophoblast cells, HBD2 and elafin mRNA expression was upregulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1beta. These results suggest that the chorion and placental trophoblast layers may be key barriers to the progression of infection in the pregnant uterus. Natural antimicrobial expression may be altered in response to inflammatory mediator expression associated with the onset of labour and/or uterine infection, providing increased protection when the uterus may be particularly susceptible to infection. PMID:16513165

  16. Artificial placenta: Recent advances and potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Metelo-Coimbra, Catarina; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Lung immaturity remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in extremely premature infants. Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation, the method of choice for respiratory support in premature infants, frequently promotes by itself lung injury and a negative impact in the circulatory function. Extracorporeal lung support has been proposed for more than 50 years as a potential alternative to mechanical ventilation in the treatment of severe respiratory failure of extremely premature infants. Recent advances in this field included the development of miniaturized centrifugal pumps and polymethylpentene oxygenators, as well as the successful use of pump-assisted veno-venous extracorporeal gas exchange systems in experimental artificial placenta models. This review, which includes studies published from 1958 to 2015, presents an update on the artificial placenta concept and its potential clinical applications. Special focus will be devoted to the milestones achieved so far and to the limitations that must be overcome before its clinical application. Notwithstanding, the artificial placenta stands as a promising alternative to mechanical ventilation in extremely premature infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:643-649. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26915478

  17. Downregulation of Mitofusin 2 in Placenta Is Related to Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Guo, Xijiao; Chen, Ruibao; Feng, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a novel mitochondrial protein that is implicated in cellular proliferation and metabolism; however, the role of Mfn2 in preeclampsia (PE) remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the relationship between Mfn2 and PE. Method. Preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were enrolled in a comparative study. The expression of Mfn2 in placenta was detected by qRT-PCR. And the mitochondrial function was detected by ATP assay. Then TEV-1 cells were cultured in hypoxic conditions. mRNA and protein expressions of Mfn2 were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot separately. Cells' viability was detected by MTT. And the mitochondrial function was detected by ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. We further knocked down the Mfn2 gene in TEV-1 cells and evaluated the cells' viability. Results. Mfn2 and ATP expressions were significantly decreased in preeclamptic placentae compared to normal placentae. Mfn2 expression level and the viability of TEV-1 cells were reduced during hypoxic conditions. TEV-1 cells' viability, ATP, and MMP levels were also significantly decreased after knockdown of the Mfn2 gene. Conclusions. These results suggest that defects in Mfn2 could cause mitochondrial dysfunction and decrease trophoblastic cells' viability. Therefore, Mfn2 may be functionally involved in the pathogenesis of PE. PMID:26942197

  18. Maternal diabetes impairs oxidative and inflammatory response in murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Saad, Mohamed I; Abdelkhalek, Taha M; Saleh, Moustafa M; Haiba, Maha M; Tawfik, Shady H; Kamel, Maher A

    2016-01-01

    Placenta is the major exchange surface between mother and fetus and plays a pivotal role in fetal development. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which diabetes alters placental function may allow better management of diabetes pregnancies. In this study, we attempt to investigate the effect of diabetic milieu with and without malformation on placental function. In order to investigate the impact of diabetic pregnancy on oxidative stress, endothelial and vascular functions of placental tissue, we mated diabetic and non-diabetic female rats with normal male rats. At gestational day 17, we terminated pregnancy, assessed fetuses for malformations and isolated placenta for measurement of various parameters of placental function. Our results show that maternal diabetes induced a state of oxidative stress in placenta, which disrupts normal signaling, activating apoptosis, as well as perturbing endothelial and vascular placental functions. The coalescence of these insults on various levels of placental function could contribute to the pleiotropic nature of diabetes-induced placental stress. PMID:27186496

  19. Stress state and strain rate dependence of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Weed, Benjamin C; Borazjani, Ali; Patnaik, Sourav S; Prabhu, R; Horstemeyer, M F; Ryan, Peter L; Franz, Thomas; Williams, Lakiesha N; Liao, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Maternal trauma (MT) in automotive collisions is a source of injury, morbidity, and mortality for both mothers and fetuses. The primary associated pathology is placental abruption in which the placenta detaches from the uterus leading to hemorrhaging and termination of pregnancy. In this study, we focused on the differences in placental tissue response to different stress states (tension, compression, and shear) and different strain rates. Human placentas were obtained (n = 11) for mechanical testing and microstructure analysis. Specimens (n = 4+) were tested in compression, tension, and shear, each at three strain rates (nine testing protocols). Microstructure analysis included scanning electron microscopy, histology, and interrupted mechanical tests to observe tissue response to various loading states. Our data showed the greatest stiffness in tension, followed by compression, and then by shear. The study concludes that mechanical behavior of human placenta tissue (i) has a strong stress state dependence and (ii) behaves in a rate dependent manner in all three stress states, which had previously only been shown in tension. Interrupted mechanical tests revealed differences in the morphological microstructure evolution that was driven by the kinematic constraints from the different loading states. Furthermore, these structure-property data can be used to develop high fidelity constitutive models for MT simulations. PMID:22581478

  20. Comprehensive Imaging Review of Abnormalities of the Placenta.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Sadaf F; Moshiri, Mariam; Osman, Sherif; Robinson, Tracy J; Siebert, Joseph R; Bhargava, Puneet; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-03-01

    The placenta has a fundamental role in fetal health and functions as an important bridge to normal fetal development throughout pregnancy. A complete fetal ultrasound (US) survey should include full assessment of the placenta for any possible abnormalities. Placental diseases range from abnormal morphology, size, location, extent, and degree of placentation, to abruption and the presence of rare placental neoplasms of benign or malignant nature. Some of these conditions are associated with other diseases including aneuploidies, and their discovery should alert the radiologist to perform a very thorough fetal US examination. At times, a fetal karyotype may be needed to provide additional information. Timely detection of placental abnormalities can alert the clinician regarding the need to make important management decisions to reduce fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Familiarity with the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the placenta is therefore necessary for the radiologist. Ultrasound with Doppler is the initial imaging modality of choice for placental assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging serves as a problem-solving examination in instances where the US findings are equivocal or where additional information is needed. Computed tomography has a limited role in the evaluation of placental disease because of its relatively limited tissue characterization and in particular because of the resultant direct radiation exposure of the fetus. However, in specific instances, particularly after trauma, computed tomography can provide invaluable information for patient management. PMID:26938032

  1. Downregulation of Mitofusin 2 in Placenta Is Related to Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun; Guo, Xijiao; Chen, Ruibao; Feng, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a novel mitochondrial protein that is implicated in cellular proliferation and metabolism; however, the role of Mfn2 in preeclampsia (PE) remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the relationship between Mfn2 and PE. Method. Preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were enrolled in a comparative study. The expression of Mfn2 in placenta was detected by qRT-PCR. And the mitochondrial function was detected by ATP assay. Then TEV-1 cells were cultured in hypoxic conditions. mRNA and protein expressions of Mfn2 were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot separately. Cells' viability was detected by MTT. And the mitochondrial function was detected by ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. We further knocked down the Mfn2 gene in TEV-1 cells and evaluated the cells' viability. Results. Mfn2 and ATP expressions were significantly decreased in preeclamptic placentae compared to normal placentae. Mfn2 expression level and the viability of TEV-1 cells were reduced during hypoxic conditions. TEV-1 cells' viability, ATP, and MMP levels were also significantly decreased after knockdown of the Mfn2 gene. Conclusions. These results suggest that defects in Mfn2 could cause mitochondrial dysfunction and decrease trophoblastic cells' viability. Therefore, Mfn2 may be functionally involved in the pathogenesis of PE. PMID:26942197

  2. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  3. Purification and characterization of the human interferon-. gamma. receptor from placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, J.; Sheehan, K.C.F.; Chance, C.; Thomas, M.L.; Schreiber, R.D. )

    1988-07-01

    Purification of the human interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) receptor was facilitated by identification of human placenta as a large-scale receptor source. When analyzed in radioligand binding experiments, intact placental membranes and detergent-solubilized membrane proteins expressed 1.3 and 5.9 {times} 10{sup 12} receptors per mg of protein, respectively, values that were 13-163 times greater than that observed for U937 membranes. Two protocols were followed to purify the IFN-{gamma} receptor from octyl glucoside-solubilized membranes: (i) sequential affinity chromatography over wheat germ agglutinin- and INF-{gamma}-Sepharose and (ii) affinity chromatography over columns containing receptor-specific monoclonal antibody and wheat germ agglutinin. Both procedures resulted in fully active preparations that were 70-90% pure. Purified receptor migrated as a single molecular species of 90 kDa either when analyzed on silver-stained NaDodSO{sub 4}/polyacrylamide gels or when subjected to electrophoretic transfer blot analysis using a labeled IFN-{gamma} receptor-specific monoclonal antibody. The identity of the 90-kDa component as the receptor was confirmed by demonstrating its ability to specifically bind {sup 125}I-labeled IFN-{gamma} following NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose. The ligand binding site, the epitope for the receptor-specific monoclonal antibody, and all of the N-linked carbohydrate could be localized to the 55-kDa domain of the molecule.

  4. Effects of cadmium of the human placenta in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wier, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Human placental lobules (25 g) were maintained in vitro for 12 hours by dual perfusion of the fetal vessels and intervillous space (maternal circulation). A synthetic tissue culture medium was used for the perfusates. Maternal perfusate was gassed with 95% O/sub 2//5% CO/sub 2/; fetal perfusate was gassed with 95% N/sub 2//5% CO/sub 2/. Both perfusates were recirculated (maternal 15-25 ml/min, fetal 3 ml/min) and exchanged for fresh perfusates every 4 hours. The integrity of the fetal vasculature was demonstrated by the stabilities of fetal arterial pressure (30-36 mm Hg) and circulatory volume (volume loss <2 ml/h). The metabolic viability of the placenta was documented by measurements of oxygen consumption (100-137 umole/min.kg), glucose consumption (133-163 umole/min.kg), and lactate production (163-229 umole/min.kg). Exposure of placenta to 10 nmole Cd/ml maternal perfusate led to accumulation of cadmium (45 nmole Cd/g), yet there was limited movement of cadmium from maternal to fetal circulations. This exposure did not result in significant changes in fetal capillary permeability of resistance, oxygen or glucose consumptions, lactate production, nCg release, transport of AlB by placental slices, or ultrastructure. Transfer of zinc from maternal to fetal circulations did not appear to be reduced. Exposure of perfused placenta to 100 nmole Cd/ml maternal perfusate resulted in a cadmium burden of 150 nmole Cd/g. This exposure induced syncytiotrophoblast necrosis, increased fetal capillary permeability, and reduced hCG release.

  5. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Cleys, Ellane R; Halleran, Jennifer L; Enriquez, Vanessa A; da Silveira, Juliano C; West, Rachel C; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V; Bruemmer, Jason E; Clay, Colin M; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  6. Lack of permeability of the human placenta for erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Malek, A

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of erythropoietin in fetal blood obtained by cordocentesis or in umbilical cordblood and maternal blood have shown a lack of correlation indicating an independent regulation of EPO concentration in fetal and maternal compartments. There is a good correlation between amniotic fluid EPO concentration in fetal blood levels. Fetal EPO concentration therefore might serve as an indicator of chronic fetal hypoxia with fetal EPO production being responsive to tissue hypoxia early on in pregnancy. The lack of human placental permeability for EPO was further investigated using a dual in vitro perfusion system of an isolated cotyledon in freshly delivered term placentae. With recirculation of both circuits trace amounts of EPO (0.04% of the amount added to the maternal compartment) were transferred to the fetal side during 4-5 hours of perfusion. This transfer is comparable to the rate determined in the same experiments for albumine, and the biological significance of this very slow transfer is questionable. A very low rate of diffusion across the human placenta has also been shown for dextran, horseradish peroxidase and heparin using an in vitro perfusion system. The only exception among macromolecules are immunoglobulines G, which towards the end of pregnancy are transferred by an Fc-receptor mediated transcellular mechanism from the mother to the fetus. It is concluded, that there is no easy exchange of EPO across the human placenta between maternal and fetal compartments. Changes in EPO concentration in the fetal compartment therefore could serve as indicator of fetal hypoxia. A therapeutic application of EPO in the mother for the treatment of chronic anemia would not have any effect on fetal tissues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7658324

  7. Landscape of Transcriptional Deregulations in the Preeclamptic Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, Daniel; Calicchio, Rosamaria; Miralles, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease affecting 5 to 8% of pregnant women and a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Because of a default in the process of implantation, the placenta of preeclamptic women undergoes insufficient vascularization. This results in placental ischemia, inflammation and subsequent release of placental debris and vasoactive factors in the maternal circulation causing a systemic endothelial activation. Several microarray studies have analyzed the transcriptome of the preeclamptic placentas to identify genes which could be involved in placental dysfunction. In this study, we compared the data from publicly available microarray analyses to obtain a consensus list of modified genes. This allowed to identify consistently modified genes in the preeclamptic placenta. Of these, 67 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated. Assuming that changes in the transcription level of co-expressed genes may result from the coordinated action of a limited number of transcription factors, we looked for over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites in the promoters of these genes. Indeed, we found that the promoters of up-regulated genes are enriched in putative binding sites for NFkB, CREB, ANRT, REEB1, SP1, and AP-2. In the promoters of down-regulated genes, the most prevalent putative binding sites are those of MZF-1, NFYA, E2F1 and MEF2A. These transcriptions factors are known to regulate specific biological pathways such as cell responses to inflammation, hypoxia, DNA damage and proliferation. We discuss here the molecular mechanisms of action of these transcription factors and how they can be related to the placental dysfunction in the context of preeclampsia. PMID:23785430

  8. Antenatal diagnosis of chorioangioma of the placenta: MR features

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Takao; Imai, Michiko; Isoda, Haruo

    1996-05-01

    We report a case of chorioangioma of the placenta, in which MR findings were useful in establishing the antenatal diagnosis. Polyhydramnios and a placental tumor that was 5 cm in size were visualized. The tumor had relatively high signal intensities on proton density imaging and T2-weighted imaging and showed partially high intensity signal rims on T1-weighted imaging, especially when using a breath-holding technique. Magnetic resonance imaging has an important role in detection and diagnosis of these lesions, particularly the larger tumors, so that appropriate steps can be taken to deal with the complications that may accompany this tumor. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Kappa-opioid receptor from human placenta: hydrodynamic characteristics and evidence for its association with a G protein

    SciTech Connect

    Porthe, G.; Frances, B.; Verrier, B.; Cros, J.; Meunier J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The kappa nature of opioid binding sites in a brush border membrane (BBM) fraction from human placenta has been confirmed: these sites display considerably higher apparent affinity for the kappa selective ligand U-50488 than they do for the ..mu.. and delta selective ligands enkephalin and enkephalyl-Thr, respectively. Two lines of evidence indicated that the placental kappa opioid receptor is capable of interacting with a guanine nucleotide regulatory (G) protein: (i) equilibrium binding of the angonist /sup 3/H-etorphine in the BBM fraction was clearly inhibited by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p), especially in the presence of Na/sup +/ ions while binding of the antagonist /sup 3/H-diprenorphine was significantly less so and (ii) the sedimentation velocity of the kappa opioid receptor was decreased down to about 10 S when the BBM fraction was prelabeled with radioligand in the presence of Gpp(NH)p prior to its solubilization with digitonin. The G protein that mediates the effect of Gpp(NH)p might be neither G/sub s/ nor G/sub i/ since no adenylate cyclase activity could be demonstrated in the BBM fraction from human placenta.

  10. A polyphasic taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from equine placentas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Actinomycete strains isolated from lesions on equine placentas were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic identification. All of the strains were isolated from placentas from horses in Kentucky. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, morphological observations, and the presence o...

  11. Listeria monocytogenes Traffics from Maternal Organs to the Placenta and Back

    PubMed Central

    Bakardjiev, Anna I; Theriot, Julie A; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2006-01-01

    Infection with Listeria monocytogenes is a significant health problem during pregnancy. This study evaluates the role of trafficking between maternal organs and placenta in a pregnant guinea pig model of listeriosis. After intravenous inoculation of guinea pigs, the initial ratio of bacteria in maternal organs to placenta was 103–104:1. Rapid increase of bacteria in the placenta changed the ratio to 1:1 after 24 h. Utilizing two wild-type strains, differentially marked by their susceptibility to erythromycin, we found that only a single bacterium was necessary to cause placental infection, and that L. monocytogenes trafficked from maternal organs to the placenta in small numbers. Surprisingly, bacteria trafficked in large numbers from the placenta to maternal organs. Bacterial growth, clearance, and transport between organs were simulated with a mathematical model showing that the rate of bacterial clearance relative to the rate of bacterial replication in the placenta was sufficient to explain the difference in the course of listeriosis in pregnant versus nonpregnant animals. These results provide the basis for a new model where the placenta is relatively protected from infection. Once colonized, the placenta becomes a nidus of infection resulting in massive reseeding of maternal organs, where L. monocytogenes cannot be cleared until trafficking is interrupted by expulsion of the infected placental tissues. PMID:16846254

  12. A pregnant lady with intermittent vaginal bleeding (2007: 3b). Placenta percreta.

    PubMed

    Koo, B C; Sala, E; Hackett, G A; Shaw, A S

    2007-06-01

    Placenta percreta is a potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy, which is increasing in incidence. Ante-natal diagnosis with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging aids the obstetric team in planning further management. We present a case of placenta percreta with imaging and a brief review of the literature. PMID:17426980

  13. Increase in the relative level of type V collagen during development and ageing of the placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Iwahashi, M; Ooshima, A; Nakano, R

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To obtain some insight into the extracellular matrix in the placenta, changes in the composition of collagens during placental development were investigated. METHODS: Collagen was extracted from placentas (group 1, 25-30 weeks, n = 21; group 2, 31-36 weeks, n = 32; and group 3, 37-41 weeks of gestation, n = 40) and the relative concentrations of various collagens were evaluated by SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: The ratio of the intensity of the alpha 1 (III) band to that of alpha 1 (I) chain collagen in group 3 placentas were lower than those in group 1 placentas. In contrast, the ratio of the intensity of the alpha 1 (V) band to that of alpha 1 (I) chain collagen in group 3 placentas were higher than those in group 1 and group 2 placentas. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that type V collagen might play an important role in the function of the placenta and that an increased relative concentration of type V collagen might be closely associated with the development and ageing of the placenta. Images PMID:8944612

  14. Balloon Occlusion of the Hypogastric Arteries in the Management of Placenta Accreta: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Knuttinen, Martha Gracia; Jani, Aarti; Gaba, Ron C.; Bui, James T.; Carrillo, Tami C.

    2012-01-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage from placenta accreta is associated with a high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, balloon occlusion catheters have been used to control intraoperative bleeding during the surgical management of placenta accreta. In this article, we present a review of the literature reporting the use of balloon occlusion catheters in the management of placenta accrete, and a case presentation outlining the use of a Fogarty balloon occlusion catheter to achieve hemostasis in the preoperative management of placenta percreta. PMID:23997407

  15. Balloon occlusion of the hypogastric arteries in the management of placenta accreta: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Knuttinen, Martha Gracia; Jani, Aarti; Gaba, Ron C; Bui, James T; Carrillo, Tami C

    2012-09-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage from placenta accreta is associated with a high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, balloon occlusion catheters have been used to control intraoperative bleeding during the surgical management of placenta accreta. In this article, we present a review of the literature reporting the use of balloon occlusion catheters in the management of placenta accrete, and a case presentation outlining the use of a Fogarty balloon occlusion catheter to achieve hemostasis in the preoperative management of placenta percreta. PMID:23997407

  16. Utility of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Wadhwa, Leena; Gupta, Taru; Kohli, Supreethi; Chandoke, Rajkumar; Gupta, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Context: Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall and the most common cause for emergency postpartum hysterectomy. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Aims: To summarize our experience in the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta on imaging in a tertiary care setup. To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (USG) with color Doppler (CDUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Settings and Design: Prospective study in a tertiary care setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on pregnant females with high clinical risk of placenta accreta. Antenatal diagnosis was established based on CDUS and MRI. The imaging findings were compared with final diagnosis at the time of delivery and/or pathologic examination. Statistical Analysis Used: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both CDUS and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity values of USG and MRI were compared by the McNemar test. Results: Thirty patients at risk of placenta accreta underwent both CDUS and MRI. Eight cases of placenta accreta were identified (3 vera, 4 increta, and 1 percreta). All patients had history of previous cesarean section. Placenta previa was present in seven out of eight patients. USG correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in seven out of eight patients (87.5% sensitivity) and the absence of placenta accreta in 19 out of 22 patients (86.4% specificity). MRI correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 6 out of 8 patients (75.0% sensitivity) and absence of placenta accreta in 17 out of 22 patients (77.3% specificity). There were no statistical differences in sensitivity (P = 1.00) and specificity (P = 0.687) between USG and MRI. Conclusions: Both USG and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta; however

  17. [MRI evaluation of placenta accreta treated by embolization. Apropos of a case. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Lemercier, E; Genevois, A; Descargue, G; Clavier, E; Benozio, M

    1999-04-01

    Placenta accreta results from an abnormal attachment of the placenta to the uterine myometrium. The reported incidence in literature is variable, with an average of 1/7000 pregnancies. This condition is associated with a significant risk of bleeding at the time of delivery, usually requiring hysterectomy. Sonography associated with color Doppler is useful for diagnosis, but MRI can be used successfully to evaluate the degree of placental tissue invading into the myometrium, the serosa, and for follow-up after conservative management. To our knowledge, only two cases of placenta accreta evaluated with MR and six cases of placenta accreta treated by embolization have been reported in the literature. The authors report one case of placenta accreta treated successfully by embolization, and followed-up by MRI. PMID:10337578

  18. Cloning of a new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL4) expressed in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, D.; Laurent, A.; Janneau, J.L.

    1995-09-20

    A new member of the insulin gene superfamily was identified by screening a subtracted cDNA library of first-trimester human placenta and, hence, was tentatively named early placenta insulin-like peptide (EPIL). In this paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of the EPIL cDNA and the EPIL gene (INSL4). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the early placenta insulin-like peptide revealed significant overall and structural homologies with members of the insulin-like hormone superfamily. Moreover, the organization of the early placenta insulin-like gene, which is composed of two exons and one intron, is similiar to that of insulin and relaxin. By in situ hybridization, the INSL4 gene was assigned to band p24 of the short arm of chromosome 9. RT-PCR analysis of EPIL tissue distribution revealed that its transcripts are expressed in the placenta and uterus. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  19. [Morphofunctional adaptation of the placenta under conditions of natural high-altitude hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Milovanov, A P; Reshetnikova, O S; Borzykh, A N

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-six III trimester placentae from Kirghiz puerperas residents of high-altitude regions (2200-3000 m above the sea level) and 22 such placentae from female residents of the plains (group I and II, respectively) were subjected to ultrasonic placentometry and organo-stereohistometry. Group I placentae appeared to fall behind in thickness on weeks 28, 32 and 36 as well as in development on the last 4 weeks which is coupled with synchronous reduction of weight of mature newborns and relevant placentae. Enhanced morphofunctional activity, excessive vasculature of villous network, increased epithelial volume of the villi and vascular-syncytial membranes, intensive growth of separate cotyledons were characteristic for placentae exposed to high-altitude factors, which also bore the signs of dysadaptation manifesting with more frequent infarctions, adherent villi, hemorrhages. PMID:3060048

  20. The placenta: the forgotten essential organ of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Fleming, Mark D

    2016-07-01

    Optimal iron nutrition in utero is essential for development of the fetus and helps establish birth iron stores adequate to sustain growth in early infancy. In species with hemochorial placentas, such as humans and rodents, iron in the maternal circulation is transferred to the fetus by directly contacting placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Early kinetic studies provided valuable data on the initial uptake of maternal transferrin, an iron-binding protein, by the placenta. However, the remaining steps of iron trafficking across syncytiotrophoblasts and through the fetal endothelium into the fetal blood remain poorly characterized. Over the last 20 years, identification of transmembrane iron transporters and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin has greatly expanded the knowledge of cellular iron transport and its regulation by systemic iron status. In addition, emerging human and animal data demonstrating comprised fetal iron stores in severe maternal iron deficiency challenge the classic dogma of exclusive fetal control over the transfer process and indicate that maternal and local signals may play a role in regulating this process. This review compiles current data on the kinetic, molecular, and regulatory aspects of placental iron transport and considers new questions and knowledge gaps raised by these advances. PMID:27261274

  1. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo . E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

  2. Glucose metabolism in cultured trophoblasts from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, A.J.; Farmer, D.R.; Nelson, D.M.; Smith, C.H. )

    1990-02-26

    The development of appropriate placental trophoblast isolation and culture techniques enables the study of pathways of glucose utilization by this important cell layer in vitro. Trophoblasts from normal term placentas were isolated and cultured 24 hours and 72 hours in uncoated polystyrene culture tubes or tubes previously coated with a fibrin matrix. Trophoblasts cultured on fibrin are morphologically distinct from those cultured on plastic or other matrices and generally resemble in vivo syncytium. Cells were incubated up to 3 hours with {sup 14}C-labeled glucose and reactions were stopped by addition of perchloric acid. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production by trophoblasts increased linearly with time however the largest accumulation of label was in organic acids. Trophoblasts cultured in absence of fibrin utilized more glucose and accumulated more {sup 14}C in metabolic products compared to cells cultured on fibrin. Glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2} by the phosphogluconate (PG) pathway was estimated from specific yields of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose and (6-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose. Approximately 6% of glucose oxidation was by the PG pathway when cells were cultured on fibrin compared to approximately 1% by cells cultured in the absence of fibrin. The presence of a fibrin growth matrix appears to modulate the metabolism of glucose by trophoblast from human placenta in vitro.

  3. Impaired mitochondrial function in human placenta with increased maternal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Mele, James; Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Maloyan, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The placenta plays a key role in regulation of fetal growth and development and in mediating in utero developmental programming. Obesity, which is associated with chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in many tissues, exerts a programming effect in pregnancy. We determined the effect of increasing maternal adiposity and of fetal sex on placental ATP generation, mitochondrial biogenesis, expression of electron transport chain subunits, and mitochondrial function in isolated trophoblasts. Placental tissue was collected from women with prepregnancy BMI ranging from 18.5 to 45 following C-section at term with no labor. Increasing maternal adiposity was associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a significant reduction in placental ATP levels in placentae with male and female fetuses. To explore the potential mechanism of placental mitochondrial dysfunction, levels of transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in electron transport and mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. Our in vitro studies showed significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration in cultured primary trophoblasts with increasing maternal obesity along with an abnormal metabolic flexibility of these cells. This reduction in placental mitochondrial respiration in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity could compromise placental function and potentially underlie the increased susceptibility of these pregnancies to fetal demise in late gestation and to developmental programming. PMID:25028397

  4. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  5. Desmosomes in the uterine epithelium of noninvasive skink placentae.

    PubMed

    Biazik, Joanna M; Thompson, Michael B; Murphy, Christopher R

    2010-03-01

    Australian species of viviparous skinks have noninvasive epitheliochorial placentation where there is no breeching or interruption of the uterine epithelial cell barrier. This is contrary to some African and South American species of skinks which exhibit invading chorionic cells and a localized endotheliochorial placenta. The desmosomes, which maintain the adhesive properties of the junctional complex between uterine epithelial cells, were found to decrease as gestation progressed in the uterus of two highly placentotrophic Australian skinks, but no changes in desmosomal numbers were present in the uterus of two Australian oviparous skinks or viviparous skinks with a simple placenta. In mammals, desmosomes decrease in the uterine epithelium of species with invasive hemochorial placentation, where less chemical and mechanical adhesion between cells assists the invading trophoblast at the time of implantation. However, Australian viviparous skinks do not have an invasive trophoblast; yet, similarities in decreasing lateral cellular adhesion exist in the uterus of both invasive and noninvasive placental types. This similarity in cellular mechanisms suggests a conservation of plasma membrane changes across placentation irrespective of reptilian or mammalian origin. PMID:20169564

  6. The role of the placenta in feto-neonatal infections.

    PubMed

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Iacobone, Anna D; Calvino, Isabel G; Alberi, Irene; Gardella, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    The placenta and membranes may be infected by ascending bacteria from the maternal birth canal or by bacteria, virus and protozoa via haematogenous spread. The maternal and fetal inflammatory reactions, elicited by these microorganisms, are often associated with precise anatomo-pathological findings. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated a strong relationship between placental inflammation and important perinatal adverse outcomes, including neurologic impairment and chronic lung disease. For this reason, placenta examination is an important approach for understanding infection and/or inflammation leading to fetal inflammatory response syndrome. For instance, chorioamnionitis caused by ascending infections are characterized mainly by polymorphonuclear leucocytic infiltration of the extraplacental membranes, firstly involving the lower-pole of the amniotic sac, then the intervillous space and later the chorionic plate. In fact, there is an initial "maternal inflammatory response" (MIR) to the infection and leucocytes migrate from the maternal blood stream. Subsequently, the chorionic plate is infiltrated by leucocytes derived from the fetal vessels, and this event characterizes the "fetal inflammatory response" (FIR). The release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines within the gestational sac is the leading cause of fetal and neonatal damage. In conclusion, certain placental reaction patterns may identify and estimate the risk for specific perinatal complications in infants. PMID:24709465

  7. Placenta--an alternative source of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications. PMID:15990135

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides from Fermented Goat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goat placenta was fermented by Bacillus subtilis and the optimal fermentation parameters of strongest antioxidant capacity of peptides were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of fermentation time, initial pH value and glucose content on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of the goat peptides were well fitted to a quadric equation with high determination coefficients. According to the data analysis of design expert, the strongest DPPH radical scavenging capacity value was obtained with the following conditions: content of glucose was 2.23%, initial pH value was 7.00 and fermentation time was 32.15 h. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity commonly referring antioxidant activity showed a concentration dependency and increased with increasing peptide concentration. The effects of temperature and pH were assessed to determine the stability of antioxidant peptides prepared from goat placenta. Antioxidant peptides showed good stabilities when temperature was lower than 70℃. However, the antioxidant peptides lost antioxidant activities rapidly under alkaline and excessive acid condition. Ultrafiltration technique was performed to separate fermentation broth with different Mw (molecular weight). It was found that peptides in the range of < 3 KDa mainly accounted for the antioxidant activities. PMID:26761673

  9. A dimeric form of lipocortin-1 in human placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Pepinsky, R B; Sinclair, L K; Chow, E P; O'Brine-Greco, B

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized a 68 kDa lipocortin from human placenta that was identified as a covalently linked homodimer of lipocortin-1 by peptide mapping and sequence analysis. The site of cross-linking was localized within the 3 kDa N-terminal tail region, an exposed domain that contains the phosphorylation sites for protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C and is sensitive to proteolysis. Sequence analysis of the corresponding peptide revealed that glutamine-18 was modified, suggesting that the cross-link may be generated by a transglutaminase. By incubating lipocortin-1 with placental membranes and with labelled glycine ethyl ester we observed a Ca2+-dependent labelling of lipocortin-1 within the tail region, supporting this notion. Like lipocortin-1, the dimer inhibits phospholipase Ad2 activity, is a substrate for the epidermal-growth-factor (EGF) receptor/kinase, and display Ca2+-dependent binding to phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles. In preparations from human placenta the dimer is particularly abundant, accounting for approx. 20% of the lipocortin-1. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2532504

  10. Identification and analysis of multi-protein complexes in placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuqiang; Wang, Ling; Xu, Zhiyang; Liang, Gaolin

    2013-01-01

    Placental malfunction induces pregnancy disorders which contribute to life-threatening complications for both the mother and the fetus. Identification and characterization of placental multi-protein complexes is an important step to integratedly understand the protein-protein interaction networks in placenta which determine placental function. In this study, blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN/SDS-PAGE) and Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to screen the multi-protein complexes in placenta. 733 unique proteins and 34 known and novel heterooligomeric multi-protein complexes including mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, integrin complexes, proteasome complexes, histone complex, and heat shock protein complexes were identified. A novel protein complex, which involves clathrin and small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel protein 2, was identified and validated by antibody based gel shift assay, co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining. These results suggest that BN/SDS-PAGE, when integrated with LC-MS/MS, is a very powerful and versatile tool for the investigation of placental protein complexes. This work paves the way for deeper functional characterization of the placental protein complexes associated with pregnancy disorders. PMID:23638173

  11. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  12. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  13. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  14. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  15. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  16. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Diane I; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C; Thirkill, Twanda L; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J; Williams, Lawrence E; Samollow, Paul B; Ross, Pablo J; Bannasch, Danika L; Douglas, Gordon C; LaSalle, Janine M

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo. PMID:26241857

  17. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Diane I.; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C.; Thirkill, Twanda L.; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Samollow, Paul B.; Ross, Pablo J.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Douglas, Gordon C.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo. PMID:26241857

  18. Relationships of CD163 and CD169 positive cell numbers in the endometrium and fetal placenta with type 2 PRRSV RNA concentration in fetal thymus.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, Predrag; Harding, John C S; Ladinig, Andrea; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N; MacPhee, Daniel J; Detmer, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Several routes of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus PRRSV transmission across the porcine diffuse epitheliochorial placentation have been proposed, but none have been proven. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between numbers of CD163 and CD169 positive macrophages, cathepsin positive areolae, and type 2 PRRSV load at the maternal-fetal interface in order to examine important factors related to transplacental infection. On gestation day 85 ± 1, naïve pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114) or were sham inoculated (n = 19). At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied. Samples of the maternal-fetal interface (uterus with fully attached placenta) and fetal thymus were collected for analysis by RT-qPCR to quantify PRRSV RNA concentration. The corresponding paraffin-embedded uterine tissue sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry for PRRSV nucleocapsid N protein, CD163, CD169, and cathepsin. Our findings confirm significant increases in the numbers of PRRSV, CD163 and CD169 positive cells at the maternal-fetal interface during type 2 PRRSV infection in pregnant gilts. PRRSV load in fetal thymus was positively related to CD163(+) cell count in endometrium and negatively related to CD163(+) cell count in placenta, but unrelated to CD169 counts or cathepsin positive areolae. The endometrium:placenta ratio of CD163 cells, and to a lesser extent CD169 cells, was significantly associated with an increase fetal viral load in thymus. These findings suggest a more important role for CD163(+) cells following trans-placental PRRSV infection, but dichotomous responses in endometrium and placenta for both CD163 and CD169 cells. PMID:27494990

  19. Purification of a Factor from Human Placenta That Stimulates Capillary Endothelial Cell Protease Production, DNA Synthesis, and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscatelli, David; Presta, Marco; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    1986-04-01

    A protein that stimulates the production of plasminogen activator and latent collagenase in cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells has been purified 106-fold from term human placenta by using a combination of heparin affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel chromatography. The purified molecule has a molecular weight of 18,700 as determined by NaDodSO4/PAGE under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. The purified molecule stimulates the production of plasminogen activator and latent collagenase in a dose-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng of protein/ml. The purified protein also stimulates DNA synthesis and chemotaxis in capillary endothelial cells in the same concentration range. Thus, this molecule has all of the properties predicted for an angiogenic factor.

  20. Fingerprinting of gelatinase subtypes for different topographic regions on non-retaining placenta of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Piamya, P; Tiantong, A; Chen, S-E; Liu, W-B; Yu, C; Nagahata, H; Chang, C-J

    2015-03-01

    The contribution of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) to timely discharge of the placenta from bovine uterus at parturition is yet inconclusive, partly because of the presence of multiple MMP forms in situ. In the current study, the expression of different gelatinase subtypes on non-retaining placentas of Holstein cows was fingerprinted by using gelatin zymography. Different topographic regions on the placenta were measured separately, including the placentome-like structure and the fetal and maternal sides of interplacentomal placenta, all sampled from the central and peripheral areas of the placenta, respectively. The spontaneously ruptured umbilical cords were cross-sectioned as fetus end, middle and placenta end also for separate measurement. Body fluids including blood samples from the parturient cows, their neonatal calves and umbilical cord, as well as fetal fluids and the first colostrum were measured concomitantly. Results showed multiple forms of gelatinases subtypes in the placenta tissues and body fluids, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)-MMP-9 complex, both the latent and active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9; of them, the latent forms were much more abundantly and frequently expressed than the active forms. NGAL-MMP-9 complex was more prevalently present in the body fluids than in the placenta tissues. No distinguishable pattern of the expression of any gelatinase subtype was observed among the placentome-like structure, interplacentomal placenta and umbilical cord, or between fetal and maternal sides. Nonetheless, for interplacentomal placenta, proMMP-9 expression was higher in the central than in the peripheral area. In addition, proMMP-2 expression was higher in the rupture end (fetus end) than the placenta end of the umbilical cord. In conclusion, the current validated gelatin zymography detected a gradient proMMP-9 expression on the non-retaining placenta of cows in reverse to the proximity to the umbilical insertion point, and

  1. Immunoregulatory effects on T lymphocytes by human mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and placenta.

    PubMed

    Mareschi, Katia; Castiglia, Sara; Sanavio, Fiorella; Rustichelli, Deborah; Muraro, Michela; Defedele, Davide; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Fagioli, Franca

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in cell therapies because of their multipotent, bystander, and immunomodulatory properties. Although bone marrow represents the main source of MSCs, there remains a need to identify a stem cell source that is safe and easily accessible and yields large numbers of cells without provoking debates over ethics. In this study, MSCs isolated from amniotic fluid and placenta were compared with bone marrow MSCs. Their immunomodulatory properties were studied in total activated T cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA-PBMCs). In particular, an in vitro co-culture system was established to study: (i) the effect on T-lymphocyte proliferation; (ii) the presence of T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg); (iii) the immunophenotype of various T subsets (Th1 and Th2 naïve, memory, effector lymphocytes); (iv) cytokine release and master gene expression to verify Th1, Th2, and Th17 polarization; and (v) IDO production. Under all co-culture conditions with PHA-PBMCs and MSCs (independently of tissue origin), data revealed: (i) T proliferation inhibition; (ii) increase in naïve T and decrease in memory T cells; (iii) increase in T regulatory lymphocytes; (iv) strong Th2 polarization associated with increased interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 levels, Th1 inhibition (significant decreases in interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12) and Th17 induction (production of high concentrations of interleukins-6 and -17); (v) indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase mRNA induction in MSCs co-cultured with PHA-PBMCs. AF-MSCs had a more potent immunomodulatory effect on T cells than BM-MSCs, only slightly higher than that of placenta MSCs. This study indicates that MSCs isolated from fetal tissues may be considered a good alternative to BM-MSCs for clinical applications. PMID:26577566

  2. Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Retained Placenta in 3 Large Colonies of NHP.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Cassondra; Harrison, Tara

    2016-04-01

    During 1999 through 2014, retained placenta was the most common cause of clinical admission for reproductive complications in breeding colonies of baboons (approximate colony size, 2000 animals), cynomolgus macaques (approximately 1000), and rhesus macaques (approximately 500) at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Retained placentas occurred in 2.7% of baboons, 3.3% of cynomolgus macaques, and 1.0% of rhesus macaques. Apparent risk factors for retained placenta included stillbirth or abortion and at least one prior cesarean section. There was a significant association between stillbirth and retained placenta in all species. Cesarean sections were performed routinely for baboons to meet research objectives but occurred only as needed for cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Having had at least one prior cesarean section was an incidence factor for retained placenta in 37.0% of baboons and 4.7% of cynomolgus macaques; none of the rhesus macaques with retained placentas had undergone cesarean section previously. More than 90% of dams with retained placenta returned to a successful reproductive life or assignment to a nonbreeding research protocol. Advances in reproductive management will benefit from prospective studies that capture additional data from all members of a breeding group prior to reproductive complications. PMID:27053569

  3. Ultrasound detection of placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Jamal, Ashraf; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Abedzadeh- Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Niroomanesh, Shirin; Atoof, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Placenta accreta is considered a life-threatening condition and the main cause of maternal mortality. Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta usually is made by clinical presentation, imaging studies like ultrasound and MRI in the second and third trimester. Objective: To determine accuracy of ultrasound findings for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In a longitudinal study 323 high risk patients for placenta accreta were assessed. The eligible women were examined by vaginal and abdominal ultrasound for gestational sac and placental localization and they were followed up until the end of pregnancy. The ultrasound findings were compared with histopathological examinations as a gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ultrasound were estimated for the first trimester and compared with other 2 trimesters in the case of repeated ultrasound examination. Results: Ultrasound examinations in the first trimester revealed that 28 cases had the findings in favor of placenta accreta which ultimately was confirmed in 7 cases. The ultrasound sensitivity and specificity for detecting placenta accreta in the first trimester was 41% [95% CI: 16.2-62.7] and 88% [95% CI: 88.2-94.6] respectively. Conclusion: Ultrasound screening for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy could not achieve the high sensitivity as second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25071851

  4. Kinetic assessment of manganese using magnetic resonance imaging in the dually perfused human placenta in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.K.; Mattison, D.R.; Panigel, M.; Ceckler, T.; Bryant, R.; Thomford, P.

    1987-10-01

    The transfer and distribution of paramagnetic manganese was investigated in the dually perfused human placenta in vitro (using 10, 20, 100 ..mu..M Mn with and without /sup 54/Mn) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional radiochemical techniques. The human placenta concentrated /sup 54/Mn rapidly during the first 15 min of perfusion and by 4 hr was four times greater than the concentrations of Mn in the maternal perfusate, while the concentration of Mn in the fetal perfusate was 25% of the maternal perfusate levels. Within placentae, 45% of the /sup 54/Mn was free in the 100,000g supernatant, with 45% in the 1000g pellet. The magnetic field dependence of proton nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1/) in placental tissue supports this Mn binding. Mn primarily affected the MRI partial saturation rather than spin-echo images of the human placenta, which provided for the separation of perfusate contributions from those produced by Mn. The washout of the Mn from the placenta was slow compared with its uptake, as determined by MRI. Thus, Mn was concentrated by the human placenta, but transfer of Mn across the placenta was limited in either direction. These studies also illustrate the opportunity for studies of human placental function using magnetic resonance imaging as a noninvasive biomarker.

  5. Morbidly Adherent Placenta: Ultrasound Assessment and Supplemental Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh K; Dryden, Damla K

    2015-08-01

    Morbidly adherent placenta or placenta accreta is being increasingly encountered in obstetrical practice mainly owing to the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. This condition is associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality resulting from postpartum hemorrhage. When unsuspected, outcomes can be catastrophic to the pregnant woman. Timely diagnosis during the antenatal period, on the contrary, allows for optimal planning of a multidisciplinary management approach and delivery at a tertiary care institution. A higher index of suspicion in those at greatest risk such as in women with placenta previa and with history of some prior cesarean deliveries should lead to diligent antenatal evaluation for possible placenta accreta. Management of invasive placenta implantation often involves cesarean delivery hysterectomies; uterus-sparing alternatives to manage this condition can be an option in selected cases. Ultrasound imaging remains the modality of choice for the diagnosis. This review article discusses the ultrasound image findings in placenta accreta, its limitations and pitfalls, and the supplemental role of magnetic resonance imaging in the imaging evaluation of placenta accreta. PMID:26296483

  6. Factors Associated with Placenta Praevia in Primigravidas and Its Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Nur Azurah, Abdul Ghani; Wan Zainol, Zakaria; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohd Nasir; Kampan, Nirmala; Mohsin, Wan Syahirah; Mokhtar, Norfilza Mohd; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To examine the factors associated with placenta praevia in primigravidas and also compare the pregnancy outcomes between primigravidas and nonprimigravidas. Method. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in women who underwent caesarean section for major placenta praevia in a tertiary university hospital from January 2007 till December 2013. Medical records were reviewed. Result. Among 243 with major placenta praevia, 56 (23.0%) were primigravidas and 187 (77.0%) were nonprimigravidas. Factors associated with placenta praevia in the primigravidas were history of assisted conception (P = 0.02) and history of endometriosis (P = 0.01). For maternal outcomes, the nonprimigravidas required earlier delivery than primigravidas (35.76 ± 2.54 weeks versus 36.52 ± 1.95 weeks, P = 0.03) and had greater blood loss (P = 0.04). A vast majority of the primigravidas had either posterior type II or type III placenta praevia. As for neonatal outcomes, the Apgar score at 1 minute was significantly lower for the nonprimigravidas (7.89 ± 1.72 versus 8.39 ± 1.288.39 ± 1.28, P = 0.02). Conclusion. This study highlighted that endometriosis and assisted conception were highly associated with placenta praevia in primigravida. Understanding the pregnancy outcomes of women with placenta praevia can assist clinicians in identifying patients who are at higher risk of mortality and morbidity. Identifying potential risk factors in primigravida may assist in counseling and management of such patients. PMID:25478587

  7. Safety of cesarean delivery through placental incision in patients with anterior placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Deok-Ho; Kim, Eugene; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety of fetal delivery through placental incision in a placenta previa pregnancy. Methods We examined the medical records of 80 women with singleton pregnancy diagnosed with placenta previa who underwent cesarean section between May 2010 and May 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chungbuk National University Hospital. Among the women with placenta previa, those who did not have the placenta in the uterine incision site gave birth via conventional uterine incision, while those with anterior placenta previa or had placenta attached to the uterine incision site gave birth via uterine incision plus placental incision. We compared the postoperative hemoglobin level and duration of hospital stay for the mother and newborn of the two groups. Results There was no difference between the placental incision group and non-incision group in terms of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin change, the amount of blood transfusions required by the mother, newborns with 1-min or 5-min Apgar scores below 7 points or showing signs of acidosis on umbilical cord blood gas analysis result of pH below 7.20. Moreover, neonatal hemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Fetal delivery through placental incision during cesarean section for placenta previa pregnancy does not negatively influence the prognosis of the mother or the newborn, and therefore, is considered a safe surgical technique. PMID:27004200

  8. Circumvallate Placenta: Associated Clinical Manifestations and Complications—A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakamaki, Kentaro; Kurasawa, Kentaro; Okuda, Mika; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To analyze the pregnancy outcomes of circumvallate placenta retrospectively and to predict circumvallate placenta during pregnancy based on its clinical features. Methods. The pregnancy outcomes of 92 women with circumvallate placenta who delivered live singletons at a tertiary care center between January 2000 and September 2012 were compared with those of 9057 controls. Results. Women with circumvallate placenta were associated with higher incidences of preterm delivery (64.1%), placental abruption (10.9%), emergency cesarean section (45.6%), small-for-gestational age (36.9%), neonatal death (8.9%), neonatal intensive care unit admission (55.4%), and chronic lung disease (33.9%). When vaginal bleeding during the second trimester and premature chemical rupture of membranes (PCROM) were both used as predictive factors for circumvallate placenta, the sensitivity was 28.8% and specificity was 99.9%. Conclusion. With circumvallate placenta, pregnancy outcomes were poor and had characteristic clinical manifestations. In women with both vaginal bleeding and PCROM during pregnancy, circumvallate placenta should be strongly suspected. PMID:25477965

  9. Zika virus productively infects primary human placenta-specific macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Kellie Ann; Simoni, Michael K.; Tang, Zhonghua; Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Householder, Sarah; Wu, Mingjie; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Guller, Seth; Fikrig, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The strong association of Zika virus infection with congenital defects has led to questions of how a flavivirus is capable of crossing the placental barrier to reach the fetal brain. Here, we demonstrate permissive Zika virus infection of primary human placental macrophages, commonly referred to as Hofbauer cells, and placental villous fibroblasts. We also demonstrate Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells within the context of the tissue ex vivo using term placental villous explants. In addition to amplifying infectious virus within a usually inaccessible area, the putative migratory activities of Hofbauer cells may aid in dissemination of Zika virus to the fetal brain. Understanding the susceptibility of placenta-specific cell types will aid future work around and understanding of Zika virus–associated pregnancy complications. PMID:27595140

  10. Placenta percreta: rare presentation of haemorrhage in the second trimester

    PubMed Central

    Siwatch, Sujata; Chopra, Seema; Suri, Vanita; Gupta, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman, third gravid, with previous two miscarriages presented to the emergency at 17 weeks 2 days of gestation with complaints of pain in the abdomen for 1 day and decreased urine output for 2 days. She was in shock. There was no history of bleeding per vaginum, trauma, surgical procedure or medical illness. Her obstetrical history was marked by a spontaneous second trimester miscarriage at 24 weeks that was followed by fever for 1 week. Ultrasound revealed an extra uterine fetus with sac en caul secondary to uterine rupture. She was resuscitated and taken up for emergency salvage laparotomy. The ragged fundal rent was excised and uterine reconstruction was performed. Histology revealed placenta percreta. The patient had a rapid recovery. PMID:23391949

  11. [HISTOLOGYCAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AREOLAE IN THE PIG PLACENTA].

