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Sample records for nad synthesis inhibitor

  1. NAD[S], an NAD analogue with reduced susceptibility to phosphodiesterase. Chemical synthesis and enzymic properties.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T; Wielckens, K; Thiem, J; Hilz, H

    1984-05-01

    The chemical synthesis of adenosine(5') [alpha-thio]diphospho(5')ribofuranosyl-nicotinamide (NAD[S]) is described. The product occurs as a pair of diastereomers with different configuration at the sulfur-bearing phosphorus atom. The diastereomers were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and their absolute configuration was determined after chemical degradation to the ADP[alpha S] diastereomers and chromatographic comparison with enzymically synthesized ADP[alpha S] diastereomers of known absolute configuration. Additional support for this assignment is based on different rates in the phosphodiesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis. Furthermore the synthesis of [14C]NAD[S] is described. The coenzyme activity of NAD[S] in the reaction with alcohol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast and lactate dehydrogenase from pig heart is very similar to that of beta-NAD. Also, NAD and NAD[S] serve equally well as substrates for NAD glycohydrolase from calf spleen. In contrast, no reaction was detected with NAD pyrophosphorylase, and hydrolysis of the separated NAD[S] diastereomers with snake venom phosphodiesterase showed a 26-fold and a 33-fold slower reaction rate than that of NAD. Nucleotide pyrophosphatase was less sensitive to the S substitution, hydrolyzing NAD[S] 14-times slower than NAD. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase from Ehrlich ascites tumor cell nuclei accepted NAD[S] as a substrate but the reaction was significantly slower and approached saturation at much lower values than with NAD. Alkaline hydrolysis of the products insoluble in trichloroacetic acid yielded AMP[S] as the main derivative. It is concluded that with NAD[S] as a substrate the nuclear acceptors were nearly exclusively mono(ADP-ribosyl) ated . PMID:6144544

  2. Vitamins and aging: pathways to NAD+ synthesis.

    PubMed

    Denu, John M

    2007-05-01

    Recent genetic evidence reveals additional salvage pathways for NAD(+) synthesis. In this issue, Belenky et al. (2007) report that nicotinamide riboside, a new NAD(+) precursor, regulates Sir2 deacetylase activity and life span in yeast. The ability of nicotinamide riboside to enhance life span does not depend on calorie restriction. PMID:17482537

  3. Virtual Screening to Identify Lead Inhibitors for Bacterial NAD Synthetase (NADs)

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Whitney Beysselance; Yang, Zhengrong; Kane, Tasha; Brouillette, Christie G.; Brouillette, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual screening was employed to identify new drug-like inhibitors of NAD synthetase (NADs) as antibacterial agents. Four databases of commercially available compounds were docked against three subsites of the NADs active site using FlexX in conjunction with CScore. Over 200 commercial compounds were purchased and evaluated in enzyme inhibition and antibacterial assays. 18 compounds inhibited NADs at or below 100 μM (7.6% hit rate), and two were selected for future SAR studies. PMID:19249205

  4. NAD

    PubMed Central

    Pétriacq, Pierre; de Bont, Linda; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Gakière, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Many metabolic processes that occur in living cells involve oxido-reduction (redox) chemistry underpinned by redox compounds such as glutathione, ascorbate and/or pyridine nucleotides. Among these redox carriers, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is the cornerstone of cellular oxidations along catabolism and is therefore essential for plant growth and development. In addition to its redox role, there is now compelling evidence that NAD is a signal molecule controlling crucial functions like primary and secondary carbon metabolism. Recent studies using integrative -omics approaches combined with molecular pathology have shown that manipulating NAD biosynthesis and recycling lead to an alteration of metabolites pools and developmental processes, and changes in the resistance to various pathogens. NAD levels should now be viewed as a potential target to improve tolerance to biotic stress and crop improvement. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the key role of NAD (and its metabolism) in plant responses to pathogen infections. PMID:23104110

  5. In vitro metabolic engineering for the salvage synthesis of NAD(.).

    PubMed

    Honda, Kohsuke; Hara, Naoya; Cheng, Maria; Nakamura, Anna; Mandai, Komako; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

    2016-05-01

    Excellent thermal and operational stabilities of thermophilic enzymes can greatly increase the applicability of biocatalysis in various industrial fields. However, thermophilic enzymes are generally incompatible with thermo-labile substrates, products, and cofactors, since they show the maximal activities at high temperatures. Despite their pivotal roles in a wide range of enzymatic redox reactions, NAD(P)(+) and NAD(P)H exhibit relatively low stabilities at high temperatures, tending to be a major obstacle in the long-term operation of biocatalytic chemical manufacturing with thermophilic enzymes. In this study, we constructed an in vitro artificial metabolic pathway for the salvage synthesis of NAD(+) from its degradation products by the combination of eight thermophilic enzymes. The enzymes were heterologously produced in recombinant Escherichia coli and the heat-treated crude extracts of the recombinant cells were directly used as enzyme solutions. When incubated with experimentally optimized concentrations of the enzymes at 60°C, the NAD(+) concentration could be kept almost constant for 15h. PMID:26912312

  6. SAR Studies for a New Class of Antibacterial NAD Biosynthesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Whitney Beysselance; Yang, Zhengrong; Kane, Tasha A.; Zhou, Qingxian; Harville, Steve; Brouillette, Christie G.; Brouillette, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    A new lead class of antibacterial drug-like NAD synthetase (NADs) inhibitors was previously identified from a virtual screening study. Here a solution-phase synthetic library of 76 compounds, analogs of the urea-sulfonamide 5838, was synthesized in parallel to explore SAR on the sulfonamide aryl group. All library members were tested for enzyme inhibition against NADs and nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NaMNAT), the last two enzymes in the biosynthesis of NAD, and for growth inhibition in a B. anthracis antibacterial assay. Most compounds that inhibited bacterial growth also showed inhibition against one of the enzymes tested. While only modest enhancements in the enzyme inhibition potency against NADs were observed, of significance was the observation that the antibacterial urea-sulfonamides more consistently inhibited NaMNAT. PMID:19408950

  7. Bioluminescent Cell-Based NAD(P)/NAD(P)H Assays for Rapid Dinucleotide Measurement and Inhibitor Screening

    PubMed Central

    Leippe, Donna; Sobol, Mary; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Cali, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The central role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in cellular energy metabolism and signaling makes them important nodes that link the metabolic state of cells with energy homeostasis and gene regulation. In this study, we describe the implementation of cell-based bioluminescence assays for rapid and sensitive measurement of those important redox cofactors. We show that the sensitivity of the assays (limit of detection ∼0.5 nM) enables the selective detection of total amounts of nonphosphorylated or phosphorylated dinucleotides directly in cell lysates. The total amount of NAD+NADH or NADP+NADPH levels can be detected in as low as 300 or 600 cells/well, respectively. The signal remains linear up to 5,000 cells/well with the maximum signal-to-background ratios ranging from 100 to 200 for NAD+NADH and from 50 to 100 for NADP+NADPH detection. The assays are robust (Z′ value >0.7) and the inhibitor response curves generated using a known NAD biosynthetic pathway inhibitor FK866 correlate well with the reported data. More importantly, by multiplexing the dinucleotide detection assays with a fluorescent nonmetabolic cell viability assay, we show that dinucleotide levels can be decreased dramatically (>80%) by FK866 treatment before changes in cell viability are detected. The utility of the assays to identify modulators of intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels was further confirmed using an oncology active compound library, where novel dinucleotide regulating compounds were identified. For example, the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat was a potent inhibitor of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides, whereas the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene unexpectedly caused a twofold increase in cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels. PMID:25506801

  8. Increasing NAD Synthesis in Muscle via Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Is Not Sufficient to Promote Oxidative Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, David W.; Davis, James G.; Dávila, Antonio; Agarwal, Beamon; Michan, Shaday; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Baur, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The NAD biosynthetic precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside are reported to confer resistance to metabolic defects induced by high fat feeding in part by promoting oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Similar effects are obtained by germ line deletion of major NAD-consuming enzymes, suggesting that the bioavailability of NAD is limiting for maximal oxidative capacity. However, because of their systemic nature, the degree to which these interventions exert cell- or tissue-autonomous effects is unclear. Here, we report a tissue-specific approach to increase NAD biosynthesis only in muscle by overexpressing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that converts nicotinamide to NAD (mNAMPT mice). These mice display a ∼50% increase in skeletal muscle NAD levels, comparable with the effects of dietary NAD precursors, exercise regimens, or loss of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases yet surprisingly do not exhibit changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial function and are equally susceptible to the metabolic consequences of high fat feeding. We further report that chronic elevation of muscle NAD in vivo does not perturb the NAD/NADH redox ratio. These studies reveal for the first time the metabolic effects of tissue-specific increases in NAD synthesis and suggest that critical sites of action for supplemental NAD precursors reside outside of the heart and skeletal muscle. PMID:25411251

  9. Increasing NAD synthesis in muscle via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase is not sufficient to promote oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David W; Davis, James G; Dávila, Antonio; Agarwal, Beamon; Michan, Shaday; Puchowicz, Michelle A; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Baur, Joseph A

    2015-01-16

    The NAD biosynthetic precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside are reported to confer resistance to metabolic defects induced by high fat feeding in part by promoting oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Similar effects are obtained by germ line deletion of major NAD-consuming enzymes, suggesting that the bioavailability of NAD is limiting for maximal oxidative capacity. However, because of their systemic nature, the degree to which these interventions exert cell- or tissue-autonomous effects is unclear. Here, we report a tissue-specific approach to increase NAD biosynthesis only in muscle by overexpressing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that converts nicotinamide to NAD (mNAMPT mice). These mice display a ∼50% increase in skeletal muscle NAD levels, comparable with the effects of dietary NAD precursors, exercise regimens, or loss of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases yet surprisingly do not exhibit changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial function and are equally susceptible to the metabolic consequences of high fat feeding. We further report that chronic elevation of muscle NAD in vivo does not perturb the NAD/NADH redox ratio. These studies reveal for the first time the metabolic effects of tissue-specific increases in NAD synthesis and suggest that critical sites of action for supplemental NAD precursors reside outside of the heart and skeletal muscle. PMID:25411251

  10. Flavonoid apigenin is an inhibitor of the NAD+ ase CD38: implications for cellular NAD+ metabolism, protein acetylation, and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Escande, Carlos; Nin, Veronica; Price, Nathan L; Capellini, Verena; Gomes, Ana P; Barbosa, Maria Thereza; O'Neil, Luke; White, Thomas A; Sinclair, David A; Chini, Eduardo N

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a growing health problem worldwide. It is therefore imperative to develop new strategies to treat this pathology. In the past years, the manipulation of NAD(+) metabolism has emerged as a plausible strategy to ameliorate metabolic syndrome. In particular, an increase in cellular NAD(+) levels has beneficial effects, likely because of the activation of sirtuins. Previously, we reported that CD38 is the primary NAD(+)ase in mammals. Moreover, CD38 knockout mice have higher NAD(+) levels and are protected against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Here, we show that CD38 regulates global protein acetylation through changes in NAD(+) levels and sirtuin activity. In addition, we characterize two CD38 inhibitors: quercetin and apigenin. We show that pharmacological inhibition of CD38 results in higher intracellular NAD(+) levels and that treatment of cell cultures with apigenin decreases global acetylation as well as the acetylation of p53 and RelA-p65. Finally, apigenin administration to obese mice increases NAD(+) levels, decreases global protein acetylation, and improves several aspects of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Our results show that CD38 is a novel pharmacological target to treat metabolic diseases via NAD(+)-dependent pathways. PMID:23172919

  11. Benzoylurea Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ranfeng; Liu, Chunjuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-08-12

    Benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs due to their low toxicity to mammals and predatory insects. In the past decades, a large number of benzoylurea derivatives have been synthesized, and 15 benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors have been commercialized. This review focuses on the history of commercial benzolyphenylureas (BPUs), synthetic methods, structure-activity relationships (SAR), action mechanism research, environmental behaviors, and ecotoxicology. Furthermore, their disadvantages of high risk to aquatic invertebrates and crustaceans are pointed out. Finally, we propose that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs. PMID:26168369

  12. NAMPT-Mediated Salvage Synthesis of NAD+ Controls Morphofunctional Changes of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Gerda; Oerlemans, Frank T. J. J.; Willemse, Marieke; Wijers, Mietske; Fransen, Jack A. M.; Wieringa, Bé

    2014-01-01

    Functional morphodynamic behavior of differentiated macrophages is strongly controlled by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, a process in which also metabolic cofactors ATP and NAD(H) (i.e. NAD+ and NADH) and NADP(H) (i.e. NADP+ and NADPH) play an essential role. Whereas the link to intracellular ATP availability has been studied extensively, much less is known about the relationship between actin cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular redox state and NAD+-supply. Here, we focus on the role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), found in extracellular form as a cytokine and growth factor, and in intracellular form as one of the key enzymes for the production of NAD+ in macrophages. Inhibition of NAD+ salvage synthesis by the NAMPT-specific drug FK866 caused a decrease in cytosolic NAD+ levels in RAW 264.7 and Maf-DKO macrophages and led to significant downregulation of the glycolytic flux without directly affecting cell viability, proliferation, ATP production capacity or mitochondrial respiratory activity. Concomitant with these differential metabolic changes, the capacity for phagocytic ingestion of particles and also substrate adhesion of macrophages were altered. Depletion of cytoplasmic NAD+ induced cell-morphological changes and impaired early adhesion in phagocytosis of zymosan particles as well as spreading performance. Restoration of NAD+ levels by NAD+, NMN, or NADP+ supplementation reversed the inhibitory effects of FK866. We conclude that direct coupling to local, actin-based, cytoskeletal dynamics is an important aspect of NAD+’s cytosolic role in the regulation of morphofunctional characteristics of macrophages. PMID:24824795

  13. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  14. N-arylazido-. beta. -alanyl-NAD sup + , a new NAD sup + photoaffinity analogue. Synthesis and labeling of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, P.S.K.; Chen, S. ); Hatefi, Y. )

    1990-01-30

    N-Arylaziod-{beta}-alanyl-NAD{sup +}(N3{prime}-0-(3-(N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino)propionyl)NAD{sup +}) has been prepared by alkaline phosphatase treatment of arylaziod-{beta}-alanyl-NADP{sup +} (N3{prime}-O-(3-(N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino)propionyl)NADP{sup +}). This NAD{sup +} analogue was found to be a potent competitive inhibitor with respect to NADH for the purified bovine heart mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase. The enzyme was irreversibly inhibited as well as covalently labeled by this analogue upon photoirradiation. A stoichiometry of 1.15 mol of N-arylazido-{beta}-alanyl-NAD{sup +} bound/mol of enzyme, at 100% inactivation, was determined from incorporation studies using tritium-labeled analogue. Among the three subunits, 0.85 mol of the analogue was bound to the M{sub r} = 51,000 subunit, and each of the two smaller subunits contained 0.15 mol of the analogue when the dehydrogenase was completely inhibited upon photolysis. Both the irreversible inactivation and the covalent incorporation could be prevented by the presence of NADH during photolysis. These results indicate that N-arylaziod-{beta}-alanyl-NAD{sup +} is an active-site-directed photoaffinity label for the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase, and are further evidence that the M{sub r} = 51,000 subunit contain the NADH binding site. Results are also presented to show that N-arylazido-{beta}-alanyl-NAD{sup +} binds the dehydrogenase in a more effective manner than A-arylazido-{beta}-alanyl-NAD{sup +}.

  15. Synthesis of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chunngai; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and non-histone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery. PMID:26258118

  16. [The synthesis of specific enzyme inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, G M

    1987-04-01

    The review deals with directed synthesis of specific enzyme inhibitors. They are classified within the framework of the mechanistic approach, namely, stable analogues of substrates, which form enzyme complexes mimicking the Michaelis complex or those which influence the chemical stages of enzyme catalysis; conformational inhibitors; substrate analogues participating in enzyme reactions and producing modified products; suicide inhibitors; stage inhibitors (inhibitors influencing certain stages of enzyme reaction); transition state analogues; multisubstrate analogues and collected substrates. Types of chemical modification used in synthesis of the specific inhibitors are discussed. Some possibilities of the quantity structure-activity relationship methods, computer modelling and molecular graphics in designing the optimal structure of inhibitors are mentioned. PMID:3300658

  17. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and Biological Characterization of Human NAD+-dependent 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Duveau, Damien Y.; Yasgar, Adam; Wang, Yuhong; Hu, Xin; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Thomas, Craig J.; Maloney, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of two chemotypes identified as inhibitors of the human NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD, 15-PGDH) was conducted. Top compounds from both series displayed potent inhibition (IC50 <50 nM), demonstrate excellent selectivity towards HPGD and potently induce PGE2 production in A549 lung cancer and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. PMID:24360556

  18. A [32P]-NAD+-based method to identify and quantitate long residence time enoyl-ACP reductase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weixuan; Neckles, Carla; Chang, Andrew; Bommineni, Gopal Reddy; Spagnuolo, Lauren; Zhang, Zhuo; Liu, Nina; Lai, Christina; Truglio, James; Tonge, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The classical methods for quantifying drug-target residence time (tR) use loss or regain of enzyme activity in progress curve kinetic assays. However, such methods become imprecise at very long residence times, mitigating the use of alternative strategies. Using the NAD(P)H-dependent FabI enoyl-ACP reductase as a model system, we developed a Penefsky column-based method for direct measurement of tR, where the off-rate of the drug was determined with radiolabeled [adenylate-32P] NAD(P+) cofactor. Twenty-three FabI inhibitors were analyzed and a mathematical model was used to estimate limits to the tR values of each inhibitor based on percent drug-target complex recovery following gel filtration. In general, this method showed good agreement with the classical steady state kinetic methods for compounds with tR values of 10-100 min. In addition, we were able to identify seven long tR inhibitors (100-1500 min) and to accurately determine their tR values. The method was then used to measure tR as a function of temperature, an analysis not previously possible using the standard kinetic approach due to decreased NAD(P)H stability at elevated temperatures. In general, a 4-fold difference in tR was observed when the temperature was increased from 25 °C to 37 °C . PMID:25684450

  19. A Nampt inhibitor FK866 mimics vitamin B3 deficiency by causing senescence of human fibroblastic Hs68 cells via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Tuzz-Ying; Yeh, Shu-Lan; Hu, Miao-Lin; Chen, Mei-Yau; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can cause pellagra with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. However, it is unclear whether the vitamin B3 deficiency causes human aging. FK866 (a Nampt inhibitor) can reduce intracellular NAD(+) level and induce senescence of human Hs68 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells are unclear. In this study, we used FK866 to mimic the effects of vitamin B3 deficiency to reduce the NAD(+) level and investigated the mechanisms of FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells. We hypothesized that FK866 induced the senescence of Hs68 cells via an attenuation of NAD(+)-silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) signaling. We found that FK866 induced cell senescence and diminished cellular NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity (detected by acetylation of p53), and these effects were dramatically antagonized by co-treatment with nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, or NAD(+). In contrast, the protein expression of SIRT1, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) was not affected by FK866. In addition, the role of GSH in the FK866-induced cells senescence may be limited, as N-acetylcysteine did not antagonize FK866-induced cell senescence. These results suggest that FK866 induces cell senescence via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling. The effects of vitamin B3 deficiency on human aging warrant further investigation. PMID:26330291

  20. The Small Molecule GMX1778 Is a Potent Inhibitor of NAD+ Biosynthesis: Strategy for Enhanced Therapy in Nicotinic Acid Phosphoribosyltransferase 1-Deficient Tumors▿

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Mark; Roulston, Anne; Bélec, Laurent; Billot, Xavier; Marcellus, Richard; Bédard, Dominique; Bernier, Cynthia; Branchaud, Stéphane; Chan, Helen; Dairi, Kenza; Gilbert, Karine; Goulet, Daniel; Gratton, Michel-Olivier; Isakau, Henady; Jang, Anne; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Koch, Elizabeth; Lavoie, Manon; Lawless, Michael; Nguyen, Mai; Paquette, Denis; Turcotte, Émilie; Berger, Alvin; Mitchell, Matthew; Shore, Gordon C.; Beauparlant, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    GMX1777 is a prodrug of the small molecule GMX1778, currently in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. We describe findings indicating that GMX1778 is a potent and specific inhibitor of the NAD+ biosynthesis enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). Cancer cells have a very high rate of NAD+ turnover, which makes NAD+ modulation an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Selective inhibition by GMX1778 of NAMPT blocks the production of NAD+ and results in tumor cell death. Furthermore, GMX1778 is phosphoribosylated by NAMPT, which increases its cellular retention. The cytotoxicity of GMX1778 can be bypassed with exogenous nicotinic acid (NA), which permits NAD+ repletion via NA phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (NAPRT1). The cytotoxicity of GMX1778 in cells with NAPRT1 deficiency, however, cannot be rescued by NA. Analyses of NAPRT1 mRNA and protein levels in cell lines and primary tumor tissue indicate that high frequencies of glioblastomas, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas are deficient in NAPRT1 and not susceptible to rescue with NA. As a result, the therapeutic index of GMX1777 can be widended in the treatment animals bearing NAPRT1-deficient tumors by coadministration with NA. This provides the rationale for a novel therapeutic approach for the use of GMX1777 in the treatment of human cancers. PMID:19703994

  1. Chlorolissoclimides: New inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Francis; Gao, Hong Qing; Donia, Marwa; Merrick, William C.; Hamann, Mark T.; Pelletier, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Lissoclimides are cytotoxic compounds produced by shell-less molluscs through chemical secretions to deter predators. Chlorinated lissoclimides were identified as the active component of a marine extract from Pleurobranchus forskalii found during a high-throughput screening campaign to characterize new protein synthesis inhibitors. It was demonstrated that these compounds inhibit protein synthesis in vitro, in extracts prepared from mammalian and plant cells, as well as in vivo against mammalian cells. Our results suggest that they block translation elongation by inhibiting translocation, leading to an accumulation of ribosomes on mRNA. These data provide a rationale for the cytotoxic nature of this class of small molecule natural products. PMID:16540697

  2. ES936 stimulates DNA synthesis in HeLa cells independently on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibition, through a mechanism involving p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    González-Aragón, David; Alcaín, Francisco J; Ariza, Julia; Jódar, Laura; Barbarroja, Nuria; López-Pedrera, Chary; Villalba, José M

    2010-07-30

    The indolequinone ES936 (5-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-3-[(4-nitrophenol)methyl]-indole-4,7-dione) is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Here, we report that ES936 significantly stimulated thymidine incorporation in sparse cultures of human adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, but was without effect in dense cultures. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was not related with a DNA repair response because an increase in thymidine incorporation was not observed in cells treated with 2,5 bis-[1-aziridyl]-1,4 benzoquinone, a well-established antitumor quinone that causes DNA damage. Conversely, it was related with an increase of cell growth. NQO1 inhibition was not involved in ES936 stimulation of DNA synthesis, because the same response was observed in cells where NQO1 expression had been knocked down by small interfering RNA. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was reverted by treatment with ambroxol, a SOD mimetic, and by pyruvate, an efficient peroxide scavenger, supporting the involvement of alterations in cellular redox state. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 with either SB203580 or PD169316 completely abolished ES936-stimulated DNA synthesis, indicating the requirement of p38 activity. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of an ES936-sensitive system which is separate from NQO1, modulating the redox state and cell growth in HeLa cells through a p38-dependent mechanism. Our results show that the effect ES936 exerts on DNA synthesis may be either positive or negative depending on the cellular context and growth conditions. PMID:20433816

  3. Design, synthesis and biological characterization of novel inhibitors of CD38

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Si, Yuan-Qi; Sun, Shuang-Yong; Pu, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Zhang, Liang-Ren; Zhang, Li-He; Leung, Fung Ping; Lam, Connie Mo Ching.; Kwong, Anna Ka Yee; Yue, Jianbo; Zhou, Yeyun; Kriksunov, Irina A.; Hao, Quan; Lee, Hon Cheung

    2012-01-01

    Human CD38 is a novel multi-functional protein that acts not only as an antigen for B-lymphocyte activation, but also an enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of a Ca2+ messenger molecule, cyclic ADP-ribose, from NAD+. It is well established that this novel Ca2+ signaling enzyme is responsible for regulating a wide range of physiological functions. Based on the crystal structure of the CD38/NAD+ complex, we synthesized a series of simplified N-substituted nicotinamide derivatives (Compound 1–14). A number of these compounds exhibited moderate inhibition of the NAD+ utilizing activity of CD38, with Compound 4 showing the higher potency. The crystal structure of CD38/ Compound 4 complex and computer simulation of Compound 7 docking to CD38 show a significant role of the nicotinamide moiety and the distal aromatic group of the compounds for substrate recognition by the active site of CD38. Biologically, we showed that both Compounds 4 and 7 effectively relaxed the agonist-induced contraction of muscle preparations form rats and guinea pigs. This study is a rational design of inhibitors for CD38 that exhibit important physiological effects, and can serve as a model for future drug development. PMID:21431168

  4. Inhibition of de novo NAD(+) synthesis by oncogenic URI causes liver tumorigenesis through DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tummala, Krishna S; Gomes, Ana L; Yilmaz, Mahmut; Graña, Osvaldo; Bakiri, Latifa; Ruppen, Isabel; Ximénez-Embún, Pilar; Sheshappanavar, Vinayata; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Pisano, David G; Wagner, Erwin F; Djouder, Nabil

    2014-12-01

    Molecular mechanisms responsible for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. Using genetically engineered mouse models, we show that hepatocyte-specific expression of unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor (URI) leads to a multistep process of HCC development, whereas its genetic reduction in hepatocytes protects against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. URI inhibits aryl hydrocarbon (AhR)- and estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated transcription of enzymes implicated in L-tryptophan/kynurenine/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) metabolism, thereby causing DNA damage at early stages of tumorigenesis. Restoring NAD(+) pools with nicotinamide riboside (NR) prevents DNA damage and tumor formation. Consistently, URI expression in human HCC is associated with poor survival and correlates negatively with L-tryptophan catabolism pathway. Our results suggest that boosting NAD(+) can be prophylactic or therapeutic in HCC. PMID:25453901

  5. [Enzymes related with NAD synthesis promote conversion of 1,4-butanediol to 4-hydroxybutyrate].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Guoqiang

    2011-12-01

    Besides medical application, 4-hydroxybutyrate (4-HB) is a precursor of P3HB4HB, a bioplastic showing excellent physical properties and degradability. Escherichia coli S17-1 (pZL-dhaT-aldD) can transform 1, 4-butanediol (1,4-BD) into 4HB with participation of cofactor NAD. To enhance productivity, nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (PncB) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase (NadE) were overexpressed to increase intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentration and promote reaction process. The shake flask fermentation result showed that the conversion rate increased by 13.03% with help of PncB-NadE, leading to 4.87 g/L 4HB from 10 g/L 1,4-BD, and productivity was increased by 40.91% to 1.86 g/g. These results demonstrated that expression of PncB and NadE is beneficial for conversion of 1,4-BD to 4HB. PMID:22506415

  6. Protein synthesis inhibitor from potato tuber

    SciTech Connect

    Romaen, R. )

    1989-04-01

    A protein fraction capable of inhibit in vitro protein synthesis was found in potato tubers in fresh and wounded tissue. Inhibitor activity from fresh tissue decays with wounding. Inhibition activity was detected absorbed to ribsomal fraction and cytosol of potato tuber tissue by a partially reconstituted in vitro system from potato tuber and wheat germ. Adsorbed ribosomal fraction was more suitable of purification. This fraction was washed from ribosomes with 0.3M KCl, concentrated with ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified through sephadex G100 and sephadex G-75 columns chromatography. After 61 fold purification adsorbed protein fraction can inhibit germination of maize, wheat and sesame seeds, as well as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into protein by imbibed maize embryos. Inhibition activity was lost by temperature, alkali and protease-K hydrolysis. Preliminar analysis could not show presence of reductor sugars. Physiological role of this inhibitor in relation to rest and active tissue remains to be studied.

  7. Tools for Characterizing Bacterial Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Orelle, Cédric; Carlson, Skylar; Kaushal, Bindiya; Almutairi, Mashal M.; Liu, Haipeng; Ochabowicz, Anna; Quan, Selwyn; Pham, Van Cuong; Squires, Catherine L.; Murphy, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Many antibiotics inhibit the growth of sensitive bacteria by interfering with ribosome function. However, discovery of new protein synthesis inhibitors is curbed by the lack of facile techniques capable of readily identifying antibiotic target sites and modes of action. Furthermore, the frequent rediscovery of known antibiotic scaffolds, especially in natural product extracts, is time-consuming and expensive and diverts resources that could be used toward the isolation of novel lead molecules. In order to avoid these pitfalls and improve the process of dereplication of chemically complex extracts, we designed a two-pronged approach for the characterization of inhibitors of protein synthesis (ChIPS) that is suitable for the rapid identification of the site and mode of action on the bacterial ribosome. First, we engineered antibiotic-hypersensitive Escherichia coli strains that contain only one rRNA operon. These strains are used for the rapid isolation of resistance mutants in which rRNA mutations identify the site of the antibiotic action. Second, we show that patterns of drug-induced ribosome stalling on mRNA, monitored by primer extension, can be used to elucidate the mode of antibiotic action. These analyses can be performed within a few days and provide a rapid and efficient approach for identifying the site and mode of action of translation inhibitors targeting the bacterial ribosome. Both techniques were validated using a bacterial strain whose culture extract, composed of unknown metabolites, exhibited protein synthesis inhibitory activity; we were able to rapidly detect the presence of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. PMID:24041905

  8. Hydroperoxidic inhibitor of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity, tightly bound to the enzyme-NAD+ complex, characteristically degrades the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Skurský, L; Rezác, M; Khan, A N; Zídek, L; Rocek, J

    1992-01-01

    The strong inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLAD) by p-methylbenzyl hydroperoxide (XyHP) is only transient, XyHP behaves also as a pseudo-substrate of the enzyme and in the presence of NAD+, is degraded by HLAD to (as yet unidentified) non-inhibiting products while the NAD+ is converted to a derivative similar to the "NADX", originally observed in an analogous reaction of HLAD with hydrogen peroxide. The apparent KM for XyHP is approximately 10(4) times smaller than that for H2O2. The catalytic constant kcat for HLAD degradation of XyHP is two orders of magnitude less than that for ethanol dehydrogenation. XyHP inhibits both directions of the alcohol-aldehyde interconversion with equal potency. The first step of the inhibition mechanism is a tight binding of XyHP to the binary HLAD-NAD+ complex. PMID:1284958

  9. Drosophila NMNAT Maintains Neural Integrity Independent of Its NAD Synthesis Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, R. Grace; Cao, Yu; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Zhou, Yi; Mehta, Sunil Q; Schulze, Karen L; Verstreken, Patrik; Bellen, Hugo J

    2006-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration refers to a loss of the distal part of an axon after nerve injury. Wallerian degeneration slow (Wlds) mice overexpress a chimeric protein containing the NAD synthase NMNAT (nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1) and exhibit a delay in axonal degeneration. Currently, conflicting evidence raises questions as to whether NMNAT is the protecting factor and whether its enzymatic activity is required for such a possible function. Importantly, the link between nmnat and axon degeneration is at present solely based on overexpression studies of enzymatically active protein. Here we use the visual system of Drosophila as a model system to address these issues. We have isolated the first nmnat mutations in a multicellular organism in a forward genetic screen for synapse malfunction in Drosophila. Loss of nmnat causes a rapid and severe neurodegeneration that can be attenuated by blocking neuronal activity. Furthermore, in vivo neuronal expression of mutated nmnat shows that enzymatically inactive NMNAT protein retains strong neuroprotective effects and rescues the degeneration phenotype caused by loss of nmnat. Our data indicate an NAD-independent requirement of NMNAT for maintaining neuronal integrity that can be exploited to protect neurons from neuronal activity-induced degeneration by overexpression of the protein. PMID:17132048

  10. EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS AND INHIBITORS ON M PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Thomas D.

    1963-01-01

    Brock, Thomas D. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio). Effect of antibiotics and inhibitors on M protein synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 85:527–531. 1963.—This work extends the observations of Fox and Krampitz on M protein synthesis in nongrowing cells of streptococci. A survey of a large number of antibiotics and other potential inhibitors was made. Some substances bring about inhibition of fermentation and inhibit M protein synthesis because they deprive the cell of the energy needed for this process. A second group of substances inhibit growth at concentrations tenfold or more lower than they inhibit M protein synthesis. These are the antibiotics which inhibit synthesis of cell wall or other structures in growing cells, but do not affect protein synthesis. A third group of substances inhibit growth and M protein synthesis at the same concentration. These substances probably inhibit growth because they inhibit general protein synthesis, and are therefore specific inhibitors of protein synthesis. In this class are chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and the tetracyclines. Several other antibiotics of previously unknown mode of action are in this class. A fourth group of substances had no effect on M protein synthesis. No substances were found which inhibited M protein synthesis at a lower concentration than that which inhibited growth. M protein synthesis in nongrowing cells may be a useful model system for obtaining a detailed understanding of protein synthesis. PMID:14042928

  11. Inhibition of the intrinsic NAD+ glycohydrolase activity of CD38 by carbocyclic NAD analogues.

    PubMed

    Wall, K A; Klis, M; Kornet, J; Coyle, D; Amé, J C; Jacobson, M K; Slama, J T

    1998-11-01

    Carba-NAD and pseudocarba-NAD are carbocyclic analogues of NAD+ in which a 2,3-dihydroxycyclopentane methanol replaces the beta-d-ribonucleotide ring of the nicotinamide riboside moiety of NAD+ [Slama and Simmons (1988) Biochemistry 27, 183-193]. These carbocyclic NAD+ analogues, related to each other as diastereomers, have been tested as inhibitors of the intrinsic NAD+ glycohydrolase activity of human CD38, dog spleen NAD+ glycohydrolase, mouse CD38 and Aplysia californica cADP-ribose synthetase. Pseudocarba-NAD, the carbocyclic dinucleotide in which l-2,3-dihydroxycyclopentane methanol replaces the d-ribose of the nicotinamide riboside moiety of NAD+, was found to be the more potent inhibitor. Pseudocarba-NAD was shown to inhibit the intrinsic NAD+ glycohydrolase activity of human CD38 competitively, with Ki=148 microM determined for the recombinant extracellular protein domain and Ki=180 microM determined for the native protein expressed as a cell-surface enzyme on cultured Jurkat cells. Pseudocarba-NAD was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of the purified dog spleen NAD+ glycohydrolase, with Kis=47 miroM and Kii=198 microM. Neither pseudocarba-NAD nor carba-NAD inhibited mouse CD38 or Aplysia californica cADP-ribose synthetase significantly at concentrations up to 1 mM. The results underscore significant species differences in the sensitivity of these enzymes to inhibition, and indicate that pseudocarba-NAD will be useful as an inhibitor of the enzymic activity of human but not mouse CD38 in studies using cultured cells. PMID:9794804

  12. Inhibition of the intrinsic NAD+ glycohydrolase activity of CD38 by carbocyclic NAD analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, K A; Klis, M; Kornet, J; Coyle, D; Amé, J C; Jacobson, M K; Slama, J T

    1998-01-01

    Carba-NAD and pseudocarba-NAD are carbocyclic analogues of NAD+ in which a 2,3-dihydroxycyclopentane methanol replaces the beta-d-ribonucleotide ring of the nicotinamide riboside moiety of NAD+ [Slama and Simmons (1988) Biochemistry 27, 183-193]. These carbocyclic NAD+ analogues, related to each other as diastereomers, have been tested as inhibitors of the intrinsic NAD+ glycohydrolase activity of human CD38, dog spleen NAD+ glycohydrolase, mouse CD38 and Aplysia californica cADP-ribose synthetase. Pseudocarba-NAD, the carbocyclic dinucleotide in which l-2,3-dihydroxycyclopentane methanol replaces the d-ribose of the nicotinamide riboside moiety of NAD+, was found to be the more potent inhibitor. Pseudocarba-NAD was shown to inhibit the intrinsic NAD+ glycohydrolase activity of human CD38 competitively, with Ki=148 microM determined for the recombinant extracellular protein domain and Ki=180 microM determined for the native protein expressed as a cell-surface enzyme on cultured Jurkat cells. Pseudocarba-NAD was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of the purified dog spleen NAD+ glycohydrolase, with Kis=47 miroM and Kii=198 microM. Neither pseudocarba-NAD nor carba-NAD inhibited mouse CD38 or Aplysia californica cADP-ribose synthetase significantly at concentrations up to 1 mM. The results underscore significant species differences in the sensitivity of these enzymes to inhibition, and indicate that pseudocarba-NAD will be useful as an inhibitor of the enzymic activity of human but not mouse CD38 in studies using cultured cells. PMID:9794804

  13. NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Shuya; Arakawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Ayaka; Shigeeda, Wataru; Yasuhira, Shinji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Akasaka, Toshihide; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression. PMID:27045471

  14. NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Shuya; Arakawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Ayaka; Shigeeda, Wataru; Yasuhira, Shinji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Akasaka, Toshihide; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression. PMID:27045471

  15. Synthesis of new sulfonamides as lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Islam Ullah; Ashraf, Muhammad; Afzal, Iftikhar; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Shafiq, Muhammad

    2012-04-15

    The present study describes a convenient method for the synthesis of new lipoxygenase inhibitors, 4-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino)-benzoic acids from p-amino benzoic acid. Reaction of p-amino benzoic acid with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride provided thirteen N- and O-alkylation products 4a-4m in moderate to good yields. Lipoxygenase inhibition of newly formed sulfonamide derivatives was investigated and some of these compounds 4m, 4g, 4e, 4f and 4j showed good lipoxygenase inhibitory activities with IC(50) values ranged between 15.8 ± 0.57 and 91.7 ± 0.61 μmol whilst all other compounds exhibited mild anti-lipoxygenase activities with IC(50) values ranged between 139.2 ± 0.75 and 232.1 ± 0.78 μmol. N-alkylated products were more active against the enzyme than O-alkylated or both N- and O-alkylated ones. All synthesized sulfonamides were recrystallized in chloroform to give these title compounds which were characterized using FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. PMID:22436389

  16. Complexes of Bacterial Nicotinate Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase with Inhibitors: Implication for Structure-Based Drug Design and Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Nian; Kolhatkar, Rohit; Eyobo, Yvonne; Sorci, Leonardo; Rodionova, Irina; Osterman, Andrei L.; MacKerell, Jr., Alexander D.; Zhang, Hong

    2010-12-07

    Bacterial nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase encoded by the essential gene nadD plays a central role in the synthesis of the redox cofactor NAD{sup +}. The NadD enzyme is conserved in the majority of bacterial species and has been recognized as a novel target for developing new and potentially broad-spectrum antibacterial therapeutics. Here we report the crystal structures of Bacillus anthracis NadD in complex with three NadD inhibitors, including two analogues synthesized in the present study. These structures revealed a common binding site shared by different classes of NadD inhibitors and explored the chemical environment surrounding this site. The structural data obtained here also showed that the subtle changes in ligand structure can lead to significant changes in the binding mode, information that will be useful for future structure-based optimization and design of high affinity inhibitors.

  17. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Coudray, Laëtitia; Pennebaker, Anne F.; Montchamp, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of novel inhibitors of aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) are reported. Several submicromolar phosphorus-containing inhibitors are described, but all-carboxylate compounds are inactive. Compounds were synthesized to probe the postulated cyclic transition-state of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. In addition, the associated role of the protonation state at the phosphorus acid moiety was evaluated using phosphinic and carboxylic acids. Although none of the synthesized inhibitors is more potent than N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA), the compounds provide useful mechanistic information, as well as the basis for the design of future inhibitors and/or prodrugs. PMID:19828320

  18. Microbial NAD metabolism: lessons from comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Gazzaniga, Francesca; Stebbins, Rebecca; Chang, Sheila Z; McPeek, Mark A; Brenner, Charles

    2009-09-01

    NAD is a coenzyme for redox reactions and a substrate of NAD-consuming enzymes, including ADP-ribose transferases, Sir2-related protein lysine deacetylases, and bacterial DNA ligases. Microorganisms that synthesize NAD from as few as one to as many as five of the six identified biosynthetic precursors have been identified. De novo NAD synthesis from aspartate or tryptophan is neither universal nor strictly aerobic. Salvage NAD synthesis from nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside, and nicotinic acid riboside occurs via modules of different genes. Nicotinamide salvage genes nadV and pncA, found in distinct bacteria, appear to have spread throughout the tree of life via horizontal gene transfer. Biochemical, genetic, and genomic analyses have advanced to the point at which the precursors and pathways utilized by a microorganism can be predicted. Challenges remain in dissecting regulation of pathways. PMID:19721089

  19. SimC7 Is a Novel NAD(P)H-Dependent Ketoreductase Essential for the Antibiotic Activity of the DNA Gyrase Inhibitor Simocyclinone.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Martin; Le, Tung B K; Hearnshaw, Stephen J; Maxwell, Anthony; Challis, Gregory L; Wilkinson, Barrie; Buttner, Mark J

    2015-06-19

    Simocyclinone D8 (SD8) is a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor produced by Streptomyces antibioticus Tü6040. The simocyclinone (sim) biosynthetic gene cluster has been sequenced and a hypothetical biosynthetic pathway has been proposed. The tetraene linker in SD8 was suggested to be the product of a modular type I polyketide synthase working in trans with two monofunctional enzymes. One of these monofunctional enzymes, SimC7, was proposed to supply a dehydratase activity missing from two modules of the polyketide synthase. In this study, we report the function of SimC7. We isolated the entire ~72-kb sim cluster on a single phage artificial chromosome clone and produced simocyclinone heterologously in a Streptomyces coelicolor strain engineered for improved antibiotic production. Deletion of simC7 resulted in the production of a novel simocyclinone, 7-oxo-SD8, which unexpectedly carried a normal tetraene linker but was altered in the angucyclinone moiety. We demonstrate that SimC7 is an NAD(P)H-dependent ketoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 7-oxo-SD8 into SD8. 7-oxo-SD8 was essentially inactive as a DNA gyrase inhibitor, and the reduction of the keto group by SimC7 was shown to be crucial for high-affinity binding to the enzyme. Thus, SimC7 is an angucyclinone ketoreductase that is essential for the biological activity of simocyclinone. PMID:25861759

  20. SimC7 Is a Novel NAD(P)H-Dependent Ketoreductase Essential for the Antibiotic Activity of the DNA Gyrase Inhibitor Simocyclinone

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Martin; Le, Tung B.K.; Hearnshaw, Stephen J.; Maxwell, Anthony; Challis, Gregory L.; Wilkinson, Barrie; Buttner, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Simocyclinone D8 (SD8) is a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor produced by Streptomyces antibioticus Tü6040. The simocyclinone (sim) biosynthetic gene cluster has been sequenced and a hypothetical biosynthetic pathway has been proposed. The tetraene linker in SD8 was suggested to be the product of a modular type I polyketide synthase working in trans with two monofunctional enzymes. One of these monofunctional enzymes, SimC7, was proposed to supply a dehydratase activity missing from two modules of the polyketide synthase. In this study, we report the function of SimC7. We isolated the entire ~ 72-kb sim cluster on a single phage artificial chromosome clone and produced simocyclinone heterologously in a Streptomyces coelicolor strain engineered for improved antibiotic production. Deletion of simC7 resulted in the production of a novel simocyclinone, 7-oxo-SD8, which unexpectedly carried a normal tetraene linker but was altered in the angucyclinone moiety. We demonstrate that SimC7 is an NAD(P)H-dependent ketoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 7-oxo-SD8 into SD8. 7-oxo-SD8 was essentially inactive as a DNA gyrase inhibitor, and the reduction of the keto group by SimC7 was shown to be crucial for high-affinity binding to the enzyme. Thus, SimC7 is an angucyclinone ketoreductase that is essential for the biological activity of simocyclinone. PMID:25861759

  1. High-Affinity Inhibitors of Human NAD+-Dependent 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase: Mechanisms of Inhibition and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Niesen, Frank H.; Schultz, Lena; Jadhav, Ajit; Bhatia, Chitra; Guo, Kunde; Maloney, David J.; Pilka, Ewa S.; Wang, Minghua; Oppermann, Udo; Heightman, Tom D.; Simeonov, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Background 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH, EC 1.1.1.141) is the key enzyme for the inactivation of prostaglandins, regulating processes such as inflammation or proliferation. The anabolic pathways of prostaglandins, especially with respect to regulation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes have been studied in detail; however, little is known about downstream events including functional interaction of prostaglandin-processing and -metabolizing enzymes. High-affinity probes for 15-PGDH will, therefore, represent important tools for further studies. Principal Findings To identify novel high-affinity inhibitors of 15-PGDH we performed a quantitative high-throughput screen (qHTS) by testing >160 thousand compounds in a concentration-response format and identified compounds that act as noncompetitive inhibitors as well as a competitive inhibitor, with nanomolar affinity. Both types of inhibitors caused strong thermal stabilization of the enzyme, with cofactor dependencies correlating with their mechanism of action. We solved the structure of human 15-PGDH and explored the binding modes of the inhibitors to the enzyme in silico. We found binding modes that are consistent with the observed mechanisms of action. Conclusions Low cross-reactivity in screens of over 320 targets, including three other human dehydrogenases/reductases, suggest selectivity of the present inhibitors for 15-PGDH. The high potencies and different mechanisms of action of these chemotypes make them a useful set of complementary chemical probes for functional studies of prostaglandin-signaling pathways. Enhanced version This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S2. PMID:21072165

  2. Synthesis of amino heterocycle aspartyl protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Rachel K; Khan, Tanweer A; Olsen, David B; Sleebs, Brad E

    2016-06-14

    Aspartyl proteases are important pharmacological targets. Historically aspartyl proteases have been commonly targeted with transition state derived peptidomimetics. The strategy to develop aspartyl protease inhibitors has undertaken a dramatic paradigm shift in the last 10 years. The pharmaceutical industry in 2005 disclosed several scaffolds or "head groups" that prompted the field to move beyond peptidomimetic derived inhibitors. Since the discovery of the first amino heterocycle aspartyl protease inhibitor, the amino hydantoin, industry and academia have positioned themselves for a foothold on the new molecular space, designing a variety of related "head groups". Both the design and synthetic efforts involved in constructing these scaffolds are varied and complex. Here we highlight the synthetic strategies used to access these amino heterocycle scaffolds. PMID:27143279

  3. Hypolipidemic drugs are inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, S; Kritchevsky, D; Baumann, W J

    1982-01-01

    Clofibric acid (CPIB) and several other systemic hypolipidemic drugs are shown to block phosphatidylcholine synthesis by inhibiting cholinephosphotransferase (ChoPTase; CDPcholine:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, EC 2.7.8.2) and particularly lysolecithin acyltransferase (LLAcylTase; acyl-CoA:1-acylglycero-3-phosphocholine O-acyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.23) of rat liver microsomes. Whereas millimolar drug concentrations are required to affect de novo lecithin synthesis catalyzed by ChoPTase, reacylation of lysolecithin by LLAcylTase is inhibited at micromolar levels. Increasing effectiveness in ChoPTase inhibition is observed in the series CPIB, SaH-42-348, tibric acid, S-321328, WY-14643, S-8527, and DH-990, with IC50 ranging from 22 mM (CPIB) to 0.3 mM (DH-990). LLAcylTase inhibition by the hypolipidemic drugs follows the same general pattern, but IC50 concentrations range from 9 mM (CPIB) to 40 microM (DH-990). The agents inhibit ChoPTase (Ki, 25-0.25 mM) and LLAcylTase (Ki, 10-0.025 mM) noncompetitively. The data suggest that inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, particularly by the LLAcylTase pathway, may be related to a drug's effectiveness in decreasing serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels by blocking lipoprotein synthesis. PMID:6294663

  4. Studies on bacterial cell wall inhibitors. VI. Screening method for the specific inhibitors of peptidoglycan synthesis.

    PubMed

    Omura, S; Tanaka, H; Oiwa, R; Nagai, T; Koyama, Y; Takahashi, Y

    1979-10-01

    A screening method was established for selecting new specific inhibitors of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. In the primary test, culture broths of soil isolates were selected based on relative microbial activity. A culture, to be retained, must be active against Bacillus subtilis and lack activities against Acholeplasma laidawii. In the secondary test, inhibitors of bacterial cell wall synthesis were identified by their ability to prevent the incorporation of meso-[3H]diaminopimelic acid but not to prevent the incorporation of L-[4C]leucine into the acid-insoluble macromolecular fraction of growing cells of Bacillus sp. ATCC 21206 (Dpm-). As the tertiary test, inhibitors with molecular weights under 1,000 were selected by passage through a Diaflo UM-2 membrane. By this screening procedure, six known antibiotics and one new one were picked out from ten thousand soil isolates. PMID:528376

  5. NAD(+)- dependent deacetylase SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial protein synthesis by deacetylation of the ribosomal protein MRPL10

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A member of the sirtuin family of NAD (+)-dependent deacetylases, SIRT3, is located in mammalian mitochondria and is important for regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, cell survival, and longevity. In this study, MRPL10 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10) was identified as the major acetylated ...