    PubMed

    Siraziev, R Z

    2015-01-01

    Rounded white lustreless dome-shaped wheels are detected by visually from allantochorion side in the in fetal areas epiteliochorial pig's placenta on day 30 of pregnancy. These structures are located over the opening of the uterine glands. Areolaes consist from maternal and foetal parts. Areola include glandular epithelium, chorial and endometrial stroma at the mouth of the uterine glands, areolar cavity-enhanced formed by endometrial and chorial invaginations. Chorion gives in cavity radial folds lining differences high epithelium. Glycogen, neutral and acid sulfated glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronates, total and cationic protein, RNA, arginine, gistidine, lysin were founded in structural components of areoles during gestation period. Numerous areolas serve as specialized sites for absorption the secrets of uterine glands; they are form a powerful functional system of histotrophic nutrition. PMID:26281215

  12. Miniaturization: the clue to clinical application of the artificial placenta.

    PubMed

    Schoberer, Mark; Arens, Jutta; Erben, Aileen; Ophelders, Daan; Jellema, Reint K; Kramer, Boris W; Bruse, Jan L; Brouwer, Petra; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Orlikowsky, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    The artificial placenta as a fascinating treatment alternative for neonatal lung failure has been the subject of clinical research for over 50 years. Pumpless systems have been in use since 1986. However, inappropriate dimensioning of commercially available oxygenators has wasted some of the theoretical advantages of this concept. Disproportional shunt fractions can cause congestive heart failure. Blood priming of large oxygenators and circuits dilutes fetal hemoglobin (as the superior oxygen carrier), is potentially infectious, and causes inflammatory reactions. Flow demands of large extracorporeal circuits require cannula sizes that are not appropriate for use in preterm infants. NeonatOx, a tailored low-volume oxygenator for this purpose, has proven the feasibility of this principle before. We now report the advances in biological performance of a refined version of this specialized oxygenator. PMID:24147856

  13. Placenta-based therapies for the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Nevala-Plagemann, Christopher; Lee, Catherine; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe blistering skin disease caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene. These mutations lead to decreased or absent levels of collagen VII at the dermal-epidermal junction. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the treatment of RDEB, including the use of hematopoietic cell transplantation, but a cure has been elusive. Patients still experience life-limiting and life-threatening complications as a result of painful and debilitating wounds. The continued suffering of these patients drives the need to improve existing therapies and develop new ones. In this Review, we will discuss how recent advances in placenta-based, umbilical cord blood-based and amniotic membrane-based therapies may play a role in the both the current and future treatment of RDEB. PMID:25795271

  14. Placenta-based therapies for the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Nevala-Plagemann, Christopher; Lee, Catherine; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe blistering skin disease caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene. These mutations lead to decreased or absent levels of collagen VII at the dermal-epidermal junction. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the treatment of RDEB, including the use of hematopoietic cell transplantation, but a cure has proven elusive. Patients still experience life-limiting and life-threatening complications as a result of painful and debilitating wounds. The continued suffering of these patients drives the need to improve existing therapies and develop new ones. In this review, we will discuss how recent advances in placenta-, umbilical cord blood- and amniotic membrane-based therapies may play a role in the both the current and future treatment of RDEB. PMID:25795271

  15. High temporal resolution dynamic contrast MRI in a high risk group for placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y O; Sohda, S; Shigemitsu, S; Niitsu, M; Itai, Y

    2001-06-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta with MR is not easy even now because T2-weighted images (T2WI) cannot differentiate chorionic villi from decidua basalis. We performed dynamic contrast MRI to study whether trophoblastic villi could be separately demonstrated from the decidua basalis, and whether the contrast resolution between the placenta and myometrium could improve compared to T2WI. Six pregnant women with prior cesarean section were examined at 34-38 gestational weeks. Sagittal T2-weighted images with fast spin echo sequences and dynamic contrast studies with fast field echo sequence every 10-14 s after contrast injection were performed. We analyzed the enhancing pattern of the placenta and compared the contrast between placenta and myometrium. We reviewed medical records to identify complications during the placental delivery and the complications of their newborns. In the early phase after contrast enhancement, multiple foci of the strong lobular enhancement were observed in all cases. Other parts of placenta were slowly but strongly enhanced following them. We speculated that the former corresponded to intervillous space and the latter decidua basalis. The contrast between placenta and myometrium tended to be distinct near the inner cervical os on both T2WI and dynamic contrast study. On the other hand, it was indistinct in the upper part of the uterine body on T2WI despite it was clearly demonstrated on dynamic contrast study. The placentae were delivered without any complication in all cases. Although two neonates showed fetal distress, none of the infant remained any sequelae at the time of the discharge. The other four were well although one of them complicated with meconium staining. As dynamic contrast MRI can differentiate chorionic villi and decidua basalis, and can provide excellent contrast between placenta and myometrium at anywhere within the uterus, it may be a promising technique for antepartum diagnosis of the placenta accreta. PMID

  16. Human placenta processed for encapsulation contains modest concentrations of 14 trace minerals and elements.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; David, Winnie B; Teng, Yuanxin; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal placentophagy has recently emerged as a rare but increasingly popular practice among women in industrialized countries who often ingest the placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement, seeking its many purported postpartum health benefits. Little scientific research, however, has evaluated these claims, and concentrations of trace micronutrients/elements in encapsulated placenta have never been examined. Because the placenta retains beneficial micronutrients and potentially harmful toxic elements at parturition, we hypothesized that dehydrated placenta would contain detectable concentrations of these elements. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation to evaluate the concentration of 14 trace minerals/elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed detectable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Based on one recommended daily intake of placenta capsules (3300 mg/d), a daily dose of placenta supplements contains approximately 0.018 ± 0.004 mg copper, 2.19 ± 0.533 mg iron, 0.005 ± 0.000 mg selenium, and 0.180 ± 0.018 mg zinc. Based on the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for lactating women, the recommended daily intake of placenta capsules would provide, on average, 24% RDA for iron, 7.1% RDA for selenium, 1.5% RDA for zinc, and 1.4% RDA for copper. The mean concentrations of potentially harmful elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium) were well below established toxicity thresholds. These results indicate that the recommended daily intake of encapsulated placenta may provide only a modest source of some trace micronutrients and a minimal source of toxic elements. PMID:27440542

  17. Protective effect of porcine placenta in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Park, Chan-Lee; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Hee-Yun; Yoou, Myoung-Schook; Nam, Sun-Young; Moon, Phil-Dong; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Menopause is a significant physiological phase that occurs as women's ovaries stop producing ovum and the production of estrogen declines. Human placenta and some amino acids are known to improve menopausal symptoms. In this study, we investigated that porcine placenta extract (PPE) and arginine (Arg), a main amino acid of PPE, would have estrogenic activities in ovariectomized (OVX) mice as a menopause mouse model, human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) cells, and human osteoblast cell line (MG-63) cells. PPE or Arg significantly inhibited the body weight and increased the vagina weight compared to the OVX mice. PPE or Arg ameliorated the vaginal atrophy in the OVX mice. The levels of 17β-estradiol and the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased by PPE or Arg in the serum of OVX mice. Trabecular bone parameters such as bone mineral density and porosity were also improved by PPE or Arg in the OVX mice. In the MCF-7 and MG-63 cells, PPE or Arg significantly increased the cell proliferation, estrogen receptor β mRNA expression, and estrogen-response elements luciferase activity. Finally, PPE or Arg increased the activations of ALP and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in the MG-63 cells. These results indicate that PPE or Arg would have estrogenic and osteoblastic activity. Therefore, PPE or Arg may be useful as new pharmacological tools for treating menopausal symptoms including osteoporosis. Free Korean abstract: A Korean translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/150/3/173/suppl/DC1. PMID:26047835

  18. MSX2 Induces Trophoblast Invasion in Human Placenta.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Junjie; Yang, Genling; Tian, Na; Wang, Xiaojie; Tan, Yi; Tan, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Normal implantation depends on appropriate trophoblast growth and invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, such as early miscarriage and pre-eclampsia, which are dangerous to both the mother and fetus. Msh Homeobox 2 (MSX2), a member of the MSX family of homeobox proteins, plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells and tissues, including ectodermal organs, teeth, and chondrocytes. Recently, MSX2 was found to play important roles in the invasion of cancer cells into adjacent tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of MSX2 in trophoblastic invasion during placental development has yet to be explored. In the present study, we detected MSX2 expression in cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of first or third trimester human placentas via immunohistochemistry analysis. Furthermore, we found that the in vitro invasive ability of HTR8/SVneo cells was enhanced by exogenous overexpression of MSX2, and that this effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vimentin, and β-catenin. Conversely, treatment of HTR8/SVneo cells with MSX2-specific siRNAs resulted in decreased protein expression of MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin, and reduced invasion levels in a Matrigel invasion test. Notably, however, treatment with the MSX2 overexpression plasmid and the MSX2 siRNAs had no effect on the mRNA expression levels of β-catenin. Meanwhile, overexpression of MSX2 and treatment with the MSX2-specific siRNA resulted in decreased and increased E-cadherin expression, respectively, in JEG-3 cells. Lastly, the protein expression levels of MSX2 were significantly lower in human pre-eclamptic placental villi than in the matched control placentas. Collectively, our results suggest that MSX2 may induce human trophoblast cell invasion, and dysregulation of MSX2 expression may be associated

  19. MSX2 Induces Trophoblast Invasion in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junjie; Yang, Genling; Tian, Na; Wang, Xiaojie; Tan, Yi; Tan, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Normal implantation depends on appropriate trophoblast growth and invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, such as early miscarriage and pre-eclampsia, which are dangerous to both the mother and fetus. Msh Homeobox 2 (MSX2), a member of the MSX family of homeobox proteins, plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells and tissues, including ectodermal organs, teeth, and chondrocytes. Recently, MSX2 was found to play important roles in the invasion of cancer cells into adjacent tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of MSX2 in trophoblastic invasion during placental development has yet to be explored. In the present study, we detected MSX2 expression in cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of first or third trimester human placentas via immunohistochemistry analysis. Furthermore, we found that the in vitro invasive ability of HTR8/SVneo cells was enhanced by exogenous overexpression of MSX2, and that this effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vimentin, and β-catenin. Conversely, treatment of HTR8/SVneo cells with MSX2-specific siRNAs resulted in decreased protein expression of MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin, and reduced invasion levels in a Matrigel invasion test. Notably, however, treatment with the MSX2 overexpression plasmid and the MSX2 siRNAs had no effect on the mRNA expression levels of β-catenin. Meanwhile, overexpression of MSX2 and treatment with the MSX2-specific siRNA resulted in decreased and increased E-cadherin expression, respectively, in JEG-3 cells. Lastly, the protein expression levels of MSX2 were significantly lower in human pre-eclamptic placental villi than in the matched control placentas. Collectively, our results suggest that MSX2 may induce human trophoblast cell invasion, and dysregulation of MSX2 expression may be associated

  20. Primary cesarean delivery results in emergency hysterectomy due to placenta accreta: a case study.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Jaclyn

    2015-02-01

    Placenta accreta is a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage, a situation that remains the most significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is generally recognized that a previous cesarean delivery increases the risk of placenta accreta. However, the risk also increases with previous intrauterine procedures. In 2010, The Joint Commission released a sentinel event alert regarding the prevention of maternal death, which recommended the adoption of protocols to treat postpartum hemorrhage. This case study demonstrates the success of quickly initiating protocol interventions necessary to prevent disseminated intravascular coagulation and maternal mortality, while reviewing current literature on risk identification, management, and treatment of obstetric hemorrhage resulting from placenta accreta. PMID:25842631

  1. Presence and concentration of 17 hormones in human placenta processed for encapsulation and consumption.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; Zava, David; Kimball, David W; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-07-01

    Human maternal placentophagy is a rare but growing practice in several industrialized countries among postpartum mothers seeking a variety of purported health benefits attributed to the practice. These postpartum mothers typically consume their placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement. To determine whether free (unconjugated) steroid hormones and melatonin in placenta can survive the encapsulation process (namely steaming and dehydration), we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to evaluate the concentration of 17 hormones. The results revealed detectable concentrations for 16 of the hormones analyzed, some in concentrations that could conceivably yield physiological effects. PMID:27324105

  2. Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, G.; Cama, G.; Guerresi, E.; Cocchi, G.; Dalla Casa, P.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ghini, S.; Tonelli, D.

    1988-11-01

    After the April 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, samples of human placenta and breast milk were tested for 1 year to determine the levels of radioactivity. The radionuclide iodine 131 was never beyond the detection limit of our gamma detector for both matrices. As to cesium isotopes 134 and 137, the highest levels detected in breast milk (6 Bq.L-1) and placenta (15.8 Bq.kg-1) were recorded in March 1987. Study data for breast milk and placenta are in agreement with the values calculated by means of double-compartment food-milk and food-placenta models. With regard to placental content, the cesium contribution to the average dose during the year after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to be 40 to 60 microSv.

  3. Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Marques, Ernesto T A; Cartus, Abigail; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis. PMID:26952548

  4. Shear wave elastography of the placenta in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Kilic, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Alici Davutoglu, Ebru; Imamoglu, Metehan; Bakan, Selim; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kantarci, Fatih; Madazli, Riza

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate placental elasticty in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and non-diabetic controls. Thirty-three pregnant women with GDM according to the current criteria of the American Diabetes Association and 43 healthy pregnant women who were admitted to the antenatal clinic were recruited for this case-control study. Elasticity values of both the peripheral and the central parts of the placentas of the patients in both groups were determined by shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging. Mean elasticity values of both the central and the peripheral part of the placentas were significantly higher in GDM pregnancies (p < 0.001). No difference was observed in the mean elasticity values of the central and the peripheral part of the placentas in two groups (p > 0.05). SWE imaging technology might provide a quantitative assessment of the morphological pathologies of placentas in pregnant women with GDM. PMID:27012734

  5. PEG3 domain gene expression in maternal and foetal placenta in intrauterine growth restricted bovine foetuses.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; Pausch, Hubert; Venhoranta, Heli; Adamowicz, Krzysztof; Andersson, Magnus; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika; Flisikowski, Krzysztof

    2016-02-01

    We used a genetic (MIMT1(Del)) model of intrauterine growth restriction to investigate dysregulation of PEG3 domain gene expression in bovine foetal and maternal placenta. ZIM2, APEG3 and PEG3 expressions were similarly reduced in MIMT1(Del/) (WT) foetal placenta, suggesting coordinated regulation. Methylation of DNA CpG sites associated with these genes showed no differences, but differences in the levels of MIMT1 RNA methylation at three CpG sites were found in foetal placenta. Our data are consistent with the presence of a bidirectional promoter 5' of MIMT1 and suggest a regulatory role for the MIMT1 non-coding transcript. PEG3 domain expression on the maternal placenta side was not affected by the foetal mutation. PMID:26537866

  6. Calcium homeostasis in human placenta: role of calcium-handling proteins.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Julie; Simoneau, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    The human placenta is a transitory organ, representing during pregnancy the unique connection between the mother and her fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast represents the specialized unit in the placenta that is directly involved in fetal nutrition, mainly involving essential nutrients, such as lipids, amino acids, and calcium. This ion is of particular interest since it is actively transported by the placenta throughout pregnancy and is associated with many roles during intrauterine life. At term, the human fetus has accumulated about 25-30 g of calcium. This transfer allows adequate fetal growth and development, since calcium is vital for fetal skeleton mineralization and many cellular functions, such as signal transduction, neurotransmitter release, and cellular growth. Thus, there are many proteins involved in calcium homeostasis in the human placenta. PMID:16861065

  7. Clearance of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid during in-situ perfusion of the guinea pig placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Sikov, M.R.

    1983-05-01

    Extensive investigation of the transport of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; a nonmetabolized amino acid) has shown that AIB is actively transported from mother to fetus across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig. As a step towards clarifying the relative rolls of active and passive movements of amino acids across the placenta, it would be useful to obtain concurrent measurements of transplacental movements of a substance which crosses the placenta rapidly by simple diffusion (water) and of a substance which is actively transported across the placenta (AIB). In our study, placentas from guinea pigs between 59 and 61 days of gestation were perfused in situ through cannulated umbilical vessels with the maternal circulation left intact. Tritiated water and /sup 14/C-AIB were injected into a maternal jugular vein and maternal blood samples were obtained at 1 to 10 minute intervals; perfusate samples were collected sequentially after one pass through the placenta. Clearance of /sup 14/C-AIB from mother to fetus (AIB/sub MF/) and AIB concentrations in placental tissue, maternal plasma, and perfusate were consistent in magnitude with data obtained by other invetigators who have clearly shown an active transport of AIB in the placenta. On the other hand, in this study AIB/sub MF/ ranged from approximately 50% to 96% of the clearance of /sup 3/H-labeled water from mother to fetus (T/sub MF/) and that changes in AIB/sub MF/ correlated closely with changes in T/sub MF/ in all perfusions. Thus, it appears that AIB/sub MF/ closely paralleled T/sub MF/ and these data suggest that a relatively large component of AIB/sub MF/ is of passive origin in the in situ placenta.

  8. Maternal buprenorphine dose, placenta buprenorphine, and metabolite concentrations and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Jones, Hendreé E; Johnson, Rolley E; Choo, Robin; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2010-04-01

    Buprenorphine is approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence in nonpregnant patients in multiple countries and is currently under investigation for pregnant women in the United States and Europe. This research evaluates the disposition of buprenorphine, opiates, cocaine, and metabolites in five term placentas from a US cohort. Placenta and matched meconium concentrations were compared, and relationships among maternal buprenorphine dose, placenta concentrations, and neonatal outcomes after controlled administration during gestation were investigated. Buprenorphine and/or metabolites were detected in all placenta specimens and were uniformly distributed across this tissue (coefficient of variation less than 27.5%, four locations), except for buprenorphine in three placentas. In two of these, buprenorphine was not detected in some locations and in the third placenta was totally absent. Median (range) concentrations were 1.6 ng/g buprenorphine (not detected to 3.2), 14.9 ng/g norbuprenorphine (6.2-24.2), 3 ng/g buprenorphine-glucuronide (1.3-5.0), and 14.7 ng/g norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (11.4-25.8). Placenta is a potential alternative matrix for detecting in utero buprenorphine exposure, but at lower concentrations (15- to 70-fold) than in meconium. Statistically significant correlations were observed for mean maternal daily dose from enrollment to delivery and placenta buprenorphine-glucuronide concentration and for norbuprenorphine-glucuronide concentrations and time to neonatal abstinence syndrome onset and duration, for norbuprenorphine/norbuprenorphine-glucuronide ratio and maximum neonatal abstinence syndrome score, and newborn length. Analysis of buprenorphine and metabolites in this alternative matrix, an abundant waste product available at the time of delivery, may be valuable for prediction of neonatal outcomes for clinicians treating newborns of buprenorphine-exposed women. PMID:20216119

  9. Extrafetal findings at fetal MR: evaluation of the normal placenta and correlation with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Teresa; Johnson, Ann M; Kramer, Sandra S; Coleman, Beverly; Bebbington, Michael; Epelman, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of magnetic resonance (MR) for fetal imaging, few studies have addressed the MR appearance of the normal placenta. The goal of this paper is to describe the MR features and thickness of the normal placenta during the second and early third trimester of gestation, based on a retrospective study comparing MR with the reference standard of obstetric imaging, ultrasound. PMID:21872127

  10. Kiss1 mutant placentas show normal structure and function in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Herreboudt, A.M.; Kyle, V.R.L.; Lawrence, J.; Doran, J.; Colledge, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, are a set of related neuropeptides that are required for activation of the mammalian reproductive axis at puberty and to maintain fertility. In addition, kisspeptin signaling via the G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 (KISS1R) has been suggested to regulate human placental formation and correlations have been found between altered kisspeptin levels in the maternal blood and the development of pre-eclampsia. Methods We have used Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice to investigate the role of kisspeptin signaling in the structure and function of the mouse placenta. Results Expression of Kiss1 and Gpr54 was confirmed in the mouse placenta but no differences in birth weight were found in mice that had been supported by a mutant placenta during fetal development. Stereological measurements found no differences between Kiss1 mutant and wild-type placentas. Measurement of amino-acid and glucose transport across the Kiss1 mutant placentas at E15.5 days did not reveal any functional defects. Discussion These data indicate that mouse placentas can develop a normal structure and function without kisspeptin signaling and can support normal fetal development and growth. PMID:25468546

  11. Expression and protein localisation of IGF2 in the marsupial placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ager, Eleanor I; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2008-01-01

    Background In eutherian mammals, genomic imprinting is critical for normal placentation and embryo survival. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is imprinted in the placenta of both eutherians and marsupials, but its function, or that of any imprinted gene, has not been investigated in any marsupial. This study examines the role of IGF2 in the yolk sac placenta of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Results IGF2 mRNA and protein were produced in the marsupial placenta. Both IGF2 receptors were present in the placenta, and presumably mediate IGF2 mitogenic actions. IGF2 mRNA levels were highest in the vascular region of the yolk sac placenta. IGF2 increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in placental explant cultures, suggesting that IGF2 promotes vascularisation of the yolk sac. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of a physiological role for any imprinted gene in marsupial placentation. The conserved imprinting of IGF2 in this marsupial and in all eutherian species so far investigated, but not in monotremes, suggests that imprinting of this gene may have originated in the placenta of the therian ancestor. PMID:18284703

  12. The HUS1B promoter is hypomethylated in the placentas of low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Rumbajan, Janette Mareska; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Higashimoto, Ken; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Nishioka, Kenichi; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Aoki, Shigehisa; Toda, Shuji; Takeda, Satoru; Seki, Hiroyuki; Hatada, Izuho; Hata, Kenichiro; Soejima, Hidenobu; Joh, Keiichiro

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is associated with a range of human disorders. To identify differences in DNA methylation of gene promoters between placentas of low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants, we screened 8091 genes for aberrant methylation in placentas using microarray-based integrated analysis of methylation by isoschizomers (MIAMI). Seven candidate genes for hypomethylation in the placentas of LBW infants were selected. Among these candidates, COBRA analyses suggested that the HUS1B gene was hypomethylated in some of the placentas. Quantitative methylation analyses by bisulfite-pyrosequencing indicated that the promoter region of the gene was hypomethylated in three of the 86 placentas analyzed. The HUS1B promoter was highly methylated in two cell lines derived from trophoblastic cells. Gene expression increased when the promoter was demethylated by 5Aza-dC treatment. This suggests that hypomethylation of HUS1B alters gene expression in the placenta and that this dysregulated gene expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of LBW by affecting placental functions involved in fetal growth. PMID:26911255

  13. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages.

    PubMed

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas. PMID:27136536

  14. Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles from Pre-Eclampsia Placentas Differentially Affect Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Tannetta, Dionne S.; Hunt, Kathryn; Jones, Chris I.; Davidson, Naomi; Coxon, Carmen H.; Ferguson, David; Redman, Christopher W.; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Sargent, Ian L.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) complicates around 3% of all pregnancies and is one of the most common causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of PE remains unclear however its underlying cause originates from the placenta and manifests as raised blood pressure, proteinuria, vascular or systemic inflammation and hypercoagulation in the mother. Women who develop PE are also at significantly higher risk of subsequently developing cardiovascular (CV) disease. In PE, the failing endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative and inflammatory stressed syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta sheds increased numbers of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) into the maternal circulation. Platelet reactivity, size and concentration are also known to be altered in some women who develop PE, although the underlying reasons for this have not been determined. In this study we show that STBEV from disease free placenta isolated ex vivo by dual placental perfusion associate rapidly with platelets. We provide evidence that STBEV isolated from normal placentas cause platelet activation and that this is increased with STBEV from PE pregnancies. Furthermore, treatment of platelets with aspirin, currently prescribed for women at high risk of PE to reduce platelet aggregation, also inhibits STBEV-induced reversible aggregation of washed platelets. Increased platelet reactivity as a result of exposure to PE placenta derived STBEVs correlates with increased thrombotic risk associated with PE. These observations establish a possible direct link between the clotting disturbances of PE and dysfunction of the placenta, as well as the known increased risk of thromboembolism associated with this condition. PMID:26551971

  15. The placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the Mammalian placenta.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Kirsten; Siniza, Swetlana; Zeller, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    Placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. In this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. The morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of Marsupialia, have already been reconstructed. To contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of Placentalia, a histological and ultrastructural investigation of the placenta in three representatives of Eulipotyphla, that is, core insectivores, has been carried out in this study. We studied the Musk shrew (Suncus murinus), the four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). As a result, a eulipotyphlan placental morphotype consisting of a compact and invasive placenta was reconstructed. This supports the widely accepted hypothesis that the stem lineage of Placentalia is characterized by an invasive, either endothelio- or hemochorial placenta. Evolutionary transformations toward a diffuse, noninvasive placenta occurred in the stem lineages of lower primates and cetartiodactyles and were associated with prolonged gestation and the production of few and highly precocial neonates. Compared to the choriovitelline placenta of Marsupialia, the chorioallantoic placenta of Placentalia allows for a more intimate contact and is associated with more advanced neonates. PMID:24797275

  16. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages

    PubMed Central

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas. PMID:27136536

  17. Placenta Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes Confer Plasticity on Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tooi, Masayuki; Komaki, Motohiro; Morioka, Chikako; Honda, Izumi; Iwasaki, Kengo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Ayame, Hirohito; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) has been reported to enhance wound healing. Exosomes contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, and function as an intercellular communication vehicle for mediating some paracrine effects. However, the function of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-exo) remains elusive. In this study, we isolated human placenta MSC (PlaMSC)-derived exosomes (PlaMSC-exo) and examined their function in vitro. PlaMSCs were isolated from human term placenta using enzymatic digestion. PlaMSC-exo were prepared from the conditioned medium of PlaMSC (PlaMSC-CM) by ultracentrifugation. The expression of stemness-related genes, such as OCT4 and NANOG, in normal adult human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) after incubation with PlaMSC-exo was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analysis (real-time PCR). The effect of PlaMSC-exo on OCT4 transcription activity was assessed using Oct4-EGFP reporter mice-derived dermal fibroblasts. The stimulating effects of PlaMSC-exo on osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation of NHDF were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Alizarin red S- and oil red O-staining, respectively. The expression of osteoblast- and adipocyte-related genes was also assessed by real-time PCR. The treatment of NHDF with PlaMSC-exo significantly upregulated OCT4 and NANOG mRNA expression. PlaMSC-exo also enhanced OCT4 transcription. The NHDF treated with PlaMSC-exo exhibited osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation in osteogenic and adipogenic induction media. PlaMSC-exo increase the expression of OCT4 and NANOG mRNA in fibroblasts. As a result, PlaMSC-exo influence the differentiation competence of fibroblasts to both osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation. It shows a new feature of MSCs and the possibility of clinical application of MSC-exo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1658-1670, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26640165

  18. The sonographic appearance and obstetric management of placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Charleen Sze-yan; Chan, Ben Chong-pun

    2012-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a condition of abnormal placental implantation in which the placental tissue invades beyond the decidua basalis. It may invade into or even through the myometrium and adjacent organs, such as the urinary bladder. The incidence has been rising in recent years. It is one of the important obstetric complications nowadays, leading to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. In the past, this condition was often diagnosed at the time of delivery when massive and unexpected hemorrhage occurred. Hysterectomy, associated with significant physical and psychological consequences, was usually the only management option. As more obstetricians have become aware of this condition, early identification with antenatal imaging diagnostic technology has become possible. Ultrasound scan plays an important role in the antenatal diagnosis. Various sonographic features with different specificity and sensitivity have been described in the literature. In equivocal cases, magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful. With such information, more accurate counseling can be offered to the mothers and their families before delivery. The delivery can also be arranged at a favorable time and in an institution where multidisciplinary support is available. Input from a hematologist, interventional radiologist, intensive care physician, urology surgeon, and/or other specialist are desirable. Apart from hysterectomy, various forms of conservative management can also be considered when the diagnosis is made prior to delivery. Fertility can therefore be preserved. After delivery, with or without hysterectomy performed, psychological support to the mothers and their families is essential. PMID:23239929

  19. Non-helical type IV collagen polypeptides in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Daisuke; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Yoshikawa, Kiwamu; Hattori, Shunji; Sado, Yoshikazu; Imamura, Yasutada; Hayashi, Toshihiko

    2004-01-30

    Our previous reports showed that cultured human cells secrete non-disulfide-bonded non-helical alpha1(IV) and alpha2(IV) chains under physiological conditions. In the present report we show that the alpha(IV) chains in non-helical form were reactive to lectin ABA (Agaricus bisporus agglutinin), whereas the alpha(IV) chains secreted in triple-helical form were not. These results indicate that ABA could be used to distinguish the two conformational isomers of type IV collagen polypeptides. An alpha1(IV) chain isolated from human placenta with an antibody-coupled column showed a positive reaction to ABA, indicating that gelatin form of the type IV collagen alpha1(IV) chain is produced and retained in the tissue in vivo. A possible significance of the gelatin form is discussed from the finding that the non-helical alpha1(IV) chain purified with EDTA-free buffer contained degraded polypeptides including NC1-size domain and showed an apparent inhibition against activated pro-MMP-9. This is the first report to show that a gelatin form of protein exists in vivo. PMID:14715239

  20. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production. PMID:15664440

  1. Purification and characterization of phosphatidylinositol synthase from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, B E

    1994-02-01

    Phosphatidylinositol synthase (CDP-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol:myoinositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase, EC 2.7.8.11) was purified from the microsomal fraction of human placenta. The Triton X-100-extracted enzyme was purified 8300-fold over the microsomal fraction by affinity chromatography on CDP-diacylglycerol-Sepharose followed by ion-exchange chromatography on Mono Q. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 24,000 Da on SDS/PAGE. The enzyme had a pH optimum at 9.0, required Mn2+ or Mg2+, and was inhibited by Ca2+ and Zn2+. The Km for myo-inositol was determined to be 0.28 mM. Optimal activity was obtained at 0.2-0.4 mM CDP-diacylglycerol; higher concentrations of the lipid substrate inhibited the enzyme reaction. The enzyme was inhibited by nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, Pi and PPi. CDP competitively inhibited the enzyme reaction with a Kis of 4 mM. The optimal temperature for the PtdIns synthase reaction was 50 degrees C. PMID:8110188

  2. The endocrine function of human placenta: an overview.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mariana A

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, several tightly coordinated and regulated processes take place to enable proper fetal development and gestational success. The formation and development of the placenta is one of these critical pregnancy events. This organ plays essential roles during gestation, including fetal nourishment, support and protection, gas exchange and production of several hormones and other mediators. Placental hormones are mainly secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, in a highly and tightly regulated way. These hormones are important for pregnancy establishment and maintenance, exerting autocrine and paracrine effects that regulate decidualization, placental development, angiogenesis, endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation, immunotolerance and fetal development. In addition, because they are released into maternal circulation, the profile of their blood levels throughout pregnancy has been the target of intense research towards finding potential robust and reliable biomarkers to predict and diagnose pregnancy-associated complications. In fact, altered levels of these hormones have been associated with some pathologies, such as chromosomal anomalies or pre-eclampsia. This review proposes to revise and update the main pregnancy-related hormones, addressing their major characteristics, molecular targets, function throughout pregnancy, regulators of their expression and their potential clinical interest. PMID:26615903

  3. Ultrastructural study on human placenta from intrauterine growth retardation cases.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Pomini, Francesco; Scavo, Maria; Caruso, Alessandro; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2004-10-01

    A morphological study was performed on 27 human placentas from normal gestations (Group 1) and compared with those from eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (Group 2). Semithin section light microscopy, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on trophoblastic terminal villi, carefully identified under the stereomicroscope. In growth retardation cases, villi appear longer, thinner, and less vascularized, compared to the normal condition. Fibrinoid, an extracellular material of hematic origin, frequently fills villar stroma. The density of apical microvilli appears considerably reduced and occasional microvilli-free areas are observed in growth retardation cases. Moreover, the underlying basal membrane appears significantly thicker than that of normal syncytiotrophoblast. Recently, particular attention has been paid to apoptosis as a possible cell deletion mechanism in growth restriction. In our study, a majority of typical apoptotic features appear indifferently in both IUGR and normal pregnancy. Our data hints that growth retardation might be correlated with a complex of structural changes, suggestive of maternofetal traffic downregulation, but further studies are required to understand the underlying functional mechanisms. PMID:15605416

  4. Histopathological Study of Placentae in Low Birth Weight Babies in India

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, JS; Misra, V; Singh, P; Singh, PA; Chauhan, S; Thakur, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: The antenatal health-care given to pregnant women has great influence on the rates of perinatal death and morbidity. Amongst the different causes of perinatal mortality, low birth weight (LBW) is the single most significant factor therefore placenta from all the LBW babies (LBWB) should be examined routinely to find out the likely cause. Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the pathological changes in the placenta in association with LBWB. Materials and Methods: This is a Case control study performed at Medical College Allahabad,(MLN) India. In this study, 90 placentae were included. 30 placentae from full-term vaginally delivered babies, weighing more than 2500 g were included as the control group. 60 placentae belonged to babies whose birth weight was less than 2500 g (LBW). Weight of the baby was taken within the 1st h of birth and Apgar score was noted. Gross and microscopic examination of placentae was done. Statistical correlation of was carried out between them by using SPSS 18 version. Chi-square test with or without yate's correction was used as and when required. P < 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance. Results: Placenta was circum-marginal in both groups. Attachment of cord was mainly central in the control group 90% (27/30), whereas eccentric attachment was prominent in patient group 66.67% (40/60). The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Calcification and sub-chorionic fibrin deposition was seen in significantly higher numbers of placentae from patients than controls (P < 0.01) infarction and meconium staining were seen in placentae from patients only. Histologically placental ischemia, infarction and calcification were seen in significantly higher number of patients (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and < 0.01 respectively). Fibrinoid necrosis, stromal fibrosis, placental dysmaturity and obstructive vasculopathy were seen in placentae from patients only. Conclusion: Placental pathology among LBW infants was high

  5. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yueping; Zhao, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ) technique. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. Results: The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711). The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159). Conclusion: The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation. PMID:27184654

  6. In utero imaging of the placenta: importance for diseases of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, J S; Sheiner, E

    2007-04-01

    Maurice Panigel demonstrated by X-rays, almost 40 years ago, placental maternal blood jets in non-human primates. Although to researchers the importance of the placenta is evident, in clinical obstetrical imaging, the fetus takes precedence. The placenta is imaged almost as an after thought and mostly to determine its location in the uterus. In animal species, the placenta was imaged with techniques which would be considered too invasive (or too costly for routine use) in humans, many pioneered by Panigel: radioangiography, radioisotopes scintigraphy, thermography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy, positive emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ultrasound allows for detailed, and, as far as is known, safe analyses of not only placental structure in the human but also its function. Earlier, only 2-dimensional grey-scale was available and more than 20 years ago, placental grading was popular. Later, colour imaging and spectral Doppler analysis of blood velocity both in the umbilical artery and within the placenta as well as the uterus and fetal vessels became essential and, more recently, the use of ultrasound contrast agents has been described, albeit not yet in a clinical setting. Three-dimensional ultrasound permits evaluation of the placenta in several planes, more precise depiction of internal vasculature as well as more accurate volume assessment. Several medical disorders of the pregnant woman or her fetus begin or end in the placenta, and ultrasound is the optimal investigation method. Obvious examples include pre-eclampsia and other forms of hypertension in pregnancy, less than optimal fetal growth (i.e. intrauterine growth restriction), triploidy (and its placental manifestation: partial mole), non-immune hydrops as well as several infectious processes. Ultrasound is also particularly suited to evaluate specific placental conditions, such as abnormal placentation (placenta previa and accrete for

  7. Retained placenta continues to be fatal but frequency can be reduced.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Dhorey, Madhuri

    2002-11-01

    Retained placenta is potentially lift-threatening not only because of retention per se, but because of associated haemorrhage and infection as well as complications related to its removal. These risks are increased in women in poor social circumstances due to pre-existing malnutrition, anaemia and unsupervised home deliveries. The present study was undertaken to assess the situation in this rural area. A previous study at the same place suggested preventive strategies an and individualised approach. Incidence of retained placenta has been 0.23% of all births over 15 years. Of the deliveries at Kasturba Hospital, the incidence of retained placenta was 0.008% (two of 23,838 vaginal deliveries). Sixty-five women were admitted with retained placenta after home deliveries and three after delivery at other hospitals The age of most of the patients was between 20 and 29 years and most were para 2 or 3. In twenty-three (32.4%) cases, women had delivered preterm. Twelve (16.9%) women had previous uterine surgery and 10 (14.1%) had had a retained placenta in the past. Twenty-six (36.61%) women had come in a state of severe shock. Thirty-six (50.7%) women required general anaesthesia for manual removal. One woman with an adherent placenta had to undergo hysterectomy (1.40%). The maternal mortality was 5.6%. Perinatal loss was 7.04%. It is unfortunate that of the four deaths, two women had actually delivered at a near by district hospital and were referred moribund and died. A properly conducted delivery can reduce the incidence of retained placenta and if retention occurs, timely appropriate treatment can save life. PMID:12554250

  8. Human placenta-derived adherent cells induce tolerogenic immune responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Morschauser, Andrew; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Xiaohua; Gleason, Joseph; He, Shuyang; Chen, Hong-Jung; Jankovic, Vladimir; Ye, Qian; Labazzo, Kristen; Herzberg, Uri; Albert, Vivian R; Abbot, Stewart E; Liang, Bitao; Hariri, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDAC cells) are a culture expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the immunoregulatory properties of PDAC cells, we investigated their effects on immune cell populations, including T cells and dendritic cells (DC) in vitro and in vivo. PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation in an OT-II T-cell adoptive transfer model, reduced the severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorated inflammation in a delayed type hypersensitivity response model. In vitro, PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation and inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation. Analysis of tissues derived from PDAC cell-treated animals revealed diminished CD86 expression on splenic DC, suggesting that they can also modulate DC populations. Furthermore, PDAC cells modulate the differentiation and maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DC. Similarly, human DC differentiated from CD14(+) monocytes in the presence of PDAC cells acquired a tolerogenic phenotype. These tolerogenic DC failed to induce allogeneic T-cell proliferation and differentiation toward Th1, but skewed T-cell differentiation toward Th2. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity resulted in a significant, but not complete, abrogation of PDAC cells' effects on DC phenotype and function, implying a role for prostaglandin E2 in PDAC-mediated immunomodulation. This study identifies modulation of DC differentiation toward immune tolerance as a key mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory activities of PDAC cells. PMID:25505962

  9. Calcium-phospholipid enhanced protein phosphorylation in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.J.; Moore, R.; Cardaman, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein phosphorylation has not been studied in placenta. Human placental cytosol was subjected to an endogenous protein phosphorylation assay using (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP in the presence of calcium and phosphatidylserine. Protein phosphorylation was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. When compared to basal levels, calcium (10/sup -6/ M) in combination with phosphatidylserine (50 ..mu..g/ml) significantly enhanced (P < 100) /sup 32/P incorporation into phosphoproteins having mol wt 47,000, 43,000, and 37,000. Half-maximal /sup 22/P incorporation was observed with 3.5 x 10/sup -7/ M Ca/sup 2 +/ in the presence of phosphatidylserine (50 ..mu..g/ml). The effect of phosphatidylserine was biphasic. In the presence of Ca 10/sup -6/ M, /sup 32/P incorporation increased to a maximum at 70 /sup +/g/ml of phosphatidylserine. The increase was suppressed at 150 ..mu..g/ml. Tetracaine caused a dose-dependent inhibition of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent enhancement of the three phosphoproteins. Calcium in the absence of phospholipid enhanced the phosphorylation of a protein of 98,000 mol wt. Phosphatidylserine suppressed this enhancement. Calmodulin (10/sup -6/ M) had no detectable effect upon phosphorylation beyond that of calcium alone, but the calmodulin inhibitor R-24571 specifically inhibited the calcium-stimulated 98,000 mol wt phosphoprotein. Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent phospholipid-dependent phosphoproteins are present in human placental cytosol; whether calcium-activated, calmodulin-dependent phosphoproteins also are present remains a question.

  10. Endocan of the maternal placenta tissue is increased in pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xinwen; Bian, Yiding; Wu, Yanming; Huang, Yajing; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with intravascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Interestingly, endocan plays a predominant role in the vascular inflammation and is considered as a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to explore whether the endocan levels in serum and placenta were different between pregnant women with PE and the normal pregnancies. Methods: Total 22 patients, including 10 normal pregnant women and 12 patients with PE, were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the location of endocan. Then, the mRNA and protein levels of endocan in placenta were detected using qRT-PCR and western blotting. Serum endocan concentration was measured by ELISA. Results: Endocan protein was present in the human placenta, and the mRNA and protein levels of placenta tissues were elevated (P < 0.05) in the normal pregnancy with third trimester than those with first trimester. Furthermore, the expression of endocan mRNA and protein were increased in the placenta tissues of PE compared with in the normal pregnancy (P < 0.05); however, the endocan concentration of maternal serum did not have significant differences. Conclusion: Endocan may play a role in the progression of pregnancy and has a potential to be a new marker for the detective of PE. PMID:26823798

  11. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible. PMID:27579202

  12. [Effect of ambroxol on lipid peroxidation in homogenates of the human placenta].

    PubMed

    Chlubek, D; Zawierta, J; Olszewska, M; Kaźmierczyk, A; Sikora, M

    2001-10-01

    Free radically induced lipid peroxidation has been suggested as a possible pathogenic factor in pregnancy complications. The placenta is a potential source of lipid peroxides, due to its high lipid concentration. Cells and tissues are protected against toxic lipid peroxides by antioxidants. Ambroxol was found to be equipotent to well-known antioxidants in protecting lipids from peroxidative attack in lungs. To date there is no information on ambroxol capacity to act as a lipid antioxidant in the human placenta. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ambroxol on lipid peroxidation in homogenates of the human placenta by malondialdehyde measurements. Fourteen homogenates of placentas obtained from healthy women were incubated for 24 hours (pH = 7.4, temp. 37 degrees C) without (group II) and with (group III) ambroxol hydrochloride solutions (Boehringer Ingelheim--Germany) at concentration of 2200 ng/mL. Non-incubated homogenates were treated as a control group (group I). It was found that lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde formation is significantly higher in group II homogenates than in the control group (p < 0.05). Incubation with ambroxol (group III) caused a non-significant increase of malondialdehyde concentration in comparison with the control group and a non-significant but distinct decrease when compared with group II (incubation without ambroxol). This investigation shows that ambroxol decreases malondialdehyde formation in homogenates of the human placenta and can be regarded as lipid antioxidant. PMID:11848017

  13. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus. PMID:26101491

  14. Placenta increta as an important cause of uterine mass after first-trimester Curettage (case report)

    PubMed Central

    Rouholamin, Safoura; Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Placenta increta during the first trimester of pregnancy is very rare. This report describes two cases of placenta increta that caused prolonged vaginal bleeding after a first-trimester abortion. We were encountered two cases of placenta increta in October 2012 and May 2013. Case I: A 35-year-old patient with continues vaginal bleeding from 2 months after curettage due to missed abortion in the first trimester. The uterus was large, the human chorionic gonadotropin (BHCG) level was 112 mUI/mL and ultrasound showed an echogenic mass in the lower segment of the uterine cavity. She was a candidate for curettage but received hysterectomy because of massive vaginal bleeding. Pathology reported placenta increta. Case II: A 32-year-old patient in the 12th week of gestation with missed abortion. After 6 weeks from curettage, she returned with continues vaginal bleeding, BHCG = 55 mUI/mL and sonography showing mixed echo lesion in the uterine cavity like hydatiform mole. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed. Pathology reported placenta increta. In patients with a history of recent first-trimester abortion presenting with prolonged vaginal bleeding, uterine mass and low-level BHCG, a diagnosis of abnormal placentaion should be kept in mind. PMID:25538926

  15. Isolation and characterisation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vellasamy, Shalini; Sandrasaigaran, Pratheep; Vidyadaran, Sharmili; George, Elizabeth; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of placenta tissue as a reliable and efficient source for generating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). METHODS: MSC were generated from human placenta tissue by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation. The placenta MSC (PLC-MSC) were characterized for expression of cell surface markers, embryonic stem cell (ECS) gene expression and their differentiation ability into adipocytes and osteocytes. The immunosuppressive properties of PLC-MSC on resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated allogenic T cells were assessed by means of cell proliferation via incorporation of tritium thymidine (3H-TdR). RESULTS: The generated PLC-MSC appeared as spindle-shaped cells, expressed common MSC surface markers and ESC transcriptional factors. They also differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages when induced. However, continuous cultivation up to passage 15 caused changes in morphological appearance and cellular senescence, although the stem cell nature of their protein expression was unchanged. In terms of their immunosuppressive properties, PLC-MSC were unable to stimulate resting T cell proliferation; they inhibited the PHA stimulated T cells in a dose dependent manner through cell to cell contact. In our study, MSC generated from human placenta exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers; MSC-like gene expression pattern and MSC-like differentiation potential were comparable to other sources of MSC. CONCLUSION: We suggest that placenta tissues can serve as an alternative source of MSC for future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:22993662

  16. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible. PMID:27579202

  17. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in human placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.; Saito, H.; Wakisaka, I.

    1986-10-01

    Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in placenta, maternal blood, cord blood, and milk were carried out. Trichlorobiphenyl, tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyls, and hexachlorobiphenyls were identified by the mass chromatogram and the mass spectra. Some minor peaks of PCBs were identified by gas chromatography. The relationship between the PCB concentration in placenta and that in milk is different in each PCB congener. The higher the chlorine content of the PCB congener, the more significant the correlation. No significant but a low negative correlation exists between the concentration of some PCB congeners in the placenta and that in cord blood. On the other hand, a significant linear correlation exists between the concentration of hexachlorobenzene in the placenta and that in cord blood. The transplacental transport of each PCB congener varied depending upon its chemical nature. Trichlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl were more transferable than hexachlorobiphenyls. The results show that the placenta and cord blood are useful human samples to analyze the body burden of environmental pollutants and to estimate their transfer from mother to fetus.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF RAT PLACENTA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF PREGNANCY UNDER MODELED PREECLAMPSIA.