  6. Eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitors identified by comparison of cytotoxicity profiles

    PubMed Central

    CHAN, JENNY; KHAN, SHAKILA N.; HARVEY, ISABELLE; MERRICK, WILLIAM; PELLETIER, JERRY

    2004-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Human Tumor Cell Line Anti-Cancer Drug Screen has evaluated the cytotoxicity profiles of a large number of synthetic compounds, natural products, and plant extracts on 60 different cell lines. The data for each compound/extract can be assessed for similarity of cytotoxicity pattern, relative to a given test compound, using an algorithm called COMPARE. In applying a chemical biology approach to better understand the mechanism of eukaryotic protein synthesis, we used these resources to search for novel inhibitors of translation. The cytotoxicity profiles of 31 known protein synthesis inhibitors were used to identify compounds from the NCI database with similar activity profiles. Using this approach, two natural products, phyllanthoside and nagilactone C, were identified and characterized as novel protein synthesis inhibitors. Both compounds are specific for the eukaryotic translation apparatus, function in vivo and in vitro, and interfere with translation elongation. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing cytotoxicity profiles to identify new inhibitors of translation. PMID:14970397

  7. Design and synthesis of boronic acid inhibitors of endothelial lipase.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel P; LeBlanc, Daniel F; Cromley, Debra; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J; Bachovchin, William W

    2012-02-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are homologous lipases that act on plasma lipoproteins. EL is predominantly a phospholipase and appears to be a key regulator of plasma HDL-C. LPL is mainly a triglyceride lipase regulating (V)LDL levels. The existing biological data indicate that inhibitors selective for EL over LPL should have anti-atherogenic activity, mainly through increasing plasma HDL-C levels. We report here the synthesis of alkyl, aryl, or acyl-substituted phenylboronic acids that inhibit EL. Many of the inhibitors evaluated proved to be nearly equally potent against both EL and LPL, but several exhibited moderate to good selectivity for EL. PMID:22225633

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of bibenzyl glycosides as potent tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Reiko; Oozeki, Hiromi; Muraoka, Seiichi; Tanaka, Saori; Motegi, Yukari; Nihei, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yoichi; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nihei, Ken-ichi

    2011-04-01

    Bibenzyl glycosides 1-6 were synthesized from 2,4-dihydoxybenzaldehyde and xylose, glucose, cellobiose or maltose. The key steps in the synthesis were the Wittig reaction and trichloroacetimidate glycosylation. Tests for tyrosinase inhibitory activity showed that all were significantly active, indicating that they are unique hydrophilic tyrosinase inhibitors. Bibenzyl xyloside 2 is a particularly potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.43 μM, 17 times higher than that of kojic acid). These results suggest that the hydrophilic cavity of tyrosinase might accommodate the bulky carbohydrate on the bibenzyl scaffold. PMID:21334791

  9. Synthesis of the Pitstop family of clathrin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Mark J; Deane, Fiona M; Stahlschmidt, Wiebke; von Kleist, Lisa; Haucke, Volker; Robinson, Phillip J; McCluskey, Adam

    2014-07-01

    This protocol describes the synthesis of two classes of clathrin inhibitors, Pitstop 1 and Pitstop 2, along with two inactive analogs that can be used as negative controls (Pitstop inactive controls, Pitnot-2 and Pitnot-2-100). Pitstop-induced inhibition of clathrin TD function acutely interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), synaptic vesicle recycling and cellular entry of HIV, whereas clathrin-independent internalization pathways and secretory traffic proceed unperturbed; these reagents can, therefore, be used to investigate clathrin function, and they have potential pharmacological applications. Pitstop 1 is synthesized in two steps: sulfonation of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and subsequent reaction with 4-amino(methyl)aniline. Pitnot-1 results from the reaction of 4-amino(methyl)aniline with commercially available 4-sulfo-1,8-naphthalic anhydride potassium salt. Reaction of 1-naphthalene sulfonyl chloride with pseudothiohydantoin followed by condensation with 4-bromobenzaldehyde yields Pitstop 2. The synthesis of the inactive control commences with the condensation of 4-bromobenzaldehyde with the rhodanine core. Thioketone methylation and displacement with 1-napthylamine affords the target compound. Although Pitstop 1-series compounds are not cell permeable, they can be used in biochemical assays or be introduced into cells via microinjection. The Pitstop 2-series compounds are cell permeable. The synthesis of these compounds does not require specialist equipment and can be completed in 3-4 d. Microwave irradiation can be used to reduce the synthesis time. The synthesis of the Pitstop 2 family is easily adaptable to enable the synthesis of related compounds such as Pitstop 2-100 and Pitnot-2-100. The procedures are also simple, efficient and amenable to scale-up, enabling cost-effective in-house synthesis for users of these inhibitor classes. PMID:24922269

  10. The antiproliferative activity of the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor IPI-504 is not dependent on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Mark; Lim, Alice R; Porter, James R; West, Kip; Pink, Melissa M; Ge, Jie; Wylie, Andrew A; Tibbits, Thomas T; Biggs, Kurtis; Curtis, Michael; Palombella, Vito J; Adams, Julian; Fritz, Christian C; Normant, Emmanuel

    2009-12-01

    IPI-504, a water-soluble ansamycin analogue currently being investigated in clinical trials, is a potent inhibitor of the protein chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Inhibition of Hsp90 by IPI-504 triggers the degradation of important oncogenic client proteins. In cells, the free base of IPI-504 hydroquinone exists in a dynamic redox equilibrium with its corresponding quinone (17-AAG); the hydroquinone form binding 50 times more tightly to Hsp90. It has been proposed recently that the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase NQO1 can produce the active hydroquinone and could be essential for the activity of IPI-504. Here, we have devised a method to directly measure the intracellular ratio of hydroquinone to quinone (HQ/Q) and have applied this measurement to correlate NQO1 enzyme abundance with HQ/Q ratio and cellular activity of IPI-504 in 30 cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the intracellular HQ/Q ratio was correlated with NQO1 levels only in a subset of cell lines and overall was poorly correlated with the growth inhibitory activity of IPI-504. Although artificial overexpression of NQO1 is able to increase the level of hydroquinone and cell sensitivity to IPI-504, it has little effect on the activity of 17-amino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin, the major active metabolite of IPI-504. This finding could provide an explanation for the biological activity of IPI-504 in xenograft models of cell lines that are not sensitive to IPI-504 in vitro. Our results suggest that NQO1 activity is not a determinant of IPI-504 activity in vivo and, therefore, unlikely to become an important resistance mechanism to IPI-504 in the clinic. PMID:19952119

  11. New peptide deformylase inhibitors design, synthesis and pharmacokinetic assessment.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fengping; Chen, Chen; Tang, Yang; Wei, Jianhai; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Wenhao

    2016-08-01

    The docking approach for the screening of designed small molecule ligands, led to the identification of a critical arginine residue in peptide deformylase for spiro cyclopropyl PDF inhibitor's extra hydrophobic binding, providing us a useful tool for searching more efficient PDF inhibitors to fight for horrifying antibiotics resistance. Further synthetic modification was undertaken to optimize the potency of amide compounds. To lower metabolic susceptibility and in turn reduce unwanted metabolic toxicity that was observed clinically, while retaining desired antibacterial activity, the use of azoles as amide bioisosteres had also been investigated. After the completion of chemical synthesis, all the compounds were evaluated through in vitro antibacterial activity assay, some of which were further subject to in vivo rat pharmacokinetic assessment. Those findings in this letter showed that spiro cyclopropyl proline N-formyl hydroxylamines, and especially the bioisosteric azoles, can represent a promising class of PDF inhibitors. PMID:27293070

  12. Thrombin or Ca(++)-ionophore-mediated fall in endothelial ATP levels independent of poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase activity and NAD levels--comparison with the effects of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Halldórsson, Haraldur; Thors, Brynhildur; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a fall in cellular ATP following stimulation of endothelial cells with thrombin is secondary to a decrease in NAD levels caused by poly(ADP-Ribose)polymerase (PARP), we measured the levels of NAD and ATP in endothelial cells after treatment with thrombin, the Ca(++)-ionophore A23187, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and compared the effects of inhibitors of PARP, NAD synthesis, and ADP-ribose breakdown on these responses. Neither thrombin nor A23187 caused a reduction in endothelial NAD levels and A23187 affected ATP levels independently of NAD levels or PARP activity. H2O2 induced lowering of NAD caused modest lowering of ATP but marked additional ATP-lowering, independent of PARP and NAD, was also demonstrated. We conclude that in endothelial cells ATP levels are largely independent of NAD and PARP, which do not play a role in thrombin or Ca(++)-ionophore-mediated lowering of ATP. H2O2 caused ATP lowering through a similar mechanism as thrombin and A23187 but, additionally, caused a further ATP lowering through its intense stimulation of PARP and marked lowering of NAD. PMID:25774718

  13. NAD metabolism in HPRT-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacomelli, Gabriella; Di Marcello, Federica; Notarantonio, Laura; Sestini, Silvia; Cerboni, Barbara; Bertelli, Matteo; Pompucci, Giuseppe; Jinnah, Hyder A.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) is virtually absent in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND), an X-linked genetic disorder characterized by uric acid accumulation and neurodevelopmental dysfunction. The biochemical basis for the neurological and behavioral abnormalities have not yet been completely explained. Prior studies of cells from affected patients have shown abnormalities of NAD metabolism. In the current studies, NAD metabolism was evaluated in HPRT gene knock-out mice. NAD content and the activities of the enzymes required for synthesis and breakdown of this coenzyme were investigated in blood, brain and liver of HPRT− and control mice. NAD concentration and enzyme activities were found to be significantly increased in liver, but not in brain or blood of the HPRT− mice. These results demonstrate that changes in NAD metabolism occur in response to HPRT deficiency depending on both species and tissue type. PMID:19319672

  14. Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors block alcohol-induced fetal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pennington, S; Allen, Z; Runion, J; Farmer, P; Rowland, L; Kalmus, G

    1985-01-01

    Alcohol-induced growth retardation is a fetal effect consistently associated with maternal ethanol consumption. In humans, those infants whose mothers consume even a limited amount of ethanol during pregnancy have a significant incidence of growth inhibition. The molecular mechanism responsible for this growth deficiency is unknown, and prevention depends on maternal abstinence during pregnancy. The data reported here suggest that ethanol-mediated increases in tissue prostaglandin (PG) E levels (PGE1 plus PGE2) are correlated with the growth retardation. Further, simultaneous administration of PG synthesis inhibitors with the alcohol blocks the rise in tissue PG levels and protects against the alcohol-induced hypoplasia. PMID:3904508

  15. Exploring NAD+ metabolism in host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Inês; Varela, Patrícia; Belinha, Ana; Gaifem, Joana; Laforge, Mireille; Vergnes, Baptiste; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a vital molecule found in all living cells. NAD(+) intracellular levels are dictated by its synthesis, using the de novo and/or salvage pathway, and through its catabolic use as co-enzyme or co-substrate. The regulation of NAD(+) metabolism has proven to be an adequate drug target for several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative or inflammatory diseases. Increasing interest has been given to NAD(+) metabolism during innate and adaptive immune responses suggesting that its modulation could also be relevant during host-pathogen interactions. While the maintenance of NAD(+) homeostatic levels assures an adequate environment for host cell survival and proliferation, fluctuations in NAD(+) or biosynthetic precursors bioavailability have been described during host-pathogen interactions, which will interfere with pathogen persistence or clearance. Here, we review the double-edged sword of NAD(+) metabolism during host-pathogen interactions emphasizing its potential for treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:26718485

  16. Design and synthesis of novel selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Michellys, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Bei; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Yunho; Lu, Wenshuo; Marsilje, Thomas H; Pei, Wei; Uno, Tetsuo; Zhu, Xuefeng; Wu, Baogen; Nguyen, Truc Ngoc; Bursulaya, Badry; Lee, Christian; Li, Nanxin; Kim, Sungjoon; Tuntland, Tove; Liu, Bo; Sun, Frank; Steffy, Auzon; Hood, Tami

    2016-02-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the insulin receptor superfamily. Expression of ALK in normal human tissues is only found in a subset of neural cells, however it is involved in the genesis of several cancers through genetic aberrations involving translocation of the kinase domain with multiple fusion partners (e.g., NPM-ALK in anaplastic large cell lymphoma ALCL or EML4-ALK in non-small cell lung cancer) or activating mutations in the full-length receptor resulting in ligand-independent constitutive activation (e.g., neuroblastoma). Here we are reporting the discovery of novel and selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors from specific modifications of the 2,4-diaminopyridine core present in TAE684 and LDK378. Synthesis, structure activity relationships (SAR), absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile, and in vivo efficacy in a mouse xenograft model of anaplastic large cell lymphoma are described. PMID:26750252

  17. Enhanced Degradation of Dihydrofolate Reductase through Inhibition of NAD Kinase by Nicotinamide Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yi-Ching; Tedeschi, Philip; AdeBisi Lawal, Rialnat; Banerjee, Debabrata; Scotto, Kathleen; Kerrigan, John E.; Lee, Kuo-Chieh; Johnson-Farley, Nadine; Bertino, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), because of its essential role in DNA synthesis, has been targeted for the treatment of a wide variety of human diseases, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. Methotrexate (MTX), a tight binding inhibitor of DHFR, is one of the most widely used drugs in cancer treatment and is especially effective in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and osteosarcoma. Limitations to its use in cancer include natural resistance and acquired resistance due to decreased cellular uptake and decreased retention due to impaired polyglutamylate formation and toxicity at higher doses. Here, we describe a novel mechanism to induce DHFR degradation through cofactor depletion in neoplastic cells by inhibition of NAD kinase, the only enzyme responsible for generating NADP, which is rapidly converted to NADPH by dehydrogenases/reductases. We identified an inhibitor of NAD kinase, thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPS), which led to accelerated degradation of DHFR and to inhibition of cancer cell growth. Of importance, combination treatment of NADPS with MTX displayed significant synergy in a metastatic colon cancer cell line and was effective in a MTX-transport resistant leukemic cell line. We suggest that NAD kinase is a valid target for further inhibitor development for cancer treatment. PMID:23197646

  18. Boosting NAD+ for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Djouder, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide yet has limited therapeutic options. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis is responsible for DNA damage, thereby initiating hepatocarcinogenesis. We propose that boosting NAD+ levels might be used as a prophylactic or therapeutic approach in HCC. PMID:27308492

  19. Boosting NAD(+) for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Djouder, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide yet has limited therapeutic options. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) synthesis is responsible for DNA damage, thereby initiating hepatocarcinogenesis. We propose that boosting NAD(+) levels might be used as a prophylactic or therapeutic approach in HCC. PMID:27308492

  20. Inhibitors to Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases: Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ruikai; Maurmann, Leila; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered as an ideal alternative to nonbiodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaC has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty along with lack of a structure has become the main hurdle to understand and engineer PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we reported the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogs, sT-CH2-CoA 26a and sTet-CH2-CoA 26b as well as sT-aldehyde 29 as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogs with PhaECAv revealed that 26a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. It was observed that CoA moiety and PHA chain extension can increase binding affinity, which is consistent with the docking study. Estimation from Kic of 26a/b predicts that a CoA analog attached with an octameric-HB chain may facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase. PMID:25394180

  1. Inhibitors of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases: synthesis, molecular docking, and implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Chao; Cao, Ruikai; Maurmann, Leila; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered to be ideal alternatives to non-biodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaCs has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty, along with lack of a crystal structure, has become the main hurdle to understanding and engineering PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we report the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogues--sT-CH2-CoA (26 a) and sTet-CH2-CoA (26 b)--as well as sT-aldehyde (saturated trimer aldehyde, 29), as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogues with PhaECAv revealed that 26 a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Both the CoA moiety and extension of PHA chain will increase binding affinity; this is consistent with our docking study. Estimation of the Kic values of 26 a and 26 b predicts that a CoA analogue incorporating an octameric hydroxybutanoate (HB) chain might facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase. PMID:25394180

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of neutrophilic inflammation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Olga; Brullo, Chiara; Arduino, Nicoletta; Schenone, Silvia; Ranise, Angelo; Bondavalli, Francesco; Ottonello, Luciano; Dapino, Patrizia; Dallegri, Franco

    2004-03-01

    In several non-infectious human diseases, such as ulcerous colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the extravasal recruitment of neutrophils plays a crucial role in the development of tissue damage, which, when persistent, can lead to the irreversible organ dysfunction. The neutrophil activation is controlled by a number of intracellular pathways, particularly by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) which also acts on phosphodiesterase IV (PDE4) gene stimulating the synthesis of this enzyme, able to transform cAMP to inactive AMP. PDE4 inhibitors enhance intracellular cAMP and decrease inflammatory cell activation. Several 3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and studied by us to evaluate their ability to inhibit the superoxide anion production in human neutrophils. These compounds were found able to inhibit the neutrophil activation and some of them increased the cAMP level on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated neutrophils. Moreover, they also inhibited selectively the human PDE4 enzyme, although they are less potent than the reference compound Rolipram. We report here synthesis, biological studies and some SAR considerations concerning the above mentioned compounds. PMID:14987986

  3. NAD(+) biosynthesis and salvage--a phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Gossmann, Toni I; Ziegler, Mathias; Puntervoll, Pål; de Figueiredo, Luis F; Schuster, Stefan; Heiland, Ines

    2012-09-01

    NAD is best known as an electron carrier and a cosubstrate of various redox reactions. However, over the past 20 years, NAD(+) has been shown to be a key signaling molecule that mediates post-translational protein modifications and serves as precursor of ADP-ribose-containing messenger molecules, which are involved in calcium mobilization. In contrast to its role as a redox carrier, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes involve the release of nicotinamide (Nam) and require constant replenishment of cellular NAD(+) pools. So far, very little is known about the evolution of NAD(P) synthesis in eukaryotes. In the present study, genes involved in NAD(P) metabolism in 45 species were identified and analyzed with regard to similarities and differences in NAD(P) synthesis. The results show that the Preiss-Handler pathway and NAD(+) kinase are present in all organisms investigated, and thus seem to be ancestral routes. Additionally, two pathways exist that convert Nam to NAD(+); we identified several species that have apparently functional copies of both biosynthetic routes, which have been thought to be mutually exclusive. Furthermore, our findings suggest the parallel phylogenetic appearance of Nam N-methyltransferase, Nam phosphoribosyl transferase, and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. PMID:22404877

  4. Total synthesis of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid C.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seiichi

    2005-01-01

    Zaragozic acids and squalestatins were documented by Merck, Glaxo, and Tokyo Noko University/Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation as part of a program aimed at identifying novel inhibitors of squalene synthase, as well as farnesyl transferase. These natural products have attracted considerable attention from numerous synthetic chemists because of their therapeutic potential and novel architecture. This review highlights our total syntheses of zaragozic acid C by two convergent strategies. The key steps in our first-generation synthesis involve 1) simultaneous creation of the C4 and C5 quaternary stereocenters through the Sn(OTf)2-promoted aldol coupling reaction between the alpha-keto ester and silyl ketene thioacetal derived from L- and D-tartaric acids, respectively; and 2) construction of the bicyclic core structure via acid-catalyzed internal ketalization under kinetically controlled conditions. The second-generation strategy relies on a tandem carbonyl ylide formation/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition approach and features elongation of the C1 alkyl side chain through an olefin cross-metathesis as well as high convergency and flexibility. PMID:15635219

  5. Salicylic Acid Inhibits Synthesis of Proteinase Inhibitors in Tomato Leaves Induced by Systemin and Jasmonic Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Doares, S. H.; Narvaez-Vasquez, J.; Conconi, A.; Ryan, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), previously shown to inhibit proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by wounding, oligouronides (H.M. Doherty, R.R. Selvendran, D.J. Bowles [1988] Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 33: 377-384), and linolenic acid (H. Pena-Cortes, T. Albrecht, S. Prat, E.W. Weiler, L. Willmitzer [1993] Planta 191: 123-128), are shown here to be potent inhibitors of systemin-induced and jasmonic acid (JA)-induced synthesis of proteinase inhibitor mRNAs and proteins. The inhibition by SA and ASA of proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by systemin and JA, as well as by wounding and oligosaccharide elicitors, provides further evidence that both oligosaccharide and polypeptide inducer molecules utilize the octadecanoid pathway to signal the activation of proteinase inhibitor genes. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves were pulse labeled with [35S]methionine, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the inhibitory effects of SA are shown to be specific for the synthesis of a small number of JA-inducible proteins that includes the proteinase inhibitors. Previous results have shown that SA inhibits the conversion of 13S-hydroperoxy linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, thereby inhibiting the signaling pathway by blocking synthesis of JA. Here we report that the inhibition of synthesis of proteinase inhibitor proteins and mRNAs by SA in both light and darkness also occurs at a step in the signal transduction pathway, after JA synthesis but preceding transcription of the inhibitor genes. PMID:12228577

  6. Practical Synthesis of PC190723, An Inhibitor of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Sorto, Nohemy A.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Shaw, Jared T.

    2010-01-01

    A high-yielding and practical synthesis of the bacterial cell division inhibitor PC190723 is described. The synthesis is completed in a longest linear sequence of five steps from commercially available starting materials and can be readily executed on a multi-gram scale. PMID:21033691

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of transthyretin amyloidosis inhibitors containing carborane pharmacophores

    PubMed Central

    Julius, Richard L.; Farha, Omar K.; Chiang, Janet; Perry, L. Jeanne; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Carboranes represent a potentially rich but underutilized class of inorganic and catabolism-inert pharmacophores. The regioselectivity and ease of derivatization of carboranes allows for facile syntheses of a wide variety of novel structures. The steric bulk, rigidity, and ease of B- and C-derivatization and lack of π-interactions associated with hydrophobic carboranes may be exploited to enhance the selectivity of previously identified bioactive molecules. Transthyretin (TTR) is a thyroxine-transport protein found in the blood that has been implicated in a variety of amyloid related diseases. Previous investigations have identified a variety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and structurally related derivatives that imbue kinetic stabilization to TTR, thus inhibiting its dissociative fragmentation and subsequent aggregation to form putative toxic amyloid fibrils. However, the cyclooxygenase (COX) activity associated with these pharmaceuticals may limit their potential as long-term therapeutic agents for TTR amyloid diseases. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of carborane-containing analogs of the promising NSAID pharmaceuticals previously identified. The replacement of a phenyl ring in the NSAIDs with a carborane moiety greatly decreases their COX activity with the retention of similar efficacy as an inhibitor of TTR dissociation. The most promising of these compounds, 1-carboxylic acid-7-[3-fluorophenyl]-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane, showed effectively no COX-1 or COX-2 inhibition at a concentration more than an order of magnitude larger than the concentration at which TTR dissociation is nearly completely inhibited. This specificity is indicative of the potential for the exploitation of the unique properties of carboranes as potent and selective pharmacophores. PMID:17360344

  8. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria. PMID:27588098

  9. Intentional synthesis of corrosion inhibitors based on secondary products of sugar cane processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ledovskykh, V.M.

    1988-07-01

    Secondary products of sugar cane processing (mosto, wax, furfurol) were studied as starting raw materials for creating inhibitors for different purposes and temporary means of protecting metals from corrosion. In order to protect metals in different corrosive media the following inhibitors have been developed: an inhibitor for acid solutions (pickling metals, acid washing of the equipment) based on high-tonnage water-soluble waste mosto and combined synergistic inhibitors based on mixtures of it with cation- and anion-active surfactants, including nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances obtained by intentional synthesis of another secondary product, furfurol; inhibitors for two-phase media (oil recovery and refining) of the carbonic acid amide and 2-alkylimidazoline classes from sugar cane wax; and inhibitors comprised of Li-, Na-, Ca-, and Al-plastic greases from sugar cane wax for atmospheric conditions.

  10. Possible role of NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in growth promotion of Arabidopsis seedlings by low levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toru; Fukui, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    We explored functional significance of selenium (Se) in Arabidopsis physiology. Se at very low concentrations in cultivation exerted a considerable positive effect on Arabidopsis growth with no indication of oxidative stress, whereas Se at higher concentrations significantly suppressed the growth and brought serious oxidative damage. Respiration, ATP levels, and the activity of NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD-GAPDH) were enhanced in Arabidopsis grown in the medium containing 1.0 μM Se. Addition of an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis to the medium abolished both of the Se-dependent growth promotion and NAD-GAPDH up-regulation. Assay of NAD-GAPDH purified from seedlings subjected to Se interventions raised the possibility of a direct connection between the activity of this enzyme and Arabidopsis growth. These results reveal that trace amounts of Se accelerate Arabidopsis growth, and suggest that this pro-growth effect of Se arises enhancing mitochondrial performance in a GSH-dependent manner, in which NAD-GAPDH may serve as a key regulator. PMID:25988618

  11. Design and synthesis of hepatoselective, pyrrole-based HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Song, Yuntao; Sun, Kuai-Lin; Miller, Steven R; Trivedi, Bharat K; Choi, Chulho; Sorenson, Roderick J; Bratton, Larry D; Unangst, Paul C; Larsen, Scott D; Poel, Toni-Jo; Cheng, Xue-Min; Lee, Chitase; Erasga, Noe; Auerbach, Bruce; Askew, Valerie; Dillon, Lisa; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Lin, Zhiwu; Lu, Gina; Robertson, Andrew; Olsen, Karl; Mertz, Thomas; Sekerke, Catherine; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Harris, Melissa S; Bainbridge, Graeme; Caspers, Nicole; Chen, Huifen; Eberstadt, Matthias

    2007-08-15

    This manuscript describes the design and synthesis of a series of pyrrole-based inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Analogs were optimized using structure-based design and physical property considerations resulting in the identification of 44, a hepatoselective HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor with excellent acute and chronic efficacy in a pre-clinical animal models. PMID:17574412

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of Dioxatriquinane Structural Motifs for HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors Using a Cascade Radical Cyclization†

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Xu, Chun-Xiao; Osswald, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating dioxatriquinane-derived P2-ligands is described. The tricyclic ligand alcohol contains five contiguous chiral centers. The ligand alcohols were prepared in optically active form by an enzymatic asymmetrization of mesodiacetate, cascade radical cyclization, and Lewis acid catalyzed reduction as the key steps. Inhibitors with dioxatriquinane-derived P2-ligands exhibited low nanomolar HIV-1 protease activity. PMID:26185337

  13. Design and Synthesis of Potent, Selective Inhibitors of Matriptase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Matriptase is a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease family. Several studies have reported deregulated matriptase expression in several types of epithelial cancers, suggesting that matriptase constitutes a potential target for cancer therapy. We report herein a new series of slow, tight-binding inhibitors of matriptase, which mimic the P1–P4 substrate recognition sequence of the enzyme. Preliminary structure–activity relationships indicate that this benzothiazole-containing RQAR-peptidomimetic is a very potent inhibitor and possesses a good selectivity for matriptase versus other serine proteases. A molecular model was generated to elucidate the key contacts between inhibitor 1 and matriptase. PMID:24900505

  14. Mitochondrial Impairment May Increase Cellular NAD(P)H: Resazurin Oxidoreductase Activity, Perturbing the NAD(P)H-Based Viability Assays

    PubMed Central

    Aleshin, Vasily A.; Artiukhov, Artem V.; Oppermann, Henry; Kazantsev, Alexey V.; Lukashev, Nikolay V.; Bunik, Victoria I.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase activity with artificial dyes (NAD(P)H-OR) is an indicator of viability, as the cellular redox state is important for biosynthesis and antioxidant defense. However, high NAD(P)H due to impaired mitochondrial oxidation, known as reductive stress, should increase NAD(P)H-OR yet perturb viability. To better understand this complex behavior, we assayed NAD(P)H-OR with resazurin (Alamar Blue) in glioblastoma cell lines U87 and T98G, treated with inhibitors of central metabolism, oxythiamin, and phosphonate analogs of 2-oxo acids. Targeting the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes, the inhibitors are known to decrease the NAD(P)H production in the pentose phosphate shuttle and/or upon mitochondrial oxidation of 2-oxo acids. Nevertheless, the inhibitors elevated NAD(P)H-OR with resazurin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, suggesting impaired NAD(P)H oxidation rather than increased viability. In particular, inhibition of the ThDP-dependent enzymes affects metabolism of malate, which mediates mitochondrial oxidation of cytosolic NAD(P)H. We showed that oxythiamin not only inhibited mitochondrial 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases, but also induced cell-specific changes in glutamate and malate dehydrogenases and/or malic enzyme. As a result, inhibition of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases compromises mitochondrial metabolism, with the dysregulated electron fluxes leading to increases in cellular NAD(P)H-OR. Perturbed mitochondrial oxidation of NAD(P)H may thus complicate the NAD(P)H-based viability assay. PMID:26308058

  15. Design and synthesis of potent, isoxazole-containing renin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-André; Arbour, Mélissa; Cauchon, Elizabeth; Chen, Austin; Chefson, Amandine; Ducharme, Yves; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Gagné, Sébastien; Grimm, Erich; Han, Yongxin; Houle, Robert; Lacombe, Patrick; Lévesque, Jean-François; MacDonald, Dwight; Mackay, Bruce; McKay, Dan; Percival, M David; Ramtohul, Yeeman; St-Jacques, René; Toulmond, Sylvie

    2012-04-15

    The design and optimization of a novel isoxazole S(1) linker for renin inhibitor is described herein. This effort culminated in the identification of compound 18, an orally bioavailable, sub-nanomolar renin inhibitor even in the presence of human plasma. When compound 18 was found to inhibit CYP3A4 in a time dependent manner, two strategies were pursued that successfully delivered equipotent compounds with minimal TDI potential. PMID:22450130

  16. Synthesis of potent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit; Saraph, Arundhati; Poon, Vincent; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S

    2006-01-01

    We report the synthesis of biodegradable polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA). These biocompatible polyvalent inhibitors are at least 4 orders of magnitude more potent than the corresponding monovalent peptides in vitro and are comparable in potency to polyacrylamide-based inhibitors of anthrax toxin assembly. We have elucidated the influence of peptide density on inhibitory potency and demonstrated that these inhibitory potencies are limited by kinetics, with even higher activities seen when the inhibitors are preincubated with the heptameric receptor-binding subunit of anthrax toxin prior to exposure to cells. These polyvalent inhibitors are also effective at neutralizing anthrax toxin in vivo and represent attractive leads for designing biocompatible anthrax therapeutics. PMID:16984137

  17. The high-resolution crystal structure of periplasmic Haemophilus influenzae NAD nucleotidase reveals a novel enzymatic function of human CD73 related to NAD metabolism.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Silvia; Bruzzone, Santina; Cassani, Camilla; Canella, Laura; Allegrone, Gianna; Sturla, Laura; Mannino, Elena; Millo, Enrico; De Flora, Antonio; Rizzi, Menico

    2012-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen of the respiratory tract in humans that has developed the capability to exploit host NAD(P) for its nicotinamide dinucleotide requirement. This strategy is organized around a periplasmic enzyme termed NadN (NAD nucleotidase), which plays a central role by degrading NAD into adenosine and NR (nicotinamide riboside), the latter being subsequently internalized by a specific permease. We performed a biochemical and structural investigation on H. influenzae NadN which determined that the enzyme is a Zn2+-dependent 5'-nucleotidase also endowed with NAD(P) pyrophosphatase activity. A 1.3 Å resolution structural analysis revealed a remarkable conformational change that occurs during catalysis between the open and closed forms of the enzyme. NadN showed a broad substrate specificity, recognizing either mono- or di-nucleotide nicotinamides and different adenosine phosphates with a maximal activity on 5'-adenosine monophosphate. Sequence and structural analysis of H. influenzae NadN led us to discover that human CD73 is capable of processing both NAD and NMN, therefore disclosing a possible novel function of human CD73 in systemic NAD metabolism. Our data may prove to be useful for inhibitor design and disclosed unanticipated fascinating evolutionary relationships. PMID:21933152

  18. Design and synthesis of novel, conformationally restricted HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Choi, Chulho; Song, Yuntao; Trivedi, Bharat K; Larsen, Scott D; Askew, Valerie; Dillon, Lisa; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Lin, Zhiwu; Lu, Gina; Robertson, Andrew; Sekerke, Catherine; Auerbach, Bruce; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Harris, Melissa S; Bainbridge, Graeme; Caspers, Nicole

    2007-08-15

    Using structure-based design, a novel series of conformationally restricted, pyrrole-based inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase were discovered. Leading analogs demonstrated potent inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in both in vitro and in vivo models and may be useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and related lipid disorders. PMID:17574411

  19. [The clinical evaluation of the hypocholesterolemic effects of an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis: mevalonic acid].

    PubMed

    Del Nero, E; Aloe, N; Augeri, C; Avola, F; Carta, G; Cavagnaro, A; De Grandi, R; Gianfreda, M; Magro, G P; Mazzarello, G P

    1992-07-01

    Twenty eight patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were treated with mevalonic acid (an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis) for 45 days. Patients received a daily dose of 750 to 1500 mg mevalonic acid depending on plasma cholesterol levels. Results showed a significant reduction in cholesterol values whereas no significant difference was observed in HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. PMID:1505176

  20. Bait matrix for delivery of chitin synthesis inhibitors to the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Rojas, M G; Morales-Ramos, J A

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of three chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and chlorfluazuron, incorporated into a novel bait matrix to kill the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was evaluated in the laboratory. The bait matrix was significantly preferred by C. formosanus over southern yellow pine wood in a two-choice feeding test. Bait formulations containing 250 ppm of the three chitin synthesis inhibitors were presented to termite nests with 2,500 individuals (80% workers and 20% soldiers) in the presence of alternative food sources consisting of cardboard and southern yellow pine, Pinus taeda L., wood. None of the bait formulations were significantly repellent or feeding deterrent to the termite workers evidenced by the lack of full consumption of alternative food sources. All nests presented with the bait formulations died within 9 wk, whereas the control nests (bait with no chitin synthesis inhibitors) remained alive 6 mo after the end of the study. No significant differences in consumption were observed among the chitin synthesis inhibitor treatments. Importance of this study for the improvement of current bait technology is discussed. PMID:11332846

  1. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of potent FAAH inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Wei; Leleu-Chavain, Natascha; Barczyk, Amélie; Renault, Nicolas; Lemaire, Lucas; Chavatte, Philippe; Millet, Régis

    2016-06-01

    A new series of 3-carboxamido-5-aryl-isoxazoles was designed, synthesized and evaluated for their biological activity. Different pharmacomodulations have been explored and the lipophilicity of these compounds was assessed. Investigation of the in vitro biological activity led to the identification of 5 compounds as potent FAAH inhibitors, their good FAAH inhibition capacity is probably correlated with their suitable lipophilicity. Specifically, compound 25 showed similar inhibition potency against FAAH in comparison with URB597, one of the most potent FAAH inhibitor known to date. PMID:27117424

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of PKD Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    George, Kara M.; Frantz, Marie-Céline; Bravo-Altamirano, Karla; LaValle, Courtney R.; Tandon, Manuj; Leimgruber, Stephanie; Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Lazo, John S.; Wang, Q. Jane; Wipf, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in basic cellular processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Progress in our understanding of the biological functions of PKD has been limited due to the lack of a PKD-specific inhibitor. The benzoxoloazepinolone CID755673 was recently reported as the first potent and kinase-selective inhibitor for this enzyme. For structure-activity analysis purposes, a series of analogs was prepared and their in vitro inhibitory potency evaluated. PMID:22267986

  3. Enzymology of mammalian NAD metabolism in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Magni, Giulio; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Raffelli, Nadia; Ruggieri, Silverio

    2008-01-01

    Mounting evidence attests to the paramount importance of the non-redox NAD functions. Indeed, NAD homeostasis is related to the free radicals-mediated production of reactive oxygen species responsible for irreversible cellular damage in infectious disease, diabetes, inflammatory syndromes, neurodegeneration and cancer. Because the cellular redox status depends on both the absolute concentration of pyridine dinucleotides and their respective ratios of oxidized and reduced forms (i.e., NAD/NADH and NADP/NADPH), it is conceivable that an altered regulation of the synthesis and degradation of NAD impairs the cell redox state and likely contributes to the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the above mentioned diseases. Taking into account the recent appearance in the literature of comprehensive reviews covering different aspects of the significance of NAD metabolism, with particular attention to the enzymes involved in NAD cleavage, this monograph includes the most recent results on NAD biosynthesis in mammals and humans. Due to recent findings on nicotinamide riboside as a nutrient, its inclusion under "niacins" is proposed. Here, the enzymes involved in the de novo and reutilization pathways are overviewed. PMID:18508649

  4. Design, Synthesis and Inhibitory Activity of Photoswitchable RET Kinase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Rubén; Nilsson, Jesper R.; Solano, Carlos; Andréasson, Joakim; Grøtli, Morten

    2015-05-01

    REarranged during Transfection (RET) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase required for normal development and maintenance of neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deregulation of RET and hyperactivity of the RET kinase is intimately connected to several types of human cancers, most notably thyroid cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for small-molecule kinase inhibitors. Novel approaches, allowing external control of the activity of RET, would be key additions to the signal transduction toolbox. In this work, photoswitchable RET kinase inhibitors based on azo-functionalized pyrazolopyrimidines were developed, enabling photonic control of RET activity. The most promising compound displays excellent switching properties and stability with good inhibitory effect towards RET in cell-free as well as live-cell assays and a significant difference in inhibitory activity between its two photoisomeric forms. As the first reported photoswitchable small-molecule kinase inhibitor, we consider the herein presented effector to be a significant step forward in the development of tools for kinase signal transduction studies with spatiotemporal control over inhibitor concentration in situ.

  5. Design, Synthesis and Inhibitory Activity of Photoswitchable RET Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rubén; Nilsson, Jesper R.; Solano, Carlos; Andréasson, Joakim; Grøtli, Morten

    2015-01-01

    REarranged during Transfection (RET) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase required for normal development and maintenance of neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deregulation of RET and hyperactivity of the RET kinase is intimately connected to several types of human cancers, most notably thyroid cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for small-molecule kinase inhibitors. Novel approaches, allowing external control of the activity of RET, would be key additions to the signal transduction toolbox. In this work, photoswitchable RET kinase inhibitors based on azo-functionalized pyrazolopyrimidines were developed, enabling photonic control of RET activity. The most promising compound displays excellent switching properties and stability with good inhibitory effect towards RET in cell-free as well as live-cell assays and a significant difference in inhibitory activity between its two photoisomeric forms. As the first reported photoswitchable small-molecule kinase inhibitor, we consider the herein presented effector to be a significant step forward in the development of tools for kinase signal transduction studies with spatiotemporal control over inhibitor concentration in situ. PMID:25944708

  6. Protein synthesis inhibitors prevent both spontaneous and hormone-dependent maturation of isolated mouse oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, S.M. )

    1990-11-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the role of protein synthesis in mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. In the first part of this study, the effects of cycloheximide (CX) were tested on spontaneous meiotic maturation when oocytes were cultured in inhibitor-free medium. CX reversibly suppressed maturation of oocytes as long as maturation was either initially prevented by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), or delayed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In the second part of this study, the actions of protein synthesis inhibitors were tested on hormone-induced maturation. CEO were maintained in meiotic arrest for 21-22 h with hypoxanthine, and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) was induced with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Three different protein synthesis inhibitors (CX, emetine (EM), and puromycin (PUR)) each prevented the stimulatory action of FSH on GVB in a dose-dependent fashion. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent suppression of 3H-leucine incorporation by oocyte-cumulus cell complexes. The action of these inhibitors on FSH- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced GVB was next compared. All three drugs lowered the frequency of GVB in the FSH-treated groups, below even that of the controls (drug + hypoxanthine); the drugs maintained meiotic arrest at the control frequencies in the EGF-treated groups. Puromycin aminonucleoside, an analog of PUR with no inhibitory action on protein synthesis, had no effect. The three inhibitors also suppressed the stimulatory action of FSH on oocyte maturation when meiotic arrest was maintained with the cAMP analog, dbcAMP.

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of a protein synthesis inhibitor from brine shrimp embryos.

    PubMed

    Warner, A H; Shridhar, V; Finamore, F J

    1977-09-01

    Encysted embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, contain an inhibitor of protein synthesis that appears to be important in translational control. In cyst homogenates, the inhibitor appears to be partitioned almost equally between the cytosol and ribosome fractions and it has been purified from both fractions to near homogeneity. In a cell-free protein-synthesizing system derived from Artemia cysts, with poly(U) as messenger, the protein inhibits polyphenylalanine synthesis proportional to inhibitor concentration up to about 75% inhibition, and the primary site of action appears to be at the elongation step. The inhibitor activity is not altered by 50-150 mM KCl in the reaction mixture, but it is slightly more effective at 5 mM MgCl2 than at 10 mM MgCl2. The inhibitor is a heat-labile protein of 130000 molecular weight and is devoid of hydrolase activity. Our data indicate that the inhibitor is not elongation factor EF-1 or EF-2, but we are studying the possibility that it may be a modified form of elongation factor EF-2. PMID:907902

  8. NMNAT expression and its relation to NAD metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, H N; Kusumanchi, P; Yalowitz, J A

    2011-01-01

    Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferease (NMNAT), a rate-limiting enzyme present in all organisms, reversibly catalyzes the important step in the biosynthesis of NAD from ATP and NMN. NAD and NADP are used reversibly in anabolic and catabolic reactions. NAD is necessary for cell survival in oxidative stress and DNA damage. Based on their localization, three different NMNAT's have been recognized, NMNAT-1 (homohexamer) in the nucleus (chromosome 1 p32-35), NMNAT-2 (homodimer) in the cytoplasm (chromosome 1q25) and NMNAT-3 (homotetramer) in the mitochondria. NMNAT also catalyzes the metabolic conversion of potent antitumor prodrugs like tiazofurin and benzamide riboside to their active forms which are analogs of NAD. NAD synthase-NMNAT acts as a chaperone to protect against neurodegeneration, injury-induced axonal degeneration and also correlates with DNA synthesis during cell cycle. Since its activity is rather low in tumor cells it can be exploited as a source for therapeutic targeting. Steps involved in NAD synthesis are being utilized as targets for chemoprevention, radiosensitization and therapy of wide range of diseases, such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration and Huntington's disease. PMID:21517776

  9. SARM1 activation triggers axon degeneration locally via NAD+ destruction

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Josiah; Brace, E.J.; Sasaki, Yo; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Axon degeneration is an intrinsic self-destruction program that underlies axon loss during injury and disease. Sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1) protein is an essential mediator of axon degeneration. We report that SARM1 initiates a local destruction program involving rapid breakdown of NAD+ after injury. We used an engineered protease-sensitized SARM1 to demonstrate that SARM1 activity is required after axon injury to induce axon degeneration. Dimerization of the Toll-Interleukin Receptor (TIR) domain of SARM1 alone was sufficient to induce locally-mediated axon degeneration. Formation of the SARM1 TIR dimer triggered rapid breakdown of NAD+, whereas SARM1-induced axon destruction could be counteracted by increased NAD+ synthesis. SARM1-induced depletion of NAD+ may explain the potent axon protection in Wallerian Degeneration slow (Wlds) mutant mice. PMID:25908823

  10. Synthesis and Biochemical Evaluation of Thiochromanone Thiosemicarbazone Analogues as Inhibitors of Cathepsin L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A series of 36 thiosemicarbazone analogues containing the thiochromanone molecular scaffold functionalized primarily at the C-6 position were prepared by chemical synthesis and evaluated as inhibitors of cathepsins L and B. The most promising inhibitors from this group are selective for cathepsin L and demonstrate IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. In nearly all cases, the thiochromanone sulfide analogues show superior inhibition of cathepsin L as compared to their corresponding thiochromanone sulfone derivatives. Without exception, the compounds evaluated were inactive (IC50 > 10000 nM) against cathepsin B. The most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 46 nM) of cathepsin L proved to be the 6,7-difluoro analogue 4. This small library of compounds significantly expands the structure–activity relationship known for small molecule, nonpeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin L. PMID:24900494

  11. Carborane-containing urea-based inhibitors of glutamate carboxypeptidase II: Synthesis and structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Youn, Sihyun; Kim, Kyung Im; Ptacek, Jakub; Ok, Kiwon; Novakova, Zora; Kim, YunHye; Koo, JaeHyung; Barinka, Cyril; Byun, Youngjoo

    2015-11-15

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a zinc metalloprotease on the surface of astrocytes which cleaves N-acetylaspartylglutamate to release N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. GCPII inhibitors can decrease glutamate concentration and play a protective role against apoptosis or degradation of brain neurons. Herein, we report the synthesis and structural analysis of novel carborane-based GCPII inhibitors. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of GCPII in complex with a carborane-containing inhibitor at 1.79Å resolution. The X-ray analysis revealed that the bulky closo-carborane cluster is located in the spacious entrance funnel region of GCPII, indicating that the carborane cluster can be further structurally modified to identify promising lead structures of novel GCPII inhibitors. PMID:26459214

  12. A Novel Selective Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis Inhibitor Relieves Pyrexia and Chronic Inflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Ryusuke; Kuwabara, Harumi; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Kubota, Kazufumi; Imamura, Yuichiro; Kiho, Toshihiro; Tengeiji, Atsushi; Kawakami, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Kohei

    2016-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a terminal prostaglandin in the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Inhibition of PGE2 production may relieve inflammatory symptoms such as fever, arthritis, and inflammatory pain. We report here the profile of a novel selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitor, compound A [N-[(1S,3S)-3-carbamoylcyclohexyl]-1-(6-methyl-3-phenylquinolin-2-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide], in animal models of pyrexia and inflammation. The compound selectively suppressed the synthesis of PGE2 in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells and rat macrophages. In the lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model, this compound selectively reduced PGE2 production in cerebrospinal fluid and showed an anti-pyretic effect. In the adjuvant-induced arthritis model, compound A therapeutically decreased foot swelling in the established arthritis. Our data demonstrates that selective suppression of PGE2 synthesis shows anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting that selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitors can be applied as an alternative treatment to nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or COX-2-selective inhibitors. PMID:26923147

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Resveratrol Derivatives as Melanogenesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Kim, CheongTaek; Jo, Yang Hee; Kim, Seon Beom; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (1), a naturally occurring stilbene compound, has been suggested as a potential whitening agent with strong inhibitory activity on melanin synthesis. However, the use of resveratrol in cosmetics has been limited due to its chemical instability and poor bioavailability. Therefore, resveratrol derivatives were prepared to improve bioavailability and anti-melanogenesis activity. Nine resveratrol derivatives including five alkyl ether derivatives with C₂H₅, C₄H₉, C₅H11, C₆H13, and C₈H17 (2a-2e) and four ester derivatives with CH₃, CH=C(CH₃)₂, CH(C₂H₅)C₄H₉, C₇H15 (3a-3d) were newly synthesized and their effect on melanin synthesis were assessed. All the synthetic derivatives efficiently reduced the melanin content in α-MSH stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells. Further investigation showed that the inhibitory effect of 2a on melanin synthesis was achieved not by the inhibition of tyrosinase activity but by the inhibition of melanogenic enzyme expressions such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1. Our synthetic resveratrol derivatives have more lipophilic properties than resveratrol by the addition of alkyl or acyl chains to free hydroxyl moiety of resveratrol; thus, they are expected to show better bioavailability in skin application. Therefore, we suggest that our synthetic resveratrol derivatives might be promising candidates for better practical application to skin-whitening cosmetics. PMID:26393543

  14. Design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of indoline-2,3-dione derivatives as novel HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kang; Li, Shanshan; Li, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xuechen

    2015-08-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are zinc-dependent or NAD(+) dependent enzymes and play a critical role in the process of tumor development. Herein a series of indoline-2,3-dione derivatives have been designed and synthesized as potential HDACs inhibitors. The preliminary biological evaluation showed that most compounds synthesized have exhibited moderate Hela cell nuclear extract inhibitory activities, among which compound 25a (IC50=10.13 nM) has shown the best efficacy. The anti-proliferative activities of some of these compounds were also discussed. PMID:26100440

  15. Emerging therapeutic roles for NAD(+) metabolism in mitochondrial and age-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sarika

    2016-12-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a central metabolic cofactor in eukaryotic cells that plays a critical role in regulating cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. NAD(+) in its reduced form (i.e. NADH) serves as the primary electron donor in mitochondrial respiratory chain, which involves adenosine triphosphate production by oxidative phosphorylation. The NAD(+)/NADH ratio also regulates the activity of various metabolic pathway enzymes such as those involved in glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and fatty acid oxidation. Intracellular NAD(+) is synthesized de novo from L-tryptophan, although its main source of synthesis is through salvage pathways from dietary niacin as precursors. NAD(+) is utilized by various proteins including sirtuins, poly ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) and cyclic ADP-ribose synthases. The NAD(+) pool is thus set by a critical balance between NAD(+) biosynthetic and NAD(+) consuming pathways. Raising cellular NAD(+) content by inducing its biosynthesis or inhibiting the activity of PARP and cADP-ribose synthases via genetic or pharmacological means lead to sirtuins activation. Sirtuins modulate distinct metabolic, energetic and stress response pathways, and through their activation, NAD(+) directly links the cellular redox state with signaling and transcriptional events. NAD(+) levels decline with mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced NAD(+)/NADH ratio is implicated in mitochondrial disorders, various age-related pathologies as well as during aging. Here, I will provide an overview of the current knowledge on NAD(+) metabolism including its biosynthesis, utilization, compartmentalization and role in the regulation of metabolic homoeostasis. I will further discuss how augmenting intracellular NAD(+) content increases oxidative metabolism to prevent bioenergetic and functional decline in multiple models of mitochondrial diseases and age-related disorders, and how this knowledge could be translated to the clinic for human relevance. PMID

  16. Mitochondria-localized NAD biosynthesis by nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) heterotrophic tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Catello; Pallotta, Maria Luigia

    2011-10-01

    Current studies in plants suggest that the content of the coenzyme NAD is variable and potentially important in determining cell fate. In cases that implicate NAD consumption, re-synthesis must occur to maintain dinucleotide pools. Despite information on the pathways involved in NAD synthesis in plants, the existence of a mitochondrial nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) activity which catalyses NAD synthesis from nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and ATP has not been reported. To verify the latter assumed pathway, experiments with purified and bioenergetically active mitochondria prepared from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) were performed. To determine whether NAD biosynthesis might occur, NMN was added to Jerusalem artichoke mitochondria (JAM) and NAD biosynthesis was tested by means of HPLC and spectroscopically. Our results indicate that JAM contain a specific NMNAT inhibited by Na-pyrophosphate, AMP and ADP-ribose. The dependence of NAD synthesis rate on NMN concentration shows saturation kinetics with K (m) and V (max) values of 82 ± 1.05 μM and 4.20 ± 0.20 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. The enzyme's pH and temperature dependence were also investigated. Fractionation studies revealed that mitochondrial NMNAT activity was present in the soluble matrix fraction. The NAD pool needed constant replenishment that might be modulated by environmental inputs. Thus, the mitochondrion in heterotrophic plant tissues ensures NAD biosynthesis by NMNAT activity and helps to orchestrate NAD metabolic network in implementing the survival strategy of cells. PMID:21598001

  17. Synthesis of benzopentathiepin analogs and their evaluation as inhibitors of the phosphatase STEP

    PubMed Central

    Baguley, Tyler D.; Nairn, Angus C.; Lombroso, Paul J.; Ellman, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a brain specific protein tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. We recently reported the benzopentathiepin TC-2153 as a potent inhibitor of STEP in vitro, cells and animals. Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of TC-2153 analogs in order to define what structural features are important for inhibition and to identify positions tolerant of substitution for further study. The trifluoromethyl substitution is beneficial for inhibitor potency, and the amine is tolerant of acylation, and thus provides a convenient handle for introducing additional functionality such as reporter groups. PMID:25666825

  18. Arylsulfonamide inhibitors of aggrecanases as potential therapeutic agents for osteoarthritis: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Elisa; Santamaria, Salvatore; Casalini, Francesca; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Marinelli, Luciana; La Pietra, Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Nencetti, Susanna; Marini, Anna Maria; Salerno, Silvia; Taliani, Sabrina; Da Settimo, Federico; Nagase, Hideaki; Rossello, Armando

    2013-04-01

    Aggrecanases, in particular aggrecanase-2 (ADAMTS-5), are considered the principal proteases responsible for aggrecan degradation in osteoarthritis. For this reason, considerable effort has been put on the discovery and development of aggrecanase inhibitors able to slow down or halt the progression of osteoarthritis. We report herein the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of arylsulfonamido-based hydroxamates as aggrecanase inhibitors. Compound 18 was found to have a nanomolar activity for ADAMTS-5, ADAMTS-4 and MMP-13 and high selectivity over MMP-1 and MMP-14. Furthermore, this compound proved to be effective in blocking ex vivo cartilage degradation without having effect on cell cytotoxicity. PMID:23376997

  19. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Pai, Ramdas; Cardinale, Steven C.; Butler, Michelle M.; Peet, Norton P.; Moir, Donald T.; Bavari, Sina; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    NSC 240898 was previously identified as a botulinum neurotoxin A light chain (BoNT/A LC) endopeptidase inhibitor by screening the National Cancer Institute Open Repository diversity set. Two types of analogs have been synthesized and shown to inhibit BoNT/A LC in a FRET-based enzyme assay, with confirmation in an HPLC-based assay. These two series of compounds have also been evaluated for inhibition of anthrax lethal factor (LF), an unrelated metalloprotease, to examine enzyme specificity of the BoNT/A LC inhibition. The most potent inhibitor against BoNT/A LC in these two series is compound 12 (IC50 = 2.5 µM, FRET assay), which is 4.4-fold more potent than the lead structure, and 11.2-fold more selective for BoNT/A LC versus the anthrax LF metalloproteinase. Structure-activity relationship studies have revealed structural features important to potency and enzyme specificity. PMID:20155918

  20. Synthesis and metabolism of inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to prepare more effective inhibitors of ribo-nucleotide reductase a series of 2-substituted-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidines was prepared via the appropriately substituted benzamidine. None of the compounds exhibited in vivo activity against L1210 leukemia. No further testing was performed. In order to investigate the metabolism of 3,4-dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid, a known inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, radiolabeled 3,4-dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid was synthesized by a modification of the procedure of Pichat and Tostain. /sup 14/C-3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid was converted to the methyl ester and subsequently reacted with hydroxylamine to give the hydroxamic acid. /sup 14/C-3,4-Dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid was given i.p. to Sprague-Dawley rats. Excretion occurred mainly (72%) via the urine. HPLC coupled with GC/MS analyses showed that the compound was excreted mainly unchanged. The compound was metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxybenzamide, 4-methoxy-3-hydroxybenzohydroxamic acid, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzohydroxamic acid. HPLC analysis also showed the lack of formation of any glucuronide or sulfate conjugates through either the hydroxamic acid or catechol functionalities.

  1. The synthesis of 19-norandrostenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone in equine placenta is inhibited by aromatase inhibitors 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and fadrozole.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, S; Silberzahn, P; Gaillard, J L

    1995-12-01

    19-Norandrostenedione was synthesized in vitro from dehydroepiandrosterone by explants of equine full-term placenta. The synthesis of 19-norandrostenedione was inhibited by two specific aromatase inhibitors, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and fadrozole. PMID:8590376

  2. Large-scale asymmetric synthesis of a cathepsin S inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Jon C; Busacca, Carl A; Feng, XuWu; Grinberg, Nelu; Haddad, Nizar; Johnson, Joe; Kapadia, Suresh; Lee, Heewon; Saha, Anjan; Sarvestani, Max; Spinelli, Earl M; Varsolona, Rich; Wei, Xudong; Zeng, Xingzhong; Senanayake, Chris H

    2010-02-19

    A potent reversible inhibitor of the cysteine protease cathepsin-S was prepared on large scale using a convergent synthetic route, free of chromatography and cryogenics. Late-stage peptide coupling of a chiral urea acid fragment with a functionalized aminonitrile was employed to prepare the target, using 2-hydroxypyridine as a robust, nonexplosive replacement for HOBT. The two key intermediates were prepared using a modified Strecker reaction for the aminonitrile and a phosphonation-olefination-rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation sequence for the urea. A palladium-catalyzed vinyl transfer coupled with a Claisen reaction was used to produce the aldehyde required for the side chain. Key scale up issues, safety calorimetry, and optimization of all steps for multikilogram production are discussed. PMID:20102230

  3. Ovicidal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1990-07-01

    Ovicidal activity was observed in four adult groups (virgin males; virgin females; newly gravid females; and inseminated, reproducing females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) at the LC50's and LC95's determined from fifth-stage nymphs. All compounds were active only when fed to reproducing females (including the feeding period in which the ootheca is developing). Hexafluron and triflumuron at the LC50 caused 100% inhibition of hatch in reproducing females. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 at the LC50 had similar ovicidal activity (45.8 and 50.0% hatch, respectively). Female German cockroaches fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors before mating and after the ootheca had protruded from the abdomen were not affected. Reproductive capabilities of males were not affected, and males did not effectively transfer the compounds to untreated females during mating. PMID:2388230

  4. [Current conservative treatment of renal colic: value of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Zwergel, U; Felgner, J; Rombach, H; Zwergel, T

    1998-04-20

    Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors and parasympatholytic drugs are often used as analgetics in the case of renal colic. This paper analyzes how and whether these drug effects are important for the analgetic therapy. In an animal and in a human model with acutely obstructed kidneys we found that intravenous application of Indometacine and dipyrone significantly reduces renal pelvic pressure. The parasympatholytic drug hyoscine butylbromide did not produce any change of upper urinary tract dynamics. Inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis thus effect pressure reduction in the renal pelvis, which is necessary for analgetic therapy. In contrast, hyoscine butylbromide does not have any influence on the acute upper urinary tract obstruction; consequently its usefulness in the treatment of renal colic is rather doubtful. PMID:12799978

  5. Fidaxomicin Is an Inhibitor of the Initiation of Bacterial RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Artsimovitch, Irina; Seddon, Jaime; Sears, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Fidaxomicin was recently approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. It inhibits transcription by bacterial RNA polymerase. Because transcription is a multistep process, experiments were conducted in which fidaxomicin was added at different stages of transcriptional initiation to identify the blocked step. DNA footprinting experiments were also conducted to further elucidate the stage inhibited. Fidaxomicin blocks initiation only if added before the formation of the “open promoter complex,” in which the template DNA strands have separated but RNA synthesis has not yet begun. Binding of fidaxomicin precludes the initial separation of DNA strands that is prerequisite to RNA synthesis. These studies show that it has a mechanism distinct from that of elongation inhibitors, such as streptolydigin, and from the transcription initiation inhibitors myxopyronin and the rifamycins. PMID:22752861

  6. Amino Compounds as Inhibitors of De Novo Synthesis of Chlorobenzenes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Jia; He, Pin-Jing; Lu, Wen-Tao; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of four amino compounds on the formation of chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - dioxin precursors and indicators, and the inhibitory mechanisms were explored. The results show NH4H2PO4 can decrease the total yields of CBzs (1,2di-CBz, 1,3di-CBz, 1,4di-CBz, penta-CBz and hexa-CBz) by 98.1%±1.6% and 96.1%±0.7% under air and nitrogen flow. The inhibitory effects indicated by the total yields of CBzs follow the order NH4H2PO4 > NH4HF2 > (NH4)2SO4 > NH4Br under air flow and NH4H2PO4 ≈ (NH4)2SO4 ≈ NH4HF2 >NH4Br under nitrogen flow. The inhibition mechanism revealed by thermal analysis that CuCl2 was converted to CuPO3 by reacting with NH4H2PO4 below 200 °C, which can block the transfer of chlorine and formation of C-Cl bonds at 350 °C. The effects of the other three inhibitors were weaker because their reactions with CuCl2, which form other copper compounds, and the reaction of CuCl2 with carbon, which forms C-Cl bonds, were almost simultaneous and competitive. Oxygen influenced the yield of CBzs obviously, and the total yield of five CBzs sharply increased with oxygen. Because of their high efficiency, low environmental impact, low cost, and availability, amino compounds - especially NH4H2PO4 - can be utilized as inhibitors of CBzs during incineration. PMID:27034259

  7. Amino Compounds as Inhibitors of De Novo Synthesis of Chlorobenzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-Jia; He, Pin-Jing; Lu, Wen-Tao; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of four amino compounds on the formation of chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - dioxin precursors and indicators, and the inhibitory mechanisms were explored. The results show NH4H2PO4 can decrease the total yields of CBzs (1,2di-CBz, 1,3di-CBz, 1,4di-CBz, penta-CBz and hexa-CBz) by 98.1%±1.6% and 96.1%±0.7% under air and nitrogen flow. The inhibitory effects indicated by the total yields of CBzs follow the order NH4H2PO4 > NH4HF2 > (NH4)2SO4 > NH4Br under air flow and NH4H2PO4 ≈ (NH4)2SO4 ≈ NH4HF2 >NH4Br under nitrogen flow. The inhibition mechanism revealed by thermal analysis that CuCl2 was converted to CuPO3 by reacting with NH4H2PO4 below 200 °C, which can block the transfer of chlorine and formation of C–Cl bonds at 350 °C. The effects of the other three inhibitors were weaker because their reactions with CuCl2, which form other copper compounds, and the reaction of CuCl2 with carbon, which forms C–Cl bonds, were almost simultaneous and competitive. Oxygen influenced the yield of CBzs obviously, and the total yield of five CBzs sharply increased with oxygen. Because of their high efficiency, low environmental impact, low cost, and availability, amino compounds - especially NH4H2PO4 - can be utilized as inhibitors of CBzs during incineration.

  8. Amino Compounds as Inhibitors of De Novo Synthesis of Chlorobenzenes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si-Jia; He, Pin-Jing; Lu, Wen-Tao; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of four amino compounds on the formation of chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - dioxin precursors and indicators, and the inhibitory mechanisms were explored. The results show NH4H2PO4 can decrease the total yields of CBzs (1,2di-CBz, 1,3di-CBz, 1,4di-CBz, penta-CBz and hexa-CBz) by 98.1%±1.6% and 96.1%±0.7% under air and nitrogen flow. The inhibitory effects indicated by the total yields of CBzs follow the order NH4H2PO4 > NH4HF2 > (NH4)2SO4 > NH4Br under air flow and NH4H2PO4 ≈ (NH4)2SO4 ≈ NH4HF2 >NH4Br under nitrogen flow. The inhibition mechanism revealed by thermal analysis that CuCl2 was converted to CuPO3 by reacting with NH4H2PO4 below 200 °C, which can block the transfer of chlorine and formation of C–Cl bonds at 350 °C. The effects of the other three inhibitors were weaker because their reactions with CuCl2, which form other copper compounds, and the reaction of CuCl2 with carbon, which forms C–Cl bonds, were almost simultaneous and competitive. Oxygen influenced the yield of CBzs obviously, and the total yield of five CBzs sharply increased with oxygen. Because of their high efficiency, low environmental impact, low cost, and availability, amino compounds - especially NH4H2PO4 - can be utilized as inhibitors of CBzs during incineration. PMID:27034259

  9. BRCA1 as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent metabolic switch in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Cao, Ji-Min; Sun, Wu-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xiu-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Both hereditary factors (e.g., BRCA1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent metabolic pathways are implicated in the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. However, whether crosstalk exists between BRCA1 and NAD metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that: (i) BRCA1 inactivation events (mutation and promoter methylation) were accompanied by elevated levels of NAD; (ii) the knockdown or overexpression of BRCA1 was an effective way to induce an increase or decrease of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt)-related NAD synthesis, respectively; and (iii) BRCA1 expression patterns were inversely correlated with NAD levels in human ovarian cancer specimens. In addition, it is worth noting that: (i) NAD incubation induced increased levels of BRCA1 in a concentration-dependent manner; (ii) Nampt knockdown-mediated reduction in NAD levels was effective at inhibiting BRCA1 expression; and (iii) the overexpression of Nampt led to higher NAD levels and a subsequent increase in BRCA1 levels in primary ovarian cancer cells and A2780, HO-8910 and ES2 ovarian cancer cell lines. These results highlight a novel link between BRCA1 and NAD. Our findings imply that genetic (e.g., BRCA1 inactivation) and NAD-dependent metabolic pathways are jointly involved in the malignant progression of ovarian cancer. PMID:25486197

  10. The effect of chitin synthesis inhibitors on the development of Brugia malayi in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, R; Ranjit, M R; Dash, A P

    1996-09-01

    Two chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) viz., triflumuron and hexaflumuron interfere++ with the development of Brugia malayi in Aedes aegypti (a black-eyed Liverpool strain). The development of B. malayi was slow in both the treated populations and the infection rate, infectivity rate and L3 load per mosquito decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in comparison with untreated controls. Hexaflumuron was found to be more inhibiting than triflumuron. PMID:8984113

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues of the kinase inhibitor nilotinib as Abl and Kit inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Duveau, Damien Y.; Hu, Xin; Walsh, Martin J.; Shukla, Suneet; Skoumbourdis, Amanda P.; Boxer, Matthew B.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Shen, Min; Thomas, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the trifluoromethyl group in the polypharmacological profile of nilotinib was investigated. Molecular editing of nilotinib led to the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues where the trifluoromethyl group was replaced by a proton, fluorine and a methyl group. While these analogues were less active than nilotinib toward Abl, their activity toward Kit was comparable, with the monofluorinated analogue being the most active. Docking of nilotinib and of analogues 2a–c to the binding pocket of Abl and of Kit showed that the lack of shape complementarity in Kit is compensated by the stabilizing effect from its juxtamembrane region. PMID:23273517

  12. Induction of DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei by cytoplasmic factors: inhibition by protease inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, R L; Gutowski, J K; Katz, M; Goldfarb, R H; Cohen, S

    1987-01-01

    Cytoplasmic extracts from spontaneously proliferating and mitogen-activated lymphoid cells contain a protein factor called ADR (activator of DNA replication) that induces DNA synthesis in isolated quiescent nuclei. ADR-containing preparations have proteolytic activity, as indicated by their ability to degrade fibrin in a plasminogen-independent and plasminogen-dependent manner. In addition, aprotinin, a nonspecific protease inhibitor, abrogates ADR-induced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent fashion. Preincubation studies demonstrated that the effect of aprotinin is not due to its suppressive effects on the nuclei themselves. Other protease inhibitors such as leupeptin, p-aminobenzamidine, and N-alpha-tosyllysine chloromethyl ketone are also inhibitory, but soybean trypsin inhibitor is without effect. ADR activity can be removed from active extracts by adsorption with aprotinin-conjugated agarose beads and can be recovered by elution with an acetate buffer (pH 5). These findings are consistent with the interpretation that the initiation of DNA synthesis in resting nuclei may be protease dependent and, further, that the cytoplasmic stimulatory factor we have called ADR may be a protease itself. PMID:3540956

  13. A PHGDH inhibitor reveals coordination of serine synthesis and one-carbon unit fate.

    PubMed

    Pacold, Michael E; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Chan, Sze Ham; Rohde, Jason M; Lewis, Caroline A; Swier, Lotteke J Y M; Possemato, Richard; Chen, Walter W; Sullivan, Lucas B; Fiske, Brian P; Cho, Steve; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Shaul, Yoav D; Liu, Chieh Min; Zhou, Minerva; Koh, Min Jung; Chung, Haeyoon; Davidson, Shawn M; Luengo, Alba; Wang, Amy Q; Xu, Xin; Yasgar, Adam; Liu, Li; Rai, Ganesha; Westover, Kenneth D; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Shen, Min; Gray, Nathanael S; Boxer, Matthew B; Sabatini, David M

    2016-06-01

    Serine is both a proteinogenic amino acid and the source of one-carbon units essential for de novo purine and deoxythymidine synthesis. In the canonical pathway of glucose-derived serine synthesis, Homo sapiens phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step. Genetic loss of PHGDH is toxic toward PHGDH-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines even in the presence of exogenous serine. Here, we used a quantitative high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule PHGDH inhibitors. These compounds reduce the production of glucose-derived serine in cells and suppress the growth of PHGDH-dependent cancer cells in culture and in orthotopic xenograft tumors. Surprisingly, PHGDH inhibition reduced the incorporation into nucleotides of one-carbon units from glucose-derived and exogenous serine. We conclude that glycolytic serine synthesis coordinates the use of one-carbon units from endogenous and exogenous serine in nucleotide synthesis, and we suggest that one-carbon unit wasting thus may contribute to the efficacy of PHGDH inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27110680

  14. Boosting NAD to spare hearing.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Ex vivo experiments have strangely shown that inhibition or stimulation of NAD metabolism can be neuroprotective. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Brown et al. (2014) demonstrate that cochlear NAD is diminished by deafening noise but protected by nicotinamide riboside or WldS mutation. Hearing protection by nicotinamide riboside depends on Sirt3. PMID:25470539

  15. Total synthesis of amiclenomycin, an inhibitor of biotin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mann, Stéphane; Carillon, Sophie; Breyne, Olivier; Marquet, Andrée

    2002-01-18

    We describe the first synthesis of amiclenomycin, a natural product that has been found to inhibit biotin biosynthesis and, as a consequence, to exhibit antibiotic properties. Structure 1, with a trans relationship between the ring substituents. had previously been proposed for amiclenomycin on the basis of its 1H NMR spectrum. We have prepared the trans and cis isomers 1 and 2 by unequivocal routes and we conclude that the natural product is in fact the cis isomer 2. The properly substituted cyclohexadienyl rings were constructed first. A cycloaddition reaction between 1,2-di(phenylsulfonyl)ethylene and the N-allyloxycarbonyl diene 13, followed by reductive elimination of the phenylsulfinyl groups, gave the cis isomer 15. To obtain the trans isomer, the O-trimethylsilyl diene was used to give the cis hydroxylated Diels-Alder adduct 33, which was transformed into the corresponding trans amino derivative by means of a Mitsunobu reaction. The L-alpha-amino acid functionality was introduced by means of a Strecker reaction on the aldehydes 16 and 42, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with immobilised pronase. PMID:11843156

  16. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  17. Cholesterol synthesis inhibitors protect against platelet-activating factor-induced neuronal damage

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Clive; Rumbold, Louis; Williams, Alun

    2007-01-01

    Background Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is implicated in the neuronal damage that accompanies ischemia, prion disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since some epidemiological studies demonstrate that statins, drugs that reduce cholesterol synthesis, have a beneficial effect on mild AD, we examined the effects of two cholesterol synthesis inhibitors on neuronal responses to PAF. Methods Primary cortical neurons were treated with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors (simvastatin or squalestatin) prior to incubation with different neurotoxins. The effects of these drugs on neuronal cholesterol levels and neuronal survival were measured. Immunoblots were used to determine the effects of simvastatin or squalestatin on the distribution of the PAF receptor and an enzyme linked immunoassay was used to quantify the amounts of PAF receptor. Results PAF killed primary neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with simvastatin or squalestatin reduced neuronal cholesterol and increased the survival of PAF-treated neurons. Neuronal survival was increased 50% by 100 nM simvastatin, or 20 nM squalestatin. The addition of mevalonate restored cholesterol levels, and reversed the protective effect of simvastatin. Simvastatin or squalestatin did not affect the amounts of the PAF receptor but did cause it to disperse from within lipid rafts. Conclusion Treatment of neurons with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors including simvastatin and squalestatin protected neurons against PAF. Treatment caused a percentage of the PAF receptors to disperse from cholesterol-sensitive domains. These results raise the possibility that the effects of statins on neurodegenerative disease are, at least in part, due to desensitisation of neurons to PAF. PMID:17233902

  18. Neuronal NAD(P)H Oxidases Contribute to ROS Production and Mediate RGC Death after Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Grant, Jeff; Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Hernandez, Eleut; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the role of neuronal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] oxidase–dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after ischemia. Methods. Ischemic injury was induced by unilateral elevation of intraocular pressure via direct corneal cannulation. For in vitro experiments, RGCs isolated by immunopanning from retinas were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). The expression levels of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits were evaluated by quantitative PCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. The level of ROS generated was assayed by dihydroethidium. The NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors were then tested to determine if inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase altered the production of ROS within the RGCs and promoted cell survival. Results. It was reported that RGCs express catalytic Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, Duox1, as well as regulatory Ncf1/p47phox, Ncf2/p67phox, Cyba/p22phox, Noxo1, and Noxa1 subunits of NAD(P)H oxidases under normal conditions and after ischemia. However, whereas RGCs express only low levels of catalytic Nox2, Nox4, and Duox1, and regulatory Ncf1/p47, Ncf2/p67 subunits, they exhibit significantly higher levels of catalytic subunit Nox1 and the subunits required for optimal activity of Nox1. It was observed that the nonselective NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors VAS-2870, AEBSF, and the Nox1 NAD(P)H oxidase–specific inhibitor ML-090 decreased the ROS burst stimulated by OGD, which was associated with a decreased level of RGC death. Conclusions. The findings suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase activity in RGCs renders them vulnerable to ischemic death. Importantly, high levels of Nox1 NAD(P)H oxidase subunits in RGCs suggest that this enzyme could be a major source of ROS in RGCs produced by NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:22467573

  19. Novel Antibiotic-Free Plasmid Selection System Based on Complementation of Host Auxotrophy in the NAD De Novo Synthesis Pathway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei-Ren; Xiang, Li-Xin; Shao, Jian-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotic resistance genes in plasmids causes potential biosafety and clinical hazards, such as the possibility of horizontal spread of resistance genes or the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. This paper introduces a novel auxotrophy complementation system that allowed plasmids and host cells to be effectively selected and maintained without the use of antibiotics. An Escherichia coli strain carrying a defect in NAD de novo biosynthesis was constructed by knocking out the chromosomal quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase) gene. The resistance gene in the plasmids was replaced by the QAPRTase gene of E. coli or the mouse. As a result, only expression of the QAPRTase gene from plasmids can complement and rescue E. coli host cells in minimal medium. This is the first time that a vertebrate gene has been used to construct a nonantibiotic selection system, and it can be widely applied in DNA vaccine and gene therapy. As the QAPRTase gene is ubiquitous in species ranging from bacteria to mammals, the potential environmental biosafety problems caused by horizontal gene transfer can be eliminated. PMID:20118370

  20. LP99: Discovery and Synthesis of the First Selective BRD7/9 Bromodomain Inhibitor**

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter G K; Vieira, Lucas C C; Tallant, Cynthia; Fedorov, Oleg; Singleton, Dean C; Rogers, Catherine M; Monteiro, Octovia P; Bennett, James M; Baronio, Roberta; Müller, Susanne; Daniels, Danette L; Méndez, Jacqui; Knapp, Stefan; Brennan, Paul E; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    The bromodomain-containing proteins BRD9 and BRD7 are part of the human SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes BAF and PBAF. To date, no selective inhibitor for BRD7/9 has been reported despite its potential value as a biological tool or as a lead for future therapeutics. The quinolone-fused lactam LP99 is now reported as the first potent and selective inhibitor of the BRD7 and BRD9 bromodomains. Development of LP99 from a fragment hit was expedited through balancing structure-based inhibitor design and biophysical characterization against tractable chemical synthesis: Complexity-building nitro-Mannich/lactamization cascade processes allowed for early structure–activity relationship studies whereas an enantioselective organocatalytic nitro-Mannich reaction enabled the synthesis of the lead scaffold in enantioenriched form and on scale. This epigenetic probe was shown to inhibit the association of BRD7 and BRD9 to acetylated histones in vitro and in cells. Moreover, LP99 was used to demonstrate that BRD7/9 plays a role in regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:25864491

  1. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  2. Design and synthesis of a series of serine derivatives as small molecule inhibitors of the SARS coronavirus 3CL protease.

    PubMed

    Konno, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Masaki; Takanuma, Daiki; Saito, Yota; Akaji, Kenichi

    2016-03-15

    Synthesis of serine derivatives having the essential functional groups for the inhibitor of SARS 3CL protease and evaluation of their inhibitory activities using SARS 3CL R188I mutant protease are described. The lead compounds, functionalized serine derivatives, were designed based on the tetrapeptide aldehyde and Bai's cinnamoly inhibitor, and additionally performed with simulation on GOLD softwear. Structure activity relationship studies of the candidate compounds were given reasonable inhibitors ent-3 and ent-7k against SARS 3CL R188I mutant protease. These inhibitors showed protease selectivity and no cytotoxicity. PMID:26879854

  3. Synthesis of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI domain 6 by the fragment condensation method and regioselective disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kostas K; Gatos, Dimitrios; Adermann, Knut; Deraison, Celine; Barlos, Kleomenis

    2010-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are of high pharmaceutical interest and are drug candidates for a variety of indications. Specific kallikrein inhibitors are important for their antitumor activity and their potential application to the treatment of skin diseases. In this study we describe the synthesis of domain 6 of the kallikrein inhibitor Lympho-Epithilial Kazal-Type Inhibitor (LEKTI) by the fragment condensation method and site-directed cystine bridge formation. To obtain the linear LEKTI precursor, the condensation was best performed in solution, coupling the protected fragment 1-22 to 23-68. This method yielded LEKTI domain 6 of high purity and equipotent to the recombinantly produced peptide. PMID:20069636

  4. Finding Potent Sirt Inhibitor in Coffee: Isolation, Confirmation and Synthesis of Javamide-II (N-Caffeoyltryptophan) as Sirt1/2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that Sirt inhibition may have beneficial effects on several human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Coffee is one of most popular beverages with several positive health effects. Therefore, in this paper, potential Sirt inhibitors were screened using coffee extract. First, HPLC was utilized to fractionate coffee extract, then screened using a Sirt1/2 inhibition assay. The screening led to the isolation of a potent Sirt1/2 inhibitor, whose structure was determined as javamide-II (N-caffeoyltryptophan) by NMR. For confirmation, the amide was chemically synthesized and its capacity of inhibiting Sirt1/2 was also compared with the isolated amide. Javamide-II inhibited Sirt2 (IC50; 8.7μM) better than Sirt1(IC50; 34μM). Since javamide-II is a stronger inhibitor for Sirt2 than Sirt1. The kinetic study was performed against Sirt2. The amide exhibited noncompetitive Sirt2 inhibition against the NAD+ (Ki = 9.8 μM) and showed competitive inhibition against the peptide substrate (Ki = 5.3 μM). Also, a docking simulation showed stronger binding pose of javamide-II to Sirt2 than AGK2. In cellular levels, javamide-II was able to increase the acetylation of total lysine, cortactin and histone H3 in neuronal NG108-15 cells. In the same cells, the amide also increased the acetylation of lysine (K382) in p53, but not (K305). This study suggests that Javamide-II found in coffee may be a potent Sirt1/2 inhibitor, probably with potential use in some conditions of human diseases. PMID:26986569

  5. Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Katrina L; Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Although baseline requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide, there is growing evidence that substantially greater rates of NAD+ synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological degeneration, Candida glabrata infection, and possibly to enhance reverse cholesterol transport. The distinct and tissue-specific biosynthetic and/or ligand activities of tryptophan, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and the newly identified NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside, reviewed herein, are responsible for vitamin-specific effects and side effects. Because current data suggest that nicotinamide riboside may be the only vitamin precursor that supports neuronal NAD+ synthesis, we present prospects for human nicotinamide riboside supplementation and propose areas for future research. PMID:18429699

  6. Hydrogenase synthesis in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Hupc mutants is altered in sensitivity to DNA gyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Novak, P D; Maier, R J

    1989-01-01

    In the Hupc mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum SR, regulation of expression of hydrogenase is altered; the mutants synthesize hydrogenase constitutively in the presence of atmospheric levels of oxygen. The DNA gyrase inhibitors nalidixic acid, novobiocin, and coumermycin were used to inhibit growth of wild-type and mutant cells. For each inhibitor tested, growth of mutant and wild-type strains was equally sensitive. However, in contrast to the wild type, the Hupc mutants synthesized hydrogenase in the presence of high levels of any inhibitor. Cells were incubated with the drugs and simultaneously labeled with 14C-labeled amino acids, and hydrogenase was immunoprecipitated with antibody to the large subunit of the enzyme. Fluorograms of antibody blots then were scanned to determine the relative amount of hydrogenase (large subunit) synthesized in the presence or absence of the gyrase inhibitors. The amount of hydrogenase synthesized by the Hupc mutants in the presence of 300 micrograms of nalidixic acid per ml was near the level of enzyme synthesized in the absence of the inhibitor. No hydrogenase was detected in antibody blots of wild-type cultures which were derepressed for hydrogenase in the presence of 100 micrograms of coumermycin or novobiocin per ml. In contrast, hydrogenase was synthesized by the Hupc mutants in the presence of 100 micrograms of either drug per ml. The amount synthesized ranged from 5 to 32% and 20 to 49%, respectively, of that in the absence of those inhibitors, but nevertheless, hydrogenase synthesis was detected in all of the mutants examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2547335

  7. Bioorganometallic chemistry: biocatalytic oxidation reactions with biomimetic nad+/nadh co-factors and [cp*rh(bpy)h]+ for selective organic synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Jochen; Hollman, Frank; Ho, The Vinh; Schnyder, Adrian; Fish, Richard H.; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-03-09

    The biocatalytic, regioselective hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl to the corresponding catechol was accomplished utilizing the monooxygenase 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA). The necessary natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) co-factor for this biocatalytic process was replaced by a biomimetic co-factor, N-benzylnicotinamide bromide, 1a. The interaction between the flavin (FAD) containing HbpA enzyme and the corresponding biomimetic NADH compound, N-benzyl-1,4-dihdronicotinamide, 1b, for hydride transfers, was shown to readily occur. The in situ recycling of the reduced NADH biomimic 1b from 1a was accomplished with [Cp*Rh(bpy)H](Cl); however, productive coupling of this regeneration reaction to the enzymatic hydroxylation reaction was not totally successful, due to a deactivation process concerning the HbpA enzyme peripheral groups; i.e., -SH or -NH{sub 2} possibly reacting with the precatalyst, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)](Cl){sub 2}, and thus inhibiting the co-factor regeneration process. The deactivation mechanism was studied, and a promising strategy of derivatizing these peripheral -SH or -NH{sub 2} groups with a polymer containing epoxide was successful in circumventing the undesired interaction between HbpA and the precatalyst. This latter strategy allowed tandem co-factor regeneration using 1a or 2a, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)](Cl){sub 2}, and formate ion, in conjunction with the polymer bound, FAD containing HbpA enzyme to provide the catechol product.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of constrained peptidomimetic dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: amino-lactam boroalanines.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jack H; Wu, Wengen; Zhou, Yuhong; Maw, Hlaing H; Liu, Yuxin; Milo, Lawrence J; Poplawski, Sarah E; Henry, Gillian D; Sudmeier, James L; Sanford, David G; Bachovchin, William W

    2007-05-17

    We describe here the epimerization-free synthesis and characterization of a new class of conformationally constrained lactam aminoboronic acid inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV; E.C. 3.4.14.5). These compounds have the advantage that they cannot undergo the pH-dependent cyclization prevalent in most dipeptidyl boronic acids that attenuates their potency at physiological pH. For example, D-3-amino-1-[L-1-boronic-ethyl]-pyrrolidine-2-one (amino-D-lactam-L-boroAla), one of the best lactam inhibitors of DPP IV, is several orders of magnitude less potent than L-Ala-L-boroPro, as measured by Ki values (2.3 nM vs 30 pM, respectively). At physiological pH, however, it is actually more potent than L-Ala-L-boroPro, as measured by IC50 values (4.2 nM vs 1400 nM), owing to the absence of the potency-attenuating cyclization. In an interesting and at first sight surprising reversal of the relationship between stereochemistry and potency observed with the conformationally unrestrained Xaa-boroPro class of inhibitors, the L-L diastereomers of the lactams are orders of magnitude less effective than the D-L lactams. However, this interesting reversal and the unexpected potency of the D-L lactams as DPP IV inhibitors can be understood in structural terms, which is explained and discussed here. PMID:17458948

  9. Synthesis and characterization of potent inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Murugesan, Srinivasan; Senkovich, Olga; Walker, Kiera; Chenna, Bala C.; Shinkre, Bidhan; Desai, Amar; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2010-09-17

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is a potential target for developing drugs to treat Chagas disease. We have undertaken a detailed structure-activity study of this enzyme. We report here synthesis and characterization of six potent inhibitors of the parasitic enzyme. Inhibitory activity of each compound was determined against T. cruzi and human DHFR. One of these compounds, ethyl 4-(5-[(2,4-diamino-6-quinazolinyl)methyl]amino-2-methoxyphenoxy)butanoate (6b) was co-crystallized with the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase enzyme of T. cruzi and the crystal structure of the ternary enzyme:cofactor:inhibitor complex was determined. Molecular docking was used to analyze the potential interactions of all inhibitors with T. cruzi DHFR and human DHFR. Inhibitory activities of these compounds are discussed in the light of enzyme-ligand interactions. Binding affinities of each inhibitor for the respective enzymes were calculated based on the experimental or docked binding mode. An estimated 60-70% of the total binding energy is contributed by the 2,4-diaminoquinazoline scaffold.

  10. New selective carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of diarylpyrazole-benzenesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Rogez-Florent, Tiphaine; Meignan, Samuel; Foulon, Catherine; Six, Perrine; Gros, Abigaëlle; Bal-Mahieu, Christine; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea; Frédérick, Raphaël; Masereel, Bernard; Depreux, Patrick; Lansiaux, Amélie; Goossens, Jean-François; Gluszok, Sébastien; Goossens, Laurence

    2013-03-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression is increased upon hypoxia and has been proposed as a therapeutic target since it has been associated with poor prognosis, tumor progression and pH regulation. We report the synthesis and the pharmacological evaluation of a new class of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitors, 4-(5-aryl-2-hydroxymethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-benzenesulfonamides. A molecular modeling study was conducted in order to simulate the binding mode of this new family of enzyme inhibitors within the active site of hCA IX. Pharmacological studies revealed high hCA IX inhibitory potency in the parameters nanomolar range. This study showed that the position of sulfonamide group in meta of the 1-phenylpyrazole increase a selectivity hCA IX versus hCA II of our compounds. An in vitro antiproliferative screening has been performed on the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell using doxorubicin as cytotoxic agent and in presence of selected CA IX inhibitor. The results shown that the cytotoxic efficiency of doxorubicin in an hypoxic environment, expressed in IC50 value, is restored at 20% level with 1μM CA IX inhibitor. PMID:23168081

  11. Synthesis of Novel Tricyclic Chromenone-Based Inhibitors of IRE-1 RNase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1) is a kinase/RNase ER stress sensor that is activated in response to excessive accumulation of unfolded proteins, hypoxic conditions, calcium imbalance, and other stress stimuli. Activation of IRE-1 RNase function exerts a cytoprotective effect and has been implicated in the progression of cancer via increased expression of the transcription factor XBP-1s. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel chromenone-based covalent inhibitors of IRE-1. Preparation of a family of 8-formyltetrahydrochromeno[3,4-c]pyridines was achieved via a Duff formylation that is attended by an unusual cyclization reaction. Biological evaluation in vitro and in whole cells led to the identification of 30 as a potent inhibitor of IRE-1 RNase activity and XBP-1s expression in wild type B cells and human mantle cell lymphoma cell lines. PMID:24749861

  12. Solanocapsine derivatives as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase: Synthesis, molecular docking and biological studies.

    PubMed

    García, Manuela E; Borioni, José L; Cavallaro, Valeria; Puiatti, Marcelo; Pierini, Adriana B; Murray, Ana P; Peñéñory, Alicia B

    2015-12-01

    The investigation of natural products in medicinal chemistry is essential today. In this context, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors comprise one type of the compounds most actively studied in the search for an effective treatment of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. This work describes the isolation of a natural compound, solanocapsine, the preparation of its chemical derivatives, the evaluation of AChE inhibitory activity, and the structure-activity analysis of relevant cases. The influence of structural variations on the inhibitory potency was carefully investigated by modifying different reactive parts of the parent molecule. A theoretical study was also carried out into the binding mode of representative compounds to the enzyme through molecular modeling. The biological properties of the series were investigated. Through this study valuable information was obtained of steroidal alkaloid-type compounds as a starting point for the synthesis of AChE inhibitors. PMID:26362598

  13. [The action of catecholamine-synthesis inhibitors and of spiperone on sea urchin and mouse embryos].

    PubMed

    Markova, L N; Sakharova, N Iu; Bezuglov, V V

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effects of three inhibitors of catecholamine synthesis on the development of sea urchins Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. These drugs affected the early embryogenesis, which was expressed in inhibition of the cleavage divisions, appearance of abnormal embryos, and developmental arrest. The addition of arachidonic acid amide and dopamine to the incubation medium weakened the effects of the inhibitors. Spiperone induced developmental defects in preimplantation mouse embryos and sea urchin embryos. Arachidonic acid amide with dopamine exerted a protective effect against spiperone when introduced to sea urchin embryos at the blastula or late gastrula stages, rather than after fertilization. In murine embryos, this amide induced developmental defects and arrest itself and its effect was reversible. Possible mechanisms underlying the effects of these drugs are discussed. PMID:10732361

  14. Inhibitors of the Hydrolytic Enzyme Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH): Discovery, Synthesis and Development.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rhys B; Tommasi, Sara; Lewis, Benjamin C; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2016-01-01

    Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is a highly conserved hydrolytic enzyme found in numerous species, including bacteria, rodents, and humans. In humans, the DDAH-1 isoform is known to metabolize endogenous asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and monomethyl arginine (l-NMMA), with ADMA proposed to be a putative marker of cardiovascular disease. Current literature reports identify the DDAH family of enzymes as a potential therapeutic target in the regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production, mediated via its biochemical interaction with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes. Increased DDAH expression and NO production have been linked to multiple pathological conditions, specifically, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and septic shock. As such, the discovery, chemical synthesis, and development of DDAH inhibitors as potential drug candidates represent a growing field of interest. This review article summarizes the current knowledge on DDAH inhibition and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters of the main DDAH inhibitors reported in the literature. Furthermore, current methods of development and chemical synthetic pathways are discussed. PMID:27187323

  15. Design and synthesis of a new class of cryptophycins based tubulin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Manjeet; Sharma, Simmi; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

    2015-03-26

    Tubulin binding compounds represent one of the most attractive targets for anticancer drug development. They broadly fall into two categories viz., tubulin polymerization inhibitors, which block microtubule growth and destabilize microtubules like vinca alkaloids and cryptophycins, and the others, which polymerize microtubules into hyperstable forms represented by family of taxanes. In this context, we aimed at design and synthesis of cryptophycins based macrocyclic depsipeptides, which are synthetically more accessible, however have the basic information to target tubulins and establish structure activity relationship (SAR). Thus, a new class of cryptophycins based marocyclic depsipeptides with a truncated epoxide chain were synthesized as potential tubulin inhibitors. The resultant lead analogues 15a and 16a exhibited good anti-cancer activity, induced apoptosis, caused block/delay in cell cycle as well as significantly reduced the expression of α- and β-tubulins. Molecular modelling studies show that 15a and 16a bind in the same domain as that of cryptophycins. PMID:25647428

  16. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Protein Synthesis Inhibitors as H-Ras-Nanocluster-Increasing Tumor Growth Inducers.

    PubMed

    Najumudeen, Arafath K; Posada, Itziar M D; Lectez, Benoit; Zhou, Yong; Landor, Sebastian K-J; Fallarero, Adyary; Vuorela, Pia; Hancock, John; Abankwa, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Ras isoforms H-, N-, and K-ras are each mutated in specific cancer types at varying frequencies and have different activities in cell fate control. On the plasma membrane, Ras proteins are laterally segregated into isoform-specific nanoscale signaling hubs, termed nanoclusters. As Ras nanoclusters are required for Ras signaling, chemical modulators of nanoclusters represent ideal candidates for the specific modulation of Ras activity in cancer drug development. We therefore conducted a chemical screen with commercial and in-house natural product libraries using a cell-based H-ras-nanoclustering FRET assay. Next to established Ras inhibitors, such as a statin and farnesyl-transferase inhibitor, we surprisingly identified five protein synthesis inhibitors as positive regulators. Using commonly employed cycloheximide as a representative compound, we show that protein synthesis inhibition increased nanoclustering and effector recruitment specifically of active H-ras but not of K-ras. Consistent with these data, cycloheximide treatment activated both Erk and Akt kinases and specifically promoted H-rasG12V-induced, but not K-rasG12V-induced, PC12 cell differentiation. Intriguingly, cycloheximide increased the number of mammospheres, which are enriched for cancer stem cells. Depletion of H-ras in combination with cycloheximide significantly reduced mammosphere formation, suggesting an exquisite synthetic lethality. The potential of cycloheximide to promote tumor cell growth was also reflected in its ability to increase breast cancer cell tumors grown in ovo. These results illustrate the possibility of identifying Ras-isoform-specific modulators using nanocluster-directed screening. They also suggest an unexpected feedback from protein synthesis inhibition to Ras signaling, which might present a vulnerability in certain tumor cell types. PMID:26568031

  17. Rational Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Coumarin Derivatives as Protein-protein Interaction Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Laura; Agharbaoui, Fatima E; Gitto, Rosaria; Buemi, Maria Rosa; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger; Ferro, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Herein we describe the design and synthesis of a new series of coumarin derivatives searching for novel HIV-1 integrase (IN) allosteric inhibitors. All new obtained compounds were tested in order to evaluate their ability to inhibit the interaction between the HIV-1 IN enzyme and the nuclear protein lens epithelium growth factor LEDGF/p75. A combined approach of docking and molecular dynamic simulations has been applied to clarify the activity of the new compounds. Specifically, the binding free energies by using the method of molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) was calculated, whereas hydrogen bond occupancies were monitored throughout simulations methods. PMID:27546050

  18. Synthesis of novel, peptidic kinase inhibitors with cytostatic/cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Zwolinska, Magdalena; Klossowski, Szymon; Młynarczuk-Biały, Izabela; Biały, Lukasz; Issat, Tadeusz; Malejczyk, Jacek; Ostaszewski, Ryszard

    2014-03-01

    The utility of a novel, chemoenzymatic procedure for the stereocontrolled synthesis of small peptides is presented in the preparation and structure optimisation of dipeptides with cytostatic/cytotoxic activity. The method uses Passerini multicomponent reaction for the preparation of racemic scaffold which is then enantioselectively hydrolysed by hydrolytic enzymes. Products of these transformations are further functionalised towards title compounds. Both activity and selectivity towards tumor cells is optimised. Final compound is shown to be an inhibitor of the protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:24507826

  19. A Synthesis of a Spirocyclic Macrocyclic Protease Inhibitor for the Treatment of Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheol K; Cleator, Ed; Dumas, Aaron M; Hicks, Jacqueline D; Humphrey, Guy R; Maligres, Peter E; Nolting, Andrew F; Rivera, Nelo; Ruck, Rebecca T; Shevlin, Michael

    2016-03-18

    The development of a convergent and highly stereoselective synthesis of an HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitor possessing a unique spirocyclic and macrocyclic architecture is described. A late-stage spirocyclization strategy both enabled rapid structure-activity relationship studies in the drug discovery phase and simultaneously served as the basis for the large scale drug candidate preparation for clinical use. Also reported is the discovery of a novel InCl3-catalyzed carbonyl reduction with household aluminum foil or zinc powder as the terminal reductant. PMID:26950496

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of novel benzylphthalazine derivatives as hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaolong; Peng, Yuanqiu; Lu, Xiuhong; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Weili; Tan, Wenfu; Dong, Xiaochun

    2016-07-01

    We report herein the design and synthesis of a series of novel benzylphthalazine derivatives as hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors. Gli-luciferase assay demonstrated that changing piperazine ring of Anta XV to different four, five or six-membered heterocyclic building blocks afforded significant influences on Hh pathway inhibition. In particular, compound 10e with piperidin-4-amine moiety was found to possess 12-fold higher Hh inhibitory activities comparing to the lead compound in vitro. In vivo efficacy of 10e in a ptch(+/-)p53(-/-) mouse medulloblastoma allograft model also indicated encouraging results. PMID:27180012

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis and Profiling of Two Novel Diazabicyclooctanone β-Lactamase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of two novel cyclopropane-fused diazabicyclooctanones is reported here. Starting from butadiene monoxide, the key enone intermediate 7 was prepared in six steps. Subsequent stereoselective introduction of the cyclopropane group and further transformation led to compounds 1a and 1b as their corresponding sodium salt. The great disparity regarding their hydrolytic stability was rationalized by the steric interaction between the cyclopropyl methylene and urea carbonyl. These two novel β-lactamase inhibitors were active against class A, C, and D enzymes. PMID:25313328

  2. Growth inhibition of human prostate cells in vitro by novel inhibitors of androgen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Klus, G T; Nakamura, J; Li, J S; Ling, Y Z; Son, C; Kemppainen, J A; Wilson, E M; Brodie, A M

    1996-11-01

    The long-standing strategy for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer has been to reduce androgenic stimulation of tumor growth by removal of the testes, the primary site of testosterone synthesis. However, a low level of androgenic stimulation may continue, even after castration, by the conversion of adrenal androgens to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate tumor cells. Two important enzymes of the androgen biosynthetic pathway are 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase, which regulates an early step in the synthesis of testosterone and other androgens in both the testes and adrenal glands, and 5alpha-reductase, which converts testosterone to the more potent androgen, DHT, in the prostate. We have identified new inhibitors of these enzymes that may be of use in achieving a more complete ablation of androgens in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Three derivatives of androstene were shown to inhibit 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase with potencies 2-20-fold greater than that of ketoconazole, a previously established inhibitor of this enzyme. Derivatives of pregnane and pregnene displayed activities against 5alpha-reductase that were comparable to that of N-(1,1-dimethyl-ethyl)-3-oxo-4-aza-5alpha-androst-1-ene-17beta-car boxamide. All of the 5alpha-reductase inhibitors were able to at least partially inhibit the mitogenic effect of testosterone in either histocultures of human benign prostatic hypertrophic tissue or in cultures of the LNCaP human prostatic tumor cell line. For these compounds, it appears that this inhibition can be attributed to a reduction of DHT synthesis in these cultures, because no inhibitory effect was observed in DHT-treated cultures, and none of the compounds had a cytotoxic effect. Surprisingly, one of the inhibitors of 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase, 17beta-(4-imidazolyl)-5-pregnen-3beta-ol, was also able to inhibit the mitogenic effect of testosterone in both the histoculture and cell culture assays and had an effect

  3. Action of Protein Synthesis Inhibitors in Blocking Electrogenic H+ Efflux from Corn Roots 12

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Chris J.; Lafayette, Peter R.; Hanson, John B.

    1981-01-01

    The block in the electrogenic H+ efflux produced by protein synthesis inhibitors in corn root tissue can be released or by-passed by addition of fusicoccin or nigericin. The inhibition also lowers cell potential, and the release repolarizes. Associated with the inhibition of H+ efflux is inhibition of K+ influx and the growth of the root tip; fusicoccin partially relieves these inhibitions, but nigericin does not. The inhibition of H+ efflux which arises from blocking the proton channel of the ATPase by oligomycin or N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide can also be partially relieved by fusicoccin, but not by nigericin; the inhibition produced by diethylstilbestrol is not relieved by fusicoccin. The results are discussed in terms of the presumed mode of action of fusicoccin on the plasmalemma ATPase. Inhibition of protein synthesis appears to inactivate the proton channel of the ATPase, possibly as the indirect result of disrupted metabolism. Fusicoccin reactivates or bypasses the blocked channel. PMID:16661763

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of C(5)-substituted derivatives of leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor BRP-7.

    PubMed

    Levent, Serkan; Gerstmeier, Jana; Olgaç, Abdurrahman; Nikels, Felix; Garscha, Ulrike; Carotti, Andrea; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Werz, Oliver; Banoglu, Erden; Çalışkan, Burcu

    2016-10-21

    Pharmacological intervention with 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway leading to suppression of leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis is a clinically validated strategy for treatment of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis. Here we describe the synthesis of a series of C(5)-substituted analogues of the previously described 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor BRP-7 (IC50 = 0.31 μM) to explore the effects of substitution at the C(5)-benzimidazole (BI) ring as a strategy to increase the potency against FLAP-mediated 5-LO product formation. Incorporation of polar substituents on the C(5) position of the BI core, exemplified by compound 11 with a C(5)-nitrile substituent, significantly enhances the potency for suppression of 5-LO product synthesis in human neutrophils (IC50 = 0.07 μM) and monocytes (IC50 = 0.026 μM). PMID:27423639

  5. Structural and functional characterization of human NAD kinase.

    PubMed

    Lerner, F; Niere, M; Ludwig, A; Ziegler, M

    2001-10-19

    NADP is essential for biosynthetic pathways, energy, and signal transduction. Its synthesis is catalyzed by NAD kinase. Very little is known about the structure, function, and regulation of this enzyme from multicellular organisms. We identified a human NAD kinase cDNA and the corresponding gene using available database information. A cDNA was amplified from a human fibroblast cDNA library and functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The obtained cDNA, slightly different from that deposited in the database, encodes a protein of 49 kDa. The gene is expressed in most human tissues, but not in skeletal muscle. Human NAD kinase differs considerably from that of prokaryotes by subunit molecular mass (49 kDa vs 30-35 kDa). The catalytically active homotetramer is highly selective for its substrates, NAD and ATP. It did not phosphorylate the nicotinic acid derivative of NAD (NAAD) suggesting that the potent calcium-mobilizing pyridine nucleotide NAADP is synthesized by an alternative route. PMID:11594753

  6. Action of Inhibitors of RNA and Protein Synthesis on Cell Enlargement 1

    PubMed Central

    Noodén, Larry D.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1966-01-01

    Further studies with inhibitors of protein synthesis are presented to support the conclusion, drawn from work with chloramphenicol, that protein synthesis is a critical limiting factor in auxin-induced cell expansion. The indoleacetic acid-induced elongation of oat coleoptile sections was strongly inhibited by dl-p-fluorophenylalanine, and the inhibition is antagonized by phenylalanine. Puromycin at 10−4 m very strongly inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced growth of oat coleoptile and artichoke tuber sections and exerted a less powerful effect on pea stem sections. As found earlier with chloramphenicol, concentrations of puromycin effective in inhibiting the growth of coleoptile sections had quantitatively similar effects on protein synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of C14-leucine into protein of the coleoptile tissue. Several analogues of RNA bases were also tested, but while 8-azaguanine very strongly inhibited growth of artichoke tuber disks, 6-azauracil was the only one of this group clearly inhibitory to growth in coleoptile or pea stem sections. Actinomycin D actively inhibited both elongation and the incorporation of C14-leucine into protein in oat coleoptile sections. Inhibition of the 2 processes went closely parallel. Actinomycin D also powerfully inhibited growth of artichoke tuber disks. All the compounds effective in inhibiting growth generally inhibited the uptake of leucine as well. The possibility that auxin causes cell enlargement in plants by inducing the synthesis of a messenger RNA and of one or more new but unstable enzymes, is discussed. Possible but less favored alternative explanations are: A) that auxin induces synthesis of a wall protein, or B) that the continued synthesis of some other unstable protein (by a process independent of auxin) may be a prerequisite for cell enlargement. PMID:5904588

  7. Transinhibition of C1 inhibitor synthesis in type I hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, J; Rosen, F S; Colten, H R; Rajczy, K; Strunk, R C

    1993-01-01

    To ascertain the mechanism for decreased synthesis of C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) in certain patients with the autosomal dominant disorder hereditary angioneurotic edema, we studied expression of C1 INH in fibroblasts in which the mutant and wild type mRNA and protein could be distinguished because of deletion of exon 7 (delta Ex7). In the HANE delta Ex7 cells, the amount of wild type mRNA (2.1 kb) was expressed at 52 +/- 2% (n = 5) of normal, whereas the mutant mRNA was 17 +/- 1% (n = 5) of normal. Rates of synthesis of both wild type and mutant proteins (11 +/- 3 and 3 +/- 1% of normal, respectively) were lower than predicted from the mRNA levels. There was no evidence of increased C1 INH protein catabolism. These data indicate that there are multiple levels of control of C1 INH synthesis in type I hereditary angioneurotic edema. Pretranslational regulation results in < 50% of the mutant truncated 1.9-kb mRNA. In addition, translational regulation results in decreased synthesis of both wild type and mutatn C1 INH proteins. These data suggest a transinhibition of wild type C1 INH translation by mutant mRNA and/or protein. Images PMID:8450054

  8. NAD metabolism in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, J W; Brestel, C

    1982-01-01

    Extracts of Vibrio cholerae were assayed for various enzymatic activities associated with pyridine nucleotide cycle metabolism. The activities measured include NAD glycohydrolase, nicotinamide deamidase, nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase, and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase. The results obtained demonstrate the existence in V. cholerae of the five-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle and the potential for a four-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle. The data presented also suggest that most of the NAD glycohydrolase in V. cholerae extracts is not directly related to cholera toxin. PMID:6119307

  9. Regulation of synthesis and activity of NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) by dexamethasone and phorbol ester in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, C.Q.; Ensor, C.M.; Tai, H.H. )

    1991-06-28

    Dexamethasone stimulated 15-PGDH activity in HEL cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. Increase in 15-PGDH activity by dexamethasone was found to be accompanied by an increase in enzyme synthesis as revealed by Western blot and (35S)methionine labeling studies. In addition to dexamethasone, other anti-inflammatory steroids also increased 15-PGDH activity in the order of their glucocorticoid activity. Among sex steroids only progesterone increased significantly 15-PGDH activity. 12-0-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) also induced the synthesis of 15-PGDH but inhibited the enzyme activity. It appears that TPA caused a time dependent inactivation of 15-PGDH by a protein kinase C mediated mechanism.

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of 5-Lipoxygenase Translocation Inhibitors from Acylnitroso Hetero-Diels-Alder Cycloadducts†

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Joshua K.; Tian, Wen; Wolter, William R.; Cho, Wonhwa; Suckow, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Acylnitroso cycloadducts have proven to be valuable intermediates in the syntheses of a plethora of biologically active molecules. Recently, organometallic reagents were shown to open bicyclic acylnitroso cycloadducts and, more interestingly, the prospect of highly regioselective openings was raised. This transformation was employed in the synthesis of a compound with excellent inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase ((±)-4a, IC50 51 nM), an important mediator of inflammation intimately involved in a number of disease states including asthma and cancer. Optimization of the copper-mediated organometallic ring opening reaction was accomplished allowing the further exploration of the biological activity. Synthesis of a number of derivatives with varying affinity for metal binding as well as pendant groups in a range of sizes was accomplished. Analogues were tested in a whole cell assay which revealed a subset of the compounds to be inhibitors of enzyme translocation, a mode of action not previously known and, potentially, extremely important for better understanding of the enzyme and inhibitor development. Additionally, the lead compound was tested in vivo in an established colon cancer model and showed very encouraging anti-tumorogenic properties. PMID:21365098

  11. Synthesis of 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives and their evaluation as potential GABA uptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, Tim; Höfner, Georg; Wein, Thomas; Wanner, Klaus T

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we disclose the design and synthesis of novel 4-susbtituted nipecotic acid derivatives as inhibitors of the GABA transporter mGAT1. Based on molecular modeling studies the compounds are assumed to adopt a binding pose similar to that of the potent mGAT1 inhibitor nipecotic acid. As substitution in 4-position should not cause an energetically unfavorable orientation of nipecotic acid as it is the case for N-substituted derivatives this is expected to lead to highly potent binders. For the synthesis of novel 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives a linear synthetic strategy was employed. As a key step, palladium catalyzed cross coupling reactions were used to attach the required biaryl moieties to the ω-position of the alkenyl- or alkynyl spacers of varying length in the 4-position of the nipecotic acid scaffold. The resulting amino acids were characterized with respect to their binding affinities and inhibitory potencies at mGAT1. Though the biological activities found were generally insignificant to poor, two compounds, one of which possesses a reasonable binding affinity for mGAT1, rac-57, the other a notable inhibitory potency at mGAT4, rac-84, both displaying a slight subtype selectivity for the individual transporters, could be identified. PMID:27039250

  12. Laboratory evaluation of five chitin synthesis inhibitors against the colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, R; Hejazi, M J; Rahimzadeh Khoei, F; Moghaddam, M

    2007-01-01

    Results of laboratory experiments are reported that tested the effects of five chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron. on second instars of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Crysomelidae), originally collected from potato fields of Bostanabaad, a town 66 km southeast of Tabriz, Iran. In bioassays, the larvae were fed potato leaves dipped in aqueous solutions containing chitin synthesis inhibitors. The mortalities and abnormalities of the treated larvae were recorded 72 hours after treatments. LC(50) values were 58.6, 69.6, 27.3, 0.79 and 81.4 mg ai/ L for diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron, respectively. Compared with phosalone, which is one of the common insecticides used for controlling this pest in Iran, lufenuron and hexaflumuron seem to be much more potent, and if they perform equally well in the field, they would be suitable candidates to be considered as reduced risk insecticides in management programs for L. decemlineata due to much wider margin of safety for mammals and considerably fewer undesirable environmental side effects. PMID:20345285

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Five Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors Against the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Karimzadeh, R.; Hejazi, M. J.; Rahimzadeh Khoei, F.; Moghaddam, M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of laboratory experiments are reported that tested the effects of five chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron. on second instars of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Crysomelidae), originally collected from potato fields of Bostanabaad, a town 66 km southeast of Tabriz, Iran. In bioassays, the larvae were fed potato leaves dipped in aqueous solutions containing chitin synthesis inhibitors. The mortalities and abnormalities of the treated larvae were recorded 72 hours after treatments. LC50 values were 58.6, 69.6, 27.3, 0.79 and 81.4 mg ai/ L for diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron, respectively. Compared with phosalone, which is one of the common insecticides used for controlling this pest in Iran, lufenuron and hexaflumuron seem to be much more potent, and if they perform equally well in the field, they would be suitable candidates to be considered as reduced risk insecticides in management programs for L. decemlineata due to much wider margin of safety for mammals and considerably fewer undesirable environmental side effects. PMID:20345285

  14. Protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate water flow in vasopressin-stimulated toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch, B.S.; Ast, M.B.; Fusco, M.J.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin stimulates the introduction of aggregated particles, which may represent pathways for water flow, into the luminal membrane of toad urinary bladder. It is not known whether water transport pathways are degraded on removal from membrane or whether they are recycled. The authors examined the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin using repeated 30-min cycles of vasopressin followed by washout of vasopressin, all in the presence of an osmotic gradient, a protocol that maximizes aggregate turnover. High dose cycloheximide inhibited flow immediately. Low dose cycloheximide did not affect initial flow. In the absence of vasopressin, inhibition did not develop. Despite the inhibition of flow in vasopressin-treated tissues, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase ratio was elevated in cycloheximide-treated tissues, suggesting modulation at a distal site in the stimulatory cascade. ({sup 14}C)urea permeability was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin also inhibited water flow by the fourth challenge with vasopressin. The data suggest that protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate flow at a site that is distal to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, the reversal of inhibition in MIX-treated tissues suggests that the water pathway can be fully manifested given suitable stimulation. They conclude that either large stores of the transport system are available or that the transport system is extensively recycled on retrieval from the membrane.

  15. The Leishmania nicotinamidase is essential for NAD+ production and parasite proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gazanion, E; Garcia, D; Silvestre, R; Gérard, C; Guichou, J F; Labesse, G; Seveno, M; Cordeiro-Da-Silva, A; Ouaissi, A; Sereno, D; Vergnes, B

    2011-10-01

    NAD+ is a central cofactor that plays important roles in cellular metabolism and energy production in all living cells. Genomics-based reconstruction of NAD+ metabolism revealed that Leishmania protozoan parasites are NAD+ auxotrophs. Consequently, these parasites require assimilating NAD+ precursors (nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside) from their host environment to synthesize NAD+ by a salvage pathway. Nicotinamidase is a key enzyme of this salvage pathway that catalyses conversion of nicotinamide (NAm) to nicotinic acid (Na), and that is absent in higher eukaryotes. We present here the biochemical and functional characterizations of the Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase (LiPNC1). Generation of Lipnc1 null mutants leads to a decrease in NAD+ content, associated with a metabolic shutdown-like phenotype with an extensive lag phase of growth. Both phenotypes could be rescued by an add-back construct or by addition of exogenous Na. In addition, Lipnc1 null mutants were unable to establish a sustained infection in a murine experimental model. Altogether, these results illustrate that NAD+ homeostasis is a fundamental component of Leishmania biology and virulence, and that NAm constitutes its main NAD+ source in the mammalian host. The crystal structure of LiPNC1 we solved allows now the design of rational inhibitors against this new promising therapeutic target. PMID:21819459

  16. Synthesis of novel fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides and nucleotides as potential inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus

    SciTech Connect

    Hilpert, H.

    1989-01-01

    3[prime]-Azido-3[prime]-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2[prime], 3[prime]-dideoxycytidine (DDC) are potent in vivo inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus. Due to their short half-life in the body and undesired side-effects compounds with improved bioavailability were designed. A feature of these analogues was the replacement of the heterocyclic oxygen atom by an isosteric CHF-group thus stabilizing the labile glycosidic bond against metabolic breakdown. A versatile and short synthesis, starting from ketone, serves to construct the highly functionalized and protected key intermediates. These ([alpha]- and [beta]-fluoro epimeric) intermediates were elaborated to eight fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside analogues linked with a thymine base, an adenine base, and a guanine base. An attempt was made to prepare analogues of the potent HIV inhibitor carbovir c. The unexpected oxidation of the double bond of compound d, instead of the desired Baeyer-Villiger ring-expansion, meant that the synthetic scheme was redundant. A second total synthesis involves the preparation of the three fluorocarbocyclic phosphonates. These analogues possess additionally a P-C linkage which should markedly enhance the stability of the side chain. To perform enzyme inhibition tests, three analogues were chemically activated to the biologically active triphosphates. Inhibition tests on HIV associated reverse transcriptase confirmed the high activity of one of the AZT triphosphates. The fluorocarbocyclic counterpart was two orders of magnitude less active. A fluorocarbocyclic phosphonate was twice as active as the AZT triphosphate. Neither the eight nucleoside analogues nor the three phosphonates displayed significant activity against HIV infected cells. Crystallographic data of two fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides, two potent HIV inhibitors, and some 20 examples of 2[prime]-deoxyribonucleosides have been compared.