    PubMed

    Sharashenidze, A; Kikalishvili, L; Turmanidze, T; Sanikidze, T

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the morphological changes of rat placenta in II, III week of pregnancy under modeled preeclampsia. Modeling of preeclampsia was performed in the rats, as follows: lumen of the abdominal aorta below the renal artery was narrowed by the silk tread on the third of its diameter (0.2 mm). The placenta tissue was studied by histological and immunohistochemical methods (AE1/AE3, CD133, Ki-67). The study has shown that in the experimental model of preeclampsia at the end of II, III week of pregnancy the number of glycogen cells in the placenta trophyspongium layer is reduced compared with the control. There was shown sharp dilatation of the blood sinuses and lacuna, sometimes along the events of stasis. The volume of nucleated erythrocytes in fetal capillaries of the labyrinth layer is reduced compared with the control, especially in IIIweek of pregnancy. In the preparations marked by the CD133 marker, unlike to the norm of III week of pregnancy, the visualization of positive endothelial cells is complicated. The study of the preparations marked by Ki-67 marker reveals that the proliferated activity in the hypoxic placenta tissue is sharply reduced. The exception is those blood tubes, to which umbilical blood vessels are finally formed. It can be concluded that due to hypoxia placenta proliferation of placental blood vessels is disturbed that contributes to the disorder of placental blood circulation, reduce its metabolism in complications of pregnancy. PMID:27249447

  19. Shear Wave Elastography in the Living, Perfused, Post-Delivery Placenta.

    PubMed

    McAleavey, Stephen A; Parker, Kevin J; Ormachea, Juvenal; Wood, Ronald W; Stodgell, Christopher J; Katzman, Philip J; Pressman, Eva K; Miller, Richard K

    2016-06-01

    The placenta is the critical interface between the mother and the developing fetus and is essential for survival and growth. Despite the widespread use of ultrasound imaging and Doppler in obstetrics and gynecology and the recent growth of elastographic technologies, little is known about the biomechanical (elastic shear wave) properties of the placenta and the range of normal and pathologic parameters that are present. This study uses a well-developed protocol for perfusing whole placentas, post-delivery, to maintain tissue integrity and function for hours. In this model, the placenta is living, whole and maintained within normal physiologic parameters such as flow, arterial pressure and oxygen, throughout examination by ultrasound, Doppler and shear wave elastography. The preliminary results indicate that normal placental tissue on the fetal side has shear wave speeds on the order of 2 m/s, in a range similar to those of animal livers. Some abnormalities are found outside this range, and thus, elastographic measures of the placenta may provide useful assessments related to the state of the tissue. PMID:27006269

  20. Apoptosis in normal and Coxiella burnetii-infected placentas from Alaskan northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Myers, E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, B; Spraker, T; Gelatt, T; Duncan, C

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. Although many infectious organisms cause increased cell death, C. burnetii has been shown to suppress apoptosis of the host macrophages as an intracellular survival mechanism. To determine if infection induces a similar functional change in the placenta, immunohistochemistry for antibodies to cleaved caspase-3 (activated caspase-3) and the (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique were used to compare the amount of placental apoptosis in infected and noninfected placentas. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of apoptotic cells between infected and uninfected placentas, with more apoptosis identified in the uninfected placentas. This finding suggests that the survival mechanism of C. burnetii in host macrophages to reduce apoptosis may also be utilized in trophoblasts. The significance of decreased trophoblastic apoptosis for the northern fur seal fetus requires further investigation. PMID:23125144

  1. Tumor-homing peptides as tools for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta

    PubMed Central

    King, Anna; Ndifon, Cornelia; Lui, Sylvia; Widdows, Kate; Kotamraju, Venkata R.; Agemy, Lilach; Teesalu, Tambet; Glazier, Jocelyn D.; Cellesi, Francesco; Tirelli, Nicola; Aplin, John D.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Harris, Lynda K.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking mainly because of the risk of causing harm to the fetus. As enhancement of placental growth and function can alleviate maternal symptoms and improve fetal growth in animal models, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta. We show that the tumor-homing peptide sequences CGKRK and iRGD bind selectively to the placental surface of humans and mice and do not interfere with normal development. Peptide-coated nanoparticles intravenously injected into pregnant mice accumulated within the mouse placenta, whereas control nanoparticles exhibited reduced binding and/or fetal transfer. We used targeted liposomes to efficiently deliver cargoes of carboxyfluorescein and insulin-like growth factor 2 to the mouse placenta; the latter significantly increased mean placental weight when administered to healthy animals and significantly improved fetal weight distribution in a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction. These data provide proof of principle for targeted delivery of drugs to the placenta and provide a novel platform for the development of placenta-specific therapeutics. PMID:27386551

  2. Tumor-homing peptides as tools for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta.

    PubMed

    King, Anna; Ndifon, Cornelia; Lui, Sylvia; Widdows, Kate; Kotamraju, Venkata R; Agemy, Lilach; Teesalu, Tambet; Glazier, Jocelyn D; Cellesi, Francesco; Tirelli, Nicola; Aplin, John D; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Harris, Lynda K

    2016-05-01

    The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking mainly because of the risk of causing harm to the fetus. As enhancement of placental growth and function can alleviate maternal symptoms and improve fetal growth in animal models, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta. We show that the tumor-homing peptide sequences CGKRK and iRGD bind selectively to the placental surface of humans and mice and do not interfere with normal development. Peptide-coated nanoparticles intravenously injected into pregnant mice accumulated within the mouse placenta, whereas control nanoparticles exhibited reduced binding and/or fetal transfer. We used targeted liposomes to efficiently deliver cargoes of carboxyfluorescein and insulin-like growth factor 2 to the mouse placenta; the latter significantly increased mean placental weight when administered to healthy animals and significantly improved fetal weight distribution in a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction. These data provide proof of principle for targeted delivery of drugs to the placenta and provide a novel platform for the development of placenta-specific therapeutics. PMID:27386551

  3. C-type virus particles in placenta of normal healthy Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, L; Schidlovsky, G; Feldman, D; Dreyfuss, Y; Moore, L A

    1975-01-01

    C-type virus particles were found on electron-microscopic examination in placentas from two out of four young healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. One of these specimens contained virus particles budding from the plasma membranes of cells in the junctional zone of the placenta, i.e., the region where the fetal and maternal cell layers meet. In the other placenta, immature and mature C-type virus particles were found among cell debris also in the junctional region. This observation adds another species of animals to those recently reported, such as rhesus and baboon monkeys, as well as humans, in which C-type virus particles were found in the placenta. The presence of C-type viicant in view of the fact that a considerable number of these animals develop spontaneously a variety of malignant tumors, occasionally also leukemia and malignant lymphomas; however, none of these spontaneous tumors reveals the presence of virus particles on electron-microscopic examination. The nature of virus particles detected in rat placenta remains to be determined. As a working hypothesis, it is possible to assume that they may represent the passage of latent, presumably oncogenic, viruses transmitted "vertically" from parents to offspring. In the course of this passage some of them may be formed, emerging temporarily from their latency, before losing their identity and being again incorporated into the cell genetic components. Images PMID:171659

  4. Histological characteristics of singleton placentas delivered before the 28th week of gestation

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Jonathan L.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Kliman, Harvey J.; Zambrano, Eduardo; Doss, Barbara J.; Husain, Aliya; Pflueger, Solveig M. V.; Chang, Chung-ho; Livasy, Chad A.; Roberts, Drucilla; Bhan, Ina; Ross, Dennis W.; Senagore, Patricia Kaman; Leviton, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aims The placenta is a record of the fetal environment and its examination may provide information about the baby’s subsequent growth and development. We describe the histological characteristics of 947 singleton placentas from infants born between 23 and 27 weeks gestation. Methods Consent was obtained from mothers who delivered before 28 weeks (clinical estimate). We evaluated the gross and histopathological features of the placenta and assessed pair-wise correlations between variables. Results Lesions of uteroplacental circulation (abruption, extensive infarction or thrombosis, marked basal or perivillous fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots) were inversely related to those associated with inflammation of the membranes and cord. Earlier age favoured inflammatory variables, while older age favoured characteristics attributed to impaired blood flow. We observed inflammation of the chorionic plate in 43%, the cord in 19%, and of chorionic plate vessels in 30%. Of the placentas with umbilical cord inflammation, 8% had no inflammation of the chorionic plate. Conclusions This study population is unique in its size and recruitment by gestational age rather than birth weight. Inflammation occurred frequently, but not in placentas that had characteristics of vasculopathy. The prevalence of inflammation decreased with increasing gestational age, while vasculopathy increased. Funisitis need not be accompanied by chorionic inflammation. PMID:18446627

  5. Characterization and gestational regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA in human placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Frim, D M; Emanuel, R L; Robinson, B G; Smas, C M; Adler, G K; Majzoub, J A

    1988-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of ACTH secretion, has been detected by RIA in extracts of human placenta. We wished to determine whether this immunoreactive substance is a product of CRH gene expression in the placenta. We have found authentic human CRH (hCRH) mRNA in human placental tissue that is similar in size to hypothalamic CRH mRNA. Furthermore, the transcriptional initiation site for placental hCRH mRNA is identical to that previously predicted for hypothalamic hCRH mRNA, 23-26 nucleotides downstream from a canonical promoter element. Placental hCRH mRNA increases more than 20-fold in the 5 wk preceding parturition, in parallel with a rise in placental hCRH peptide content. These data strongly suggest that the hCRH gene is expressed in the placenta and that this expression changes dramatically during gestation. Images PMID:3260606

  6. Intraoperative bleeding control during cesarean delivery of complete placenta previa with transient occlusion of uterine arteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Joung, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soo-Jung; Kwack, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    There are few methods to control heavy intra-operative bleeding during cesarean delivery of placenta previa. Transient occlusion of uterine arteries (TOUA) during operation has previously been reported as a quick and safe method to control intra-operative uterine bleeding. We reported 2 cases of cesarean delivery with complete placenta previa in which TOUA was performed to safely reduce intra-operative complication, especially heavy intra-operative bleeding. In the 2 cases, cesarean deliveries were safe and without any complications under the TOUA method. TOUA can be a good method to control heavy intra-operative bleeding during cesarean delivery of complete placenta previa with risk of heavy bleeding. PMID:26623419

  7. The Fascinating and Complex Role of the Placenta in Pregnancy and Fetal Well-being.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Gwen; Founds, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence implicates the placenta as the origin of some common pregnancy complications. Moreover, some maternal conditions, such as inadequate nutrition, diabetes, and obesity, are known to adversely affect placental function, with subsequent negative impact on the fetus and newborn. The placenta may also contribute to fetal programming with health consequences into adulthood, such as cardiovascular, metabolic, and mental health disorders. There is evidence that altered placental development, specifically impaired trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling in the first trimester, is the origin of preeclampsia. Prenatal care providers who understand the relationships between placental health and maternal-newborn health can better inform and guide women to optimize health early in pregnancy and prior to conception. This article reviews the current understanding of placental function; placental contributions to normal fetal brain development and timing of birth; and impact of maternal nutrition, obesity, and diabetes on the placenta. PMID:26255798

  8. Conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine in human placenta and fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Banovac, K; Bzik, L; Tislarić, D; Sekso, M

    1980-01-01

    Conversion of thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) was measured in vitro in human placenta and fetal membranes. T4 (5 micrograms/ml) was incubated in 0.15 mol/l phosphate buffer with tissue homogenates for 2 h at 37 degrees C, and the T3 and rT3 generated were determined in ethanol extract using RIA methods. The placenta and chorion homogenates converted more T4 to T3 than to rT3; the placenta was more active than the chorion. In both tissues the highest converting activity was found in microsomal fractions. PMID:7399397

  9. Isolation and Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived from Human Placenta Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Sardesai, Varda S.; Futrega, Kathryn; Lott, William B.; Kuhn, Michael; Doran, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are promising candidates for use in cell-based therapies. In most cases, therapeutic response appears to be cell-dose dependent. Human term placenta is rich in MSC and is a physically large tissue that is generally discarded following birth. Placenta is an ideal starting material for the large-scale manufacture of multiple cell doses of allogeneic MSC. The placenta is a fetomaternal organ from which either fetal or maternal tissue can be isolated. This article describes the placental anatomy and procedure to dissect apart the decidua (maternal), chorionic villi (fetal), and chorionic plate (fetal) tissue. The protocol then outlines how to isolate MSC from each dissected tissue region, and provides representative analysis of expanded MSC derived from the respective tissue types. These methods are intended for pre-clinical MSC isolation, but have also been adapted for clinical manufacture of placental MSC for human therapeutic use. PMID:27340821

  10. The viral theory of schizophrenia revisited: Abnormal placental gene expression and structural changes with lack of evidence of H1N1 viral presence in placentae of infected mice or brains of exposed offspring

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Mori, Susumu; Kornfield, Tess E.; Reutiman, Teri J.; Kneeland, Rachel E.; Liesch, Stephanie B.; Hua, Kegang; Hsu, John; Patel, Divyen H.

    2011-01-01

    , and autism. Placentas from infected mice showed a number of morphological abnormalities including presence of thrombi and increased presence of immune cells. Additionally, we searched for presence of H1N1 viral-specific genes for M1/M2, NA, and NS1 in placentas of infected mice and brains of exposed offspring and found none. Our results demonstrate that prenatal viral infection disrupts structure and gene expression of the placenta, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex potentially explaining deleterious effects in the exposed offspring without evidence for presence of viral RNAs in the target tissues. PMID:21277874

  11. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Masoomeh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Dehghani, Leila; Bahadoran, Hossein; Tekieh, Elaheh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers. Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells. Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05). Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups. Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed. PMID:25587250

  12. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lelić, Melisa; Ramić, Suada; Žigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Marković, Sergije

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x) and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x) were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined.In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a) terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm0, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm0 and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a) terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm0, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm0 and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers' placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05), volume density (p <0.01) and absolute volume (p<0.0001) of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05).In anemic mothers' placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group.  PMID:25172972

  13. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Jung, Inkyung; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL. Results Sixty-four patients (46.7%) required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1%) had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64) for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05). The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20–1200 mL) in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5–500 mL) in the balloon success group (p<0.01). Conclusion Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance. PMID:26263014

  14. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale. PMID:23269486

  15. Protein profiles of bovine placenta derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Rye; Kang, Jae Ku; Yoon, Jong Taek; Seong, Hwan Hoo; Jung, Jin Kwan; Lee, Hong Mie; Sik Park, Chang; Jin, Dong Il

    2005-11-01

    Practical application of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been hampered by an extremely low success rate. To address whether placental dysfunction in SCNT causes fetal loss during pregnancy, we have used a global proteomics approach using 2-DE and MS to analyze the differential protein patterns of three placentae from the afterbirth of cases of postnatal death, derived from SCNT of Korean Native cattle, and three normal placentae obtained from the afterbirth of fetuses derived from artificial insemination. Proteins within a pI range of 4.0-7.0 and 6.0-9.0 were analyzed separately by 2-DE in triplicate. A total of approximately 2000 spots were detected in placental 2-DE gels stained with CBB. In the comparison of normal and SCNT samples, 60 spots were identified as differentially expressed proteins, of which 33 spots were up-regulated proteins in SCNT placentae, while 27 spots were down-regulated proteins. Most of the proteins identified in this analysis appeared to be related with protein repair or protection, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, immune system, metabolism, extracellular matrix and remodeling, transcription regulation, cell structure or differentiation and ion transport. One of up-regulated proteins in SCNT was TIMP-2 protein known to be related to extracellular matrix and remodeling during pregnancy. Western blot analysis showed an increased level of TIMP-2 in SCNT placenta compared to normal. Our results revealed composite profiles of key proteins involved in abnormal placenta derived from SCNT, and suggested expression abnormality of these genes in SCNT placenta, resulting in fetal losses following SCNT. PMID:16196098

  16. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lelić, Melisa; Ramić, Suada; Žigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Marković, Sergije

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x) and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x) were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined. In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a) terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm°, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm° and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a) terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm°, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm° and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers’ placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05), volume density (p <0.01) and absolute volume (p<0.0001) of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05). In anemic mothers’ placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group. PMID:25172972

  17. Transfundal Uterine Incision Performed with Prophylactic Common Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion for Patient with Placenta Previa Totalis

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Hirakawa, Tomoko; Utsunomiya, Yufuko; Tsusue, Hatsumi; Narahara, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    A 37-year-old primigravida at 35 weeks of gestation presented with known anterior wall dominant placenta previa totalis and suspected placenta accreta was successfully treated with transfundal uterine (transverse) incision performed with prophylactic common iliac artery balloon occlusion. This new surgical approach could be an alternative procedure for avoiding excessive blood loss during caesarean delivery. PMID:22844198

  18. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  19. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  20. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  1. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  2. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  3. Store-operated Ca2+ entry in first trimester and term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Clarson, L H; Roberts, V H J; Hamark, B; Elliott, A C; Powell, T

    2003-07-15

    We have examined whether store-operated Ca2+ entry, a common pathway for Ca2+ entry in non-excitable tissue, is apparent in the syncytiotrophoblast of both first trimester and term human placenta. Expression of transient receptor potential (TRPC) homologues, a family of channels thought to be involved in store-operated Ca2+ entry, was also studied at the mRNA and protein levels. [Ca2+]i in syncytiotrophoblast of first trimester and term placental villous fragments was measured by microfluorimetry using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2. Store-operated Ca2+ entry was stimulated using 1 microM thapsigargin in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode buffer (no added Ca2+ + 1 mM EGTA) followed by superfusion with control (Ca2+-containing) buffer. In term fragments, this protocol resulted in a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, which was inhibited in the presence of 150 microM GdCl3, 200 microM NiCl2, 200 microM CoCl2 or 30 microM SKF96365 but was unaffected by addition of 10 microM nifedipine. It was not possible to stimulate such a rise in [Ca2+]i in first trimester fragments. Messenger RNA encoding TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5 and TRPC6 was identified in both first trimester and term placentas. From Western blotting, TRPC3 and TRPC6 proteins were detected in term, but not in first trimester, placentas, while TRPC1 protein was not detected. By immunocytochemistry, TRPC3 and TRPC4 were localised to cytotrophoblast cells in first trimester placentas and to the syncytiotrophoblast in term placentas. TRPC6 staining was present in the syncytiotrophoblast of both first trimester and term placenta, but the intensity was much greater in the latter. We propose that store-operated Ca2+ entry may be an important route for Ca2+ entry into the syncytiotrophoblast of term, but not first trimester placentas, and that in human placenta TRPC channels may underlie this entry mechanism. PMID:12766233

  4. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery.

  5. Effect of Factors Secreted by the Placenta on Phenotype of THP-1 Cells Cultured on a 3D Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Lvova, T Yu; Stepanova, O I; Viazmina, L P; Okorokova, L S; Belyakova, K L; Belikova, M E; Selkov, S A; Sokolov, D I

    2016-05-01

    We studied the effects of secretory products of the placenta obtained from women with normal pregnancy and preeclampsia on the expression of surface markers by THP-1 cells cultured on a 3D Matrigel scaffold. Secretory products of third trimester placentas obtained from women with normal pregnancy reduced the relative number of THP-1 cells expressing CD54 and CD14 molecules and expression of CD14 and CD95 molecules by THP-1 cells in comparison with the effect of secretory products first trimester placentas. In parallel, the intensity of CD49d expression by THP-1 cells increased in the presence of secretory products of third trimester placentas in comparison with the first trimester. No differences in the expression of the studied molecules by THP-1 cells under the effect of placentas from women with physiological pregnancy and patients with preeclampsia were found. PMID:27259498

  6. Incidence and Risk Factors for Placenta Accreta/Increta/Percreta in the UK: A National Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Kathryn E.; Sellers, Susan; Spark, Patsy; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Background Placenta accreta/increta/percreta is associated with major pregnancy complications and is thought to be becoming more common. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta in the UK and to investigate and quantify the associated risk factors. Methods A national case-control study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System was undertaken, including 134 women diagnosed with placenta accreta/increta/percreta between May 2010 and April 2011 and 256 control women. Results The estimated incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta was 1.7 per 10,000 maternities overall; 577 per 10,000 in women with both a previous caesarean delivery and placenta praevia. Women who had a previous caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 14.41, 95%CI 5.63–36.85), other previous uterine surgery (aOR 3.40, 95%CI 1.30–8.91), an IVF pregnancy (aOR 32.13, 95%CI 2.03–509.23) and placenta praevia diagnosed antepartum (aOR 65.02, 95%CI 16.58–254.96) had raised odds of having placenta accreta/increta/percreta. There was also a raised odds of placenta accreta/increta/percreta associated with older maternal age in women without a previous caesarean delivery (aOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.13–1.50 for every one year increase in age). Conclusions Women with both a prior caesarean delivery and placenta praevia have a high incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta. There is a need to maintain a high index of suspicion of abnormal placental invasion in such women and preparations for delivery should be made accordingly. PMID:23300807

  7. Cell mediated immune responses in the placenta following challenge of vaccinated pregnant heifers with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Y P; Cantón, G; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Chianini, F; Morrell, E; Lischinsky, L; Ortega-Mora, L M; Innes, E A; Odeón, A; Campero, C M; Moore, D P

    2015-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and correlate the cell-mediated immune response and pathological changes at the maternal-fetal interface of Neospora-challenged pregnant cattle previously immunized with live and inactivated experimental vaccines. Pregnant heifers naïve to Neospora caninum were divided in 5 groups of 4 animals, each one immunized before mating: Group A heifers were intravenously (iv) immunized with 6.25 × 10(7) live tachyzoites of the NC-6 strain; group B heifers were immunized twice subcutaneously (sc) 3 weeks apart with native antigen extract of the NC-6 strain formulated with ISCOMs; group C heifers were sc immunized twice 3 weeks apart with three recombinant proteins (rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20, rNcGRA7) of the NC-1 strain formulated with ISCOMs; group D heifers were sc injected with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and group E heifers received sc ISCOM-matrix (ISCOMs without antigen). All groups were iv-challenged with 4.7 × 10(7) NC-1 tachyzoites at 70 days of gestation. Heifers were culled at day 104 of gestation and placentomes were examined to evaluate lesions and local cellular immune responses using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed using bovine leucocyte specific antibodies. Cytokine expression and levels (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α) were measured using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Minimal inflammation was observed in group A placentomes; while placentomes from group B, C, D and E had moderate to severe infiltration with CD3(+), CD4(+), γδ-T cells, CD8(+) cells and macrophages being more numerous in groups B and E placentomes, when compared with groups C and D (P<0.001). Cytokine levels were significantly increased in the caruncles of animals of groups B and C in comparison with the other animal groups (P < 0.001). The results from this study showed that the strongest cellular immune responses were observed in the

  8. Adiponectin exerts antiproliferative effect on human placenta via modulation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haitian; Chen, Hanqing; Wu, Yanxin; Liu, Bin; Li, Zhuyu; Wang, Zilian

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of adiponectin on human placenta during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and on high glucose (HG)-induced BeWo cell proliferation. We examined the expression levels of adiponectin in control and GDM placenta using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using a colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8), PCNA immunocytochemical staining, and Western blot analysis of cyclin D1. Transfection of siRNA against c-jun was performed using Lipofectamine 2000. Cell cycle analysis was performed using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Results show a decreased expression of adiponectin and an increased degree of trophoblast cell proliferation in GDM placenta compared to the normal placenta. Similarly, HG can promote BeWo cell proliferation that is associated with adiponectin down-regulation. This proliferation could be depressed by addition of exogenous adiponectin, i.e. adiponectin exerts antiproliferative effects on HG-induced trophoblast cells. Adiponectin suppresses the HG-induced BeWo cell proliferation by inhibiting the activation of JNK/c-jun. In conclusion, adiponectin inhibits HG-induced proliferation of BeWo cells through down-regulation of JNK/c-jun phosphorylation. PMID:25031708

  9. [Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in the placenta and fetuses of mice with Chagasic acute infection].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Maritza; Pérez, Mary Carmen; Villarreal, Juana; Araujo, Sonia; Goncalves, Loredana; González, Anajulia; Moreno, Elio; Lugo-Yarbuh, Ana

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in the placenta and fetal tissues of NMRI mice (Mus musculus) inoculated with 22 x 10(3) trypomastigotes metacyclic of the M/HOM/BRA/53/Y strain by intraperitoneal route. Mice were pregnant in the acute phase of the infection. The course of patent parasitemia by T. cruzi was evaluated before mating and during pregnancy. At day twenty of gestation, animals were sacrificed and the fetuses and their placentas were removed to evaluate T. cruzi infection. Samples of fetal placenta, heart and skeletal muscle were fixed in 10%, formalin, included in paraffin and stained with hematoxilin and eosin (HE). The histopathological study of sections of fetal tissues revealed inflammatory infiltrates with mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells and without parasitism in these tissues. The amplification of T. cruzi DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) showed a positive reaction in 18% of placental tissue of pregnant infected mice. The samples of heart and skeletal muscle of the fetuses of mothers infected with T. cruzi did not show the presence T. cruzi DNA. The placenta and skeletal muscle of the fetuses analyzed by Peroxidase anti Peroxidase inmunostaining showed T. cruzi antigens in those tissues. Negative results by PCR in fetal tissues might be related with the virulence and tropism associated with the biological and genetic characteristic Of the T. cruzi strain used in the experimental infection of female mice. PMID:19961056

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterisation of Heparanase mRNA in Porcine Placenta Throughout Gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The placenta contains a complex extracellular matrix composed of several glycosaminoglycans including heparan sulfate (HS). Heparanase (HPSE) is an endoglycosidase that specifically degrades HS. The objective of this study was to clone cDNA encoding porcine HPSE and characterize the expression lev...

  11. Placenta Increta Complicating Persistent Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy following Failed Excision with Subsequent Preterm Cesarean Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs) are one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. Given their rarity, there is lack of consensus regarding the management and natural course of CSPs. Case. A 37-year-old G10 P3063 female with a history of two prior cesarean deliveries was diagnosed with her second CSP at 6 weeks and 5 days in her tenth pregnancy. The patient underwent vertical hysterotomy, excision of a gestational sac implanted in the cesarean sac, and bilateral salpingectomy via a laparotomy incision. The histopathology report confirmed immature chorionic villi. The patient returned 10 weeks later and was found to be still pregnant. Obstetric ultrasound confirmed a viable fetus of 19 weeks and 4 days of gestational age with a thin endometrium and an anteroposterior and right lateral placenta with multiple placental lakes. The patient ruptured her membranes at 31 weeks of gestation and pelvic MRI revealed an anterior placenta invading the myometrium and extending to the external serosal surface consistent with placenta increta. Following obstetric interventions, a live female infant was delivered by cesarean hysterectomy (because of placenta increta) at 32 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Development of standardized guidelines for management of CSPs, as well as heightened vigilance for possible complications, is required for proper care and avoidance of potential morbidity and mortality. PMID:27375911

  12. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood.

    PubMed

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. PMID:25460625

  13. Activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta and liver in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Eric; Wang, Xinyi; Engel, Franziska; Li, Hequn; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess whether the placental metabolism of xenobiotic compounds should be taken into consideration for physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling, the activities of seven phase I and phase II enzymes have been quantified in the 18-day placenta of untreated Wistar rats. To determine their relative contribution, these activities were compared to those of untreated adult male rat liver, using commonly accepted assays. The enzymes comprised cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), esterase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). In contrast to liver, no activities were measurable for 7-ethylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP1A), 7-pentylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP2B), 7-benzylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP2B, 2C and 3 A), UGT1, UGT2 and GST in placenta, indicating that the placental activity of these enzymes was well below their hepatic activity. Low activities in placenta were determined for FMO (4%), and esterase (8%), whereas the activity of placental ADH and ALDH accounted for 35% and 40% of the hepatic activities, respectively. In support of the negligible placental CYP activity, testosterone and six model azole fungicides, which were readily metabolized by rat hepatic microsomes, failed to exhibit any metabolic turnover with rat placental microsomes. Hence, with the possible exception of ADH and ALDH, the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta are too low to warrant consideration in PBTK modelling. PMID:26944803

  14. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  15. [Massive hemorrhage during abdominal total hysterectomy in a patient with placenta percreta].

    PubMed

    Morita, Yoshihisa; Mizuno, Ju; Takada, Shinji; Yunokawa, Seki; Morita, Shigeho

    2009-08-01

    A 33-year-old pregnant woman, who had undergone three previous cesarean sections and suspected of having placenta accrete, was scheduled for artificial abortion and abdominal total hysterectomy at 15 weeks gestation because of a probable high mortality rate. The general anesthesia was induced using fentanyl, propofol, and vecuronium and maintained with sevoflurane, fentanyl, and vecuronium, in combination with epidural anesthesia using ropivacaine. During the operation, we found that the placenta had penetrated into the posterior abdominal peritoneum and bladder wall. Sudden, massive hemorrhage was encountered when attempting to separate the placenta percreta. The massive hemorrhage, up to 11,054 ml, was controlled by transfusion, infusion, and temporary clamping of the bilateral common iliac arteries. Rapid infuser LEVEL1 and autologous blood recovery systems Electa were also used. After the surgery, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit intubated and was discharged on the 16th posteroperative day without any complications. Anesthesiologists should be prepared for massive hemorrhage in cases of abdominal total hysterectomy with suspected placenta percreta. PMID:19702225

  16. Placenta Percreta at 17 Weeks with Consecutive Hysterectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Natasha; Gupta, Anu; Green, Marlene; Kang, Hyung Shik; Blankstein, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Placenta percreta in early pregnancy is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication, for which very few cases have been reported in the literature worldwide, none from the United States. We report a patient with two previous cesarean deliveries, who presented with incomplete abortion at 17 weeks and underwent dilatation and curettage. She was found to have retained, adherent placenta that led to extensive hemorrhage, requiring emergency supracervical hysterectomy. Postoperative course was also complicated by severe consumption coagulopathy, necessitating reexploration after hysterectomy. Pathology revealed a placenta percreta. Patient lost more than 8000 cc blood through the 2 surgeries, received massive transfusions due to severe disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), and underwent a complicated surgery because of great difficulty in separating lower uterine segment and cervix from the bladder. Abnormal placentation in early pregnancy has increased in prevalence due to marked rise in cesarean deliveries and curettages in recent decades. We reviewed all reported cases of first and second trimester placenta percreta in the literature, to emphasize the early recognition of abnormal placentations in patients with risk factors, consider prenatal evaluation in such patients, anticipate complicated placental implantations during termination procedures, and prevent associated maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23082259

  17. Maternal diet modulates placenta growth and gene expression in a mouse model of diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kappen, Claudia; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Salbaum, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable maternal diet during pregnancy can predispose the offspring to diseases later in life, such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. However, the molecular basis for this phenomenon of "developmental programming" is poorly understood. We have recently shown that a diet nutritionally optimized for pregnancy can nevertheless be harmful in the context of diabetic pregnancy in the mouse, associated with a high incidence of neural tube defects and intrauterine growth restriction. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities may contribute to impaired fetal growth in these pregnancies, and therefore investigated the role of maternal diet in the placenta. LabDiet 5015 diet was associated with reduced placental growth, commencing at midgestation, when compared to pregnancies in which the diabetic dam was fed LabDiet 5001 maintenance chow. Furthermore, by quantitative RT-PCR we identify 34 genes whose expression in placenta at midgestation is modulated by diet, diabetes, or both, establishing biomarkers for gene-environment interactions in the placenta. These results implicate maternal diet as an important factor in pregnancy complications and suggest that the early phases of placenta development could be a critical time window for developmental origins of adult disease. PMID:22701643

  18. Bladder Necrosis Associated with Placenta Accreta, Embolization, and Repair of Cystotomies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wayland J.; Smith, Arthur D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bladder necrosis is an unusual and potentially devastating complication of embolization of the hypogastric arterial branches. The rich collateral blood supply makes this an extremely rare event. We present the case of a patient with bladder necrosis following placenta accreta that was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and uterine artery embolization and cystotomy repairs.

  19. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone metabolism and extraction by the perfused guinea pig placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Nogimori, T.; Alex, S.; Baker, S.; Emerson, C.H.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the extraction of synthetic TRH and its metabolic conversion in the perfused guinea pig placenta. These studies were performed to obtain an estimate of fractional fetal TRH losses through the placenta and to determine if some of these losses are due to TRH metabolism. Experiments were performed in which the perfusion buffer contained 0.01, 1, and 10 micrograms/ml or no synthetic TRH. In experiments in which TRH was perfused, the perfusion reservoir contents and placental effluent fractions were counted for TH, and TRH and deamido-TRH were determined by RIA. Similarly, cyclo(His-Pro) was measured when 10 micrograms/ml TRH were perfused. When synthetic TRH was perfused, steady state TRH concentrations were achieved in placental effluent fractions by 20-30 min. The single pass extraction of TRH by the placenta was 11.4 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SE) compared to 56.9 +/- 7.0% for TH22O. No significant difference was detected regardless of whether 10, 1, or 0.01 micrograms/ml TRH were perfused. A portion of the TRH that perfused the placenta was converted to deamido-TRH at all concentrations of perfused TRH. The conversion of TRH to TRH-OH was 4.2 +/- 0.7% in a single pass. When the perfusion buffer was devoid of synthetic TRH, a small but significant increase in the content of TRH immunoreactivity was noted in the placental effluent compared to that in the perfusion reservoir.

  20. Generation of functional islets from human umbilical cord and placenta derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Sachin; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been used for allogeneic application in tissue engineering but have certain drawbacks. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from other adult tissue sources have been considered as an alternative. The human umbilical cord and placenta are easily available noncontroversial sources of human tissue, which are often discarded as biological waste, and their collection is noninvasive. These sources of MSCs are not subjected to ethical constraints, as in the case of embryonic stem cells. MSCs derived from umbilical cord and placenta are multipotent and have the ability to differentiate into various cell types crossing the lineage boundary towards endodermal lineage. The aim of this chapter is to provide a detailed reproducible cookbook protocol for the isolation, propagation, characterization, and differentiation of MSCs derived from human umbilical cord and placenta with special reference to harnessing their potential towards pancreatic/islet lineage for utilization as a cell therapy product. We show here that mesenchymal stromal cells can be extensively expanded from umbilical cord and placenta of human origin retaining their multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. Our report indicates that postnatal tissues obtained as delivery waste represent a rich source of mesenchymal stromal cells, which can be differentiated into functional islets employing three-stage protocol developed by our group. These islets could be used as novel in vitro model for screening hypoglycemics/insulin secretagogues, thus reducing animal experimentation for this purpose and for the future human islet transplantation programs to treat diabetes. PMID:22610566

  1. The oxygen consumption of the placenta and foetal membranes in the sheep

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A. G. M.; Dawes, G. S.; Fishman, A. P.; Hyman, A. I.; James, G. B.

    1966-01-01

    1. In anaesthetized sheep near term the O2 uptake of the foetus from the placenta was reduced to zero either by replacing the foetus with a mechanical pump, or by ventilation of the foetus after delivery or in utero. When umbilical arterial and venous PO2 were made equal, they were much less than maternal arterial PO2. 2. This difference in PO2 was attributed to O2 consumption both within the placental cotyledons and the extra-cotyledonary foetal membranes. 3. The foetal membranes and cord in the sheep are supplied by branches of umbilical blood vessels and constitute an oxygen-consuming by-pass on the foetal side of the placenta. 4. The O2 consumption of individual placental cotyledons was measured in vivo. 5. The combined O2 consumption of the whole placenta and foetal membranes in vivo was a considerable fraction of foetal O2 consumption. 6. The consequences of these observations are discussed in relation to O2 transfer across the placenta. ImagesFig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:5949598

  2. Gestation Related Gene Expression of the Endocannabinoid Pathway in Rat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vaswani, Kanchan; Chan, Hsiu-Wen; Peiris, Hassendrini N.; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Wood Bradley, Ryan J.; Armitage, James A.; Rice, Gregory E.; Mitchell, Murray D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian placentation is a vital facet of the development of a healthy and viable offspring. Throughout gestation the placenta changes to accommodate, provide for, and meet the demands of a growing fetus. Gestational gene expression is a crucial part of placenta development. The endocannabinoid pathway is activated in the placenta and decidual tissues throughout pregnancy and aberrant endocannabinoid signaling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. In this study, the gene expression of eight endocannabinoid system enzymes was investigated throughout gestation. Rat placentae were obtained at E14.25, E15.25, E17.25, and E20, RNA was extracted, and microarray was performed. Gene expression of enzymes Faah, Mgll, Plcd4, Pld1, Nat1, Daglα, and Ptgs2 was studied (cohort 1, microarray). Biological replication of the results was performed by qPCR (cohort 2). Four genes showed differential expression (Mgll, Plcd4, Ptgs2, and Pld1), from mid to late gestation. Genes positively associated with gestational age were Ptgs2, Mgll, and Pld1, while Plcd4 was downregulated. This is the first comprehensive study that has investigated endocannabinoid pathway gene expression during rat pregnancy. This study provides the framework for future studies that investigate the role of endocannabinoid system during pregnancy. PMID:26229240

  3. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther

    2016-02-01

    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter. PMID:26907376

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of heparanase mRNA in porcine placenta throughout gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The porcine placenta is classified as epitheliochorial and is composed of a folded-bilayer consisting of intact epithelium from the endometrium and trophectoderm embedded in loose stroma. As pregnancy progresses, the fold width increases and becomes more complex providing greater surface area for f...

  5. Secretions from placenta, after hypoxia/reoxygenation, can damage developing neurones of brain under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Daniel J; Sood, Aman; Phillips, Tom J; Leinster, Veronica H L; Nishiguchi, Akihiro; Coyle, Christopher; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Beaumont, Oliver; Kemp, Helena; Goodall, Roberta; Cornes, Leila; Giugliano, Michele; Barone, Rocco A; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Y; Kano, Mitsunobu; McGarvey, Jennifer; Halemani, Nagaraj D; Simon, Katja; Keehan, Robert; Ind, William; Masters, Tracey; Grant, Simon; Athwal, Sharan; Collett, Gavin; Tannetta, Dionne; Sargent, Ian L; Scull-Brown, Emma; Liu, Xun; Aquilina, Kristian; Cohen, Nicki; Lane, Jon D; Thoresen, Marianne; Hanley, Jon; Randall, Andrew; Case, C Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Some psychiatric diseases in children and young adults are thought to originate from adverse exposures during foetal life, including hypoxia and hypoxia/reoxygenation. The mechanism is not understood. Several authors have emphasised that the placenta is likely to play an important role as the key interface between mother and foetus. Here we have explored whether a first trimester human placenta or model barrier of primary human cytotrophoblasts might secrete factors, in response to hypoxia or hypoxia/reoxygenation, that could damage neurones. We find that the secretions in conditioned media caused an increase of [Ca(2+)]i and mitochondrial free radicals and a decrease of dendritic lengths, branching complexity, spine density and synaptic activity in dissociated neurones from embryonic rat cerebral cortex. There was altered staining of glutamate and GABA receptors. We identify glutamate as an active factor within the conditioned media and demonstrate a specific release of glutamate from the placenta/cytotrophoblast barriers invitro after hypoxia or hypoxia/reoxygenation. Injection of conditioned media into developing brains of P4 rats reduced the numerical density of parvalbumin-containing neurones in cortex, hippocampus and reticular nucleus, reduced immunostaining of glutamate receptors and altered cellular turnover. These results show that the placenta is able to release factors, in response to altered oxygen, that can damage developing neurones under experimental conditions. PMID:24818543

  6. Placenta Increta Complicating Persistent Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy following Failed Excision with Subsequent Preterm Cesarean Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Malik, M F; Hoyos, L R; Rodriguez-Kovacs, J; Gillum, J; Johnson, S C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs) are one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. Given their rarity, there is lack of consensus regarding the management and natural course of CSPs. Case. A 37-year-old G10 P3063 female with a history of two prior cesarean deliveries was diagnosed with her second CSP at 6 weeks and 5 days in her tenth pregnancy. The patient underwent vertical hysterotomy, excision of a gestational sac implanted in the cesarean sac, and bilateral salpingectomy via a laparotomy incision. The histopathology report confirmed immature chorionic villi. The patient returned 10 weeks later and was found to be still pregnant. Obstetric ultrasound confirmed a viable fetus of 19 weeks and 4 days of gestational age with a thin endometrium and an anteroposterior and right lateral placenta with multiple placental lakes. The patient ruptured her membranes at 31 weeks of gestation and pelvic MRI revealed an anterior placenta invading the myometrium and extending to the external serosal surface consistent with placenta increta. Following obstetric interventions, a live female infant was delivered by cesarean hysterectomy (because of placenta increta) at 32 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Development of standardized guidelines for management of CSPs, as well as heightened vigilance for possible complications, is required for proper care and avoidance of potential morbidity and mortality. PMID:27375911

  7. Pain-reducing anesthesia prevents oxidative stress in human term placenta

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Yoko; Yamashita, Yoriko; Hattori, Yuka; Hua Li, Guang; Akatsuka, Shinya; Kotani, Tomomi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Takahashi, Satoru; Nishiwaki, Kimitoshi; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Anesthesia is sometimes used for the reduction of maternal pain in normal human term labor, but whether the drugs affect oxidative stress remains unclear. The placenta serves as an interface between the maternal and fetal vasculature. In this study, we immunohistochemically analyzed two markers for oxidative stress, namely 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal–modified proteins (HNE), using placentas from 21 cases of normal tansvaginal delivery (V group), 20 Caesarean sections (C group), and 17 normal transvaginal deliveries with epidural anesthesia (E group). 8-OHdG staining in the nuclei of trophoblasts lining the chorionic villi was significantly stronger in the V group either compared with the C or E group (p<0.001), without significant differences in the C and E groups (p = 0.792). Moderate to intense staining by HNE of the intravascular serum of chorionic villi vasculature was frequently observed in the placentas from the V group, but less frequently of those in either C or E groups (p<0.001), nor the p value comparing the C and E groups was significant (p = 0.128) for HNE staining. Our results suggest that although the role of oxidative stress and its influences on fetal state in the placenta in labor remains unclear, it seems to be lessened by epidural anesthesia. PMID:27013783

  8. Ultrasonographic monitoring of the placenta in patients with bleeding during the first and second trimesters.

    PubMed

    Takeda, S; Baba, K; Kojima, T; Kinoshita, K; Satoh, K; Sakamoto, S

    1990-09-01

    Thirteen patients with vaginal bleeding in the first and second trimester, in 730 pregnancies confirmed with live fetuses, were diagnosed as having subchorionic hematoma at the perivillous or periplacental region by a real-time B-mode scan device. In 9 of the 13 patients, the hematoma disappeared within 1 to 3 months after detection, while in 2 patients it increased in size. Seven of the 13 pregnancies progressed to full term (53.8%), 3 ended in premature deliveries (23.1%) and 3 in spontaneous abortions (23.1%). In 5 of the 13 patients, PROM occurred. Pathological examinations revealed 5 circumvallate (38.5%) and 2 circummarginate (15.4%) placentas. Since our clinical observation indicates that subchorionic hematoma and marginal separation of the placenta may be important causes of bleeding during pregnancy, monitoring of the placenta and fetus by ultrasound was used to obtain precise information in order to manage patients with bleeding. It might be speculated that extrachorial placenta results from subchorionic hematoma or its absorption. PMID:2088244

  9. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E; Main, K M; Kiviranta, H; Tuomisto, J T; Tuomisto, J; Viluksela, M; Vartiainen, T; Skakkebaek, N E; Toppari, J

    2012-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects. In addition, one previous case–control study has reported an association between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case–control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels of these chemicals and reproductive hormone levels in boys at 3 months were studied. Placentas were collected in a Danish–Finnish joint prospective cohort study on cryptorchidism (1997–2001). The boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth and at 3 months. Altogether, 280 placentas [112 Finnish (56 cases, 56 controls) and 168 Danish (39 cases, 129 controls)] were analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 37 PCBs (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs). Infant serum samples taken at 3 months were analysed for reproductive hormones. No significant differences between cases and controls were observed in either country in dioxin WHO-TEq levels (median 9.78 vs. 8.47 pg/g fat, respectively, in Finland, and 11.75 vs. 10.88 pg/g fat in Denmark) or PCB WHO-TEq levels (median 2.12 vs. 2.15 pg/g fat in Finland, 2.34 vs. 2.10 pg/g fat in Denmark) or total-TEq levels (median 11.66 vs. 10.58 pg/g fat in Finland, 13.94 vs. 13.00 pg/g fat in Denmark). Placenta WHO-TEq levels of dioxins were not associated with infant reproductive hormone levels at 3 months. In Finland, PCB WHO-TEq levels in placenta associated positively with infant LH levels. WHO-TEq levels of dioxins and PCBs and total-TEq levels were higher in Danish than Finnish samples. In conclusion, no association between placenta levels of dioxins or PCBs and congenital cryptorchidism was found

  10. AN APPRAISAL OF RETAINED PLACENTAE IN IBADAN: A FIVE YEAR REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Obajimi, G.O.; Roberts, A.O.; Aimakhu, C.O.; Bello, F.A.; Olayemi, O

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of retained placenta at the University College Hospital Ibadan (UCH). and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and examine the risk factors predisposing to retained placenta. Methods: This is a descriptive study covering a period of 5 years from January 1st 2002 to December 31st 2006. During the study period, 4980 deliveries took place at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and 106 cases of retained placenta were managed making the incidence 2.13 per cent of all births. Results: During the five year period, there were 106 patients with retained placenta; of these, 90 (84.9%) case notes were available for analysis. The mean age was 29.37 ± 4.99 years. First and second Para accounted for 52 per cent of the patients. Majority of the patient were unbooked for antenatal care in UCH with booked patients accounting for 27.8 per cent of the cases. The mean gestational age at delivery was 34.29 ± 6.02. Three patients presented to the hospital in shock of which 2 died on account of severe haemorrhagic shock. Fifty-eight patients (64.8%) presented with anaemia (packed cell volume less than 30 per cent) and 35 patients (38.8%) had blood transfusion ranging between 1-4 pints. 1 patient required hysterectomy on account of morbidly adherent placenta. Eleven patients (12.2%) had placenta retention in the past, 28 patients (31%) had a previous dilatation and curettage, 14 patients (15.5%) had previous caesarean sections and 47 patients (41.3%) had no known predisposing factors Conclusion: Retained placenta still remains a potentially life threatening condition in the tropics due to the associated haemorrhage, and other complications related to its removal. The incidence and severity may be decreased by health education, women empowerment and the provision of facilities for essential obstetric services by high skilled health care providers in ensuring a properly conducted delivery with active management of the

  11. Characterizations of two distinct Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins of 68-kDa isolated from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Owada, M K; Sonobe, S; Kakunaga, T

    1989-10-15

    Two distinct 68-kDa proteins, named 68K-I (pI 6.4) and 68K-II (pI 5.6), were solubilized from human placenta by treatment with 5 mM EGTA. On DE52 cellulose column chromatography at pH 7.4, 68K-I in the EGTA eluate was recovered in the unadsorbed fractions, whereas 68K-II was retained on the column and eluted with 0.2 M NaCl. The 68K-I protein was obtained in more than 95% purity by further hydroxylapatite and cation exchange chromatographies, while the 68K-II protein was purified further by gel filtration and hydroxylapatite chromatographies. Partial amino acid sequence data showed that 68K-I protein was a novel protein which shared the same sequences as lipocortin I and that 68K-II was the same as human p68/67-kDa calelectrin (Crompton, M. R., Owens, R. J., Totty, N. F., Moss, S. E., Waterfield, M.D., and Crumpton, M. J. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 21-27; Südhof, T. C., Slaughter, C. A., Leznicki, I., Barjon, P., and Reynolds, G. A. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 664-668). The two proteins bound to acidic phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylinositol, but not to phosphatidylcholine, in the presence of micromolar levels of Ca2+. 68K-I bound to phosphatidylinositol preferentially to phosphatidylserine, whereas 68K-II bound only to phosphatidylserine. Both 68K-I and 68K-II inhibited phospholipase A2 activity, and the inhibition by 68K-II was detectable only in the presence of 100 mM KCl. 68K-I, but not 68K-II, was found to bind to F-actin in a Ca2+-dependent (1 mM) manner. Moreover 68K-I, but not 68K-II, was phosphorylated in vitro at tyrosine residues by fps kinase and by epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase, the latter reaction being dependent on Ca2+ and epidermal growth factor. Western blot analysis with affinity purified anti-68K-I and anti-68K-II antibodies showed that 68K-I was located in only certain tissues, especially human placenta, whereas 68K-II was present in many human and rat tissues. PMID:2529258

  12. Role of mouse Wdr13 in placental growth; a genetic evidence for lifetime body weight determination by placenta during development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Alex, Jomini Liza; Lakshmi, B. Jyothi; Sailasree, S Purnima; Raj, T. Avinash; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Placental development is essential for implantation and growth of foetus in the uterus of eutherian mammals. Numerous growth factors are responsible for placental development and cell lineage differentiation. Gene knockout mice have shown role of various genes in the placenta. Here using Wdr13 knockout mice, we show that this gene is important for proper placental development. Wdr13, a X-linked gene, expresses in multiple trophoblast cell types of placenta and the mutant placenta had reduced size after 17.5 dpc due to reduction of junctional zone (JZ) and labyrinth zone (LZ). We observed reduction in levels of angiopoietin-2 and cd44 mRNA in Wdr13 mutant placenta as compared to that in the wild type. Our findings show that Wdr13 is required for normal placental development and cell differentiation. Wdr13 heterozygous female placenta when the mutant allele was of maternal origin showed similar defects as those in case of Wdr13 null placenta. Using two types of heterozygous females carrying either maternally and paternally derived mutant Wdr13 allele we provide genetic evidence that development of placenta determines body weight of mice for the entire life. PMID:26306915

  13. Balloon-Assisted Occlusion of the Internal Iliac Arteries in Patients with Placenta Accreta/Percreta

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L. Gribbin, Christopher; Siegel, Randall L.; Beale, Stephanie; Scorza, William

    2006-06-15

    Background. Placenta accreta/percreta is a leading cause of third trimester hemorrhage and postpartum maternal death. The current treatment for third trimester hemorrhage due to placenta accreta/percreta is cesarean hysterectomy, which may be complicated by large volume blood loss. Purpose. To determine what role, if any, prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion and transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries plays in the management of patients with placenta accreta/percreta. Methods. The records of 28 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of placenta accreta/percreta were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Six patients underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion, followed by cesarean section, transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries and cesarean hysterectomy (n = 5) or uterine curettage (n = 1). Twenty-two patients underwent cesarean hysterectomy without endovascular intervention. The following parameters were compared in the two groups: patient age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at delivery, days in the intensive care unit after delivery, total hospital days, volume of transfused blood products, volume of fluid replacement intraoperatively, operating room time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results. Patients in the embolization group had more frequent episodes of third trimester bleeding requiring admission and bedrest prior to delivery (16.7 days vs. 2.9 days), resulting in significantly more hospitalization time in the embolization group (23 days vs. 8.8 days) and delivery at an earlier gestational age than in those in the surgical group (32.5 weeks). There was no statistical difference in mean estimated blood loss, volume of replaced blood products, fluid replacement needs, operating room time or postoperative recovery time. Conclusion. Our findings do not support the contention that in patients with

  14. Shear wave elastography of placenta: in vivo quantitation of placental elasticity in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Yüksel, Mehmet Aytaç; Adaletli, İbrahim; Ustabaşıoğlu, Fethi Emre; Öncül, Mahmut; Madazlı, Rıza; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit; Mihmanlı, İsmail; Kantarcı, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE) for assessing the placenta in preeclampsia disease. METHODS A total of 50 pregnant women in the second or third trimester (23 preeclampsia patients and 27 healthy control subjects) were enrolled in the study. Obstetrical grayscale and Doppler ultrasonography, SWE findings of placenta, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were analyzed and the best SWE cutoff value which represents the diagnosis of preeclampsia was determined. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of preeclampsia were calculated based on SWE measurements. RESULTS Mean stiffness values were much higher in preeclamptic placentas in all regions and layers than in normal controls. The most significant difference was observed in the central placental area facing the fetus where the umbilical cord inserts, with a median of 21 kPa (range, 3–71 kPa) for preeclampsia and 4 kPa (range, 1.5–14 kPa) for the control group (P < 0.01). The SWE data showed a moderate correlation with the uterine artery resistivity and pulsatility indices. The cutoff value maximizing the accuracy of diagnosis was 7.35 kPa (area under curve, 0.895; 95% confidence interval, 0.791–0.998); sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 90%, 86%, 82%, 92%, and 88%, respectively. CONCLUSION Stiffness of the placenta is significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia. SWE appears to be an assistive diagnostic technique for placenta evaluation in preeclampsia. PMID:25858523

  15. Wound Healing Effects of Rose Placenta in a Mouse Model of Full-Thickness Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Woo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Sang Ho; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Soo Yun; Moh, Ji Hong; Kondo, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Background Rosa damascena, a type of herb, has been used for wound healing in Eastern folk medicine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rose placenta from R. damascena in a full-thickness wound model in mice. Methods Sixty six-week-old C57BL/6N mice were used. Full-thickness wounds were made with an 8-mm diameter punch. Two wounds were made on each side of the back, and wounds were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. Rose placenta (250 µg) was injected in the experimental group, and normal saline was injected in the control group. Wound sizes were measured with digital photography, and specimens were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and CD31. Vessel density was measured. Quantitative analysis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for EGF was performed. All evaluations were performed on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Statistical analyses were performed using the paired t-test. Results On days 4, 7, and 10, the wounds treated with rose placenta were significantly smaller. On day 2, VEGF and EGF expression increased in the experimental group. On days 7 and 10, TGF-β1 expression decreased in the experimental group. On day 10, vessel density increased in the experimental group. The increase in EGF on day 2 was confirmed with ELISA. Conclusions Rose placenta was found to be associated with improved wound healing in a mouse full-thickness wound model via increased EGF release. Rose placenta may potentially be a novel drug candidate for enhancing wound healing. PMID:26618114

  16. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females. PMID:26553568

  17. Dysregulated flow-mediated vasodilatation in the human placenta in fetal growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sarah; Bischof, Helen; Lang, Ingrid; Desoye, Gernot; Greenwood, Sue L; Johnstone, Edward D; Wareing, Mark; Sibley, Colin P; Brownbill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular resistance and reduced fetoplacental blood flow are putative aetiologies in the pathogenesis of fetal growth restriction (FGR); however, the regulating sites and mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesised that placental vessels dictate fetoplacental resistance and in FGR exhibit endothelial dysfunction and reduced flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMVD). Resistance was measured in normal pregnancies (n = 10) and FGR (n = 10) both in vivo by umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and ex vivo by dual placental perfusion. Ex vivo FMVD is the reduction in fetal-side inflow hydrostatic pressure (FIHP) following increased flow rate. Results demonstrated a significant correlation between vascular resistance measured in vivo and ex vivo in normal pregnancy, but not in FGR. In perfused FGR placentas, vascular resistance was significantly elevated compared to normal placentas (58 ± 7.7 mmHg and 36.8 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; 8 ml min−1; means ± SEM; P < 0.0001) and FMVD was severely reduced (3.9 ± 1.3% and 9.1 ± 1.2%, respectively). In normal pregnancies only, the highest level of ex vivo FMVD was associated with the lowest in vivo resistance. Inhibition of NO synthesis during perfusion (100 μm l-NNA) moderately elevated FIHP in the normal group, but substantially in the FGR group. Human placenta artery endothelial cells from FGR groups exhibited increased shear stress-induced NO generation, iNOS expression and eNOS expression compared with normal groups. In conclusion, fetoplacental resistance is determined by placental vessels, and is increased in FGR. The latter also exhibit reduced FMVD, but with a partial compensatory increased NO generation capacity. The data support our hypothesis, which highlights the importance of FMVD regulation in normal and dysfunctional placentation. Key points A correlation was found between in vivo umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and resistance to fetal-side flow in the human ex vivo dually

  18. DNA adducts in human placenta as related to air pollution and to GSTM1 genotype.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Binková, B; Mracková, G; Stávková, Z; Benes, I; Dejmek, J; Lenícek, J; Srám, R J

    1997-04-24

    DNA adducts in human placenta have been studied in relation to metabolic genotype for glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) in 98 mothers living in two regions with a different annual average air pollution levels: Northern Bohemia-the district of Teplice as polluted industrial area (mines, brown coal power plants) and Southern Bohemia-the district of Prachatice as agricultural area without heavy industry. Forty-nine placenta samples (25 from the Teplice district and 24 from the Prachatice district) from non-smoking mothers with the date of delivery in the summer period and 49 placenta samples (25 from the Teplice district and 24 from Prachatice district) from mothers with the date of delivery in the winter period were analysed. The total DNA adduct levels were calculated as the sum of adducts in the diagnoal radioactive zone (DRZ) and one distinct spot outside of the DRZ (termed X), which was detected in almost all placenta samples. We found total DNA adduct levels of 1.40 +/- 0.87 (0.04-3.65) and 1.04 +/- 0.63 (0.11-3.08) adducts per 10(8) nucleotides for the Teplice and Prachatice districts, respectively. The significant difference between both districts in placental DNA adduct levels was found for the winter sampling period only (1.49 vs. 0.96 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides; p = 0.023). No seasonal variation was observed for DNA adduct levels in the overall population studied. A positive GSTM1 genotype was detected in 51 subjects, while GSTM1-null genotype was found in 47 subjects. Higher DNA adduct levels were detected in a group with GSTM1-null genotype (p = 0.009). This finding seems more significant for subjects in the Teplice district (p = 0.047) than for those in the Prachatice district (p = 0.092). Significant district and seasonal differences were found in subgroups carrying the GSTM1-null genotype. DNA adduct levels in placentas of mothers with GSTM1-null genotype living in the polluted district of Teplice were higher than those in Prachatice (p = 0

  19. [Case of caesarean section using Cell Savers5+ in a patient with the placenta accreta associated with massive hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Isao; Kamiya, Ichiro; Tsujimoto, Yoshitaka; Sugahara, Shinya; Kazama, Tomiei

    2009-04-01

    Placenta accreta which occurs as a complication of total placenta previa is comparatively rare. And the diagnosis of placenta accreta before the caesarean section (C-section) is difficult. We experienced an extremely difficult anesthesia management of placenta accrete because of critical hemorrhage during C-section. We used self-blood collection device Cell Saver5+ (Haemonetics Japan Ltd, Tokyo) for the massive bleeding of 25,500 ml. The Cell Saver could be used to treat life threatening bleeding in C-section without any side effects, although it is thought that the use of the self-blood collection device during C-section had the danger of the amniotic fluid embolism and fetal red cell ontamination. It is necessary to consider using the Cell Saver in the obstetrical operation for life-saving medical treatment in response to unexpected massive bleeding. PMID:19364021

  20. The synthesis of 19-norandrostenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone in equine placenta is inhibited by aromatase inhibitors 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and fadrozole.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, S; Silberzahn, P; Gaillard, J L

    1995-12-01

    19-Norandrostenedione was synthesized in vitro from dehydroepiandrosterone by explants of equine full-term placenta. The synthesis of 19-norandrostenedione was inhibited by two specific aromatase inhibitors, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and fadrozole. PMID:8590376

  1. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  2. Aortic compression and cross clamping in a case of placenta percreta and amniotic fluid embolism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Belfort, Michael A; Zimmerman, John; Schemmer, Glenn; Oldroyd, Ronald; Smilanich, Robert; Pearce, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE, also known as anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy) at the time of surgery for placenta percreta has been previously reported. We report here a case in which AFE and associated cardiac arrest occurred following a hysterectomy for placenta percreta. In this case, subhepatic manual aortic compression during the cardiac arrest and chest compressions followed by infrarenal aortic cross-clamping during volume infusion and reversal of the coagulopathy were associated with a successful resuscitation and good maternal outcome. PMID:23705082

  3. Vanadium-mediated lipid peroxidation in microsomes from human term placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Byczkowski, J.Z.; Wan, B.; Kulkarni, A.P.

    1988-11-01

    Vanadium is considered an essential element present in living organisms in trace amounts but it is toxic when introduced in excessive doses to animals and humans. Vanadium compounds are extensively used in modern industry and occupational exposure to high doses of vanadium is quite common. In pregnant mice, vanadium accumulates preferentially in the placenta and to lower extent in fetal skeleton and mammary gland during exposure to radioactive vanadium. Accumulation of vanadium in fetoplacental unit may present threat to the fetus by interacting with enzymes and ion-transporting systems in membranes. It is also possible that accumulation of vanadium with its concomitant reduction to vanadyl may lead to lipid peroxidation, followed by damage to biological membranes, lysosomal enzymes release and destruction of placental tissue. To explore some of these possibilities the authors decided to examine whether vanadate can undergo redox cycling in microsomes from human term placenta (HTP) that can lead to lipid peroxidation.

  4. Movements of benzo(a)pyrene across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Springer, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to determine fetal exposure resulting from maternally administered benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), the clearance of radiolabeled BaP from mother to fetus was measured across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig at 60 days of gestation. Using techniques previously reported for other toxic materials, the fetal circulation of the placenta was isolated. BaP injected into the maternal circulation, and the concentration of BaP determined in the perfusate. The clearance of BaP from mother to fetus was high following intravenous injection. Clearances appeared to be a function of umbilical blood flow, and ranged from 0.59 to 2.40 ml/min at an umbilical flow of 2.5 ml/min. Since clearances of BaP approximated those obtained for tritiated water, it is apparent that circulating BaP gains easy access to the fetus.

  5. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  6. The interleukin 2 gene is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, K.D.; Kelley, M.F.; Ilan, J.; Ilan, J. )

    1989-01-01

    The lymphokine interleukin 2 is an important immune system regulatory glycopolypeptide. It is produced by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes and is required for the proliferation or clonal expansion of activated T lymphocytes. In this report, it is demonstrated by RNA transfer blot hybridization that the poly(A){sup +} RNA population of the human placenta contains a 0.85-kilobase RNA transcript that specifically hybridizes to a human interleukin 2 cDNA probe. By using hybridization histochemistry in situ, it is further shown that interleukin 2 RNA transcripts are localized, primarily, to the syncytial (syncytiotrophoblast) layer of the human placenta. Possible roles for syncytiotrophoblast-produced interleukin 2 are suggested and discussed.

  7. Cervical tourniquet in case of uncontrollable haemorrhage during caesarean section owing to a placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Q C A; Gijsen, A F; Hink, E; Van Kesteren, P J M

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes a 38-year-old woman in whom a primary caesarean section for placenta previa was complicated by postpartum haemorrhage due to a placenta accreta. Despite tamponade with a Bakri balloon and placement of a B-Lynch suture, the amount of blood loss could not be effectively reduced. The blood loss was eventually minimised by the placement of a Penrose drain around the cervix as a cervical tourniquet. We think that a cervical tourniquet is an effective method of stopping haemorrhage during caesarean section, as shown in this case report, and we consider this technique to be a valuable addition to several existing methods through which fertility is preserved by preventing emergency hysterectomy. PMID:23608864

  8. Cervical tourniquet in case of uncontrollable haemorrhage during caesarean section owing to a placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Q C A; Gijsen, A F; Hink, E; Van Kesteren, P J M

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes a 38-year-old woman in whom a primary caesarean section for placenta previa was complicated by postpartum haemorrhage due to a placenta accreta. Despite tamponade with a Bakri balloon and placement of a B-Lynch suture, the amount of blood loss could not be effectively reduced. The blood loss was eventually minimised by the placement of a Penrose drain around the cervix as a cervical tourniquet. We think that a cervical tourniquet is an effective method of stopping haemorrhage during caesarean section, as shown in this case report, and we consider this technique to be a valuable addition to several existing methods through which fertility is preserved by preventing emergency hysterectomy. PMID:23608864

  9. Syncytial knots and intervillous bridges in the human placenta: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Jones, C J; Fox, H

    1977-11-01

    An electron microscopic study has shown that the syncytial knots of the villi of the human placenta contain aggregated nuclei which exhibit marked degenerative changes; within the cytoplasm there is an abundance of cytoplasmic filaments and many stacks of annulate lamellae. It is suggested that syncytial knots are a sequestration phenomenon in which senescent nuclear material is aggregated and removed from metabolically active areas of the syncytiotrophoblast. Intervillous bridges appear to be formed chiefly by fusion of syncytial knots from adjacent villi, and it seems reasonable that the effete material in a syncytial knot should be used for this purpose. The intervillous bridges hava a fine structure which suggests that they have a mechanical function, and this lends support to the theory that they form an internal strut system within the placenta. PMID:591426

  10. Angiogenesis in the Placenta: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Robyn D.; De Long, Nicole E.; Wang, Ruijun C.; Yazdi, Fereshteh T.; Holloway, Alison C.; Raha, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Proper placental development and function are central to the health of both the mother and the fetus during pregnancy. A critical component of healthy placental function is the proper development of its vascular network. Poor vascularization of the placenta can lead to fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, and in some cases fetal death. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which uterine stressors influence the development of the placental vasculature and contribute to placental dysfunction is of central importance to ensuring a healthy pregnancy. In this review we discuss how oxidative stress observed in maternal smoking, maternal obesity, and preeclampsia has been associated with aberrant angiogenesis and placental dysfunction resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. We also highlight that oxidative stress can influence the expression of a number of transcription factors important in mediating angiogenesis. Therefore, understanding how oxidative stress affects redox-sensitive transcription factors within the placenta may elucidate potential therapeutic targets for correcting abnormal placental angiogenesis and function. PMID:25705690

  11. A true cornual pregnancy with placenta percreta resulting in a viable fetus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Samal, Sunil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cornual pregnancy is uncommon among ectopic pregnancies. A diagnosis of cornual pregnancy remains challenging, and rupture of a cornual pregnancy causes catastrophic consequence due to massive bleeding. In very rare circumstances, cornual pregnancies can result in a viable fetus. We report a case of a 24-year-old primigravida who presented to us with complaints of decrease fetal movements at 37+5 weeks. Ultrasound revealed a single live intrauterine fetus with anterior low lying placenta with severe oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid index = 1.8). Emergency cesarean section was done and intraoperatively it was diagnosed as a case of placenta percreta with pregnancy in right noncommunicating horn of uterus. Right cornual resection with right salpingectomy done. Uterus, left fallopian tube and bilateral ovary were healthy. Postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:26539372

  12. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Taiji; Feng, Cuiping; Lin, Gang; Zhu, Yuhua; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory; Wang, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation). Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals. PMID:26554841

  13. Vital and Vulnerable Functions of the Primate Placenta Critical for Infant Health and Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Christopher L.; Lubach, Gabriele R.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is essential to mammalian pregnancy with many roles beyond just nutrient supply, including both endocrine and immune functions. During the course of evolution, the placenta of higher primates has acquired some unique features, including the capacity to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In addition, a placental receptor for IgG enables particularly high levels of protective maternal antibody to reach the fetus before birth. This paper reviews the placental biology of primates, and discusses its involvement in adrenocortical hormone activity during pregnancy, the transfer of maternal antibody, and finally the delivery of maternal iron to the fetus, which is needed for normal brain development. An understanding of these vital functions during a full-term, healthy pregnancy provides insights into the consequences of gestational disturbances, such as maternal stress, illness, and undernutrition, which have even larger ramifications if the infant is born premature. PMID:24699357

  14. Confirmation of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes by polymerase chain reaction in placentas of women with reactive serology for Lyme antibodies.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, R; Bracero, L A; Aguero-Rosenfeld, M; Beneck, D; Coleman, J; Schwartz, I

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were present in placentas of asymptomatic women with reactive Lyme serology using a silver stain, and to confirm the identity of the spirochetes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sixty placentas of asymptomatic women with ELISA-positive or-equivocal serology for Lyme antibodies during pregnancy were examined for spirochetes using a silver stain. The results of the ELISA serology were confirmed by Western blot analysis. PCR amplification for B. burgdorferi was performed on placentas identified to have spirochetes and on a group of placentas negative for spirochetes. Spirochetes were identified by silver staining in 3 (5%) of the 60 placentas. PCR confirmed B. burgdorferi nucleotide sequences in 2 of the placentas. The 5 women had equivocal Lyme ELISA and negative syphilis serology. The results of the Western blot analysis were negative in 2 cases and indeterminate in 1 case. Six controls were negative for spirochetes by silver staining and PCR. A normal perinatal outcome was observed in all cases. Spirochetes identified in placental tissue of pregnancies with reactive Lyme serology were confirmed by PCR to be B. burgdorferi. There was no relationship between the presence of placental spirochetes and the results of Lyme serology or the pregnancy outcome. PMID:8793493

  15. Placenta Percreta Invading Broad Ligament and Parametrium in a Woman with Two Previous Cesarean Sections: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vahdat, Mansoureh; Mehdizadeh, Abolfazl; Sariri, Elaheh; Chaichian, Shahla; Najmi, Zahra; Kadivar, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The incidence of placenta accreta has dramatically increased due to increasing caesarean section rate all over the world. Placenta percreta is the most severe form of placenta accretes. It frequently results in maternal morbidity and mortality mainly caused by massive obstetric hemorrhage or emergency hysterectomy. Percreta invading into the broad ligament has rarely been previously reported. Case presenting. We presented a case of placenta percreta invading left broad ligament and parametrium in a woman with two previous cesarean sections, which led to massive intraoperative hemorrhage during hysterectomy and transient ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusion. In cases of parametrial involvement, it would be more difficult to decide whether to remove placenta or leave it in site. In surgical removal neither local excision of placental bed and uterine repair nor traditional hysterectomy is adequate if parametrium invaded by placenta. We suggest delayed elective hysterectomy in such cases. So, pregnancy-induced pelvic congestion would be decreased, we can gather an expert team of gynecologists, urologists, and vascular surgeons, we could get plenty of blood products, and we may have the chance to administer methotrexate. PMID:23097727

  16. Expectant and medical management of placenta increta in a primiparous woman presenting with postpartum haemorrhage: The role of Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Papa; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Thyagarajan, Chitra; Balan, Sathyalakshmy

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of postpartum hemorrhage due to adherent placenta. A 28 year old primiparous woman who underwent manual removal of placenta for primary postpartum haemorrhage soon after delivery was referred to our Institute on her third postnatal day because of persistent tachycardia and low grade fever. Placenta accreta was suspected on initial ultrasonographic examination. MRI examination confirmed the diagnosis of placenta accreta in few areas and revealed increta in other areas. On expectant management she developed genital tract sepsis and hence she was treated with intravenous Methotrexate after controlling infection with appropriate antibiotics. Doppler Imaging showed decreased blood flow to the placental mass and increased echogenecity on gray scale USG after Methotrexate administration. She expelled the whole placental mass on 35th postnatal day and MRI performed the next day showed empty uterine cavity. Morbid adhesion of placenta should be suspected even in primiparous women without any risk factors when there is history of post-partum hemorrhage. MRI is the best modality for evaluation of adherent placenta. PMID:22470732

  17. A simplified method for purification of annexin V from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, G G; Melkonyan, V Z; Mikaelyan, M V; Gasparyan, V K

    2003-08-01

    A simplified procedure for purification of annexin V from human placenta was developed. At first, the protein was separated from other proteins in membrane bound form in the presence of Ca2+, then was extracted with EDTA and purified by affinity chromatography on PAAG-immobilized phosphatidylserine. The purified protein gave a single band with a molecular weight of 35,000 in SDS-PAGE. PMID:12916812

  18. Proteome Differences in the First- and Third-Trimester Human Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Zolghadri, Jaleh; Kamali-Sarvestani, Eskandar

    2014-01-01

    Placenta is a transient and unique pregnancy tissue that supports the fetus nutritionally and metabolically. Expression of the unique placental proteins in different stages may influence the development of the fetus as well as the pregnancy outcome. The present study aimed to compare the total placental proteome differences between the normal first- and third-trimester human placentas. In the current study, placental proteome was compared between normal first- and third-trimester placentas using 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method for separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry technique for identification of the proteins. Despite the overall similarities, comparison of the mean intensity of the protein spots between the first- and third-trimester placental proteomes revealed that 22 spots were differentially expressed (P < .05) among which 11 distinct spots were successfully identified. Of the 11 differentially expressed proteins, 4 were increased (protein disulfide isomerase, tropomyosin 4 isoform 2, enolase 1, and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein), while the remaining 7 (actin γ1 propeptide, heat shock protein gp96, α1-antitrypsin, EF-hand domain family member D1, tubulin α1, glutathione S-transferase, and vitamin D binding protein) showed decreased expression in the placentas from the first-trimester compared to the full-term ones. In summary, the results of the present study as the first research on the comparison of the first- and third-trimester human placental proteomes introduced a group of 11 proteins with altered expression. Interestingly, some of these proteins are reported to be altered in pregnancy-related disorders. PMID:25201741

  19. A Case of Abruptio Placentae due to the Torsion of Gravid Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Zullino, S.; Faiola, S.; Paganelli, A. M.; Ferrazzi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Torsion of a gravid uterus is a rare obstetric emergency potentially lethal for the fetus and the mother. Some of the cases described in literature are associated with preexisting gynecologic conditions related to pelvic and uterine anatomy, even if most of cases remain unexplained. We report a case of acute 180-degree torsion of uterus at 33 weeks of gestation associated with abruptio placentae in a young Asian woman without apparent risk factors. PMID:25544919

  20. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  1. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the early placentas of arsenate-dosed hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors determined the concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the placentas of hamsters following continuous exposure via the osmotic minipump to minimally and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate. Close to 70% of the placental arsenic is bound to macromolecules, two-thirds of which is dialyzable. The remaining 30% of arsenic consists of low molecular weight species, predominantly inorganic arsenic. This mix is the same for minimally teratogenic and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate.

  2. The Placenta in Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence.

    PubMed

    Couck, Isabel; Lewi, Liesbeth

    2016-06-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS) are complications unique to monochorionic twin pregnancies and their shared circulation. Both are the result of the transfusion imbalance in the intertwin circulation. TTTS is characterized by an amniotic fluid discordance, whereas in TAPS, there is a severe discordance in hemoglobin levels. The article gives an overview of the typical features of TTTS and TAPS placentas. PMID:27098457

  3. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaobin; Shi, Jiachen; Jiao, Zhihao; Shao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prolactin (PRL) were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1), steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2). Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth. PMID:27149376

  4. Proteome differences in the first- and third-trimester human placentas.

    PubMed

    Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Kamali-Sarvestani, Eskandar

    2015-04-01

    Placenta is a transient and unique pregnancy tissue that supports the fetus nutritionally and metabolically. Expression of the unique placental proteins in different stages may influence the development of the fetus as well as the pregnancy outcome. The present study aimed to compare the total placental proteome differences between the normal first- and third-trimester human placentas. In the current study, placental proteome was compared between normal first- and third-trimester placentas using 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method for separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry technique for identification of the proteins. Despite the overall similarities, comparison of the mean intensity of the protein spots between the first- and third-trimester placental proteomes revealed that 22 spots were differentially expressed (P < .05) among which 11 distinct spots were successfully identified. Of the 11 differentially expressed proteins, 4 were increased (protein disulfide isomerase, tropomyosin 4 isoform 2, enolase 1, and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein), while the remaining 7 (actin γ1 propeptide, heat shock protein gp96, α1-antitrypsin, EF-hand domain family member D1, tubulin α1, glutathione S-transferase, and vitamin D binding protein) showed decreased expression in the placentas from the first-trimester compared to the full-term ones. In summary, the results of the present study as the first research on the comparison of the first- and third-trimester human placental proteomes introduced a group of 11 proteins with altered expression. Interestingly, some of these proteins are reported to be altered in pregnancy-related disorders. PMID:25201741

  5. Smoking specifically induces metallothionein-2 isoform in human placenta at term.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Garrido, Fernando; Llanos, Miguel N

    2006-06-01

    Recently, we reported the presence of higher levels of metallothionein (MT) in placentas of smokers compared to non-smokers. In the present study, we designed experiments to separate and evaluate two isoforms of MT (MT-1 and MT-2) in placentas of smokers and non-smokers. Metallothionein was extracted and separated by ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), previous saturation with cadmium chloride. Two peaks eluting at 6 and 12.5 min, corresponding to MT-1 and MT-2, respectively, were obtained. Metallothionein present in both peaks was identified by Western blot analysis using a monoclonal antibody directed against MT-1 and MT-2. Each isoform concentration was calculated after measuring its cadmium content by atomic absorption spectrometry with inductively coupled-plasma. In placentas of smokers, MT-2 levels increased by seven-fold compared to non-smokers, whereas MT-1 was not changed. Total placental cadmium and zinc concentrations, determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, respectively, were higher in smokers. Metallothioneins levels were clearly in excess to bind all cadmium ions present in placentas. However, most of placental zinc remains unbound to MTs, although as much as twice zinc ions could be bound to MT in smokers. In conclusion, MT-2 is the main isoform induced by smoking, suggesting that this isoform could be involved in placental cadmium and zinc retention. This fact, which could contribute to reduce the transference of zinc to the fetus, may be associated to detrimental effects on fetal growth and development. PMID:16621216

  6. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yixing; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Zhaobin; Shi, Jiachen; Jiao, Zhihao; Shao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prolactin (PRL) were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1), steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2). Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth. PMID:27149376

  7. Characterization of the role of ABCG2 as a bile acid transporter in liver and placenta.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Alba G; Briz, Oscar; Romero, Marta R; Rosales, Ruben; Monte, Maria J; Vaquero, Javier; Macias, Rocio I R; Cassio, Doris; Marin, Jose J G

    2012-02-01

    ABCG2 is involved in epithelial transport/barrier functions. Here, we have investigated its ability to transport bile acids in liver and placenta. Cholylglycylamido fluorescein (CGamF) was exported by WIF-B9/R cells, which do not express the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Sensitivity to typical inhibitors suggested that CGamF export was mainly mediated by ABCG2. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells), coexpression of rat Oatp1a1 and human ABCG2 enhanced the uptake and efflux, respectively, of CGamF, cholic acid (CA), glycoCA (GCA), tauroCA, and taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate. The ability of ABCG2 to export these bile acids was confirmed by microinjecting them together with inulin in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing this pump. ABCG2-mediated bile acid transport was inhibited by estradiol 17β-d-glucuronide and fumitremorgin C. Placental barrier for bile acids accounted for <2-fold increase in fetal cholanemia despite >14-fold increased maternal cholanemia induced by obstructive cholestasis in pregnant rats. In rat placenta, the expression of Abcg2, which was much higher than that of Bsep, was not affected by short-term cholestasis. In pregnant rats, fumitremorgin C did not affect uptake/secretion of GCA by the liver but inhibited its fetal-maternal transfer. Compared with wild-type mice, obstructive cholestasis in pregnant Abcg2(-/-) knockout mice induced similar bile acid accumulation in maternal serum but higher accumulation in placenta, fetal serum, and liver. In conclusion, ABCG2 is able to transport bile acids. The importance of this function depends on the relative expression in the same epithelium of other bile acid exporters. Thus, ABCG2 may play a key role in bile acid transport in placenta, as BSEP does in liver. PMID:22096226

  8. Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead Levels in Human Placenta: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Vasallo, María D.; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollan, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Placental tissue may furnish information on the exposure of both mother and fetus. Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are toxicants of interest in pregnancy because they are associated with alterations in child development. Objectives: The aim of this study was to summarize the available information regarding total Hg, Cd, and Pb levels in human placenta and possible related factors. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs, OSH, and Web of Science for original papers on total Hg, Cd, or Pb levels in human placenta that were published in English or Spanish (1976–2011). Data on study design, population characteristics, collection and analysis of placenta specimens, and main results were extracted using a standardized form. Results: We found a total of 79 papers (73 different studies). Hg, Cd, and Pb levels were reported in 24, 46, and 46 studies, respectively. Most studies included small convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. Studies were heterogeneous regarding populations selected, processing of specimens, and presentation of results. Hg concentrations > 50 ng/g were found in China (Shanghai), Japan, and the Faroe Islands. Cd levels ranged from 1.2 ng/g to 53 ng/g and were highest in the United States, Japan, and Eastern Europe. Pb showed the greatest variability, with levels ranging from 1.18 ng/g in China (Shanghai) to 500 ng/g in a polluted area of Poland. Conclusion: The use of the placenta as a biomarker to assess heavy metals exposure is not properly developed because of heterogeneity among the studies. International standardized protocols are needed to enhance comparability and increase the usefulness of this promising tissue in biomonitoring studies. PMID:22591711

  9. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Emma M; Blue, Nathan R; Lee, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  10. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Montelongo, Emma M.; Blue, Nathan R.; Lee, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  11. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  12. Placenta-Specific Protein 1 Is Conserved throughout the Placentalia under Purifying Selection

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Placental mammals (Placentalia) are a very successful group that, today, comprise 94% of all mammalian species. Recent phylogenetic analyses, coupled with new, quite complete fossils, suggest that the crown orders were all established rapidly from a common ancestor just after the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary 65 million years ago. Extensive molecular and morphologic evidence has led to a description of the common ancestor of all Placentalia in which a two-horned uterus and a hemochorial placenta are present. Thus, the process of placentation in which the placenta invades and anchors to the uterine epithelium was already established. One factor that has been suggested as a crucial component of this process is placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1). A phylogenetic analysis of the PLAC1 protein in 25 placental mammal species, representing nine of the sixteen crown orders of the Placentalia, suggests that this protein was present in the placental common ancestor in the form we see it today, that it evolved in the Placentalia and has been subject to the effects of purifying selection since its appearance. PMID:25180201

  13. Placenta-specific protein 1 is conserved throughout the Placentalia under purifying selection.

    PubMed

    Devor, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Placental mammals (Placentalia) are a very successful group that, today, comprise 94% of all mammalian species. Recent phylogenetic analyses, coupled with new, quite complete fossils, suggest that the crown orders were all established rapidly from a common ancestor just after the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary 65 million years ago. Extensive molecular and morphologic evidence has led to a description of the common ancestor of all Placentalia in which a two-horned uterus and a hemochorial placenta are present. Thus, the process of placentation in which the placenta invades and anchors to the uterine epithelium was already established. One factor that has been suggested as a crucial component of this process is placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1). A phylogenetic analysis of the PLAC1 protein in 25 placental mammal species, representing nine of the sixteen crown orders of the Placentalia, suggests that this protein was present in the placental common ancestor in the form we see it today, that it evolved in the Placentalia and has been subject to the effects of purifying selection since its appearance. PMID:25180201

  14. Organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers in human placenta in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinjian; Xu, Zemin; Huang, Wei; Feng, Limin; Yang, Fangxing

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been widely used in various products as alternatives to brominated flame retardants. Although widespread OPE exposure is expected in humans, the accumulation of OPEs has seldom been studied in the human body. In this study, 12 OPE analogs were analyzed in 50 human placentas collected in Eastern China. The concentrations of the 9 most frequently detected OPEs (Σ9OPEs) ranged from 34.4 to 862ng/g lipid weight (lw), with a median of 301ng/g lw. Tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was identified as the most abundant analog, with a median concentration of 142ng/g lw, followed by tributoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP). Statistical analysis showed no analog of OPEs or Σ9OPEs was positively correlated with the lipid content of the placentas. There were no correlations observed between the OPE concentrations and maternal characteristics. Food consumption habits exhibited weak effects on OPE levels in the placentas. Further investigation is required to determine the effects of OPEs on fetuses due to the expected increase in maternal exposure to these esters. PMID:26950635

  15. Bioluminescent imaging of ABCG2 efflux activity at the blood-placenta barrier.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jeyan S; Wei, Bih-Rong; Madigan, James P; Simpson, R Mark; Hall, Matthew D; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Physiologic barriers such as the blood placenta barrier (BPB) and the blood brain barrier protect the underlying parenchyma from pathogens and toxins. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins found at these barriers, and function to efflux xenobiotics and maintain chemical homeostasis. Despite the plethora of ex vivo and in vitro data showing the function and expression of ABC transporters, no imaging modality exists to study ABC transporter activity in vivo at the BPB. In the present study, we show that in vitro models of the placenta possess ABCG2 activity and can specifically transport D-luciferin, the endogenous substrate of firefly luciferase. To test ABCG2 transport activity at the BPB, we devised a breeding strategy to generate a bioluminescent pregnant mouse model to demonstrate transporter function in vivo. We found that coadministering the ABCG2 inhibitors Ko143 and gefitinib with D-luciferin increased bioluminescent signal from fetuses and placentae, whereas the control P-gp inhibitor DCPQ had no effect. We believe that our bioluminescent pregnant mouse model will facilitate greater understanding of the BPB and ABCG2 activity in health and disease. PMID:26853103

  16. The bovine placenta in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haeger, J-D; Hambruch, N; Pfarrer, C

    2016-07-01

    The gross anatomic features (cotyledonary type) and histologic classification (synepitheliochorial) of the bovine placenta have been known for many years. Thorough ultrastructural analysis as well as a variety of descriptive studies dealing with the localization of cytoskeletal filaments, extracellular matrix, growth factor systems, steroid hormone receptors, and major histocompatibility complex have contributed further significant knowledge. However, this knowledge was not sufficient to solve clinical placenta-based problems, such as retained fetal membranes. Owing to the complexity of the fetomaternal interface in vitro, culture systems have been developed. As trophoblast giant cells (TGC) are thought to be key players in the cattle placenta, most cell culture models attempt to overcome the pitfall of losing the entire TGC population in vitro. Nevertheless, distinct cell line-based in vitro systems such as cell monolayers or 3-dimensional (co-culture) spheroids were generated for the fetal (trophoblast) and maternal (uterine epithelium) placental compartments. Monolayers have been used to study for example, growth factor or hormonal signaling and TGC formation, whereas spheroids served as models for, for example, trophoblast attachment, uterine epithelium depolarization, and also TGC formation. In the future, the use of more improved culture models might lead to better treatments of retained fetal membranes and increased prevention of embryonic loss. In addition, the in vitro models could shed more light on the mechanisms of the differentiation of uninucleate trophoblast into TGC. PMID:27155733

  17. Bioluminescent imaging of ABCG2 efflux activity at the blood-placenta barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jeyan S.; Wei, Bih-Rong; Madigan, James P.; Simpson, R. Mark; Hall, Matthew D.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Physiologic barriers such as the blood placenta barrier (BPB) and the blood brain barrier protect the underlying parenchyma from pathogens and toxins. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins found at these barriers, and function to efflux xenobiotics and maintain chemical homeostasis. Despite the plethora of ex vivo and in vitro data showing the function and expression of ABC transporters, no imaging modality exists to study ABC transporter activity in vivo at the BPB. In the present study, we show that in vitro models of the placenta possess ABCG2 activity and can specifically transport D-luciferin, the endogenous substrate of firefly luciferase. To test ABCG2 transport activity at the BPB, we devised a breeding strategy to generate a bioluminescent pregnant mouse model to demonstrate transporter function in vivo. We found that coadministering the ABCG2 inhibitors Ko143 and gefitinib with D-luciferin increased bioluminescent signal from fetuses and placentae, whereas the control P-gp inhibitor DCPQ had no effect. We believe that our bioluminescent pregnant mouse model will facilitate greater understanding of the BPB and ABCG2 activity in health and disease. PMID:26853103

  18. Comparative Methylation of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and Other Human Endogenous Retrovirus LTRs in Placenta Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Juliette; Montgiraud, Cécile; Oriol, Guy; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Ruel, Karine; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Gerbaud, Pascale; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Mallet, François

    2009-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are globally silent in somatic cells. However, some HERVs display high transcription in physiological conditions. In particular, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, three proviruses of distinct families, are highly transcribed in placenta and produce envelope proteins associated with placenta development. As silencing of repeated elements is thought to occur mainly by DNA methylation, we compared the methylation of ERVWE1 and related HERVs to appreciate whether HERV methylation relies upon the family, the integration site, the tissue, the long terminal repeat (LTR) function or the associated gene function. CpG methylation of HERV-W LTRs in placenta-associated tissues was heterogeneous but a joint epigenetic control was found for ERVWE1 5′LTR and its juxtaposed enhancer, a mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposon. Additionally, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 5′LTRs were all essentially hypomethylated in cytotrophoblasts during pregnancy, but showed distinct and stage-dependent methylation profiles. In non-cytotrophoblastic cells, they also exhibited different methylation profiles, compatible with their respective transcriptional activities. Comparative analyses of transcriptional activity and LTR methylation in cell lines further sustained a role for methylation in the control of functional LTRs. These results suggest that HERV methylation might not be family related but copy-specific, and related to the LTR function and the tissue. In particular, ERVWE1 and ERV3 could be developmentally epigenetically regulated HERVs. PMID:19561344

  19. Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Silvia; Arduini, Maurizio; Epicoco, Giorgio; Luzi, Giuseppe; Arena, Saverio; Clerici, Graziano; Affronti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is one of the most serious complications of placenta previa and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually necessitating hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta previa percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, in which we accomplished conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage. The management we propose includes the following steps: preventive catheterization of the descending aorta via transhumeral access; Stark cesarean delivery; uterotonics drugs; Affronti endouterine square hemostatic sutures; intrauterine application of Bakri balloon and partial filling with 100 mL of normal saline; B Lynch suture, hysterorrhaphy, and filling a Bakri balloon with up to 500 mL of normal saline; reversible radiological embolization; and/or surgical ligation of the uterine arteries. The bleeding stopped following placement of Affronti sutures combined with external (B-Lynch suture) and internal (Bakri balloon) uterine compression. Our experience indicates that this conservative method can be considered an option in the management of selected cases of pregnancy at high risk for intrapartum hemorrhage. PMID:23401816

  20. A review of inter- and intraspecific variation in the eutherian placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gundling, William E.; Wildman, Derek E.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is one of the most morphologically variable mammalian organs. Four major characteristics are typically discussed when comparing the placentas of different eutherian species: placental shape, maternal–fetal interdigitation, intimacy of the maternal–fetal interface and the pattern of maternal–fetal blood flow. Here, we describe the evolution of three of these features as well as other key aspects of eutherian placentation. In addition to interspecific anatomical variation, there is also variation in placental anatomy and function within a single species. Much of this intraspecific variation occurs in response to different environmental conditions such as altitude and poor maternal nutrition. Examinations of variation in the placenta from both intra- and interspecies perspectives elucidate different aspects of placental function and dysfunction at the maternal–fetal interface. Comparisons within species identify candidate mechanisms that are activated in response to environmental stressors ultimately contributing to the aetiology of obstetric syndromes such as pre-eclampsia. Comparisons above the species level identify the evolutionary lineages on which the potential for the development of obstetric syndromes emerged. PMID:25602076

  1. Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery.

    PubMed

    Canonico, Silvia; Arduini, Maurizio; Epicoco, Giorgio; Luzi, Giuseppe; Arena, Saverio; Clerici, Graziano; Affronti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is one of the most serious complications of placenta previa and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually necessitating hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta previa percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, in which we accomplished conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage. The management we propose includes the following steps: preventive catheterization of the descending aorta via transhumeral access; Stark cesarean delivery; uterotonics drugs; Affronti endouterine square hemostatic sutures; intrauterine application of Bakri balloon and partial filling with 100 mL of normal saline; B Lynch suture, hysterorrhaphy, and filling a Bakri balloon with up to 500 mL of normal saline; reversible radiological embolization; and/or surgical ligation of the uterine arteries. The bleeding stopped following placement of Affronti sutures combined with external (B-Lynch suture) and internal (Bakri balloon) uterine compression. Our experience indicates that this conservative method can be considered an option in the management of selected cases of pregnancy at high risk for intrapartum hemorrhage. PMID:23401816

  2. Isolation and characterization of Aschersonia placenta from citrus orchards and its pathogenicity towards Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead).

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingping; Song, Xuhong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-02-01

    For selecting potential biological agents to control Dialeurodes citri, a major insect pest in China's citrus orchards, 75 native Aschersonia isolates were selected from infected whiteflies in citrus orchards and were evaluated for virulence to third instar nymphs of D. citri at a concentration of 1 × 10(6)conidia/ml. The mortality rates of D. citri varied from 0% to 72.70%. Among the 75 Aschersonia isolates, three (HB10, HB12 and ZJ9) were the most virulent and pathogenic to D. citri and caused more than 69% mortality. The 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of them were 1.86 × 10(6), 3.40 × 10(6) and 6.81 × 10(6)conidia/ml, respectively. The three isolates also produced conidia abundantly on potato dextrose agar medium (3.95 × 10(6), 6.19 × 10(6) and 7.34 × 10(6)conidia/cm(2), respectively). They were identified to be Aschersonia placenta based on their morphological analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these three highly virulent Aschersonia isolates belong to a strongly supported clade that includes two other A. placenta isolates obtained from Vietnam and Thailand. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of developing the three most virulent A. placenta isolates as microbiological control agents against citrus whitefly. PMID:23160084

  3. High Expression of Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene in the Equine Fetal Part of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Cappelli, Katia; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Coletti, Mauro; Capomaccio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are proviral phases of exogenous retroviruses that have co-evolved with vertebrate genomes for millions of years. Previous studies have identified the envelope (env) protein genes of retroviral origin preferentially expressed in the placenta which suggests a role in placentation based on their membrane fusogenic capacity and therefore they have been named syncytins. Until now, all the characterized syncytins have been associated with three invasive placentation types: the endotheliochorial (Carnivora), the synepitheliochorial (Ruminantia), and the hemochorial placentation (human, mouse) where they play a role in the syncytiotrophoblast formation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether EqERV env RNA is expressed in horse tissues as well and investigate if the horse, possessing an epitheliochorial placenta, has “captured” a common retroviral env gene with syncytin-like properties in placental tissues. Interestingly, although in the equine placenta there is no syncytiotrophoblast layer at the maternal-fetal interface, our results showed that EqERV env RNA is highly expressed at that level, as expected for a candidate syncytin-like gene but with reduced abundance in the other somatic tissues (nearly 30-fold lower) thus suggesting a possible role in the placental tissue. Although the horse is one of the few domestic animals with a sequenced genome, few studies have been conducted about the EqERV and their expression in placental tissue has never been investigated. PMID:27176223

  4. A review of inter- and intraspecific variation in the eutherian placenta.

    PubMed

    Gundling, William E; Wildman, Derek E

    2015-03-01

    The placenta is one of the most morphologically variable mammalian organs. Four major characteristics are typically discussed when comparing the placentas of different eutherian species: placental shape, maternal-fetal interdigitation, intimacy of the maternal-fetal interface and the pattern of maternal-fetal blood flow. Here, we describe the evolution of three of these features as well as other key aspects of eutherian placentation. In addition to interspecific anatomical variation, there is also variation in placental anatomy and function within a single species. Much of this intraspecific variation occurs in response to different environmental conditions such as altitude and poor maternal nutrition. Examinations of variation in the placenta from both intra- and interspecies perspectives elucidate different aspects of placental function and dysfunction at the maternal-fetal interface. Comparisons within species identify candidate mechanisms that are activated in response to environmental stressors ultimately contributing to the aetiology of obstetric syndromes such as pre-eclampsia. Comparisons above the species level identify the evolutionary lineages on which the potential for the development of obstetric syndromes emerged. PMID:25602076

  5. Validation of a Metallomics Analysis of Placenta Tissue by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, James M.; Young, Daniel J.; Fry, Rebecca C.; Weber, Frank X.; Sumner, Susan S.; Levine, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements can play an important role in maternal health and fetal development, and deficiencies in some essential minerals including zinc and copper have been correlated in some individuals to the development of birth defects and adverse health outcomes later in life. The exact etiology of conditions like preeclampsia and the effects of fetal exposure to toxic metals has not been determined, making the assessment of trace element levels crucial to the elucidation of the causes of conditions like preeclampsia. Previous studies analyzing serum and placenta tissue have produced conflicting findings, suggesting the need for a robust, validated sample preparation and analysis method for the determination of trace elements in placenta. In this report, an acid digestion method and analysis by ICP-MS for a broad metallomics/mineralomics panel of trace elements is developed and validated over three experimental days for inter- and intraday precision and accuracy, linear range, matrix impact, and dilution verification. Spike recovery experiments were performed for the essential elements chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), and the toxic elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) at levels equal to and in excess of native concentrations in control placenta tissue. The validated method will be essential for the development of scientific studies of maternal health and toxic metal exposure effects in childhood. PMID:26155965

  6. [Age-related features of immunocompetent cells of human placenta associated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Durnova, A O; Poliakova, V O; Pal'chenko, N A

    2010-01-01

    The immune-competent cells of placenta play the important role in protection of developing fetus against infectious agents; but their dysfunction can lead to development of placental insufficiency that affects health both fetus and mother. The aim of this study was the comparative analysis of presence of immune competent cells in villous chorion of mature placenta, taken from women with diabetes of different age groups. In our study we found three subpopulations of immune cells in villous chorion of mature placenta: natural killer cells (NK), B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Prevailing subpopulation are macrophages, they are detected 1,8 times more often than B-lymphocytes, and 2,3 times more often than NK. The quantity of immune competent cells in groups with diabetes of various types is different. Thus, the greatest number of macrophages was detected in group with diabetes type II of middle age (29-35 years)-- 4.62 +/- 0.93%, B-lymphocytes in group of women with diabetes type I of younger age (18-28 years)--2.50 +/- 0.30%, NK-cells in group with diabetes type I of younger age--1.98 +/- 0,42%. Analysis of received data showed the differences in expression of markers of immune cells in women of different age groups, which brings about the conclusion of various reactance of immune system of women with diabetes depending on age. PMID:21033374

  7. Link between the early calcium deposition in placenta and nanobacterial-like infection.

    PubMed

    Agababov, R M; Abashina, T N; Suzina, N E; Vainshtein, M B; Schwartsburd, P M

    2007-09-01

    The placenta is a vitally important organ in the regulation of embryonic development. That is why extensive calcium deposition [also named as pathological placental calcification (PPC)] could have serious negative consequences for the adequate growth of embryos. The nature and mechanism of PPC development has not been defined as yet. In the present investigation, we have tested the hypothesis that the molecular basis of PPC development consists of nanobacteria-induced calcification in infected female placenta. Electron microscopy findings support this hypothesis. The initial stage of micro-calcification may originate from the external surface of individual nanobacteria-like particles found mainly in placental extracellular matrix, where initial calcium deposition occurs as a needle surface deposition or as an amorphous-like surface precipitate. Further calcific propagation in placenta takes place in the newly formed macro-cavities, which are characterized by low electron density, possibly reflecting its liquid content around calcium deposition. The micro-cavities contain free nanobacterial-like particles, which may relate to atypical Gram-negative bacteria but not to apoptotic bodies by morphological characters and DNA/RNA distribution. We hypothesize that the increased placental calcification might be caused, at least in part, by nanobacterial infection. PMID:17954977

  8. Utilizing cryogenic grips for dynamic tension testing of human placenta tissue.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah; McNally, Craig; Calloway, Britt; Duma, Stefan; Mertz, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Computational models are used to investigate placental abruption in motor vehicle crashes, which is the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States. Material parameters for computational modeling of pregnant occupant kinematics come from early research on placenta tissue at quasi-static loading rates. The purpose of this research is to develop a methodology for using cryogenic grips to test placenta specimens in uniaxial tension at a rate normally seen in a motor vehicle crash. For dynamic testing of placental tissue, implementing and adapting a cryogenic grip mechanism provides the ability to grip the tissue throughout the thickness and eliminates potential slipping of the tissue in the grip during the dynamic test. The validation for using the cryogenic grips is presented with video images of a typical test event showing the tissue failing in the active area. Additionally, local and global strain measures are compared to confirm the tissue strain is similar throughout the specimen. The cryogenic grips provide a low-cost and effective method of gripping and pulling a thick soft tissue in uniaxial tension. As a result, these methods can be used to acquire the material properties of placenta tissue loaded at a dynamic rate to apply in a computational pregnant model. PMID:17487107

  9. Effect of Embryo Vitrification on Rabbit Foetal Placenta Proteome during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-de-Juano, Maria Desemparats; Vicente, José Salvador; Hollung, Kristin; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information on the post-implantatory effects of vitrification has been published till now. We observed in a previous study that the vitrification procedure for the cryopreservation of embryos introduced transcriptomic and proteomic modifications in the rabbit foetal placenta at the middle of gestation. Now, we have conducted a proteomic study to determine whether protein alterations in the foetal placenta induced by the vitrification procedure remain during pregnancy. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF and LC-MS/MS analysis) to identify the protein changes during middle and late stages of gestation (Day 14 and Day 24, respectively) in rabbit foetal placenta. We identified 11 differentially expressed proteins at Day 14 and 13 proteins at Day 24. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001840 and PXD001836. In addition, we demonstrate the presence of three proteins, serum albumin, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 [NADP+], and phosphoglycerate mutase 1, which were altered during pregnancy. We demonstrate the existence of changes in foetal placental protein during pregnancy induced by the vitrification procedure, which brings into question whether vitrification effects observed during foetal development could lead to physiological and metabolic disorders in adulthood. This effect, taken together with other effects reported in the literature, suggests that embryo cryopreservation is not neutral. PMID:25915775

  10. A NEW ROLE FOR THE HUMAN PLACENTA AS A HEMATOPOIETIC SITE THROUGHOUT GESTATION

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Alicia; Muench, Marcus O.; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Fisher, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether the human placenta plays a role in embryonic and fetal hematopoietic development. Two cell populations—CD34++CD45low and CD34+CD45low—were found in chorionic villi. CD34++CD45low cells display many markers that are characteristic of multipotent primitive hematopoietic progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Clonogenic in vitro assays showed that CD34++CD45low cells contained colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) with myeloid and erythroid potential and differentiated into CD56+ NK cells and CD19+ B cells in culture. CD34+CD45low cells were mostly enriched in erythroid- and myeloid-committed progenitors. The number of CD34++CD45low cells increased throughout gestation in parallel with placental mass. However, their density (cells per gram of tissue) reached its peak at 5–8 weeks, decreasing more than sevenfold from the ninth week onward. In addition to multipotent progenitors, the placenta contained intermediate progenitors, indicative of active hematopoiesis. Together, these data suggest that the human placenta is potentially an important hematopoietic organ, opening the possibility of banking placental HSCs along with cord blood for transplantation. PMID:19208786

  11. Using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI to Quantitatively Characterize Maternal Vascular Organization in the Primate Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Frias, A.E.; Schabel, M.C.; Roberts, V.H.J.; Tudorica, A.; Grigsby, P.L.; Oh, K.Y.; Kroenke, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The maternal microvasculature of the primate placenta is organized into 10-20 perfusion domains that are functionally optimized to facilitate nutrient exchange to support fetal growth. This study describes a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) method for identifying vascular domains, and quantifying maternal blood flow in them. Methods A rhesus macaque on the 133rd day of pregnancy (G133, term=165 days) underwent Doppler ultrasound (US) procedures, DCE-MRI, and Cesarean-section delivery. Serial T1-weighted images acquired throughout intravenous injection of a contrast reagent (CR) bolus were analyzed to obtain CR arrival time maps of the placenta. Results Watershed segmentation of the arrival time map identified 16 perfusion domains. The number and location of these domains corresponded to anatomical cotyledonary units observed following delivery. Analysis of the CR wave front through each perfusion domain enabled determination of volumetric flow, which ranged from 9.03 to 44.9 mL/sec (25.2 ± 10.3 mL/sec). These estimates are supported by Doppler US results. Conclusions The DCE-MRI analysis described here provides quantitative estimates of the number of maternal perfusion domains in a primate placenta, and estimates flow within each domain. Anticipated extensions of this technique are to the study placental function in nonhuman primate models of obstetric complications. PMID:24753177

  12. Validation of a Metallomics Analysis of Placenta Tissue by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James M; Young, Daniel J; Fry, Rebecca C; Weber, Frank X; Sumner, Susan S; Levine, Keith E

    2016-02-01

    Trace elements can play an important role in maternal health and fetal development, and deficiencies in some essential minerals including zinc and copper have been correlated in some individuals to the development of birth defects and adverse health outcomes later in life. The exact etiology of conditions like preeclampsia and the effects of fetal exposure to toxic metals has not been determined, making the assessment of trace element levels crucial to the elucidation of the causes of conditions like preeclampsia. Previous studies analyzing serum and placenta tissue have produced conflicting findings, suggesting the need for a robust, validated sample preparation and analysis method for the determination of trace elements in placenta. In this report, an acid digestion method and analysis by ICP-MS for a broad metallomics/mineralomics panel of trace elements is developed and validated over three experimental days for inter- and intraday precision and accuracy, linear range, matrix impact, and dilution verification. Spike recovery experiments were performed for the essential elements chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), and the toxic elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) at levels equal to and in excess of native concentrations in control placenta tissue. The validated method will be essential for the development of scientific studies of maternal health and toxic metal exposure effects in childhood. PMID:26155965

  13. High Expression of Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene in the Equine Fetal Part of the Placenta.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Cappelli, Katia; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Coletti, Mauro; Capomaccio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are proviral phases of exogenous retroviruses that have co-evolved with vertebrate genomes for millions of years. Previous studies have identified the envelope (env) protein genes of retroviral origin preferentially expressed in the placenta which suggests a role in placentation based on their membrane fusogenic capacity and therefore they have been named syncytins. Until now, all the characterized syncytins have been associated with three invasive placentation types: the endotheliochorial (Carnivora), the synepitheliochorial (Ruminantia), and the hemochorial placentation (human, mouse) where they play a role in the syncytiotrophoblast formation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether EqERV env RNA is expressed in horse tissues as well and investigate if the horse, possessing an epitheliochorial placenta, has "captured" a common retroviral env gene with syncytin-like properties in placental tissues. Interestingly, although in the equine placenta there is no syncytiotrophoblast layer at the maternal-fetal interface, our results showed that EqERV env RNA is highly expressed at that level, as expected for a candidate syncytin-like gene but with reduced abundance in the other somatic tissues (nearly 30-fold lower) thus suggesting a possible role in the placental tissue. Although the horse is one of the few domestic animals with a sequenced genome, few studies have been conducted about the EqERV and their expression in placental tissue has never been investigated. PMID:27176223

  14. Retrotransposon Hypomethylation in Melanoma and Expression of a Placenta-Specific Gene

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Erin C.; Roberts, Hester E.; Cheng, Xi; Jeffs, Aaron R.; Baguley, Bruce C.; Morison, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    In the human placenta, DNA hypomethylation permits the expression of retrotransposon-derived genes that are normally silenced by methylation in somatic tissues. We previously identified hypomethylation of a retrotransposon-derived transcript of the voltage-gated potassium channel gene KCNH5 that is expressed only in human placenta. However, an RNA sequence from this placental-specific transcript has been reported in melanoma. This study examined the promoter methylation and expression of the retrotransposon-derived KCNH5 transcript in 25 melanoma cell lines to determine whether the acquisition of ‘placental’ epigenetic marks is a feature of melanoma. Methylation and gene expression analysis revealed hypomethylation of this retrotransposon in melanoma cell lines, particularly in those samples that express the placental KCNH5 transcript. Therefore we propose that hypomethylation of the placental-specific KCNH5 promoter is frequently associated with KCNH5 expression in melanoma cells. Our findings show that melanoma can develop hypomethylation of a retrotransposon-derived gene; a characteristic notably shared with the normal placenta. PMID:24759919

  15. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT STREET. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT STREET. SEEN FROM NW CORNER LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  16. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE WITH DOME OF THE INTERNATIONAL HOUSE AT 2299 PIEDMONT AVENUE. BY GEORGE W. KELHAM, 1929, SEEN FROM SW CORNER LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  17. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  18. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE. SEEN FROM NW CORNER LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  19. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  20. Cuidados paliativos durante el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Describe la función de los cuidados paliativos, los cuales son los cuidados que se brindan a pacientes que tienen una enfermedad grave o potencialmente letal, como el cáncer, desde el momento del diagnóstico y durante todo el curso de la enfermedad.