  17. In vivo protection against soman toxicity by known inhibitors of acetylcholine synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sterling, G H; Doukas, P H; Sheldon, R J; O'Neill, J J

    1988-02-01

    Soman inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, essentially irreversibly, producing an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) which is responsible for many of its toxic effects. Current approaches to treatment include: (1) atropine, a muscarinic receptor blocker; (2) pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM), an enzyme reactivator; and (3) carbamate protection of the enzyme. However, no fully satisfactory regimen has been found, primarily because of the rapid aging process. In this study, compounds known to inhibit ACh synthesis in vitro were evaluated in combination with atropine and 2-PAM so as to assess their potential utility in protection against soman toxicity in rats. Acetylsecohemicholinium (100 micrograms/kg, i.c.v.t., 30 min prior to soman), an inhibitor of high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) and cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in vitro, enhanced the protective effects of atropine and 2-PAM, reducing the mortality within the first 2 hr following soman. N-Hydroxyethylnaphthylvinylpyridine (NHENVP), a quaternary ChAT inhibitor (1.7 mumol/kg, i.m.), significantly reduced the overall percent mortality due to soman from 80% to 20%. The compound was most effective when administered 2-3 min prior to soman and was effective only by the intramuscular route. N-Allyl-3-quinuclidinol, a potent HAChU inhibitor (1 mumol/kg, i.m.) was the most effective quinuclidine analog evaluated, also reducing the percent mortality for a 24-hr period. Unlike NHENVP, it was most effective when given 30-60 min prior to soman. It is suggested from the data that compounds that disrupt presynaptic ACh synthesis in vitro may prove effective in treating organophosphate poisoning. The results demonstrate interesting differences among the compounds studied and provide insight for the design of protectants against soman toxicity. These findings further underscore the need to examine the structure activity and pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, i.e. comparison of routes of

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Protein Crystallography of Biaryltriazoles as Potent Tautomerase Inhibitors of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Pawel; Cisneros, José A.; Robertson, Michael J.; Hare, Alissa A.; Danford, Nadia E.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Optimization is reported for biaryltriazoles as inhibitors of the tautomerase activity of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. A combined approach was taken featuring organic synthesis, enzymatic assaying, crystallography, and modeling including free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations. X-ray crystal structures for 3a and 3b bound to MIF are reported and provided a basis for the modeling efforts. The accommodation of the inhibitors in the binding site is striking with multiple hydrogen bonds and aryl–aryl interactions. Additional modeling encouraged pursuit of 5-phenoxyquinolinyl analogues, which led to the very potent compound 3s. Activity was further enhanced by addition of a fluorine atom adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl group as in 3w, 3z, 3aa, and 3bb to strengthen a key hydrogen bond. It is also shown that physical properties of the compounds can be modulated by variation of solvent-exposed substituents. Several of the compounds are likely the most potent known MIF tautomerase inhibitors; the most active ones are more than 1000-fold more active than the well-studied (R)-ISO-1 and more than 200-fold more active than the chromen-4-one Orita-13. PMID:25697265

  19. A review on ROCK-II inhibitors: From molecular modelling to synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Surmil; Savjani, Jignasa

    2016-05-15

    Rho kinase enzyme expressed in different disease conditions and involved in mediating vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling in the pathogenesis. There are two isoforms of Rho kinases, namely ROCK I and ROCK II, responsible for different physiological function due to difference in distribution, but almost similar in structure. The Rho kinase 2 belongs to AGC family and is widely distributed in brain, heart and muscles. It is responsible for contraction of vascular smooth muscles by calcium sensitization. Its defective and unwanted expression can lead to many medical conditions like multiple sclerosis, myocardial ischemia, inflammatory responses, etc. Many Rho kinase 1 and 2 inhibitors have been designed for Rho/Rho kinase pathway by use of molecular modeling studies. Most of the designed compounds have been modeled based on ROCK 1 enzyme. This article is focused on Rho kinase 2 inhibitors as there are many ways to improvise by use of Computer aided drug designing as very less quantum of research work carried out. Herein, the article highlights different stages of designing like docking, SAR and synthesis of ROCK inhibitors and recent advances. It also highlights future prospective to improve the activity. PMID:27080184

  20. In silico design, synthesis, and screening of novel deoxyhypusine synthase inhibitors targeting HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Marcus; Kolodzik, Adrian; Pfaff, Katharina; Priyadarshini, Poornima; Krepstakies, Marcel; Hauber, Joachim; Rarey, Matthias; Meier, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The human enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) is an important host cell factor that participates in the post-translational hypusine modification of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A). Hypusine-modified eIF-5A plays a role in a number of diseases, including HIV infection/AIDS. Thus, DHS represents a novel and attractive drug target. So far, four crystal structures are available, and various substances have been tested for inhibition of human DHS. Among these inhibitors, N-1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7) has been co-crystallized in the active site of DHS. However, despite its potency, GC7 is not selective enough to be used in drug applications. Therefore, new compounds that target DHS are needed. Herein we report the in silico design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of new DHS inhibitors. One of these inhibitors showed dose-dependent inhibition of DHS in vitro, as well as suppression of HIV replication in cell cultures. Furthermore, the compound exhibited no cytotoxic effects at active concentrations. Thus, this designed compound demonstrated proof of principle and represents a promising starting point for the development of new drug candidates to specifically interfere with DHS activity. PMID:24616161

  1. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  2. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    PubMed

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer. PMID:27156192

  3. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of pyrazinones containing novel P1 needles as inhibitors of TF/VIIa.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, John I; Huang, Horng-Chih; Neumann, William L; Mahoney, Matthew W; Long, Scott; Huang, Wei; Garland, Danny J; Kusturin, Carrie; Abbas, Zaheer; South, Michael S; Reitz, David B

    2007-08-15

    Herein is described the design, synthesis, and enzymatic activity of a series of substituted pyrazinones as inhibitors of the TF/VIIa complex. These inhibitors were designed to explore replacement and variation of the P1 amidine described previously [J. Med. Chem.2003, 46, 4050]. The P1 needle replacements were selected based upon their reduced basicity compared to the parent phenyl amidine (pKa approximately 12). A contributing factor towards the oral bioavailability of a compound is the ionization state of the compound in the intestinal tract. The desired outcome of the study was to identify an orally bioavailable TF-VIIa inhibitor. PMID:17566736

  4. Evaluation of NAD(P)-Dependent Dehydrogenase Activities in Neutrophilic Granulocytes by the Bioluminescent Method.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, A A

    2015-09-01

    Bioluminescent method for measurements of the neutrophilic NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases (lactate dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase, NADP-dependent decarboxylating malate dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, and glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) is developed. The sensitivity of the method allows minimization of the volume of biological material for measurements to 104 neutrophils per analysis. The method is tried in patients with diffuse purulent peritonitis. Low levels of NADPH synthesis enzymes and high levels of enzymes determining the substrate flow by the Krebs cycle found in these patients can lead to attenuation of functional activity of cells. PMID:26468025

  5. Androgen synthesis inhibitors in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Mark N; Patel, Neal; Bershadskiy, Alexander; Sokoloff, Alisa; Singer, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Suppression of gonadal testosterone synthesis represents the standard first line therapy for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. However, in the majority of patients who develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), it is possible to detect persistent activation of the androgen receptor (AR) through androgens produced in the adrenal gland or within the tumor itself. Abiraterone acetate was developed as an irreversible inhibitor of the dual functional cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17 with activity as a 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase. CYP17 is necessary for production of nongonadal androgens from cholesterol. Regulatory approval of abiraterone in 2011, based on a phase III trial showing a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) with abiraterone and prednisone versus prednisone, represented proof of principle that targeting AR is essential for improving outcomes in men with CRPC. Inhibition of 17α-hydroxylase by abiraterone results in accumulation of upstream mineralocorticoids due to loss of cortisol-mediated suppression of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), providing a rationale for development of CYP17 inhibitors with increased specificity for 17,20-lyase (orteronel, galeterone and VT-464) that can potentially be administered without exogenous corticosteroids. In this article, we review the development of abiraterone and other CYP17 inhibitors; recent studies with abiraterone that inform our understanding of clinical parameters such as drug effects on quality-of-life, potential early predictors of response, and optimal sequencing of abiraterone with respect to other agents; and results of translational studies providing insights into resistance mechanisms to CYP17 inhibitors leading to clinical trials with drug combinations designed to prolong abiraterone benefit or restore abiraterone activity. PMID:24759590

  6. Alteration in substrate specificity of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by an acyclic nicotinamide analog of NAD(+).

    PubMed

    Malver, Olaf; Sebastian, Mina J; Oppenheimer, Norman J

    2014-11-01

    A new, acyclic NAD-analog, acycloNAD(+) has been synthesized where the nicotinamide ribosyl moiety has been replaced by the nicotinamide (2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl moiety. The chemical properties of this analog are comparable to those of β-NAD(+) with a redox potential of -324mV and a 341nm λmax for the reduced form. Both yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) catalyze the reduction of acycloNAD(+) by primary alcohols. With HLADH 1-butanol has the highest Vmax at 49% that of β-NAD(+). The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is greater than 3 indicating a significant contribution to the rate limiting step from cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bond. The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in the oxidation of stereospecifically deuterium labeled n-butanol is identical to that for the reaction with β-NAD(+). In contrast to the activity toward primary alcohols there is no detectable reduction of acycloNAD(+) by secondary alcohols with HLADH although these alcohols serve as competitive inhibitors. The net effect is that acycloNAD(+) has converted horse liver ADH from a broad spectrum alcohol dehydrogenase, capable of utilizing either primary or secondary alcohols, into an exclusively primary alcohol dehydrogenase. This is the first example of an NAD analog that alters the substrate specificity of a dehydrogenase and, like site-directed mutagenesis of proteins, establishes that modifications of the coenzyme distance from the active site can be used to alter enzyme function and substrate specificity. These and other results, including the activity with α-NADH, clearly demonstrate the promiscuity of the binding interactions between dehydrogenases and the riboside phosphate of the nicotinamide moiety, thus greatly expanding the possibilities for the design of analogs and inhibitors of specific dehydrogenases. PMID:25280628

  7. NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shin-ichiro; Guarente, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a classical coenzyme mediating many redox reactions. NAD(+) also plays an important role in the regulation of NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, including sirtuins, poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs), and CD38/157 ectoenzymes. NAD(+) biosynthesis, particularly mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and SIRT1 function together to regulate metabolism and circadian rhythm. NAD(+) levels decline during the aging process and may be an Achilles' heel, causing defects in nuclear and mitochondrial functions and resulting in many age-associated pathologies. Restoring NAD(+) by supplementing NAD(+) intermediates can dramatically ameliorate these age-associated functional defects, counteracting many diseases of aging, including neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the combination of sirtuin activation and NAD(+) intermediate supplementation may be an effective antiaging intervention, providing hope to aging societies worldwide. PMID:24786309

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Novaluron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, Against the Housefly, Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Huseyin; Erler, Fedai; Yanikoglu, Atila

    2006-01-01

    A chitin synthesis inhibitor, novaluron, was evaluated under laboratory conditions for its larvicidal activity against a field population of the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), by feeding and dipping methods. The concentrations used were 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg a.i./kg in both methods. The product caused >80% larval mortality at 10 and 20 mg a.i./kg. Of the two methods, feeding was more effective for larvicidal activity at doses above 2.5 mg a.i./kg. After 72 hours, the LC50 and LC90 values were 1.66 and 8.25 mg a.i./kg, respectively, with the feeding method; and 2.72 and 17.88 mg a.i./kg, respectively, using the dipping method. The results showed that the product provided good control of housefly larvae and would greatly reduce adult emergence.

  9. The first synthesis of substituted azepanes mimicking monosaccharides: a new class of potent glycosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqing; Blériot, Yves; Chantereau, Caroline; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Zhang, Yongmin; Rodríguez-García, Eliazar; Vogel, Pierre; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Sinaÿ, Pierre

    2004-05-21

    The synthesis of the first examples of seven-membered ring iminoalditols, molecules displaying an extra hydroxymethyl substituent on their seven-membered ring compared to the previously reported polyhydroxylated azepanes, has been achieved from d-arabinose in 10 steps using RCM of a protected N-allyl-aminohexenitol as a key step. While the (2R,3R,4R)-2-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxy-azepane 10, a seven-membered ring analogue of fagomine, is a weak inhibitor of glycosidases, the (2R,3R,4R,5S,6S)-2-hydroxymethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-azepane 9 selectively inhibits green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase in the low micromolar range (Ki = 2.2 muM) despite a D-gluco relative configuration. PMID:15136805

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel FK228 analogues as potential isoform selective HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Narita, Koichi; Matsuhara, Keisuke; Itoh, Jun; Akiyama, Yui; Dan, Singo; Yamori, Takao; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Katoh, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    Novel C4- and C7-modified FK228 analogues were efficiently synthesized in a highly convergent and unified manner. This synthesis features the amide condensation of glycine-d-cysteine-containing segments with d-valine-containing segments for the direct assembly of the corresponding seco-acids, which are key precursors of macrolactones. The HDAC inhibition assay and cell-growth inhibition analysis of the synthesized analogues revealed novel aspects of their structure-activity relationship. This study demonstrated that simple modification at the C4 and C7 side chains in FK228 is effective for improving both HDAC inhibitory activity and isoform selectivity; moreover, potent and highly isoform-selective class I HDAC1 inhibitors were identified. PMID:27318982

  11. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-pyridylmethylaminopurines as CDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart C; Atrash, Butrus; Barlow, Clare; Eccles, Susan; Fischer, Peter M; Hayes, Angela; Kelland, Lloyd; Jackson, Wayne; Jarman, Michael; Mirza, Amin; Moreno, Javier; Nutley, Bernard P; Raynaud, Florence I; Sheldrake, Peter; Walton, Mike; Westwood, Robert; Whittaker, Steven; Workman, Paul; McDonald, Edward

    2011-11-15

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor seliciclib (1, CYC202) is in phase II clinical development for the treatment of cancer. Here we describe the synthesis of novel purines with greater solubility, lower metabolic clearance, and enhanced potency versus CDKs. These compounds exhibit novel selectivity profiles versus CDK isoforms. Compound αSβR-21 inhibits CDK2/cyclin E with IC(50)=30 nM, CDK7-cyclin H with IC(50)=1.3 μM, and CDK9-cyclinT with IC(50)=0.11 μM; it (CCT68127) inhibits growth of HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro with GI(50)=0.7 μM; and shows antitumour activity when dosed p.o. at 50mg/kg to mice bearing HCT116 solid human tumour xenografts. PMID:21982796

  12. Isolation and Synthesis of a Bacterially Produced Inhibitor of Rosette Development in Choanoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Cantley, Alexandra M; Woznica, Arielle; Beemelmanns, Christine; King, Nicole; Clardy, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta is a microbial marine eukaryote that can switch between unicellular and multicellular states. As one of the closest living relatives of animals, this organism has become a model for understanding how multicellularity evolved in the animal lineage. Previously our laboratories isolated and synthesized a bacterially produced sulfonolipid that induces S. rosetta to form multicellular "rosettes." In this study, we report the identification of a bacterially produced inhibitor of rosettes (IOR-1) as well as the total synthesis of this molecule and all of its stereoisomers. Our results confirm the previously noted specificity and potency of rosette-modulating molecules, expand our understanding of the complex chemical ecology between choanoflagellates and rosette-inducing bacteria, and provide a synthetic probe template for conducting further mechanistic studies on the emergence of multicellularity. PMID:26998963

  13. Isolation and Synthesis of a Bacterially Produced Inhibitor of Rosette Development in Choanoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta is a microbial marine eukaryote that can switch between unicellular and multicellular states. As one of the closest living relatives of animals, this organism has become a model for understanding how multicellularity evolved in the animal lineage. Previously our laboratories isolated and synthesized a bacterially produced sulfonolipid that induces S. rosetta to form multicellular “rosettes.” In this study, we report the identification of a bacterially produced inhibitor of rosettes (IOR-1) as well as the total synthesis of this molecule and all of its stereoisomers. Our results confirm the previously noted specificity and potency of rosette-modulating molecules, expand our understanding of the complex chemical ecology between choanoflagellates and rosette-inducing bacteria, and provide a synthetic probe template for conducting further mechanistic studies on the emergence of multicellularity. PMID:26998963

  14. An inhibitor of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis promotes central nervous system remyelination.

    PubMed

    Keough, Michael B; Rogers, James A; Zhang, Ping; Jensen, Samuel K; Stephenson, Erin L; Chen, Tieyu; Hurlbert, Mitchel G; Lau, Lorraine W; Rawji, Khalil S; Plemel, Jason R; Koch, Marcus; Ling, Chang-Chun; Yong, V Wee

    2016-01-01

    Remyelination is the generation of new myelin sheaths after injury facilitated by processes of differentiating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Although this repair phenomenon occurs in lesions of multiple sclerosis patients, many lesions fail to completely remyelinate. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to remyelination failure, including the upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that comprise part of the astrogliotic scar. We show that in vitro, OPCs have dramatically reduced process outgrowth in the presence of CSPGs, and a medication library that includes a number of recently reported OPC differentiation drugs failed to rescue this inhibitory phenotype on CSPGs. We introduce a novel CSPG synthesis inhibitor to reduce CSPG content and find rescued process outgrowth from OPCs in vitro and accelerated remyelination following focal demyelination in mice. Preventing CSPG deposition into the lesion microenvironment may be a useful strategy to promote repair in multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders. PMID:27115988

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Flurox, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, on the Termite, Microcerotermes diversus

    PubMed Central

    Habibpour, Behzad

    2010-01-01

    Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is the most economically destructive termite in structures in southwest Iran. One sustainable control strategy that usually helps to reduce subterranean termite damage in buildings, is the use of insect growth regualtors in a suitable bait matrix that are safe to the user and the environment. In the laboratory assays described here, the delayed toxicity of Flurox, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, to M. diversus was evaluated under force-feeding and choice trials. Flurox induced worker and nymph mortality and incomplete ecdysis in nymphs of M. diversus under no-choice and two-choice feeding tests. These adverse effects may cause disruption of the caste balance in M. diversus, leading to the collapse of the colony. These assays determined concentrations of Flurox that can be used in bait formulations. PMID:20569123

  16. An inhibitor of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis promotes central nervous system remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Keough, Michael B.; Rogers, James A.; Zhang, Ping; Jensen, Samuel K.; Stephenson, Erin L.; Chen, Tieyu; Hurlbert, Mitchel G.; Lau, Lorraine W.; Rawji, Khalil S.; Plemel, Jason R.; Koch, Marcus; Ling, Chang-Chun; Yong, V. Wee

    2016-01-01

    Remyelination is the generation of new myelin sheaths after injury facilitated by processes of differentiating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Although this repair phenomenon occurs in lesions of multiple sclerosis patients, many lesions fail to completely remyelinate. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to remyelination failure, including the upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that comprise part of the astrogliotic scar. We show that in vitro, OPCs have dramatically reduced process outgrowth in the presence of CSPGs, and a medication library that includes a number of recently reported OPC differentiation drugs failed to rescue this inhibitory phenotype on CSPGs. We introduce a novel CSPG synthesis inhibitor to reduce CSPG content and find rescued process outgrowth from OPCs in vitro and accelerated remyelination following focal demyelination in mice. Preventing CSPG deposition into the lesion microenvironment may be a useful strategy to promote repair in multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders. PMID:27115988

  17. Anti-amyloidogenic effects of glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors occur independently of ganglioside alterations.

    PubMed

    Noel, Anastasia; Ingrand, Sabrina; Barrier, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has suggested that ganglioside abnormalities may be linked to the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that pharmacological inhibition of ganglioside synthesis may reduce amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of two well-established glycosphingolipid (GSL) synthesis inhibitors, the synthetic ceramide analog D-PDMP (1-phenyl 2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol) and the iminosugar N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ or miglustat), as anti-amyloidogenic drugs in a human cellular model of AD. We found that both GSL inhibitors were able to markedly inhibit Aβ production, although affecting differently the APP cleavage. Surprisingly, the L-enantiomer of PDMP, which promotes ganglioside accumulation, acted similarly to D-PDMP to inhibit Aβ production. Concurrently, both D- and L-PDMP strongly and equally reduced the levels of long-chain ceramides. Altogether, our data suggested that the anti-amyloidogenic effects of PDMP agents are independent of the altered cellular ganglioside composition, but may result, at least in part, from their ability to reduce ceramide levels. Moreover, our current study established for the first time that NB-DNJ, a drug already used as a therapeutic for Gaucher disease (a lysosomal storage disorder), was also able to reduce Aβ production in our cellular model. Therefore, our study provides novel information regarding the possibilities to target amyloidogenic processing of APP through modulation of sphingolipid metabolism and emphasizes the potential of the iminosugar NB-DNJ as a disease modifying therapy for AD. PMID:27373967

  18. Structural Basis of Inhibition of the Human NAD+ -Dependent Deacetylase SIRT5 by Suramin

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz,A.; Min, J.; Antoshenko, T.; Wang, C.; Allali-Hassani, A.; Dong, A.; Loppnau, P.; vedadi, M.; Bochkarev, A.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and are emerging as molecular targets for the development of pharmaceuticals to treat human metabolic and neurological diseases and cancer. To date, several sirtuin inhibitors and activators have been identified, but the structural mechanisms of how these compounds modulate sirtuin activity have not yet been determined. We identified suramin as a compound that binds to human SIRT5 and showed that it inhibits SIRT5 NAD+-dependent deacetylase activity with an IC50 value of 22 {mu}M. To provide insights into how sirtuin function is altered by inhibitors, we determined two crystal structures of SIRT5, one in complex with ADP-ribose, the other bound to suramin. Our structural studies provide a view of a synthetic inhibitory compound in a sirtuin active site revealing that suramin binds into the NAD+, the product, and the substrate-binding site. Finally, our structures may enable the rational design of more potent inhibitors.

  19. NAD+-Glycohydrolase Promotes Intracellular Survival of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Onkar; O’Seaghdha, Maghnus; Velarde, Jorge J.; Wessels, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    A global increase in invasive infections due to group A Streptococcus (S. pyogenes or GAS) has been observed since the 1980s, associated with emergence of a clonal group of strains of the M1T1 serotype. Among other virulence attributes, the M1T1 clone secretes NAD+-glycohydrolase (NADase). When GAS binds to epithelial cells in vitro, NADase is translocated into the cytosol in a process mediated by streptolysin O (SLO), and expression of these two toxins is associated with enhanced GAS intracellular survival. Because SLO is required for NADase translocation, it has been difficult to distinguish pathogenic effects of NADase from those of SLO. To resolve the effects of the two proteins, we made use of anthrax toxin as an alternative means to deliver NADase to host cells, independently of SLO. We developed a novel method for purification of enzymatically active NADase fused to an amino-terminal fragment of anthrax toxin lethal factor (LFn-NADase) that exploits the avid, reversible binding of NADase to its endogenous inhibitor. LFn-NADase was translocated across a synthetic lipid bilayer in vitro in the presence of anthrax toxin protective antigen in a pH-dependent manner. Exposure of human oropharyngeal keratinocytes to LFn-NADase in the presence of protective antigen resulted in cytosolic delivery of NADase activity, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death, whereas a similar construct of an enzymatically inactive point mutant had no effect. Anthrax toxin-mediated delivery of NADase in an amount comparable to that observed during in vitro infection with live GAS rescued the defective intracellular survival of NADase-deficient GAS and increased the survival of SLO-deficient GAS. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that delivery of LFn-NADase prevented intracellular trafficking of NADase-deficient GAS to lysosomes. We conclude that NADase mediates cytotoxicity and promotes intracellular survival of GAS in host cells. PMID:26938870

  20. NAD+-Glycohydrolase Promotes Intracellular Survival of Group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Onkar; O'Seaghdha, Maghnus; Velarde, Jorge J; Wessels, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    A global increase in invasive infections due to group A Streptococcus (S. pyogenes or GAS) has been observed since the 1980s, associated with emergence of a clonal group of strains of the M1T1 serotype. Among other virulence attributes, the M1T1 clone secretes NAD+-glycohydrolase (NADase). When GAS binds to epithelial cells in vitro, NADase is translocated into the cytosol in a process mediated by streptolysin O (SLO), and expression of these two toxins is associated with enhanced GAS intracellular survival. Because SLO is required for NADase translocation, it has been difficult to distinguish pathogenic effects of NADase from those of SLO. To resolve the effects of the two proteins, we made use of anthrax toxin as an alternative means to deliver NADase to host cells, independently of SLO. We developed a novel method for purification of enzymatically active NADase fused to an amino-terminal fragment of anthrax toxin lethal factor (LFn-NADase) that exploits the avid, reversible binding of NADase to its endogenous inhibitor. LFn-NADase was translocated across a synthetic lipid bilayer in vitro in the presence of anthrax toxin protective antigen in a pH-dependent manner. Exposure of human oropharyngeal keratinocytes to LFn-NADase in the presence of protective antigen resulted in cytosolic delivery of NADase activity, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death, whereas a similar construct of an enzymatically inactive point mutant had no effect. Anthrax toxin-mediated delivery of NADase in an amount comparable to that observed during in vitro infection with live GAS rescued the defective intracellular survival of NADase-deficient GAS and increased the survival of SLO-deficient GAS. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that delivery of LFn-NADase prevented intracellular trafficking of NADase-deficient GAS to lysosomes. We conclude that NADase mediates cytotoxicity and promotes intracellular survival of GAS in host cells. PMID:26938870

  1. Stimulators and inhibitors of lymphocyte DNA synthesis in supernatants from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vesole, D H; Goust, J M; Fett, J W; Fudenberg, H H

    1979-09-01

    Some T and B lymphoid cell lines (LCL) were found to secrete into their supernatants a substance able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. This substance produced an increase in [3H]thymidine uptake by mononuclear cells when added to unstimulated cultures (mitogenic effect) or when added to cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) (potentiating effect). When complete supernatants were used, the potentiating effect was sometimes masked by an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Fractionation on Sephadex G-100 separated these two activities. The stimulatory substance eluted at a m.w. range of 15,000 to 30,000, and the inhibitor eluted with the albumin peak. B cells with or without monocytes were the most sensitive to the mitogenic effect, whereas T cells were unaffected. Responses to PHA and PWM were potentiated when T cells were present, but the maximum effect was observed when the proportion of T cells was less than 50%. The stimulatory material may be similar to lymphocyte mitogenic factor and may function as a T cell-replacing factor in B cell stimulation. PMID:313950

  2. Synthesis and biological activities of vitamin D-like inhibitors of CYP24 hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Chiellini, Grazia; Rapposelli, Simona; Zhu, Jinge; Massarelli, Ilaria; Saraceno, Marilena; Bianucci, Anna Maria; Plum, Lori A.; Clagett-Dame, Margaret; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2012-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of CYP24A1 represent an important synthetic target in a search for novel vitamin D compounds of therapeutic value. In the present work, we show the synthesis and biological properties of two novel side chain modified 2-methylene-19-nor-1,25(OH)2D3 analogs, the 22-imidazole-1-yl derivative 2 (VIMI) and the 25-N-cyclopropylamine compound 3 (CPA1), which were efficiently prepared in convergent syntheses utilizing the Lythgoe type Horner–Wittig olefination reaction. When tested in a cell-free assay, both compounds were found to be potent competitive inhibitors of CYP24A1, with the cyclopropylamine analog 3 exhibiting an 80–1 selective inhibition of CYP24A1 over CYP27B1. Addition of 3 to a mouse osteoblast culture sustained the level of 1,25(OH)2D3, further demonstrating its effectiveness in CYP24A1 inhibition. Importantly, the in vitro effects on human promyeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell differentiation by 3 were nearly identical to those of 1,25(OH)2D3 and in vivo the compound showed low calcemic activity. Finally, the results of preliminary theoretical studies provide useful insights to rationalize the ability of analog 3 to selectively inhibit the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP24A1. PMID:22133546

  3. Synthesis of a Poly-hydroxypyrolidine-Based inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis GlgE

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Long treatment times, poor drug compliance, and natural selection during treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have given rise to extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). As a result, there is a need to identify new antituberculosis drug targets. Mtb GlgE is a maltosyl transferase involved in α-glucan biosynthesis. Mutation of GlgE in Mtb increases the concentration of maltose-1-phosphate (M1P), one substrate for GlgE, causing rapid cell death. We have designed 2,5-dideoxy-3-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-2,5-imino-d-mannitol (9) to act as an inhibitor of GlgE. Compound 9 was synthesized using a convergent synthesis by coupling thioglycosyl donor 14 and 5-azido-3-O-benzyl-5-deoxy-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-d-fructopyranose (23) to form disaccharide 24. A reduction and intramolecular reductive amination transformed the intermediate disaccharide 24 to the desired pyrolidine 9. Compound 9 inhibited both Mtb GlgE and a variant of Streptomyces coelicolor (Sco) GlgEI with Ki = 237 ± 27 μM and Ki = 102 ± 7.52 μM, respectively. The results confirm that a Sco GlgE-V279S variant can be used as a model for Mtb GlgE. In conclusion, we designed a lead transition state inhibitor of GlgE, which will be instrumental in further elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism of Mtb GlgE. PMID:25137149

  4. The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine decreases melanin synthesis by inhibiting CREB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jun Seob; Jeong, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Myo-Kyoung; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2015-10-01

    Here we examined the effects of a DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, on melanogenesis in Mel-Ab cells. We found that 5-azacytidine decreased the melanin content and tyrosinase activity in these cells in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, 5-azacytidine was not cytotoxic at the concentrations used in these experiments. On the other hand, 5-azacytidine did not affect tyrosinase activity in a cell-free system, indicating that 5-azacytidine is not a direct tyrosinase inhibitor. Instead, 5-azacytidine decreased the protein levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. Thus, we investigated the effects of 5-azacytidine on signal transduction pathways related to melanogenesis. However, 5-azacytidine did not have any effect on either Akt or glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is well known to regulate MITF expression, thereby also regulating tyrosinase expression. We found that 5-azacytidine decreased the phosphorylation of CREB. Therefore, we propose that 5-azacytidine may decrease melanin synthesis by downregulating MITF and tyrosinase via CREB inactivation. PMID:26601420

  5. Synthesis and characterization of phosphocitric acid, a potent inhibitor of hydroxylapatite crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Tew, W P; Mahle, C; Benavides, J; Howard, J E; Lehninger, A L

    1980-04-29

    Human urine and extracts of rat liver mitochondria contain apparently identical agents capable of inhibiting the precipitation or crystallization of calcium phosphate. Its general properties, as well as 1H NMR and mass spectra, have suggested that the agent is phosphocitric acid. This paper reports the synthesis of phosphocitric acid via the phosphorylation of triethyl citrate with o-phenylene phosphochloridate, hydrogenolysis of the product to yield triethyl phosphocitrate, hydrolytic removal of the blocking ethyl groups and also chromatographic purification. An enzymatic assay of phosphocitrate is described. Synthetic phosphocitrate was found to be an exceedingly potent inhibitor of the growth of hydroxylapatite seed crystals in a medium supersaturated with respect to Ca2+ and phosphate. Comparative assays showed phosphocitrate to be much more potent than the most active precipitation-crystallization inhibitors previously reported, which include pyrophosphate and ATP. 14C-Labeled phosphocitrate was bound very tightly to hydroxylapatite crystals. Such binding appeared to be essential for its inhibitory activity on crystal growth. Citrate added before but not after, phosphocitrate greatly enhanced the inhibitory potency of the latter. This enhancement effect was not given by other tricarboxylic acids. The monoethyl ester of phosphocitrate had no inhibitory effect on hydroxylapatite crystal growth. PMID:7378389

  6. Design and synthesis of potent and multifunctional aldose reductase inhibitors based on quinoxalinones.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiangyu; Hao, Xin; Han, Hui; Zhu, Shaojuan; Yang, Yanchun; Wu, Bobin; Hussain, Saghir; Parveen, Shagufta; Jing, Chaojun; Ma, Bing; Zhu, Changjin

    2015-02-12

    Quinoxalin-2(1H)-one based design and synthesis produced several series of aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitor candidates. In particular, phenolic structure was installed in the compounds for the combination of antioxidant activity and strengthening the ability to fight against diabetic complications. Most of the series 6 showed potent and selective effects on ALR2 inhibition with IC50 values in the range of 0.032-0.468 μM, and 2-(3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid (6e) was the most active. More significantly, most of the series 8 revealed not only good activity in the ALR2 inhibition but also potent antioxidant activity, and 2-(3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxystyryl)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid (8d) was even as strong as the well-known antioxidant Trolox at a concentration of 100 μM, verifying the C3 p-hydroxystyryl side chain as the key structure for alleviating oxidative stress. These results therefore suggest an achievement of multifunctional ALR2 inhibitors having both potency for ALR2 inhibition and as antioxidants. PMID:25602762

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of 14-Substituted Aromathecins as Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Maris A.; Morrell, Andrew; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Scher, Evan S.; Pommier, Yves; Cushman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The aromathecin or “rosettacin” class of topoisomerase I (top1) inhibitors is effectively a “composite” of the natural products camptothecin and luotonin A and the synthetic indenoisoquinolines. The aromathecins have aroused considerable interest following the isolation and total synthesis of 22-hydroxyacuminatine, a rare cytotoxic natural product containing the 12H-5,11a-diazadibenzo[b,h]fluoren-11-one system. We have developed two novel syntheses of this system and prepared a series of 14-substituted aromathecins as novel antiproliferative topoisomerase I poisons. These inhibitors are proposed to act via an intercalation and “poisoning” mechanism identical to camptothecin and the indenoisoquinolines. Many of these compounds possess greater antiproliferative activity and anti-top1 activity than the parent unsubstituted compound (rosettacin) and previously synthesized aromathecins, as well as greater top1 inhibitory activity than 22-hydroxyacuminatine. In addition to potentially aiding solubility and localization to the DNA–enzyme complex, nitrogenous substituents located at the 14-position of the aromathecin system have been proposed to project into the major groove of the top1–DNA complex and hydrogen bond to major-groove amino acids, thereby stabilizing the ternary complex. PMID:18630891

  8. The Use of Ascorbate as an Oxidation Inhibitor in Prebiotic Amino Acid Synthesis: A Cautionary Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Hideharu; Eto, Midori; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-12-01

    It is generally thought that the terrestrial atmosphere at the time of the origin of life was CO2-rich and that organic compounds such as amino acids would not have been efficiently formed abiotically under such conditions. It has been pointed out, however, that the previously reported low yields of amino acids may have been partially due to oxidation by nitrite/nitrate during acid hydrolysis. Specifically, the yield of amino acids was found to have increased significantly (by a factor of several hundred) after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid as an oxidation inhibitor. However, it has not been shown that CO2 was the carbon source for the formation of the amino acids detected after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid. We therefore reinvestigated the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids in a CO2-rich atmosphere using an isotope labeling experiment. Herein, we report that ascorbic acid does not behave as an appropriate oxidation inhibitor, because it contributes amino acid contaminants as a consequence of its reactions with the nitrogen containing species and formic acid produced during the spark discharge experiment. Thus, amino acids are not efficiently formed from a CO2-rich atmosphere under the conditions studied.

  9. Secondary NAD+ deficiency in the inherited defect of glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liyan; Ibrahim, Khalid; Stucki, Martin; Frapolli, Michele; Shahbeck, Noora; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Görg, Boris; Häussinger, Dieter; Penberthy, W Todd; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Häberle, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) deficiency is an ultra-rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism that has been described in only three patients so far. The disease is characterized by neonatal onset of severe encephalopathy, low levels of glutamine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, chronic moderate hyperammonemia, and an overall poor prognosis in the absence of an effective treatment. Recently, enteral glutamine supplementation was shown to be a safe and effective therapy for this disease but there are no data available on the long-term effects of this intervention. The amino acid glutamine, severely lacking in this disorder, is central to many metabolic pathways in the human organism and is involved in the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) starting from tryptophan or niacin as nicotinate, but not nicotinamide. Using fibroblasts, leukocytes, and immortalized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from a patient carrying a GLUL gene point mutation associated with impaired GS activity, we tested whether glutamine deficiency in this patient results in NAD(+) depletion and whether it can be rescued by supplementation with glutamine, nicotinamide or nicotinate. The present study shows that congenital GS deficiency is associated with NAD(+) depletion in fibroblasts, leukocytes and PBSC, which may contribute to the severe clinical phenotype of the disease. Furthermore, it shows that NAD(+) depletion can be rescued by nicotinamide supplementation in fibroblasts and leukocytes, which may open up potential therapeutic options for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:25896882

  10. New MKLP-2 inhibitors in the paprotrain series: Design, synthesis and biological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Labrière, Christophe; Talapatra, Sandeep K; Thoret, Sylviane; Bougeret, Cécile; Kozielski, Frank; Guillou, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Members of the kinesin superfamily are involved in key functions during intracellular transport and cell division. Their involvement in cell division makes certain kinesins potential targets for drug development in cancer chemotherapy. The two most advanced kinesin targets are Eg5 and CENP-E with inhibitors in clinical trials. Other mitotic kinesins are also being investigated for their potential as prospective drug targets. One recently identified novel potential cancer therapeutic target is the Mitotic kinesin-like protein 2 (MKLP-2), a member of the kinesin-6 family, which plays an essential role during cytokinesis. Previous studies have shown that inhibition of MKLP-2 leads to binucleated cells due to failure of cytokinesis. We have previously identified compound 1 (paprotrain) as the first selective inhibitor of MKLP-2. Herein we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of new analogs of 1. Our structure-activity relationship (SAR) study reveals the key chemical elements in the paprotrain family necessary for MKLP-2 inhibition. We have successfully identified one MKLP-2 inhibitor 9a that is more potent than paprotrain. In addition, in vitro analysis of a panel of kinesins revealed that this compound is selective for MKLP-2 compared to other kinesins tested and also does not have an effect on microtubule dynamics. Upon testing in different cancer cell lines, we find that the more potent paprotrain analog is also more active than paprotrain in 10 different cancer cell lines. Increased selectivity and higher potency is therefore a step forward toward establishing MKLP-2 as a potential cancer drug target. PMID:26778612

  11. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2008-05-01

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.

  12. The synthesis of lysylfluoromethanes and their properties as inhibitors of trypsin, plasmin and cathepsin B.

    PubMed Central

    Angliker, H; Wikstrom, P; Rauber, P; Shaw, E

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of two lysylfluoromethanes is described by an extension of the synthesis method of Rauber, Angliker, Walker & Shaw [(1986) Biochem. J. 239, 633-640]. Ala-Phe-Lys-CH2F was found to be an active-centre-directed inhibitor of plasmin and trypsin, as is the corresponding chloromethane. However, the rate of covalent-bond formation is about an order of magnitude lower at 25 degrees C for the fluoro derivative. It was, in addition, an extremely effective inactivator of cathepsin B at pH 5.4 and 6.4. The chemical reactivity of fluoromethanes was compared with that of chloromethanes as alkylators of GSH. At pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, a fluoromethane has 1/500th the reactivity of a chloromethane. A comparison of the rates of reaction of the fluoromethane with cathepsin B and with GSH at pH 6.4 revealed an enhancement of 10(8)-fold for the alkylation of the enzyme, ascribable largely to a proximity effect. PMID:2954536

  13. Regulation of the Nampt-mediated NAD salvage pathway and its therapeutic implications in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huai-Qiang; Zhuang, Zhuo-Nan; Li, Hao; Tian, Tian; Lu, Yun-Xin; Fan, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Mo, Hai-Yu; Sheng, Hui; Chiao, Paul J; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2016-08-28

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a crucial cofactor for the redox reactions in the metabolic pathways of cancer cells that have elevated aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). Cancer cells are reported to rely on NAD recycling and inhibition of the NAD salvage pathway causes metabolic collapse and cell death. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and clinical implications for the NAD salvage pathway in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. This study showed that the expression of Nampt, the rate-limiting enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway, was significantly increased in PDAC cells and PDAC tissues. Additionally, inhibition of Nampt impaired tumor growth in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, which was accompanied by a decreased cellular NAD level and glycolytic activity. Mechanistically, the Nampt expression was independent of Kras and p16 status, but it was directly regulated by miR-206, which was inversely correlated with the expression of Nampt in PDAC tissues. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Nampt by its inhibitor, FK866, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in PDAC cells and in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In conclusion, the present study revealed a novel regulatory mechanism for Nampt in PDAC and suggested that Nampt inhibition may override gemcitabine resistance by decreasing the NAD level and suppressing glycolytic activity, warranting further clinical investigation for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:27233476

  14. Tributyltin induces mitochondrial fission through NAD-IDH dependent mitofusin degradation in human embryonic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro; Nakano, Mizuho; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2015-08-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine disruptors. TBT acts at the nanomolar level through genomic pathways via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR). We recently reported that TBT inhibits cell growth and the ATP content in the human embryonic carcinoma cell line NT2/D1 via a non-genomic pathway involving NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH), which metabolizes isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAD-IDH mediates TBT toxicity remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of TBT on mitochondrial NAD-IDH and energy production. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that nanomolar TBT levels induced mitochondrial fragmentation. TBT also degraded the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2. Interestingly, apigenin, an inhibitor of NAD-IDH, mimicked the effects of TBT. Incubation with an α-ketoglutarate analogue partially recovered TBT-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, supporting the involvement of NAD-IDH. Our data suggest that nanomolar TBT levels impair mitochondrial quality control via NAD-IDH in NT2/D1 cells. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess cytotoxicity associated with metal exposure. PMID:25909344

  15. Modulation of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter by inhibitors of DNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pressacco, J.; Wiley, J. S.; Jamieson, G. P.; Erlichman, C.; Hedley, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the equilibrative, S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive nucleoside transporter (es), a component of the nucleoside salvage pathway, was measured during unperturbed growth and following exposure to various antimetabolites at growth-inhibitory concentrations. The probe 5-(SAENTA-x8)-fluorescein is a highly modified form of adenosine incorporating a fluorescein molecule. It binds. with high affinity and specificity to the (es) nucleoside transporter at a 1:1 stoichiometry, allowing reliable estimates of es expression by flow cytometry. Using a dual labelling technique which combined the vital DNA dye Hoechst-33342 and 5-(SAENTA-x8)-fluorescein, we found that surface expression of es approximately doubled between G1 and G2 + M phases of the cell cycle. To address the question of whether es expression could be modulated in cells exposed to drugs which inhibit de novo synthesis of nucleotides, cells were exposed to antimetabolite drugs having different modes of action. Hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which inhibit the de novo synthesis of DNA precursors, produced increases in the expression of es. In contrast, cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) and aphidicolin, which directly inhibit DNA synthesis, produced no significant increase in es expression. Thymidine (TdR), which is an allosteric inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase that depletes dATP, dCTP and dGTP pools while repleting the dTTP pool, had no significant effect on es expression. These data suggest that surface expression of the es nucleoside transporter is regulated by a mechanism which is sensitive to the supply of deoxynucleotides. Because 5-FU (which specifically depletes dTTP pools) causes a large increase in expression whereas TdR (which depletes all precursors except dTTP) does not, this mechanism might be particularly sensitive to dTTP pools. PMID:7547244

  16. Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of New Selective Inhibitors of Microbial Class II (Zinc Dependent) Fructose Bis-phosphate Aldolases

    SciTech Connect

    R Daher; M Coincon; M Fonvielle; P Gest; M Guerin; M Jackson; J Sygusch; M Therisod

    2011-12-31

    We report the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of several selective inhibitors of class II (zinc dependent) fructose bis-phosphate aldolases (Fba). The products were designed as transition-state analogues of the catalyzed reaction, structurally related to the substrate fructose bis-phosphate (or sedoheptulose bis-phosphate) and based on an N-substituted hydroxamic acid, as a chelator of the zinc ion present in active site. The compounds synthesized were tested on class II Fbas from various pathogenic microorganisms and, by comparison, on a mammalian class I Fba. The best inhibitor shows Ki against class II Fbas from various pathogens in the nM range, with very high selectivity (up to 105). Structural analyses of inhibitors in complex with aldolases rationalize and corroborate the enzymatic kinetics results. These inhibitors represent lead compounds for the preparation of new synthetic antibiotics, notably for tuberculosis prophylaxis.

  17. Acquisition of a Potent and Selective TC-PTP Inhibitor via a Stepwise Fluorophoretagged Combinatorial Synthesis and Screening Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Luo, Yong; Gunawan, Andrea; Lawrence, David S.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2009-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate a broad range of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and the immune responses. Dysfunction of PTP activity is associated with cancers, metabolic syndromes, and autoimmune disorders. Consequently, small molecule PTP inhibitors should not only serve as powerful tools to delineate the physiological roles of these enzymes in vivo, but also as lead compounds for therapeutic development. We describe a novel stepwise fluorophore-tagged combinatorial library synthesis and competitive fluorescence polarization screening approach that transforms a weak and general PTP inhibitor into an extremely potent and selective TC-PTP inhibitor with highly efficacious cellular activity. The result serves as a proof-of-concept in PTP inhibitor development, as it demonstrates the feasibility of acquiring potent, yet highly selective, cell permeable PTP inhibitory agents. Given the general nature of the approach, this strategy should be applicable to other PTP targets. PMID:19737019

  18. Design, synthesis, molecular docking studies and in vitro screening of ethyl 4-(3-benzoylthioureido) benzoates as urease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Khan, Muhammad Siraj; Rafique, Hummera; Shahid, Mohammad; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-02-01

    Thioureas are exceptionally versatile building blocks towards the synthesis of wide variety of heterocyclic systems, which also possess extensive range of pharmacological activities. The substituted benzoic acids were converted into corresponding acid chlorides, these acid chlorides were then treated with potassium thiocyanate in acetone and then the reaction mixture was refluxed for 1-2h afford ethyl 4-(3-benzoylthioureido)benzoates thioureas in good yields. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their urease inhibitory activities and were found to be potent inhibitors of urease enzyme. Compounds 1f and 1g were identified as the most potent urease inhibitors (IC50 0.21 and 0.13 μM, respectively), and was 100-fold more potent than the standard inhibitors. Further molecular docking studies were carried out using the crystal structure of urease to find out the binding mode of the inhibitors with the enzyme. PMID:24269986

  19. Regulatory Mechanisms in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in First Internodes of Sorghum vulgare: Effect of Presumed Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Helen A.

    1966-01-01

    There was a 6 to 24-hour lag in the production of anthocyanins in the light after excision of 4-day-old etiolated internodes of Sorghum vulgare variety Wheatland milo. In internodes infiltrated with water, apigeninidin was formed first at 12 to 24 hours and continued to be produced slowly. Luteolinidin was formed slightly later, but its formation rapidly exceeded that of apigeninidin. Cyanidin was the last type to be produced, but equaled the amounts of luteolinidin by 4 days. In noninfiltrated internodes, the production of cyanidin was greatly accelerated, beginning at about 6 hours. Data from experiments with inhibitors that presumably affect protein synthesis at different loci indicated that protein synthesis was necessary for maximum production of all 3 anthocyanins, but that different steps were rate limiting. Light independent synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin was inhibited by chloramphenicol and l-ethionine but not by actinomycin D and 8-azaguanine. However, the synthesis of these 2 anthocyanins was not inhibited by puromycin, but was sometimes stimulated. The light-induced synthesis of cyanidin was inhibited by actinomycin, azaguanine, chloramphenicol and ethionine. Actinomycin no longer was inhibitory if added after incubation for 6 hours in air. All inhibitors were capable of inhibiting to various degrees either the incorporation of 14C-uracil into RNA or 14C-leucine into protein. The inhibitor data suggest that the light insensitive synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin may be controlled by enzyme synthesis at the level of ribosomes via stable mRNA, while the light-induced production of cyanidin is dependent initially on the production of mRNA. The latter hypothesis is similar to that recently proposed by Lange and Mohr for a cyanidin produced in Sinapis seedlings. PMID:16656361

  20. Intracellular NAD+ levels are associated with LPS-induced TNF-α release in pro-inflammatory macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shabany, Abbas Jawad; Moody, Alan John; Foey, Andrew David; Billington, Richard Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism and immune responses have been shown to be closely linked and as our understanding increases, so do the intricacies of the level of linkage. NAD+ has previously been shown to regulate tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis and TNF-α has been shown to regulate NAD+ homoeostasis providing a link between a pro-inflammatory response and redox status. In the present study, we have used THP-1 differentiation into pro- (M1-like) and anti- (M2-like) inflammatory macrophage subset models to investigate this link further. Pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages showed different resting NAD+ levels and expression levels of NAD+ homoeostasis enzymes. Challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a pro-inflammatory stimulus for macrophages, caused a large, biphasic and transient increase in NAD+ levels in pro- but not anti-inflammatory macrophages that were correlated with TNF-α release and inhibition of certain NAD+ synthesis pathways blocked TNF-α release. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation also caused changes in mRNA levels of some NAD+ homoeostasis enzymes in M1-like cells. Surprisingly, despite M2-like cells not releasing TNF-α or changing NAD+ levels in response to lipopolysaccharide, they showed similar mRNA changes compared with M1-like cells. These data further strengthen the link between pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and NAD+. The agonist-induced rise in NAD+ shows striking parallels to well-known second messengers and raises the possibility that NAD+ is acting in a similar manner in this model. PMID:26764408

  1. NAD+ metabolism in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Peter; Bogan, Katrina L; Brenner, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is both a coenzyme for hydride-transfer enzymes and a substrate for NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, which include ADP-ribose transferases, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, cADP-ribose synthases and sirtuins. Recent results establish protective roles for NAD(+) that might be applicable therapeutically to prevent neurodegenerative conditions and to fight Candida glabrata infection. In addition, the contribution that NAD(+) metabolism makes to lifespan extension in model systems indicates that therapies to boost NAD(+) might promote some of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. Nicotinamide riboside, the recently discovered nucleoside precursor of NAD(+) in eukaryotic systems, might have advantages as a therapy to elevate NAD(+) without inhibiting sirtuins, which is associated with high-dose nicotinamide, or incurring the unpleasant side-effects of high-dose nicotinic acid. PMID:17161604

  2. Nicotinamide mononucleotide synthetase is the key enzyme for an alternative route of NAD biosynthesis in Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Sorci, Leonardo; Martynowski, Dariusz; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Eyobo, Yvonne; Zogaj, Xhavit; Klose, Karl E; Nikolaev, Evgeni V; Magni, Giulio; Zhang, Hong; Osterman, Andrei L

    2009-03-01

    Enzymes involved in the last 2 steps of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) cofactor biosynthesis, which catalyze the adenylylation of the nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) precursor to nicotinic acid dinucleotide (NaAD) followed by its amidation to NAD, constitute promising drug targets for the development of new antibiotics. These enzymes, NaMN adenylyltransferase (gene nadD) and NAD synthetase (gene nadE), respectively, are indispensable and conserved in nearly all bacterial pathogens. However, a comparative genome analysis of Francisella tularensis allowed us to predict the existence of an alternative route of NAD synthesis in this category A priority pathogen, the causative agent of tularaemia. In this route, the amidation of NaMN to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) occurs before the adenylylation reaction, which converts this alternative intermediate to the NAD cofactor. The first step is catalyzed by NMN synthetase, which was identified and characterized in this study. A crystal structure of this enzyme, a divergent member of the NadE family, was solved at 1.9-A resolution in complex with reaction products, providing a rationale for its unusual substrate preference for NaMN over NaAD. The second step is performed by NMN adenylyltransferase of the NadM family. Here, we report validation of the predicted route (NaMN --> NMN --> NAD) in F. tularensis including mathematical modeling, in vitro reconstitution, and in vivo metabolite analysis in comparison with a canonical route (NaMN --> NaAD --> NAD) of NAD biosynthesis as represented by another deadly bacterial pathogen, Bacillus anthracis. PMID:19204287

  3. Nicotinamide mononucleotide synthetase is the key enzyme for an alternative route of NAD biosynthesis in Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Sorci, Leonardo; Martynowski, Dariusz; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Eyobo, Yvonne; Zogaj, Xhavit; Klose, Karl E.; Nikolaev, Evgeni V.; Magni, Giulio; Zhang, Hong; Osterman, Andrei L.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes involved in the last 2 steps of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) cofactor biosynthesis, which catalyze the adenylylation of the nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) precursor to nicotinic acid dinucleotide (NaAD) followed by its amidation to NAD, constitute promising drug targets for the development of new antibiotics. These enzymes, NaMN adenylyltransferase (gene nadD) and NAD synthetase (gene nadE), respectively, are indispensable and conserved in nearly all bacterial pathogens. However, a comparative genome analysis of Francisella tularensis allowed us to predict the existence of an alternative route of NAD synthesis in this category A priority pathogen, the causative agent of tularaemia. In this route, the amidation of NaMN to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) occurs before the adenylylation reaction, which converts this alternative intermediate to the NAD cofactor. The first step is catalyzed by NMN synthetase, which was identified and characterized in this study. A crystal structure of this enzyme, a divergent member of the NadE family, was solved at 1.9-Å resolution in complex with reaction products, providing a rationale for its unusual substrate preference for NaMN over NaAD. The second step is performed by NMN adenylyltransferase of the NadM family. Here, we report validation of the predicted route (NaMN → NMN → NAD) in F. tularensis including mathematical modeling, in vitro reconstitution, and in vivo metabolite analysis in comparison with a canonical route (NaMN → NaAD → NAD) of NAD biosynthesis as represented by another deadly bacterial pathogen, Bacillus anthracis. PMID:19204287

  4. Identification of a pentatricopeptide repeat protein implicated in splicing of intron 1 of mitochondrial nad7 transcripts.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Calder, Grant; Mugford, Sam T; Tanz, Sandra; Lee, Bok-Rye; Zechmann, Bernd; Small, Ian; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2010-10-15

    Splicing of plant organellar transcripts is facilitated by members of a large protein family, the pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. We have identified a pentatricopeptide repeat protein in a genetic screen for mutants resistant to inhibition of root growth by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis and consequently named BIR6 (BSO-insensitive roots 6). BIR6 is involved in splicing of intron 1 of the mitochondrial nad7 transcript. Loss-of-function mutations in BIR6 result in a strongly reduced accumulation of fully processed nad7 transcript. This affects assembly of Complex I and results in moderate growth retardation. In agreement with disruption of Complex I function, the genes encoding alternative NADH oxidizing enzymes are induced in the mutant, and the mutant plants are less sensitive to mannitol and salt stress. Mutation in the BIR6 gene allowed normal root growth in presence of BSO and strongly attenuated depletion of glutathione content at these conditions. The same phenotype was observed with other mutants affected in function of Complex I, thus reinforcing the importance of Complex I function for cellular redox homeostasis. PMID:20682769

  5. Identification of a Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Implicated in Splicing of Intron 1 of Mitochondrial nad7 Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Koprivova, Anna; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Calder, Grant; Mugford, Sam T.; Tanz, Sandra; Lee, Bok-Rye; Zechmann, Bernd; Small, Ian; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Splicing of plant organellar transcripts is facilitated by members of a large protein family, the pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. We have identified a pentatricopeptide repeat protein in a genetic screen for mutants resistant to inhibition of root growth by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis and consequently named BIR6 (BSO-insensitive roots 6). BIR6 is involved in splicing of intron 1 of the mitochondrial nad7 transcript. Loss-of-function mutations in BIR6 result in a strongly reduced accumulation of fully processed nad7 transcript. This affects assembly of Complex I and results in moderate growth retardation. In agreement with disruption of Complex I function, the genes encoding alternative NADH oxidizing enzymes are induced in the mutant, and the mutant plants are less sensitive to mannitol and salt stress. Mutation in the BIR6 gene allowed normal root growth in presence of BSO and strongly attenuated depletion of glutathione content at these conditions. The same phenotype was observed with other mutants affected in function of Complex I, thus reinforcing the importance of Complex I function for cellular redox homeostasis. PMID:20682769

  6. Induction of α-Amylase Inhibitor Synthesis in Barley Embryos and Young Seedlings by Abscisic Acid and Dehydration Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Masumi; Walker-Simmons, M.; Munro, Doug; Hill, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    An endogenous α-amylase inhibitor was found to be synthesized in embryos of developing barley grain (Hordeum vulgare cv Bonanza). Accumulation of this protein occurred late in development (stage IV), at the same time that endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) showed a large increase. The inhibitor could be induced up to 23-fold in isolated immature embryos (stage III) by culture in ABA. Precocious germination was also blocked in stage III embryos by ABA. Dehydration stress on the isolated immature embryos also induced higher levels of the inhibitor and ABA. An even greater response to dehydration stress was observed in young seedlings, where inhibitor content increased 20-fold and ABA increased 80-fold during water stress. The high degree of correlation between ABA and inhibitor contents in in situ embryos, dehydrated embryos and young seedlings, as well as the increase in inhibitor caused by exogenously applied ABA to isolated embryos, suggests that increased α-amylase inhibitor synthesis in response to dehydration stress is mediated by ABA. PMID:16667035

  7. Novel 2-oxoimidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives as Hepatitis C virus NS3-4A serine protease inhibitors: synthesis, activity, and X-ray crystal structure of an enzyme inhibitor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Arasappan, Ashok; Njoroge, F. George; Parekh, Tejal N.; Yang, Xiaozheng; Pichardo, John; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Prongay, Andrew; Yao, Nanhua; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor

    2008-06-30

    Synthesis and HCV NS3 serine protease inhibitory activity of some novel 2-oxoimidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives are reported. Inhibitors derived from this new P2 core exhibited activity in the low {micro}M range. X-ray structure of an inhibitor, 15c bound to the protease is presented.

  8. In vitro characterization of the NAD(+) synthetase NadE1 from Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Kerly; Santos, Adrian R S; Bonatto, Ana C; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Huergo, Luciano F

    2016-05-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase enzyme (NadE) catalyzes the amination of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD) to form NAD(+). This reaction represents the last step in the majority of the NAD(+) biosynthetic routes described to date. NadE enzymes typically use either glutamine or ammonium as amine nitrogen donor, and the reaction is energetically driven by ATP hydrolysis. Given the key role of NAD(+) in bacterial metabolism, NadE has attracted considerable interest as a potential target for the development of novel antibiotics. The plant-associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae encodes two putative NadE, namely nadE1 and nadE2. The nadE1 gene is linked to glnB encoding the signal transduction protein GlnB. Here we report the purification and in vitro characterization of H. seropedicae NadE1. Gel filtration chromatography analysis suggests that NadE1 is an octamer. The NadE1 activity was assayed in vitro, and the Michaelis-Menten constants for substrates NaAD, ATP, glutamine and ammonium were determined. Enzyme kinetic and in vitro substrate competition assays indicate that H. seropedicae NadE1 uses glutamine as a preferential nitrogen donor. PMID:26802007

  9. Structure-based Design and In-Parallel Synthesis of Inhibitors of AmpC b-lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Tondi, D.; Powers, R.A.; Negri, M.C.; Caselli, M.C.; Blazquez, J.; Costi, M.P.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-08

    Group I {beta}-lactamases are a major cause of antibiotic resistance to {beta}-lactams such as penicillins and cephalosporins. These enzymes are only modestly affected by classic {beta}-lactam-based inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid. Conversely, small arylboronic acids inhibit these enzymes at sub-micromolar concentrations. Structural studies suggest these inhibitors bind to a well-defined cleft in the group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC; this cleft binds the ubiquitous R1 side chain of {beta}-lactams. Intriguingly, much of this cleft is left unoccupied by the small arylboronic acids. To investigate if larger boronic acids might take advantage of this cleft, structure-guided in-parallel synthesis was used to explore new inhibitors of AmpC. Twenty-eight derivatives of the lead compound, 3-aminophenylboronic acid, led to an inhibitor with 80-fold better binding (2; K{sub i} 83 nM). Molecular docking suggested orientations for this compound in the R1 cleft. Based on the docking results, 12 derivatives of 2 were synthesized, leading to inhibitors with K{sub i} values of 60 nM and with improved solubility. Several of these inhibitors reversed the resistance of nosocomial Gram-positive bacteria, though they showed little activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The X-ray crystal structure of compound 2 in complex with AmpC was subsequently determined to 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The placement of the proximal two-thirds of the inhibitor in the experimental structure corresponds with the docked structure, but a bond rotation leads to a distinctly different placement of the distal part of the inhibitor. In the experimental structure, the inhibitor interacts with conserved residues in the R1 cleft whose role in recognition has not been previously explored. Combining structure-based design with in-parallel synthesis allowed for the rapid exploration of inhibitor functionality in the R1 cleft of AmpC. The resulting inhibitors differ considerably from {beta}-lactams but

  10. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Donepezil-Like Compounds as AChE and BACE-1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Paola; Cariati, Luca; Desiderio, Doriana; Sgammato, Roberta; Lamberti, Anna; Arcone, Rosaria; Salerno, Raffaele; Nardi, Monica; Masullo, Mariorosario; Oliverio, Manuela

    2016-05-12

    An ecofriendly synthetic pathway for the synthesis of donepezil precursors is described. Alternative energy sources were used for the total synthesis in order to improve yields, regioselectively, and rate of each synthetic step and to reduce the coproduction of waste at the same time. For all products, characterized by an improved structural rigidity respect to donepezil, the inhibitor activity on AChE, the selectivity vs BuChE, the side-activity on BACE-1, and the effect on SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma cells viability were tested. Two potential new lead compounds for a dual therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease were envisaged. PMID:27190595

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of several dephosphonated analogues of CMP-Neu5Ac as inhibitors of GM3-synthase.

    PubMed

    Rota, Paola; Cirillo, Federica; Piccoli, Marco; Gregorio, Antonio; Tettamanti, Guido; Allevi, Pietro; Anastasia, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that reducing the GM3 content in myoblasts increased the cell resistance to hypoxic stress, suggesting that a pharmacological inhibition of the GM3 synthesis could be instrumental for the development of new treatments for ischemic diseases. Herein, the synthesis of several dephosphonated CMP-Neu5Ac congeners and their anti-GM3-synthase activity is reported. Biological activity testes revealed that some inhibitors almost completely blocked the GM3-synthase activity in vitro and reduced the GM3 content in living embryonic kidney 293A cells, eventually activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade. PMID:26397189

  12. Discovery of a novel nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) inhibitor via in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mikio; Niimi, Tatsuya; Masumoto, Mari; Orita, Masaya; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway of mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis, catalyzing the synthesis of nicotinamide mononucleotide from nicotinamide (Nam). The diverse functions of NAD suggest that NAMPT inhibitors are potential drug candidates as anticancer agents, immunomodulators, or other agents. However, difficulty in conducting high-throughput NAMPT assay with good sensitivity has hampered the discovery of novel anti-NAMPT drugs with improved profiles. We combined an in silico screening strategy with a radioisotope (RI)-based enzyme assay and rationally identified promising NAMPT inhibitors with novel structures. AS1604498 was the most potent inhibitor, with an IC50 of 44 nM, and inhibited THP-1 and K562 cell line growth with the IC50 of 198 nM and 673 nM, respectively. The mode of action was found to reduce intracellular NAD following apoptosis, suggesting that these compounds inhibit NAMPT in cell-based assay. This strategy can be used to discover new drug candidates with targets which are difficult to assess through high-throughput screening. Our hit compounds may be used as seed compounds for developing new therapeutics with NAMPT. PMID:24389478

  13. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a MK2 Inhibitor by Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling for Study in Werner Syndrome Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Mark C.; Baashen, Mohammed; Chuckowree, Irina; Dwyer, Jessica E.; Kipling, David; Davis, Terence

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions have been employed towards the synthesis of three different MAPKAPK2 (MK2) inhibitors to study accelerated aging in Werner syndrome (WS) cells, including the cross-coupling of a 2-chloroquinoline with a 3-pyridinylboronic acid, the coupling of an aryl bromide with an indolylboronic acid and the reaction of a 3-amino-4-bromopyrazole with 4-carbamoylphenylboronic acid. In all of these processes, the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction was fast and relatively efficient using a palladium catalyst under microwave irradiation. The process was incorporated into a rapid 3-step microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of a MK2 inhibitor involving 3-aminopyrazole formation, pyrazole C-4 bromination using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of the pyrazolyl bromide with 4-carbamoylphenylboronic acid to give the target 4-arylpyrazole in 35% overall yield, suitable for study in WS cells. PMID:26046488

  14. Synthesis, docking, and biological studies of phenanthrene β-diketo acids as novel HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Horrick; Sanchez, Tino W.; Neamati, Nouri; Detorio, Mervi; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Buolamwini, John K.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we report the synthesis of halogen-substituted phenanthrene β-diketo acids as new HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. The target phenanthrenes were obtained using both standard thermal- and microwave-assisted synthesis. 4-(6-Chlorophenanthren-2-yl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid (18) was the most active compound of the series that inhibited both 3′-end processing (3′-P) and strand transfer (ST) with IC50 values of 5 and 1.3 μM, respectively. Docking studies revealed two predominant binding modes that were distinct from the binding modes of raltegravir and elvitegravir, and suggest a novel binding region in the IN active site. Moreover, these compounds do not interact significantly with some of the key amino acids (Q148 and N155) implicated in viral resistance. Therefore, this series of compounds can further be investigated for a possible chemotype to circumvent resistance to clinical HIV-1 IN inhibitors. PMID:24091080

  15. Effect of protein synthesis inhibitors on viral mRNA's synthesized early in adenovirus type 2 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Eggerding, F; Raskas, H J

    1978-01-01

    Viral mRNA species synthesized early in adenovirus type 2 infection in the presence of cycloheximide were compared with those synthesized in the absence of drug or in the presence of the DNA synthesis inhibitor 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Cycloheximide caused approximately a 10-fold stimulation in the accumulation of [3H]uridine into early viral mRNA species. The only exception was a 24s mRNA transcribed from the transforming end of the genome; in the presence of cycloheximide, accumulation of this mRNA species was stimulated no more than 2-fold. Treatment with cycloheximide also resulted in the accumulation of polyadenylated RNAs transcribed from EcoRI-C that are heterogeneous and smaller than the 20S mRNA. Other translation inhibitors were shown to have similar effects, suggesting that inhibition of protein synthesis early after infection induces alterations in the metabolism of specific RNA sequences. PMID:621786

  16. Design, synthesis and characterization of novel inhibitors against mycobacterial β-ketoacyl CoA reductase FabG4.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Deb Ranjan; Dutta, Debajyoti; Saha, Baisakhee; Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Senapati, Kalyan; Das, Amit K; Basak, Amit

    2014-01-01

    We report the design and synthesis of triazole-polyphenol hybrid compounds 1 and 2 as inhibitors of the FabG4 (Rv0242c) enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the first time. A major advance in this field occurred only a couple of years ago with the X-ray crystal structure of FabG4, which has helped us to design these inhibitors by the computational fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach. Compound 1 has shown competitive inhibition with an inhibition constant (Ki) value of 3.97 ± 0.02 μM. On the other hand, compound 2 has been found to be a mixed type inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.88 ± 0.01 μM. Thermodynamic analysis using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) reveals that both inhibitors bind at the NADH co-factor binding domain. Their MIC values, as determined by resazurin assay against M. smegmatis, indicated their good anti-mycobacterial properties. A preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study supports the design of these inhibitors. These compounds may be possible candidates as lead compounds for alternate anti-tubercular drugs. All of the reductase enzymes of the Mycobacterium family have a similar ketoacyl reductase (KAR) domain. Hence, this work may be extrapolated to find structure-based inhibitors of other reductase enzymes. PMID:24129589

  17. Synthesis and SAR of novel isoxazoles as potent c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuanjun; Duckett, Derek; Chen, Weimin; Ling, Yuan Yuan; Cameron, Michael D.; Lin, Li; Ruiz, Claudia H.; LoGrasso, Philip V.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Koenig, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The design and synthesis of isoxazole 3 is described, a potent JNK inhibitor with two fold selectivity over p38. Optimization of this scaffold led to compounds 27 and 28 which showed greatly improved selectivity over p38 by maintaining the JNK3 potency of compound 3. Extensive SAR studies will be described as well as preliminary in vivo data of the two lead compounds. PMID:24332487

  18. Synthesis and SAR of 4-substituted-2-aminopyrimidines as novel c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Paul S; Lafontaine, Jennifer A; Agree, Charles S; Alexander, David; Chen, Ping; Do, Quyen-Quyen T; Li, Lilian Y; Lunney, Elizabeth A; Rajapakse, Ranjan J; Siegel, Karen; Timofeevski, Sergei L; Wang, Tianlun; Wilhite, David M

    2009-04-15

    The development of a series of novel 4-substituted-2-aminopyrimidines as inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinases is described. The synthesis, in vitro inhibitory values for JNK1, and the in vitro inhibitory value for a c-Jun cellular assay are discussed. Optimization of microsomal clearance led to the identification of 9c, whose kinase selectivity is reported. PMID:19327989

  19. Chiral Proton Catalysis of Secondary Nitroalkane Additions to Azomethine: Synthesis of a Potent GlyT1 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tyler A.; Danneman, Michael W.; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a potent GlyT1 inhibitor is described. A 3-nitroazetidine donor is used in an enantioselective aza-Henry reaction catalyzed by a bis(amidine)-triflic acid salt organocatalyst, delivering the key intermediate with 92% ee. This adduct is reductively denitrated and converted to the target through a short sequence, thereby allowing assignment of the absolute configuration of the more potent enantiomer. PMID:22543734

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Benzochromenopyrimidinones as Cholinesterase Inhibitors and Potent Antioxidant, Non-Hepatotoxic Agents for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dgachi, Youssef; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Benchekroun, Mohamed; Martin, Hélène; Bonet, Alexandre; Knez, Damijan; Godyń, Justyna; Malawska, Barbara; Gobec, Stanislav; Chioua, Mourad; Janockova, Jana; Soukup, Ondrej; Chabchoub, Fakher; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2016-01-01

    We report herein the straightforward two-step synthesis and biological assessment of novel racemic benzochromenopyrimidinones as non-hepatotoxic, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with antioxidative properties. Among them, compound 3Bb displayed a mixed-type inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 1.28 ± 0.03 μM), good antioxidant activity, and also proved to be non-hepatotoxic on human HepG2 cell line. PMID:27187348

  1. Solid-Phase synthesis of a library constructed of aromatic phosphate, long alkyl chains and tryptophane components, and identification of potent dipeptide telomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Ehara, T; Alam, M R; Fujino, Y; Harada, N; Kimura, J; Nakamura, H; Maeda, M

    2001-10-01

    Telomerase inhibitors are expected as a new candidate of therapeutic agents for cancer. Recently, we have found novel inhibitors based on the bisindole skeleton. In this study, solid-phase synthesis was applied to construct a library of inhibitors having aromatic phosphate, long alkyl chain and tryptophane components, from which a D,D-ditryptophane derivative has been identified as a new potent telomerase inhibitor with IC(50) values of 0.3 microM. A hypothetical binding model for the new inhibitors has been proposed based on the structure-activity relationship. PMID:11551754

  2. Efficacy of chitin synthesis inhibitors on nymphal German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1989-12-01

    Second- and fifth-instar Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) were examined for mortality and developmental abnormalities. All compounds were active against B. germanica (L.), with lower diet concentrations being required to kill second instars compared with fifth instars. Chlorfluazuron was significantly more active against second and fifth instars (LC50 = 0.000191 and 0.000363% AI, respectively for the second and fifth instars). UC 84572 also killed nymphs at extremely low concentrations (LC50 = 0.000508 and 0.000754% AI, respectively, for second and fifth instars). LC50's for hexafluron and triflumuron against fifth instars were more than 1,000 times higher than that for chlorfluazuron. Sensitive periods of exposure were determined by comparing effects when four different age classes of fifth instars (1-, 4-, 7-, and 10-d old) fed on the compounds for 3 d. Triflumuron was most effective when ingested during the first three age classes and hexafluron was most effective during the last three age classes. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 were most effective when ingested during the second age class (days 4-6). Adults surviving exposure during the fifth instar were often deformed and weak; they died at a greater rate than the controls. However, most surviving adults were able to reproduce normally. PMID:2607029

  3. Effect of the chitin synthesis inhibitor triflumuron on the development, viability and reproduction of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes de; Peixoto, Alexandre Afrânio; Valle, Denise

    2009-02-01

    The control of Aedes aegypti is impaired due to the development of resistance to chemical insecticides. Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) exhibit distinct mechanisms of action and are considered potential vector control alternatives. Studies regarding the effects of sublethal IGR doses on the viability of resulting adults will contribute to eval-uating their impact in the field. We analyzed several aspects of Ae. aegypti adults surviving exposure to a partially lethal dose of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor. A highly significant difference in the proportion of males and females was noted in the triflumuron-exposed group (65.0% males) compared to the controls (50.2% males). Triflumuron affected adult longevity, particularly for females; after 16 days, only 29.2% of males and 13.8% of females were alive, in contrast with 94% survival of the control mosquitoes. The locomotor activity was reduced and the blood-feeding ability of the treated females was also affected (90.4% and 48.4% of the control and triflumuron-exposed females, respectively, successfully ingested blood). Triflumuron-surviving females ingested roughly 30% less blood and laid 25% fewer eggs than the control females. The treated males and females exhibited a diminished ability to copulate, resulting in less viable eggs. PMID:19274375

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of enantiomerically pure glyceric acid derivatives as LpxC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tangherlini, Giovanni; Torregrossa, Tullio; Agoglitta, Oriana; Köhler, Jens; Melesina, Jelena; Sippl, Wolfgang; Holl, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors of the UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) represent a promising class of novel antibiotics, selectively combating Gram-negative bacteria. In order to elucidate the impact of the hydroxymethyl groups of diol (S,S)-4 on the inhibitory activity against LpxC, glyceric acid ethers (R)-7a, (S)-7a, (R)-7b, and (S)-7b, lacking the hydroxymethyl group in benzylic position, were synthesized. The compounds were obtained in enantiomerically pure form by a chiral pool synthesis and a lipase-catalyzed enantioselective desymmetrization, respectively. The enantiomeric hydroxamic acids (R)-7b (Ki=230nM) and (S)-7b (Ki=390nM) show promising enzyme inhibition. However, their inhibitory activities do not substantially differ from each other leading to a low eudismic ratio. Generally, the synthesized glyceric acid derivatives 7 show antibacterial activities against two Escherichia coli strains exceeding the ones of their respective regioisomes 6. PMID:26827141

  5. Pyridopyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide synthesis: Application for treatment of diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Kots, Alexander Y.; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Estrella-Jimenez, Maria E.; Warren, Cirle A.; Gilbertson, Scott R.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Murad, Ferid

    2008-01-01

    Acute secretory diarrhea induced by infection with enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli involves binding of stable toxin (STa) to its receptor on the intestinal brush border, guanylyl cyclase type C (GC-C). Intracellular cGMP is elevated, inducing increase in chloride efflux and subsequent accumulation of fluid in the intestinal lumen. We have screened a library of compounds and identified a pyridopyrimidine derivatives {5-(3-bromophenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5,11-dihydro-1H-indeno[2′,1′:5,6]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione; BPIPP} as an inhibitor of GC-C that can suppress STa-stimulated cGMP accumulation by decreasing GC-C activation in intact T84 human colorectal carcinoma cells. BPIPP inhibited stimulation of guanylyl cyclases, including types A and B and soluble isoform in various cells. BPIPP suppressed stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and significantly decreased the activities of adenylyl cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis and edema toxin of Bacillus anthracis. The effects of BPIPP on cyclic nucleotide synthesis were observed only in intact cells. The mechanism of BPIPP-dependent inhibition appears to be complex and indirect, possibly associated with phospholipase C and tyrosine-specific phosphorylation. BPIPP inhibited chloride-ion transport stimulated by activation of guanylyl or adenylyl cyclases and suppressed STa-induced fluid accumulation in an in vivo rabbit intestinal loop model. Thus, BPIPP may be a promising lead compound for treatment of diarrhea and other diseases. PMID:18559851

  6. Synthesis of three bromophenols from red algae as PTP1B inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuju; Li, Jing; Li, Ting; Shi, Dayong; Han, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Bromophenols are a set of natural products widely distributed in seaweed, most of which exhibit interesting and useful biological activities. To develop a reliable and efficient synthetic route to these natural bromophenols, three of them, 3,4-dibromo-5-(2'-bromo-3',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxymethyl-benzyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (compound 9), 3,4-dibromo-5-(2'-bromo-6'-ethoxy methyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (compound 10), and 3-bromo-4-(3'-bromo-4',5'-dihydroxy benzyl)-5-(ethoxymethyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (compound 14), isolated from red marine algae, have been synthesized in eight steps with an overall yield of 14.4%, 14.4%, and 18.2% respectively, via a practical approach employing bromination, Wolff-Kishner-Huang reduction and a Friedel-Crafts reaction as key steps. The protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of the synthetic compounds were evaluated by the colorimetric assay. The results show that these compounds are moderate PTP1B inhibitors. The synthesis of these bromophenol derivatives makes in vivo studies of their structure-activity relationships and inhibition activity against PTP1B possible.

  7. Functionalized imidazolium and benzimidazolium salts as paraoxonase 1 inhibitors: Synthesis, characterization and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Uslu, Harun; Alıcı, Bülent; Gökçe, Başak; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Arslan, N Burcu; Özdemir, Namık

    2016-03-15

    Paraoxonase (PON) is a key enzyme in metabolism of living organisms and decreased activity of PON1 was acknowledged as a risk for atherosclerosis and organophosphate toxicity. The present study describes the synthesis, characterization, PON1 inhibitory properties and molecular docking studies of functionalized imidazolium and benzimidazolium salts (1a-5g). The structures of all compounds were elucidated by IR, NMR, elemental analysis and structures of compounds 2b and 2c were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1c, a coumarin substituted imidazolium salt showed the best inhibitory effect on the activity of PON1 with good IC50 value (6.37 μM). Kinetic investigation was evaluated for this compound and results showed that this compound is competitive inhibitor of PON1 with Ki value of 2.39 μM. Molecular docking studies were also performed for most active compound 1c and one of least active compound 2c in order to determine the probable binding model into active site of PON1 and validation of the experimental results. PMID:26879855

  8. Synthesis and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Siderophore Biosynthesis Inhibitors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kathryn M.; Viswanathan, Kishore; Dawadi, Surendra; Duckworth, Benjamin P.; Boshoff, Helena I.; Barry, Clifton E.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2015-01-01

    MbtA catalyzes the first committed biosynthetic step of the mycobactins, which are important virulence factors associated with iron acquisition in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MbtA is a validated therapeutic target for antitubercular drug development. 5′-O-[N-(salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (1) is a bisubstrate inhibitor of MbtA and exhibits exceptionally potent biochemical and antitubercular activity. However, 1 suffers from sub-optimal drug disposition properties resulting in a short half-life (t1/2), low exposure (AUC), and low bioavailability (F). Four strategies were pursued to address these liabilities including the synthesis of prodrugs, increasing the pKa of the acyl-sulfonyl moiety, modulation of the lipophilicity, and strategic introduction of fluorine into 1. Complete pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of all compounds was performed. The most successful modifications involved fluorination of the nucleoside that provided substantial improvements in t1/2 and AUC. Increasing the pKa of the acyl-sulfonyl linker yielded incremental enhancements while modulation of the lipophilicity and prodrug approaches led to substantially poorer PK parameters. PMID:26110337

  9. Design and synthesis of HIV-1 protease inhibitors for a long-acting injectable drug application.

    PubMed

    Kesteleyn, Bart; Amssoms, Katie; Schepens, Wim; Hache, Geerwin; Verschueren, Wim; Van De Vreken, Wim; Rombauts, Klara; Meurs, Greet; Sterkens, Patrick; Stoops, Bart; Baert, Lieven; Austin, Nigel; Wegner, Jörg; Masungi, Chantal; Dierynck, Inge; Lundgren, Stina; Jönsson, Daniel; Parkes, Kevin; Kalayanov, Genadiy; Wallberg, Hans; Rosenquist, Asa; Samuelsson, Bertil; Van Emelen, Kristof; Thuring, Jan Willem

    2013-01-01

    The design and synthesis of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) (1-22), which display high potency against HIV-1 wild-type and multi-PI-resistant HIV-mutant clinical isolates, is described. Lead optimization was initiated from compound 1, a Phe-Phe hydroxyethylene peptidomimetic PI, and was directed towards the discovery of new PIs suitable for a long-acting (LA) injectable drug application. Introducing a heterocyclic 6-methoxy-3-pyridinyl or a 6-(dimethylamino)-3-pyridinyl moiety (R(3)) at the para-position of the P1' benzyl fragment generated compounds with antiviral potency in the low single digit nanomolar range. Halogenation or alkylation of the metabolic hot spots on the various aromatic rings resulted in PIs with high stability against degradation in human liver microsomes and low plasma clearance in rats. Replacing the chromanolamine moiety (R(1)) in the P2 protease binding site by a cyclopentanolamine or a cyclohexanolamine derivative provided a series of high clearance PIs (16-22) with EC(50)s on wild-type HIV-1 in the range of 0.8-1.8 nM. PIs 18 and 22, formulated as nanosuspensions, showed gradual but sustained and complete release from the injection site over two months in rats, and were therefore identified as interesting candidates for a LA injectable drug application for treating HIV/AIDS. PMID:23177258

  10. Evaluation of Two Formulated Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors, Hexaflumuron and Lufenuron Against the Raisin Moth, Ephestia figulilella

    PubMed Central

    Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

    2012-01-01

    The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC50 = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC50= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

  11. Disruption of reproductive activity of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) primary reproductives by three chitin synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A

    2004-12-01

    Effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and lufenuron on the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, primary reproductives were studied in the laboratory. Incipient colonies were established by collecting and pairing C. formosanus alates and placing them in dishes containing an artificial diet. Three groups of 56 colonies each were fed with a diet containing 10 ppm of one of each of the CSIs and were compared with a control group fed with an untreated diet. All eggs oviposited by treated young queens failed to hatch at the end of 6 mo. Estimated queen fecundity was significantly lower in the lufenuron treatment compared with the control group. Fecundity of hexaflumuron-treated queens did not differ significantly from that of queens from the control group and the other treatments. Adult mortality was significantly higher in the diflubenzuron and lufenuron treatments than in the control group at the end of 6 mo., but not in the hexaflumuron treatment. All the pairs died within 8 mo. in the diflubenzuron and lufenuron treatments, even after treatment was suspended at the end of 6 mo. Mortality in the hexaflumuron treatment was significantly higher than in the control group by the end of 9 mo. The three CSIs tested eliminated reproduction in C. formosanus by preventing egg hatching and induced adult mortality. Possible mechanisms by which CSIs induce termite adult death are discussed. PMID:15666759

  12. Evaluation of two formulated chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron against the raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella.

    PubMed

    Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

    2012-01-01

    The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC(50) = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC(50)= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

  13. The glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine synergistically enhanced melphalan activity against preclinical models of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Tagde, A; Singh, H; Kang, M H; Reynolds, C P

    2014-01-01

    Melphalan (L-PAM) has been an integral part of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment as a conditioning regimen before stem cell transplant (SCT). After initial response, most treated patients experience relapse with an aggressive phenotype. Increased glutathione (GSH) in MM may mediate resistance to L-PAM. We demonstrated that the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) synergistically enhanced L-PAM activity (inducing 2-4 logs of cell kill) against nine MM cell lines (also in the presence of marrow stroma or cytokines) and in seven primary MM samples (combination indices <1.0). In MM cell lines, BSO significantly (P<0.05) depleted GSH, increased L-PAM-induced single-strand DNA breaks, mitochondrial depolarization, caspase cleavage and apoptosis. L-PAM depleted GSH, but GSH rapidly recovered in a L-PAM-resistant MM cell line unless also treated with BSO. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine antagonized BSO+L-PAM cytotoxicity without increasing GSH. In human MM xenografted into beige-nude-xid mice, BSO significantly depleted MM intracellular GSH and significantly increased apoptosis compared with L-PAM alone. BSO+L-PAM achieved complete responses (CRs) in three MM xenograft models including maintained CRs >100 days, and significantly increased the median event-free survival relative to L-PAM alone. Combining BSO with L-PAM warrants clinical testing in advanced MM. PMID:25036800

  14. Synthesis and activity of benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide inhibitors of separase.

    PubMed

    Do, Ha T; Zhang, Nenggang; Pati, Debananda; Gilbertson, Scott R

    2016-09-15

    Due to the oncogenic activity of cohesin protease, separase in human cancer cells, modulation of separase enzymatic activity could constitute a new therapeutic strategy for targeting resistant, separase-overexpressing aneuploid tumors. Herein, we report the synthesis, structural information, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of separase inhibitors based on modification of the lead molecule 2,2-dimethyl-5-nitro-2H-benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide, named Sepin-1, (1) identified from a high-throughput-screen. Replacement of -NO2 at C5 with other functional groups reduce the inhibitory activity in separase enzymatic assay. Substitution of the two methyl groups with other alkyl chains at the C2 moderately improves the effects on the inhibitory activity of those compounds. Modifications on 2H-benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide or the skeleton have variable effect on inhibition of separase enzymatic activity. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest there may be a correlation between the charges on the oxide moieties on these compounds and their activity in inhibiting separase enzyme. PMID:27530289

  15. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of a Potential Transition-State Inhibitor of the Salicylate Synthase MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators (siderophores) produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for iron mobilization. The bifunctional salicylate synthase MbtI catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis through the conversion of the primary metabolite chorismate into salicylic acid via isochorismate. We report the design, synthesis and biochemical evaluation of an inhibitor based on the putative transition-state (TS) for the isochorismatase partial reaction of MbtI. The inhibitor mimics the hypothesized charge build-up at C-4 of chorismate in the TS as well as C-O bond-formation at C-6. Another important design element of the inhibitor is replacement of the labile pyruvate side-chain in chorismate with a stable C-linked propionate isostere. We developed a stereocontrolled synthesis of the highly functionalized cyclohexene inhibitor that features an asymmetric aldol reaction using a titanium enolate, diastereoselective Grignard addition to a tert-butanesulfinyl aldimine, and ring closing olefin metathesis as key steps. PMID:26035083

  16. A new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitor: the crystallographic structure, inhibition and chemical synthesis of an aminimide peptide isostere.

    PubMed

    Rutenber, E E; McPhee, F; Kaplan, A P; Gallion, S L; Hogan, J C; Craik, C S; Stroud, R M

    1996-09-01

    The essential role of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) in the viral life cycle makes it an attractive target for the development of substrate-based inhibitors that may find efficacy as anti-AIDS drugs. However, resistance has arisen to potent peptidomimetic drugs necessitating the further development of novel chemical backbones for diversity based chemistry focused on probing the active site for inhibitor interactions and binding modes that evade protease resistance. AQ148 is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 PR and represents a new class of transition state analogues incorporating an aminimide peptide isostere. A 3-D crystallographic structure of AQ148, a tetrapeptide isostere, has been determined in complex with its target HIV-1 PR to a resolution of 2.5 A and used to evaluate the specific structural determinants of AQ148 potency and to correlate structure-activity relationships within the class of related compounds. AQ148 is a competitive inhibitor of HIV-1 PR with a Ki value of 137 nM. Twenty-nine derivatives have been synthesized and chemical modifications have been made at the P1, P2, P1', and P2' sites. The atomic resolution structure of AQ148 bound to HIV-1 PR reveals both an inhibitor binding mode that closely resembles that of other peptidomimetic inhibitors and specific protein/inhibitor interactions that correlate with structure-activity relationships. The structure provides the basis for the design, synthesis and evaluation of the next generation of hydroxyethyl aminimide inhibitors. The aminimide peptide isostere is a scaffold with favorable biological properties well suited to both the combinatorial methods of peptidomimesis and the rational design of potent and specific substrate-based analogues. PMID:8894111

  17. Pharmacological NAD-Boosting Strategies Improve Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Complex I-Mutant Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Felici, Roberta; Lapucci, Andrea; Cavone, Leonardo; Pratesi, Sara; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are devastating genetic diseases for which efficacious therapies are still an unmet need. Recent studies report that increased availability of intracellular NAD obtained by inhibition of the NAD-consuming enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 or supplementation with the NAD-precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) ameliorates energetic derangement and symptoms in mouse models of mitochondrial disorders. Whether these pharmacological approaches also improve bioenergetics of human cells harboring mitochondrial defects is unknown. It is also unclear whether the same signaling cascade is prompted by PARP-1 inhibitors and NR supplementation to improve mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we show that human fibroblasts mutant for the NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 (NDUFS1) subunit of respiratory complex I have similar ATP, NAD, and mitochondrial content compared with control cells, but show reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, mutant cells also show increased transcript levels of mitochondrial DNA but not nuclear DNA respiratory complex subunits, suggesting activation of a compensatory response. At variance with prior work in mice, however, NR supplementation, but not PARP-1 inhibition, increased intracellular NAD content in NDUFS1 mutant human fibroblasts. Conversely, PARP-1 inhibitors, but not NR supplementation, increased transcription of mitochondrial transcription factor A and mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes constitutively induced in mutant cells. Still, both NR and PARP-1 inhibitors restored mitochondrial membrane potential and increased organelle content as well as oxidative activity of NDUFS1-deficient fibroblasts. Overall, data provide the first evidence that in human cells harboring a mitochondrial respiratory defect exposure to NR or PARP-1, inhibitors activate different signaling pathways that are not invariantly prompted by NAD increases, but equally able to improve energetic

  18. Synthesis of a 10,000-membered library of molecules resembling carpanone and discovery of vesicular traffic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goess, Brian C; Hannoush, Rami N; Chan, Lawrence K; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Shair, Matthew D

    2006-04-26

    Split-and-pool synthesis of a 10,000-membered library of molecules resembling the natural product carpanone has been achieved. The synthesis features development of solid-phase multicomponent reactions between nitrogen nucleophiles, enones, and hydroxylamines, and a solid-phase application of the Huisgen cycloaddition affording substituted triazoles. The synthesis was performed in high-capacity (500 microm) polystyrene beads using a one bead-one stock solution strategy that enabled phenotypic screens of the resulting library. Using whole-cell fluorescence imaging, we discovered a series of molecules from the carpanone-based library that inhibit exocytosis from the Golgi apparatus. The most potent member of this series has an IC(50) of 14 microM. We also report structure-activity relationships for the molecules exhibiting this interesting phenotype. These inhibitors of exocytosis may be useful reagents for the study of vesicular traffic. PMID:16620111

  19. Kinetics and regulation of hepatoma mitochondrial NAD(P) malic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Teller, J K; Fahien, L A; Davis, J W

    1992-05-25

    Kinetic studies of Morris 7777 hepatoma mitochondrial NAD(P) malic enzyme were consistent with an ordered mechanism where NAD adds to the enzyme before malate and dissociation of NADH from the enzyme is rate-limiting. In addition to its active site, malate apparently also associates with a lower affinity with an activator site. The activator fumarate competes with malate at the activator site and facilitates dissociation of NADH from the enzyme. The ratio of NAD(P) malic enzyme to malate dehydrogenase activity in the hepatoma mitochondrial extract was found to be too low, even in the presence of known inhibitors of malate dehydrogenase, to account for the known ability of NAD(P) malic enzyme to intercept exogenous malate from malate dehydrogenase in intact tumor mitochondria (Moreadith, R.W., and Lehninger, A.L. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 6215-6221). However, NAD(P) malic enzyme may be able to intercept exogenous malate because according to the present results, it can associate with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which could localize NAD(P) malic enzyme in the vicinity of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The activity levels of some key metabolic enzymes were found to be different in Morris 7777 mitochondria than in liver or mitochondria of other rapidly dividing tumors. These results are discussed in terms of differences among tumors in their ability to utilize malate, glutamate, and citrate as respiratory fuels. PMID:1587826

  20. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of some [Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor]-C5'-linker-[Integrase Inhibitor] heterodimers as inhibitors of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Sugeac, Elena; Fossey, Christine; Ladurée, Daniel; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Geraldine; Aubertin, Anne-Marie

    2004-12-01

    Selected for their expected ability to inhibit HIV replication, a series of eight heterodimers containing a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) and an Integrase Inhibitor (INI), bound by a linker, were designed and synthesized. For the NRTIs, d4U, d2U and d4T were chosen. For the INIs, 4-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-2,4-dioxobutyric acid (6) and 4-(3,5-dibenzyloxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutyric acid (9) (belonging to the beta-diketo acids class) were chosen. The conjugation of the two different inhibitors (NRTI and INI) was performed using an amino acid (glycine or beta-alanine) as a cleavable linker. PMID:15662954

  1. Nicotinamide riboside promotes Sir2 silencing and extends lifespan via Nrk and Urh1/Pnp1/Meu1 pathways to NAD+.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Peter; Racette, Frances G; Bogan, Katrina L; McClure, Julie M; Smith, Jeffrey S; Brenner, Charles

    2007-05-01

    Although NAD(+) biosynthesis is required for Sir2 functions and replicative lifespan in yeast, alterations in NAD(+) precursors have been reported to accelerate aging but not to extend lifespan. In eukaryotes, nicotinamide riboside is a newly discovered NAD(+) precursor that is converted to nicotinamide mononucleotide by specific nicotinamide riboside kinases, Nrk1 and Nrk2. In this study, we discovered that exogenous nicotinamide riboside promotes Sir2-dependent repression of recombination, improves gene silencing, and extends lifespan without calorie restriction. The mechanism of action of nicotinamide riboside is totally dependent on increased net NAD(+) synthesis through two pathways, the Nrk1 pathway and the Urh1/Pnp1/Meu1 pathway, which is Nrk1 independent. Additionally, the two nicotinamide riboside salvage pathways contribute to NAD(+) metabolism in the absence of nicotinamide-riboside supplementation. Thus, like calorie restriction in the mouse, nicotinamide riboside elevates NAD(+) and increases Sir2 function. PMID:17482543

  2. A rise in NAD precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) after injury promotes axon degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, M; Nascimento-Ferreira, I; Orsomando, G; Mori, V; Gilley, J; Brown, R; Janeckova, L; Vargas, M E; Worrell, L A; Loreto, A; Tickle, J; Patrick, J; Webster, J R M; Marangoni, M; Carpi, F M; Pucciarelli, S; Rossi, F; Meng, W; Sagasti, A; Ribchester, R R; Magni, G; Coleman, M P; Conforti, L

    2015-01-01

    NAD metabolism regulates diverse biological processes, including ageing, circadian rhythm and axon survival. Axons depend on the activity of the central enzyme in NAD biosynthesis, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2), for their maintenance and degenerate rapidly when this activity is lost. However, whether axon survival is regulated by the supply of NAD or by another action of this enzyme remains unclear. Here we show that the nucleotide precursor of NAD, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), accumulates after nerve injury and promotes axon degeneration. Inhibitors of NMN-synthesising enzyme NAMPT confer robust morphological and functional protection of injured axons and synapses despite lowering NAD. Exogenous NMN abolishes this protection, suggesting that NMN accumulation within axons after NMNAT2 degradation could promote degeneration. Ectopic expression of NMN deamidase, a bacterial NMN-scavenging enzyme, prolongs survival of injured axons, providing genetic evidence to support such a mechanism. NMN rises prior to degeneration and both the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 and the axon protective protein WldS prevent this rise. These data indicate that the mechanism by which NMNAT and the related WldS protein promote axon survival is by limiting NMN accumulation. They indicate a novel physiological function for NMN in mammals and reveal an unexpected link between new strategies for cancer chemotherapy and the treatment of axonopathies. PMID:25323584

  3. The Importance of NAD in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Penberthy, W. Todd; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown but it manifests as a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease in the central nervous system (CNS). During chronic CNS inflammation, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) concentrations are altered by (T helper) Th1-derived cytokines through the coordinated induction of both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the ADP cyclase CD38 in pathogenic microglia and lymphocytes. While IDO activation may keep auto-reactive T cells in check, hyper-activation of IDO can leave neuronal CNS cells starving for extracellular sources of NAD. Existing data indicate that glia may serve critical functions as an essential supplier of NAD to neurons during times of stress. Administration of pharmacological doses of non-tryptophan NAD precursors ameliorates pathogenesis in animal models of MS. Animal models of MS involve artificially stimulated autoimmune attack of myelin by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) or by viral-mediated demyelination using Thieler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). The WldS mouse dramatically resists razor axotomy mediated axonal degeneration. This resistance is due to increased efficiency of NAD biosynthesis that delays stress-induced depletion of axonal NAD and ATP. Although the WldS genotype protects against EAE pathogenesis, TMEV-mediated pathogenesis is exacerbated. In this review, we contrast the role of NAD in EAE versus TMEV demyelinating pathogenesis to increase our understanding of the pharmacotherapeutic potential of NAD signal transduction pathways. We speculate on the importance of increased SIRT1 activity in both PARP-1 inhibition and the potentially integral role of neuronal CD200 interactions through glial CD200R with induction of IDO in MS pathogenesis. A comprehensive review of immunomodulatory control of NAD biosynthesis and degradation in MS pathogenesis is presented. Distinctive pharmacological approaches designed for NAD-complementation or targeting NAD

  4. Hazards and uptake of chitin synthesis inhibitors in bumblebees Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Sterk, Guido; Smagghe, Guy

    2006-08-01

    This research project examined the potential hazards of a major class of insect growth regulators (IGRs) to survival, reproduction and larval growth in bumblebees Bombus terrestris L. Eight chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were tested: buprofezin, cyromazine, diflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, novaluron and teflubenzuron. These different IGRs, which are important in the control of pest insects in greenhouses, were applied via three different routes of exposure under laboratory conditions: dermal contact, and orally via the drinking of sugar/water and via pollen. The compounds were tested at their respective maximum field recommended concentrations (MFRC) and also in dose-response assays to calculate LC(50) values. In general, none of the CSIs showed acute worker toxicity. However, there was a dramatic reduction in brood production, especially after oral treatment with pollen and sugar/water. Conspicuously, egg fertility was reduced in all treatments with diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron. In addition to egg mortality, the worker bumblebees removed larvae from the treated nest, and in most cases these individuals were dead first-second instars. Under a binocular microscope, such larvae showed an abnormally formed cuticle leading to mechanical weakness and death. In another series of experiments using (14)C-diflubenzuron and (14)C-flufenoxuron, cuticular penetration in workers was studied for a better understanding of the differences in toxicity. With (14)C-diflubenzuron, transovarial transport and accumulation in the deposited eggs supported the strong reproductive effects. Overall, the present results suggest that CSIs should be applied with caution in combination with bumblebees. The compatibility of each compound to be used in combination with B. terrestris is discussed in relation to calculated LC(50) values, routes of uptake and effects. PMID:16786494

  5. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 Suppresses Collagen Synthesis in Cultured Keloid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Dohi, Teruyuki; Aoki, Masayo; Ogawa, Rei; Akaishi, Satoshi; Shimada, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Keloids are defined as a kind of dermal fibroproliferative disorder resulting from the accumulation of collagen. In the remodeling of extracellular matrix, the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) is as critical as the proper production of extracellular matrix. We investigate the role of TIMPs and MMPs in the pathogenesis of keloids and examine the therapeutic potential of TIMP-2. Methods: The expression of TIMPs and MMPs in most inflamed parts of cultured keloid fibroblasts (KFs) and peripheral normal skin fibroblasts (PNFs) in the same individuals and the reactivity of KFs to cyclic mechanical stretch were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 7). To evaluate the effect of treating KFs with TIMP-2, collagen synthesis was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and microscopic analysis was used to examine the treatment effects of TIMP-2 on ex vivo cultures of keloid tissue (n = 6). Results: TIMP-2 was downregulated in cultured KFs compared with PNFs in the same individuals, and the reduction in TIMP-2 was exacerbated by cyclic mechanical stretch. Administration of TIMP-2 (200 or 300 ng/mL) significantly suppressed expression of Col1A2 and Col3A1 mRNA and collagen type I protein in KFs. TIMP-2 also significantly reduced the skin dermal and collagen bundle thickness in ex vivo cultures of keloid tissue. Conclusion: These results indicated that downregulation of TIMP-2 in KFs is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of keloids, and the TIMP-2 would be a promising candidate for the treatment of keloids. PMID:26495233

  6. Physiological and Morphological Aspects of Aedes aegypti Developing Larvae: Effects of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron

    PubMed Central

    Farnesi, Luana C.; Brito, José M.; Linss, Jutta G.; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L.

    2012-01-01

    Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterocyclic Catechol Mimics as Inhibitors of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-4-pyridinones and 5-hydroxy-4-pyrimidinones were identified as inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in a high-throughput screen. These heterocyclic catechol mimics exhibit potent inhibition of the enzyme and an improved toxicity profile versus the marketed nitrocatechol inhibitors tolcapone and entacapone. Optimization of the series was aided by X-ray cocrystal structures of the novel inhibitors in complex with COMT and cofactors SAM and Mg2+. The crystal structures suggest a mechanism of inhibition for these heterocyclic inhibitors distinct from previously disclosed COMT inhibitors. PMID:25815153

  8. Effect of protein-synthesis inhibitors on testosterone production in rat testis interstitial tissue and Leydig-cell preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, B A; Janszen, F H; Clotscher, W F; van der Molen, H J

    1975-01-01

    Luteinizing-hormone-stimulated testosterone biosynthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide during incubation of rat testis intersitial tissue in vitro and also by puromycin and cycloheximide during incubation of Leydig-cell preparations, but not by chloramphenicol. These results suggest that a protein regualtor(s) formed by cytoplasmic protein synthesis is involved in steroidogenesis in the rat testis. The specific effect of cycloheximide and puromycin on protein synthesis rather than on other non-specific processes is suggested by the inhibition of protein synthesis and steroidogenesis with different doses of the inhibitors and the lack of effect of cycloheximide on luteinizing-hormone-induced adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate production. Stimulation of testosterone production by luteinizing hormone during superfusion of interstitial tissue was detectable within 10-20 min and reached a maximum of 120 min, and thereafter slowly decreased. Cycloheximide added at maximum steroid production caused a rapid decrease in testosterone synthesis which followed first-order kinetics (half-life 13 min), thus indicating that the protein regulator(s) has a short half-life. No effect of cycloheximide, puromycin or chloramphenicol on testosterone production in the absence of added luteinizing hormone was found, suggesting that the basal production of testosterone is independent of protein synthesis. PMID:174545

  9. Synthesis of Chromone, Quinolone, and Benzoxazinone Sulfonamide Nucleosides as Conformationally Constrained Inhibitors of Adenylating Enzymes Required for Siderophore Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Curtis A.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2013-01-01

    MbtA catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and is responsible for the incorporation of salicylic acid into the mycobactin siderophores. 5′-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is an extremely potent nucleoside inhibitor of MbtA that possesses excellent activity against whole-cell Mtb, but suffers from poor bioavailability. In an effort to improve the bioavailability, we have designed four conformationally constrained analogues of Sal-AMS that remove two rotatable bonds and the ionized sulfamate group based on computational and structural studies. Herein we describe the synthesis, biochemical, and microbiological evaluation of chromone-, quinolone-, and benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Sal-AMS. We developed new chemistry to assemble these three heterocycles from common β-ketosulfonamide intermediates. The synthesis of the chromone- and quinolone-3-sulfonamide intermediates features formylation of a β-ketosulfonamide employing dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to afford an enaminone that can react intramolecularly with a phenol or intermolecularly with a primary amine via addition-elimination reaction(s). The benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide was prepared by nitrosation of a β-ketosulfonamide followed by intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Mitsunobu coupling of these bicyclic sulfonamides with a protected adenosine derivative followed by global deprotection provides a concise synthesis of the respective inhibitors. PMID:23805993

  10. Synthesis of C1 inhibitor in fibroblasts from patients with type I and type II hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, J; Katz, Y; Rosen, F S; Davis, A E; Strunk, R C

    1991-01-01

    Patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) have serum levels of functionally active inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1 INH) between 5 and 30% of normal, instead of the 50% expected from the single normal allele. Increases in rates of catabolism have been documented in patients with HANE and certainly account for some of decrease in C1 INH level. A possible role for a decrease in synthesis of C1 INH in producing serum levels of C1 INH below the expected 50% of normal has not been well studied. We studied the synthesis of C1 INH in skin fibroblast lines, which produce easily detectable amounts of C1 INH. In type I HANE cells, C1 INH synthesis was 19.6 +/- 4.0% (mean +/- SD) of normal, much less than the 50% predicted. In type II HANE cells, the total amount of C1 INH synthesis (functional and dysfunctional) was 98.9 +/- 17% of normal; the functional protein comprised 43% of the total. Thus, type II HANE cells synthesized functional C1 INH at a much greater rate than for the type I cells. In both type I and II HANE cells, amounts of steady-state C1 INH mRNA levels paralleled rates of C1 INH synthesis, indicating that control of C1 INH synthesis occurred at pretranslational levels. Both type I and type II fibroblasts synthesized normal amounts of C1r and C1s. These data suggest that the lower than expected amounts of functionally active C1 INH in type I HANE may be due, in part, to a decrease in rate of synthesis of the protein, and that the expressions of the normal C1 INH allele in HANE is influenced by the type of abnormal allele present. Images PMID:1902490

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Macrocyclic Peptide Aldehydes as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the 20S Proteasome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David L; Meininger, Isabel; Strater, Zack; Steiner, Stephanie; Tomlin, Frederick; Wu, Julia; Jamali, Haya; Krappmann, Daniel; Götz, Marion G

    2016-03-10

    This research explores the first design and synthesis of macrocyclic peptide aldehydes as potent inhibitors of the 20S proteasome. Two novel macrocyclic peptide aldehydes based on the ring-size of the macrocyclic natural product TMC-95 were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of the 20S proteasome. Both compounds inhibited in the low nanomolar range and proved to be selective for the proteasome over other serine and cysteine proteases, particularly when compared to linear analogues with similar amino acid sequences. In HeLa cells, both macrocycles efficiently inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor by blocking proteasomal degradation of the inhibitor protein IκBα after cytokine stimulation. Due to their covalent mechanism of binding these compounds represent a 1000-fold increase in inhibitory potency over previously reported noncovalently binding TMC-95 analogues. Molecular modeling of the macrocyclic peptides confirms the preference of the large S3 pocket for large, hydrophobic residues and the ability to exploit this to improve selectivity of proteasome inhibitors. PMID:26985310

  12. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 5,7-dimethyl-2-aryl-3H-pyrrolizin-3-ones as angiogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Nicholas S; Bezos, Anna; Willis, Anthony C; Sudta, Pichit; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Parish, Christopher R; Ranson, Marie; Kelso, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Sunitinib (Sutent®) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and angiogenesis inhibitor approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumours and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. A key structural motif retained throughout medicinal chemistry efforts during sunitinib's development was the indoline-2-one group. In the search for new anti-angiogenic scaffolds, we previously reported that non-indoline-2-one-based derivatives of semaxanib (SU5416, a structurally simpler sunitinib predecessor that underwent Phase III trials) are active as angiogenesis inhibitors, indicating that the group is not essential for activity. This Letter describes the synthesis and structure-activity relationships of another class of non-indoline-2-one angiogenesis inhibitors related to sunitinib/semaxanib; the 5,7-dimethyl-2-aryl-3H-pyrrolizin-3-ones. A focussed library of 19 analogues was prepared using a simple novel process, wherein commercially available substituted arylacetic acids activated with an amide coupling reagent (HBTU) were reacted with the potassium salt of 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde in one-pot. Screening of the library using a cell-based endothelial tube formation assay identified 6 compounds with anti-angiogenesis activity. Two of the compounds were advanced to the more physiologically relevant rat aortic ring assay, where they showed similar inhibitory effects to semaxanib at 10μg/mL, confirming that 5,7-dimethyl-2-aryl-3H-pyrrolizin-3-ones represent a new class of angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:26912111

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Phosphate Prodrugs of 4-Phospho-d -erythronohydroxamic Acid, an Inhibitor of 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Ruda, Gian Filippo; Alibu, Vincent P; Mitsos, Christos; Bidet, Olivier; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Barrett, Michael P; Gilbert, Ian H

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, the third enzyme of the phosphate pentose pathway, from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative organism of human African trypanosomiasis. These inhibitors were charged phosphate derivatives with restricted capacity to enter cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of five different classes of prodrugs: phosphoramidate; bis-S-acyl thioethyl esters (bis-SATE); bis-pivaloxymethyl (bis-POM); CycloSaligenyl; and phenyl, S-acyl thioethyl mixed phosphate esters (mix-SATE). Prodrugs were studied for stability and activity against the intact parasites. Most prodrugs caused inhibition of the growth of the parasites. The activity of the prodrugs against the parasites appeared to be related to their stability in aqueous buffer. PMID:17615587

  14. The hsp70 inhibitor VER155008 induces paraptosis requiring de novo protein synthesis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of the hsp70 inhibitor VER155008 on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells. In ATC cells, VER155008 increased the percentages of dead cells and vacuolated cells. VER155008 did not lead to the cleavage of caspase-3 protein regardless of pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk. VER155008 increased LC3-II protein levels but the protein levels were not changed by autophagy inhibitors. VER155008 caused the dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the increased mRNA levels of Bip and CHOP, suggesting paraptosis. VER155008-induced paraptosis was attenuated by pretreatment with cycloheximide. In conclusion, VER155008 induces paraptosis characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolation, independence of caspase, dilatation of ER and induction of ER stress markers in ATC cells. Moreover, VER155008-induced paraptosis requires de novo protein synthesis in ATC cells. PMID:25450359

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of a Series of Anthracene-9,10-dione Dioxime β-Catenin Pathway Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Soldi, Raffaella; Horrigan, Stephen K; Cholody, Marek W; Padia, Janak; Sorna, Venkataswamy; Bearss, Jared; Gilcrease, Glynn; Bhalla, Kapil; Verma, Anupam; Vankayalapati, Hariprasad; Sharma, Sunil

    2015-08-13

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a vital role in cell growth, the regulation, cell development, and the differentiation of normal stem cells. Constitutive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is found in many human cancers, and thus, it is an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Specific inhibitors of this pathway have been keenly researched and developed. Cell based screening of compounds library, hit-to-lead optimization, computational and structure-based design strategies resulted in the design and synthesis of a series of anthracene-9,10-dione dioxime series of compounds demonstrated potent inhibition of β-catenin in vitro (IC50 < 10 nM, 14) and the growth of several cancer cell lines. This article discusses the potential of inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as a therapeutic approach for cancer along with an overview of the development of specific inhibitors. PMID:26182238

  16. Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of tyrosine-based inhibitors of autotaxin (ATX)

    PubMed Central

    East, James E.; Kennedy, Andrew J.; Tomsig, Jose L.; De Leon, Alexandra R.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Macdonald, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted soluble enzyme that generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) through its lysophospholipase D activity. Because of LPA’s role in neoplastic diseases, ATX is an attractive therapeutic target due to its involvement in LPA biosynthesis. Here we describe the SAR of ATX inhibitor, VPC8a202, and apply this SAR knowledge towards developing a high potency inhibitor. We found that electron density in the pyridine region greatly influences activity of our inhibitors at ATX. PMID:20951039

  17. Design and synthesis of inhibitors incorporating beta -amino acids of metalloendopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed

    Steer, D L; Lew, R A; Perlmutter, P; Smith, A I; Aguilar, M I

    2000-09-01

    Endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 (EP 24.15) is a thermolysin-like metalloendopeptidase which is expressed widely throughout the body, with the highest concentrations in the brain, pituitary and testis. While the precise role of EP 24.15 remains unknown, it is thought to participate in the regulated metabolism of a number of specific neuropeptides. Of the limited number of inhibitors described for EP 24.15, N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-amino benzoate (CFP) is the most widely studied. CFP is a potent and specific inhibitor, but is unstable in vivo due to its cleavage between the alanine and tyrosine residues by the enzyme neprilysin (EP 24.11). The cpp-Ala-Ala N-terminal product of this cleavage is a potent inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, which further limits the use of CFP in vivo. To generate specific inhibitors of EP 24.15 that are resistant to in vivo proteolysis by EP 24.11, beta-amino acids have been incorporated into the structure of CFP. We have prepared racemic mixtures of beta-amino acids containing proteogenic side chains, which are 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-protected, and several analogues of CFP containing beta-amino acids have been synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis. The results of stability and inhibitory studies of these new analogues show that the incorporation of beta-amino acids adjacent to the scissile bond can indeed stabilize the peptides against cleavage by EP 24.11 and still inhibit EP 24.15. The results obtained in these studies demonstrate the potential of these amino acids in the synthesis of peptidomimetics and in the design of new stable and specific therapeutics. PMID:11016884

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of galacto-noeurostegine and its 2-deoxy analogue as glycosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Stéphane; Clement, Lise L; Viuff, Agnete H; Andersen, Ole Juul; Jensen, Frank; Jensen, Henrik H

    2015-08-01

    An epimer of the known glycosidase inhibitor noeurostegine, galacto-noeurostegine, was synthesised in 21 steps from levoglucosan and found to be a potent, competitive and highly selective galactosidase inhibitor of Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase. Galacto-noeurostegine was not found to be an inhibitor of green coffee bean α-galactosidase, yeast α-glucosidase and E. coli β-galactosidase, whereas potent but non-competitive inhibition against sweet almond β-glucosidase was established. The 2-deoxy-galacto-noeurostegine analogue was also prepared and found to be a less potent inhibitor of the same enzymes. PMID:26111992

  19. Improved Synthesis of Chiral Pyrrolidine Inhibitors and Their Binding Properties to Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fengtian; Kraus, James M.; Labby, Kristin Jansen; Ji, Haitao; Mataka, Jan; Xia, Guoyao; Li, Huiying; Delker, Silvia L.; Roman, Linda J.; Martásek, Pavel; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    We report an efficient synthetic route to chiral pyrrolidine inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and crystal structures of the inhibitors bound to nNOS and to endothelial NOS. The new route enables versatile structure activity relationship studies on the pyrrolidine-based scaffold, which can be beneficial for further development of nNOS inhibitors. The X-ray crystal structures of three new fluorine-containing inhibitors bound to nNOS provide insights into the effect of the fluorine atoms on binding. PMID:21809851

  20. OXPHOS-Mediated Induction of NAD+ Promotes Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Akie, Thomas E; Liu, Lijun; Nam, Minwoo; Lei, Shi; Cooper, Marcus P

    2015-01-01

    OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance--ROS and PKCε activity--were both modestly reduced. As reported by others, improvement of NAFLD was associated with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Regarding hepatic lipid homeostasis, the ratio of NAD+ to NADH was dramatically increased in mouse liver replete with LRPPRC. Pharmacological activators and inhibitors of the cellular respiration respectively increased and decreased the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, indicating respiration-mediated control of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio. Supporting a prominent role for NAD+, increasing the concentration of NAD+ stimulated complete oxidation of fatty acids. Importantly, NAD+ rescued impaired fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes deficient for either OXPHOS or SIRT3. These data are consistent with a model whereby augmented hepatic OXPHOS increases NAD+, which in turn promotes complete oxidation of fatty acids and protects against NAFLD. PMID:25933096

  1. OXPHOS-Mediated Induction of NAD+ Promotes Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Minwoo; Lei, Shi; Cooper, Marcus P.