  1. Chronic inflammation of the placenta: definition, classification, pathogenesis, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2015-10-01

    Chronic inflammatory lesions of the placenta are characterized by the infiltration of the organ by lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or macrophages and may result from infections (viral, bacterial, parasitic) or be of immune origin (maternal anti-fetal rejection). The 3 major lesions are villitis (when the inflammatory process affects the villous tree), chronic chorioamnionitis (which affects the chorioamniotic membranes), and chronic deciduitis (which involves the decidua basalis). Maternal cellular infiltration is a common feature of the lesions. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) is a destructive villous inflammatory lesion that is characterized by the infiltration of maternal T cells (CD8+ cytotoxic T cells) into chorionic villi. Migration of maternal T cells into the villi is driven by the production of T-cell chemokines in the affected villi. Activation of macrophages in the villi has been implicated in the destruction of the villous architecture. VUE has been reported in association with preterm and term fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, fetal death, and preterm labor. Infants whose placentas have VUE are at risk for death and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 2 years. Chronic chorioamnionitis is the most common lesion in late spontaneous preterm birth and is characterized by the infiltration of maternal CD8+ T cells into the chorioamniotic membranes. These cytotoxic T cells can induce trophoblast apoptosis and damage the fetal membranes. The lesion frequently is accompanied by VUE. Chronic deciduitis consists of the presence of lymphocytes or plasma cells in the basal plate of the placenta. This lesion is more common in pregnancies that result from egg donation and has been reported in a subset of patients with premature labor. Chronic placental inflammatory lesions can be due to maternal anti-fetal rejection, a process associated with the development of a novel form of fetal systemic inflammatory response. The syndrome is characterized

  2. Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhong Mei; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2α, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ► Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ► Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ► PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ► ROS-mediated ER

  3. Transfer of PAMAM Dendrimers across Human Placenta: Prospects of Its Use as Drug Carrier During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Menjoge, Anupa R.; Rinderknecht, Amber; Navath, Raghavendra S.; Faridnia, Masoud; Kim, Chong J.; Romero, Roberto; Miller, Richard K.; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2011-01-01

    Dendrimers offer significant potential as nanocarriers for targeted delivery of drugs and imaging agents. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the transplacental transport, kinetics and biodistribution of PAMAM dendrimers ex-vivo across the human placenta in comparison with antipyrine, a freely diffusible molecule, using dually perfused re-circulating term human placental lobules. The purpose of this study is to determine if dendrimers as drug carriers can be used to design drug delivery systems directed at selectively treating either the mother or the fetus. The transplacental transfers of fluorescently (Alexa 488) tagged PAMAM dendrimer (16 kDa) and antipyrine (188 Da) from maternal to fetal circulation were measured using HPLC/dual UV and fluorescent detector (sensitivity of 10 ng / mL for dendrimer and 100 ng /mL for antipyrine respectively). Cmax for the dendrimer-Alexa (DA) in maternal perfusate (Tmax = 15min) was 18 times higher than in the fetal perfusate and never equilibrated with the maternal perfusate during 5.5 hours of perfusion (n=4). DA exhibited a significant but low transplacental transport of ~2.26 ± 0.12 μg / mL during 5.5 hours, where the mean transplacental transfer was 0.84 ±0.11 % of the total maternal concentration and the feto-maternal ratio as percent was 0.073% ± 0.02. The biochemical and physiological analysis of the placentae perfused with DA demonstrated normal function throughout the perfusion. The immunofluorescence histochemistry confirmed that the biodistribution of DA in perfused placenta was sparsely dispersed, and when noted was principally seen in the inter-villous spaces and outer rim of the villous branches. In a few cases, DA was found internalized and localized in nuclei and cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblast and inside the villous core; however, DA was mostly absent from the villous capillaries. In conclusion, the PAMAM dendrimers exhibited a low rate of transfer from maternal to the fetal side across the

  4. Reduced concentrations of apolipoproteins B-100 and A-I in serum from cows with retained placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, S; Katoh, N

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apolipoprotein B-100 and A-I concentrations in cows with retained placenta. Animals used were cows with retained placenta alone (n = 10), those with both retained placenta and ketosis (n = 7), and controls (n = 10). Apolipoprotein B-100 concentrations at 2 to 4 d after parturition were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased in cows with retained placenta alone (mean +/- SD, 0.084 +/- 0.029 mg/ML of serum) when compared with those in control cows (0.154 +/- 0.022 mg/mL). Apolipoprotein A-I concentrations (0.713 +/- 0.177 mg/ML) were also significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of controls (0.895 +/- 0.159 mg/mL). These decreases were more distinct for apolipoproteins B-100 (55% of controls) than A-I concentrations (80% of controls). Concentrations of apolipoprotein B-100 (0.071 +/- 0.032 mg/mL; P < 0.01) and A-I (0.708 +/- 0.189 mg/mL; P < 0.05) in the cows with both retained placenta and ketosis were also reduced, when compared with values in controls. Other than apolipoproteins, cows with retained placenta alone had significantly (P < 0.01) higher serum nonesterified fatty acids, and lower triglyceride concentrations. Significantly (P < 0.01) higher nonesterified fatty acids and lower triglyceride concentrations were similarly observed in cows with both retained placenta and ketosis. PMID:9342458

  5. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  6. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  7. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. PMID:25527317

  8. The Placenta in Monoclea forsteri Hook. and Treubia lacunosa (Col.) Prosk: Insights into Placental Evolution in Liverworts

    PubMed Central

    CARAFA, A.; DUCKETT, J. G.; LIGRONE, R.

    2003-01-01

    Placental morphology is remarkably diverse between major bryophyte groups, especially with regard to the presence and distribution of transfer cells in the sporophyte and gametophyte. In contrast, with the exception of metzgerialean liverworts, placental morphology is highly conserved within major bryophyte groups. Here we examine the ultrastructure of the placenta in Monoclea forsteri and Treubia lacunosa, basal members of the marchantialean and metzgerialean liverwort lineages, respectively. In both species several layers of transfer cells are found on both sides of the placenta, with sporophytic transfer cells exhibiting prominent wall labyrinths. Consistent with previous reports of a similar placenta in other putatively basal and isolated liverwort genera such as Fossombronia, Haplomitrium, Blasia and Sphaerocarpos, this finding suggests that this type of placenta represents the plesiomorphic (primitive) condition in liverworts. Distinctive ultrastructural features of placental cells in Monoclea include branched plasmodesmata in the sporophyte and prominent arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, seemingly active in secretion in the gametophyte. These arrays contain a core of narrow tubules interconnected by electron‐opaque rods, structures with no precedent in plants. Analysis of the distribution of different types of placenta in major bryophyte groups provides valuable insights into their inter‐relationships and possible phylogeny. PMID:12876192

  9. [Cesarean section for case with preoperatively-suspected placenta accrete followed by hysterectomy due to uncontrollable massive bleeding].

    PubMed

    Kono, Yasuo; Sawada, Maiko; Kano, Tatsuhiko

    2007-12-01

    A 42-yr-old pregnant woman highly suspicious of the placenta accreta was scheduled for cesarean section (c-section) under general anesthesia. She had received emergency c-section for the placenta previa at 36 years of age and three episodes of intrauterine curettage for spontaneous abortion. While the possibility of placenta accreta was pointed out and the risks accompanying with it were explained at the 7th week of pregnancy, she insisted on having a baby. C-section was intended at around the 30th week of pregnancy and 1,200 ml of autologus blood was stored for the predictable massive bleeding. Bilateral embolization of the internal iliac artery was also planned. The baby was delivered uneventfully. However, the adherence of the placenta was so tight that the placenta could not be separated from the uterine wall. The arterial embolization immediately after the delivery did not work as effectively as to control massive bleeding. It took about 1 hour to control the massive bleeding of up to 9000 ml by difficult hysterectomy. Since we had prepared for such a situation, we could well catch up with the massive bleeding. The mother and baby were discharged well from the hospital 29th day after the c-section. PMID:18078102

  10. Effects of Gestational Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Methylation Status of Leptin Promoter in the Placenta and Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Feng-Shan; Lian, Jian-Min; Dou, She-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used for diagnosis in gestational women. Though it has several advantages, animal and human studies on the safety of MRI for the fetus remain inconclusive. Epigenetic modifications, which are crucial for cellular functioning, are prone to being affected by environmental changes. Therefore, we hypothesized that MRI during gestation may cause epigenetic modification alterations. Here, we investigated DNA methylation patterns of leptin promoter in the placenta and cord blood of women exposed to MRI during gestation. Results showed that average methylation levels of leptin in the placenta and cord blood were not affected by MRI. We also found that the methylation levels in the placenta and cord blood were not affected by different magnetic fields (1.5T and 3.0T MRI). However, if pregnant women were exposed to MRI at 15 to 20 weeks of gestation, the methylation level of leptin in cord blood was visibly lower than that of pregnant women exposed to MRI after 20-weeks of gestation (P = 0.037). mRNA expression level of leptin in cord blood was also altered, though mRNA expression of leptin in the placenta was not significantly affected. Therefore, we concluded that gestational MRI may not have major effects on the methylation level of leptin in cord blood and the placenta except for MRI applied before 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:26789724

  11. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  12. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  13. Phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta: an experimental and modeling investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lofthouse, E. M.; Perazzolo, S.; Brooks, S.; Crocker, I. P.; Glazier, J. D.; Johnstone, E. D.; Panitchob, N.; Sibley, C. P.; Widdows, K. L.; Sengers, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane transporters are considered essential for placental amino acid transfer, but the contribution of other factors, such as blood flow and metabolism, is poorly defined. In this study we combine experimental and modeling approaches to understand the determinants of [14C]phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta. Transfer of [14C]phenylalanine across the isolated perfused human placenta was determined at different maternal and fetal flow rates. Maternal flow rate was set at 10, 14, and 18 ml/min for 1 h each. At each maternal flow rate, fetal flow rates were set at 3, 6, and 9 ml/min for 20 min each. Appearance of [14C]phenylalanine was measured in the maternal and fetal venous exudates. Computational modeling of phenylalanine transfer was undertaken to allow comparison of the experimental data with predicted phenylalanine uptake and transfer under different initial assumptions. Placental uptake (mol/min) of [14C]phenylalanine increased with maternal, but not fetal, flow. Delivery (mol/min) of [14C]phenylalanine to the fetal circulation was not associated with fetal or maternal flow. The absence of a relationship between placental phenylalanine uptake and net flux of phenylalanine to the fetal circulation suggests that factors other than flow or transporter-mediated uptake are important determinants of phenylalanine transfer. These observations could be explained by tight regulation of free amino acid levels within the placenta or properties of the facilitated transporters mediating phenylalanine transport. We suggest that amino acid metabolism, primarily incorporation into protein, is controlling free amino acid levels and, thus, placental transfer. PMID:26676251

  14. Fetal serine fluxes across fetal liver, hindlimb, and placenta in late gestation.

    PubMed

    Cetin, I; Fennessey, P V; Sparks, J W; Meschia, G; Battaglia, F C

    1992-10-01

    Eleven studies of fetal serine fluxes were performed in chronically catheterized fetal lambs by continuous infusion of [1-13C]- and [U-14C]serine into a fetal brachial vein. At tracer serine steady state, samples were collected from the fetal abdominal aorta, umbilical vein, fetal hepatic vein, and fetal femoral vein and from the maternal femoral artery and uterine vein. Analyses were performed for plasma serine and glycine concentration, for serine and glycine 13C mole percent enrichment, and for whole blood 14CO2 and O2 concentrations. Uterine and umbilical blood flows were also measured. The placenta had a significant net uptake of fetal serine (2.1 +/- 0.5 mumol.min-1.kg-1, P < 0.01). Fetal plasma serine disposal rate (DR) was 42.5 +/- 3.9 mumol.min-1.kg-1.CO2 production from decarboxylation of fetal plasma serine represented 7.9 +/- 0.5% of DR, or 10.1 +/- 1.2 mumol CO2.min-1.kg-1. Fetal plasma glycine enrichment was 59.7 +/- 4.9% of fetal plasma serine enrichment. There was a significant loss of tracer serine from the fetal circulation into the placenta accounting for approximately 45% of infused tracer. Fifteen percent of this was converted to glycine and released into the umbilical circulation. There was a significant uptake of tracer serine by both fetal liver and fetal hindlimb with a significant CO2 production by both sites with serine oxidation predominantly in the carcass. These results indicate a high fetal serine disposal rate in the lamb, with rapid fetoplacental serine exchange, resulting in a net uptake of fetal serine by the placenta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1415701

  15. Regions of variable DNA methylation in human placenta associated with newborn neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Alison G; Houseman, E Andres; Green, Benjamin B; Lesseur, Corina; Armstrong, David A; Lester, Barry; Marsit, Carmen J

    2016-08-01

    The placenta regulates the in utero environment and functionally impacts fetal development. Candidate gene studies identified variation in placental DNA methylation is associated with newborn neurologic and behavioral outcomes including movement quality, lethargic behavior, attention, and arousal. We sought to identify novel regions of variable DNA methylation associated with newborn attention, lethargy, quality of movement, and arousal by performing an epigenome-wide association study in 335 infants from a US birth cohort. Methylation status was quantified using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and associations to newborn outcomes assessed by the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS) were identified while incorporating established bioinformatics algorithms to control for confounding by cell type composition. Methylation of CpGs within FHIT (cg15970800) and ANKRD11 (cg16710656) demonstrated genome-wide significance (P < 1.8 × 10(-7)) in specific associations with infant attention. CpGs whose differential methylation was associated with all 4 neurobehavioral outcomes were common to 50 genes involved in biological processes relating to cellular adhesion and nervous system development. Comprehensive methylation profiling identified relationships between methylation of FHIT and ANKRD11, which have been previously linked to neurodevelopment and behavioral outcomes in genetic association studies. Subtle changes in DNA methylation of these genes within the placenta may impact normal variation of a newborn's ability to alter and track visual and auditory stimuli. Gene ontology analysis suggested that those genes with variable methylation related to these outcomes are over-represented in biological pathways involved in brain development and placental physiology, supportive of our hypothesis for a key role of the placenta in neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:27366929

  16. Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel, fermented, peptide-enriched, hydrolyzed swine placenta extract powder.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yukio; Bagchi, Manashi; Marone, Palma Ann; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is an important organ that connects the developing fetus to allow nutrient uptake, antibody provisions and gas exchange via the blood supply of the mother. We developed a novel, standardized, stable, water-soluble, peptide-enriched hydrolyzed, Horus fermented placenta powder (HFPEP) from healthy, pathogen-free, swine placenta. Earlier studies demonstrated that HFPEP significantly improves physical fatigue, hepatic functions and repair of muscle fibers. We examined the broad safety of HFPEP in various toxicology models in Good Laboratory Practices-approved laboratories. The acute oral toxicity study was conducted in female Sprague-Dawley rats, and the acute oral LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Ames' bacterial reverse mutation assay was conducted to determine the ability of HFPEP to induce reverse mutation at selected histidine loci in five tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium viz. TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and TA102 in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9) at the doses of 50, 15, 4.5, 1.35 and 0.41 mg/ml. No mutagenic potential was observed. Mutagenic potential was also evaluated using in vivo micronucleus test, and no mutagenic potential of HFPEP was observed. Repeated dose 28-d oral toxicity study was performed in male and female rats with 14-d recovery period at the dose levels of 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg. No abnormal clinical signs or toxicity were detected. No observed adverse effect level of HFPEP was found to be greater than 1000 mg/kg body weight. These studies affirm that HFPEP has broad spectrum safety for human consumption. PMID:25266486

  17. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Litter Size in Berkshire Pig Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kang, Deok Gyeong; Kang, Kyung Hee; Kim, Il-Suk; Park, Hwa Chun; Na, Chong-Sam; Ha, Jeongim; Kim, Chul Wook

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in litter size has become of great interest in the pig industry because fecundity is directly related to sow reproductive life. Improved reproduction has thus been achieved by elucidating the molecular functions of genes associated with fecundity. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) in Berkshire pig placentas from larger (LLG, mean litter size >12) and smaller (SLG, mean litter size < 6.5) litter size groups. In total 588 DEGs were identified (p < 0.05, > 1.5-fold change), of which 98 were upregulated, while 490 were downregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment was also performed. We concluded that 129 of the 588 DEGs were closely related to litter size according to reproduction related genes selected based on previous reports, as 110 genes were downregulated and 19 upregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. RT-qPCR utilizing specific primers targeting the early growth response 2 (EGR2), pheromaxein c subunit (PHEROC) and endothelial lipase (LIPG) genes showed high accordance with RNA-Seq results. Furthermore, we investigated the upstream regulators of these three genes in the placenta. We found that WNT9B, a Wnt signaling pathway molecule, and IL-6, known inducers of EGR2 and LIPG, respectively, were significantly increased in LLG compared with SLG. We believe that the induction of IL-6 and LIPG may play an important role in increasing nutrition supply through the placenta from the sow to the piglet during gestation. These results provide novel molecular insights into pig reproduction. PMID:27078025

  18. MOTHER’S LIFETIME NUTRITION AND THE SIZE, SHAPE AND EFFICIENCY OF THE PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Nicola R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Chitra L.S.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Barker, David J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that the shape and size of the placenta at birth predict blood pressure in later life. The influences that determine placental morphology are largely unknown. We have examined the role of mother’s body size. Methods We studied 522 neonates who were born in a maternity hospital in Mysore, South India. The weight of the placenta and the length and breadth of its surface, were measured after delivery. Results Higher maternal fat mass predicted a larger placental surface (p=0.02), while larger maternal head circumference predicted a more oval placental surface (p=0.03). Higher maternal fat mass and larger maternal head circumference were associated with greater placental efficiency, indicated by lower ratios of the length (p=0.0003 and p=0.0001 respectively) and breadth (p=0.0002 and p<0.0001) of the surface to birthweight. In a sub-sample of 51 mothers whose own birthweight was available, higher maternal birthweight was related to lower ratios of the length and breadth of the surface to birthweight (p=0.01 and 0.002). Maternal height was unrelated to placental size or shape. Conclusions Higher maternal fat mass, reflecting the mother’s current nutritional state, and larger maternal head circumference, reflecting the mother’s fetal/infant growth, are associated with changes in the shape and size of the placental surface and greater placental efficiency. We suggest that these associations reflect effects of the mother’s nutrition at different stages of her lifecourse on the development of the placenta and on materno-placento-fetal transfer of nutrients. PMID:21924491

  19. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Litter Size in Berkshire Pig Placenta.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kang, Deok Gyeong; Kang, Kyung Hee; Kim, Il-Suk; Park, Hwa Chun; Na, Chong-Sam; Ha, Jeongim; Kim, Chul Wook

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in litter size has become of great interest in the pig industry because fecundity is directly related to sow reproductive life. Improved reproduction has thus been achieved by elucidating the molecular functions of genes associated with fecundity. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) in Berkshire pig placentas from larger (LLG, mean litter size >12) and smaller (SLG, mean litter size < 6.5) litter size groups. In total 588 DEGs were identified (p < 0.05, > 1.5-fold change), of which 98 were upregulated, while 490 were downregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment was also performed. We concluded that 129 of the 588 DEGs were closely related to litter size according to reproduction related genes selected based on previous reports, as 110 genes were downregulated and 19 upregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. RT-qPCR utilizing specific primers targeting the early growth response 2 (EGR2), pheromaxein c subunit (PHEROC) and endothelial lipase (LIPG) genes showed high accordance with RNA-Seq results. Furthermore, we investigated the upstream regulators of these three genes in the placenta. We found that WNT9B, a Wnt signaling pathway molecule, and IL-6, known inducers of EGR2 and LIPG, respectively, were significantly increased in LLG compared with SLG. We believe that the induction of IL-6 and LIPG may play an important role in increasing nutrition supply through the placenta from the sow to the piglet during gestation. These results provide novel molecular insights into pig reproduction. PMID:27078025

  20. Human Placenta-Derived CD146-Positive Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display a Distinct Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Christine; Abruzzese, Tanja; Maerz, Jan K; Ruh, Manuel; Amend, Bastian; Benz, Karin; Rolauffs, Bernd; Abele, Harald; Hart, Melanie L; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can be differentiated in vitro into a variety of cell types, including adipocytes or osteoblasts. Our recent studies indicated that a high expression of CD146 on MSCs from bone marrow correlates with their robust osteogenic differentiation potential. We therefore investigated if expression of CD146 on MSCs from the placenta correlates with a similar osteogenic differentiation potential. The MSCs were isolated specifically from the endometrial and fetal parts of human term placenta and expanded in separate cultures and compared with MSCs from bone marrow as controls. The expression of cell surface antigens was investigated by flow cytometry. Differentiation of MSCs was documented by cytochemistry and analysis of typical lineage marker genes. CD146-positive MSCs were separated from CD146-negative cells by magnet-assisted cell sorts (MACS). We report that the expression of CD146 is associated with a higher osteogenic differentiation potential in human placenta-derived MSCs (pMSCs) and the CD146(pos) pMSCs generated a mineralized extracellular matrix, whereas the CD146(neg) pMSCs failed to do so. In contrast, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of pMSCs was not different in CD146(pos) compared with CD146(neg) pMSCs. Upon enrichment of pMSCs by MACS, the CD146(neg) and CD146(pos) populations maintained their expression levels for this antigen for several passages in vitro. We conclude that CD146(pos) pMSCs either respond to osteogenic stimuli more vividly or, alternatively, CD146(pos) pMSCs present a pMSC subset that is predetermined to differentiate into osteoblasts. PMID:25743703

  1. Isolation and characterisation of a novel trophoblast side-population from first trimester placentae.

    PubMed

    James, J L; Hurley, D G; Gamage, T K J B; Zhang, T; Vather, R; Pantham, P; Murthi, P; Chamley, L W

    2015-11-01

    The placenta is responsible for all nutrient and gas exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy. The differentiation of specialised placental epithelial cells called trophoblasts is essential for placental function, but we understand little about how these populations arise. Mouse trophoblast stem cells have allowed us to understand many of the factors that regulate murine trophoblast lineage development, but the human placenta is anatomically very different from the mouse, and it is imperative to isolate a human trophoblast stem cell to understand human placental development. Here we have developed a novel methodology to isolate a Hoechst side-population of trophoblasts from early gestation placentae and compared their transcriptome to differentiated trophoblast populations (cytotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts) using microarray technology. Side-population trophoblasts clustered as a transcriptomically distinct population but were more closely related to cytotrophoblasts than extravillous trophoblasts. Side-population trophoblasts up-regulated a number of genes characteristic of trophectoderm and murine trophoblast stem cells in comparison to cytotrophoblasts or extravillous trophoblasts and could be distinguished from both of these more mature populations by a unique set of 22 up-regulated genes, which were enriched for morphogenesis and organ development and the regulation of growth functions. Cells expressing two of these genes (LAMA2 and COL6A3) were distributed throughout the cytotrophoblast layer at the trophoblast/mesenchymal interface. Comparisons to previously published trophoblast progenitor populations suggest that the side-population trophoblasts isolated in this work are a novel human trophoblast population. Future work will determine whether these cells exhibit functional progenitor/stem cell attributes. PMID:26248480

  2. Steroidogenic capacity of the placenta as a supplemental source of progesterone during pregnancy in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Until recently, the corpus luteum (CL) was considered to be the main source of progesterone (P4) during pregnancy in the domestic cat (Felis catus). However, other possible sources of P4 have not been ruled out. Although feline placental homogenates were found to be capable of synthesizing P4, expression of the respective steroidogenic enzymes has not been investigated at the molecular level. Therefore, in the present study, expression of the two major factors involved in the synthesis of P4 - 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) - was investigated in the feline CL and placenta during the course of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy. Methods The mRNA levels of StAR and 3betaHSD were determined using Real Time PCR and their localizations were determined by immunohistochemistry. Placental P4 concentrations, after ethyl extraction, were measured by EIA. Results Luteal 3betaHSD and StAR mRNA levels were strongly time-dependent, peaking during mid-pregnancy. The placental 3betaHSD mRNA level was significantly upregulated towards the end of pregnancy. In the CL, 3betaHSD and StAR protein were localized in the luteal cells whereas in the placenta they were localized to the maternal decidual cells. Placental P4 concentrations were low in early pregnant queens, but increased along with gestational age. Conclusions These results confirm that the placenta is an additional source of P4 in pregnant queens and can thereby be considered as an important endocrine organ supporting feline pregnancy. PMID:23110691

  3. Lipidomic Assessment of Plasma and Placenta of Women with Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Korkes, Henri Augusto; Sass, Nelson; Moron, Antonio F.; Câmara, Niels Olsen S.; Bonetti, Tatiana; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; De Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adipose tissue is responsible for triggering chronic systemic inflammatory response and these changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Objective To characterize the lipid profile in the placenta and plasma of patients with preeclampsia. Methodology Samples were collected from placenta and plasma of 10 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 10 controls. Lipids were extracted using the Bligh–Dyer protocol and were analysed by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results Approximately 200 lipid signals were quantified. The most prevalent lipid present in plasma of patients with preeclampsia was the main class Glycerophosphoserines-GP03 (PS) representing 52.30% of the total lipid composition, followed by the main classes Glycerophosphoethanolamines-GP02 (PEt), Glycerophosphocholines-GP01 (PC) and Flavanoids-PK12 (FLV), with 24.03%, 9.47% and 8.39% respectively. When compared to the control group, plasma samples of patients with preeclampsia showed an increase of PS (p<0.0001), PC (p<0.0001) and FLV (p<0.0001). Placental analysis of patients with preeclampsia, revealed the PS as the most prevalent lipid representing 56.28%, followed by the main class Macrolides/polyketides-PK04 with 32.77%, both with increased levels when compared with patients control group, PS (p<0.0001) and PK04 (p<0.0001). Conclusion Lipids found in placenta and plasma from patients with preeclampsia differ from those of pregnant women in the control group. Further studies are needed to clarify if these changes are specific and a cause or consequence of preeclampsia. PMID:25329382

  4. Effect of strain rate on the tensile material properties of human placenta.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah J; Bisplinghoff, Jill A; McNally, Craig; Kemper, Andrew R; Santago, Anthony C; Duma, Stefan M

    2009-09-01

    Automobile crashes are the largest cause of injury death for pregnant females and the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States. Computational models, useful tools to evaluate the risk of fetal loss in motor vehicle crashes, are based on a limited number of quasistatic material tests of the placenta. This study presents a total of 64 uniaxial tensile tests on coupon specimens from six human placentas at three strain rates. Material properties of the placental tissue were evaluated at strain rates of 0.07/s, 0.70/s, and 7.00/s. The test data have average failure strains of 0.34, 0.36, and 0.37, respectively. Failure stresses of 10.8 kPa, 11.4 kPa, and 18.6 kPa correspond to an increase in strain rate from 0.07/s to 7.0/s. The results indicate rate dependence only when comparing the highest strain rate of 7.0/s to either of the lower rates. There is no significant rate dependence between 0.07/s and 0.70/s. When compared with previous testing of placental tissue, the current study addresses the material response to more strain rates as well as provides a much larger set of available data. In summary, tensile material properties for the placenta have been determined for use in computational modeling of pregnant occupant kinematics in events ranging from low impact activities to severe impacts such as in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:19725697

  5. Transcriptomic signatures of villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast in term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Rouault, Christine; Clément, Karine; Guesnon, Mickael; Henegar, Corneliu; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Degrelle, Séverine A; Fournier, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    During pregnancy, the placenta ensures multiple functions, which are directly involved in the initiation, fetal growth and outcome of gestation. The placental tissue involved in maternal-fetal exchanges and in synthesis of pregnancy hormones is the mononucleated villous cytotrophoblast (VCT) which aggregates and fuses to form and renew the syncytiotrophoblast (ST). Knowledge of the gene expression pattern specific to this endocrine and exchanges tissue of human placenta is of major importance to understand functions of this heterogeneous and complex tissue. Therefore, we undertook a global analysis of the gene expression profiles of primary cultured-VCT (n = 6) and in vitro-differentiated-ST (n = 5) in comparison with whole term placental tissue from which mononucleated VCT were isolated. A total of 880 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were observed between VCT/ST compared to whole placenta, and a total of 37 and 137 genes were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively, in VCT compared to ST. The 37 VCT-genes were involved in cellular processes (assembly, organization, and maintenance), whereas the 137 ST-genes were associated with lipid metabolism and cell morphology. In silico, all networks were linked to 3 transcriptional regulators (PPARγ, RARα and NR2F1) which are known to be essential for trophoblast differentiation. A subset of six DEG was validated by RT-qPCR and four by immunohistochemistry. To conclude, recognition of these pathways is fundamental to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of human trophoblast differentiation. The present study provides for the first time a gene expression signature of the VCT and ST compared to their originated term human placental tissue. PMID:27452442

  6. [Iliac artery occlusion balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Burgos Frías, N; Gredilla, E; Guasch, E; Gilsanz, F

    2014-02-01

    Massive obstetric hemorrhage still remains a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. The risk factors associated with this pathology must be identified in order to schedule the appropriate delivery with the necessary resources. A case is presented of an iliac artery occlusion with intravascular balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section. The perioperative treatment, as well as an analysis of the treatment options is described, along with their advantages and disadvantages, from the use of postpartum hemorrhage protocols, blood transfusion and procoagulant factors, and other maneuvers to control bleeding, until the hysterectomy. PMID:23276376

  7. Laboratory and in situ flotation rates of lecithotrophic eggs from the bathyal echinoid Phormosoma placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Craig M.; Cameron, J. Lane

    1987-09-01

    The large, lecithotrophic eggs of the bathyal echinothuriid echinoid Phormosoma placenta are positively buoyant both in vitro and in situ to depths of at least 608 m. Eggs attain terminal velocity in less than 5 cm. At constant salinity, flotation rate is related linearly to temperature; eggs move more slowly at lower temperatures. This effect is attributed to increased water viscosity at lower temperatures, not differential changes in egg and water density. Based on an average flotation velocity of 0.42 cm s -1, it is predicted that eggs produced at bathyal depths will reach the surface in approximately 2 days.

  8. Interactions between trophoblast cells and the maternal and fetal circulation in the mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Adamson, S Lee; Lu, Yong; Whiteley, Kathie J; Holmyard, Doug; Hemberger, Myriam; Pfarrer, Christine; Cross, James C

    2002-10-15

    Mammalian embryos have an intimate relationship with their mothers, particularly with the placental vasculature from which embryos obtain nutrients essential for growth. It is an interesting vascular bed because maternal vessel number and diameter change dramatically during gestation and, in rodents and primates, the terminal blood space becomes lined by placental trophoblast cells rather than endothelial cells. Molecular genetic studies in mice aimed at identifying potential regulators of these processes have been hampered by lack of understanding of the anatomy of the vascular spaces in the placenta and the general nature of maternal-fetal vascular interactions. To address this problem, we examined the anatomy of the mouse placenta by preparing plastic vascular casts and serial histological sections of implantation sites from embryonic day (E) 10.5 to term. We found that each radial artery carrying maternal blood into the uterus branched into 5-10 dilated spiral arteries located within the metrial triangle, populated by uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and the decidua basalis. The endothelial-lined spiral arteries converged together at the trophoblast giant cell layer and emptied into a few straight, trophoblast-lined "canals" that carried maternal blood to the base of the placenta. Maternal blood then percolated back through the intervillous space of the labyrinth toward the maternal side of the placenta in a direction that is countercurrent to the direction of the fetal capillary blood flow. Trophoblast cells were found invading the uterus in two patterns. Large cells that expressed the trophoblast giant cell-specific gene Plf (encoding Proliferin) invaded during the early postimplantation period in a pattern tightly associated with spiral arteries. These peri/endovascular trophoblast were detected only approximately 150-300 microm upstream of the main giant cell layer. A second type of widespread interstitial invasion in the decidua basalis by glycogen

  9. Discrepancy in Insulin Regulation between Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Platelets and Placenta.

    PubMed

    Li, Yicong; Cooper, Anthonya; Odibo, Imelda N; Ahmed, Asli; Murphy, Pamela; Koonce, Ruston; Dajani, Nafisa K; Lowery, Curtis L; Roberts, Drucilla J; Maroteaux, Luc; Kilic, Fusun

    2016-04-29

    Earlier findings have identified the requirement of insulin signaling on maturation and the translocation of serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SERT to the plasma membrane of the trophoblast in placenta. Because of the defect on insulin receptor (IR) in the trophoblast of the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated placenta, SERT is found entrapped in the cytoplasm of the GDM-trophoblast. SERT is encoded by the same gene expressed in trophoblast and platelets. Additionally, alteration in plasma 5-HT levels and the 5-HT uptake rates are associated with the aggregation rates of platelets. Therefore, here, we investigated a novel hypothesis that GDM-associated defects in platelet IR should change their 5-HT uptake rates, and this should be a leading factor for thrombosis in GDM maternal blood. The maternal blood and the placentas were obtained at the time of cesarean section from the GDM and non-diabetic subjects (n = 6 for each group), and the platelets and trophoblasts were isolated to determine the IR activity, surface level of SERT, and their 5-HT uptake rates.Interestingly, no significant differences were evident in IR tyrosine phosphorylation or the downstream elements, AKT and S6K in platelets and their aggregation rates in both groups. Furthermore, insulin stimulation up-regulated 5-HT uptake rates of GDM-platelets as it does in the control group. However, the phosphorylation of IR and the downstream elements were significantly lower in GDM-trophoblast and showed no response to the insulin stimulation while they showed 4-fold increase to insulin stimulation in control group. Similarly, the 5-HT uptake rates of GDM-trophoblast and the SERT expression on their surface were severalfold lower compared with control subjects. IR is expressed in all tissues, but it is not known if diabetes affects IR in all tissues equally. Here, for the first time, our findings with clinical samples show that in GDM-associated defect on IR is tissue type-dependent. While IR is

  10. Human Cytomegalovirus-Induces Cytokine Changes in the Placenta with Implications for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Stuart T.; Scott, Gillian; Naing, Zin; Iwasenko, Jenna; Hall, Beverley; Graf, Nicole; Arbuckle, Susan; Craig, Maria E.; Rawlinson, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the developing fetus can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes including death in utero. Fetal injury results from direct viral cytopathic damage to the CMV-infected fetus, although evidence suggests CMV placental infection may indirectly cause injury to the fetus, possibly via immune dysregulation with placental dysfunction. This study investigated the effects of CMV infection on expression of the chemokine MCP-1 (CCL2) and cytokine TNF-α in placentae from naturally infected stillborn babies, and compared these changes with those found in placental villous explant histocultures acutely infected with CMV ex vivo. Tissue cytokine protein levels were assessed using quantitative immunohistochemistry. CMV-infected placentae from stillborn babies had significantly elevated MCP-1 and TNF-α levels compared with uninfected placentae (p = 0.001 and p = 0.007), which was not observed in placentae infected with other microorganisms (p = 0.62 and p = 0.71) (n = 7 per group). Modelling acute clinical infection using ex vivo placental explant histocultures showed infection with CMV laboratory strain AD169 (0.2 pfu/ml) caused significantly elevated expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α compared with uninfected explants (p = 0.0003 and p<0.0001) (n = 25 per group). Explant infection with wild-type Merlin at a tenfold lower multiplicity of infection (0.02 pfu/ml), caused a significant positive correlation between increased explant infection and upregulation of MCP-1 and TNF-α expression (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.017). Cytokine dysregulation has been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, and can negatively affect placental development and function. These novel findings demonstrate CMV infection modulates the placental immune environment in vivo and in a multicellular ex vivo model, suggesting CMV-induced cytokine modulation as a potential initiator and/or exacerbator of placental and fetal injury. PMID

  11. Realdo Colombo's "De Re Anatomica": the renaissance origin of the term "placenta" and its historical background.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, M; Fassan, M; Cimino, M; Zanardo, V; Chiarelli, S

    2012-08-01

    Over the centuries, great interest has been devoted to the placenta and to its highly symbolic significance. The Renaissance represented the age of historical and cultural transition between classical and modern scientific paradigms. In the medical setting, Realdo Colombo represents one of the protagonists of this revolution. In his masterpiece, "De Re Anatomica", he revolutionized the former medical perspective. We present a passage from this book, which carries invaluable information on the Renaissance viewpoint on pregnancy and placental biology. The connections between Colombo's theories and the previous medical tradition are also analysed. PMID:22564874

  12. Is the cold loop hysteroscopic technique a myometrial sparing treatment for placenta accreta residuals in a puerperal uterus?

    PubMed

    Mazzon, Ivano; Favilli, Alessandro; Grasso, Mario; Horvath, Stefano; Gerli, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a life-threatening obstetric pathology characterized by an abnormal invasion of chorionic villi into the uterine wall. The management represents a challenge for the gynecologist, especially in patients desiring to preserve their fertility. Several methods have been proposed to avoid hysterectomy. A case of a hysteroscopic conservative management with the cold loop technique in a puerpera with a large mass of placenta accreta residuals is described. The chorionic tissue was safely detached and it was subsequently removed by an electric cutting loop. Even in the absence of a clear cleavage plane, the thermal damage of surrounding healthy myometrium and dreadful complications as uterine perforation due to the electric cutting loop were avoided. The cold-loop hysteroscopic resection seems to be a safe and effective choice for the treatment of retained placenta accreta in patients desiring to preserve fertility. Moreover, it can also be proposed to patients who need to be treated immediately after delivery. PMID:26212585

  13. Morphological Characterization and Quantification of the Mycelial Growth of the Brown-Rot Fungus Postia placenta for Modeling Purposes.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; Lv, Pin; Ayouz, Mehdi; Besserer, Arnaud; Perré, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Continuous observation was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional microscopic growth of the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, for seventeen days. The morphological characterization of Postia placenta was quantitatively determined, including the tip extension rate, branch angle and branching length, (hyphal length between two adjacent branch sites). A voxel method has been developed to measure the growth of the biomass. Additionally, the tip extension rate distribution, the branch angle distribution and the branching length distribution, which quantified the hyphal growth characteristics, were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed that the extension rate of tips was randomly distributed in space. The branch angle distribution did not change with the development of the colony, however, the branching length distribution did vary with the development of the colony. The experimental data will be incorporated into a lattice-based model simulating the growth of Postia placenta. PMID:27602575

  14. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups. PMID:23307383

  15. The presence of kinesin superfamily motor proteins KIFC1 and KIF17 in normal and pathological human placenta.

    PubMed

    Sati, L; Seval-Celik, Y; Unek, G; Korgun, E T; Demir, R

    2009-10-01

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are motor proteins that participate in chromosomal and spindle movements during mitosis and meiosis, and transport membranous organelles and macromolecules fundamental for cellular functions. Although the roles of KIFs in axonal and dendritic transports have been studied extensively, their role in intracellular transport in general is less well known. The diversity of kinesins suggests that each kinesin may have a specific function. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the presence and cellular localization of KIFC1 and KIF17 in normal and pathological human placentas. First-trimester (22-56 days) and normal, preeclamptic (PE), and diabetic-term placental tissues were obtained and further studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot methods. KIFC1 was mainly localized to the syncytiotrophoblast both in early and term placental samples. However, a stronger immunoreactivity was observed both in PE and diabetic placentas compared to normal-term placentas. KIF17 was most intensively localized in developing vascular endothelium in early pregnancy. Even though KIF17 was moderately stained in the endothelium of villi from normal human-term placentas, stronger immunoreactivity was observed in all types of villi of both PE and diabetic placentas. Western blotting of tissue extracts confirmed the IHC results. Here, we demonstrate the presence of KIFC1 and KIF17 in human placenta for the first time. The intense expression of KIFC1 in syncytiotrophoblast and KIF17 in vascular endothelium suggests that both the proteins might be important in a cargo-transport system. An increased expression pattern of both KIFC1 and KIF17 in PE and diabetes might suggest that these proteins may be involved in complex trophoblast functions and placental pathologies. Further studies will clarify the physiological role of KIFs in human placental transport and development. PMID:19679349

  16. Downregulated miR-195 Detected in Preeclamptic Placenta Affects Trophoblast Cell Invasion via Modulating ActRIIA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Yang, Weiwei; Yang, Hui-xia; Liao, Qinping; Ye, Gang; Fu, Guodong; Ji, Lei; Xu, Peng; Wang, Hao; Li, Yu-xia; Peng, Chun; Wang, Yan-ling

    2012-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by on-set of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as initial cause of the disorder. Recently, miR-195 was found to be down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal pregnant ones, indicating possible association of this small molecule with placental pathology of preeclampsia. By far the function of miR-195 in the development of placenta remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Bioinformatic assay predicted ActRIIA as one of the targets for miR-195. By using Real-time PCR, Western blotting and Dual Luciferase Assay, we validated that ActRIIA was the direct target of miR-195 in human trophoblast cells. Transwell insert invasion assay showed that miR-195 could promote cell invasion in trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo cells, and the effect could be abrogated by overexpressed ActRIIA. In preeclamptic placenta tissues, pri-miR-195 and mature miR-195 expressions were down-regulated, whereas ActRIIA level appeared to be increased when compared with that in gestational-week-matched normal placentas. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report on the function of miR-195 in human placental trophoblast cells which reveals an invasion-promoting effect of the small RNA via repressing ActRIIA. Aberrant expression of miR-195 may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia through interfering with Activin/Nodal signaling mediated by ActRIIA in human placenta. PMID:22723898

  17. The imprinted Phlda2 gene modulates a major endocrine compartment of the placenta to regulate placental demands for maternal resources

    PubMed Central

    Tunster, S.J.; Creeth, H.D.J.; John, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Imprinted genes, which are expressed from a single parental allele in response to epigenetic marks first established in the germline, function in a myriad of processes to regulate mammalian development. Recent work suggests that imprinted genes may regulate the signalling function of the placenta by modulating the size of the endocrine compartment. Here we provide in vivo evidence that this hypothesis is well founded. Elevated expression of the imprinted Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family a, member 2 (Phlda2) gene drives a reduction of the spongiotrophoblast endocrine compartment, diminished placental glycogen and asymmetric foetal growth restriction. Using both loss-of-function and gain-in-expression mouse models, here we further show that Phlda2 exclusively modulates the spongiotrophoblast compartment of the placenta without significantly altering the composition of the trophoblast giant cell endocrine lineages that share a common progenitor with this lineage. Additionally, we show that Phlda2 loss-of-function placentae contain nearly three times more placental glycogen than non-transgenic placentae. Remarkably, relative to a fully wild type scenario, wild type placentae also accumulate excessive glycogen. While loss-of-function of Phlda2 increased both placental weight and placental glycogen, the weight of both mutant and non-transgenic fetuses was lower than that found in a fully wild type scenario indicating that excessive glycogen accumulation comes at the cost of foetal growth. This work firstly highlights a novel signalling function for the spongiotrophoblast in stimulating the global accumulation of placental glycogen. Furthermore, this work suggests that Phlda2 manipulates the placenta's demands for maternal resources, a process that must be tightly regulated by epigenetic marks to ensure optimal foetal growth. PMID:26476147

  18. The imprinted Phlda2 gene modulates a major endocrine compartment of the placenta to regulate placental demands for maternal resources.

    PubMed

    Tunster, S J; Creeth, H D J; John, R M

    2016-01-01

    Imprinted genes, which are expressed from a single parental allele in response to epigenetic marks first established in the germline, function in a myriad of processes to regulate mammalian development. Recent work suggests that imprinted genes may regulate the signalling function of the placenta by modulating the size of the endocrine compartment. Here we provide in vivo evidence that this hypothesis is well founded. Elevated expression of the imprinted Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family a, member 2 (Phlda2) gene drives a reduction of the spongiotrophoblast endocrine compartment, diminished placental glycogen and asymmetric foetal growth restriction. Using both loss-of-function and gain-in-expression mouse models, here we further show that Phlda2 exclusively modulates the spongiotrophoblast compartment of the placenta without significantly altering the composition of the trophoblast giant cell endocrine lineages that share a common progenitor with this lineage. Additionally, we show that Phlda2 loss-of-function placentae contain nearly three times more placental glycogen than non-transgenic placentae. Remarkably, relative to a fully wild type scenario, wild type placentae also accumulate excessive glycogen. While loss-of-function of Phlda2 increased both placental weight and placental glycogen, the weight of both mutant and non-transgenic fetuses was lower than that found in a fully wild type scenario indicating that excessive glycogen accumulation comes at the cost of foetal growth. This work firstly highlights a novel signalling function for the spongiotrophoblast in stimulating the global accumulation of placental glycogen. Furthermore, this work suggests that Phlda2 manipulates the placenta's demands for maternal resources, a process that must be tightly regulated by epigenetic marks to ensure optimal foetal growth. PMID:26476147

  19. COMPARISON OF DNA ADDUCT LEVELS IN HUMAN PLACENTA FROM POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSED WOMEN AND SMOKERS IN WHICH CYP 1A1 LEVELS ARE SIMILARLY ELEVATED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cigarette smoking is associated with high elevations in levels of both cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and DNA adducts in human placenta. he identity of the smoking related adducts is not known. he DNA adducts identified in placenta of smokers could result from chemicals resent in ...