    2015-01-01

    OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance—ROS and PKCε activity—were both modestly reduced. As reported by others, improvement of NAFLD was associated with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Regarding hepatic lipid homeostasis, the ratio of NAD+ to NADH was dramatically increased in mouse liver replete with LRPPRC. Pharmacological activators and inhibitors of the cellular respiration respectively increased and decreased the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, indicating respiration-mediated control of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio. Supporting a prominent role for NAD+, increasing the concentration of NAD+ stimulated complete oxidation of fatty acids. Importantly, NAD+ rescued impaired fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes deficient for either OXPHOS or SIRT3. These data are consistent with a model whereby augmented hepatic OXPHOS increases NAD+, which in turn promotes complete oxidation of fatty acids and protects against NAFLD. PMID:25933096

  2. Human heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 interferes with Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA)-mediated adhesion and invasion.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Paolo; Bozza, Giuseppe; Capecchi, Barbara; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Norais, Nathalie; Capitani, Mirco; Sallese, Michele; Cecchini, Paola; Ciucchi, Laura; Gao, Zhenai; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Aricò, Beatrice; Merola, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    NadA (N eisseria meningitidisadhesin A), a meningococcal surface protein, mediates adhesion to and invasion of human cells, an activity in which host membrane proteins have been implicated. While investigating these host factors in human epithelial cells by affinity chromatography, we discovered an unanticipated interaction of NadA with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, a molecular chaperone. The specific in vitro interaction of recombinant soluble NadA and Hsp90 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations, dot and far-Western blot. Intriguingly, ADP, but not ATP, was required for this association, and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG promoted complex formation. Hsp90 binding to an Escherichia coli strain used as carrier to express surface exposed NadA confirmed these results in live bacteria. We also examined RNA interference, plasmid-driven overexpression, addition of exogenous rHsp90 and 17-AAG inhibition in human epithelial cells to further elucidate the involvement of Hsp90 in NadA-mediated adhesion and invasion. Together, these data suggest an inverse correlation between the amount of host Hsp90 and the NadA adhesive/invasive phenotype. Confocal microscopy also demonstrated that meningococci interact with cellular Hsp90, a completely novel finding. Altogether our results show that variation of host Hsp90 expression or activity interferes with adhesive and invasive events driven by NadA. PMID:22066472

  3. Novel diversity-oriented synthesis-derived respiratory syncytial virus inhibitors identified via a high throughput replicon-based screen.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Jeremy R; VerPlank, Lynn; Ludeke, Barbara; McLeod, Sarah M; Lee, Maurice D; Vishwanathan, Karthick; Mulrooney, Carol A; Le Quement, Sebastian; Yu, Qin; Palmer, Michelle A; Fleming, Paul; Fearns, Rachel; Foley, Michael A; Scherer, Christina A

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections affect millions of children and adults every year. Despite the significant disease burden, there are currently no safe and effective vaccines or therapeutics. We employed a replicon-based high throughput screen combined with live-virus triaging assays to identify three novel diversity-oriented synthesis-derived scaffolds with activity against RSV. One of these small molecules is shown to target the RSV polymerase (L protein) to inhibit viral replication and transcription; the mechanisms of action of the other small molecules are currently unknown. The compounds described herein may provide attractive inhibitors for lead optimization campaigns. PMID:27059228

  4. A Scalable Synthesis of the Difluoromethyl-allo-threonyl Hydroxamate-Based LpxC Inhibitor LPC-058.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaofei; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Navas, Frank; Toone, Eric J; Zhou, Pei

    2016-05-20

    The difluoromethyl-allo-threonyl hydroxamate-based compound LPC-058 is a potent inhibitor of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) in Gram-negative bacteria. A scalable synthesis of this compound is described. The key step in the synthetic sequence is a transition metal/base-catalyzed aldol reaction of methyl isocyanoacetate and difluoroacetone, giving rise to 4-(methoxycarbonyl)-5,5-disubstituted 2-oxazoline. A simple NMR-based determination of enantiomeric purity is also described. PMID:27128325

  5. Effects of nitric oxide and its synthesis inhibitor on neuron efficiency detected by a fiber-optic-based multisensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zheng; Hua, Jun; Lin, Shuzhi; Liu, Xiangfeng

    1998-01-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as an exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donor and N(omega) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME) as NO synthesis inhibitor was driven into monkey cortex by iontophoresis, their effects on face recognition of monkey were observed, and neuron firing as well as neuron efficiency were monitored by fiberoptic-based multisensor during face recognition. The results show that L-NAME and low dose of SNP(5 nM) did not have any significant effect on face recognition and neuron efficiency, however high dose of SNP(50 nM) increased simultaneously both correct rate of face recognition and neuron efficiency, but not neuron firing. The results were discussed according to NO and its synthesis mechanism.

  6. Generating a Generation of Proteasome Inhibitors: From Microbial Fermentation to Total Synthesis of Salinosporamide A (Marizomib) and Other Salinosporamides

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Barbara C.; Lam, Kin S.

    2010-01-01

    The salinosporamides are potent proteasome inhibitors among which the parent marine-derived natural product salinosporamide A (marizomib; NPI-0052; 1) is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. Methods to generate this class of compounds include fermentation and natural products chemistry, precursor-directed biosynthesis, mutasynthesis, semi-synthesis, and total synthesis. The end products range from biochemical tools for probing mechanism of action to clinical trials materials; in turn, the considerable efforts to produce the target molecules have expanded the technologies used to generate them. Here, the full complement of methods is reviewed, reflecting remarkable contributions from scientists of various disciplines over a period of 7 years since the first publication of the structure of 1. PMID:20479958

  7. Aflatoxin-Exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a Novel System for the Generation of Aflatoxin Synthesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gummadidala, Phani M.; Chen, Yung Pin; Beauchesne, Kevin R.; Miller, Kristen P.; Mitra, Chandrani; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Moeller, Peter D. R.; Ferry, John L.; Decho, Alan W.; Chanda, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here, we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle-, and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, laeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism. PMID:27375561

  8. Aflatoxin-Exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a Novel System for the Generation of Aflatoxin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gummadidala, Phani M; Chen, Yung Pin; Beauchesne, Kevin R; Miller, Kristen P; Mitra, Chandrani; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Moeller, Peter D R; Ferry, John L; Decho, Alan W; Chanda, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here, we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle-, and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, laeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio's silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism. PMID:27375561

  9. Synthesis and characterization of potent bivalent amyloidosis inhibitors that bind prior to transthyretin tetramerization.

    PubMed

    Green, Nora S; Palaninathan, Satheesh K; Sacchettini, James C; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2003-11-01

    The misfolding of transthyretin (TTR), including rate-limiting tetramer dissociation and partial monomer denaturation, is sufficient for TTR misassembly into amyloid and other abnormal quaternary structures associated with senile systemic amyloidosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and familial amyloid cardiomyopathy. Monovalent small molecules that bind to one or both of the unoccupied thyroid hormone binding sites at the TTR quaternary structure interface stabilize the native state, raising the kinetic barrier for tetramer dissociation sufficiently that the rate of dissociation, and therefore amyloidosis, becomes slow. Bivalent amyloid inhibitors that bind to both binding sites simultaneously are reported herein. The candidate bivalent inhibitors are generally unable to bind to the native TTR tetramer and typically do not engage in monovalent binding owing to a strong inhibitor orientation preference. However, the TTR quaternary structure can assemble around several of the bivalent inhibitors if the inhibitor intercepts the protein before assembly occurs. Some of the wild-type TTR.bivalent inhibitor complexes prepared in this fashion retain a tetrameric structure when subjected to substantial denaturation stresses (8 M urea, 120 h). The best bivalent inhibitor reduced acid-mediated TTR (3.6 microM) amyloid fibril formation to 6% of that exhibited by TTR in the absence of inhibitor, a significant improvement over the approximately 30% observed for the best monovalent inhibitors (3.6 microM, 72 h). The apparent dissociation rate of the best bivalent inhibitor is effectively zero, consistent with the idea that TTR tetramer dissociation and inhibitor dissociation are linked-as a result of the inhibitor-templating tetramer assembly. X-ray cocrystal structures of two of the complexes demonstrate that the bivalent inhibitors simultaneously occupy both sites in TTR, consistent with the 1:1 binding stoichiometry derived from HPLC analysis. The purpose of this study was

  10. Synthesis and PET studies of [11C-cyano]letrozole (Femara), an aromatase inhibitor drug

    SciTech Connect

    kil K. E.; Biegon A.; Kil, K.-E.; Biegon, A.; Ding, Y.-S.; Fischer, A.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Kim, S.-W.; Pareto, D.; Schueller, M.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    2008-11-10

    Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family, converts androgens such as androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol respectively. Letrozole (1-[bis-(4-cyanophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole, Femara{reg_sign}) is a high affinity aromatase inhibitor (K{sub i}=11.5 nM) which has FDA approval for breast cancer treatment. Here we report the synthesis of carbon-11 labeled letrozole and its assessment as a radiotracer for brain aromatase in the baboon. Letrozole and its precursor (4-[(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]benzonitrile, 3) were prepared in two-step syntheses from 4-cyanobenzyl bromide and 4-bromobenzyl bromide, respectively. The [{sup 11}C]cyano group was introduced via the tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) catalyzed coupling of [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the bromo-precursor (3). PET studies in the baboon brain were carried out to assess regional distribution and kinetics, reproducibility of repeated measures and saturability. The free fraction of letrozole in the plasma, log D, and the [{sup 11}C-cyano]letrozole fraction in the arterial plasma were also measured. [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole was synthesized in 60 min with a radiochemical yield of 79-80%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% and a specific activity of 4.16 {+-} 2.21 Ci/{micro}mol at the end of bombardment (n=4). PET studies in the baboon revealed initial rapid and high uptake and initial rapid clearance followed by slow clearance of carbon-11 from the brain with no difference between brain regions. The brain kinetics was not affected by co-injection of unlabeled letrozole (0.1 mg/kg). The free fraction of letrozole in plasma was 48.9% and log D was 1.84. [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole is readily synthesized via a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction with [{sup 11}C]cyanide. Although it is unsuitable as a PET radiotracer for brain aromatase as revealed by the absence of regional specificity and saturability in brain regions, such as amygdala, which are known

  11. Probing Lipophilic Adamantyl Group as the P1-Ligand for HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, Protein X-ray Structural Studies, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Osswald, Heather L; Glauninger, Kristof; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Hayashi, Hironori; Aoki, Manabu; Weber, Irene T; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2016-07-28

    A series of potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors with a lipophilic adamantyl P1 ligand have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated. We have developed an enantioselective synthesis of adamantane-derived hydroxyethylamine isosteres utilizing Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation as the key step. Various inhibitors incorporating P1-adamantylmethyl in combination with P2 ligands such as 3-(R)-THF, 3-(S)-THF, bis-THF, and THF-THP were examined. The S1' pocket was also probed with phenyl and phenylmethyl ligands. Inhibitor 15d, with an isobutyl P1' ligand and a bis-THF P2 ligand, proved to be the most potent of the series. The cLogP value of inhibitor 15d is improved compared to inhibitor 2 with a phenylmethyl P1-ligand. X-ray structural studies of 15d, 15h, and 15i with HIV-1 protease complexes revealed molecular insight into the inhibitor-protein interaction. PMID:27389367

  12. Novel assay for simultaneous measurement of pyridine mononucleotides synthesizing activities allows dissection of the NAD(+) biosynthetic machinery in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Zamporlini, Federica; Ruggieri, Silverio; Mazzola, Francesca; Amici, Adolfo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Raffaelli, Nadia

    2014-11-01

    The redox coenzyme NAD(+) is also a rate-limiting co-substrate for several enzymes that consume the molecule, thus rendering its continuous re-synthesis indispensable. NAD(+) biosynthesis has emerged as a therapeutic target due to the relevance of NAD(+) -consuming reactions in complex intracellular signaling networks whose alteration leads to many neurologic and metabolic disorders. Distinct metabolic routes, starting from various precursors, are known to support NAD(+) biosynthesis with tissue/cell-specific efficiencies, probably reflecting differential expression of the corresponding rate-limiting enzymes, i.e. nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase, nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinamide riboside kinase. Understanding the contribution of these enzymes to NAD(+) levels depending on the tissue/cell type and metabolic status is necessary for the rational design of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating NAD(+) availability. Here we report a simple, fast and sensitive coupled fluorometric assay that enables simultaneous determination of the four activities in whole-cell extracts and biological fluids. Its application to extracts from various mouse tissues, human cell lines and plasma yielded for the first time an overall picture of the tissue/cell-specific distribution of the activities of the various enzymes. The screening enabled us to gather novel findings, including (a) the presence of quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinamide riboside kinase in all examined tissues/cell lines, indicating that quinolinate and nicotinamide riboside are relevant NAD(+) precursors, and (b) the unexpected occurrence of nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase in human plasma. PMID:25223558

  13. Design and synthesis of constrained analogs of LCRF-0004 as potent RON tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Raeppel, Stéphane L; Therrien, Eric; Raeppel, Franck

    2015-09-01

    New fused bicyclic lactam head groups as rigidified analogs of thieno[3,2-b]pyridine-based kinase inhibitor LCRF-0004 were designed and synthesized. Depending on the functionalities and the size of these bicyclic head groups, potent inhibitors of RON tyrosine kinase with various level of selectivity against c-Met tyrosine kinase were obtained. PMID:26112445

  14. Isolation and characterization of an endogenous inhibitor of protein synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, V L

    1979-01-01

    A low-molecular-weight factor was isolated from cell extracts of Escherichia coli K-12. The concentration of the factor in cells was dependent upon nutritional conditions, the concentration being higher in faster growing cells. Treatment of cells with colicin K caused an increase in concentration of the factor. The factor inhibited protein synthesis in E. coli. This inhibition was reversible, apparently because of metabolism of the factor. The inhibition of synthesis of beta-galactosidase lasted longer than the inhibition of protein synthesis; cyclic AMP eliminated this difference. The factor inhibited the synthesis of beta-galactosidase from preformed lac mRNA, indicating an inhibition of translation. Kinetic studies of the onset of inhibition of beta-galactosidase synthesis by the factor suggested that the factor may inhibit protein synthesis at the initiation of translation. PMID:104965

  15. Inhibition of PAF synthesis by stimulated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes with cloricromene, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2 activation.

    PubMed Central

    Ribaldi, E.; Mezzasoma, A. M.; Francescangeli, E.; Prosdocimi, M.; Nenci, G. G.; Goracci, G.; Gresele, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) represents the key enzyme in the remodelling pathway of platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis in human polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes. 2. PLA2 activation is also the rate-limiting step for the release of the arachidonic acid utilized for the synthesis of leukotrienes in stimulated leucocytes; however, it is unknown whether the PLA2s involved in the two biosynthetic pathways are identical. 3. Cloricromene (8-monochloro-3-beta-diethylaminoethyl-4-methyl-7-ethoxy- carbonylmethoxy coumarin) is an antithrombotic coumarin derivative which inhibits platelet and leucocyte function and suppresses arachidonic acid liberation by interfering with PLA2 activation. 4. The aim of the present study was to assess whether chloricromene inhibits PAF synthesis by stimulated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). 5. Cloricromene (50-500 microM) inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the release of PAF, as measured by h.p.l.c. bioassay, from A23187-stimulated PMNs. Significant inhibition (45%) of PAF-release was obtained with 50 microM cloricromene and the IC50 was 85 microM. Mepacrine (500 microM), a non-specific PLA2 inhibitor, strikingly reduced PAF release. 6. The incorporation of [3H]-acetate into [3H]-PAF induced by serum-treated zymosan in human PMNs was also inhibited concentration-dependently by cloricromene, with an IC50 of 105 microM. Mepacrine also suppressed [3H]-acetate incorporation into [3H]-PAF. 7. Cloricromene did not affect the activities of the enzymes involved in PAF-synthesis acetyltransferase or phosphocholine transferase. 8. Our data demonstrate that cloricromene, an inhibitor of PLA2-activation in human leucocytes, reduces the synthesis of PAF by stimulated PMNs. This finding has a twofold implication: the PLA2s (or the mechanisms that regulate their activation) involved in PAF synthesis and arachidonate release in human leucocytes are either identical or else indistinguishable by their sensitivity to cloricromene

  16. An integrated approach for discovery of highly potent and selective Mnk inhibitors: Screening, synthesis and SAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Teo, Theodosia; Yang, Yuchao; Yu, Mingfeng; Basnet, Sunita K C; Gillam, Todd; Hou, Jinqiang; Schmid, Raffaella M; Kumarasiri, Malika; Diab, Sarah; Albrecht, Hugo; Sykes, Matthew J; Wang, Shudong

    2015-10-20

    Deregulation of protein synthesis is a common event in cancer. As MAPK-interacting kinases (Mnks) play critical roles in regulation of protein synthesis, they have emerged as novel anti-cancer targets. Mnks phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and promote eIF4E-mediated oncogenic activity. Given that the kinase activity of Mnks is essential for oncogenesis but is dispensable for normal development, the discovery of potent and selective pharmacological Mnk inhibitors provides pharmacological target validation and offers a new strategy for cancer treatment. Herein, comprehensive in silico screening approaches were deployed, and three thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine and pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives were identified as hit compounds. Further chemical modification of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivative 3 has given rise to a series of highly potent Mnk2 inhibitors that could be potential leads for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:26408454

  17. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 2,5-Diketopiperazines as Inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Mariell; Quant, Maria; Min, Jaeki; Iconaru, Luigi; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Waddell, M. Brett; Guy, R. Kiplin; Luthman, Kristina; Grøtli, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor p53 is the main tumour suppressor in cells and many cancer types have p53 mutations resulting in a loss of its function. In tumours that retain wild-type p53 function, p53 activity is down-regulated by MDM2 (human murine double minute 2) via a direct protein—protein interaction. We have designed and synthesised two series of 2,5-diketopiperazines as inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 interaction. The first set was designed to directly mimic the α-helical region of the p53 peptide, containing key residues in the i, i+4 and i+7 positions of a natural α-helix. Conformational analysis indicated that 1,3,6-trisubstituted 2,5-diketopiperazines were able to place substituents in the same spatial orientation as an α-helix template. The key step of the synthesis involved the cyclisation of substituted dipeptides. The other set of tetrasubstituted 2,5-diketopiperazines were designed based on structure-based docking studies and the Ugi multicomponent reaction was used for the synthesis. This latter set comprised the most potent inhibitors which displayed micromolar IC50-values in a biochemical fluorescence polarisation assay. PMID:26427060

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-substituted 5-benzylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins as potent NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun Soo; Choi, Sun; Park, Jung Jae; Joo, Jung Hee; Cui, Minghua; Cho, Hyunsung; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Sang Hyup

    2016-09-15

    We report the synthesis of novel 3-substituted 5-benzylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins 3, and their biological evaluation using NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 and 4. Based on structural and pharmacophore analyses of known inhibitors such as hydroxypyrazole 2, we envisioned interesting 2-thiohydantoin compounds, 3-substituted 5-benzylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins 3 that would be expected to well match the structural features in 2. Efficient synthesis of eighteen target compounds 3 were achieved through the synthetic pathway of 4→11→3, established after consideration of several plausible synthetic pathways. The inhibitory activities of compounds 3 against NOX 1 and 4 were measured, with some of the target compounds showing similar or higher activities compared with reference 2; in particular, compounds 3bz, 3cz, and 3ez were found to be promising inhibitors of both NOX 1 and 4 with modest isozyme selectivities, which highlights the significance of the 2-thiohydantoin substructure for inhibition of NOX 1 and 4. This marks the first time these compounds have been applied to the inhibition of NOX enzymes. PMID:27407031

  19. The Sensitivity of Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation to Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis and Kinases: Computational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Memory consolidation and reconsolidation require kinase activation and protein synthesis. Blocking either process during or shortly after training or recall disrupts memory stabilization, which suggests the existence of a critical time window during which these processes are necessary. Using a computational model of kinase synthesis and…

  20. Synthesis and optimization of N-heterocyclic pyridinones as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijian; Harrison, Scott T; Schubert, Jeffrey W; Sanders, John M; Polsky-Fisher, Stacey; Zhang, Nanyan Rena; McLoughlin, Debra; Gibson, Christopher R; Robinson, Ronald G; Sachs, Nancy A; Kandebo, Monika; Yao, Lihang; Smith, Sean M; Hutson, Pete H; Wolkenberg, Scott E; Barrow, James C

    2016-06-15

    A series of N-heterocyclic pyridinone catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors were synthesized. Physicochemical properties, including ligand lipophilic efficiency (LLE) and clogP, were used to guide compound design and attempt to improve inhibitor pharmacokinetics. Incorporation of heterocyclic central rings provided improvements in physicochemical parameters but did not significantly reduce in vitro or in vivo clearance. Nevertheless, compound 11 was identified as a potent inhibitor with sufficient in vivo exposure to significantly affect the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and indicate central COMT inhibition. PMID:27133481

  1. Synthesis of urea-based inhibitors as active site probes of glutamate carboxypeptidase II: efficacy as analgesic agents.

    PubMed

    Kozikowski, Alan P; Zhang, Jiazhong; Nan, Fajun; Petukhov, Pavel A; Grajkowska, Ewa; Wroblewski, Jarda T; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Bzdega, Tomasz; Wroblewska, Barbara; Neale, Joseph H

    2004-03-25

    The neuropeptidase glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) hydrolyzes N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) to liberate N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. GCPII was originally cloned as PSMA, an M(r) 100,000 type II transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in prostate tissues. PSMA/GCPII is located on the short arm of chromosome 11 and functions as both a folate hydrolase and a neuropeptidase. Inhibition of brain GCPII may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of certain disease states arising from pathologically overactivated glutamate receptors. Recently, we reported that certain urea-based structures act as potent inhibitors of GCPII (J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 298). However, many of the potent GCPII inhibitors prepared to date are highly polar compounds and therefore do not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Herein, we elaborate on the synthesis of a series of potent, urea-based GCPII inhibitors from the lead compound 3 and provide assay data for these ligands against human GCPII. Moreover, we provide data revealing the ability of one of these compounds, namely, 8d, to reduce the perception of inflammatory pain. Within the present series, the gamma-tetrazole bearing glutamate isostere 7d is the most potent inhibitor with a K(i) of 0.9 nM. The biological evaluation of these compounds revealed that the active site of GCPII likely comprises two regions, namely, the pharmacophore subpocket and the nonpharmacophore subpocket. The pharmacophore subpocket is very sensitive to structural changes, and thus, it appears important to keep one of the glutamic acid moieties intact to maintain the potency of the GCPII inhibitors. The site encompassing the nonpharmacophore subpocket that binds to glutamate's alpha-carboxyl group is sensitive to structural change, as shown by compounds 6b and 7b. However, the other region of the nonpharmacophore subpocket can accommodate both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. Thus, an aromatic ring can be introduced to the

  2. I. Development of Metal-Mediated SPOT-Synthesis Methods for the Efficient Construction of Small-Molecule Macroarrays. II. Design and Synthesis of Novel Bacterial Biofilm Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Reto

    I. The use of small molecule probes to explore biological phenomena has become a valuable tool in chemical biology. As a result, methods that permit the rapid synthesis and biological evaluation of such compounds are highly sought-after. The small molecule macroarray represents one such approach for the synthesis and identification of novel bioactive agents. Macroarrays are readily constructed via the SPOT-synthesis technique on planar cellulose membranes, yielding spatially addressed libraries of ˜10-1000 unique compounds. We sought to expand the arsenal of chemical reactions compatible with this solid-phase platform, and developed highly efficient SPOT-synthesis protocols for the Mizoroki-Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. We demonstrated that these metal-mediated reactions can be implemented, either individually or sequentially, for the efficient construction of small molecules in high purity on rapid time scales. Utilizing these powerful C-C and C-N bond forming coupling reactions, we constructed a series of macroarrays based on novel stilbene, phenyl-naphthalene, and triazole scaliblds. Subsequent biological testing of the stilbene and phenyl-naphthalene libraries revealed several potent antagonists and agonists, respectively, of the quorum sensing (QS) receptor LuxR in Vibrio fischeri. II. Bacteria living within biofilms are notorious for their resistance to known antibiotic agents, and constitute a major human health threat. Methods to attenuate biofilm growth would have a significant impact on the management of bacterial infections. Despite intense research efforts, small molecules capable of either inhibiting or dispersing biolilms remain scarce. We utilized natural products with purported anti-biofilm or QS inhibitory activity as sources of structural insight to guide the synthesis of novel biofilm modulators with improved activities. These studies revealed 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives as highly potent

  3. Synthesis and characterisation of 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Masumoto, Naoko; Bodakh, George; Konitsiotis, Antonio D.; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Rodgers, Ursula R.; Owens, Raymond J.; Magee, Anthony I.; Tate, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    In this data article we describe synthetic and characterisation data for four members of the 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine (termed “RU-SKI”) class of inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase, including associated NMR spectra for final compounds. RU-SKI compounds were selected for synthesis based on their published high potencies against the enzyme target. RU-SKI 41 (9a), RU-SKI 43 (9b), RU-SKI 101 (9c), and RU-SKI 201 (9d) were profiled for activity in the related article “Click chemistry armed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to measure palmitoylation by Hedgehog acyltransferase” (Lanyon-Hogg et al., 2015) [1]. 1H NMR spectral data indicate different amide conformational ratios between the RU-SKI inhibitors, as has been observed in other 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridines. The synthetic and characterisation data supplied in the current article provide validated access to the class of RU-SKI inhibitors. PMID:27077078

  4. Design and synthesis of [(125)I]Pyricoxib: A novel (125)I-labeled cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Ole; Dzandzi, James; Bhardwaj, Atul; Valliant, John F; Wuest, Frank

    2016-03-15

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is the key enzyme in the prostaglandin synthesis pathway which is involved in various pathophysiological conditions. The enzyme is membrane bound and located inside of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane. Effective perfusion of inhibitors to the active site requires lipophilic drugs, which consequently display high unspecific background accumulation, for example, in fatty tissues. The objective of this work was the development of a small molecule radiolabeled with a long-lived iodine radioisotope to enable longer imaging times and better target-to-background ratios. A group of iodinated compounds (8-10) was synthesized and identified as selective COX-2 inhibitors (COX-2 IC50=0.85-13 μM). Molecular docking results provided the theoretical support for the experimental COX-2 inhibition data. Furthermore, a novel (125)I-containing trifluoro-pyrimidine compound ([(125)I]Pyricoxib) was prepared via radioiododestannylation reaction as potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor. Radiosynthesis of [(125)I]Pyricoxib was accomplished with innovative fluorous chemistry using fluorous chloroamine-T (F-CAT) as novel oxidizing agent in high radiochemical yields of 91 ± 4%. PMID:26898334

  5. Diversity-Oriented Synthesis Probe Targets Plasmodium falciparum Cytochrome b Ubiquinone Reduction Site and Synergizes With Oxidation Site Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, Amanda K.; Heidebrecht, Richard W.; Mulrooney, Carol; Beaudoin, Jennifer A.; Comer, Eamon; Duvall, Jeremy R.; Fitzgerald, Mark E.; Masi, Daniela; Galinsky, Kevin; Scherer, Christina A.; Palmer, Michelle; Munoz, Benito; Foley, Michael; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Wiegand, Roger C.; Wirth, Dyann F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The emergence and spread of drug resistance to current antimalarial therapies remains a pressing concern, escalating the need for compounds that demonstrate novel modes of action. Diversity-Oriented Synthesis (DOS) libraries bridge the gap between conventional small molecule and natural product libraries, allowing the interrogation of more diverse chemical space in efforts to identify probes of novel parasite pathways. Methods. We screened and optimized a probe from a DOS library using whole-cell phenotypic assays. Resistance selection and whole-genome sequencing approaches were employed to identify the cellular target of the compounds. Results. We identified a novel macrocyclic inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum with nanomolar potency and identified the reduction site of cytochrome b as its cellular target. Combination experiments with reduction and oxidation site inhibitors showed synergistic inhibition of the parasite. Conclusions. The cytochrome b oxidation center is a validated antimalarial target. We show that the reduction site of cytochrome b is also a druggable target. Our results demonstrating a synergistic relationship between oxidation and reduction site inhibitors suggests a future strategy for new combination therapies in the treatment of malaria. PMID:25336726

  6. Probing the Active Site of Candida Glabrata Dihydrofolate Reductase with High Resolution Crystal Structures and the Synthesis of New Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Smith, A; Priestley, N; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a fungal strain resistant to many commonly administered antifungal agents, has become an emerging threat to human health. In previous work, we validated that the essential enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase, is a drug target in C. glabrata. Using a crystal structure of dihydrofolate reductase from C. glabrata bound to an initial lead compound, we designed a class of biphenyl antifolates that potently and selectively inhibit both the enzyme and the growth of the fungal culture. In this work, we explore the structure-activity relationships of this class of antifolates with four new high resolution crystal structures of enzyme:inhibitor complexes and the synthesis of four new inhibitors. The designed inhibitors are intended to probe key hydrophobic pockets visible in the crystal structure. The crystal structures and an evaluation of the new compounds reveal that methyl groups at the meta and para positions of the distal phenyl ring achieve the greatest number of interactions with the pathogenic enzyme and the greatest degree of selectivity over the human enzyme. Additionally, antifungal activity can be tuned with substitution patterns at the propargyl and para-phenyl positions.

  7. Synthesis and characterisation of 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Masumoto, Naoko; Bodakh, George; Konitsiotis, Antonio D; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Rodgers, Ursula R; Owens, Raymond J; Magee, Anthony I; Tate, Edward W

    2016-06-01

    In this data article we describe synthetic and characterisation data for four members of the 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine (termed "RU-SKI") class of inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase, including associated NMR spectra for final compounds. RU-SKI compounds were selected for synthesis based on their published high potencies against the enzyme target. RU-SKI 41 (9a), RU-SKI 43 (9b), RU-SKI 101 (9c), and RU-SKI 201 (9d) were profiled for activity in the related article "Click chemistry armed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to measure palmitoylation by Hedgehog acyltransferase" (Lanyon-Hogg et al., 2015) [1]. (1)H NMR spectral data indicate different amide conformational ratios between the RU-SKI inhibitors, as has been observed in other 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridines. The synthetic and characterisation data supplied in the current article provide validated access to the class of RU-SKI inhibitors. PMID:27077078

  8. Synthesis of 3,4-diaminobenzoyl derivatives as factor Xa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiabin; Su, Guoqiang; Ren, Yu; Chen, Yang

    2015-08-28

    The coagulation factor Xa (FXa) plays a central role in the blood coagulation cascade. Recent studies have shown that FXa is a particularly attractive target for the development of oral antithrombotic agents. In view of the excellent pharmaceutical properties of 1,2-phenylenediamine-based FXa inhibitors and the reported structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of FXa inhibitors, we designed and synthesized a series of 3,4-diaminobenzoyl-based FXa inhibitors. Intensive SAR studies on this new series led to the discovery of 3,4-dimethoxyl substituted compound 7b. 7b is a highly potent, selective, direct FXa inhibitor with excellent in vivo antithrombotic activity. PMID:26114810

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Indatraline-Based Inhibitors for Trypanothione Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jeffrey G A; Jones, Deuan C; Kiuru, Paula; Durie, Alastair J; Westwood, Nicholas J; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2011-01-01

    The search for novel compounds of relevance to the treatment of diseases caused by trypanosomatid protozoan parasites continues. Screening of a large library of known bioactive compounds has led to several drug-like starting points for further optimisation. In this study, novel analogues of the monoamine uptake inhibitor indatraline were prepared and assessed both as inhibitors of trypanothione reductase (TryR) and against the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Although it proved difficult to significantly increase the potency of the original compound as an inhibitor of TryR, some insight into the preferred substituent on the amine group and in the two aromatic rings of the parent indatraline was deduced. In addition, detailed mode of action studies indicated that two of the inhibitors exhibit a mixed mode of inhibition. PMID:21275055

  10. Synthesis and activity of a novel inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Victoria J B; Hobbs, Melanie C; Burgin, Ryan; Turton, David; Smythe, Carl; Coldham, Iain

    2016-01-27

    During efforts to prepare the known compound , a new tetracyclic compound, called , was prepared in six steps. This compound was found to have good activity as an inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. PMID:26740124

  11. Synthesis and application of polyaminoamide as new paraffin inhibitor from vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a series of novel paraffin inhibitor, polyaminoamide (PAA), was designed and prepared by aminolysis and poly-condensation using soybean oil and canola oil as the raw material. The property of the PAAs as paraffin inhibitor was investigated, the results show several PAA samples are potent in paraffin inhibition, and PPC-2 is the most effective one. Besides, the paraffin crystal morphology analysis was carried out to provide the mechanism of paraffin inhibition. PMID:22152091

  12. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel biarylamine-based Met kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, David K; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Tarby, Christine; Kaltenbach, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Tokarski, John S; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S; Wautlet, Barri; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Henley, Benjamin J; Jeyaseelan, Robert; Kellar, Kristen; Manne, Veeraswamy; Trainor, George L; Lombardo, Louis J; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M

    2010-09-03

    Biarylamine-based inhibitors of Met kinase have been identified. Lead compounds demonstrate nanomolar potency in Met kinase biochemical assays and significant activity in the Met-driven GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma cell line. X-ray crystallography revealed that these compounds adopt a bioactive conformation, in the kinase domain, consistent with that previously seen with 2-pyridone-based Met kinase inhibitors. Compound 9b demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human tumor xenograft model.

  13. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of Pteridine Dione and Trione Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Novel substituted pteridine-derived inhibitors of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), an emerging target for cancer therapy, are reported. The activity of these compounds as inhibitors of lactate transport was confirmed using a 14C-lactate transport assay, and their potency against MCT1-expressing human tumor cells was established using MTT assays. The four most potent compounds showed substantial anticancer activity (EC50 37–150 nM) vs MCT1-expressing human Raji lymphoma cells. PMID:25068893

  14. New indolizine-chalcones as potent inhibitors of human farnesyltransferase: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moise, Iuliana-Monica; Ghinet, Alina; Belei, Dalila; Dubois, Joëlle; Farce, Amaury; Bîcu, Elena

    2016-08-01

    A new family of indolizine-chalcones was designed, synthesized and screened for the inhibitory potential on human farnesyltransferase in vitro to identify potent antitumor agents. The most active compound was phenothiazine 2a, exhibiting an IC50 value in the low nanomolar range, similar to that of known FTI-276, highly potent farnesyltransferase inhibitor. The newly synthesized indolizine-chalcones 2a-d constitute the most efficient inhibitors of farnesyltransferase bearing a phenothiazine unit known to date. PMID:27282741

  15. Synthesis of annulated pyridines as inhibitors of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2).

    PubMed

    Martin, Rainer E; Lehmann, Johannes; Alzieu, Thibaut; Lenz, Mario; Carnero Corrales, Marjorie A; Aebi, Johannes D; Märki, Hans Peter; Kuhn, Bernd; Amrein, Kurt; Mayweg, Alexander V; Britton, Robert

    2016-07-01

    A series of cyclopenta[c]pyridine aldosterone synthase (AS) inhibitors were conveniently accessed using batch or continuous flow Kondrat'eva reactions. Preparation of the analogous cyclohexa[c]pyridines led to the identification of a potent and more selective AS inhibitor. The structure-activity-relationship (SAR) in this new series was rationalized using binding mode models in the crystal structure of AS. PMID:27245438

  16. Proline-Based Macrocyclic Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus: Stereoselective Synthesis and Biological Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kevin X.; Njoroge, F. George; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Prongay, Andrew; Pichardo, John; Madison, Vincent; Buevich, Alexei; Chan, Tze-Ming

    2008-06-30

    Macrocyclization through a Mitsunobu reaction was used to synthesize a 17-membered macrocycle. The bicyclic acetal core was prepared completely diastereoselectively. The macrocyclic peptidomimetic surrogate of the P2-P3 dipeptide moiety was designed to function as a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 serine protease inhibitor, and the pentapeptide {alpha}-ketoamides derived from the macrocycle were shown to be potent HCV inhibitors.

  17. Probing the Druggability Limits for Enzymes of the NAD Biosynthetic Network in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Padiadpu, Jyothi; Mishra, Madhulika; Sharma, Eshita; Mala, Uchurappa; Somasundaram, Kumar; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-05-23

    The biosynthesis of NAD constitutes an important metabolic module in the cell, since NAD is an essential cofactor involved in several metabolic reactions. NAD concentrations are known to be significantly increased in several cancers, particularly in glioma, consistent with the observation of up-regulation of several enzymes of the network. Modulating NAD biosynthesis in glioma is therefore an attractive therapeutic strategy. Here we report reconstruction of a biochemical network of NAD biosynthesis consisting of 22 proteins, 36 metabolites, and 86 parameters, tuned to mimic the conditions in glioma. Kinetic simulations of the network provide comprehensive insights about the role of individual enzymes. Further, quantitative changes in the same network between different states of health and disease enable identification of drug targets, based on specific alterations in the given disease. Through simulations of enzyme inhibition titrations, we identify NMPRTase as a potential drug target, while eliminating other possible candidates NMNAT, NAPRTase, and NRK. We have also simulated titrations of both binding affinities as well as inhibitor concentrations, which provide insights into the druggability limits of the target, a novel aspect that can provide useful guidelines for designing inhibitors with optimal affinities. Our simulations suggest that an inhibitor affinity of 10 nM used in a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 μM achieves a near maximal inhibition response for NMPRTase and that increasing the affinity any further is not likely to have a significant advantage. Thus, the quantitative appreciation defines a maximal extent of inhibition possible for a chosen enzyme in the context of its network. Knowledge of this type enables an upper affinity threshold to be defined as a goal in lead screening and refinement stages in drug discovery. PMID:26958865

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Optimization of Novel Epoxide Incorporating Peptidomimetics as Selective Calpain Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Schiefer, Isaac T.; Tapadar, Subhasish; Litosh, Vladislav; Siklos, Marton; Scism, Rob; Wijewickrama, Gihani T.; Chandrasena, Esala P.; Sinha, Vaishali; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Brunsteiner, Michael; Fa′, Mauro; Arancio, Ottavio; Petukhov, Pavel; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the calcium-dependent cysteine protease, calpain-1 (Cal1), is implicated as a primary or secondary pathological event in a wide range of illnesses, and in neurodegenerative states, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). E-64 is an epoxide-containing natural product identified as a potent non-selective, calpain inhibitor, with demonstrated efficacy in animal models of AD. Using E-64 as a lead, three successive generations of calpain inhibitors were developed using computationally assisted design to increase selectivity for Cal1. First generation analogs were potent inhibitors, effecting covalent modification of recombinant Cal1 catalytic domain (Cal1cat), demonstrated using LC-MS/MS. Refinement yielded 2nd generation inhibitors with improved selectivity. Further library expansion and ligand refinement gave three Cal1 inhibitors, one of which was designed as an activity-based protein profiling probe. These were determined to be irreversible and selective inhibitors by kinetic studies comparing full length Cal1 with the general cysteine protease, papain. PMID:23834438

  19. Binding of NAD+ to pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Lobban, M D; Irons, L I; van Heyningen, S

    1991-06-24

    The equilibrium dissociation constant of NAD+ and pertussis toxin was determined by equilibrium dialysis and by the quenching of the protein's intrinsic fluorescence on titration with NAD+. A binding constant, Kd, of 24 +/- 2 microM at 30 degrees C was obtained from equilibrium dialysis, consistent with the previously determined value for the Michaelis constant, Km, of 30 +/- 5 microM for NAD+ (when the toxin is catalysing the ADP-ribosylation of water and of dithiothreitol). The intrinsic fluorescence of pertussis toxin was quenched by up to 60% on titration with NAD+, and after correction for dilution and inner filter effects, a Kd value of 27 microM at 30 degrees C was obtained, agreeing well with that found by equilibrium dialysis. The binding constants were measured at a number of temperatures using both techniques, and from this the enthalpy of binding of NAD+ to toxin was determined to be 30 kJ.mol-1, a typical value for a protein-ligand interaction. There is one binding site for NAD+ per toxin molecule. PMID:1648404

  20. The Design and Synthesis of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 for the Treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a genetically validated drug target for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called African sleeping sickness. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of aminopyrazole derivatives as Trypanosoma brucei GSK3 short inhibitors. Low nanomolar inhibitors, which had high selectivity over the off-target human CDK2 and good selectivity over human GSK3β enzyme, have been prepared. These potent kinase inhibitors demonstrated low micromolar levels of inhibition of the Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasite grown in culture. PMID:25198388

  1. Sirtuins are Unaffected by PARP Inhibitors Containing Planar Nicotinamide Bioisosteres.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Torun; Schüler, Herwig

    2016-03-01

    PARP-family ADP-ribosyltransferases (PARPs) and sirtuin deacetylases all use NAD(+) as cosubstrate for ADP-ribosyl transfer. PARP inhibitors are important research tools and several are being evaluated in cancer treatment. With the exception of a few tankyrase inhibitors, all current PARP inhibitors mimic the nicotinamide moiety in NAD(+) and block the nicotinamide binding pocket. We report here that while the activities of the four human sirtuin isoforms SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are blocked by sirtuin inhibitor Ex527 in vitro, they are unaffected by the seven clinical and commonly used PARP inhibitors niraparib, olaparib, rucaparib, talazoparib, veliparib, PJ34, and XAV939. These findings indicate that PARP inhibitors containing planar nicotinamide mimetics do not bind to sirtuin cofactor sites. In conclusion, a simple commercially available assay can be used to rule out interference of novel PARP inhibitors with sirtuin NAD(+) binding. PMID:26518726

  2. Synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted benzylamine derivatives as reversible selective inhibitors of copper amine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Lucchesini, Francesco; Pocci, Marco; Alfei, Silvana; Bertini, Vincenzo; Buffoni, Franca

    2014-03-01

    In order to obtain substrate-like inhibitors of copper amine oxidases (CAOs), a class of enzymes involved in important cellular processes as well as in crosslinking of elastin and collagen and removal of biogenic primary amines, we synthesized a set of benzylamine derivatives properly substituted at positions 2 and 6 and studied their biological activity towards some members of CAOs. With benzylamines 6, 7, 8 containing linear alkoxy groups we obtained reversible inhibitors of benzylamine oxidase (BAO), very active and selective toward diamine oxidase (DAO), lysyl oxidase (LO) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) characterized by a certain toxicity consequent to the crossing of the brain barrier. Poorly toxic, up to very active, reversible inhibitors of BAO, very selective toward DAO, LO and MAO B, were obtained with benzylamines 10, 11, 12 containing hydrophilic ω-hydroxyalkoxy groups. With benzylamines 13, 14, 15, containing linear alkyl groups endowed with steric, but not conjugative effects for the absence of properly positioned oxygen atoms, we synthesized moderately active inhibitors of BAO reversible and selective toward DAO, LO and MAO B. The cross examination of the entire biological data brought us to the conclusion that the bioactive synthesized compounds most likely exert their physiological role of reversible inhibitors in consequence of the formation of a plurality of hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic non-covalent interactions with proper sites in the protein. Accordingly, the reported inhibitors may be considered as a set of research tools for general biological studies and the formation of enzyme complexes useful for X-ray structure determinations aimed at the design of more sophisticated inhibitors to always better modulate the protein activity without important side effects. PMID:24529308

  3. Synthesis of Rigidified eIF4E/eIF4G Inhibitor-1 (4EGI-1) Mimetic and Their in Vitro Characterization as Inhibitors of Protein–Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 4EGI-1 is the prototypic inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction, a potent inhibitor of translation initiation in vitro and in vivo and an efficacious anticancer agent in animal models of human cancers. We report on the design, synthesis, and in vitro characterization of a series of rigidified mimetic of this prototypic inhibitor in which the phenyl in the 2-(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl) moiety was bridged into a tricyclic system. The bridge consisted one of the following: ethylene, methylene oxide, methylenesulfide, methylenesulfoxide, and methylenesulfone. Numerous analogues in this series were found to be markedly more potent than the parent prototypic inhibitor in the inhibition of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction, thus preventing the eIF4F complex formation, a rate limiting step in the translation initiation cascade in eukaryotes, and in inhibition of human cancer cell proliferation. PMID:24827861

  4. Total Synthesis of Leupyrrin B1: A Potent Inhibitor of Human Leukocyte Elastase.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Sebastian; Wosniok, Paul R; Herkommer, Daniel; Schulz-Fincke, Anna-Christina; Gütschow, Michael; Menche, Dirk

    2016-08-19

    The total synthesis of leupyrrin B1 was accomplished by an expedient strategy that involves an optimized HATU-mediated amide coupling protocol of elaborate substrates. The generally useful procedure was also successfully applied in an improved total synthesis of leupyrrin A1. Finally, leupyrrins A1 and B1 were evaluated toward a panel of proteases, and human leukocyte elastase was discovered as a molecular target of the leupyrrins. PMID:27486674

  5. Synthesis of N-hydroxycinnamides capped with a naturally occurring moiety as inhibitors of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Ching-Chow; Chao, Shi-Wei; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Hsu, Fen-Lin; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Hung, Ming-Fang; Chang, Chung-I

    2010-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are regarded as promising therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. All reported HDAC inhibitors contain three pharmacophoric features: a zinc-chelating group, a hydrophobic linker, and a hydrophobic cap for surface recognition. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of osthole, a hydrophobic Chinese herbal compound, as the surface recognition cap in hydroxamate-based compounds as inhibitors of HDAC. Nine novel osthole-based N-hydroxycinnamides were synthesized and screened for enzyme inhibition activity. Compounds 9 d, 9 e, 9 g exhibited inhibitory activities (IC(50)=24.5, 20.0, 19.6 nM) against nuclear HDACs in HeLa cells comparable to that of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; IC(50)=24.5 nM), a potent inhibitor clinically used for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). While compounds 9 d and 9 e showed SAHA-like activity towards HDAC1 and HDAC6, compound 9 g was more selective for HDAC1. Compound 9 d exhibited the best cellular effect, which was comparable to that of SAHA, of enhancing acetylation of either alpha-tubulin or histone H3. Molecular docking analysis showed that the osthole moiety of compound 9 d may interact with the same hydrophobic surface pocket exploited by SAHA and it may be modified to provide class-specific selectivity. These results suggest that osthole is an effective hydrophobic cap when incorporated into N-hydroxycinnamide-derived HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20209563

  6. Benzoxazolone Carboxamides as Potent Acid Ceramidase Inhibitors: Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Studies.

    PubMed

    Bach, Anders; Pizzirani, Daniela; Realini, Natalia; Vozella, Valentina; Russo, Debora; Penna, Ilaria; Melzig, Laurin; Scarpelli, Rita; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-12-10

    Ceramides are lipid-derived intracellular messengers involved in the control of senescence, inflammation, and apoptosis. The cysteine amidase, acid ceramidase (AC), hydrolyzes these substances into sphingosine and fatty acid and, by doing so, regulates their signaling activity. AC inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of pathological conditions, such as cancer, in which ceramide levels are abnormally reduced. Here, we present a systematic SAR investigation of the benzoxazolone carboxamides, a recently described class of AC inhibitors that display high potency and systemic activity in mice. We examined a diverse series of substitutions on both benzoxazolone ring and carboxamide side chain. Several modifications enhanced potency and stability, and one key compound with a balanced activity-stability profile (14) was found to inhibit AC activity in mouse lungs and cerebral cortex after systemic administration. The results expand our arsenal of AC inhibitors, thereby facilitating the use of these compounds as pharmacological tools and their potential development as drug leads. PMID:26560855

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of novel amide amino-β-lactam derivatives as cholesterol absorption inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dražić, Tonko; Sachdev, Vinay; Leopold, Christina; Patankar, Jay V.; Malnar, Martina; Hećimović, Silva; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Habuš, Ivan; Kratky, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The β-lactam cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe is so far the only representative of this class of compounds on the market today. The goal of this work was to synthesize new amide ezetimibe analogs from trans-3-amino-(3R,4R)-β-lactam and to test their cytotoxicity and activity as cholesterol absorption inhibitors. We synthesized six new amide ezetimibe analogs. All new compounds exhibited low toxicity in MDCKIIwt, hNPC1L1/MDCKII and HepG2 cell lines and showed significant inhibition of cholesterol uptake in hNPC1L1/MDCKII cells. In addition, we determined the activity of the three compounds to inhibit cholesterol absorption in vivo. Our results demonstrate that these compounds considerably reduce cholesterol concentrations in liver and small intestine of mice. Thus, our newly synthesized amide ezetimibe analogs are cholesterol absorption inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25882530

  8. Synthesis, evaluation and structure-activity relationship of new 3-carboxamide coumarins as FXIIa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bouckaert, Charlotte; Serra, Silvia; Rondelet, Grégoire; Dolušić, Eduard; Wouters, Johan; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Frédérick, Raphaël; Pochet, Lionel

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors of the coagulation factor XIIa (FXIIa) are attractive to detail the roles of this protease in hemostasis and thrombosis, to suppress artifact due to contact pathway activation in blood coagulation assays, and they are promising as antithrombotic therapy. The 3-carboxamide coumarins have been previously described as small-molecular-weight FXIIa inhibitors. In this study, we report a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study around this scaffold with the aim to discover new selective FXIIa inhibitors with an improved physico-chemical profile. To better understand these SAR, docking experiments were undertaken. For this purpose, we built an original hybrid model of FXIIa. This model has the advantage to gather the best features from the recently published crystal structure of FXIIa in its zymogen form and a more classical homology model. Results with the hybrid model are encouraging as they help understanding the activity and selectivity of our best compounds. PMID:26827162

  9. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Sulfamide and Sulfamate Nucleotidomimetic Inhibitors of hHint1.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachit; Strom, Alexander; Zhou, Andrew; Maize, Kimberly M; Finzel, Barry C; Wagner, Carston R

    2016-08-11

    Hint1 has recently emerged to be an important target of interest due to its involvement in the regulation of a broad range of CNS functions including opioid signaling, tolerance, neuropathic pain, and nicotine dependence. A series of inhibitors were rationally designed, synthesized, and tested for their inhibitory activity against hHint1 using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The studies resulted in the development of the first small-molecule inhibitors of hHint1 with submicromolar binding affinities. A combination of thermodynamic and high-resolution X-ray crystallographic studies provides an insight into the biomolecular recognition of ligands by hHint1. These novel inhibitors have potential utility as molecular probes to better understand the role and function of hHint1 in the CNS. PMID:27563403

  10. Design and Synthesis of Phenylpyrrolidine Phenylglycinamides As Highly Potent and Selective TF-FVIIa Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of the Tissue Factor/Factor VIIa (TF-FVIIa) complex are promising novel anticoagulants that show excellent efficacy and minimal bleeding in preclinical models. On the basis of a zwitterionic phenylglycine acylsulfonamide 1, a phenylglycine benzylamide 2 was shown to possess improved permeability and oral bioavailability. Optimization of the benzylamide, guided by X-ray crystallography, led to a potent TF-FVIIa inhibitor 18i with promising oral bioavailability, but promiscuous activity in an in vitro safety panel of receptors and enzymes. Introducing an acid on the pyrrolidine ring, guided by molecular modeling, resulted in highly potent, selective, and efficacious TF-FVIIa inhibitors with clean in vitro safety profile. The pyrrolidine acid 20 showed a moderate clearance, low volume of distribution, and a short t1/2 in dog PK studies. PMID:24900796

  11. Synthesis, Structure, and SAR of Tetrahydropyran-Based LpxC Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Benenato, Kerry E; Olivier, Nelson; Choy, Allison; Ross, Philip L; Miller, Matthew D; Thresher, Jason; Gao, Ning; Hale, Michael R

    2014-11-13

    In the search for novel Gram-negative agents, we performed a comprehensive search of the AstraZeneca collection and identified a tetrahydropyran-based matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor that demonstrated nanomolar inhibition of UDP-3-O-(acyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC). Crystallographic studies in Aquifex aeolicus LpxC indicated the tetrahydropyran engaged in the same hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions as other known inhibitors. Systematic optimization of three locales on the scaffold provided compounds with improved Gram-negative activity. However, the optimization of LpxC activity was not accompanied by reduced inhibition of MMPs. Comparison of the crystal structure of the native product, UDP-3-O-(acyl)-glucosamine, in Aquifex aeolicus to the structure of a tetrahydropyran-based inhibitor indicates pathways for future optimization. PMID:25408833

  12. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Trypanosoma brucei Trypanothione Synthetase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, Daniel; Torrie, Leah S; Thompson, Stephen; Harrison, Justin R; Frearson, Julie A; Read, Kevin D; Fairlamb, Alan H; Wyatt, Paul G; Gilbert, Ian H

    2012-01-01

    Trypanothione synthetase (TryS) is essential for the survival of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes human African trypanosomiasis. It is one of only a handful of chemically validated targets for T. brucei in vivo. To identify novel inhibitors of TbTryS we screened our in-house diverse compound library that contains 62 000 compounds. This resulted in the identification of six novel hit series of TbTryS inhibitors. Herein we describe the SAR exploration of these hit series, which gave rise to one common series with potency against the enzyme target. Cellular studies on these inhibitors confirmed on-target activity, and the compounds have proven to be very useful tools for further study of the trypanothione pathway in kinetoplastids. PMID:22162199

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-substituted indolizinoquinolinediones as catalytic DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Le-Mao; Zhang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yuan; Wei, Hong-Yu; He, Xi-Xin; Gu, Lian-Quan; Huang, Zhi-Shu; Pommier, Yves; An, Lin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work, indolizinoquinolinedione derivative 1 was identified as a Top1 catalytic inhibitor. Herein, a series of 6-substituted indolizinoquinolinedione derivatives were synthesized through modification of the parent compound 1. Top1 cleavage and relaxation assays indicate that none of these novel compounds act as classical Top1 poison, and that the compounds with alkylamino terminus at C-6 side chain, including 8, 11–16, 18–21, 25, 26 and 28–30, are the most potent Top1 catalytic inhibitors. Top1-mediated unwinding assay demonstrated that 14, 22 and 26 were Top1 catalytic inhibitors without Top1-mediated unwinding effect. Moreover, MTT results showed that compounds 26, 28–30 exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human leukemia HL-60 cells, and that compound 26 exerts potent cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells at nanomolar range. PMID:26188908

  14. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking of N-phenyl thiosemicarbazones as urease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zehra, Syeda Tazeen; Ahmed, Ramasa; Shafiq, Zahid; Bakht, Syeda Mahwish; Yaqub, Muhammad; Hussain, Mazhar; de la Vega de León, Antonio; Furtmann, Norbert; Bajorath, Jürgen; Shad, Hazoor Ahmad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2015-08-01

    Urease is an important enzyme which breaks urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide during metabolic processes. However, an elevated activity of urease causes various complications of clinical importance. The inhibition of urease activity with small molecules as inhibitors is an effective strategy for therapeutic intervention. Herein, we have synthesized a series of 19 benzofurane linked N-phenyl semithiocarbazones (3a-3s). All the compounds were screened for enzyme inhibitor activity against Jack bean urease. The synthesized N-phenyl thiosemicarbazones had varying activity levels with IC50 values between 0.077 ± 0.001 and 24.04 ± 0.14 μM compared to standard inhibitor, thiourea (IC50 = 21 ± 0.11 μM). The activities of these compounds may be due to their close resemblance of thiourea. A docking study with Jack bean urease (PDB ID: 4H9M) revealed possible binding modes of N-phenyl thiosemicarbazones. PMID:26119990

  15. Molecular Design, Synthesis and Trypanocidal Activity of Dipeptidyl Nitriles as Cruzain Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Avelar, Leandro A. A.; Camilo, Cristian D.; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Fernandes, William B.; Gonçalez, Cristiana; Kenny, Peter W.; Leitão, Andrei; McKerrow, James H.; Montanari, Carlos A.; Orozco, Erika V. Meñaca; Ribeiro, Jean F. R.; Rocha, Josmar R.; Rosini, Fabiana; Saidel, Marta E.

    2015-01-01

    A series of compounds based on the dipeptidyl nitrile scaffold were synthesized and assayed for their inhibitory activity against the T. cruzi cysteine protease cruzain. Structure activity relationships (SARs) were established using three, eleven and twelve variations respectively at the P1, P2 and P3 positions. A Ki value of 16 nM was observed for the most potent of these inhibitors which reflects a degree of non-additivity in the SAR. An X-ray crystal structure was determined for the ligand-protein complex for the structural prototype for the series. Twenty three inhibitors were also evaluated for their anti-trypanosomal effects and an EC50 value of 28 μM was observed for the most potent of these. Although there remains scope for further optimization, the knowledge gained from this study is also transferable to the design of cruzain inhibitors based on warheads other than nitrile as well as alternative scaffolds. PMID:26173110

  16. Triazole pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of Ribonuclease A. Synthesis, biochemical, and structural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Parmenopoulou, Vanessa; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Manta, Stella; Bougiatioti, Stamatina; Maragozidis, Panagiotis; Gkaragkouni, Dimitra-Niki; Kaffesaki, Eleni; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Zographos, Spyridon E; Zounpoulakis, Panagiotis; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Komiotis, Dimitris; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2012-12-15

    Five ribofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides and their corresponding 1,2,3-triazole derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. Their inhibitory action to Ribonuclease A has been studied by biochemical analysis and X-ray crystallography. These compounds are potent competitive inhibitors of RNase A with low μM inhibition constant (K(i)) values with the ones having a triazolo linker being more potent than the ones without. The most potent of these is 1-[(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]uracil being with K(i) = 1.6 μM. The high resolution X-ray crystal structures of the RNase A in complex with three most potent inhibitors of these inhibitors have shown that they bind at the enzyme catalytic cleft with the pyrimidine nucleobase at the B(1) subsite while the triazole moiety binds at the main subsite P(1), where P-O5' bond cleavage occurs, and the ribose at the interface between subsites P(1) and P(0) exploiting interactions with residues from both subsites. The effect of a susbsituent group at the 5-pyrimidine position at the inhibitory potency has been also examined and results show that any addition at this position leads to a less efficient inhibitor. Comparative structural analysis of these RNase A complexes with other similar RNase A-ligand complexes reveals that the triazole moiety interactions with the protein form the structural basis of their increased potency. The insertion of a triazole linker between the pyrimidine base and the ribose forms the starting point for further improvement of these inhibitors in the quest for potent ribonucleolytic inhibitors with pharmaceutical potential. PMID:23122937

  17. Synthesis of all stereoisomers of 3-hydroxypipecolic acid and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dehydropipecolic acid and their evaluation as glycosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Chiaki; Takahashi, Ryouko; Miyagawa, Tatsunori; Yoshimura, Yuichi; Kato, Atsushi; Adachi, Isao; Takahata, Hiroki

    2008-03-15

    A highly practicable synthesis of both enantiomers of 3-hydroxypipecolic acid derivatives 1, 2, 3, 4 is described. Screening of these molecules for glycosidase inhibition has been examined. Compound 3 was shown to be a potent inhibitor of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase as well as Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase. PMID:18296050

  18. Synthesis of the Reported Pyranonaphthoquinone Structure of the Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase Inhibitor Annulin B by Regioselective Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Inman, Martyn; Carvalho, Catarina; Lewis, William; Moody, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Annulin B, isolated from the marine hydroid isolated from Garveia annulata, is a potent inhibitor of the tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). A synthesis of the reported pyranonaphthoquinone structure is described, in which the key step is a regioselective Diels-Alder reaction between a pyranobenzoquinone dienophile and a silyl ketene acetal diene. PMID:27513176

  19. Bacterial Na+-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Biegel, Eva; Müller, Volker

    2010-10-19

    The anaerobic acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii carries out a unique type of Na(+)-motive, anaerobic respiration with caffeate as electron acceptor, termed "caffeate respiration." Central, and so far the only identified membrane-bound reaction in this respiration pathway, is a ferredoxin:NAD(+) oxidoreductase (Fno) activity. Here we show that inverted membrane vesicles of A. woodii couple electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin to NAD(+) with the transport of Na(+) from the outside into the lumen of the vesicles. Na(+) transport was electrogenic, and accumulation was inhibited by sodium ionophores but not protonophores, demonstrating a direct coupling of Fno activity to Na(+) transport. Results from inhibitor studies are consistent with the hypothesis that Fno activity coupled to Na(+) translocation is catalyzed by the Rnf complex, a membrane-bound, iron-sulfur and flavin-containing electron transport complex encoded by many bacterial and some archaeal genomes. Fno is a unique type of primary Na(+) pump and represents an early evolutionary mechanism of energy conservation that expands the redox range known to support life. In addition, it explains the lifestyle of many anaerobic bacteria and gives a mechanistic explanation for the enigma of the energetic driving force for the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin with NADH plus H(+) as reductant in a number of aerobic bacteria. PMID:20921383

  20. Design and synthesis of disubstituted thiophene and thiazole based inhibitors of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Hom, Roy K.; Bowers, Simeon; Sealy, Jennifer M.; Truong, Anh P.; Probst, Gary D.; Neitzel, Martin L.; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Fang, Larry; Brogley, Louis; Wu, Jing; Konradi, Andrei W.; Sham, Hing L.; Tóth, Gergely; Pan, Hu; Yao, Nanhua; Artis, Dean R.; Quinn, Kevin; Sauer, John-Michael; Powell, Kyle; Ren, Zhao; Bard, Frédérique; Yednock, Ted A.; Griswold-Prenner, Irene

    2012-02-28

    From high throughput screening, we discovered compound 1, the prototype for a series of disubstituted thiophene inhibitors of JNK which is selective towards closely related MAP kinases p38 and Erk2. Herein we describe the evolution of these compounds to a novel class of thiophene and thiazole JNK inhibitors that retain favorable solubility, permeability, and P-gp properties for development as CNS agents for treatment of neurodegeneration. Compound 61 demonstrated JNK3 IC{sub 50} = 77 nM and retained the excellent broad kinase selectivity observed for the series.

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationships of Pyridine-Based Rho Kinase (ROCK) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Green, Jeremy; Cao, Jingrong; Bandarage, Upul K; Gao, Huai; Court, John; Marhefka, Craig; Jacobs, Marc; Taslimi, Paul; Newsome, David; Nakayama, Tomoko; Shah, Sundeep; Rodems, Steve

    2015-06-25

    The Rho kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) are highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that act on substrates associated with cellular motility, morphology, and contraction and are of therapeutic interest in diseases associated with cellular migration and contraction, such as hypertension, glaucoma, and erectile dysfunction. Beginning with compound 4, an inhibitor of ROCK1 identified through high-throughput screening, systematic exploration of SAR, and application of structure-based design, led to potent and selective ROCK inhibitors. Compound 37 represents significant improvements in inhibition potency, kinase selectivity, and CYP inhibition and possesses pharmacokinetics suitable for in vivo experimentation. PMID:26039570

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of colchicine derivatives as novel tubulin and histone deacetylase dual inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Kong, Yannan; Zhang, Jie; Su, Mingbo; Zhou, Yubo; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Yi; Fang, Yanfen; Zhang, Xiongwen; Lu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A new class of colchicine derivatives were designed and synthesized as tubulin-HDAC dual inhibitors. Biological evaluations of these hybrids included the inhibitory activity of HDAC, tubulin polymerization analysis, in vitro cell cycle analysis in HCT-116 cells and cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Hybrid 6d behaved as potent HDAC-tubulin dual inhibitor and showed comparable cytotoxicity with colchicine. Compound 11a exhibited powerful tubulin inhibitory activity, moderate anti-HDAC activity and the most potent cytotoxicity (IC50 = 2-105 nM). PMID:25805446

  3. Design and synthesis of novel chalcones as potent selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hammuda, Arwa; Shalaby, Raed; Rovida, Stefano; Edmondson, Dale E; Binda, Claudia; Khalil, Ashraf

    2016-05-23

    A novel series of substituted chalcones were designed and synthesized to be evaluated as selective human MAO-B inhibitors. A combination of either methylsulfonyl or trifluoromethyl substituents on the aromatic ketone moiety with a benzodioxol ring on the other end of the chalcone scaffold was investigated. The compounds were tested for their inhibitory activities on both human MAO-A and B. All compounds appeared to be selective MAO-B inhibitors with Ki values in the micromolar to submicromolar range. Molecular modeling studies have been performed to get insight into the binding mode of the synthesized compounds to human MAO-B active site. PMID:26974383

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclopropyl analogues of fosmidomycin as potent Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Devreux, Vincent; Wiesner, Jochen; Goeman, Jan L; Van der Eycken, Johan; Jomaa, Hassan; Van Calenbergh, Serge

    2006-04-20

    A series of fosmidomycin analogues featuring restricted conformational mobility has been synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DOXP) reductoisomerase and as growth inhibitors of P. falciparum. The enantiomerically pure trans-cyclopropyl N-acetyl analogue 3b showed comparable inhibitory activity as fosmidomycin toward E. coli DOXP reductoisomerase and proved equally active when tested in vitro for P. falciparum growth inhibition. Conversely, the alpha-phenyl cis-cyclopropyl analogue 4 showed virtually no inhibition of the enzyme. PMID:16610809

  5. Habituation to thaxtomin A in hybrid poplar cell suspensions provides enhanced and durable resistance to inhibitors of cellulose synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Thaxtomin A (TA), a phytotoxin produced by the phytopathogen Streptomyces scabies, is essential for the development of potato common scab disease. TA inhibits cellulose synthesis but its actual mode of action is unknown. Addition of TA to hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides) cell suspensions can activate a cellular program leading to cell death. In contrast, it is possible to habituate hybrid poplar cell cultures to grow in the presence of TA levels that would normally induce cell death. The purpose of this study is to characterize TA-habituated cells and the mechanisms that may be involved in enhancing resistance to TA. Results Habituation to TA was performed by adding increasing levels of TA to cell cultures at the time of subculture over a period of 12 months. TA-habituated cells were then cultured in the absence of TA for more than three years. These cells displayed a reduced size and growth compared to control cells and had fragmented vacuoles filled with electron-dense material. Habituation to TA was associated with changes in the cell wall composition, with a reduction in cellulose and an increase in pectin levels. Remarkably, high level of resistance to TA was maintained in TA-habituated cells even after being cultured in the absence of TA. Moreover, these cells exhibited enhanced resistance to two other inhibitors of cellulose biosynthesis, dichlobenil and isoxaben. Analysis of gene expression in TA-habituated cells using an Affymetrix GeneChip Poplar Genome Array revealed that durable resistance to TA is associated with a major and complex reprogramming of gene expression implicating processes such as cell wall synthesis and modification, lignin and flavonoid synthesis, as well as DNA and chromatin modifications. Conclusions We have shown that habituation to TA induced durable resistance to the bacterial toxin in poplar cells. TA-habituation also enhanced resistance to two other structurally different inhibitors of cellulose

  6. Inhibition of an NAD+ Salvage Pathway Provides Efficient and Selective Toxicity to Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, Erin M.; Oleson, Bryndon J.; Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Bhattacharya, Subarna; Chadwick, Alexandra C.; Diers, Anne R.; Hu, Qinghui; Sahoo, Daisy; Hogg, Neil; Boheler, Kenneth R.; Corbett, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The tumorigenic potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is a major limitation to the widespread use of hPSC derivatives in the clinic. Here, we demonstrate that the small molecule STF-31 is effective at eliminating undifferentiated hPSCs across a broad range of cell culture conditions with important advantages over previously described methods that target metabolic processes. Although STF-31 was originally described as an inhibitor of glucose transporter 1, these data support the reclassification of STF-31 as a specific NAD+ salvage pathway inhibitor through the inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). These findings demonstrate the importance of an NAD+ salvage pathway in hPSC biology and describe how inhibition of NAMPT can effectively eliminate hPSCs from culture. These results will advance and accelerate the development of safe, clinically relevant hPSC-derived cell-based therapies. PMID:25834119

  7. Gentamicin differentially alters cellular metabolism of cochlear hair cells as revealed by NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V.; Ward, Kristina G.; Nichols, Michael G.; Smith, Heather Jensen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are implicated as culprits of hearing loss in more than 120,000 individuals annually. Research has shown that the sensory cells, but not supporting cells, of the cochlea are readily damaged and/or lost after use of such antibiotics. High-frequency outer hair cells (OHCs) show a greater sensitivity to antibiotics than high- and low-frequency inner hair cells (IHCs). We hypothesize that variations in mitochondrial metabolism account for differences in susceptibility. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy was used to quantify changes in NAD(P)H in sensory and supporting cells from explanted murine cochleae exposed to mitochondrial uncouplers, inhibitors, and an ototoxic antibiotic, gentamicin (GM). Changes in metabolic state resulted in a redistribution of NAD(P)H between subcellular fluorescence lifetime pools. Supporting cells had a significantly longer lifetime than sensory cells. Pretreatment with GM increased NAD(P)H intensity in high-frequency sensory cells, as well as the NAD(P)H lifetime within IHCs. GM specifically increased NAD(P)H concentration in high-frequency OHCs, but not in IHCs or pillar cells. Variations in NAD(P)H intensity in response to mitochondrial toxins and GM were greatest in high-frequency OHCs. These results demonstrate that GM rapidly alters mitochondrial metabolism, differentially modulates cell metabolism, and provides evidence that GM-induced changes in metabolism are significant and greatest in high-frequency OHCs. PMID:25688541

  8. CD73 protein as a source of extracellular precursors for sustained NAD+ biosynthesis in FK866-treated tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Grozio, Alessia; Sociali, Giovanna; Sturla, Laura; Caffa, Irene; Soncini, Debora; Salis, Annalisa; Raffaelli, Nadia; De Flora, Antonio; Nencioni, Alessio; Bruzzone, Santina

    2013-09-01

    NAD(+) is mainly synthesized in human cells via the "salvage" pathways starting from nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, or nicotinamide riboside (NR). The inhibition with FK866 of the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), catalyzing the first reaction in the "salvage" pathway from nicotinamide, showed potent antitumor activity in several preclinical models of solid and hematologic cancers. In the clinical studies performed with FK866, however, no tumor remission was observed. Here we demonstrate that low micromolar concentrations of extracellular NAD(+) or NAD(+) precursors, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and NR, can reverse the FK866-induced cell death, this representing a plausible explanation for the failure of NAMPT inhibition as an anti-cancer therapy. NMN is a substrate of both ectoenzymes CD38 and CD73, with generation of NAM and NR, respectively. In this study, we investigated the roles of CD38 and CD73 in providing ectocellular NAD(+) precursors for NAD(+) biosynthesis and in modulating cell susceptibility to FK866. By specifically silencing or overexpressing CD38 and CD73, we demonstrated that endogenous CD73 enables, whereas CD38 impairs, the conversion of extracellular NMN to NR as a precursor for intracellular NAD(+) biosynthesis in human cells. Moreover, cell viability in FK866-treated cells supplemented with extracellular NMN was strongly reduced in tumor cells, upon pharmacological inhibition or specific down-regulation of CD73. Thus, our study suggests that genetic or pharmacologic interventions interfering with CD73 activity may prove useful to increase cancer cell sensitivity to NAMPT inhibitors. PMID:23880765

  9. Gentamicin differentially alters cellular metabolism of cochlear hair cells as revealed by NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V.; Ward, Kristina G.; Nichols, Michael G.; Smith, Heather Jensen

    2015-05-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are implicated as culprits of hearing loss in more than 120,000 individuals annually. Research has shown that the sensory cells, but not supporting cells, of the cochlea are readily damaged and/or lost after use of such antibiotics. High-frequency outer hair cells (OHCs) show a greater sensitivity to antibiotics than high- and low-frequency inner hair cells (IHCs). We hypothesize that variations in mitochondrial metabolism account for differences in susceptibility. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy was used to quantify changes in NAD(P)H in sensory and supporting cells from explanted murine cochleae exposed to mitochondrial uncouplers, inhibitors, and an ototoxic antibiotic, gentamicin (GM). Changes in metabolic state resulted in a redistribution of NAD(P)H between subcellular fluorescence lifetime pools. Supporting cells had a significantly longer lifetime than sensory cells. Pretreatment with GM increased NAD(P)H intensity in high-frequency sensory cells, as well as the NAD(P)H lifetime within IHCs. GM specifically increased NAD(P)H concentration in high-frequency OHCs, but not in IHCs or pillar cells. Variations in NAD(P)H intensity in response to mitochondrial toxins and GM were greatest in high-frequency OHCs. These results demonstrate that GM rapidly alters mitochondrial metabolism, differentially modulates cell metabolism, and provides evidence that GM-induced changes in metabolism are significant and greatest in high-frequency OHCs.

  10. Discovery and analysis of 4H-pyridopyrimidines, a class of selective bacterial protein synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ribble, Wendy; Hill, Walter E; Ochsner, Urs A; Jarvis, Thale C; Guiles, Joseph W; Janjic, Nebojsa; Bullard, James M

    2010-11-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation protein synthesis system composed of phenyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Escherichia coli. This system, utilizing purified components, has been used for high-throughput screening of a small-molecule chemical library. We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) ranging from 3 to 14 μM. This series of compounds all contained the same central scaffold composed of tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). All analogs contained an ortho pyridine ring attached to the central scaffold in the 2 position and either a five- or a six-member ring tethered to the 6-methylene nitrogen atom of the central scaffold. These compounds inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32 μg/ml. Macromolecular synthesis (MMS) assays with E. coli and S. aureus confirmed that antibacterial activity resulted from specific inhibition of protein synthesis. Assays were developed for the steps performed by each component of the system in order to ascertain the target of the compounds, and the ribosome was found to be the site of inhibition. PMID:20696870

  11. Discovery of 1,3-Diaryl-pyridones as Potent VEGFR-2 Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Zhaoru; Wang, Zhengyu; Cao, Sufen; Tong, Linjiang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Chen; Zhou, Lin; Ding, Jian; Luo, Cheng; Zhou, Jinpei; Xie, Hua; Duan, Wenhu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we described the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 1,3-diaryl-pyridones as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) inhibitors. The 1,3-diaryl-pyridones were synthesized via Chan-Lam and Suzuki coupling reactions. Two representative compounds, 17 and 35h, displayed excellent enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 3.5 and 3.0 nm, respectively. Furthermore, compounds 17 and 35h blocked the tube formation and suppressed the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at 10 nm concentration. The docking simulation showed that compound 17 bound well into the active site of VEGFR-2 via two hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. PMID:26669707

  12. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of combretastatin nitrogen-containing derivatives as inhibitors of tubulin assembly and vascular disrupting agents.

    PubMed

    Monk, Keith A; Siles, Rogelio; Hadimani, Mallinath B; Mugabe, Benon E; Ackley, J Freeland; Studerus, Scott W; Edvardsen, Klaus; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Garner, Charles M; Rhodes, Monte R; Pettit, George R; Pinney, Kevin G

    2006-05-01

    A series of analogs with nitro or serinamide substituents at the C-2'-, C-5'-, or C-6'-position of the combretastatin A-4 (CA4) B-ring was synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic effects against heart endothelioma cells, blood flow reduction to tumors in SCID mice, and as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. The synthesis of these analogs typically featured a Wittig reaction between a suitably functionalized arylaldehyde and an arylphosphonium salt followed by separation of the resultant E- and Z-isomers. Several of these nitrogen-modified CA4 derivatives (both amino and nitro) demonstrate significant inhibition of tubulin assembly as well as cytotoxicity and in vivo blood flow reduction. 2'-Aminostilbenoid 7 and 2'-amino-3'-hydroxystilbenoid 29 proved to be the most active in this series. Both compounds, 7 and 29, have the potential for further pro-drug modification and development as vascular disrupting agents for treatment of solid tumor cancers and certain ophthalmological diseases. PMID:16442292

  13. Design, synthesis and evaluation of semi-synthetic triazole-containing caffeic acid analogues as 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    De Lucia, Daniela; Lucio, Oscar Méndez; Musio, Biagia; Bender, Andreas; Listing, Monika; Dennhardt, Sophie; Koeberle, Andreas; Garscha, Ulrike; Rizzo, Roberta; Manfredini, Stefano; Werz, Oliver; Ley, Steven V

    2015-08-28

    In this work the synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and biological evaluation of a novel series of triazole-containing 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors are described. The use of structure-guided drug design techniques provided compounds that demonstrated excellent 5-LO inhibition with IC50 of 0.2 and 3.2 μm in cell-based and cell-free assays, respectively. Optimization of binding and functional potencies resulted in the identification of compound 13d, which showed an enhanced activity compared to the parent bioactive compound caffeic acid 5 and the clinically approved zileuton 3. Compounds 15 and 16 were identified as lead compounds in inhibiting 5-LO products formation in neutrophils. Their interference with other targets on the arachidonic acid pathway was also assessed. Cytotoxicity tests were performed to exclude a relationship between cytotoxicity and the increased activity observed after structure optimization. PMID:26197161

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nonionic substrate mimics of UDP-Galp as candidate inhibitors of UDP galactopyranose mutase (UGM).

    PubMed

    Kuppala, Ramakrishna; Borrelli, Silvia; Slowski, Kathryn; Sanders, David A R; Ravindranathan Kartha, K P; Pinto, B Mario

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis of 1-[5-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glucityl]pyrimidine-2,4(3H)-dione and 1-[(5-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glucityl]pyrimidine-2,4(3H)-dione as non-ionic substrate mimics of UDP-Galp are described. UDP-Galp is a precursor of Galf, which is a primary component of the cell-wall glycans of several microorganisms. The interconversion of UDP-Galp and UDP-Galf is catalyzed by UDP galactopyranose mutase (UGM); its inhibition comprises a mode of compromising the microorganisms. The nonionic polyhydroxylated chain was intended to mimic the ionic pyrophosphate group and the ribose moiety in UDP-Galp and increase the bioavailabilities of the candidate inhibitors. Inhibition assays with UGM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed only weak inhibition of the enzyme by these compounds. PMID:25819094

  15. Facile synthesis of de-O-sulfated salacinols: revision of the structure of neosalacinol, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Xie, Weijia; Ogawa, Ai; Cao, Changnian; Minematsu, Toshie; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2009-04-15

    Facile synthesis of de-O-sulfated salacinols (3) was developed by employing the coupling reaction of an epoxide, 1,2-anhydro-3,4-di-O-benzyl-D-erythritol (9) with 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-epithio-D-arabinitol (10) as the key reaction. The reported structure of a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor named neosalacinol (8), isolated recently from Ayurvedic medicine Salacia oblonga, was proved incorrect, and revised to be de-O-sulfated salacinol formate (3c) by comparison of the spectroscopic properties with those of the authentic specimen synthesized. Discrepancies and confusion in the literature concerning the NMR spectroscopic properties of salacinol (1) have also been clarified. PMID:19307117

  16. Synthesis of novel 21-trifluoropregnane steroids: inhibitors of 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (17 alpha-lyase).

    PubMed

    Njar, V C; Klus, G T; Johnson, H H; Brodie, A M

    1997-06-01

    Novel 21-trifluoropregnenolone (6), 21-trifluoroprogesterone (7) and related compounds 4a and 8 have been synthesized in high yields from 3 beta-acetoxyandrost-5-ene-17 beta-carbaldehyde (3). The key reaction was the conversion of 3 into the 21-trifluoromethyl-20-alcohol as a diastereomeric mixture (4) by trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane (TMS-CF3) in the presence of tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF). All compounds, including 6 and 7, were unambiguously characterized by IR, 1H and 19F NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and elemental analysis. On this basis, we concluded that the only report of an earlier synthesis of 6 and 7 is erroneous. Enzyme inhibition studies showed that 20 xi-hydroxy-21-trifluoropregn-4-en-3-one (8) is a potent inhibitor (IC50 value = 0.6 microM) of rat 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase. PMID:9185294

  17. Structure-based design and synthesis of small molecular inhibitors disturbing the interaction of MLL1-WDR5.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Dong; Chen, Wei-Lin; Xu, Xiao-Li; Jiang, Fen; Wang, Lei; Xie, Yi-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Guo, Xiao-Ke; You, Qi-Dong; Sun, Hao-Peng

    2016-08-01

    MLL1 complex catalyzes the methylation of H3K4, and plays important roles in the development of acute leukemia harboring MLL fusion proteins. Targeting MLL1-WDR5 protein-protein interaction (PPI) to inhibit the activity of histone methyltransferase of MLL1 complex is a novel strategy for treating of acute leukemia. WDR5-47 (IC50 = 0.3 μM) was defined as a potent small molecule to disturb the interaction of MLL1-WDR5. Here, we described structure-based design and synthesis of small molecular inhibitors to block MLL1-WDR5 PPI. Especially, compound 23 (IC50 = 104 nM) was the most potent small molecular, and about 3-times more potent than WDR5-47. We also discussed the SAR of these series of compounds with docking study, which may stimulate more potent compounds. PMID:27116709

  18. Total Synthesis of 4,5-Didehydroguadiscine: A Potent Melanogenesis Inhibitor from the Brazilian Medicinal Herb, Hornschuchia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Sugano, Youta; Shirato, Miki; Sonoda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-07-24

    The first total synthesis of the 7,7-dimethylaporphinoid, 4,5-didehydroguadiscine (6), originally isolated from the stems and roots of Hornschuchia oblique (Annonaceae), was achieved by the condensation of homopiperonylamine (7) with an α,α-dimethylphenylacetic acid derivative (8) and subsequent Pschorr reaction of the resulting benzylisoquinoline intermediate (22). The reported (13)C NMR data were partially revised on the basis of the analysis of HMBC spectra measured under different conditions. The melanogenesis inhibitory activity (IC50 = 4.7 μM) of 6 was 40 times stronger than that of arbutin (174 μM), which was used as reference standard. Furthermore, 6 was the most potent natural melanogenesis inhibitor within this class of compounds. PMID:26135746

  19. Concise Asymmetric Synthesis and Pharmacological Characterization of All Stereoisomers of Glutamate Transporter Inhibitor TFB-TBOA and Synthesis of EAAT Photoaffinity Probes.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Michele; Ritler, Andreas; Simonin, Alexandre; Hediger, Matthias A; Lochner, Martin

    2016-05-18

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Its rapid clearance after the release into the synaptic cleft is vital in order to avoid toxic effects and is ensured by several transmembrane transport proteins, so-called excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Impairment of glutamate removal has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases and EAATs have therefore received increased attention as therapeutic targets. O-Benzylated l-threo-β-hydroxyaspartate derivatives have been developed previously as highly potent inhibitors of EAATs with TFB-TBOA ((2S,3S)-2-amino-3-((3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamido)benzyl)oxy)succinic acid) standing out as low-nanomolar inhibitor. We report the stereoselective synthesis of all four stereoisomers of TFB-TBOA in less than a fifth of synthetic steps than the published route. For the first time, the inhibitory activity and isoform selectivity of these TFB-TBOA enantio- and diastereomers were assessed on human glutamate transporters EAAT1-3. Furthermore, we synthesized potent photoaffinity probes based on TFB-TBOA using our novel synthetic strategy. PMID:26918289

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Analogues of AKT (Protein Kinase B) Inhibitor-IV

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Wu, Runzhi; Cai, Sutang; Lin, Yuan; Sellers, Llewlyn; Sakamoto, Kaori; He, Biao; Peterson, Blake R.

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitors of the PI3-kinase/AKT (protein kinase B) pathway are under investigation as anticancer and antiviral agents. The benzimidazole derivative AKT inhibitor-IV (ChemBridge 5233705) affects this pathway and exhibits potent anticancer and antiviral activity. To probe its biological activity, we synthesized AKT inhibitor-IV and 21 analogues using a novel six-step route based on ZrCl4-catalyzed cyclization of 1,2-arylenediamines with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. We examined effects on viability of HeLa carcinoma cells, viability of normal human cells (NHBE), replication of recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) in HeLa cells, and replication of the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium fortuitum in HeLa cells. Replacement of the benzimidazole N-ethyl substitutent of AKT inhibitor-IV with N-hexyl and N-dodecyl groups enhanced antiviral activity and cytotoxicity against the cancer cell line, but these compounds showed substantially lower toxicity (from 6-fold to >20-fold) against NHBE cells, and no effect on M. fortuitum, suggesting inhibition of one or more host protein(s) required for proliferation of cancer cells and PIV5. The key structural elements identified here may facilitate identification of targets of this highly biologically active scaffold. PMID:21319800

  1. In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Different Inhibitors of the Plasmodial Isoprenoid Synthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcia F; Saito, Alexandre Y; Peres, Valnice J; Oliveira, Antonio C; Katzin, Alejandro M

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that fosmidomycin, risedronate, and nerolidol exert antimalarial activity in vitro. We included squalestatin, an inhibitor of the isoprenoid metabolism in Erwinia uredovora, and found that combinations of compounds which act on different targets of the plasmodial isoprenoid pathway possess important supra-additivity effects. PMID:26055383

  2. In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Different Inhibitors of the Plasmodial Isoprenoid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marcia F.; Saito, Alexandre Y.; Peres, Valnice J.; Oliveira, Antonio C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fosmidomycin, risedronate, and nerolidol exert antimalarial activity in vitro. We included squalestatin, an inhibitor of the isoprenoid metabolism in Erwinia uredovora, and found that combinations of compounds which act on different targets of the plasmodial isoprenoid pathway possess important supra-additivity effects. PMID:26055383

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of derivatives of the proteasome deubiquitinase inhibitor b-AP15.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; D'Arcy, Pádraig; Caulfield, Thomas R; Paulus, Aneel; Chitta, Kasyapa; Mohanty, Chitralekha; Gullbo, Joachim; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Linder, Stig

    2015-11-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is increasingly recognized as a therapeutic target for the development of anticancer therapies. The success of the 20S proteasome core particle (20S CP) inhibitor bortezomib in the clinical management of multiple myeloma has raised the possibility of identifying other UPS components for therapeutic intervention. We previously identified the small molecule b-AP15 as an inhibitor of 19S proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. Building upon our previous data, we performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study on b-AP15 and identified VLX1570 as an analog with promising properties, including enhanced potency and improved solubility in aqueous solution. In silico modeling was consistent with interaction of VLX1570 with key cysteine residues located at the active sites of the proteasome DUBs USP14 and UCHL5. VLX1570 was found to inhibit proteasome deubiquitinase activity in vitro in a manner consistent with competitive inhibition. Furthermore, using active-site-directed probes, VLX1570 also inhibited proteasome DUB activity in exposed cells. Importantly, VLX1570 did not show inhibitory activity on a panel of recombinant non-proteasome DUBs, on recombinant kinases, or on caspase-3 activity, suggesting that VLX1570 is not an overtly reactive general enzyme inhibitor. Taken together, our data shows the chemical and biological properties of VLX1570 as an optimized proteasome DUB inhibitor. PMID:25854145

  4. Synthesis of Hydrogen-Bond Surrogate α-helices as Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephen E.; Thomson, Paul F.; Arora, Paramjit S.

    2014-01-01

    The α-helix is a prevalent secondary structure in proteins and critical in mediating protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Peptide mimetics that adopt stable helices have become powerful tools for the modulation of PPIs in vitro and in vivo. Hydrogen-bond surrogate (HBS) α-helices utilize a covalent bond in place of an N-terminal i to i+4 hydrogen bond and have been used to target and disrupt PPIs that become dysregulated in disease states. These compounds have improved conformational stability and cellular uptake as compared to their linear peptide counterparts. The protocol presented here describes current methodology for the synthesis of HBS α-helical mimetics. The solid phase synthesis of HBS helices involves solid phase peptide synthesis with three key steps involving incorporation of N-allyl functionality within the backbone of the peptide, coupling of a secondary amine, and a ring-closing metathesis step. PMID:24903885

  5. Purification, characterization and biological activity of tulipin, a novel inhibitor of DNA synthesis of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Gasperi-Campani, A; Lorenzoni, E; Abbondanza, A; Perocco, P; Falasca, A I

    1987-01-01

    A DNA synthesis-inhibiting protein (for which the term tulipin is proposed) was isolated from the bulbs of Tulipa sp. The yield ranged from 3.4 to 4.1 per cent of total protein content of the crude extract. Mr, isoelectric point, neutral and amino sugar and amino acid composition were determined. Inhibition of DNA synthesis varied in intact cells according to the cellular types studied, with a minimum ID 50% (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 400 ng/ml in neuroblastoma cells. The effect was reversible. No effect was obtained in cell-lysate. RNA and protein synthesis were unaffected. The acute toxicity, evaluated in Swiss mice, gave an LD of 6.1 mg/kg body wt. Results of electron microscopy are also given. A second protein, called tulipin 2, has been isolated and partially characterized. PMID:3592627

  6. Synthesis of 5′-Methylthio Coformycins: Specific Inhibitors for Malarial Adenosine Deaminase

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Peter C.; Taylor, Erika A.; Fröhlich, Richard F. G.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2008-01-01

    Transition state theory suggests that enzymatic rate acceleration (kcat/knon) is related to the stabilization of the transition state for a given reaction. Chemically stable analogues of a transition state complex are predicted to convert catalytic energy into binding energy. Since transition state stabilization is a function of catalytic efficiency, differences in substrate specificity can be exploited in the design of tight-binding transition state analogue inhibitors. Coformycin and 2′-deoxycoformycin are natural product transition state analogue inhibitors of adenosine deaminases (ADAs). These compounds mimic the tetrahedral geometry of the ADA transition state and bind with picomolar dissociation constants to enzymes from bovine, human, and protozoan sources. The purine salvage pathway in malaria parasites is unique in that Plasmodium falciparum ADA (PfADA) catalyzes the deamination of both adenosine and 5’-methylthioadenosine. In contrast, human adenosine deaminase (HsADA) does not deaminate 5’-methylthioadenosine. 5′-Methylthio coformycin and 5’-meththio-2′-deoxycoformycin were synthesized to be specific transition state mimics of the P. falciparum enzyme. These analogues inhibited PfADA with dissociation constants of 430 and 790 pM, respectively. Remarkably, they gave no detectable inhibition of the human and bovine enzymes. Adenosine deamination is involved in the essential pathway of purine salvage in P. falciparum and prior studies have shown that inhibition of purine salvage results in parasite death. Inhibitors of HsADA are known to cause toxicity in humans and the availability of parasite-specific ADA inhibitors may prevent this side-effect. The potent and P. falciparum-specific inhibitors described here have potential for development as antimalarials without inhibition of host ADA. PMID:17488013

  7. Novel Transthyretin Amyloid Fibril Formation Inhibitors: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and X-Ray Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Orlandini, Elisabetta; Ortore, Gabriella; Nencetti, Susanna; Lapucci, Annalina; Rossello, Armando; Freundlich, Joel S.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is one of thirty non-homologous proteins whose misfolding, dissociation, aggregation, and deposition is linked to human amyloid diseases. Previous studies have identified that TTR amyloidogenesis can be inhibited through stabilization of the native tetramer state by small molecule binding to the thyroid hormone sites of TTR. We have evaluated a new series of β-aminoxypropionic acids (compounds 5–21), with a single aromatic moiety (aryl or fluorenyl) linked through a flexible oxime tether to a carboxylic acid. These compounds are structurally distinct from the native ligand thyroxine and typical halogenated biaryl NSAID-like inhibitors to avoid off-target hormonal or anti-inflammatory activity. Based on an in vitro fibril formation assay, five of these compounds showed significant inhibition of TTR amyloidogenesis, with two fluorenyl compounds displaying inhibitor efficacy comparable to the well-known TTR inhibitor diflunisal. Fluorenyl 15 is the most potent compound in this series and importantly does not show off-target anti-inflammatory activity. Crystal structures of the TTR∶inhibitor complexes, in agreement with molecular docking studies, revealed that the aromatic moiety, linked to the sp2-hybridized oxime carbon, specifically directed the ligand in either a forward or reverse binding mode. Compared to the aryl family members, the bulkier fluorenyl analogs achieved more extensive interactions with the binding pockets of TTR and demonstrated better inhibitory activity in the fibril formation assay. Preliminary optimization efforts are described that focused on replacement of the C-terminal acid in both the aryl and fluorenyl series (compounds 22–32). The compounds presented here constitute a new class of TTR inhibitors that may hold promise in treating amyloid diseases associated with TTR misfolding. PMID:19621084

  8. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection. PMID:17725566

  9. Flexible Cyclic Ethers/Polyethers as Novel P2-Ligands for HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Protein-Ligand X-Ray Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun; Gemma, Sandra; Baldridge, Abigal; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Koh, Yashiro; Weber, Irene; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2008-12-05

    We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors. The inhibitors incorporate stereochemically defined flexible cyclic ethers/polyethers as high affinity P2-ligands. Inhibitors containing small ring 1,3-dioxacycloalkanes have shown potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Inhibitors 3d and 3h are the most active inhibitors. Inhibitor 3d maintains excellent potency against a variety of multi-PI-resistant clinical strains. Our structure-activity studies indicate that the ring size, stereochemistry, and position of oxygens are important for the observed activity. Optically active synthesis of 1,3-dioxepan-5-ol along with the syntheses of various cyclic ether and polyether ligands have been described. A protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of 3d-bound HIV-1 protease was determined. The structure revealed that the P2-ligand makes extensive interactions including hydrogen bonding with the protease backbone in the S2-site. In addition, the P2-ligand in 3d forms a unique water-mediated interaction with the NH of Gly-48.

  10. Synthesis and biological activities of the respiratory chain inhibitor aurachin D and new ring versus chain analogues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu-Wen; Herrmann, Jennifer; Zang, Yi; Grellier, Philippe; Prado, Soizic

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aurachins are myxobacterial 3-farnesyl-4(1H)-quinolone derived compounds initially described as respiratory chain inhibitors, more specifically as inhibitors of various cytochrome complexes. They are also known as potent antibiotic compounds. We describe herein the first synthesis of aurachin D through a key Conrad–Limpach reaction. The same strategy was used to reach some ring as opposed to chain analogues, allowing for the description of structure–activity relationships. Biological screening of the analogues showed antiparasitic, cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The strongest activity was found on Plasmodium falciparum with a selectivity index of 345, compared to Vero cells, for the natural product and its geranyl analogue. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by aurachins in human U-2 OS osteosarcoma cells was studied, showing the best activity for aurachin D and a naphthalene analogue, yet without totally explaining the observed cytotoxic activity of the compounds. Finally, a synthetic entry is given to the complete carboheterocyclic core of aurachin H through the N-oxidation/epoxidation of aurachin D and a shorter chain analogue, followed by subsequent biomimetic cyclization. PMID:23946854

  11. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Tetra-Substituted Thiophenes as Inhibitors of p38α MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Vinh, Natalie B; Devine, Shane M; Munoz, Lenka; Ryan, Renae M; Wang, Bing H; Krum, Henry; Chalmers, David K; Simpson, Jamie S; Scammells, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a role in several cellular processes and consequently has been a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. A number of known p38α MAPK inhibitors contain vicinal 4-fluorophenyl/4-pyridyl rings connected to either a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle. In this study, a small library of substituted thiophene-based compounds bearing the vicinal 4-fluorophenyl/4-pyridyl rings was designed using computational docking as a visualisation tool. Compounds were synthesised and evaluated in a fluorescence polarisation binding assay. The synthesised analogues had a higher binding affinity to the active phosphorylated form of p38α MAPK than the inactive nonphosphorylated form of the protein. 4-(2-(4-fluorophenyl)thiophen-3-yl)pyridine had a Ki value of 0.6 μm to active p38α MAPK highlighting that substitution of the core ring to a thiophene retains affinity to the enzyme and can be utilised in p38α MAPK inhibitors. This compound was further elaborated using a substituted phenyl ring in order to probe the second hydrophobic pocket. Many of these analogues exhibited low micromolar affinity to active p38α MAPK. The suppression of neonatal rat fibroblast collagen synthesis was also observed suggesting that further development of these compounds may lead to potential therapeutics having cardioprotective properties. PMID:25861571

  12. Development of Highly Potent GAT1 Inhibitors: Synthesis of Nipecotic Acid Derivatives by Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Petrera, Marilena; Wein, Thomas; Allmendinger, Lars; Sindelar, Miriam; Pabel, Jörg; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2016-03-01

    A new series of potent and selective mGAT1 inhibitors has been identified, featuring a nipecotic acid residue and an N-butenyl linker with a 2-biphenyl residue at the ω-position. Docking, combined with MD calculations, revealed a binding mode for the new compounds similar to that of tiagabine, the only mGAT1 inhibitor currently approved as antiepileptic drug. For the synthesis, a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction was used as a key step by which variously substituted biaryl subunits were assembled. Biological evaluation revealed several compounds that possess binding affinities and inhibitory potencies toward mGAT1, together with subtype selectivities against mGAT2-mGAT4 that were similar to or even higher than those for tiagabine. A derivative carrying the 2',4'-dichloro-2-biphenyl moiety attached to N-but-3-enylnipecotic acid at the terminal position of the linker chain was found to be the most potent binder, with the racemic form of the compound displaying a binding affinity of 8.05±0.13 (pKi ), while the R enantiomer exhibited an affinity value of 8.33±0.06 (pKi ). PMID:26683881

  13. Disruption of periovulatory FSH and LH surges during induced anovulation by an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Cuervo-Arango, J; Beg, M A

    2011-06-01

    The role of passage of follicular fluid into the peritoneal cavity during ovulation in the transient disruption in the periovulatory FSH and LH surges was studied in ovulatory mares (n=7) and in mares with blockage of ovulation by treatment with an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis (n=8). Mares were pretreated with hCG when the largest follicle was ≥32 mm (Hour 0). Ultrasonic scanning was done at Hours 24 and 30 and every 2h thereafter until ovulation or ultrasonic signs of anovulation. Blood samples were collected at Hours 24, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 48, and 60. Ovulation in the ovulatory group occurred at Hours 38 (five mares), 40, and 44. Until Hour 36, diameter of the follicle and concentrations of FSH, LH, and estradiol-17β (estradiol) were similar between groups. Between Hours 34 and 36, a novel transient increase in estradiol occurred in each group, and color-Doppler signals of blood flow in the follicular wall decreased in the ovulatory group and increased in the anovulatory group. In each group, FSH and LH periovulatory surges were disrupted by a decrease or plateau between Hours 38 and 48 and an increase between Hours 48 and 60. The discharge of hormone-laden follicular fluid into the peritoneal cavity at ovulation was not an adequate sole explanation for the temporally associated transient depression in FSH and LH. Other routes from follicle to circulation for gonadotropin inhibitors played a role, based on similar depression in the ovulatory and anovulatory groups. PMID:21571458

  14. Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Novel Survivin Inhibitors with Potent Anti-Proliferative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Min; Wang, Jin; Lin, Zongtao; Lu, Yan; Li, Zhenmei; White, Stephen W.; Miller, Duane D.; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein survivin is highly expressed in most human cancer cells, but has very low expression in normal differentiated cells. Thus survivin is considered as an attractive cancer drug target. Herein we report the design and synthesis of a series of novel survivin inhibitors based on the oxyquinoline scaffold from our recently identified hit compound UC-112. These new analogs were tested against a panel of cancer cell lines including one with multidrug-resistant phenotype. Eight of these new UC-112 analogs showed IC50 values in the nanomole range in anti-proliferative assays. The best three compounds among them along with UC-112 were submitted for NCI-60 cancer cell line screening. The results indicated that structural modification from UC-112 to our best compound 4g has improved activity by four folds (2.2 μM for UC-112 vs. 0.5 μM for 4g, average GI50 values over all cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel).Western blot analyses demonstrated the new compounds maintained high selectivity for survivin inhibition over other members in the inhibition of apoptosis protein family. When tested in an A375 human melanoma xenograft model, the most active compound 4g effectively suppressed tumor growth and strongly induced cancer cell apoptosis in tumor tissues. This novel scaffold is promising for the development of selective survivin inhibitors as potential anticancer agents. PMID:26070194

  15. Design and synthesis of fused bicyclic inhibitors targeting the L5 loop site of centromere-associated protein E.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Takaharu; Okaniwa, Masanori; Banno, Hiroshi; Kakei, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Akihiro; Ohori, Momoko; Nambu, Tadahiro; Iwai, Kenichi; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Yokota, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Maki; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu

    2016-09-01

    Centromere-associated protein-E (CENP-E) is a mitotic kinesin which plays roles in cell division, and is regarded as a promising therapeutic target for the next generation of anti-mitotic agents. We designed novel fused bicyclic CENP-E inhibitors starting from previous reported dihydrobenzofuran derivative (S)-(+)-1. Our design concept was to adjust the electron density distribution on the benzene ring of the dihydrobenzofuran moiety to increase the positive charge for targeting the negatively charged L5 loop of CENP-E, using predictions from electrostatic potential map (EPM) analysis. For the efficient synthesis of our 2,3-dihydro-1-benzothiophene 1,1-dioxide derivatives, a new synthetic method was developed. As a result, we discovered 6-cyano-7-trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-benzothiophene 1,1-dioxide derivative (+)-5d (Compound A) as a potent CENP-E inhibitor with promising potential for in vivo activity. In this Letter, we discuss the design and synthetic strategy used in the discovery of (+)-5d and structure-activity relationships for its analogs possessing various fused bicyclic L5 binding moieties. PMID:27476141

  16. A Two-Step Synthesis of Virstatin, a Virulence Inhibitor of "Vibrio cholerae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Chriss E.