  20. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 exerts its effects on placenta and regulates vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy of Hyp mice.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Yamazaki, Miwa; Kawai, Masanobu; Tsugawa, Naoko; Tachikawa, Kanako; Koinuma, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Kimoto, Akihito; Nakayama, Masahiro; Namba, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Okano, Toshio; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2014-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) functions in an endocrine fashion and requires α-Klotho to exert its effects on the target organs. We have recently demonstrated that the human placenta also expresses α-Klotho, which led us to hypothesize that FGF23 may exert effects on the placenta. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the expression of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) as well as that of α-Klotho in the feto-maternal interface of both mouse and human normal-term placentas, which suggested that these areas might be receptive to FGF23. Therefore, we next investigated whether FGF23 has some roles in the placenta using Hyp mice with high levels of circulating FGF23. Hyp and wild-type (WT) females were mated with WT males, and the mothers and their male fetuses were analyzed. FGF23 levels in Hyp mothers were elevated. FGF23 levels were about 20-fold higher in Hyp fetuses than in Hyp mothers, whereas WT fetuses from Hyp mothers exhibited low levels of FGF23, as did fetuses from WT mothers. We analyzed the placental gene expression and found that the expression of Cyp24a1 encoding 25OHD-24-hydroxylase, a target gene for FGF23 in the kidney, was increased in the placentas of fetuses from Hyp mothers compared with fetuses from WT mothers. In an organ culture of WT placentas, treatment with plasma from Hyp mothers markedly increased the expression of Cyp24a1, which was abolished by the simultaneous addition of anti-FGF23 neutralizing antibody. The direct injection of recombinant FGF23 into WT placentas induced the expression of Cyp24a1. The increase in the placental expression of Cyp24a1 in fetuses from Hyp mothers resulted in decreased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These results suggest that increased levels of circulating FGF23 in pathological conditions such as Hyp mice exerts direct effects on the placenta and affects fetal vitamin D metabolism via the regulation of Cyp24a1 expression. PMID:24470103

  1. Intraoperative uterine artery embolization without fetal radiation exposure in patients with placenta previa totalis: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hae Jeng; Kim, Ju Yeong; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Jee Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Embolization of the uterine arteries is a valuable method for controlling postpartum hemorrhage. There have been recent attempts to apply this tool as a means of controlling bleeding during Cesarean section, especially in patients with placenta previa. However, the benefits are controversial due to lack of randomized controlled studies, no evidence of significant improved outcomes, and potential harm including radiation exposure. This paper includes two case reports of intraoperative uterine artery embolization without fetal radiation exposure in patients with placenta previa totalis. PMID:24327980

  2. Ectopic Bone Formation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Term Placenta and the Decidua

    PubMed Central

    Gronthos, Stan; Manuelpillai, Ursula; Abumaree, Mohamed H.; Pertile, Mark D.; Brennecke, Shaun P.; Kalionis, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most attractive cell types for cell-based bone tissue repair applications. Fetal-derived MSCs and maternal-derived MSCs have been isolated from chorionic villi of human term placenta and the decidua basalis attached to the placenta following delivery, respectively. Chorionic-derived MSCs (CMSCs) and decidua-derived MSCs (DMSCs) generated in this study met the MSCs criteria set by International Society of Cellular Therapy. These criteria include: (i) adherence to plastic; (ii) >90% expression of CD73, CD105, CD90, CD146, CD44 and CD166 combined with <5% expression of CD45, CD19 and HLA-DR; and (iii) ability to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. In vivo subcutaneous implantation into SCID mice showed that both bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled CMSCs and DMSCs when implanted together with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate particles were capable of forming ectopic bone at 8-weeks post-transplantation. Histological assessment showed expression of bone markers, osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), biglycan (BGN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and also a marker of vasculature, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). This study provides evidence to support CMSCs and DMSCs as cellular candidates with potent bone forming capacity. PMID:26484666

  3. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  4. Tissue Barriers of the Human Placenta to Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Jennifer R.; Zeldovich, Varvara B.; Poukchanski, Anna; Boothroyd, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, obligate intracellular parasite capable of crossing the placenta to cause spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, or significant disease in the surviving neonate. Exploration of the cellular and histological components of the placental barrier is in its infancy, and both how and where T. gondii breaches it are unknown. The human placenta presents two anatomical interfaces between maternal cells and fetal cells (trophoblasts): (i) the villous region where maternal blood bathes syncytialized trophoblasts for nutrient exchange and (ii) the maternal decidua, where mononuclear, extravillous trophoblasts anchor the villous region to the uterus. Using first-trimester human placental explants, we demonstrate that the latter site is significantly more vulnerable to infection, despite presenting a vastly smaller surface. This is consistent with past findings concerning two vertically transmitted viruses and one bacterium. We further explore whether three genetically distinct T. gondii types (I, II, and III) are capable of preferential placental infection and survival in this model. We find no difference in these strains' ability to infect placental explants; however, slightly slower growth is evident in type II (Prugniaud [Pru]) parasites relative to other cell types, although this did not quite achieve statistical significance. PMID:22083708

  5. Intravital Placenta Imaging Reveals Microcirculatory Dynamics Impact on Sequestration and Phagocytosis of Plasmodium-Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Luciana Vieira; Tadokoro, Carlos Eduardo; Gómez-Conde, Iván; Olivieri, David N.; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is exquisitely aggressive, causing a range of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes prominently linked to Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte cytoadherence to fetal trophoblast. To elucidate the physiopathology of infected erythrocytes (IE) sequestration in the placenta we devised an experimental system for intravital placental examination of P. berghei-infected mice. BALB/c females were mated to C57Bl/6 CFP+ male mice and infected with GFP+ P. berghei IE, and at gestational day 18, placentas were exposed for time-lapse imaging acquisition under two-photon microscopy. Real-time images and quantitative measurements revealed that trophoblast conformational changes transiently restrain blood flow in the mouse placental labyrinth. The complex dynamics of placental microcirculation promotes IE accumulation in maternal blood spaces with low blood flow and allows the establishment of stable IE-trophoblast contacts. Further, we show that the fate of sequestered IE includes engulfment by both macrophagic and trophoblastic fetal-derived cells. These findings reinforce the current paradigm that IE interact with the trophoblast and provide definitive evidence on two novel pathogenesis mechanisms: (1) trophoblast layer controls placental microcirculation promoting IE sequestration; and (2) fetal-derived placental cells engulf sequestered IE. PMID:23382682

  6. Conservative and timely treatment in retained products of conception: a case report of placenta accreta ritention

    PubMed Central

    Antonella, Guarino; Luisa, Di Benedetto; Chiara, Assorgi; Alessandra, Rocca; Caserta, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The term retained products of conception (RPOC) refers to intrauterine tissue that develops after conception and persists after medical and surgical pregnancy termination, miscarriage, and vaginal or cesarean delivery. One of the most important factor risk for RPOC is placenta accreta, defined as “the abnormal adherence, either in whole or in part, of the afterbirth to the underlying uterine wall”. We report a case of a 37 years old woman referred to our gynecologic department with irregular vaginal bleeding. On her medical history, she had a cesarean occurred 3 months before. Ultrasonography revealed in the uterine cavity hyperechoic mass, treated with curettage. Two weeks later the curettage, patient complained still vaginal bleeding. On the transvaginal ultrasound, the uterine cavity was occupied again by a hyperechoic mass. She underwent to hysteroscopic resection and histological diagnosis was compatible with placenta accreta residual. In the follow up she had not complications. Early diagnosis, prompt evaluation of bleeding is important for timely treatment and for preventing immediate complications and demolitive approach. A careful follow up is necessary to prevent late consequences. The purpose of this study is to report our experience in timely diagnosis and conservative management. PMID:26722586

  7. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Bierne, Hélène; Travier, Laetitia; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Tailleux, Ludovic; Subtil, Agathe; Lebreton, Alice; Paliwal, Anupam; Gicquel, Brigitte; Staeheli, Peter; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ) genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues. PMID:22720036

  8. Comparison of syncytiotrophoblast generated from human embryonic stem cells and from term placentas

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, Shinichiro; Alexenko, Andrei P.; Amita, Mitsuyoshi; Yang, Ying; Schust, Danny J.; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) readily commit to the trophoblast lineage after exposure to bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and two small compounds, an activin A signaling inhibitor and a FGF2 signaling inhibitor (BMP4/A83-01/PD173074; BAP treatment). During differentiation, areas emerge within the colonies with the biochemical and morphological features of syncytiotrophoblast (STB). Relatively pure fractions of mononucleated cytotrophoblast (CTB) and larger syncytial sheets displaying the expected markers of STB can be obtained by differential filtration of dispersed colonies through nylon strainers. RNA-seq analysis of these fractions has allowed them to be compared with cytotrophoblasts isolated from term placentas before and after such cells had formed syncytia. Although it is clear from extensive gene marker analysis that both ESC- and placenta-derived syncytial cells are trophoblast, each with the potential to transport a wide range of solutes and synthesize placental hormones, their transcriptome profiles are sufficiently dissimilar to suggest that the two cell types have distinct pedigrees and represent functionally different kinds of STB. We propose that the STB generated from human ESCs represents the primitive syncytium encountered in early pregnancy soon after the human trophoblast invades into the uterine wall. PMID:27051068

  9. Meeting report of the first conference of the International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS).

    PubMed

    Parolini, O; Alviano, F; Betz, A G; Bianchi, D W; Götherström, C; Manuelpillai, U; Mellor, A L; Ofir, R; Ponsaerts, P; Scherjon, S A; Weiss, M L; Wolbank, S; Wood, K J; Borlongan, C V

    2011-10-01

    The International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS) was founded in June 2010. Its goal is to serve as a network for advancing research and clinical applications of stem/progenitor cells isolated from human term placental tissues, including the amnio-chorionic fetal membranes and Wharton's jelly. The commitment of the Society to champion placenta as a stem cell source was realized with the inaugural meeting of IPLASS held in Brescia, Italy, in October 2010. Officially designated as an EMBO-endorsed scientific activity, international experts in the field gathered for a 3-day meeting, which commenced with "Meet with the experts" sessions, IPLASS member and board meetings, and welcome remarks by Dr. Ornella Parolini, President of IPLASS. The evening's highlight was a keynote plenary lecture by Dr. Diana Bianchi. The subsequent scientific program consisted of morning and afternoon oral and poster presentations, followed by social events. Both provided many opportunities for intellectual exchange among the 120 multi-national participants. This allowed a methodical and deliberate evaluation of the status of placental cells in research in regenerative and reparative medicine. The meeting concluded with Dr. Parolini summarizing the meeting's highlights. This further prepared the fertile ground on which to build the promising potential of placental cell research. The second IPLASS meeting will take place in September 2012 in Vienna, Austria. This meeting report summarizes the thought-provoking lectures delivered at the first meeting of IPLASS. PMID:21575989

  10. Quantitation of human MAO A and B in liver, intestine and placenta: Reassessment of activity

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) oxidize a variety of exogenous and endogenous amines including neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine as well as the potent dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The two forms of MAO (A and B) differ in molecular weight and inhibitor selectivity, and are differentially expressed in the nervous system and many other tissues. Although some substrates are preferentially oxidized by one form of MAO, substrates that can be oxidized by only one MAO form have not been reported. How well each MAO oxidizes various substrates has not been thoroughly characterized because of difficulties in separating and quantitating MAO A and B active sites. By immunoblotting SDS-polyacrylamide gels of mitochondrial extracts with monoclonal antibodies specific for each form of MAO, MAO B protein was detected in intestine and placenta, tissues that have been reported to contain MAO A activity. An improved procedure was developed for quantitating the ratio and amounts of MAO A and B active sites, using the ligand ({sup 3}H)-pargyline to label MAO and specific monoclonal antibodies to separate MAO A from B. Data from liver, placenta and platelets were used to re-evaluate the molecular activity of both MAO A and B for six commonly studied substrates.

  11. Increased Oxidative DNA Damage in Placenta Contributes to Cadmium-Induced Preeclamptic Conditions in Rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Xu, Zhangye; Lin, Feng; Wang, Fan; Ye, Duyun; Huang, Yinping

    2016-03-01

    To explore the possible mechanisms of cadmium (Cd)-induced preeclamptic conditions in rats. In the present study, we introduced the in vivo model of preeclampsia by giving intraperitoneal injections of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) to pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 4 to 19. Maternal body weights were recorded on GD 0, 14, and 20, while their systolic blood pressures (SBPs) monitored on GD 3, 11, and 18. On GD 20, rats were sacrificed and the specimens were collected. The morphological changes of placenta and kidney tissues of pregnant rats were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining assay. Blood Cd level was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was evaluated using FRAP method and total nitrite (NOx) was detected with Griess reagent. Antioxidative factors and DNA damage/repair biomarkers were measured by real-time qPCR, western blot or immunohistochemistry study. The current results showed that CdCl2-treated pregnant rats developed preeclampsia (PE)-like manifestations, such as hypertension, albuminuria, with decreased TAC and increased blood Cd level, and pro-oxidative/antioxidative or DNA damage/repair biomarkers. Our study demonstrated that increased oxidative DNA damage in placenta could contribute to Cd-induced preeclamptic conditions in rat. PMID:26194818

  12. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26195324

  13. Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, KDR, in human placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Vuckovic, M; Ponting, J; Terman, B I; Niketic, V; Seif, M W; Kumar, S

    1996-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor known to act directly on vascular endothelial cells by promoting cell proliferation and permeability. To date, 3 structurally related cell surface receptors for VEGF, Flt-1, Flt-4 and KDR, have been identified and shown to be human type III receptor tyrosine kinases. The establishment of a vascular network is crucial to the development of the placenta and occurs through both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The signals controlling these processes are unclear. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridisation techniques have localised VEGF in the trophoblast layers and VEGF binding to placental vascular endothelial cells and haemangioblasts has been shown, suggesting a role for VEGF and its receptors in development of the vascular network. In this study we have used specific antibodies to localise KDR and endothelial cells in 1st and 3rd trimester human placenta. The staining showed a colocalisation of KDR with endothelial cells and haemangioblasts. No staining of trophoblast cells was observed, but strong staining of the endothelial cells was seen in the villous stroma adjacent to areas of trophoblast proliferation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8621335

  14. Maternal-fetal transfer of indocyanine green across the perfused human placenta.

    PubMed

    Rubinchik-Stern, Miriam; Shmuel, Miriam; Bar, Jacob; Eyal, Sara; Kovo, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved near-infrared imaging probe, given also to pregnant women. We aimed to characterize ICG's transplacental transfer using the ex-vivo perfusion model. Placentas were obtained from caesarean deliveries. Cotyledons were cannulated and dually perfused. ICG, 9.6μg/mL and antipyrine (50μg/mL) were added to the maternal circulation in the absence (n=4) or the presence of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATPs) inhibitor rifampin (10μg/mL; n=5) or the P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar (2μg/mL; n=3). ICG's maternal-to-fetal transfer was evaluated over 180min. The cumulative percent of ICG in the fetal reservoir was minor. When ICG transfer was normalized to that of antipyrine, it was lower in the presence of rifampin (a 41% decrease; p<0.05). Valspodar did not appear to modify the kinetics of ICG. ICG's transplacental transfer is minimal and is probably OATP-mediated. The placenta is an effective protective barrier to ICG's distribution into the fetus. PMID:27132189

  15. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L. A.; Evans, S. F.; Newnham, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic, environmental, and medical factors that influence the relative weights of the newborn infant and the placenta and compare this ratio with other factors known to predispose to adult ill health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The tertiary referral centre for perinatal care in Perth, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: 2507 pregnant women who delivered a single live infant at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental weight, birth weight, and the ratio of placental weight to birth weight. RESULTS: By multiple regression analysis the placental weight to birthweight ratio was significantly and positively associated with gestational age, female sex, Asian parentage, increasing maternal body mass index, increased maternal weight at booking, lower socioeconomic status, maternal anaemia, and increasing number of cigarettes smoked daily. There were no consistent relations between the placental weight to birthweight ratio and measures of newborn size. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of placental weight to birth weight is not an accurate marker of fetal growth. In its role as a predictor of adult disease the ratio may be acting as a surrogate for other factors which are already known to influence health and may act before or after birth. Determining the role that relative growth rates of the fetus and placenta have in predisposing to adult disease requires prospective study to account for the many confounding variables which complicate this hypothesis. PMID:9224128

  16. Review: placenta-specific microRNAs in exosomes - good things come in nano-packages.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Y; Mouillet, J-F; Coyne, C B; Sadovsky, Y

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA gene products that commonly regulate mRNA expression by repression of translation and/or transcript decay. Whereas common and unique types of miRNAs are expressed by the placenta during pregnancy, the functions of most placental miRNA species are unknown. In addition to their intracellular silencing function, miRNAs are also released to the extracellular space and systemic circulation, where they can potentially target cells to regulate mRNA and protein expression, providing a non-hormonal means of intercellular communication that contributes to tissue homeostasis and disease pathophysiology. This review centers on extracellular miRNAs that originate in trophoblasts and that could mediate crosstalk between the feto-placental unit and the mother during pregnancy. We specifically detail the function of miRNAs from the primate-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster. These miRNAs are highly expressed in human placentas and in the serum of pregnant women. They are also packaged into extracellular vesicles of diverse sizes, including exosomes, and endow non-trophoblastic cells with resistance to a variety of viruses. PMID:24280233

  17. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion. PMID:16240388

  18. Immune Response Gene Profiles in the Term Placenta Depend Upon Maternal Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    O’Tierney, P. F.; Lewis, R. M.; McWeeney, S. K.; Hanson, M. A.; Inskip, H. M.; Morgan, T. K.; Barker, D. J.; Bagby, G.; Cooper, C.; Godfrey, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal thinness leads to metabolic challenges in the offspring, but it is unclear whether reduced maternal fat mass or muscle mass drives these metabolic changes. Recently, it has been shown that low maternal muscle mass—as measured by arm muscle area (AMA)—is associated with depressed nutrient transport to the fetus. To determine the role of maternal muscle mass on placental function, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of 30 human placentas over the range of AMA (25.2-90.8 cm2) from uncomplicated term pregnancies from the Southampton Women’s Survey cohort. Eighteen percent of the ∼60 genes that were highly expressed in less muscular women were related to immune system processes and the interferon-γ (IFNG) signaling pathway in particular. Those transcripts related to the IFNG pathway included IRF1, IFI27, IFI30, and GBP6. Placentas from women with low muscularity are, perhaps, more sensitive to the effects of inflammatory cytokines than those from more muscular women. PMID:22534332

  19. Immunohistochemical distribution of early pregnancy factor in ovary, oviduct and placenta of pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, M C; Bellingeri, R V; Motta, C E; Alustiza, F E; Picco, N Y; Vivas, A B

    2015-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressant that promotes maternal immune system tolerance of the allogenic fetus. Little is known about localization of this factor in different tissues and nothing has been reported about localization in swine reproductive and placental tissues. We determined the concentration of EPF in serum of gilts and porcine placenta conditioned medium (PPCM). We also analyzed the expression of EPF in different reproductive tissues of pregnant gilts at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. EPF concentration in serum and PPCM was determined by western blot and densitometry. EPF expression in reproductive tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The highest concentration of EPF was observed at 30 days in serum and PPCM; the concentration was higher in PPCM than in serum at the stages we evaluated. All reproductive tissues from the gestational stages analyzed showed specific labeling of EPF, but this labeling did not appear in non-pregnant gilts. At 30 days pregnancy, the EPF expression in the ovary was predominantly in follicular lutein cells, probably owing to its function as a luteotrophic factor. In the oviduct, EPF was expressed in unciliated secretory epithelial cells and in the cilia of ciliated cells. In the placenta, EPF was expressed in the fetal portion (mesoderm chorioallantois and epithelium of endoderm). EPF acts as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor for the trophoblast during the peri-implantation period. PMID:24989882

  20. Distinct patterns of gene-specific methylation in mammalian placentas: implications for placental evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Ng, H K; Novakovic, B; Hiendleder, S; Craig, J M; Roberts, C T; Saffery, R

    2010-04-01

    The placenta has arisen relatively recently and is among the most rapidly evolving tissues in mammals. Several different placental barrier and structure types appear to have independently evolved common functional features. Specific patterns of gene expression that determine placental development in humans are predicted to be accompanied by specific profiles of epigenetic modification. However, the stratification of epigenetic modifications into those involved in conserved aspects of placental function, versus those involved in divergent placental features, has yet to begin. As a first step towards this goal, we have investigated the methylation status of a small number of gene-specific methylation events recently identified in human placenta, in a panel of placental tissue from baboon, marmoset, cow, cat, guinea pig and mouse. These represent disparate placental barrier types and structures. In this study we hypothesized that specific epigenetic markings may be associated with placental barrier type or function, independent of phylogeny. However, in contrast to our predictions, the majority of gene-specific methylation appears to track with phylogeny, independent of placental barrier type or other structural features. This suggests that despite the likelihood of epigenetic modification playing a role in the functioning and evolution of different placental subtypes, there is no evidence for an involvement of the gene-specific methylation profiles we have identified, in specifying these differences. Further studies, examining larger numbers of epigenetic modifications across phylogeny, are required to define the role of specific epigenetic modifications in the evolution of distinct placental structures. PMID:20167366

  1. In Vitro Differentiation Potential of Human Placenta Derived Cells into Skin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Ruhma; Choudhery, Mahmood S.; Mehmood, Azra; Khan, Shaheen N.; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Skin autografting is the most viable and aesthetic technique for treatment of extensive burns; however, this practice has potential limitations. Harvesting cells from neonatal sources (such as placental tissue) is a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive procedure. In the current study authors sought to evaluate in vitro potential of human placenta derived stem cells to develop into skin-like cells. After extensive washing, amniotic membrane and umbilical cord tissue were separated to harvest amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs), respectively. Both types of cells were characterized for the expression of embryonic lineage markers and their growth characteristics were determined. AECs and UC-MSCs were induced to differentiate into keratinocytes-like and dermal fibroblasts-like cells, respectively. After induction, morphological changes were detected by microscopy. The differentiation potential was further assessed using immunostaining and RT-PCR analyses. AECs were positive for cytokeratins and E-Cadherin while UC-MSCs were positive for fibroblast specific makers. AECs differentiated into keratinocytes-like cells showed positive expression of keratinocyte specific cytokeratins, involucrin, and loricrin. UC-MSCs differentiated into dermal fibroblast-like cells indicated expression of collagen type 3, desmin, FGF-7, fibroblast activation protein alpha, procollagen-1, and vimentin. In conclusion, placenta is a potential source of cells to develop into skin-like cells. PMID:26229539

  2. Diversification of the eutherian placenta is associated with changes in the pace of life.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Brooks, Robert C; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2013-05-01

    Few mammalian organs vary as dramatically among species as the placenta. This variation is remarkable considering that the placenta's primary function--transfer of nutrients and waste between mother and offspring--does not differ among species. Evolutionary changes in placental morphology remain poorly understood, with suggestions that parent-offspring conflict or evolutionary changes in life history might drive placental evolution. Here we demonstrate that life history differences among eutherian mammals are associated with major transitions in maternofetal interdigitation and placental invasiveness. We show that the repeated evolution of villous interdigitation is associated with reduced offspring production early in life and an increased lifespan. Further changes in placental morphology that reestablish a larger surface area are also associated with a change back to greater offspring production. After controlling for these differences in interdigitation, we also show that the least invasive placental type is associated with a fast pace of life. We predict that selection for a faster pace of life intensifies parent-offspring conflict, and that the repeated evolution of less-invasive placental structures might have allowed mothers to wrest back control of gestation from the fetus and alter their relative allocation to offspring production across life. PMID:23610401

  3. Characterization of Natural Killer Cells and Cytokines in Maternal Placenta and Fetus of Diabetic Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Cristiane de Castro Pernet; França, Eduardo Luzía; Fagundes, Danny Laura Gomes; de Queiroz, Adriele Ataides; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterized natural killer cells and cytokines in diabetic mothers, their placenta, and fetus. In the maternal blood from the hyperglycemic groups, the CD16+CD56− NK cells increased, whereas that of CD16+CD56+ decreased in gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM] group. Cord blood from type 2 diabetes [DM-2] showed a higher proportion of CD16+CD56− and CD16−CD56+. The placental extravillous layer of GDM and DM-2 showed an increase of CD16+CD56− cells and, irrespective of region, the proportion of CD16−CD56+ cells was higher in mild gestational hyperglycemia [MGH] and GDM and lower in DM-2. IL-2 was lower in maternal blood and IFN-γ higher in maternal and cord blood from the GDM group. IL-17 was higher in maternal and cord blood from the DM-2 group. The placental extravillous layer of the MGH showed high levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ and low levels of IL-1β and IL-8, whereas the placental villous layer contained high levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ. The GDM group, irrespective of region, showed higher levels of IL-8. The DM-2 group, irrespective of region, placenta showed high levels of TNF-α, IL-17, and IFN-γ. The hyperglycemia produces an inflammatory environment with a high content of inflammatory cytokines and cells expressing CD16+. PMID:27294162

  4. Targeted gene analysis: increased B-cell lymphoma 6 in preeclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Frank; Muschol-Steinmetz, Cornelia; Friemel, Alexandra; Kämpf, Anne Kristina; Töttel, Eva; Reinhard, Joscha; Yuan, Juping

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause for maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling has been widely used for identifying genes responsible for preeclampsia. These studies deliver multiple pictures of gene signatures, implying the complicated pathophysiology. In the present work, we designed our own gene array containing genes involved in various signaling transduction pathways and analyzed placental samples from patients with preeclampsia and controls. We verify that genes associated with angiogenesis and migration pathways are mostly altered in preeclamptic placentas. Interestingly, several genes including B-cell lymphoma 6 have been identified to be linked to preeclampsia. Increased expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 is correlated with enhanced FLT1 and LEPTIN, the hallmarks of preeclampsia. Moreover, the protein level of B-cell lymphoma 6 is elevated in preeclamptic placentas and is predominantly localized in the nucleus of villous cytotrophoblasts lying directly underneath the syncytial layer, suggestive of an involvement in the function of villous trophoblasts. Altered B-cell lymphoma 6, a key oncogene in B-cell lymphomagenesis, may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, and further investigations are required to decipher the molecular mechanisms. PMID:24767250

  5. Metals content in placentas from moderate cigarette consumers: correlation with newborn birth weight.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Muñoz, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Llanos, Miguel

    2005-06-01

    Cigarette consumption during pregnancy produces deleterious effects in both, mother and fetus, some of them due to the presence of toxic elements in cigarette smoke, such as cadmium. Placenta constitutes a dual-purpose specimen for evaluating the pollutant burden exerted on the mother as well as on the fetus. The main objective of this study was to establish a correlation between placental concentration and distribution of some metal elements and birth weight of neonates delivered by mothers, who were either moderate smokers or nonsmokers. Forty nonsmoking and moderate smoking pregnant women paired per age, parity, weight, height and body mass index were selected. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption during pregnancy and urine cotinine concentration before delivery. Placental metal concentrations were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry (copper and cadmium) and neutron activation analysis (zinc and iron). Newborns from smokers had lower birth weights compared to infants from nonsmokers. Birth weights were correlated with placental cadmium concentrations in both, smokers and nonsmokers. Placental zinc and cadmium of smokers were mainly located at the maternal side and their levels were higher than those found in nonsmoker's placentas. In addition, all metal nutrient/pollutant ratios were decreased in the smoker group. In this first study performed in our region, we found that moderate smoking mothers deliver neonates with decreased birth weight and highly correlated to placental cadmium concentration. Decreased metal nutrient/pollutant ratios, a condition here found in smokers, may indicate a placental dysfunction, contributing to impair birth weight. PMID:15984568

  6. Angiogenin distribution in human term placenta, and expression by cultured trophoblastic cells

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Nadine; Hatzi, Elissavet; Bassaglia, Yann; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Badet, Josette

    2003-01-01

    Human angiogenin is a 14-kDa secreted protein with angiogenic and ribonucleolytic activities. Angiogenin is associated with tumour development but is also present in normal biological fluids and tissues. To further address the physiological role of angiogenin, we studied its expression in situ and in vitro, using the human term placenta as a model of physiological angiogenesis. Angiogenin was immunodetected by light and transmission electron microscopy, and its cellular distribution was established by double immunolabelling with cell markers including von Willebrand factor, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), CD34, Tie-2, vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), erythropoeitin receptor (Epo-R), alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD45, cytokeratin 7, and Ki-67. Angiogenin immunoreactivity was detected in villous and extravillous trophoblasts, the trophoblast basement membrane, the endothelial basal lamina, foetal blood vessels, foetal and maternal red blood cells, and amnionic cells. Its expression was confirmed by in situ hybridisation with a digoxygenin-labelled cDNA probe and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification. Villous cytotrophoblasts, isolated and differentiated in vitro into a functional syncytiotrophoblast, expressed and secreted angiogenin. Given its known biological activities in vitro and its observed pattern of expression, these data suggest that, in human placenta, angiogenin has a role not only in angiogenesis but also in vascular and tissue homeostasis, maternal immune tolerance of the foetus, and host defences. PMID:15166501

  7. Comparison of syncytiotrophoblast generated from human embryonic stem cells and from term placentas.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Shinichiro; Alexenko, Andrei P; Amita, Mitsuyoshi; Yang, Ying; Schust, Danny J; Sadovsky, Yoel; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2016-05-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) readily commit to the trophoblast lineage after exposure to bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and two small compounds, an activin A signaling inhibitor and a FGF2 signaling inhibitor (BMP4/A83-01/PD173074; BAP treatment). During differentiation, areas emerge within the colonies with the biochemical and morphological features of syncytiotrophoblast (STB). Relatively pure fractions of mononucleated cytotrophoblast (CTB) and larger syncytial sheets displaying the expected markers of STB can be obtained by differential filtration of dispersed colonies through nylon strainers. RNA-seq analysis of these fractions has allowed them to be compared with cytotrophoblasts isolated from term placentas before and after such cells had formed syncytia. Although it is clear from extensive gene marker analysis that both ESC- and placenta-derived syncytial cells are trophoblast, each with the potential to transport a wide range of solutes and synthesize placental hormones, their transcriptome profiles are sufficiently dissimilar to suggest that the two cell types have distinct pedigrees and represent functionally different kinds of STB. We propose that the STB generated from human ESCs represents the primitive syncytium encountered in early pregnancy soon after the human trophoblast invades into the uterine wall. PMID:27051068

  8. Fetal-derived adrenomedullin mediates the innate immune milieu of the placenta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Manyu; Schwerbrock, Nicole M.J.; Lenhart, Patricia M.; Fritz-Six, Kimberly L.; Kadmiel, Mahita; Christine, Kathleen S.; Kraus, Daniel M.; Espenschied, Scott T.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Mack, Christopher P.; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The remodeling of maternal uterine spiral arteries (SAs) is an essential process for ensuring low-resistance, high-capacitance blood flow to the growing fetus. Failure of SAs to remodel is causally associated with preeclampsia, a common and life-threatening complication of pregnancy that is harmful to both mother and fetus. Here, using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic mouse models, we show that expression of the pregnancy-related peptide adrenomedullin (AM) by fetal trophoblast cells is necessary and sufficient to promote appropriate recruitment and activation of maternal uterine NK (uNK) cells to the placenta and ultimately facilitate remodeling of maternal SAs. Placentas that lacked either AM or its receptor exhibited reduced fetal vessel branching in the labyrinth, failed SA remodeling and reendothelialization, and markedly reduced numbers of maternal uNK cells. In contrast, overexpression of AM caused a reversal of these phenotypes with a concomitant increase in uNK cell content in vivo. Moreover, AM dose-dependently stimulated the secretion of numerous chemokines, cytokines, and MMPs from uNK cells, which in turn induced VSMC apoptosis. These data identify an essential function for fetal-derived factors in the maternal vascular adaptation to pregnancy and underscore the importance of exploring AM as a biomarker and therapeutic agent for preeclampsia. PMID:23635772

  9. Gene expression profiling of pre-eclamptic placentae by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Cervera, Alejandra; Kyllönen, Anjuska; Laivuori, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common and complex pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. In order to identify altered gene expression in pre-eclamptic placenta, we sequenced placental transcriptomes of nine pre-eclamptic and nine healthy pregnant women in pools of three. The differential gene expression was tested both by including all the pools in the analysis and by excluding some of the pools based on phenotypic characteristics. From these analyses, we identified altogether 53 differently expressed genes, a subset of which was validated by qPCR in 20 cases and 19 controls. Furthermore, we conducted pathway and functional analyses which revealed disturbed vascular function and immunological balance in pre-eclamptic placenta. Some of the genes identified in our study have been reported by numerous microarray studies (BHLHE40, FSTL3, HK2, HTRA4, LEP, PVRL4, SASH1, SIGLEC6), but many have been implicated in only few studies or have not previously been linked to pre-eclampsia (ARMS2, BTNL9, CCSAP, DIO2, FER1L4, HPSE, LOC100129345, LYN, MYO7B, NCMAP, NDRG1, NRIP1, PLIN2, SBSPON, SERPINB9, SH3BP5, TET3, TPBG, ZNF175). Several of the molecules produced by these genes may have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, and some could qualify as biomarkers for prediction or detection of this pregnancy complication. PMID:26388242

  10. Gene expression profiling of pre-eclamptic placentae by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Cervera, Alejandra; Kyllönen, Anjuska; Laivuori, Krista; Laivuori, Hannele; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common and complex pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. In order to identify altered gene expression in pre-eclamptic placenta, we sequenced placental transcriptomes of nine pre-eclamptic and nine healthy pregnant women in pools of three. The differential gene expression was tested both by including all the pools in the analysis and by excluding some of the pools based on phenotypic characteristics. From these analyses, we identified altogether 53 differently expressed genes, a subset of which was validated by qPCR in 20 cases and 19 controls. Furthermore, we conducted pathway and functional analyses which revealed disturbed vascular function and immunological balance in pre-eclamptic placenta. Some of the genes identified in our study have been reported by numerous microarray studies (BHLHE40, FSTL3, HK2, HTRA4, LEP, PVRL4, SASH1, SIGLEC6), but many have been implicated in only few studies or have not previously been linked to pre-eclampsia (ARMS2, BTNL9, CCSAP, DIO2, FER1L4, HPSE, LOC100129345, LYN, MYO7B, NCMAP, NDRG1, NRIP1, PLIN2, SBSPON, SERPINB9, SH3BP5, TET3, TPBG, ZNF175). Several of the molecules produced by these genes may have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, and some could qualify as biomarkers for prediction or detection of this pregnancy complication. PMID:26388242

  11. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances angiogenesis after ischemic limb injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Nanzi; Li, Zhihong; Adesanya, Timothy M; Guo, Weixin; Liu, Yang; Fu, Minghuan; Kilic, Ahmet; Tan, Tao; Zhu, Hua; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effects of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) on mouse hindlimb ischemia. PMSCs were isolated from human placenta tissue and characterized by flow cytometry. An in vivo surgical ligation-induced murine limb ischemia model was generated with fluorescent dye (CM-DiI) labelled PMSCs delivered via intramuscular injection. Our data show that PMSCs treatment significantly enhanced microvessel density, improved blood perfusion and diminished pathologies in ischemic mouse hindlimbs as compared to those in the control group. Further immunostaining studies suggested that injected PMSCs can incorporate into the vasculature and differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells to enhance angiogenesis in ischemic hind limbs. This may in part explain the beneficial effects of PMSCs treatment. Taken together, we found that PMSCs treatment might be an effective treatment modality for treatment of ischemia-induced injury to mouse hind limbs by enhancement of angiogenesis. PMID:26282458

  12. Fetal-derived adrenomedullin mediates the innate immune milieu of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Li, Manyu; Schwerbrock, Nicole M J; Lenhart, Patricia M; Fritz-Six, Kimberly L; Kadmiel, Mahita; Christine, Kathleen S; Kraus, Daniel M; Espenschied, Scott T; Willcockson, Helen H; Mack, Christopher P; Caron, Kathleen M

    2013-06-01

    The remodeling of maternal uterine spiral arteries (SAs) is an essential process for ensuring low-resistance, high-capacitance blood flow to the growing fetus. Failure of SAs to remodel is causally associated with preeclampsia, a common and life-threatening complication of pregnancy that is harmful to both mother and fetus. Here, using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic mouse models, we show that expression of the pregnancy-related peptide adrenomedullin (AM) by fetal trophoblast cells is necessary and sufficient to promote appropriate recruitment and activation of maternal uterine NK (uNK) cells to the placenta and ultimately facilitate remodeling of maternal SAs. Placentas that lacked either AM or its receptor exhibited reduced fetal vessel branching in the labyrinth, failed SA remodeling and reendothelialization, and markedly reduced numbers of maternal uNK cells. In contrast, overexpression of AM caused a reversal of these phenotypes with a concomitant increase in uNK cell content in vivo. Moreover, AM dose-dependently stimulated the secretion of numerous chemokines, cytokines, and MMPs from uNK cells, which in turn induced VSMC apoptosis. These data identify an essential function for fetal-derived factors in the maternal vascular adaptation to pregnancy and underscore the importance of exploring AM as a biomarker and therapeutic agent for preeclampsia. PMID:23635772

  13. Gene expression profiling of human placentas from preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hansson, S R; Chen, Y; Brodszki, J; Chen, M; Hernandez-Andrade, E; Inman, J M; Kozhich, O A; Larsson, I; Marsál, K; Medstrand, P; Xiang, C C; Brownstein, M J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of gene expression in placental samples from patients with preeclampsia (PE), persistent bilateral uterine artery notching (without PE), and normal controls. This study included placental tissue from nine women with PE, seven with uncomplicated pregnancies and five with bilateral uterine artery notching in Doppler velocimetry tracings. Human cDNA microarrays with 6500 transcripts/genes were used and the results verified with real-time PCR and in-situ hybridization. Multidimensional scaling method and random permutation technique demonstrated significant differences among the three groups examined. Within the 6.5K arrays, 6198 elements were unique cDNA clones representing 5952 unique UniGenes and 5695 unique LocusLinks. Multidimensional scaling plots showed 5000 genes that met our quality criteria; among these, 366 genes were significantly different in at least one comparison. Differences in three genes of interest were confirmed with real-time PCR and in-situ hybridization; acid phosphatase 5 was shown to be overexpressed in PE samples and calmodulin 2 and v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA) were downregulated in PE and uterine artery notch placentas. In conclusion downregulation of RELA and calmodulin 2 might represent an attempt by the placenta to compensate for elevations in intracellular calcium, possibly caused by hypoxia and/or apoptosis, in both pregnancies with uterine artery notching and preeclampsia. PMID:16556680

  14. Placenta abruptio

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk factors related to it by: Keeping high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes under control Not using tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, or amphetamines Following your provider's recommendations about ways to lower ...

  15. Placenta previa

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2010: ... SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. Placenta abruptio

    MedlinePlus

    ... the past Heart disease Diabetes Smoking Alcohol or cocaine use Placental abruption in an earlier pregnancy An ... and diabetes under control Not using tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, or amphetamines Following your provider's recommendations about ways ...

  17. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  18. DNA ADDUCT PROFILES AND LEVELS IN PLACENTA, BLOOD AND LUNG IN RELATION TO CIGARETTE SMOKING AND SMOKY COAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) present in smoky coal emissions are nearly 20-200 times greater than exposure to B(a)P from smoking 1-2 packs of cigarettes per day. e compared DNA adducts resulting from cigarette smoking and smoky coal exposures in blood cells, placenta...

  19. FcRn Expression on Placenta and Fetal Jejunum during Early, Mid-, and Late Gestation in Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Björn; Hill, Marilyn; Reynaud, Lucie; Hey, Adam; Barrow, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Developmental toxicity testing of therapeutic antibodies is most often conducted in nonhuman primates owing to lack of cross-reactivity in other species. Minipigs may show cross-reactivity for some humanized antibodies but have not been used for developmental toxicity testing due to an assumed lack of embryo-fetal exposure. Unlike in humans, maternal IgGs do not cross the porcine placenta to reach the fetus. Some humanized IgGs, however, have a higher affinity for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and are more likely than endogenous antibodies to cross the placenta of animals. The major site of prenatal IgG transfer is the placenta, though FcRn in fetal intestine could also uptake maternal IgGs from swallowed amniotic fluid. Using immunohistochemistry andin situhybridization in this experiment, FcRn was found in minipig placenta and fetal intestine during early, mid-, and late gestation. To date, however, fetal exposure to maternally administered IgGs has never been demonstrated in the minipig. PMID:26516163

  20. Global methylation in the placenta and umbilical cord blood from pregnancies with maternal gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yoko; Lambertini, Luca; Rialdi, Alexander; Lee, MenJean; Mystal, Elana Ying; Grabie, Mordy; Manaster, Isaac; Huynh, Nancy; Finik, Jackie; Davey, Mia; Davey, Kei; Ly, Jenny; Stone, Joanne; Loudon, Holly; Eglinton, Gary; Hurd, Yasmin; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Chen, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that maternal medical risk during pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, and obesity, predisposes the offspring to suboptimal development. However, the underlying biological/epigenetic mechanism in utero is still unknown. The current pilot study (N = 50) compared the levels of global methylation in the placenta and umbilical cord blood among women with and without each risk condition (GDM, preeclampsia, and obesity) and explored whether the levels of global methylation were associated with fetal/infant growth. Results show that global methylation levels in the placenta were lower in patients with gestational diabetes (P = .003) and preeclampsia (P = .05) but higher with obesity (P = .01). Suggestive negative associations were found between global methylation level in the placenta and infant body length and head circumference. While preliminary, it is possible that the placenta tissue, but not umbilical cord blood, may be epigenetically programmed by maternal GDM, preeclampsia, and obesity to carry out its own specific functions that influence fetal growth. PMID:23765376

  1. Uterine and placenta characteristics during early vascular development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig, a litter bearing animal, has an epitheliochorial placenta that forms a noninvasive attachment with the uterine endometrium. Insufficient placental development is one of the primary causes of fetal death and reduced fetal growth after 35 d of gestation. Necrotic tips develop at the distal en...

  2. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Samuli; Aakko, Juhani; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Microbiota composition and activity assessment by conventional bacterial culture, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, quantitative PCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the placenta and amniotic fluid harbour a distinct microbiota characterised by low richness, low diversity and the predominance of Proteobacteria. Shared features between the microbiota detected in the placenta and amniotic fluid and in infant meconium suggest microbial transfer at the foeto-maternal interface. At the age of 3–4 days, the infant gut microbiota composition begins to resemble that detected in colostrum. Based on these data, we propose that the stepwise microbial gut colonisation process may be initiated already prenatally by a distinct microbiota in the placenta and amniotic fluid. The link between the mother and the offspring is continued after birth by microbes present in breast milk. PMID:27001291

  3. Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are involved in diabetes mellitus-induced defects in the development of mouse placenta

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sha-sha; Jin, Ya; Li, He; Wu, Xia; Ma, Zheng-lai; cheng, Xin; Tang, Xiuwen

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that diabetes mellitus impairs placental development, but the mechanism by which the disease operates to impair development remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in placental development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes of morphological structure of placenta. The alteration of differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells rather than cell proliferation/apoptosis is responsible for the phenotypes found in mouse placenta. Meanwhile, excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling were observed in the placenta of mice suffering from PGDM. Using BeWo cells, we also demonstrated that excess ROS was produced and Nrf2 signalling molecules were activated in settings characterized by a high concentration of glucose. More interestingly, differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells were altered when endogenous Nrf2 expression is manipulated by transfecting Nrf2-wt or Nrf2-shRNA. In addition, PGDM interferes with autophagy in both mouse placenta and BeWo cells, implying that autophagy is also involved, directly or indirectly, in PGDM-induced placental phenotypes. Therefore, we revealed that dysfunctional oxidative stress-activated Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are probably responsible for PGDM-induced defects in the placental development of mice. The mechanism was through the interference with differentiation-related gene expression in trophoblast cells. PMID:27383629

  4. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Samuli; Aakko, Juhani; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Microbiota composition and activity assessment by conventional bacterial culture, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, quantitative PCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the placenta and amniotic fluid harbour a distinct microbiota characterised by low richness, low diversity and the predominance of Proteobacteria. Shared features between the microbiota detected in the placenta and amniotic fluid and in infant meconium suggest microbial transfer at the foeto-maternal interface. At the age of 3-4 days, the infant gut microbiota composition begins to resemble that detected in colostrum. Based on these data, we propose that the stepwise microbial gut colonisation process may be initiated already prenatally by a distinct microbiota in the placenta and amniotic fluid. The link between the mother and the offspring is continued after birth by microbes present in breast milk. PMID:27001291

  5. Maternal gestational diabetes is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation variation in placenta and cord blood of exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Finer, Sarah; Mathews, Chris; Lowe, Rob; Smart, Melissa; Hillman, Sara; Foo, Lin; Sinha, Ajay; Williams, David; Rakyan, Vardhman K; Hitman, Graham A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure of a developing foetus to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) has been shown to programme future risk of diabetes and obesity. Epigenetic variation in foetal tissue may have a mechanistic role in metabolic disease programming through interaction of the pregnancy environment with gene function. We aimed to identify genome-wide DNA methylation variation in cord blood and placenta from offspring born to mothers with and without GDM. Pregnant women of South Asian origin were studied and foetal tissues sampled at term delivery. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assay genome-wide DNA methylation in placenta and cord blood from 27 GDM exposed and 21 unexposed offspring. We identified 1485 cord blood and 1708 placenta methylation variable positions (MVPs) achieving genome-wide significance (adjusted P-value <0.05) with methylation differences of >5%. MVPs were disproportionately located within first exons. A bioinformatic co-methylation algorithm was used to detect consistent directionality of methylation in 1000 bp window around each MVP was observed at 74% of placenta and 59% of cord blood MVPs. KEGG pathway analysis showed enrichment of pathways involved in endocytosis, MAPK signalling and extracellular triggers to intracellular metabolic processes. Replication studies should integrate genomics and transcriptomics with longitudinal sampling to elucidate stability, determine causality for translation into biomarker and prevention studies. PMID:25634562

  6. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense.

    PubMed

    Baas-Espinola, Fray M; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, María L

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources' participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids. PMID:27338325

  7. Simultaneous Quantification of Methadone, Cocaine, Opiates, and Metabolites in Human Placenta by Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Ana; Concheiro, Marta; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    A validated method for quantifying methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, and codeine in human placenta by liquid chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry is described. Specimens (1 g) were homogenized and subjected to solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Synergi Polar RP column with a gradient of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The method was linear from 10 to 2000 ng/g for methadone and 2.5 to 500 ng/g for other analytes. Limits of detection were 0.25–2.5 ng/g, imprecisions < 9.1%CV, analytical recoveries 84.4–113.3%, extraction efficiencies > 46%, matrix effects −8.0–129.9%, and process efficiencies 24.2–201.0%. Method applicability was demonstrated by analysis of five placenta specimens from opioid-dependent women receiving methadone pharmacotherapy, with methadone doses ranging from 65 to 95 mg on the day of delivery. These are the first data on placenta concentrations of methadone and metabolites after controlled drug administration. Detection of other common drugs of abuse in placenta will also improve our knowledge of the usefulness of this matrix for detecting in utero drug exposure and studying disposition of drugs in the maternal-fetal dyad. PMID:19671243

  8. Progesterone and human placental lactogen inhibit leptin secretion on cultured trophoblast cells from human placentas at term.

    PubMed

    Coya, Raquel; Martul, Pedro; Algorta, Jaime; Aniel-Quiroga, Ma Angeles; Busturia, Ma Angeles; Señarís, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    The placenta is an important source of leptin production that contributes to the state of hyperleptinemia observed in pregnant women. Moreover, the synthesis of leptin and its receptors by syncytiotrophoblast cells suggests a potential paracrine or autocrine action of leptin in the placenta. In the present study we examined the effect of gestational hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), progesterone and estradiol, on in vitro leptin release by human term trophoblast cells in culture. Placentas at term were obtained immediately after delivery from mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies. Leptin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in culture media of trophoblasts maintained in monolayer culture for 24, 48 and 72 h with different hormonal treatments or placebo. Treatment with hPL and progesterone led to a time- and dose-dependent decrease in leptin release that was statistically significant after 24 h, with a maximal effect after 72 h of incubation. In contrast, incubation with estradiol and hCG did not have exhibit any effect on leptin secretion at any of the doses and times assayed in this work. The results obtained in this study support that leptin can be considered a gestational hormone implied in the endocrine function of the placenta and that its secretion is at least partially regulated by steroid and peptidic reproductive hormones in trophoblast cells in vitro. PMID:16048798

  9. MicroRNA-141 is upregulated in preeclamptic placentae and regulates trophoblast invasion and intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Prieto, Stephanie; Chaiwangyen, Wittaya; Herrmann, Jörg; Groten, Tanja; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Morales-Prieto, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs in several pregnancy diseases including PE. Placental trophoblast cells express a specific set of miRNAs which changes during pregnancy. These miRNAs can be released within extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mediate intercellular communication. miR-141 is a pregnancy-related miRNA which is expressed by trophoblast cells at increased levels in maternal plasma in the third trimester. We hypothesize that miR-141 is abnormally expressed in PE placentae, controls trophoblast, and immune cell functions and is involved in the intercellular communication between fetal trophoblast and maternal immune cells. Expression of miR-141 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in normal and preeclamptic placentae and in 2 different trophoblastic cell lines, JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo. Changes in JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cell proliferation and invasion were investigated after miR-141 inhibition and overexpression by MTS-, BrdU-, and Matrigel assays. EVs from miR-141 transfected cells were isolated from supernatants and characterized by NanoSight analysis and qPCR. Proliferation of Jurkat T cells and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells were investigated after treatment with EVs containing different miR-141 levels. miR-141 expression was higher in placentae from PE patients compared with those from normal pregnancies. miR-141 inhibition in trophoblastic cells resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced invasion capability. After transfection with miR-141-mimic, trophoblastic cells secreted EVs with increased miR-141 content. These vesicles did not exert effects on trophoblastic cell invasion but reduced Jurkat T cell proliferation. In conclusion, miR-141 regulates major functions of trophoblastic and immune cells. Trophoblast cells release EVs whose miRNA content can be modified by transfection of origin cells. Furthermore

  10. TNF-α alters the inflammatory secretion profile of human first trimester placenta.

    PubMed

    Siwetz, Monika; Blaschitz, Astrid; El-Heliebi, Amin; Hiden, Ursula; Desoye, Gernot; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Implantation and subsequent placental development depend on a well-orchestrated interaction between fetal and maternal tissues, involving a fine balanced synergistic cross-talk of inflammatory and immune-modulating factors. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been increasingly recognized as pivotal factor for successful pregnancy, although high maternal TNF-α levels are associated with a number of adverse pregnancy conditions including gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus. This study describes effects of exogenously applied TNF-α, mimicking increased maternal TNF-α levels, on the secretion profile of inflammation associated factors in human first trimester villous placenta. Conditioned culture media from first trimester villous placental explants were analyzed by inflammation antibody arrays and ELISA after 48 h culture in the presence or absence of TNF-α. Inflammation antibody arrays identified interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL4, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as the most abundantly secreted inflammation-associated factors under basal culture conditions. In the presence of TNF-α, secretion of GM-CSF, CCL5, and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-4 and macrophage CSF levels decreased compared with controls. ELISA analysis verified antibody arrays by showing significantly increased synthesis and release of GM-CSF and CCL5 by placental explants in response to TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry localized GM-CSF in the villous trophoblast compartment, whereas CCL5 was detected in maternal platelets adhering to perivillous fibrin deposits on the villous surface. mRNA-based in situ padlock probe approach localized GM-CSF and CCL5 transcripts in the villous trophoblast layer and the villous stroma. Results from this study suggest that the inflammatory secretion profile of human first trimester placenta shifts towards increased levels of GM-CSF, CCL5, and IL10 in response to elevated maternal

  11. Transfer of Silver Nanoparticles through the Placenta and Breast Milk during in vivo Experiments on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, E. A.; Buzulukov, Yu. P.; Demin, V. F.; Demin, V. A.; Gmoshinski, I. V.; Tyshko, N. V.; Tutelyan, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs), widely used in the manufacture of various types of consumer products and for medical applications, belong to novel types of materials that pose potential risks to human health. The potential negative effects of the influence of these NPs on reproduction are insufficiently researched. A quantitative assessment of the transfer of metallic silver nanoparticles through the placenta and breast milk was carried out during an in vivo experiment. We used 34.9 ± 14.8 nm in size silver NPs that were stabilized by low-molecularweight polyvinylpyrrolidone and labeled with the 110mAg radioactive isotope using thermal neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor. [110mAg]-labeled NPs preparations were administered intragastrically via a gavage needle to pregnant (20th day of gestation) or lactating (14–16th day of lactation) female rats at a dose of 1.69–2.21 mg/kg of body weight upon conversion into silver. The accumulation of NPs in rat fetuses and infant rats consuming their mother’s breast milk was evaluated using a low-background semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer 24 and 48 hours following labeling, respectively. In all cases, we observed a penetration of the [110mAg]-labeled NPs through the placenta and ther entry into the mother’s milk in amounts exceeding by 100-1,000 times the sensitivity of the utilized analytical method. The average level of accumulation of NPs in fetuses was 0.085–0.147% of the administered dose, which was comparable to the accumulation of the label in the liver, blood, and muscle carcass of adult animals and exceeded the penetration of NPs across the hematoencephalic barrier into the brain of females by a factor of 10-100. In lactating females, the total accumulation of [110mAg]-labeled NPs into the milk exceeded 1.94 ± 0.29% of the administered dose over a 48 h period of lactation; not less than 25% of this amount was absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract of infant rats. Thus, this was the first time

  12. Leptin production and release in the dually in vitro perfused human placenta.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, K; Malek, A; Sager, R; Blum, W F; Schneider, H; Fusch, C

    2000-11-01

    There is clear evidence that the placenta produces leptin. However, it is still unclear to what extent leptin is released into the maternal and the fetal circulation. The aim of our study was to determine placental leptin release rates into these 2 compartments. In 10 term placentas, using dual in vitro perfusion of an isolated cotyledon, concentrations of leptin, hCG, and human placental lactogen (hPL) were determined in perfusates and in the tissue before and after perfusion. With perfusions lasting 270-840 min, total leptin production was 225 pg/g x min [median; interquartile range (IQR), 76-334 pg/g x min]. The release into the fetal circulation was very low (median, 2.5; IQR, 1.1-5.9 pg/g x min) compared with the release into the maternal circulation (median, 203; IQR, 79-373 pg/g x min) corresponding to 1.6% and 98.4% of net release. Only 0.05% of hPL and hCG were released into the fetal circulation and 99.95% into the maternal circulation, confirming previous results. Release into the fetal circulation correlated significantly with release into the maternal circulation for leptin (r = 0.648; P < 0.05) and hPL (r = 0.721; P < 0.05). Furthermore, release of leptin into the fetal circulation was positively correlated with release of fetal hCG (r = 0.661; P < 0.05). Most of the leptin produced by the placenta is released into the maternal circulation, but compared with other placental hormones (hCG and hPL), a considerably higher proportion of leptin is released into the fetal circulation. These findings may at least partially explain the marked increase in maternal serum leptin levels in pregnancy. The rapid postnatal decrease in leptin levels in both the mother and the neonate is also consistent with the concept of placental origin. PMID:11095471

  13. Maternal high fat and/or salt consumption induces sex-specific inflammatory and nutrient transport in the rat placenta

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H; Harrison, Claudia J; Segovia, Stephanie A; Gray, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat and salt consumption are associated with developmental programming of disease in adult offspring. Inadequacies in placental nutrient transport may explain these ‘programmed effects’. Diet-induced inflammation may have detrimental effects on placental function leading to alteration of key nutrient transporters. We examined the effects of maternal high fat and/or salt diets on markers of placental nutrient transport and inflammation. Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to (1) control (CD; 1% Salt 10% kcal from fat); (2) high salt (SD; 4% salt, 10% kcal from fat); (3) high fat (HF; 1% Salt 45% kcal from fat) or (4) high fat high salt (HFSD; 4% salt, 45% kcal from fat) 21 days prior to and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 18, dams were killed by isoflurane anesthesia followed by decapitation; placenta/fetuses were weighed, sexed, and collected for molecular analysis. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD consumption decreased weight of placenta derived from male offspring; however, weight of placenta derived from female offspring was only reduced with maternal HF diet. This was associated with increased expression of LPL, SNAT2, GLUT1, and GLUT4 in placenta derived from male offspring suggesting increased fetal exposure to free fatty acids and glucose. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD diet consumption increased expression of proinflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNFα, and CD68 in male placenta. Our results suggest that a proinflammatory placental profile results in detrimental alterations in nutrient transport which may contribute to the developmental origins of cardio-metabolic disturbances in offspring throughout life. PMID:25991721

  14. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco; Martinez, Angel T.; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Ken; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabat, Gregorz; Splinter Bondurant, Sandra; Larrondo, Luis F.; Canessa, Paulo; Vicuna, Rafael; Yadev, Jagjit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K.; Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank; Chee, Christine L.; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Brettin, T.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2009-02-10

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome, and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in media containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative β-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Also upregulated under cellulolytic culture conditions were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H2O2. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H2O2 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. In particular, comparisons between P. placenta and the closely related white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  15. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem/Multipotent Stromal Cells From Decidua Parietalis of Human Term Placenta.

    PubMed

    Abumaree, Mohamed H; Abomaray, F M; Alshehri, N A; Almutairi, A; AlAskar, A S; Kalionis, B; Al Jumah, M A

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) from the human placenta show stem cell-like properties useful for regenerative medicine. Previously, we reported that MSCs isolated from the fetal part of human term placentae have characteristics, which make them a potential candidate for regenerative medicine. In this study, we characterized MSC isolated from the maternal part of human term placenta. The MSCs were isolated from the decidua parietalis (DPMSCs) of human placenta using a digestion method and characterized by colony-forming unit assay and the expression of MSC markers by flow cytometry technique. In addition, DPMSC differentiation into the 3 mesenchymal lineages was also performed. Moreover, the gene and protein expression profiles of DPMSCs were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry techniques, respectively. Furthermore, proteins secreted by DPMSCs were detected by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Finally, the proliferation and migration potentials of DPMSCs were also determined. The DPMSCs were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic and endothelial markers, as well as costimulatory molecules and HLA-DR. Functionally, DPMSCs formed colonies and differentiated into chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. In addition, they proliferated and migrated in response to different stimuli. Finally, they expressed and secreted many biological and immunological factors with multiple functions. Here, we carry out an extensive characterization of DPMSCs of human placenta. We report that these cells express and secrete a wide range of molecules with multiple functions, and therefore, we suggest that these cells could be an attractive candidate for cell-based therapy. PMID:26902429

  16. Maternal high fat and/or salt consumption induces sex-specific inflammatory and nutrient transport in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H; Harrison, Claudia J; Segovia, Stephanie A; Gray, Clint

    2015-05-01

    Maternal high fat and salt consumption are associated with developmental programming of disease in adult offspring. Inadequacies in placental nutrient transport may explain these 'programmed effects'. Diet-induced inflammation may have detrimental effects on placental function leading to alteration of key nutrient transporters. We examined the effects of maternal high fat and/or salt diets on markers of placental nutrient transport and inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to (1) control (CD; 1% Salt 10% kcal from fat); (2) high salt (SD; 4% salt, 10% kcal from fat); (3) high fat (HF; 1% Salt 45% kcal from fat) or (4) high fat high salt (HFSD; 4% salt, 45% kcal from fat) 21 days prior to and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 18, dams were killed by isoflurane anesthesia followed by decapitation; placenta/fetuses were weighed, sexed, and collected for molecular analysis. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD consumption decreased weight of placenta derived from male offspring; however, weight of placenta derived from female offspring was only reduced with maternal HF diet. This was associated with increased expression of LPL, SNAT2, GLUT1, and GLUT4 in placenta derived from male offspring suggesting increased fetal exposure to free fatty acids and glucose. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD diet consumption increased expression of proinflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNFα, and CD68 in male placenta. Our results suggest that a proinflammatory placental profile results in detrimental alterations in nutrient transport which may contribute to the developmental origins of cardio-metabolic disturbances in offspring throughout life. PMID:25991721

  17. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M.; Bach, Cathrine; Graakjaer, Jesper; Sommer, Steffen; Agerholm, Inge E.; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13(T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21 pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy–specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted high-resolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies and 6 T13 pregnancies. We have compared the methylation landscape of the trisomic placentas to the methylation landscape from normal placental DNA and to maternal blood cell DNA. Comparing trisomic placentas to normal placentas we identified 217 and 219 differentially methylated CpGs for CVS T18 and CVS T13, respectively (delta β>0.2, FDR<0.05), but only three differentially methylated CpGs for T21. However, the methylation differences was only modest (delta β<0.4), making them less suitable as diagnostic markers. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the gene set connected to theT18 differentially methylated CpGs was highly enriched for GO terms related to”DNA binding” and “transcription factor binding” coupled to the RNA polymerase II transcription. In the gene set connected to the T13 differentially methylated CpGs we found no significant enrichments. PMID:27490343

  18. Major Placenta Previa: Rate, Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes Experience at a Tertiary Maternity Hospital, Sohag, Egypt: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Salah Roshdy; Aitallah, Abdusaeed; Abdelghafar, Hazem M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major degree placenta is a serious health issue and is associated with high fetal-maternal morbidity and mortality. Literature from developing countries is scant. Aim To determine the prevalence and maternal and neonatal outcomes among women with major placenta previa (PP). Materials and Methods A prospective descriptive study of 52 singleton pregnancies with PP was evaluated in this study. The study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt from January through June 2014. Outcome measures, including the prevalence of PP, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and case-fatality rate. Results The total number of deliveries performed during the study period was 3841, of them, 52 cases were placenta previa. Thus, the prevalence of PP was 1.3%. The mean of previous cesarean scars was 2.2±1.4. Of women with PP, 26.4% (n=14) had placenta accreta. In total, 15.1% (n=8) of women underwent an obstetric hysterectomy. From the total no. of babies, 13.2% (n=7) were delivered fresh stillborn babies. Of the surviving babies (n=45), 20% (n=9) required admission to NICU. The frequencies of bowel and bladder injuries were 3.8% (n=2) and 13.2% (n=7) respectively. There was no maternal death in this study. Conclusion The rate of PP is comparable to previous studies, however, the rate of placenta accreta is high. Also, there are high rates of neonatal mortality and intraoperative complications which can be explained by accreta. The study highlights the need to revise maternity and child health services. PMID:26674539

  19. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M; Bach, Cathrine; Graakjaer, Jesper; Sommer, Steffen; Agerholm, Inge E; Kølvraa, Steen; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13(T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21 pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy-specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted high-resolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies and 6 T13 pregnancies. We have compared the methylation landscape of the trisomic placentas to the methylation landscape from normal placental DNA and to maternal blood cell DNA. Comparing trisomic placentas to normal placentas we identified 217 and 219 differentially methylated CpGs for CVS T18 and CVS T13, respectively (delta β>0.2, FDR<0.05), but only three differentially methylated CpGs for T21. However, the methylation differences was only modest (delta β<0.4), making them less suitable as diagnostic markers. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the gene set connected to theT18 differentially methylated CpGs was highly enriched for GO terms related to"DNA binding" and "transcription factor binding" coupled to the RNA polymerase II transcription. In the gene set connected to the T13 differentially methylated CpGs we found no significant enrichments. PMID:27490343

  20. Assessment of ABCG2-mediated transport of pesticides across the rabbit placenta barrier using a novel MDCKII in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Schäfer, Ingo; Kneuer, Carsten; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2016-08-15

    In humans, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 contributes to the fetoprotective barrier function of the placenta, potentially limiting the toxicity of transporter substrates to the fetus. During testing of chemicals including pesticides, developmental toxicity studies are performed in rabbit. Despite its toxicological relevance, ABCG2-mediated transport of pesticides in rabbit placenta has not been yet elucidated. We therefore generated polarized MDCK II cells expressing the ABCG2 transporter from rabbit placenta (rbABCG2) and evaluated interaction of the efflux transporter with selected insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. The Hoechst H33342 accumulation assay indicated that 13 widely used pesticidal active substances including azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, chlormequat, diflufenican, dimethoate, dimethomorph, dithianon, ioxynil, methiocarb, propamocarb, rimsulfuron and toclofos-methyl may be rbABCG2 inhibitors and/or substrates. No such evidence was obtained for chlorpyrifos-methyl, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, imazalil and thiacloprid. Moreover, chlorpyrifos (CPF), dimethomorph, tolclofos-methyl and rimsulfuron showed concentration-dependent inhibition of H33342 excretion in rbABCG2-transduced MDCKII cells. To further evaluate the role of rbABCG2 in pesticide transport across the placenta barrier, we generated polarized MDCKII-rbABCG2 monolayers. Confocal microscopy confirmed correct localization of rbABCG2 protein in the apical plasma membrane. In transepithelial flux studies, we showed the time-dependent preferential basolateral to apical (B>A) directed transport of [(14)C] CPF across polarized MDCKII-rbABCG2 monolayers which was significantly inhibited by the ABCG2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C (FTC). Using this novel in vitro cell culture model, we altogether showed functional secretory activity of the ABCG2 transporter from rabbit placenta and identified several pesticides like the insecticide CPF as potential rbABCG2 substrates

  1. The basal chorionic trophoblast cell layer: An emerging coordinator of placenta development.

    PubMed

    Walentin, Katharina; Hinze, Christian; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M

    2016-03-01

    During gestation, fetomaternal exchange occurs in the villous tree (labyrinth) of the placenta. Development of this structure depends on tightly coordinated cellular processes of branching morphogenesis and differentiation of specialized trophoblast cells. The basal chorionic trophoblast (BCT) cell layer that localizes next to the chorioallantoic interface is of critical importance for labyrinth morphogenesis in rodents. Gcm1-positive cell clusters within this layer initiate branching morphogenesis thereby guiding allantoic fetal blood vessels towards maternal blood sinuses. Later these cells differentiate and contribute to the syncytiotrophoblast of the fetomaternal barrier. Additional cells within the BCT layer sustain continued morphogenesis, possibly through a repopulating progenitor population. Several mouse mutants highlight the importance of a structurally intact BCT epithelium, and a growing number of studies addresses its patterning and epithelial architecture. Here, we review and discuss emerging concepts in labyrinth development focussing on the biology of the BCT cell layer. PMID:26778584

  2. Gene Expression in Placentas From Nondiabetic Women Giving Birth to Large for Gestational Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Ahlsson, F; Åkerud, H; Schijven, D; Olivier, J; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2015-10-01

    Gestational diabetes, obesity, and excessive weight gain are known independent risk factors for the birth of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. However, only 1 of the 10 infants born LGA is born by mothers with diabetes or obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare placental gene expression between healthy, nondiabetic mothers (n = 22) giving birth to LGA infants and body mass index-matched mothers (n = 24) giving birth to appropriate for gestational age infants. In the whole gene expression analysis, only 29 genes were found to be differently expressed in LGA placentas. Top upregulated genes included insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, aminolevulinate δ synthase 2, and prolactin, whereas top downregulated genes comprised leptin, gametocyte-specific factor 1, and collagen type XVII α 1. Two enriched gene networks were identified, namely, (1) lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, and organismal development and (2) cellular development, cellular growth, proliferation, and tumor morphology. PMID:25824011

  3. The Long Path of Human Placenta, and Its Derivatives, in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Silini, Antonietta R.; Cargnoni, Anna; Magatti, Marta; Pianta, Stefano; Parolini, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    In the 1800s, a baby born with a caul, a remnant of the amniotic sack or fetal membranes, was thought to be lucky, special, or protected. Over time, fetal membranes lost their legendary power and were soon considered nothing more than biological waste after birth. However, placenta tissues have reclaimed their potential and since the early 1900s an increasing body of evidence has shown that these tissues have clinical benefits in a wide range of wound repair and surgical applications. Nowadays, there is a concerted effort to understand the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of placental tissues, and, more recently, cells derived thereof. This review will summarize the historical and current clinical applications of human placental tissues, and cells isolated from these tissues, and discuss some mechanisms thought to be responsible for the therapeutic effects observed after tissue and/or cell transplantation. PMID:26539433

  4. A 32-kDa protein associated with phospholipase A2-inhibitory activity from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Owada, M K; Sonobe, S; Kakunaga, T; Kawakatsu, H; Yano, J

    1987-11-01

    Two monomeric 32-kDa proteins, termed 32K-I (pI 5.8) and 32K-II (pI 5.1), were isolated from human placenta, which was solubilized by a Ca2+-chelator. Only 32K-I was associated with PLA2-inhibitory activity. CNBr peptide mapping indicated that 32K-I was distinct from 32K-II and two 36-kDa proteins, called calpactin I and II or lipocortin II and I, which have been shown to possess PLA2-inhibitory activity. 32K-I bound to PS in a Ca2+-dependent manner. 32K-I was detected in many tissues except brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle. PMID:3666152

  5. Placental bed disorders in preterm labor, preterm PROM, spontaneous abortion and abruptio placentae

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2011-01-01

    Failure of physiologic transformation of the spiral arteries has been studied using placental bed biopsies in several obstetrical syndromes. Contrary to what was originally believed, this lesion is not restricted to preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction. A review of published evidence indicates that failure of physiologic transformation can be observed in women with spontaneous second trimester abortions, preterm labor with intact membranes, prelabor rupture of membranes and abruptio placentae. Therefore, disorders of deep placentation are present in a wide range of complications of pregnancy, emphasizing the importance of understanding the physiology and pathology of transformation of the spiral arteries. We propose that changes in the population and function of immunocytes at the maternal-fetal interface can be part of the mechanism of disease of obstetrical disorders, and this requires further investigation. PMID:21388889

  6. IGF-IR Signal Transduction Protein Content and Its Activation by IGF-I in Human Placentas: Relationship with Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Germán; Castro, Juan José; Garcia, Mirna; Kakarieka, Elena; Johnson, M. Cecilia; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR). The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA), 26 term small (T-SGA), 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA), and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA) newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Results The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150%) and PT-SGA (300%) compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively). Conclusion The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction. PMID:25050889

  7. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Machaalani, R.; Ghazavi, E.; Hinton, T.; Waters, K.A.; Hennessy, A.

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  8. STAT3 and SOCS3 Expression Patterns During Murine Placenta Development

    PubMed Central

    San Martin, S.; Fitzgerald, J.S.; Weber, M.; Párraga, M.; Sáez, T.; Zorn, T.M.; Markert, U.R.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been identified as an important signal transducer in the invasive phenotype of the trophoblasts cells in in vitro studies. However, the in situ distribution and patterns of expression of this molecule in trophoblast cells during the development of the placenta are still under-elucidated. Mice uteri of gestational ages between 7 and 14 days of pregnancy (dop) were fixed in methacarn and processed with immunoperoxidase techniques for detection of STAT3 and its phosphorylation at serine (p-ser727) residues, as well as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression. STAT3 was observed at 7 through 9 dop in both the antimesometrial and mesometrial deciduas, while continued immunoreactivity between 10 and 13 dop was seen only in the mesometrial decidua. In the placenta, STAT3 was detected in the cytotrophoblast cells of labyrinth and giant trophoblast cells between 10 and 14 dop. Immunoreactivity for STAT3 was also seen in trophoblast cells surrounding the maternal blood vessels. On days 10 and 11 of pregnancy, p-ser727 was detectable in the mesometrial decidua and in giant trophoblasts, while during 12-14 dop in the spongiotrophoblast region. In addition, SOCS3 was immunodetected in maternal and placental tissues, principally in the giant trophoblast cells during the whole period of the study. The present in situ study shows the distribution of STAT3, its serine activation and SOCS3 in different maternal and fetal compartments during murine placental development, thus further supporting the idea that they play a role during physiological placentation in mice. PMID:23807298

  9. Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta.

    PubMed

    Klonisch, T; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Froehlich, C; Kauffold, J; Steger, K; Steinetz, B G; Fischer, B

    1999-03-01

    Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta. PMID:10026098

  10. Mst1 and Mst2 Are Essential Regulators of Trophoblast Differentiation and Placenta Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xingrong; Dong, Yongli; Shi, Hao; Li, Jiang; Kong, Shanshan; Shi, Donghua; Sun, Ling V.; Xu, Tian; Deng, Kejing; Tao, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is essential for survival and growth of the fetus because it promotes the delivery of nutrients and oxygen from the maternal circulation as well as fetal waste disposal. Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2), key components of the mammalian hpo/Mst signaling pathway, encode two highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases and play important roles in the prevention of tumorigenesis and autoimmunity, control of T cell development and trafficking, and embryonic development. However, their functions in placental development are not fully understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the functions of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development using both conventional and conditional (endothelial) Mst1/2 double knockout mice. We found that the number of trophoblast giant cells dramatically increased while spongiotrophoblast cells almost completely disappeared in Mst1/2 deficient placentas. We showed that Mst1/2 deficiency down regulated the expression of Mash2, which is required for suppressing the differentiation of trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that endothelial-specific deletion of Mst1/2 led to impaired placental labyrinthine vasculature and embryonic lethality at E11.5, but neither affected vasculature in yolk sac and embryo proper nor endocardium development. Collectively, our findings suggest that Mst1/2 regulate placental development by control of trophoblast cell differentiation and labyrinthine vasculature at midgestation and Mst1/2 control labyrinth morphogenesis in trophoblast- and fetal endothelial-dependent manners. Thus, our studies have defined novel roles of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development. PMID:24595170

  11. Microanatomy of the placenta of Lycopodium obscurum: novel design in an underground embryo

    PubMed Central

    Renzaglia, Karen S.; Whittier, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Long-lived underground populations of mycoheterotrophic gametophytes and attached sporophytes at various developmental stages occur in lycophytes. Young underground sporophytes obtain carbon solely from the gametophyte and establish nutritional independence only after reaching the soil surface, which may take several years. This prolonged period of matrotrophy exceeds that of bryophytes. The foot is massive and provides the lifeline for sporophyte establishment, yet the fine structure of the placental region is unexplored in lycophytes with underground gametophytes. Methods Gametophytes with attached embryos/young sporophytes of Lycopodium obscurum were collected in nature, processed and examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Three ultrastructurally distinct regions were identified within a single foot of a sporophyte emerging from the soil. Young foot regions actively divide, and have direct contact with and show little differentiation from gametophyte cells. In unlobed foot areas, cells in both generations exhibit polarity in content and indicate unidirectional transport of carbon reserves into the foot toward the developing shoot and root. The foot has inconspicuous wall ingrowths. Highly lobed foot regions contain peripheral transfer cells with prominent wall ingrowths that absorb nutrients from degenerating gametophyte cells. Conclusions Variability within a single placenta is consistent with an invasive and long-lived foot. The late appearance of wall ingrowths in transfer cells reflects this dynamic ever-growing embryo. Placental features in lycophytes are related to the unique reorientation of all embryonic regions during development. Small placentas with wall ingrowths in both generations characterize ephemeral embryos in green gametophytes, while short-lived and repositioning embryos of heterosporous taxa are devoid of transfer cells. Transfer cell evolution across embryophytes is riddled with homoplasy and

  12. Cytochrome P450scc-dependent metabolism of 7-dehydrocholesterol in placenta and epidermal keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Chen, Jianjun; Nguyen, Minh N.; Li, Wei; Yates, Charles R.; Sweatman, Trevor; Janjetovic, Zorica; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) is an excellent substrate for cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) opens up new possibilities in biochemistry. To elucidate its biological significance we tested ex-vivo P450scc-dependent metabolism of 7DHC by tissues expressing high and low levels of P450scc activity, placenta and epidermal keratinocytes, respectively. Incubation of human placenta fragments with 7DHC led to its conversion to 7-dehydropregnenolone (7DHP), which was inhibited by DL-aminoglutethimide, and stimulated by forskolin. Final proof for P450scc involvement was provided in isolated placental mitochondria where production of 7DHP was almost completely inhibited by 22R-hydroxycholesterol. 7DHC was metabolized by placental mitochondria at a faster rate than exogenous cholesterol, under both limiting and saturating conditions of substrate transport, consistent with higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) with 7DHC as substrate than with cholesterol. Ex-vivo experiments showed five 5,7-dienal intermediates with MS spectra of dihydroxy and mono-hydroxy-7DHC and retention time corresponding to 20,22(OH)27DHC and 22(OH)7DHC. The chemical structure of 20,22(OH)27DHC was defined by NMR. 7DHP was further metabolized by either placental fragments or placental microsomes to 7-dehydroprogesterone as defined by UV, MS and NMR, and to an additional product with a 5,7-dienal structure and MS corresponding to hydroxy-7DHP. Furthermore, epidermal keratinocytes transformed either exogenous or endogenous 7DHC to 7DHP. 7DHP inhibited keratinocytes proliferation, while the product of its pholytic transformation, pregcalciferol, lost this capability. In conclusion, tissues expressing P450scc can metabolize 7DHC to biologically active 7DHP with 22(OH)7DHC and 20,22(OH)27DHC serving as intermediates, and with further metabolism to 7-dehydroprogesterone and (OH)7DHP. PMID:22877869

  13. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  14. Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy in the placenta: cerebral thrombi and infarcts, coagulopathies, and cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kraus, F T; Acheen, V I

    1999-07-01

    Thrombi in the fetal circulation of the placenta cause a pattern of clustered fibrotic villi called fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV), which has been associated with serious injuries to neonates, especially brain injuries. Correlation of FTV with visceral thrombi in autopsy specimens might lead to a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of somatic thrombi as a significant and underrecognized cause of prenatal injury or perinatal death, and show the potential validity of placental FTV as an indicator of thrombotic lesions in the fetus and newborns who survive. Clinicopathologic correlation was used to perform a 3-year retrospective autopsy review. We identified 16 cases (19%) among 84 perinatal autopsy specimens in which placental FTV was associated with stillbirth, intrapartum, or neonatal death. Two liveborn neonates survived 2.5 hours, and one for 24 hours; there was one intrapartum death, and the rest were stillborn. Clinical evidence of severe central nervous system (CNS) injury to two of the liveborn infants was evident at birth. Twelve stillborns died from 12 to 48 hours before delivery. Placental FTV had features of organization that clearly antedated the fetal death. Autopsy findings confirmed somatic thrombi in six cases (37.5%) of the 16 with FTV, including cerebral thrombi or infarcts (three cases), renal thromboemboli (three cases), and pulmonary thromboemboli (two cases). One mother had history of deep vein thrombosis, and four of eight tested had abnormal coagulation test results. Placental FTV indicates a significant probability of thrombi in the fetus and represents an important, possibly underrecognized cause of perinatal mortality and neonatal injury. Parental coagulopathy as a significant factor in prenatal injury and death deserves more comprehensive study. The placenta remains an undervalued and underutilized surgical specimen in the evaluation of perinatal injury, especially cerebral palsy. PMID:10414494

  15. Expression dynamics of bovine MX genes in the endometrium and placenta during early to mid pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    SHIROZU, Takahiro; SASAKI, Keisuke; KAWAHARA, Manabu; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; NAGANO, Masashi; YAMAUCHI, Nobuhiko; TAKAHASHI, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    MX belongs to a family of type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes, and the MX protein has antiviral activity. MX has at least two isoforms, known as MX1 and MX2, in mammals. Moreover, bovine MX1 has been found to have alternative splice variants—namely, MX1-a and MX1B. In ruminants, IFN-τ—a type I IFN—is temporarily produced from the conceptus before implantation and induces MX expression in the endometrium. However, the expression dynamics of MX after implantation are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the expression of MX1-a, MX1B and MX2 in the endometrium and placenta before and after implantation along with the expression of IFN-α, type I receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) and interferon regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF9). Pregnant uterine samples were divided into five groups according to pregnancy days 14–18, 25–40, 50–70, 80–100, and 130–150. Tissue samples were collected from the intercaruncular endometrium (IC), caruncular endometrium (C) and fetal placenta (P). Although all the MX expressions were significantly higher in the IC and C at days 14–18, presumably caused by embryo-secreted IFN-τ stimulation, their expressions were also detectable in the IC, C and P after implantation. Furthermore, IFN-α expression was significantly higher in the IC. RT-PCR indicated IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IRF3 and IRF9 mRNA in all the tissues during pregnancy. These results suggest that all the MX genes are affected by the type I IFN pathway during pregnancy and are involved in an immune response to protect the mother and fetus. PMID:26498202

  16. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the blood vascular system of the donkey placenta.

    PubMed

    Saber, A; Abd-Elnaeim, M; Hembes, T; Pfarrer, C; Salim, A; Leiser, R

    2008-04-01

    The donkey placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial with numerous microplacentomes consisting of a fetal microcotyledonary and a maternal microcaruncular part. The microplacentomal vasculature during the last third of pregnancy has been investigated by light microscopy in comparison to scanning electron microscopy of the materno-fetal contact surface and corrosion casts of blood vessels after plastic instillation from either the microcotyledonary or the microcaruncular side, and, for the first time in a perissodactyle, from both sides. Morphological data were semiquantitatively evaluated. The supplying parts of both, the microcotyledonary and the microcaruncular vascular system are strictly proximo-distally oriented, thus reaching the capillary systems or working parts in the shortest way possible. The straight course of the vasculature, particularly on the fetal side, suggests the occurrence of venulo-arteriolar back diffusion. The fetal capillary system consists of convolutes confronting the maternal septal capillary complexes in a countercurrent way. This materno-fetal blood flow interrelationship is highly efficient in terms of placental exchange, which is further supported (1) by dilations and increasing coiling of the fetal venular capillary limbs in particular and (2) by a decrease in the interhaemal distance from 12.5 to 7.2 microm between the two capillary systems. Besides the countercurrent blood flow interrelationship, some maternal branch arterioles reach the septal capillary system from the maternally oriented pole of the microplacentome or microcaruncle, respectively, resulting in the less efficient crosscurrent blood flow. Hence, in the donkey placenta fetal and maternal blood vessels meet in a mix of countercurrent and crosscurrent flow patterns. PMID:18067487

  17. Human placenta and chorion: potential additional sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Alicia; Muench, Marcus O.; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Gormley, Matthew; Goldfien, Gabriel A.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is an essential element of medical therapy, leading to cures of previously incurable disease for hematological and non-hematological pathologies. Many patients do not find matched donors in a timely manner, which has driven efforts to find alternative pools of transplantable HSCs. The use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a source of transplantable HSCs began more than two decades ago. However, the use of UCB as a reliable source of HSCs for transplantation still faces crucial challenges: the number of HSCs present in a unit of UCB is usually sufficient for younger children but not for adults and the persistent delayed engraftment often seen can result in high rates of infection and mortality. Study Design and Methods We propose a new approach to a solution of these problems: a potential increase of the limited number of UCB–HSCs available by harvesting HSCs contained in the placenta and the fetal chorionic membrane available at birth. Results We investigated the presence of hematopoietic progenitors/HSC in human placenta and chorion at different gestational ages. The characterization of these cells was performed by flow cytometry and immunolocalization and their functional status was investigated by transplanting them into immunodeficient mice. Conclusion HSCs are present in extraembryonic tissues and could be banked in conjunction to the UCB-HSCs. This novel approach could have a large impact on the field of HSC banking and more crucially, on the outcome of patients undergoing this treatment by greatly improving the use of life-saving hematopoietic transplants. PMID:22074633

  18. Changes in the Mother-Placenta-Fetus System Under the Effect of α-Tocopherol in Albino Rats with Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A S; Peretyatko, L P; Sitnikova, O G; Nazarov, S B

    2015-08-01

    The effects of α-tocopherol on the function of the mother-placenta-fetus system and structural changes in the placenta in normal pregnancy were studied in albino rats. The results indicated that inhibition of free radical processes by injections of α-tocopherol in normal pregnancy led to disorders in the feto-maternal circulation, which was proven by morphological changes in the placenta. The disorders in the uteroplacental circulation manifested in the development of small-for-date fetuses and erythrocytosis. PMID:26395631

  19. Unique trophoblast stem cell- and pluripotency marker staining patterns depending on gestational age and placenta-associated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Weber, Maja; Göhner, Claudia; San Martin, Sebastian; Vattai, Aurelia; Hutter, Stefan; Parraga, Mario; Jeschke, Udo; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Fitzgerald, Justine S

    2016-03-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are rare but severe pregnancy complications that are associated with placental insufficiency often resulting in premature birth. The clinical pathologies are related to gross placental pathologies and trophoblastic deficiencies that might derive from inflammatory processes and oxidative stress injury. The mesenchymal core of placental villi has been identified as a possible niche for trophoblast progenitor cells that are called upon to replenish the injured syncytiotrophoblast layer. These progenitor cells are known to express trophoblast stem cell (CDX2) and pluripotency (SOX2, NANOG and OCT4A) markers, however only little data is available characterizing the expression of these transcription factors beyond the blastocyst stage. We aimed to describe the expression of these factors in healthy 1st and 3rd trimester placentae as well as PE, IUGR and combined PE+IUGR placentae. We analyzed 8 respective samples derived from 1st trimester (elective abortions), and 3rd trimester (healthy controls, PE, IUGR and combined PE+IUGR). We accomplished immunoperoxidase staining to detect the stem cell markers: CDX2 (trophectoderm), SOX2, NANOG and OCT4A (embryonal). Immunoreative scoring was used for objective analyses of staining patterns. All markers display clearly elevated signals in 1st trimester villous samples as compared to healthy 3rd trimester counterparts. Especially CDX2 and NANOG were specific to the cytotrophoblast layer and the mesenchymal core. Specific and differential expression patterns were visible in the villous/extravillous compartment of each placenta-associated pregnancy complication (PE: pan elevated expression; IUGR elevated SOX2 in basal plate; combined PE+IUGR pan loss of expression). Reduction of stem cell transcription factor expression in term placentae indicates temporal regulation, and probably a specific function which is yet to be elucidated. The differential expression patterns

  20. Propriedades de estruturas temporais rápidas submilimétricas durante uma grande explosão solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Pacini, A. A.; Makhmutov, V.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos novas propriedades de variações rápidas da emissão submilimétrica durante uma das maiores explosões solares do ciclo solar 23. Os dados analisados neste estudo foram obtidos com o Telescópio Solar Submilimétrico (SST), que observa o Sol em 212 GHz e 405 GHz, e comparados com emissões em Raios-X duros e Raios-gama (fótons de energia > 10 MeV), que foram obtidas pelo experimento GRS do Yohkoh. Aplicamos diferentes metodologias para detectar e caracterizar, ao longo do evento, os pulsos submilimétricos (duração de 50-300 ms) detectados acima de uma componente mais lenta (alguns minutos). Os resultados mostram que durante a fase impulsiva, num instante próximo ao tempo do máximo do evento, houve um aumento da ocorrência de maiores e de mais rápidas estruturas temporais. Também identificamos uma boa correlação com as emissões em raios-X e raios-gama (até a faixa de energia 10-100 MeV), indicando que os pulsos rápidos submilimétricos refletiram injeções primárias de energia durante o evento.O espectro do fluxo desses pulsos é crescente com a freqüência entre 212 and 405 GHz, na maioria dos casos, ao contrário do observado para a componente gradual. As posições calculadas para as estruturas rápidas são discretas, compactas e localizadas em toda a área da região ativa, o que é previsto nos modelos de explosões solares decorrentes de instabilidades múltiplas em diferentes pequenas regiões. Por outro lado, a posição calculada para a componente lenta é estável durante a fase impulsiva. Assim, a comparação entre as características do espectro de fluxo e da localização da emissão, para os pulsos rápidos e para a componente gradual, sugere que as respectivas emissões são de natureza diferente.

  1. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  2. Relaxin, its receptor (RXFP1), and insulin-like peptide 4 expression through gestation and in placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Goh, William; Yamamoto, Sandra Y; Thompson, Karen S; Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian D

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to show whether placental relaxin (RLN), its receptor (RXFP1), or insulin-like peptide 4 (INSL4) might have altered expression in patients with placenta accreta. The baseline expression of their genes through gestation (n = 34) was quantitated in the placental basal plate (BP) and villous trophoblast (TR), and compared to their expression in placenta accreta (n = 6). The proteins were also immunolocalized and quantitated in the accreta tissues. The messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of matrix metalloproteinase 9, -2, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were also measured. Results demonstrated that the BP and TR expressed low levels of RLN/RXFP1 and INSL4 through gestation. In accreta, increased RLN gene and protein in BP were associated with antepartum bleeding whereas INSL4 expression decreased throughout the TR. There were no changes in mRNAs for MMPs, but TIMP-1 was increased only in the invasive TR. PMID:23302396

  3. Relaxin, Its Receptor (RXFP1), and Insulin-Like Peptide 4 Expression Through Gestation and in Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sandra Y.; Thompson, Karen S.; Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian D.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to show whether placental relaxin (RLN), its receptor (RXFP1), or insulin-like peptide 4 (INSL4) might have altered expression in patients with placenta accreta. The baseline expression of their genes through gestation (n = 34) was quantitated in the placental basal plate (BP) and villous trophoblast (TR), and compared to their expression in placenta accreta (n = 6). The proteins were also immunolocalized and quantitated in the accreta tissues. The messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of matrix metalloproteinase 9, -2, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were also measured. Results demonstrated that the BP and TR expressed low levels of RLN/RXFP1 and INSL4 through gestation. In accreta, increased RLN gene and protein in BP were associated with antepartum bleeding whereas INSL4 expression decreased throughout the TR. There were no changes in mRNAs for MMPs, but TIMP-1 was increased only in the invasive TR. PMID:23302396

  4. Transfer studies of polystyrene nanoparticles in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion model: key sources of artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafmueller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Diener, Liliane; Maurizi, Lionel; Diener, Pierre-André; Hofmann, Heinrich; Jochum, Wolfram; Krug, Harald F.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; von Mandach, Ursula; Wick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding and highly promising new technology with many different fields of application. Consequently, the investigation of engineered nanoparticles in biological systems is steadily increasing. Questions about the safety of such engineered nanoparticles are very important and the most critical subject with regard to the penetration of biological barriers allowing particle distribution throughout the human body. Such translocation studies are technically challenging and many issues have to be considered to obtain meaningful and comparable results. Here we report on the transfer of polystyrene nanoparticles across the human placenta using an ex vivo human placenta perfusion model. We provide an overview of several challenges that can potentially occur in any translocation study in relation to particle size distribution, functionalization and stability of labels. In conclusion, a careful assessment of nanoparticle properties in a physiologically relevant milieu is as challenging and important as the actual study of nanoparticle-cell interactions itself.

  5. Unruptured term pregnancy with a live fetus with placenta percreta in a non-communicating rudimentary horn.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sharda; Puri, Manju; Trivedi, Shuba Sagar; Yadav, Reena; Bali, Jyoti

    2007-12-01

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is rare and such a pregnancy culminating in the delivery of a live fetus is even rarer. Despite advances in ultrasonography, the accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing rudimentary horn pregnancy at advanced gestation remains elusive. Confirmatory diagnosis is made only at laparotomy. We report a multigravidae who presented at 37 weeks with transverse lie oligoamnios and decreased perception of fetal movement since quickening. Laparotomy for placenta accreta suspected on ultrasound revealed non-communicating unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy with a live fetus and placenta percreta. Successful extraction of a term live fetus weighing 2.7 kg with excision of the rudimentary horn was carried out. PMID:17988257

  6. Detection of dengue NS1 and NS3 proteins in placenta and umbilical cord in fetal and maternal death.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Paes, Marciano Viana; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Basilio; Soares, Ana Carla Gomes; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Lima, Monique da Rocha Queiroz; de Barcelos Alves, Ada Maria; da Silva, Juliana Fernandes Amorim; de Oliveira Coelho, Janice Mery Chicarino; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Flávia Barreto

    2016-08-01

    In Brazil, dengue is a public health problem with the occurrence of explosive epidemics. This study reports maternal and fetal deaths due to dengue and which tissues of placenta and umbilical cord were analyzed by molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. The dengue NS3 and NS1 detection revealed the viral presence in different cells from placenta and umbilical cord. In the latter, DENV-2 was detected at a viral titer of 1,02 × 10(4) amounts of viral RNA. It was shown that the DENV markers analyzed here may be an alternative approach for dengue fatal cases investigation, especially involving maternal and fetal death. J. Med. Virol. 88:1448-1452, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26792253

  7. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean F; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Brettin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J; Martinez, Angel T; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Kenneth E; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabati, Grzegorz; Bondurant, Sandra S; Larrondo, Luis F; Canessa, Paulo; Vicunna, Rafael; Yadavk, Jagiit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Lavin, Jose L; Oguiza, Jose A; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K; Baker, Scott; Bruno, Kenneth; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik J; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiva, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tuh, Hank; Chee, Christine L; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Dan; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  8. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  9. Up regulation of the maternal immune response in the placenta of cattle naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Rosbottom, Anne; Gibney, Helen; Kaiser, Peter; Hartley, Catherine; Smith, Robert F; Robinson, Rebecca; Kipar, Anja; Williams, Diana J L

    2011-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite which is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. It forms persistent infections which recrudesce during pregnancy leading to foetal infection and in a proportion of cases, abortion. The mechanisms underlying abortion are not understood. In this study, recrudescence of a persistent infection in eight naturally infected cows occurred between 20 and 33 weeks of gestation. Animals were killed at the time of recrudescence and parasites were detected in the placentae and foetuses. An active maternal immune response consisting of an infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a 46-49 fold increase in interferon-γ and interleukin-4 mRNA was detected. Other cytokines, notably interleukin-12 p40, interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-α were also significantly increased and Major Histocompatibility Class II antigen was expressed on maternal and foetal epithelial and stromal fibroblastoid cells. Significantly, despite the presence of an active maternal immune response in the placenta, all the foetuses were alive at the time of maternal euthanasia. There was evidence of parasites within foetal tissues; their distribution was restricted to the central nervous system and skeletal muscle and their presence was associated with tissue necrosis and a non-suppurative inflammatory response involving lymphocytes and macrophages, irrespective of the gestational age of the foetus. Whilst an active maternal immune response to a pathogen in the placenta is generally considered to be damaging to the foetal trophoblast, our findings suggest that the presence of a parasite-induced maternal immune response in the placenta is not detrimental to foetal survival but may contribute to the control of placental parasitosis. PMID:21283810

  10. Up Regulation of the Maternal Immune Response in the Placenta of Cattle Naturally Infected with Neospora caninum

    PubMed Central

    Rosbottom, Anne; Gibney, Helen; Kaiser, Peter; Hartley, Catherine; Smith, Robert F.; Robinson, Rebecca; Kipar, Anja; Williams, Diana J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite which is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. It forms persistent infections which recrudesce during pregnancy leading to foetal infection and in a proportion of cases, abortion. The mechanisms underlying abortion are not understood. In this study, recrudescence of a persistent infection in eight naturally infected cows occurred between 20 and 33 weeks of gestation. Animals were killed at the time of recrudescence and parasites were detected in the placentae and foetuses. An active maternal immune response consisting of an infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a 46–49 fold increase in interferon-γ and interleukin-4 mRNA was detected. Other cytokines, notably interleukin-12 p40, interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-α were also significantly increased and Major Histocompatibility Class II antigen was expressed on maternal and foetal epithelial and stromal fibroblastoid cells. Significantly, despite the presence of an active maternal immune response in the placenta, all the foetuses were alive at the time of maternal euthanasia. There was evidence of parasites within foetal tissues; their distribution was restricted to the central nervous system and skeletal muscle and their presence was associated with tissue necrosis and a non-suppurative inflammatory response involving lymphocytes and macrophages, irrespective of the gestational age of the foetus. Whilst an active maternal immune response to a pathogen in the placenta is generally considered to be damaging to the foetal trophoblast, our findings suggest that the presence of a parasite-induced maternal immune response in the placenta is not detrimental to foetal survival but may contribute to the control of placental parasitosis. PMID:21283810

  11. Saturated fat-rich diet increases fetal lipids and modulates LPL and leptin receptor expression in rat placentas.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, M B; Higa, R; Capobianco, E; Kurtz, M; Jawerbaum, A; White, V

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic alterations in obese and overweight mothers impact the placenta and the fetus, leading to anomalies in fetal growth and lipid accretion. The primary aim of the study was to examine the effect of a saturated fat-rich diet (FD) on growth, lipid accretion, and lipases, leptin and leptin receptor (ObR) expression in the placenta and fetal liver. We also aimed to find a role for fetal leptin in the modulation of placental and fetal liver lipase and ObR expression. Six-week-old rats were fed with a standard rat chow (control) or a 25% FD for 7 weeks until mating and during pregnancy. Also, in a group of control rats, fetuses were injected with leptin on days 19, 20, and 21 of pregnancy. On day 21, we assessed lipidemia, insulinemia, and leptinemia in mothers and fetuses. In the placenta and fetal liver, lipid concentration was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the gene expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), endothelial lipase, insulin receptor (Insr), leptin, and ObR by RT-PCR. The FD induced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperleptinemia (P<0.01) in mothers and fetuses, an increase in maternal (P<0.05) and fetal weight (P<0.01), overaccumulation of lipids in fetal liver (P<0.01), and enhanced leptin expression in the placenta and fetal liver (P<0.05). Placental expression of IR and LPL was increased (P<0.05), and ObR decreased (P<0.05) in the FD group. Fetal administration of leptin induced the placental and fetal liver downregulation of ObR (P<0.05) and upregulation of LPL expression (P<0.05). The FD led to increased fetal lipid levels, which may result from high maternal lipid availability and fetal leptin effects. PMID:23482704

  12. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood▿†

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St. John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these—two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12—have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component. PMID:21948841

  13. Expression of CD134 and CXCR4 mRNA in term placentas from FIV-infected and control cats.

    PubMed

    Scott, Veronica L; Burgess, Shane C; Shack, Leslie A; Lockett, Nikki N; Coats, Karen S

    2008-05-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes a natural infection of domestic cats that resembles HIV-1 in pathogenesis and disease progression. Feline AIDS is characterized by depression of the CD4+ T cell population and fatal opportunistic infections. Maternal-fetal transmission of FIV readily occurs under experimental conditions, resulting in infected viable kittens and resorbed or arrested fetal tissues. Although both FIV and HIV use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 as a co-receptor, FIV does not utilize CD4 as the primary receptor. Rather, CD134 (OX40), a T cell activation antigen and co-stimulatory molecule, is the primary receptor for FIV. We hypothesized that placental expression of CD134 and CXCR4 may render the placenta vulnerable to FIV infection, possibly facilitating efficient vertical transmission of FIV, and impact pregnancy outcome. The purpose of this project was to quantify the relative expression of CD134 and CXCR4 mRNA from the term placentas of three groups of cats: uninfected queens producing viable offspring, experimentally-infected queens producing only viable offspring, and experimentally-infected queens producing viable offspring among mostly non-viable fetuses. Total RNA was extracted from term placental tissues from all groups of cats. Real-time one-step reverse transcriptase-PCR was used to measure gene expression. The FIV receptors CD134 and CXCR4 were expressed in all late term feline placental tissues. Placentas from FIV-infected queens producing litters of only viable offspring expressed more CD134 and CXCR4 mRNA than those from uninfected queens, suggesting that infection may cause upregulation of the receptors. On the other hand, placentas from FIV-infected cats with non-successful pregnancies expressed similar levels of CD134 mRNA and slightly less CXCR4 mRNA than those from uninfected queens. Thus, it appears that cells expressing these receptors may play a role in pregnancy maintenance. PMID:18295905

  14. Effect of Exercise Training on Enos Expression, NO Production and Oxygen Metabolism in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Bustamante, Juanita; Czerniczyniec, Analia; Aguilar de Plata, Ana C.; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS), nitric oxide (NO) production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. Methods The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16–20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n = 10) took part in an exercise session three times a week for 12 weeks which consisted of: aerobic exercise at an intensity of 55–75% of their maximum heart rate for 60 min and 25 mins. Resistance exercise included 5 exercise groups circuit training (50 repetitions of each) using barbells (1–3 kg/exercise) and low-to-medium resistance bands. The control group (n = 10) undertook their usual physical activity. Mitochondrial and cytosol fractions were isolated from human placental tissue by differential centrifugation. A spectrophotometric assay was used to measure NO production in cytosolic samples from placental tissue and Western Blot technique to determine eNOS expression. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide were measured to determine oxygen metabolism. Results Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during pregnancy leads to a 2-fold increase in eNOS expression and 4-fold increase in NO production in placental cytosol (p = 0.05). Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide production rate were decreased by 8% and 37% respectively in the placental mitochondria of exercising women (p = 0.05). Conclusion Regular exercise training during the second half of pregnancy increases eNOS expression and NO production and decreases reactive oxygen species generation in human placenta. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chronic exercise increases eNOS/NO production, presumably by increasing endothelial shear stress. This adaptation may contribute to the beneficial effects of

  15. Triclosan is a potent inhibitor of estradiol and estrone sulfonation in sheep placenta

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Li, Wenjun; Summerlot, David P.; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Wood, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    The personal care product Triclosan, 5-chloro-2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol, is widely used in consumer products as an antibacterial agent and is increasingly found in the environment as a contaminant of sewage sludge and wastewater. This compound has been identified in plasma and urine of people in the United States, Sweden and Australia. Triclosan is known to inhibit sulfonation of phenolic xenobiotics and is structurally related to inhibitors of estrogen sulfotransferase, such as polychlorobiphenylols. In pregnancy, the placenta is an important source of estrogen, which is needed for normal fetal development and successful parturition, and estrogen sulfotransferase is thought to play an important role in regulation of estrogen availability. In this study, we examined the effect of Triclosan on sheep placental cytosolic sulfotransferase activity with 17-beta-estradiol and estrone as substrates. For comparison, we studied the effects of 4-hydroxy-3,3′,4′,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2′-hydroxytriclocarban on estradiol sulfonation. The apparent Km for placental cytosolic sulfotransferase activity with estradiol as substrate was 0.27±0.06 nM (mean±S.D., n=3 individuals) and with estrone as substrate was 1.86±0.22 nM. Partial substrate inhibition was observed with estradiol at concentrations higher than 10–20 nM, as is typical of estrogen sulfotransferases (SULT1E1) in other species. Studies of the effect of Triclosan on estrogen sulfotransferase activity were conducted with several concentrations (0.1–6 nM) of estradiol and with 2 nM estrone. Triclosan was a very potent inhibitor of both estradiol and estrone sulfonation. For estradiol the inhibition was shown to be mixed competitive/uncompetitive, with Kic of 0.09±0.01 nM and Kiu of 5.2±2.9 nM. The IC50 for inhibition of estrone sulfonation was 0.60±0.06 nM. At an environmentally relevant concentration of 1 μM, Triclosan was not a substrate for glucuronidation in sheep placental microsomes. Triclosan

  16. Differential Expression of Collectins in Human Placenta and Role in Inflammation during Spontaneous Labor

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Chaudhari, Hemangi; Warke, Himangi; Shah, Premanand Keshavlal; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2014-01-01

    Collectins, collagen-containing Ca2+ dependent C-type lectins and a class of secretory proteins including SP-A, SP-D and MBL, are integral to immunomodulation and innate immune defense. In the present study, we aimed to investigate their placental transcript synthesis, labor associated differential expression and localization at feto-maternal interface, and their functional implication in spontaneous labor. The study involved using feto-maternal interface (placental/decidual tissues) from two groups of healthy pregnant women at term (≥37 weeks of gestation), undergoing either elective C-section with no labor (‘NLc’ group, n = 5), or normal vaginal delivery with spontaneous labor (‘SLv’ group, n = 5). The immune function of SP-D, on term placental explants, was analyzed for cytokine profile using multiplexed cytokine array. SP-A, SP-D and MBL transcripts were observed in the term placenta. The ‘SLv’ group showed significant up-regulation of SP-D (p = 0.001), and down-regulation of SP-A (p = 0.005), transcripts and protein compared to the ‘NLc’ group. Significant increase in 43 kDa and 50 kDa SP-D forms in placental and decidual tissues was associated with the spontaneous labor (p<0.05). In addition, the MMP-9-cleaved form of SP-D (25 kDa) was significantly higher in the placentae of ‘SLv’ group compared to the ‘NLc’ group (p = 0.002). Labor associated cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and MCP-1 showed significant increase (p<0.05) in a dose dependent manner in the placental explants treated with nSP-D and rhSP-D. In conclusion, the study emphasizes that SP-A and SP-D proteins associate with the spontaneous labor and SP-D plausibly contributes to the pro-inflammatory immune milieu of feto-maternal tissues. PMID:25303045

  17. Genetic and epigenetic variation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) in placenta and infant neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Bromer, Cailey; Marsit, Carmen J; Armstrong, David A; Padbury, James F; Lester, Barry

    2013-11-01

    The intrauterine environment can impact the developing infant by altering the function of the placenta through changes to the epigenetic regulatory features of this tissue. Genetic variation, too, may impact infant development or may modify the relationship between epigenetic alterations and infant outcomes. To examine the associations of these variations with early life infant neurodevelopment, we examined the extent of DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter and a common single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region in a series of 186 placentas from healthy newborn infants. We associated these molecular features with specific summary measures from the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales. After controlling for genotype and confounders, we identified significant associations of NR3C1 methylation with infant quality of movement (p = .05) and with infant attention (p = .05), and a potential interaction between methylation and genotype on infant attention score. These results suggest that epigenetic alteration of the NR3C1 gene in the placentas of genetically susceptible infants can have impacts on neurodevelopment which may have lifelong impact on neurobehavioral and mental health outcomes. Further research is needed to more precisely define these relationships and the interaction between epigenetic alterations and genetic variations on infant health. PMID:22714792

  18. Histopathologies, Immunolocalization, and a Glycan Binding Screen Provide Insights into Plasmodium falciparum Interactions with the Human Placenta1

    PubMed Central

    Hromatka, Bethann S.; Ngeleza, Sadiki; Adibi, Jennifer J.; Niles, Richard K.; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT During pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes cytoadhere to the placenta. Infection is likely initiated at two sites where placental trophoblasts contact maternal blood: 1) via syncytiotrophoblast (STB), a multicellular transporting and biosynthetic layer that forms the surface of chorionic villi and lines the intervillous space, and 2) through invasive cytotrophoblasts, which line uterine vessels that divert blood to the placenta. Here, we investigated mechanisms of infected erythrocyte sequestration in relationship to the microanatomy of the maternal-fetal interface. Histological analyses revealed STB denudation in placental malaria, which brought the stromal cores of villi in direct contact with maternal blood. STB denudation was associated with hemozoin deposition (P = 0.01) and leukocyte infiltration (P = 0.001) and appeared to be a feature of chronic placental malaria. Immunolocalization of infected red blood cell receptors (CD36, ICAM1/CD54, and chondroitin sulfate A) in placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies showed that STB did not stain, while the underlying villous stroma was immunopositive. Invasive cytotrophoblasts expressed ICAM1. In malaria, STB denudation exposed CD36 and chondroitin sulfate A in the villous cores to maternal blood, and STB expressed ICAM1. Finally, we investigated infected erythrocyte adherence to novel receptors by screening an array of 377 glycans. Infected erythrocytes bound Lewis antigens that immunolocalized to STB. Our results suggest that P. falciparum interactions with STB-associated Lewis antigens could initiate placental malaria. Subsequent pathologies, which expose CD36, ICAM1, and chondroitin sulfate A, might propagate the infection. PMID:23575149

  19. Placenta-Specific Protein 1: A Potential Key to Many Oncofetal-Placental OB/GYN Research Questions

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Eric J.; Reyes, Henry D.; Santillan, Donna A.; Santillan, Mark K.; Onukwugha, Chinenye; Goodheart, Michael J.; Leslie, Kimberly K.

    2014-01-01

    Placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is a secreted protein found in trophoblasts. Several reports implicate a central role for PLAC1 in establishment and maintenance of the placenta. In addition to placentae PLAC1 is expressed in a variety of solids including breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. In order to show that PLAC1 is potentially relevant to a number of research questions in OB/GYN, we report on PLAC1 expression in a selected panel that includes two choriocarcinoma cell lines, normal placental tissues, and endometrial and ovarian tumors. We report for the first time that PLAC1 is also expressed in human fetal tissues. PLAC1 is transcriptionally heterogeneous with one promoter (P1) generating two transcripts with alternately spliced 5' UTRs and the other promoter (P2) generating a third transcript. Placental tissues favor P2 transcripts, while P1 is favored in most of the other cells. Mechanisms determining multiple PLAC1 transcripts and promoter preferences are as yet unknown, but it is clear that this protein is likely to be important in a variety of phenomena relevant to both gynecologic oncology and maternal-fetal medicine. PMID:24757447

  20. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta

    PubMed Central

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  1. A multimodal imaging workflow to visualize metal mixtures in the human placenta and explore colocalization with biological response markers.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, Megan M; Austin, Christine; Remark, Romain; Merad, Miriam; Gnjatic, Sacha; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Borboa-Olivares, Hector; Guzman-Huerta, Mario; Wright, Rosalind J; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish

    2016-04-01

    Fetal exposure to essential and toxic metals can influence life-long health trajectories. The placenta regulates chemical transmission from maternal circulation to the fetus and itself exhibits a complex response to environmental stressors. The placenta can thus be a useful matrix to monitor metal exposures and stress responses in utero, but strategies to explore the biologic effects of metal mixtures in this organ are not well-developed. In this proof-of-concept study, we used laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure the distributions of multiple metals in placental tissue from a low-birth-weight pregnancy, and we developed an approach to identify the components of metal mixtures that colocalized with biological response markers. Our novel workflow, which includes custom-developed software tools and algorithms for spatial outlier identification and background subtraction in multidimensional elemental image stacks, enables rapid image processing and seamless integration of data from elemental imaging and immunohistochemistry. Using quantitative spatial statistics, we identified distinct patterns of metal accumulation at sites of inflammation. Broadly, our multiplexed approach can be used to explore the mechanisms mediating complex metal exposures and biologic responses within placentae and other tissue types. Our LA-ICP-MS image processing workflow can be accessed through our interactive R Shiny application 'shinyImaging', which is available at or through our laboratory's website, . PMID:26987553

  2. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  3. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in human placenta and placental bed after normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Wetzka, B; Nüsing, R; Charnock-Jones, D S; Schäfer, W; Zahradnik, H P; Smith, S K

    1997-10-01

    In pre-eclampsia, the ratio of prostacyclin:thromboxane production rate is decreased favouring the vasoconstrictive thromboxane. One of the rate-limiting steps in prostaglandin synthesis is cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. Therefore, we investigated the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in human placenta and placental bed. Tissue specimens from the 29th to 40th week of pregnancy were obtained from Caesarean sections after uncomplicated and pre-eclamptic pregnancies before the onset of labour. COX-1 and COX-2 were localized immunohistochemically with the identification of positive cells by double immunofluorescence staining. The protein and mRNA levels were analysed by immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of both COX-1 and COX-2 could be observed in placenta and placental bed. COX-1-like immunoreactivity was observed in most cell types with strongest staining in macrophages. Only macrophages, endothelium, vascular leiomyocytes and fibroblasts stained positively for COX-2. In placenta, COX-1 and -2 expression was unchanged after pre-eclampsia. In placental bed, protein and mRNA levels of COX-1 were increased in the pre-eclamptic group (P < 0.05), whereas COX-2 expression did not differ significantly from normal pregnancies. An increased expression of COX-1 could be involved in the pathophysiology of pre-eclamptic changes within the placental bed. A therapy with drugs inhibiting COX-1 might be beneficial in this condition. PMID:9402302

  4. Isolation of new pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta by Vicia villosa affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Barbato, O; Sousa, N M; Klisch, K; Clerget, E; Debenedetti, A; Barile, V L; Malfatti, A; Beckers, J F

    2008-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation and characterization of new pregnancy-associated glycoprotein molecules (PAG) from midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). After extraction, the homogenates are subjected to acid and ammonium sulfate precipitations followed by DEAE chromatography. Subsequently, the water buffalo PAG (wbPAG) from these solutions are enriched by Vicia villosa agarose (VVA) affinity chromatography. As determined by western blotting with anti-PAG sera, the apparent molecular masses of the immunoreactive bands from the VVA peaks range from 59.5 to 75.8kDa and from 57.8 to 73.3kDa in the midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas, respectively. Amino-terminal microsequencing of the immunoreactive proteins has allowed the identification of three distinct wbPAG sequences, which have been deposited in the SwissProt database: RGSXLTIHPLRNIRDFFYVG (acc. no. P85048), RGSXLTILPLRNIID (acc. no. P85049), and RGSXLTHLPLRNI (acc. no. P85050). Their comparison to previously identified proteins has shown that two of them are new because they have not been described before. Our results confirm the suitability of VVA chromatography for the enrichment of the multiple PAG molecules expressed in buffalo placenta. PMID:18308351

  5. Asymmetrical transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), leucine and lysine across the in vitro perfused human placenta.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Proegler, M; Sodha, R; Dancis, J

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism for establishing transplacental gradients for leucine, lysine and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) has been investigated in the perfused human placenta. Experiments were done with either the maternal or the fetal circulation closed and the donor circulation open. Transfer of the amino acids towards the fetal side was more rapid than it was in the reverse direction. When the maternal perfusate was recirculated, the amino acid concentrations were maintained at a considerably lower level in the maternal circulation than in the open fetal circuit. When the fetal circuit was closed, the concentrations approached or slightly exceeded those in the maternal perfusate over a period of three hours. Within the placenta, higher concentrations were established during the experiments with transfer towards the fetal side than in the reverse direction. Of the three amino acids, leucine was transferred most rapidly across the placenta while AIB reached the highest concentrations in the placental tissue. The asymmetry of the transplacental amino acid flux is favoured by rapid uptake from the maternal circulation and transfer towards the fetus. Both rates exceed those observed in the reverse direction. The transfer rate of D-leucine was 1.7 times that of L-glucose. For in vitro studies of the transfer rate of physiological compounds a correction for diffusion is required. The results may differ considerably depending on which marker is used as the basis. PMID:3112761

  6. Functional proteomics of neurokinin B in the placenta indicates a novel role in regulating cytotrophoblast antioxidant defences.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Grzegorz; Dakour, Jamal; Morrish, Donald W

    2003-10-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) has recently been demonstrated to be secreted from the placenta in abnormally high amounts in preeclampsia (PE) and to cause hypertension in rats, suggesting it may be a mediator of some pathophysiological features of PE. It is also known that NKB receptors exist in the placenta. To determine the effect of high levels of NKB on the placenta, we have performed proteomics on five separate preparations of cultured purified human term cytotrophoblast cells. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in 20 proteins, of which five were unknown proteins. Proteins important in antioxidant defenses that decreased were thioredoxin, cyclophilin A, cytokeratin 1, and peroxiredoxin 5. Two proteins that inhibit intravascular anticoagulation, cytokeratin 1 and annexin 11 were also decreased. Pathways involving pro-inflammatory cytokine activation of NF-kappa B are opposed by Raf kinase inhibitor protein, which was also decreased. Cofilin 1, a protein involved in defense against bacteria, was also decreased. Among other proteins that were suppressed by NKB were proteasome proteins, desmoplakin, and calgizzarin. Western blots confirmed the decrease in cytokeratin 1 and cyclophilin A protein after NKB exposure. In PE, there is reduced antioxidant activity and increased intravascular coagulation. The findings that high levels of NKB, similar to those observed in PE, can impair these two classes of activity support the hypothesis that high NKB levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of PE. PMID:14625867

  7. Singleton Pregnancy Outcomes after In Vitro Fertilization with Fresh or Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer and Incidence of Placenta Praevia

    PubMed Central

    Korosec, Sara; Kladnik, Urska; Kotar, Vanja; Virant-Klun, Irma; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the single pregnancy and neonate outcome after fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer in the in vitro fertilization programme (IVF). The study focused on clinical and laboratory factors affecting the abnormal placentation, especially placenta praevia, in patients conceiving in the IVF programme. The results confirm that neonates born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer had significantly higher mean birth weight than after fresh embryo transfer (ET). Moreover, the birth weight distribution in singletons was found to shift towards “large for gestation” (LGA) after frozen-thawed ET. On the other hand, the pregnancies after fresh ET were characterized by a higher incidence of placenta praevia and 3rd trimester bleeding. Placenta praevia was more common in IVF patients with fresh ET in a stimulated cycle than in patients with ET in a spontaneous cycle. It occurred more frequently in patients with transfer of 2 embryos. From this point of view, single ET and ET in a spontaneous cycle should be encouraged in good prognosis patients in the future with more than two good quality embryos developed. An important issue arose of how the ovarian hormonal stimulation relates to abnormal placentation and if the serum hormone levels interfere with in the IVF treatment results. PMID:24822209

  8. The novel C24D synthetic polypeptide inhibits binding of placenta immunosuppressive ferritin to human T cells and elicits anti-breast cancer immunity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Solodeev, Inna; Zahalka, Muayad A; Moroz, Chaya

    2014-09-01

    Immune tolerance mechanisms supporting normal human pregnancy are exploited by breast cancer and other malignancies. We cloned from human placenta and breast cancer cells the novel human immunomodulator named placenta immunosuppressive ferritin (PLIF). PLIF is composed of a ferritin heavy chain-like domain and a novel cytokine-like domain, named C48. Both intact PLIF and C48 inhibit T cell proliferation. Blocking PLIF by specific antibodies in a tolerant breast cancer model in nude mice resulted in tumor cell apoptosis and rejection. This prompted us to study active immune preventive strategies targeting PLIF activity. Currently, we report on the design and synthesis of the novel C24D polypeptide, which inhibits the binding of PLIF to T cells and therefore inhibits the immune suppressive effect of PLIF. The effect of C24D on the generation of anti-breast cancer cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was studied in vitro in cultures of MCF-7 (HLA-A2(+)) or T47D (HLA-A2(-)) breast cancer cells incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors. We found that C24D treatment exclusively induced development of CTLs. On reactivation by their specific target cells, the CTLs secreted interferon-γ and induced target apoptosis. Anti-MCF-7 CTLs were cross-cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 (HLA-A2(+)) triple-negative breast cancer but not to T47D. Moreover, C24D treatment in vivo inhibited the growth of MCF-7 tumors engrafted in immune-compromised nude mice transfused with naïve allogeneic human PBMCs. Our results demonstrate that C24D treatment breakdown breast cancer induced tolerance enabling the initiation of effective anti-tumor immune response. PMID:25246274

  9. Effect of Porcine Placenta Extract from Subcritical Water Extraction on Photodamage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bok Kyung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Hong, Yang Hee; Jung, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluated the photoprotective effects of porcine placenta extract (PPE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to evaluate its functional activities as a skin food ingredient. PPE prepared by subcritical water extraction was termed SPE, and subsequently digested by enzymes to prepare E-SPE. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels (192.0%) induced by UVB were decreased by SPE and E-SPE. SPE had more effective ROS scavenging activity than E-SPE treatment. UVB treatment increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and this elevated expression was decreased by E-SPE treatment. High-dose treatment with E-SPE (50 and 100 µg/mL) reduced TIMP-1 expression levels of UVB-C (control) to 33.5 and 34.6%, respectively. In contrast, at low SPE doses (1 and 10 µg/mL), the treatment slightly decreased TIMP-1 expression levels to 73.3% and 71.3% of UVB-C, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the protective effect of SPE and E-SPE against UVB damage in keratinocytes via ROS scavenging, down-regulating MMP-2 expression and up-regulating TIMP-1 expression. This highlights the potential for SPE as an ingredient in the preparation of functional food against photoaging. PMID:26761824

  10. Development of the haemophagous region and labyrinth of the placenta of the tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Blankenship, T N; Künzle, H; Enders, A C

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine how the central haemophagous region and cellular haemomonochorial labyrinth of the tenrec placenta are formed. The haemophagous region is preceded by a region of invasion of the endometrium by trophoblast comprising a cytotrophoblast layer covered by syncytial trophoblast and contiguous with numerous masses of multinucleate trophoblast. The trophoblast intrudes into the endometrium, eliminating the stroma, although small vessels and clumps of glandular epithelium persist. This extensive central region is connected to the forming disk by a ring of chorioallantois covered by a single layer of columnar trophoblast. Later the multinucleate masses and syncytial trophoblast degenerate. The unilaminar cytotrophoblast remains, is elaborated into folds, and phagocytoses glandular secretion, cell debris and erythrocytes. As the central area is transforming, fetal capillaries move into the cytotrophoblast pads surrounding the central zone. Prior to this, the cytotrophoblast has formed a multilayered structure and interrupted maternal vessels to create an anastomotic network of blood spaces lined by cytotrophoblast. The invasion of fetal capillaries transforms this preplacental pad into a cellular haemomonochorial labyrinth with the uninvaded portion forming an underlying spongy zone. Thus interaction of the trophoblast with the endometrium is substantially different in the central zone compared to the area of the preplacental pad. PMID:15708127

  11. [The passage of fluoride across the placenta. An intra-uterine study].

    PubMed

    Forestier, F; Daffos, F; Said, R; Brunet, C M; Guillaume, P N

    1990-01-01

    Until now, transplacental passage of fluoride could only be checked during delivery. Recent developments in fetal blood sampling techniques in utero have made it possible to study its passage in pregnancy. Two tablets of 2.212 mg of sodium fluoride (Zymafluor) were given to 11 women with an average age of 27 1/2 years whose pregnancies on an average had lasted 22 weeks. They were having prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound guided fetal blood sampling in any case. The levels of fluoride were measured by the use of a specific electrode before the mother took fluoride and 40 minutes after she had taken it in both maternal and fetal blood samples. The results were compared with a controlled group of 11 pregnant women with similar characteristics: maternal age, duration of pregnancy and basal maternal fluoride levels. Fetal blood levels of fluorides in mothers who had taken sodium fluoride was statistically higher than in the controlled group (2.6 mumol/l and less than 1 mumol/l); this demonstrates in a statistically significant way that fluoride passes across the placenta in the fifth and sixth months of pregnancy which is the time when the milk teeth start to develop in the uterus. PMID:2182701

  12. Methylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in human placenta and hypermethylation in choriocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, N C; Novakovic, B; Weinrich, B; Dewi, C; Andronikos, R; Sibson, M; Macrae, F; Morley, R; Pertile, M D; Craig, J M; Saffery, R

    2008-09-01

    Methylation of the human APC gene promoter is associated with several different types of cancers and has also been documented in some pre-cancerous tissues. We have examined the methylation of APC gene promoters in human placenta and choriocarcinoma cells. This revealed a general hypomethylation of the APC-1b promoter and a pattern with monoallelic methylation of the APC-1a promoter in full term placental tissue. However, there was no evidence of a parent-of-origin effect, suggesting random post zygotic origin of methylation. Increased methylation of this promoter was observed in all choriocarcinoma-derived trophoblast cell lines, suggesting a trophoblastic origin of placental APC methylation and implicating APC hypermethylation in the development of this group of gestational tumours. Our demonstration of placental methylation of the APC-1a promoter represents the first observation of monoallelic methylation of this gene in early development, and provides further support for a role of canonical Wnt signalling in placental trophoblast invasiveness. This also implicates tumour suppressor gene silencing as an integral part of normal human placental development. PMID:18485586

  13. DNA methylation profiles in placenta and its association with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rong, C; Cui, X; Chen, J; Qian, Y; Jia, R; Hu, Y

    2015-05-01

    Emerging evidences indicate that placenta plays a critical role in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). DNA methylation could be associated with altered placental development and functions. This study is to uncover the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in this disorder. DNA methylation was measured at >385,000 CpG sites using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and a huamn CpG island plus promoter microarray. We totally identified 6,641 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) targeting 3,320 genes, of which 2,729 DMRs targeting 1,399 genes, showed significant hypermethylation in GDM relative to the controls, whereas 3,912 DMRs targeting 1,970 genes showed significant hypomethylation. Functional analysis divided these genes into different functional networks, which mainly involved in the pathways of cell growth and death regulation, immune and inflammatory response and nervous system development. In addition, the methylation profiles and expressions of 4 loci (RBP4, GLUT3, Resistin and PPARα) were validated by BSP for their higher log2 ratio and potential functions with energy metabolism. This study demonstrates aberrant patterns of DNA methylation in GDM which may be involved in the pathophysiology of GDM and reflect the fetal development. Future work will assess the potential prognostic and therapeutic value for these findings in GDM. PMID:25962407

  14. cDNA sequences of variant forms of human placenta diamine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Kim, J.; McIntire, S.

    1995-08-01

    Genes for two forms of human placenta diamine oxidase (dao) were cloned from a cDNA library and sequenced. One gene, pdao1, is identical in length to human kidney dao but differs from it by two bases in the coding region and differs slightly in the 3{prime} - and 5{prime}-noncoding regions. The second gene, pdao2, is nearly identical to these genes in the coding region, except that it has an extra 57-nucleotide coding segment near the 3{prime} end of this region. This segment corresponds to the contiguous sequence of the 3{prime} end of intron 3 of human kidney dao. pdao2 also differs significantly from pdao1 and human kidney dao in a 13-base sequence in the t{prime}-noncoding region. It is proposed that pdao1 and human kidney dao are polymorphic forms of the same allele. Whether pdao2 is a polymorph of these two is not certain, because of the significant differences in the coding and noncoding regions. pdao2 may represent a different allele. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Opioid binding properties of the purified kappa receptor from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.S.; Zhou, D.; Cavinato, A.G.; Maulik, D.

    1989-01-01

    A glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 63,000 has been purified, in an active form, from human placental villus tissue membranes. The binding properties of this glycoprotein to opioid alkaloids and peptides indicates that it is the kappa opiate receptor of human placenta. The receptor binds the tritiated ligands etorphine, bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine and naloxone specifically and reversibly with Kd values of 3.3, 4.4, 5.1 and 7.0nM, respectively. The binding of /sup 3/H-Bremazocine to the purified receptor is inhibited by the following compounds with the corresponding Ki values EKC, 1.3 x 10/sup -8/M; Dynorphin 1-8, 3.03 x 10/sup -7/; U50,488H, 4.48 x 10/sup -9/; U69-593,2.28 x 10/sup -8/, morphine, 4.05 x 10/sup -6/ DADLE, 6.47 x 10/sup -6/ and naloxone, 2.64 x 10/sup -8/. The purified receptor binds 8 nmole of /sup 3/H-Etorphine and 1.7 nmole /sup 3/H-BZC per mg protein. The theoretical binding capacity of a protein of this molecular weight is 15.8. Although the iodinated purified receptor appears by autoradiography as one band on SDS-PAGE, yet homogeneity of the preparation is not claimed.

  16. Fluctuation of neutrophil counts around parturition in Holstein dairy cows with and without retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Cantoni, Andrea; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    Retained placenta (RP) is often diagnosed in high-yielding dairy cows and can negatively affect reproductive performances. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hematological and biochemical profile of cows with RP before and immediately after parturition, with particular emphasis on neutrophil counts, since a previous study demonstrated the presence of peripheral neutropenia in dairy cows with RP sampled a few days after parturition. Results from 12 Holstein cows affected by RP and from 17 clinically healthy controls sampled one week pre-partum, within 12h after calving and between 48 and 72h after parturition were compared between groups and over time. Compared with controls, cows with RP had lower lymphocyte counts before parturition, lower leukocyte and neutrophil counts at parturition, lower monocyte counts at all times, and higher β-hydroxybutyrate before and after parturition. Erythroid and biochemical parameters were similar over time in both groups, whereas RP cows did not show the increase of neutrophil counts that occurs in controls at parturition. Hence, the finding of a lower neutrophil count in a routinely hemogram performed at parturition could be used as an alarm signal suggesting to monitor the affected animals. Moreover, although the underlying pathogenetic mechanism should be better investigated, the present study describes for the first time the association between altered blood leukocyte concentrations at parturition in RP compared to control cows. PMID:27473997

  17. Wnt-Signaling-Mediated Antiosteoporotic Activity of Porcine Placenta Hydrolysates in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Lee, Na Ra; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-osteoporotic effects of two types of porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPH) were evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats orally administered PPH without (WPPH) or with (NPPH) ovarian hormones (1 g/kg bw/day). PPH groups were compared with OVX rats with estrogen replacement (0.1 mg/kg bw conjugated estrogen; EST), or dextrose (placebo; OVX-control) All rats received high-fat/calcium-deficient diets for 12 weeks. NPPH contained less estrogen and progesterone, but more essential amino acids, whereas the opposite was true for WPPH. NPPH decreased body weight and peri-uterine fat pads, and maintained uterus weight. NPPH rats had higher femur and lumbar spine bone mass density compared to controls; but less than those of EST rats. Serum phosphorus and urinary calcium and phosphorus levels were reduced in NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone turnover marker levels were reduced NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. WPPH produced results similar to those of NPPH, but less significant. Both NPPH and estrogen upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, while the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1 was suppressed. In conclusion, NPPH exerted anti-osteoporotic effects by activating osteogenesis and stimulating Wnt signaling, possibly mediated by the various amino acids and not ovarian hormones. PMID:23258987

  18. Effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment early in pregnancy on glucocorticoid receptors in the ovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Shang, H; Meng, W; Sloboda, D M; Li, S; Ehrlich, L; Plagemann, A; Dudenhausen, J W; Henrich, W; Newnham, J P; Challis, J R G; Braun, T

    2015-05-01

    The effects of endogenous cortisol on binucleate cells (BNCs), which promote fetal growth, may be mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy stages of placental development might modify this response. In this article, we have investigated the expression of GR as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 119) were randomized to control (2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX-treated groups (intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placental tissue was collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. Total glucocorticoid receptor protein (GRt) was increased significantly by DEX at 50 and 125 dG in females only, but decreased in males at 125 dG as compared to controls. Glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) protein was not changed after DEX treatment. Three BNC phenotypes were detected regarding GRα expression (++, +-, --), DEX increased the proportion of (++) and decreased (--) BNC at 140 dG. Effects were sex- and cell type dependent, modifying the responsiveness of the placenta to endogenous cortisol. We speculate that 3 maturational stages of BNCs exist and that the overall activity of BNCs is determined by the distribution of these 3 cell types, which may become altered through early pregnancy exposure to elevated glucocorticoids. PMID:25332218

  19. Osteogenic differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) on electrospun nanofiber meshes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Tong, Aiping; Zhou, Liangxue; Fang, Fang; Guo, Gang

    2012-12-01

    Numerous challenges remain in the successful clinical translation of cell-based therapeutic studies for skeletal tissue repair, including appropriate cell sources and viable cell delivery systems. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) amphiphilic block copolymers have been extensively explored in microspheres preparation. Due to the introduction of hydrophilic PEG segments into PCL backbones, these copolymers have shown much more potentials in carrying protein, lipophilic drugs or genes than commonly used poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly (lactic acid). The aim of this study is to investigate the attachment and osteogenic differentiation of human placenta derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) on PEG-PCL triblock copolymers nanofiber scaffolds. Here we demonstrated that PMSCs proliferate robustly and can be effectively differentiated into osteogenic-like cells on nanofiber scaffolds. This study provides evidence for the use of nanofiber scaffolds as an ideal supporting material for in vitro PMSCs culture and an in vivo cell delivery vehicle for bone repair. PMID:22526490

  20. Transcriptional profiles of laccase genes in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-R-698.

    PubMed

    An, Hongde; Wei, Dongsheng; Xiao, Tingting

    2015-09-01

    One of the laccase isoforms in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta is thought to contribute to the production of hydroxyl radicals, which play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. However, the presence of at least two laccase isoforms in this fungus makes it difficult to understand the details of this mechanism. In this study, we systematically investigated the transcriptional patterns of two laccase genes, Pplcc1 and Pplcc2, by quantitative PCR (qPCR) to better understand the mechanism. The qPCR results showed that neither of the two genes was expressed constitutively throughout growth in liquid culture or during the degradation of a woody substrate. Transcription of Pplcc1 was upregulated under nitrogen depletion and in response to a high concentration of copper in liquid culture, and during the initial colonization of intact aspen wafer. However, it was subject to catabolite repression by a high concentration of glucose. Transcription of Pplcc2 was upregulated by stresses caused by ferulic acid, 2, 6-dimethylbenzoic acid, and ethanol, and under osmotic stress in liquid culture. However, the transcription of Pplcc2 was downregulated upon contact with the woody substrate in solid culture. These results indicate that Pplcc1 and Pplcc2 are differentially regulated in liquid and solid cultures. Pplcc1 seems to play the major role in producing hydroxyl radicals and Pplcc2 in the stress response during the degradation of a woody substrate. PMID:26231371

  1. Inhibition of human placenta glutathione transferase P1-1 by calvatic acid.

    PubMed

    Caccuri, A M; Ricci, G; Desideri, A; Buffa, M; Fruttero, R; Gasco, A; Ascenzi, P

    1994-04-01

    The inhibition mechanism of the dimeric human placenta glutathione transferase (GST P1-1) by the antibiotic p-carboxyphenylazoxycyanide (calvatic acid) has been investigated at pH 7.0 and 30.0 degrees C. Experiments performed at different calvatic acid/GST P1-1 molar ratios indicate that one mole of calvatic acid inactivates one mole of the homodimeric enzyme molecule, containing two catalytically equivalent active sites. The apparent second order rate constant for GST P1-1 inactivation is 2.4 +/- 0.3 M-1 s-1. The recovery of all the 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid)-titratable thiol groups as well as the original catalytic activity of GST P1-1 after treatment of the inhibited enzyme with dithiothreitol indicates that two disulfide bridges per dimer, likely between Cys47 and Cys101, have been formed during the reaction with calvatic acid. To the best of the authors knowledge, calvatic acid represents a unique case of enzyme inhibitor acting also throughout its reaction product(s). PMID:8069231

  2. Bisphenol A and other phenols in human placenta from children with cryptorchidism or hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariana F; Arrebola, Juan P; Jiménez-Díaz, Inmaculada; Sáenz, José María; Molina-Molina, José Manuel; Ballesteros, Oscar; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Olea, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Embryo-foetal exposure to low doses of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been related to reproductive tract diseases in experimental animals but not convincingly in human populations. The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between exposure to non-persistent EDCs during pregnancy and male genital development. Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA), benzophenones (BPs) [BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-6, BP-8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP),] and parabens (PBs) [methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl-PB] was analyzed by means of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in placenta samples from a subsample of 28 cases and 51 healthy controls nested in a cohort of newborns recruited between 2000 and 2002. The multivariable regression analyses indicated a statistically significant association between exposure to BPA and propyl-PB and the risk of malformations [adjusted odd ratio (95% CIs) in the third tertile of exposure: 7.2 (1.5-35.5) and 6.4 (1.2-35.5) for BPA and propyl-PB, respectively]. PMID:26602963

  3. Toxicogenomic analysis of placenta samples from mice exposed to different doses of BPA

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Sabrina; Tassinari, Roberta; Maranghi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread Endocrine Disrupter mainly used in food contact plastics, may induce adverse effects especially on susceptible lifestages, first of all pregnancy. The present study considered placental development as a potential target of BPA and investigated potential differences in the modes of action of two doses of BPA by a toxicogenomic approach. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered with vehicle, 0.5 (BPA05) or 50 mg/kg (BPA50) body weight (bw)/die of BPA, from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD11. At GD12 dams were sacrificed and transcriptomic analysis was performed on placenta samples. Histological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with BPA exposure. The interpretation and description of the overall data are included in a manuscript under revision [1]. Here we describe the experimental design and the analysis performed on the gene expression data which are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with accession number GSE63852. PMID:26484192

  4. Expression of prostacyclin and thromboxane synthases in placenta and placental bed after pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Wetzka, B; Charnock-Jones, D S; Viville, B; Cooper, J C; Nüsing, R; Zahradnik, H P; Smith, S K

    1996-11-01

    Prostacyclin and thromboxane are potent antagonistic regulators of vascular tone and platelet aggregation. In pre-eclampsia, the ratio of their metabolites is decreased. Little is known about the local regulation of intrauterine prostacyclin and thromboxane production in this condition. Placenta and placental bed biopsies were obtained from uncomplicated and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Prostacyclin synthase (PCS) and thromboxane synthase (TXS) and their mRNA's were localized by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies and in situ hybridization. Protein and mRNA levels were quantified by immunoblot and RNase protection assay. PCS-like immunoreactivity was found in endothelial cells and leiomyocytes, whereas fetal and maternal macrophages showed positive staining for TXS. Their mRNA was localized to trophoblast and endothelium, and TXS mRNA could also be detected in macrophages. Quantitative analysis showed no significant difference in intrauterine protein or mRNA expression after pre-eclampsia. The prostacyclin and thromboxane production seems to be compartmentalized within the uteroplacental unit. The expression of their synthesizing enzymes might be regulated post-transcriptionally. Additional regulation of prostaglandin production could be metabolically or on the substrate level and requires further elucidation. PMID:8916205

  5. Face, content, and construct validity of human placenta as a haptic training tool in neurointerventional surgery.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro de Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi; Nicolato, Arthur; Santos, Marcilea; Godinho, Joao Victor; Brito, Rafael; Alvarenga, Alexandre; Martins, Ana Luiza Valle; Prosdocimi, André; Trivelato, Felipe Padovani; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Reis, Augusto Barbosa; Maestro, Rolando Del

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The development of neurointerventional treatments of central nervous system disorders has resulted in the need for adequate training environments for novice interventionalists. Virtual simulators offer anatomical definition but lack adequate tactile feedback. Animal models, which provide more lifelike training, require an appropriate infrastructure base. The authors describe a training model for neurointerventional procedures using the human placenta (HP), which affords haptic training with significantly fewer resource requirements, and discuss its validation. METHODS Twelve HPs were prepared for simulated endovascular procedures. Training exercises performed by interventional neuroradiologists and novice fellows were placental angiography, stent placement, aneurysm coiling, and intravascular liquid embolic agent injection. RESULTS The endovascular training exercises proposed can be easily reproduced in the HP. Face, content, and construct validity were assessed by 6 neurointerventional radiologists and 6 novice fellows in interventional radiology. CONCLUSIONS The use of HP provides an inexpensive training model for the training of neurointerventionalists. Preliminary validation results show that this simulation model has face and content validity and has demonstrated construct validity for the interventions assessed in this study. PMID:26452122

  6. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the EAE mouse model of MS.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Shoval, Yonit; Barhum, Yael; Sadan, Ofer; Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Ben-Zur, Tali; Lev, Nirit; Benkler, Chen; Hod, Moshe; Melamed, Eldad; Offen, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative medicine raises great hope for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are being tested in clinical trials. Bone marrow is the traditional source of human MSCs, but human term placenta appears to be an excellent alternative because of its availability, without ethical issues. In this study, the therapeutic effect of human placental MSCs (PL-MSCs) was evaluated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mice model of MS. EAE mice were transplanted intra-cerebrally with PL-MSCs or with the vehicle saline 5 or 10 days after first MOG injection. The mice were monitored for a month after therapy. A daily EAE score revealed a decrease in disease severity in the transplanted animals when compared to saline. Survival was significantly higher in the transplanted animals. In vitro experiments demonstrated that conditioned media from LPS-activated astrocytes stimulated PL-MSCs to express the gene TNF-α-stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6). The same mRNA expression was obtained when PL-MSCs were exposed to TNF-α or IL1-β. These results demonstrate that PL-MSCs have a therapeutic effect in the EAE mice model. We assume that this effect is caused by reduction of the anti-inflammatory protein, TSG-6, of the inflammatory damage. PMID:22638856

  7. Effect of inbreeding on the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian horses.

    PubMed

    Sevinga, M; Vrijenhoek, T; Hesselinks, J W; Barkema, H W; Groen, A F

    2004-04-01

    This study was motivated by the hypothesis that the incidence of retained placenta (RP) in Friesian horses is associated with inbreeding. The objectives were to 1) calculate the inbreeding rate in the total registered Friesian horse population; 2) study the association of the inbreeding coefficient of the foal and the mare with the incidence of RP; and 3) study the heritability of RP in Friesian mares after normal foalings. Data from the total registered Friesian horse population from 1879 to 2000 (52,392 individuals) were collected from the registration files of the Friesian Horse Studbook. In 1999 and 2000, 495 parturitions in 436 mares were studied. From 1979 to 2000, the inbreeding rate of the total population was 1.9% per generation. The regression coefficients for the regression of the incidence of RP on inbreeding coefficients of the foal and the mare were 0.12 +/- 0.052 and -0.016 +/- 0.019, respectively. Mean heritability estimates of RP as a foal trait and as a mare trait were 0.046 +/- 0.088 and 0.105 +/- 0.123, respectively. It was concluded that, in order to avoid a further increase in the incidence of RP in Friesian mares, a decrease in the inbreeding rate by increasing the effective breeding population is required. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the high incidence of RP in Friesian horses is at least partly a result of inbreeding. PMID:15080317

  8. The placenta in toxicology. Part II: Systemic and local immune adaptations in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Ernerudh, Jan; Buse, Eberhard; Cline, J Mark; Haeger, Jan-Dirk; Dixon, Darlene; Markert, Udo R; Pfarrer, Christiane; De Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged by the semiallogeneic fetus, which must be tolerated without compromising fetal or maternal health. This review updates the systemic and local immune changes taking place during human pregnancy, including some examples in rodents. Systemic changes are induced by contact of maternal blood with placental factors and include enhanced innate immunity with increased activation of granulocytes and nonclassical monocytes. Although a bias toward T helper (Th2) and regulatory T cell (Treg) immunity has been associated with healthy pregnancy, the relationship between different circulating Th cell subsets is not straightforward. Instead, these adaptations appear most evidently at the fetal-maternal interface, where for instance Tregs are enriched and promote fetal tolerance. Also innate immune cells, that is, natural killer cells and macrophages, are enriched, constituting the majority of decidual leukocytes. These cells not only contribute to immune regulation but also aid in establishing the placenta by promoting trophoblast recruitment and angiogenesis. Thus, proper interaction between leukocytes and placental trophoblasts is necessary for normal placentation and immune adaptation. Consequently, spontaneous maladaptation or interference of the immune system with toxic substances may be important contributing factors for the development of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and recurrent miscarriages. PMID:23531796

  9. Identification and functional characterization of a novel fungal immunomodulatory protein from Postia placenta.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu Ying; Shi, Li Jun; Ding, Yang; Nie, Ying; Tang, Xuan Ming

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a previously unknown fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP), here called FIP-ppl, was identified from the basidiomycete fungus Postia placenta by searching its genome sequence database using known FIPs as baits, which was the first basidiomycete FIP to be identified outside the order of edible macro fungi. The gene FIP-ppl was synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. The fusion protein was purified on a GST affinity column and the protein tag was removed using in situ thrombin cleavage. The purified recombinant protein (rFIP-ppl) displayed hemagglutination activity toward rabbit red blood cells but not against human red blood cells. RFIP-ppl stimulated mouse splenocyte cell proliferation and enhanced interleukin-2 (IL-2) release. Antitumor assays indicated that rFIP-ppl had significant cell proliferation inhibitory activity and apoptotic effects in human tumor cells with more pronounced inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptotic effects on gastric tumor cells (MGC823) than against hepatoma (HepG2) cells. This study confirms an alternative means of identifying, producing, and isolating new FIPs. It may provide convenient access to FIP-ppl with potential human therapeutic applications. PMID:25662032

  10. Effects of Maternal Dexamethasone Treatment Early in Pregnancy on Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Ovine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Shang, H.; Meng, W.; Sloboda, D. M.; Li, S.; Ehrlich, L.; Plagemann, A.; Dudenhausen, J. W.; Henrich, W.; Newnham, J. P.; Challis, J. R. G.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endogenous cortisol on binucleate cells (BNCs), which promote fetal growth, may be mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy stages of placental development might modify this response. In this article, we have investigated the expression of GR as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 119) were randomized to control (2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX-treated groups (intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placental tissue was collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. Total glucocorticoid receptor protein (GRt) was increased significantly by DEX at 50 and 125 dG in females only, but decreased in males at 125 dG as compared to controls. Glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) protein was not changed after DEX treatment. Three BNC phenotypes were detected regarding GRα expression (++, +−, −−), DEX increased the proportion of (++) and decreased (−−) BNC at 140 dG. Effects were sex- and cell type dependent, modifying the responsiveness of the placenta to endogenous cortisol. We speculate that 3 maturational stages of BNCs exist and that the overall activity of BNCs is determined by the distribution of these 3 cell types, which may become altered through early pregnancy exposure to elevated glucocorticoids. PMID:25332218

  11. A Parallelized Pumpless Artificial Placenta System Significantly Prolonged Survival Time in a Preterm Lamb Model.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Tadashi; Usuda, Haruo; Watanabe, Shimpei; Kitanishi, Ryuta; Saito, Masatoshi; Hanita, Takushi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2016-05-01

    An artificial placenta (AP) is an arterio-venous extracorporeal life support system that is connected to the fetal circulation via the umbilical vasculature. Previously, we published an article describing a pumpless AP system with a small priming volume. We subsequently developed a parallelized system, hypothesizing that the reduced circuit resistance conveyed by this modification would enable healthy fetal survival time to be prolonged. We conducted experiments using a premature lamb model to test this hypothesis. As a result, the fetal survival period was significantly prolonged (60.4 ± 3.8 vs. 18.2 ± 3.2 h, P < 0.01), and circuit resistance and minimal blood lactate levels were significantly lower in the parallel circuit group, compared with our previous single circuit group. Fetal physiological parameters remained stable until the conclusion of the experiments. In summary, parallelization of the AP system was associated with reduced circuit resistance and lactate levels and allowed preterm lamb fetuses to survive for a significantly longer period when compared with previous studies. PMID:26644374

  12. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in anatomical sanctuary sites: the fetal compartment (placenta and amniotic fluid).

    PubMed

    Else, Laura J; Taylor, Stephen; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H

    2011-01-01

    HIV resides within anatomical 'sanctuary sites' where local drug exposure and viral dynamics may differ significantly from the systemic compartment. Widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy has seen a significant decline in the incidence of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. In addition to suppression of maternal plasma/genital viral loads, antiretroviral agents that cross the placenta and achieve adequate concentrations in the fetal compartment may exert a greater prophylactic effect. Penetration of antiretrovirals in the fetal compartment is expressed by accumulation ratios derived from the measurement of drug concentrations in paired maternal plasma and umbilical cord samples. The nucleoside analogues and nevirapine accumulate extensively in cord blood and in the surrounding amniotic fluid, whereas the protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit low-to-moderate placental accumulation. Early data suggest that high placental/neonatal concentrations are achieved with raltegravir, but to a lesser extent with etravirine and maraviroc (rank order of accumulation: raltegravir/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [tenofovir > zidovudine/lamivudine/emtricitabine/stavudine/abacavir] > non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [nevirapine > etravirine] > PI > maraviroc/enfuvirtide). More comprehensive in vivo pharmacokinetic data are required to justify the potential use of these agents as safe and effective options during pregnancy. PMID:22155898

  13. [Massive hemorrhage associated with undiagnosed placenta percreta in a second-trimester pregnancy receiving abortion procedure].

    PubMed

    Komiya, Kaori; Saitou, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Souichirou; Igarashi, Takashi; Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro; Seo, Norimasa

    2009-08-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with an incomplete miscarriage and was scheduled for curettage at 21 weeks of gestation. She received curettage under spinal anesthesia and vaginal hemorrhage could not be controlled due to placenta percreta and cesarean section was immediately performed. Profuse bleeding continued and the patient developed hemorrhagic shock. For the purpose of circulatory and respiratory management, general anesthesia was induced and a hysterectomy was performed. For treatment of hemorrhage-induced hypotension, dobutamine and norepinephrine were administrated, while fluid replacement was continued with packed blood cells. Hemorrhagic shock, however, was not responsive to catecholamines, and her arterial pressure decreased to 40/20 mmHg. She received a bolus injection of vasopressin, 1 U, by i.v. push. Her arterial pressure increased to 140/65 mmHg after vasopressin administration, and catecholamines were tapered off before operation was finished. The patient's total blood loss was estimated to be approximately 6,000 ml. She recovered without complications and was discharged on the 7th postoperative day. Vasopressin may be an option to stabilize cardiocirculatory function in patients with uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. PMID:19702228

  14. MATERNAL TOBACCO USE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    SBRANA, Elena; SUTER, Melissa A.; ABRAMOVICI, Adi R.; HAWKINS, Hal K.; MOSS, Joan E.; PATTERSON, Lauren; SHOPE, Cynthia; AAGAARD-TILLERY, Kjersti

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to extend our prior observations and histopathologically characterize key metabolic enzymes (CYP1A1) with markers of oxidative damage in placental sections from smokers. Study Design Placental specimens were collected from term singleton deliveries from smokers (n=10) and non-smokers (n=10), and subjected to detailed histopathologic examination. To quantify the extent of oxidative damage, masked score-graded (0–6) histopathology against 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine (8-OHdG) was performed. Minimal significance (p<0.05) was determined with Fisher’s-exact and two-tailed T-test as appropriate. Results We observed a significant increase in the presence of syncytial knots in placentas from smokers (70% versus 10%, p=0.02). These gross observations were accompanied by significant aberrant placental aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism (increased CYP1A1, 4.4 vs. 2.1, p=0.002) alongside evidence of oxidative damage (4-HNE 3.4 vs. 1.1, p=0.00005; 8-OHdG 4.9 vs. 3.1, p=0.0038). Conclusions We observe a strong association between maternal tobacco use and aberrant placental metabolism, syncytial knot formation, and multiple markers of oxidative damage. PMID:21803321

  15. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui; Wang, Chen; Lin, Li; Ma, Jingmei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05), and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312) (p<0.001) and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05) as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01). The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001) and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01), one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01) and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01) at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM. PMID:27340831

  16. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE) is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA) and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes) remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%). Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes in the human term

  17. Aberrant expression of miR-127, miR-21 and miR-16 in placentas of deceased cloned sheep.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; You, Shuang; Cao, Yang; Li, Cunyuan; Wei, Junchuang; Wang, Dawei; Qiao, Jun; Zhao, Xinxia; Hu, Shengwei; Quan, Renzhe

    2016-04-01

    Placental deficiencies are associated with developmental abnormalities of animal produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). It is reported that aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the common placenta is associated with fetal growth restriction and placental deficiencies. However, an understanding of the expression and function of miRNAs in the placentas of cloned animal is lacking. In this study, we characterized the expression of five growth-associated miRNAs (miR-127, miR-16, miR-21, miR-93 and miR-182) in placentas of deceased transgenic cloned sheep (deceased group, n=7), live transgenic cloned sheep (live group, n=5) and conventionally produced sheep (control group, n=10). Expression levels of miR-127 (P<0.01), miR-21 (P<0.01) and miR-16 (P<0.05) were significantly up-regulated in the placentas of deceased group compared to that of control group. In contrast, the expression of these miRNAs was largely normal in the placentas of live group, except for the expression of miR-21. Furthermore, we confirmed that retrotransposon-like gene (Rtl1), a key gene in placental development, was down-regulated by miR-127 as a target in placenta cells. Our results suggested that the abnormal expression of miR-127, miR-21 and miR-16 in placentas of deceased sheep, through dysregulation of target genes, may result in developmental deficiencies of transgenic cloned sheep. PMID:27033933

  18. The effect of gestational age on expression of genes involved in uptake, trafficking and synthesis of fatty acids in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; González, Raúl Sánchez; Maldonado, Jorge; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Bernabe-García, Mariela

    2016-10-15

    Gestation triggers a tight coordination among maternal tissues to provide fatty acids (FA) to the fetus through placental transport; however, there is insufficient evidence regarding regulation of proteins involved in placental transport of FA according to gestational age. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gestational age on the expression of genes involved in FA uptake, trafficking and synthesis in the rat placenta to support fetal demands. Gene expression of encoding proteins for placental transport and synthesis of FA was measured in placenta. Also, FA composition was measured in placenta, fetuses and newborns. mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase (lpl) and fatp-1 (for uptake) was 4.4- and 1.43-fold higher, respectively, during late gestation than at P14, but expression of p-fabp-pm decreased 0.37-fold at late pregnancy in comparison with P14. Only mRNA fabp-4 member for trafficking of FA was 2.95-fold higher at late gestation than at P14. mRNA of fasn and elovl-6 participating in saturated FA and enzymes for the polyunsaturated FA synthesis were downregulated during late gestation and their regulator srebf-1c increased at P16. This study suggests that gestational age has an effect on expression of some genes involved in uptake, trafficking and synthesis of FA in the rat placenta; mRNA expression of lpl and, fatp-1 for uptake and fabp-4 implicated in trafficking was expressed at high levels at late gestation. In addition, placenta expresses the mRNAs involved in FA synthesis; these genes were expressed at low levels at late gestation. Additionally, mRNAs of Srebf-1c transcriptional regulator of desaturases and elongases was highly expressed during late gestation. Finally, these changes in the rat placenta allowed the placenta to partially supply saturated and monounsaturated FA to the fetus. PMID:27317891

  19. Variation of DNA methylation in candidate age-related targets on the mitochondrial-telomere axis in cord blood and placenta

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, B.G.; Byun, HM.; Cox, B.; Gyselaers, W.; Izzi, B.; Baccarelli, A.A.; Nawrot, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epigenetics is tissue-specific and potentially even cell-specific, but little information is available from human reproductive studies about the concordance of DNA methylation patterns in cord blood and placenta, as well as within-placenta variations. We evaluated methylation levels at promoter regions of candidate genes in biological ageing pathways (SIRT1, TP53, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TFAM), a subtelomeric region (D4Z4) and the mitochondrial genome (MT-RNR1, D-loop). Methods Ninety individuals were randomly chosen from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort to evaluate methylation concordance between cord blood and placenta using highly quantitative bisulfite-PCR pyrosequencing. In a subset of nineteen individuals, a more extensive sampling scheme was performed to examine within-placenta variation. Results The DNA methylation levels of the subtelomeric region and mitochondrial genome showed concordance between cord blood and placenta with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.31 to 0.43, p ≤ 0.005, and also between the maternal and foetal sides of placental t