    2009-01-01

    Virstatin, an "N"-butanoic acid substituted naphthalimide, inhibits the ability of "Vibrio cholerae" to cause disease. A three-week experiment involving synthesis, purification, and spectral characterization of this compound is described. This experiment is appropriate for organic chemistry. It has been performed with three lab sections of about…

  17. The juxtamembrane sequence of the Hepatitis C virus polymerase can affect RNA synthesis and inhibition by allosteric polymerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Y; Lin, X; Fan, B; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Kao, C C

    2015-08-01

    The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), is anchored in the membrane through a C-terminal helix. A sequence of ca. 12 residues that connects the catalytically competent portion of the RdRp and the C-terminal helix, the juxtamembrane sequence (JMS), has a poorly defined role in RdRp function in a large part since it is translated from a cis-acting RNA element (CRE) that is essential for HCV replication. Using a HCV replicon that transposed a second copy of CRE to the 3' UTR of the HCV replicon, we demonstrate that amino acid substitutions in the JMS were detrimental for HCV replicon replication. Substitutions in the JMS also resulted in a defect in de novo-initiated RNAs synthesis in vitro and in a cell-based reporter assay. A nonnucleoside inhibitor of the NS5B that binds to the catalytic pocket was less potent in inhibiting NS5B in the presence of JMS mutations. The JMS mutants exhibit reduced stability in thermodenaturation assays, suggesting that the JMS helps confer a more stable conformation to NS5B that could impact RNA synthesis. PMID:25895103

  18. Structures of Iridoid Synthase from Cantharanthus roseus with Bound NAD(+) , NADPH, or NAD(+) /10-Oxogeranial: Reaction Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yumei; Liu, Weidong; Malwal, Satish R; Zheng, Yingying; Feng, Xinxin; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chun-Chi; Xu, Zhongxia; Liu, Meixia; Han, Xu; Gao, Jian; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2015-12-14

    Structures of the iridoid synthase nepetalactol synthase in the presence of NAD(+) , NADPH or NAD(+) /10-oxogeranial were solved. The 10-oxogeranial substrate binds in a transoid-O1-C3 conformation and can be reduced by hydride addition to form the byproduct S-10-oxo-citronellal. Tyr178 Oζ is positioned 2.5 Å from the substrate O1 and provides the second proton required for reaction. Nepetalactol product formation requires rotation about C1-C2 to form the cisoid isomer, leading to formation of the cis-enolate, together with rotation about C4-C5, which enables cyclization and lactol production. The structure is similar to that of progesterone-5β-reductase, with almost identical positioning of NADP, Lys146(147), Tyr178(179), and F342(343), but only Tyr178 and Phe342 appear to be essential for activity. The transoid 10-oxogeranial structure also serves as a model for β-face hydride attack in progesterone 5β-reductases and is of general interest in the context of asymmetric synthesis. PMID:26768532

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Fused β-Homophenylalanine Derivatives as Potent DPP-4 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are accepted as a favorable class of agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Herein, a series of fused β-homophenylalanine derivatives as novel DPP-4 inhibitors were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activities against DPP-4. Most of them displayed excellent DPP-4 inhibitory activities and good selectivity. Among them, 9aa, 18a, and 18m also showed good efficacy in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in ICR mice. Moreover, when dosed 8 h prior to glucose challenge, 18m showed significantly greater potency than sitagliptin. It thus provides potential candidates for the further development into potent drugs targeting DPP-4. PMID:26005541

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-pyridinylpyrimidines as inhibitors of HIV-1 structural protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Kožíšek, Milan; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Parkan, Kamil; Berenguer Albiñana, Carlos; Pávová, Marcela; Weber, Jan; Krӓusslich, Hans-Georg; Konvalinka, Jan; Machara, Aleš

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to identify an HIV-1 capsid assembly inhibitor with improved solubility and potency, we synthesized two series of pyrimidine analogues based on our earlier lead compound N-(4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl)-2-(pyridine-4-yl)quinazoline-4-amine. In vitro binding experiments showed that our series of 2-pyridine-4-ylpyrimidines had IC50 values higher than 28μM. Our series of 2-pyridine-3-ylpyrimidines exhibited IC50 values ranging from 3 to 60μM. The congeners with a fluoro substituent introduced at the 4-N-phenyl moiety, along with a methyl at C-6, represent potent HIV capsid assembly inhibitors binding to the C-terminal domain of the capsid protein. PMID:27353536

  1. Design and Synthesis of Activity-Based Probes and Inhibitors for Bleomycin Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wouter A; Segal, Ehud; Child, Matthew A; Byzia, Anna; Drąg, Marcin; Bogyo, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    Bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH) is a neutral cysteine aminopeptidase that has been ascribed roles in many physiological and pathological processes, yet its primary biological function remains enigmatic. In this work, we describe the results of screening of a library of fluorogenic substrates to identify non-natural amino acids that are optimally recognized by BLMH. This screen identified several substrates with kcat/KM values that are substantially improved over the previously reported fluorogenic substrates for this enzyme. The substrate sequences were used to design activity-based probes that showed potent labeling of recombinant BLMH as well as endogenously expressed BLMH in cell extracts, and in intact cells. Importantly, we identify potent BLMH inhibitors that are able to fully inhibit endogenous BLMH activity in intact cells. These probes and inhibitors will be valuable new reagents to study BLMH function in cellular and animal models of human diseases where BLMH is likely to be involved. PMID:26256478

  2. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modelling of 2'-Hydroxychalcones as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Sri Devi; Chee, Chin Fei; Viswanathan, Geetha; Buckle, Michael J C; Othman, Rozana; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah; Chung, Lip Yong

    2016-01-01

    A series of 2'-hydroxy- and 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcones was synthesised and evaluated as inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The majority of the compounds were found to show some activity, with the most active compounds having IC50 values of 40-85 µM. Higher activities were generally observed for compounds with methoxy substituents in the A ring and halogen substituents in the B ring. Kinetic studies on the most active compounds showed that they act as mixed-type inhibitors, in agreement with the results of molecular modelling studies, which suggested that they interact with residues in the peripheral anionic site and the gorge region of AChE. PMID:27455222

  3. 2-Phenylbenzofuran derivatives as butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors: Synthesis, biological activity and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Giovanna L; Matos, Maria J; Fanti, Maura; Era, Benedetta; Medda, Rosaria; Pieroni, Enrico; Fais, Antonella; Kumar, Amit; Pintus, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    A series of 2-phenylbenzofurans compounds was designed, synthesized and evaluated as cholinesterase inhibitors. The biological assay experiments showed that most of the compounds displayed a clearly selective inhibition for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), while a weak or no effect towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was detected. Among these benzofuran derivatives, compound 16 exhibited the highest BChE inhibition with an IC50 value of 30.3μM. This compound was found to be a mixed-type inhibitor as determined by kinetic analysis. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations revealed that compound 16 binds to both the catalytic anionic site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of BChE and it displayed the best interaction energy value, in agreement with our experimental data. PMID:26995529

  4. Bioisosterism of urea-based GCPII inhibitors. Synthesis and structure activity relationship studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haofan; Byun, Youngjoo; Barinka, Cyril; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Bhang, Hyo-eun C; Fox, James J; Lubkowski, Jacek; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2010-10-28

    We report a strategy based on bioisosterism to improve the physicochemical properties of existing hydrophilic, urea-based GCPII inhibitors. Comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies of the P1prime site of ZJ-43- and DCIBzL-based compounds identified several glutamate-free inhibitors with Ki values below 20 nM. Among them, compound 32d (Ki = 11 nM) exhibited selective uptake in GCPII-expressing tumors by SPECT-CT imaging in mice. A novel conformational change of amino acids in the S1prime pharmacophore pocket was observed in the X-ray crystal structure of GCPII complexed with 32d.

  5. Synthesis and Metabolic Studies of Host-Directed Inhibitors for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Targeting host cell factors required for virus replication provides an alternative to targeting pathogen components and represents a promising approach to develop broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics. High-throughput screening (HTS) identified two classes of inhibitors (2 and 3) with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against ortho- and paramyxoviruses including influenza A virus (IAV), measles virus (MeV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Hit-to-lead optimization delivered inhibitor 28a, with EC50 values of 0.88 and 0.81 μM against IAV strain WSN and MeV strain Edmonston, respectively. It was also found that compound 28a delivers good stability in human liver S9 fractions with a half-life of 165 min. These data establish 28a as a promising lead for antiviral therapy through a host-directed mechanism. PMID:23956816

  6. Synthesis of a series of unsaturated ketone derivatives as selective and reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Bo Ko; Cho, Nam-chul; Park, Jong-Hyun; Yeon, Seul Ki; Ju, Eun Ji; Lee, Yong Sup; Han, Gyoonhee; Pae, Ae Nim; Kim, Dong Jin; Park, Ki Duk

    2015-10-01

    We have synthesized three categories of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives and evaluated their MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitory activities. Among them, compound 10b including α,β-unsaturated ketone group showed the most potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory activity (IC₅₀ human MAO-B 16 nM, >6000-fold selective vs MAO-A) and compound 10b exhibited good reversibility compared with selegiline, a well-known irreversible MAO-B inhibitor. However, both α,β-unsaturated amide and ester derivatives exhibited weaker MAO-B inhibition potencies. The docking studies provided insights into the possible binding modes and the key interaction sites of the synthesized MAO-B inhibitors. PMID:26337020

  7. Synthesis of p-O-Alkyl Salicylanilide Derivatives as Novel EGFR Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Hou, Lin; Sun, Wenyan; Yu, Zidong; Wang, Jibo; Gao, Hua; Yang, Guiming

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a validated target for anticancer drugs, plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. A series of p-O-alkyl salicylanilide derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel EGFR inhibitors using a salicylic acid scaffold. A simulated six-membered ring strategy formed through intramolecular hydrogen bonds was employed to mimic the planar quinazoline of the EGFR antagonist, gefitinib. The derived compounds with hydroxyl at the ortho position were more potent than ones with methoxyl group. In particular, compounds 5d and 5b displayed significant EGFR inhibitory (IC50 values = 0.30 and 0.45 μM, respectively) activity as well as potent antiproliferative activity in A431 and HCT-116 tumor cells. These salicylanilides could be considered as promising lead compounds for developing novel EGFR inhibitors. PMID:26763193

  8. Synthesis of lipophilic 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin derivatives as D-galactosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schitter, Georg; Scheucher, Elisabeth; Steiner, Andreas J; Stütz, Arnold E; Thonhofer, Martin; Tarling, Chris A; Withers, Stephen G; Wicki, Jacqueline; Fantur, Katrin; Paschke, Eduard; Mahuran, Don J; Rigat, Brigitte A; Tropak, Michael; Wrodnigg, Tanja M

    2010-01-01

    N-Alkylation at the ring nitrogen of the D-galactosidase inhibitor 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin with a functionalised C ₆alkyl chain followed by modification with different aromatic substituents provided lipophilic 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin derivatives which exhibit inhibitory properties against β-glycosidases from E. coli and Agrobacterium sp. as well as green coffee bean α-galactosidase. In preliminary studies, these compounds also showed potential as chemical chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis related β-galactosidase mutants. PMID:20502610

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-quinazolinones as Rho kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xingang; Chen, Yen Ting; Sessions, E Hampton; Chowdhury, Sarwat; Vojkovsky, Tomas; Yin, Yan; Pocas, Jennifer R; Grant, Wayne; Schröter, Thomas; Lin, Li; Ruiz, Claudia; Cameron, Michael D; LoGrasso, Philip; Bannister, Thomas D; Feng, Yangbo

    2011-03-15

    Rho kinase (ROCK) is an attractive therapeutic target for various diseases including glaucoma, hypertension, and spinal cord injury. Herein, we report the development of a series of ROCK-II inhibitors based on 4-quinazolinone and quinazoline scaffolds. SAR studies at three positions of the quinazoline core led to the identification of analogs with high potency against ROCK-II and good selectivity over protein kinase A (PKA). PMID:21349713

  10. Self-consistent synthesis of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid C via controlled oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Nicewicz, David A; Satterfield, Andrew D; Schmitt, Daniel C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2008-12-24

    Despite the prevalence of repeating subunits in chiral natural products, stereocontrolled oligomerization is a largely unexplored strategy for construction of carbon skeletal frameworks. This report describes the use of silyl glyoxylates as dipolar glycolic acid synthons in a controlled oligomerization reaction for the efficient construction of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid C. This new methodology allows rapid, stereocontrolled formation of the carbon skeleton with a desirable protecting group scheme while minimizing functional group repair and oxidation state manipulations. PMID:19053214

  11. Total synthesis of neokotalanol, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Jia; Tanabe, Genzoh; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Muraoka, Osamu

    2013-11-01

    Neokotalanol, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata, was synthesized through a key coupling reaction between a perbenzylated thiosugar and an appropriately protected perseitol triflate derived from D-mannose. This key step was found to be quite temperature dependent, and a simultaneous cyclization of the triflate leading to a characteristic 2,4,7-trioxabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane system was detected. PMID:24345510

  12. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Parker, Erica N; Song, Jiangli; Kishore Kumar, G D; Odutola, Samuel O; Chavarria, Gustavo E; Charlton-Sevcik, Amanda K; Strecker, Tracy E; Barnes, Ashleigh L; Sudhan, Dhivya R; Wittenborn, Thomas R; Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R; Chaplin, David J; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G

    2015-11-01

    Upregulation of cathepsin L in a variety of tumors and its ability to promote cancer cell invasion and migration through degradation of the extracellular matrix suggest that cathepsin L is a promising biological target for the development of anti-metastatic agents. Based on encouraging results from studies on benzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin inhibitors, a series of fourteen benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cathepsins L and B. Thiosemicarbazone inhibitors 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone 1, 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene thiosemicarbazone 8, and 1,3-bis(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-bromobenzene thiosemicarbazone 32 displayed the greatest potency against cathepsin L with low IC50 values of 9.9 nM, 14.4 nM, and 8.1 nM, respectively. The benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues evaluated were selective in their inhibition of cathepsin L compared to cathepsin B. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 32 inhibited invasion through Matrigel of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by 70% at 10 μM. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 8 significantly inhibited the invasive potential of PC-3ML prostate cancer cells by 92% at 5 μM. The most active cathepsin L inhibitors from this benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone series (1, 8, and 32) displayed low cytotoxicity toward normal primary cells [in this case human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)]. In an initial in vivo study, 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) was well-tolerated in a CDF1 mouse model bearing an implanted C3H mammary carcinoma, and showed efficacy in tumor growth delay. Low cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell invasion, and in vivo tolerability are desirable characteristics for anti-metastatic agents functioning through an inhibition of cathepsin L. Active members of this structurally diverse group of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin L inhibitors show promise as potential anti-metastatic, pre

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a phosphonate analog of the natural acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor cyclophostin.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Saibal; Dutta, Supratik; Spilling, Christopher D; Dupureur, Cynthia M; Rath, Nigam P

    2008-11-01

    Two diastereomers of a phosphonate analog 6 of the AChE inhibitor cyclophostin were synthesized. The substitution reaction of phosphono allylic carbonate 10a with methyl acetoacetate gave the vinyl phosphonate 9a. Attempted hydrogenation/debenzylation gave an unexpected enolether lactone. Alternatively, selective hydrogenation, demethylation, cyclization and debenzylation gave the phosphonate analog of cyclophostin as a separable mixture of diastereomers 6. The trans phosphonate isomer was more active than the cis isomer against AChE from two sources. PMID:18821801

  14. Modulation of Alternaria infectoria Cell Wall Chitin and Glucan Synthesis by Cell Wall Synthase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Chantal; Anjos, Jorge; Walker, Louise A.; Silva, Branca M. A.; Cortes, Luísa; Mota, Marta; Munro, Carol A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports the effects of caspofungin, a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, and nikkomycin Z, an inhibitor of chitin synthases, on two strains of Alternaria infectoria, a melanized fungus involved in opportunistic human infections and respiratory allergies. One of the strains tested, IMF006, bore phenotypic traits that conferred advantages in resisting antifungal treatment. First, the resting cell wall chitin content was higher and in response to caspofungin, the chitin level remained constant. In the other strain, IMF001, the chitin content increased upon caspofungin treatment to values similar to basal IMF006 levels. Moreover, upon caspofungin treatment, the FKS1 gene was upregulated in IMF006 and downregulated in IMF001. In addition, the resting β-glucan content was also different in both strains, with higher levels in IMF001 than in IMF006. However, this did not provide any advantage with respect to echinocandin resistance. We identified eight different chitin synthase genes and studied relative gene expression when the fungus was exposed to the antifungals under study. In both strains, exposure to caspofungin and nikkomycin Z led to modulation of the expression of class V and VII chitin synthase genes, suggesting its importance in the robustness of A. infectoria. The pattern of A. infectoria phagocytosis and activation of murine macrophages by spores was not affected by caspofungin. Monotherapy with nikkomycin Z and caspofungin provided only fungistatic inhibition, while a combination of both led to fungal cell lysis, revealing a strong synergistic action between the chitin synthase inhibitor and the β-glucan synthase inhibitor against this fungus. PMID:24614372

  15. How polyamine synthesis inhibitors and cinnamic acid affect tropane alkaloid production.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Patricia L; Alvarez, María A; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra I

    2007-01-01

    Hairy roots of Brugmansia candida produce the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine. In an attempt to divert the carbon flux from competing pathways and thus enhance productivity, the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors cyclohexylamine (CHA) and methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG) and the phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase inhibitor cinnamic acid were used. CHA decreased the specific productivity of both alkaloids but increased significantly the release of scopolamine (approx 500%) when it was added in the mid-exponential phase. However, when CHA was added for only 48 h during the exponential phase, the specific productivity of both alkaloids increased (approx 200%), favoring scopolamine. Treatment with MGBG was detrimental to growth but promoted release into the medium of both alkaloids. However, when it was added for 48 h during the exponential phase, MGBG increased the specific productivity (approx 200%) and release (250- 1800%) of both alkaloids. Cinnamic acid alone also favored release but not specific productivity. When a combination of CHA or MGBG with cinnamic acid was used, the results obtained were approximately the same as with each polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor alone, although to a lesser extent. Regarding root morphology, CHA inhibited growth of primary roots and ramification. However, it had a positive effect on elongation of lateral roots. PMID:17416978

  16. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of paeonol thiosemicarbazone analogues as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian-Hua; Cao, Shu-Wen; Yu, Yan-Ying

    2013-11-01

    A series of hydroxy- and methoxy-substituted paeonol thiosemicarbazone analogues were synthesized as potential tyrosinase inhibitors and their inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase and inhibitory mechanism were evaluated. Paeonol thiosemicarbazone analogues have been found exhibiting more remarkable inhibition than their indexcompounds on mushroom tyrosinase. Among them, compound 2,4-dihydroxy acetophenone-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (d1) had the most potent inhibition activity with the IC50 value of 0.006 ± 0.001 mM, displayed as a reversible competitive inhibitor. The inhibitory ability of o- or p-substituted acetophenone thiosemicarbazones was: di-substituted acetophenone thiosemicarbazones>mono-substituted acetophenone thiosemicarbazones>non-substituted acetophenone thiosemicarbazones. Copper ions chelation assay explained that compound d1 exhibited competitive inhibition by forming a chelate with the copper ions at the catalytic domain of tyrosinase as well as indicate a 1.5:1 binding ratio of compound d1 with copper ions. In the fluorescence spectrum study, compound d1 behaved stronger fluorescence quenching on tyrosinase towards d1-Cu(2+) complex, inhibiting tyrosinase mainly by means of chelating the two copper ions in the active site. The newly synthesized compounds may serve as structural templates for designing and developing novel tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:24120880

  17. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Triazole-Pyrimidine Analogues as SecA Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianmei; Jin, Jinshan; Chaudhary, Arpana Sagwal; Hsieh, Ying-hsin; Zhang, Hao; Dai, Chaofeng; Damera, Krishna; Chen, Weixuan; Tai, Phang C; Wang, Binghe

    2016-01-01

    SecA, a key component of the bacterial Sec-dependent secretion pathway, is an attractive target for the development of new antimicrobial agents. Through a combination of virtual screening and experimental exploration of the surrounding chemical space, we identified a hit bistriazole SecA inhibitor, SCA-21, and studied a series of analogues by systematic dissections of the core scaffold. Evaluation of these analogues allowed us to establish an initial structure-activity relationship in SecA inhibition. The best compounds in this group are potent inhibitors of SecA-dependent protein-conducting channel activity and protein translocation activity at low- to sub-micromolar concentrations. They also have minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against various strains of bacteria that correlate well with the SecA and protein translocation inhibition data. These compounds are effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with various levels of efflux pump activity, indicating the capacity of SecA inhibitors to null the effect of multidrug resistance. Results from studies of drug-affinity-responsive target stability and protein pull-down assays are consistent with SecA as a target for these compounds. PMID:26607404

  18. Synthesis and activity study of phosphonamidate dipeptides as potential inhibitors of VanX.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke-Wu; Cheng, Xu; Zhao, Chuan; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Jia, Chao; Feng, Lei; Xiao, Jian-Min; Zhou, Li-Sheng; Gao, Hui-Zhou; Yang, Xia; Zhai, Le

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to develop inhibitors of VanX, the phosphonamidate analogs of D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptides, N-[(1-aminoethyl) hydroxyphosphinyl]-glycine (1a), -alanine (1b), -valine (1c), -leucine (1d) and -phenylalanine (1e) were synthesized, characterized and evaluated using recombinant VanX. The crystal structure of the intermediate 6d was obtained (Deposition number: CCDC 839134), and structural analysis revealed that it is orthorhombic with a space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), the bond length of P-N is 1.62Å and angle of C-N-P is 123.6°. Phosphonamidate 1(a-e) showed to be inhibitors of VanX with IC(50) values of 0.39, 0.70, 1.12, 2.82, and 4.13mM, respectively, which revealed that the inhibition activities of the phosphonamidates were dependent on the size of R-substituent of them, with the best inhibitor 1a having the smallest substituent. Also, 1a showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) with a MIC value of 0.25 μg/ml. PMID:22001030

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Use of MMP-2 Inhibitor-Conjugated Quantum Dots in Functional Biochemical Assays.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Erika; Brazhnik, Kristina; Sukhanova, Alyona; Moroy, Gautier; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Martin, Anne-Pascaline; Villena, Isabelle; Bellon, Georges; Sapi, Janos; Nabiev, Igor

    2016-04-20

    The development of chemically designed matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitors has advanced the understanding of the roles of MMPs in different diseases. Most MMP probes designed are fluorogenic substrates, often suffering from photo- and chemical instability and providing a fluorescence signal of moderate intensity, which is difficult to detect and analyze when dealing with crude biological samples. Here, an inhibitor that inhibits MMP-2 more selectively than Galardin has been synthesized and used for enzyme labeling and detection of the MMP-2 activity. A complete MMP-2 recognition complex consisting of a biotinylated MMP inhibitor tagged with the streptavidin-quantum dot (QD) conjugate has been prepared. This recognition complex, which is characterized by a narrow fluorescence emission spectrum, long fluorescence lifetime, and negligible photobleaching, has been demonstrated to specifically detect MMP-2 in in vitro sandwich-type biochemical assays with sensitivities orders of magnitude higher than those of the existing gold standards employing organic dyes. The approach developed can be used for specific in vitro visualization and testing of MMP-2 in cells and tissues with sensitivities significantly exceeding those of the best existing fluorogenic techniques. PMID:26930394

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Scutellaria Flavone Cyclaneaminol Mannich Base Derivatives as Novel CDK1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ha, Lisha; Qian, Yuan; Zhang, Shixuan; Ju, Xiulan; Sun, Shiyou; Guo, Hongmin; Wang, Qianru; Li, Kangjian; Fan, Qingyu; Zheng, Yang; Li, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is the only necessary CDK in the cell proliferation process and a new target in the research and development of anti-cancer drugs. Natural flavones are selective CDK1 inhibitors which can suppress the proliferation of cancer cells. However, their bioavailability is poor. To solve these problems, 6 Scutellaria flavones were isolated from hydrolyzed products of Scutellaria baicalensis and used as lead compounds, 18 Scutellaria flavones cyclane-aminol Mannich base derivatives were semi-synthesized and their biological activity as novel CDK1 inhibitors was evaluated. Results indicated that the biological activity of 8-Hydroxypiperidinemethyl-baicalein (BA-j) is the highest among these compounds. BA-j is a selective CDK1 inhibitor, and has broad-spectrum anti-proliferative activity in human cancer cells (IC50 12.3μM). BA-j can capture oxygen free radicals (.O2(-)) and selectively increase intracellular H2O2 level in cancer cells and activated lymphocytes, thus inducing their apoptosis rather than in normal cells. These findings suggest that BA-j selectively induces apoptosis in cancer and activated lymphocyte by controlling intracellular H2O2 level, and can be developed into a novel anti-proliferative agent for the treatment of cancer, AIDS, and some immune diseases. PMID:26411959

  1. Synthesis of new 4-anilinoquinazoline analogues and evaluation of their EGFR inhibitor activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; WANG, Cui-Ling; Li, Jun-lin; Zhang, Ning; Sun, Yan-ni; Liu, Zhu-lan; Tang, Zhi-shu; Liu, Jian-li

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen of 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives with imine groups at position 6 of quinazoline ring were synthesized and their antitumor activities were evaluated by MTT assay and Western blotting analysis. Among these compounds, 13a-131 were reported first time. The MTT assay was carried out on three human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2 and SMMC7721) with EGFR highly expressed. Among the tested compounds, 13i and 13j exhibited notable inhibition potency and their IC50 values on three cell lines were equivalent to or less than those of gefitinib. Compound 14, without imine group substituted, displayed excellent inhibitor potency only on A549 cell line. Compounds 14 and 13j were chosen to perform Western blotting analysis on A549. The results showed that both of the compounds could inhibit the expression level of phosphorylated EGFR remarkably. It was concluded that the inhibitor potency of compound 14 was almost equivalent to that of gefitinib and the inhibitor potency of 13j was better than that of gefitinib. PMID:27169285

  2. Synthesis, Structural Analysis, and Biological Evaluation of Thioxoquinazoline Derivatives as Phosphodiesterase 7 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, Tania; Wang, Huanchen; Campillo, Nuria E.; Ballester, Sara; González-García, Coral; Hernández, Javier; Pérez, Concepción; Cuenca, Jimena; Pérez-Castillo, Ana; Martínez, Ana; Huertas, Oscar; Gelpí, José Luis; Luque, F. Javier; Ke, Hengming; Gil, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    PDE7 inhibitors regulate pro-inflammatory and immune T-cell functions, and are a potentially novel class of drugs especially useful in the treatment of a wide variety of immune and inflammatory disorders. Starting from our lead family of thioxoquinazolines, we designed, synthesized, and characterized a novel series of thioxoquinazoline derivatives. Many of these compounds showed inhibitory potencies at sub-micromolar levels against the catalytic domain of PDE7A1 and at the micromolar level against PDE4D2. Cell-based studies showed that these compounds not only increased intracellular cAMP levels, but also had interesting anti-inflammatory properties within a therapeutic window. The in silico data predict that these compounds are capable of the crossing the blood–brain barrier. The X-ray crystal structure of the PDE7A1 catalytic domain in complex with compound 15 at a resolution of 2.4 Å demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions at the active site pocket are a key feature. This structure, together with molecular modeling, provides insight into the selectivity of the PDE inhibitors and a template for the discovery of new PDE7 or PDE7/PDE4 dual inhibitors. PMID:19350606

  3. Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles in Hybrid Nanocomposite Coatings as Nanoreservoirs of Corrosion Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirhady Tavandashti, Nahid; Sanjabi, Sohrab

    Nanostructured hybrid silica/epoxy films containing boehmite nanoparticles were investigated in the present work as pretreatments for AA2024 alloy. To produce the nanocomposite sol-gel films, boehmite nanoparticles prepared from hydrolysis/condensation of aluminum isopropoxide (AlI) were doped into another hybrid organosiloxane sol. The produced oxide nanoparticles have the capability to act as nanoreservoirs of corrosion inhibitors, releasing them controllably to protect the metallic substrate from corrosion. For this purpose the corrosion inhibitor, cerium nitrate, was introduced into the sol-gel system via loading the nanoparticles. The morphology and the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection properties of the films were investigated by Potentiodynamic Scanning (PDS) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the presence of boehmite nanoparticles highly improved the corrosion protection performance of the silica/epoxy coatings. Moreover, they can act as nanoreservoirs of corrosion inhibitors and provide prolonged release of cerium ions, offering a self-healing property to the film.

  4. Synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of novel RAD51 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiewen; Chen, Hongyuan; Guo, Xuning Emily; Qiu, Xiao-Long; Hu, Chun-Mei; Chamberlin, A Richard; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    RAD51 recombinase plays a critical role for cancer cell proliferation and survival. Targeting RAD51 is therefore an attractive strategy for treating difficult-to-treat cancers, e.g. triple negative breast cancers which are often resistant to existing therapeutics. To this end, we have designed, synthesized and evaluated a panel of new RAD51 inhibitors, denoted IBR compounds. Among these compounds, we have identified a novel small molecule RAD51 inhibitor, IBR120, which exhibited a 4.8-fold improved growth inhibition activity in triple negative human breast cancer cell line MBA-MD-468. IBR120 also inhibited the proliferation of a broad spectrum of other cancer cell types. Approximately 10-fold difference between the IC50 values in normal and cancer cells were observed. Moreover, IBR120 was capable of disrupting RAD51 multimerization, impairing homologous recombination repair, and inducing apoptotic cell death. Therefore, these novel RAD51 inhibitors may serve as potential candidates for the development of pharmaceutical strategies against difficult-to-treat cancers. PMID:25874343

  5. AMPK activation protects cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence via autophagic flux restoration and intracellular NAD(+) elevation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojuan; Tai, Haoran; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jiao; Wei, Xiawei; Ding, Yi; Gong, Hui; Mo, Chunfen; Zhang, Jie; Qin, Jianqiong; Ma, Yuanji; Huang, Ning; Xiang, Rong; Xiao, Hengyi

    2016-06-01

    AMPK activation is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and senescence prevention. However, the molecular events involved in AMPK activation are not well defined. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the protective effect of AMPK on oxidative stress-induced senescence. The results showed that AMPK was inactivated in senescent cells. However, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin and berberine significantly prevented the development of senescence and, accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C was accelerated. Importantly, AMPK activation prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced impairment of the autophagic flux in senescent cells, evidenced by the decreased p62 degradation, GFP-RFP-LC3 cancellation, and activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also found that AMPK activation restored the NAD(+) levels in the senescent cells via a mechanism involving mostly the salvage pathway for NAD(+) synthesis. In addition, the mechanistic relationship of autophagic flux and NAD(+) synthesis and the involvement of mTOR and Sirt1 activities were assessed. In summary, our results suggest that AMPK prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence by improving autophagic flux and NAD(+) homeostasis. This study provides a new insight for exploring the mechanisms of aging, autophagy and NAD(+) homeostasis, and it is also valuable in the development of innovative strategies to combat aging. PMID:26890602

  6. [Synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in the nuclei of pigeon erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Nemchinskaia, V L; Makarova, T G; Mozhenok, T P; Braun, A D

    1975-08-01

    The nuclei of pigeon erythrocytes are capable of synthesizing NAD from nicotinamid-mononucleotides and ATP. Some data on the kinetics of NAD-pyrophosphorylase have been obtained: the optimal concentration of nuclei and the effect of various incubation time. The pretreatment of nuclei by Triton X-100, or by ultrasonics enhances NAD synthesis. The results suggest that cyclic 3',5'-AMP (Fluka) may have no effect on NAD synthesis. The control of the cell metabolism by NAD formation is considered. PMID:181878

  7. Potent New Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Endopeptidase Developed by Synthesis-Based Computer-Aided Molecular Design

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Vummenthala, Anuradha; Mishra, Rajesh K.; Park, Jewn Giew; Wang, Shaohua; Davis, Jon; Millard, Charles B.; Schmidt, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA) causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism. Current treatment for post exposure of BoNTA uses antibodies that are effective in neutralizing the extracellular toxin to prevent further intoxication but generally cannot rescue already intoxicated neurons. Effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNTA endopeptidase (BoNTAe) are desirable because such inhibitors potentially can neutralize the intracellular BoNTA and offer complementary treatment for botulism. Previously we reported a serotype-selective, small-molecule BoNTAe inhibitor with a Kiapp value of 3.8±0.8 µM. This inhibitor was developed by lead identification using virtual screening followed by computer-aided optimization of a lead with an IC50 value of 100 µM. However, it was difficult to further improve the lead from micromolar to even high nanomolar potency due to the unusually large enzyme-substrate interface of BoNTAe. The enzyme-substrate interface area of 4,840 Å2 for BoNTAe is about four times larger than the typical protein-protein interface area of 750–1,500 Å2. Inhibitors must carry several functional groups to block the unusually large interface of BoNTAe, and syntheses of such inhibitors are therefore time-consuming and expensive. Herein we report the development of a serotype-selective, small-molecule, and competitive inhibitor of BoNTAe with a Ki value of 760±170 nM using synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design (SBCAMD). This new approach accounts the practicality and efficiency of inhibitor synthesis in addition to binding affinity and selectivity. We also report a three-dimensional model of BoNTAe in complex with the new inhibitor and the dynamics of the complex predicted by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, and discuss further structural optimization to achieve better in vivo efficacy in neutralizing BoNTA than those of our early micromolar leads. This work provides new insight into structural modification

  8. The 1.8 Å Cholix Toxin Crystal Structure in Complex with NAD+ and Evidence for a New Kinetic Model

    PubMed Central

    Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Jørgensen, René; Lugo, Miguel R.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2012-01-01

    Certain Vibrio cholerae strains produce cholix, a potent protein toxin that has diphthamide-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase activity against eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Here we present a 1.8 Å crystal structure of cholix in complex with its natural substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). We also substituted hallmark catalytic residues by site-directed mutagenesis and analyzed both NAD+ binding and ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using a fluorescence-based assay. These data are the basis for a new kinetic model of cholix toxin activity. Further, the new structural data serve as a reference for continuing inhibitor development for this toxin class. PMID:22535961

  9. 7 CFR 614.15 - Implementation of final NAD determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation of final NAD determinations. 614.15 Section 614.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... Implementation of final NAD determinations. (a) No later than 30 days after a NAD determination becomes a...

  10. 7 CFR 614.15 - Implementation of final NAD determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementation of final NAD determinations. 614.15 Section 614.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... Implementation of final NAD determinations. (a) No later than 30 days after a NAD determination becomes a...

  11. Dihydroquinazolines as a Novel Class of Trypanosoma brucei Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors: Discovery, Synthesis, and Characterization of their Binding Mode by Protein Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Trypanothione reductase (TryR) is a genetically validated drug target in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. Here we report the discovery, synthesis, and development of a novel series of TryR inhibitors based on a 3,4-dihydroquinazoline scaffold. In addition, a high resolution crystal structure of TryR, alone and in complex with substrates and inhibitors from this series, is presented. This represents the first report of a high resolution complex between a noncovalent ligand and this enzyme. Structural studies revealed that upon ligand binding the enzyme undergoes a conformational change to create a new subpocket which is occupied by an aryl group on the ligand. Therefore, the inhibitor, in effect, creates its own small binding pocket within the otherwise large, solvent exposed active site. The TryR–ligand structure was subsequently used to guide the synthesis of inhibitors, including analogues that challenged the induced subpocket. This resulted in the development of inhibitors with improved potency against both TryR and T. brucei parasites in a whole cell assay. PMID:21851087

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Inhibitor of C-Reactive Protein–Mediated Proinflammatory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Sridevi; Huang, Wenzhe; Lau, Edmond Y.; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous studies have shown that high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels predict cardiovascular disease and augur a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Much in vitro and in vivo data support of a role for CRP in atherogenesis. There is an urgent need to develop inhibitors that specifically block the biological effects of CRP in vivo. The one-bead–one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library method has been used to discover ligands against several biological targets. In this study, we use a novel fluorescence-based screening method to screen an OBOC combinatorial library for the discovery of peptides against human CRP. Methods Human CRP was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and human serum albumin (HuSA) was labeled with phycoerythrin (PE) and used for screening. The OBOC library LWH-01 was synthesized on TentaGel resin beads using a standard solid-phase “split/mix” approach. Results By subtraction screening, eight peptides that bind specifically to CRP and not to HuSA were identified. In human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) incubated with CRP, inhibitors CRPi-2, CRPi-3, and CRPi-6 significantly inhibited CRP-induced superoxide, cytokine release, and nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) activity. Molecular docking studies demonstrate that CRPi-2 interacts with the two Ca2+ ions in the single subunit of CRP. The binding of CRPi-2 is reminiscent of choline binding. Conclusions Future studies will examine the utility of this inhibitor in animal models and clinical trials. PMID:23445482

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of clitocine analogues as adenosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Daanen, J F; Jiang, M; Yu, H; Kohlhaas, K L; Alexander, K; Jarvis, M F; Kowaluk, E L; Bhagwat, S S

    2001-09-17

    Adenosine kinase (AK) is the primary enzyme responsible for adenosine metabolism. Inhibition of AK effectively increases extracellular adenosine concentrations and represents an alternative approach to enhance the beneficial actions of adenosine as compared to direct-acting receptor agonists. Clitocine (3), isolated from the mushroom Clitocybe inversa, has been found to be a weak inhibitor of AK. We have prepared a number of analogues of clitocine in order to improve its potency and demonstrated that 5'-deoxy-5'-amino-clitocine (7) improved AK inhibitory potency by 50-fold. PMID:11549437

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of Mannitol-Based Inhibitors for Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat against humankind and the need for new therapeutics is crucial. Without working antibiotics, diseases that we thought were extinct will come back. In this paper two new mannitol bisphosphate analogs, 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-diphosphoramidate mannitol and 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-dimethansulfonamide mannitol, have been synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of the enzyme GmhB in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides. 1,6-Dideoxy-1,6-diphosphoramidate mannitol showed promising result in computational docking experiments, but neither phosphate analog showed activity in the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility test. PMID:26981280

  15. Synthesis of triazoloquinazolinone based compounds as tubulin polymerization inhibitors and vascular disrupting agents.

    PubMed

    Driowya, Mohsine; Leclercq, Julien; Verones, Valerie; Barczyk, Amélie; Lecoeur, Marie; Renault, Nicolas; Flouquet, Nathalie; Ghinet, Alina; Berthelot, Pascal; Lebegue, Nicolas

    2016-06-10

    A series of 1-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5-ones designed as conformationally restricted CA-4 analogues, were tested for their tubulin polymerization and growth inhibitory activities. The 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy derivatives 11d and 12d are potent inhibitors of tubulin assembly but only the N-methylated amid counterpart 12d possesses potent anticancer activity in a large panel of cancer cell lines. Upon treatment with compound 12d, remarkable cell shape changes as cell migration and tube formation were elicited in HUVECs, consistent with vasculature damaging activity. PMID:27031215

  16. Design, synthesis and antiproliferative activities of novel benzamides derivatives as HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyang; Wang, Yongzhen; Xie, Ning; Xu, Ming; Qian, Pengyu; Zhao, Yanjin; Li, Shuxin

    2015-07-15

    Guided by the principle of nonclassical electronic isosterism and structural optimization, a series of novel HDAC inhibitors bearing a bicyclic heterocycle moiety were designed and synthesized based on the lead compound of MS-275. All the prepared compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against HCT-116, MCF-7 and A549 human cancer cell lines, all compounds exerted excellent antitumor activities. Moreover, the compound 4a exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile with bio-availability in rat of 76% and could be considered as a candidate compound for further development. PMID:26140961

  17. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Did Not Interfere with Long-Term Depression Induced either Electrically in Juvenile Rats or Chemically in Middle-Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Abdul-Karim

    2016-01-01

    In testing the hypothesis that long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance depends on triggered protein synthesis, we found no effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTP stabilization. Similarly, some studies reported a lack of effect of PSIs on long-term depression (LTD); the lack of effect on LTD has been suggested to be resulting from the short time recordings. If this proposal were true, LTD might exhibit sensitivity to PSIs when the recording intervals were enough long. We firstly induced LTD by a standard protocol involving low frequency stimulation, which is suitable for eliciting NMDAR-LTD in CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. This LTD was persistent for intervals in range of 8-10 h. Treating slices with anisomycin, however, did not interfere with the magnitude and persistence of this form of LTD. The failure of anisomycin to block synaptic-LTD might be relied on the age of animal, the type of protein synthesis inhibitors and/or the inducing protocol. To verify whether those variables altogether were determinant, NMDA or DHPG was used to chemically elicit LTD recorded up to 10 h on hippocampal slices obtained from middle-aged rats. In either form of LTD, cycloheximide did not interfere with LTD stabilization. Furthermore, DHPG application did show an increase in the global protein synthesis as assayed by radiolabeled methodology indicating that though triggered protein synthesis can occur but not necessarily required for LTD expression. The findings confirm that stabilized LTD in either juvenile, or middle-aged rats can be independent of triggered protein synthesis. Although the processes responsible for the independence of LTD stabilization on the triggered protein synthesis are not yet defined, these findings raise the possibility that de novo protein synthesis is not universally necessary. PMID:27517693

  18. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Did Not Interfere with Long-Term Depression Induced either Electrically in Juvenile Rats or Chemically in Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In testing the hypothesis that long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance depends on triggered protein synthesis, we found no effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTP stabilization. Similarly, some studies reported a lack of effect of PSIs on long-term depression (LTD); the lack of effect on LTD has been suggested to be resulting from the short time recordings. If this proposal were true, LTD might exhibit sensitivity to PSIs when the recording intervals were enough long. We firstly induced LTD by a standard protocol involving low frequency stimulation, which is suitable for eliciting NMDAR-LTD in CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. This LTD was persistent for intervals in range of 8–10 h. Treating slices with anisomycin, however, did not interfere with the magnitude and persistence of this form of LTD. The failure of anisomycin to block synaptic-LTD might be relied on the age of animal, the type of protein synthesis inhibitors and/or the inducing protocol. To verify whether those variables altogether were determinant, NMDA or DHPG was used to chemically elicit LTD recorded up to 10 h on hippocampal slices obtained from middle-aged rats. In either form of LTD, cycloheximide did not interfere with LTD stabilization. Furthermore, DHPG application did show an increase in the global protein synthesis as assayed by radiolabeled methodology indicating that though triggered protein synthesis can occur but not necessarily required for LTD expression. The findings confirm that stabilized LTD in either juvenile, or middle-aged rats can be independent of triggered protein synthesis. Although the processes responsible for the independence of LTD stabilization on the triggered protein synthesis are not yet defined, these findings raise the possibility that de novo protein synthesis is not universally necessary. PMID:27517693

  19. Role of ARF6, Rab11 and external Hsp90 in the trafficking and recycling of recombinant-soluble Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (rNadA) in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bozza, Giuseppe; Capitani, Mirco; Montanari, Paolo; Benucci, Barbara; Biancucci, Marco; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Picciani, Benedetta; Savino, Silvana; Aricò, Beatrice; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Luini, Alberto; Sallese, Michele; Merola, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) is a meningococcus surface protein thought to assist in the adhesion of the bacterium to host cells. We have previously shown that NadA also promotes bacterial internalization in a heterologous expression system. Here we have used the soluble recombinant NadA (rNadA) lacking the membrane anchor region to characterize its internalization route in Chang epithelial cells. Added to the culture medium, rNadA internalizes through a PI3K-dependent endocytosis process not mediated by the canonical clathrin or caveolin scaffolds, but instead follows an ARF6-regulated recycling pathway previously described for MHC-I. The intracellular pool of rNadA reaches a steady state level within one hour of incubation and colocalizes in endocytic vesicles with MHC-I and with the extracellularly labeled chaperone Hsp90. Treatment with membrane permeated and impermeable Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG and FITC-GA respectively, lead to intracellular accumulation of rNadA, strongly suggesting that the extracellular secreted pool of the chaperone is involved in rNadA intracellular trafficking. A significant number of intracellular vesicles containing rNadA recruit Rab11, a small GTPase associated to recycling endosomes, but do not contain transferrin receptor (TfR). Interestingly, cell treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors, including the membrane-impermeable FITC-GA, abolished Rab11-rNadA colocalization but do not interfere with Rab11-TfR colocalization. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model whereby rNadA internalizes into human epithelial cells hijacking the recycling endosome pathway and recycle back to the surface of the cell via an ARF6-dependent, Rab11 associated and Hsp90-regulated mechanism. The present study addresses for the first time a meningoccoccal adhesin mechanism of endocytosis and suggests a possible entry pathway engaged by N. meningitidis in primary infection of human epithelial cells. PMID:25347845

  20. Novel Improved Synthesis of HSP70 Inhibitor, Pifithrin-μ. In Vitro Synergy Quantification of Pifithrin-μ Combined with Pt Drugs in Prostate and Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Aoife M; Egan, Alan; Chandanshive, Jay; McMahon, Helena; Griffith, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel improved approach to the synthesis of the important and well-known heat shock protein 70 inhibitor (HSP70), pifithrin-μ, with corresponding and previously unreported characterisation. The first example of a combination study comprising HSP70 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and cisplatin or oxaliplatin is reported. We have determined, using the Chou-Talalay method, (i) moderate synergistic and synergistic effects in co-treating PC-3 prostate cancer cells with pifithrin-μ and cisplatin and (ii) significant synergistic effects including strong synergism in cotreating HT29 colorectal cancer cells with oxaliplatin and pifithrin-μ. PMID:27455212

  1. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi.

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter M; Payne, Jennifer; Di Pietro, Antonio; Anderson, Marilyn A; Plummer, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An) O-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (KO) mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC). An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI) and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2. PMID:27598152

  2. Discovery, Synthesis and Characterization of an Orally Bioavailable, Brain Penetrant Inhibitor of Mixed Lineage Kinase 3

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Val S.; Loweth, Colin J.; Ravula, Satheesh B.; Wiemann, Torsten; Nguyen, Thong; Xu, Yang; Todd, Daniel E.; Sheppard, David; Pollack, Scott; Polesskaya, Oksana; Marker, Daniel F.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a potential strategy for treatment of Parkinson’s Disease and HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), requiring an inhibitor that can achieve significant brain concentration levels. We report here URMC-099 (1) an orally bioavailable (F = 41%), potent (IC50 = 14 nM) MLK3 inhibitor with excellent brain exposure in mouse PK models and minimal interference with key human CYP450 enzymes or hERG channels. The compound inhibits LPS-induced TNFα release in microglial cells, HIV-1 Tat-induced release of cytokines in human monocytes, and up-regulation of phospho-JNK in Tat-injected brains of mice. Compound 1 likely functions in HAND preclinical models by inhibiting multiple kinase pathways, including MLK3 and LRRK2 (IC50 = 11 nM). We compare the kinase specificity and BBB penetration of 1 with CEP-1347 (2). Compound 1 is well tolerated, with excellent in vivo activity in HAND models, and is under investigation for further development. PMID:24044867

  3. Adenosine kinase inhibitors. 1. Synthesis, enzyme inhibition, and antiseizure activity of 5-iodotubercidin analogues.

    PubMed

    Ugarkar, B G; DaRe, J M; Kopcho, J J; Browne, C E; Schanzer, J M; Wiesner, J B; Erion, M D

    2000-07-27

    Adenosine receptor agonists produce a wide variety of therapeutically useful pharmacologies. However, to date they have failed to undergo successful clinical development due to dose-limiting side effects. Adenosine kinase inhibitors (AKIs) represent an alternative strategy, since AKIs may raise local adenosine levels in a more site- and event-specific manner and thereby elicit the desired pharmacology with a greater therapeutic window. Starting with 5-iodotubercidin (IC50 = 0.026 microM) and 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine (IC50 = 0.17 microM) as lead inhibitors of the isolated human AK, a variety of pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleoside analogues were designed and prepared by coupling 5-substituted-4-chloropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine bases with ribose analogues using the sodium salt-mediated glycosylation procedure. 5'-Amino-5'-deoxy analogues of 5-bromo- and 5-iodotubercidins were found to be the most potent AKIs reported to date (IC50S < 0.001 microM). Several potent AKIs were shown to exhibit anticonvulsant activity in the rat maximal electric shock (MES) induced seizure assay. PMID:10956196

  4. Synthesis of novel triazoles and a tetrazole of escitalopram as cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mehr-un-Nisa; Munawar, Munawar A; Chattha, Fauzia A; Kousar, Samina; Munir, Jawaria; Ismail, Tayaba; Ashraf, Muhammad; Khan, Misbahul A

    2015-09-01

    A novel serie of escitalopram triazoles (60-88) and a tetrazole (89) have been synthesized and subjected to a study to establish the inhibitory potential of these compounds toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Some selectivity in inhibition has been observed. The 4-chlorophenyl- (75, IC50, 6.71 ± 0.25 μM) and 2-methylphenyl- (70, IC50, 9.52 ± 0.23 μM) escitalopram triazole derivatives depicted high AChE inhibition, while 2-fluorophenyl- (76, IC50 = 4.52 ± 0.17 μM) and 4-fluorophenyl- (78, IC50 = 5.31 ± 0.43 μM) have found to be excellent BChE inhibitors. It has also been observed that ortho, meta and para substituted electron donating groups increase the inhibition, while electron withdrawing groups reduce the inhibition. Docking analyses of inhibitors with AChE have depicted the binding energies for 70 and 75 as ΔG(bind) -6.42 and -6.93 kcal/mol, respectively, while ligands 76 and 78 have shown the binding affinity ΔG(bind) -9.04 and -8.51 kcal/mol, respectively, for BChE. PMID:26189031

  5. Design and Synthesis of New (SecinH3) Derivatives as Potential Cytohesin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hayallah, Alaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Cytohesins are small guanine nucleotide exchange factors that stimulate ADP ribosylation factors, Ras-like GTPases, which control various cellular regulatory networks ranging from vesicle trafficking to integrin activation. A small molecule SecinH3 (1,2,4-triazole derivative) in an aptamer displacement assay as a pan-cytohesin Sec7-domain inhibitor was previously identified. Here a series of different SecinH3-analogues was designed and synthesised as potential cytohesin Sec7-domain inhibitors. All final synthesized compounds 6-8, 43-58 and their intermediates were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution Mass. Preliminary biological screening of target compounds indictaed that some of the new synthesized secinH3 derivatives showed higher potency and promising activity more than secinH3 itself (unpublished results). Compund 9 and 10 were approximate equal to secinH3 activity as cytohesin antagonist activity. Furthermore compound 52 showed twice inhibition potency if compared to secinH3. PMID:25425752

  6. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel HSP70 inhibitors: N, N'-disubstituted thiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Qun; Cao, Rui-Yuan; Yang, Jian-Ling; Li, Xing-Zhou; Li, Song; Zhong, Wu

    2016-08-25

    As novel heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inhibitors, N, N'-disubstituted thiourea derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the X-ray structure of the ATPase domain (nucleotide binding domain, NBD). An ATPase activity inhibition assay revealed that these compounds effectively inhibited HSP70 ATPase activity. The results revealed that the compounds 370/371/374/379/380//392/394/397/404/405 and 407 can inhibit the HSP70 ATPase turnover with high percentages of inhibition: 50.42, 38.46, 50.45, 44.12, 47.13, 50.50, 40.95, 65.36, 46.23, 35.78, and 58.37 in 200 μM, respectively. Significant synergies with lapatinib were observed for compound 379 and compound 405 in the BT474 breast cancer cell line. A structure-function analysis revealed that most of the thiourea derivatives exhibited cooperative action with lapatinib in the BT474 cancer cell line and the BT/Lap(R)1.0 lapatinib-resistant cell line. HSP70 inhibitors may be developed as synergetic drugs in drug-resistant cancer therapy. PMID:27155465

  7. Design and synthesis of chalcone derivatives as potent tyrosinase inhibitors and their structural activity relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Sakeh, Nurshafika M.; Zareen, Seema; Gul, Sana; Lo, Kong Mun; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Ahmad, Syahida

    2015-04-01

    Browning of fruits and vegetables is a serious issue in the food industry, as it damages the organoleptic properties of the final products. Overproduction of melanin causes aesthetic problems such as melisma, freckles and lentigo. In this study, a series of chalcones (1-10) have been synthesized and examined for their tryrosinase inhibitory activity. The results showed that flavokawain B (1), flavokawain A (2) and compound 3 were found to be potential tyrosinase inhibitors, indicating IC50 14.20-14.38 μM values. This demonstrates that 4-substituted phenolic compound especially at ring A exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition. Additionally, molecular docking results showed a strong binding affinity for compounds 1-3 through chelation between copper metal and ligands. The detailed molecular docking and SARs studies correlate well with the tyrosinase inhibition studies in vitro. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and single X-ray crystallographic techniques. These findings could lead to design and discover of new tyrosinase inhibitors to control the melanine overproduction and overcome the economic loss of food industry.

  8. Discovery of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening, molecular docking, synthesis, and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hardik; Patel, Paresh; Pannecouque, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    HIV-1 integrase enzyme plays an important role in the life cycle of HIV and responsible for integration of virus into human genome. Here, both computational and synthetic approaches were used to design and synthesize newer HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Pharmacophore mapping was performed on 20 chemically diverse molecules using DISCOtech, and refinement was carried out using GASP. Ten pharmacophore models were generated, and model 2, containing four features including two donor sites, one acceptor atom, and one hydrophobic region, was considered the best model as it has the highest fitness score. It was used as a query in NCI and Maybridge databases. Molecules having more than 99% Q(fit) value were used to design 30 molecules bearing pteridine ring and were docked on co-crystal structure of HIV-1 integrase enzyme. Among these, six molecules, showing good docking score compared with the reference standards, were synthesized by conventional as well as microwave-assisted methods. All compounds were characterized by physical and spectral data and evaluated for in vitro anti-HIV activity against the replication of HIV-1 (IIIB) in MT-4 cells. The used approach of molecular docking and anti-HIV activity data of designed molecules will provide significant insights to discover novel HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors. PMID:23957390

  9. Molecular modeling studies, synthesis and biological evaluation of dabigatran analogues as thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ming-Hui; Chen, Hai-Feng; Ren, Yu-Jie; Shao, Fang-Ming

    2016-01-15

    In this work, 48 thrombin inhibitors based on the structural scaffold of dabigatran were analyzed using a combination of molecular modeling techniques. We generated three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models based on three alignments for both comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) to highlight the structural requirements for thrombin protein inhibition. In addition to the 3D-QSAR study, Topomer CoMFA model also was established with a higher leave-one-out cross-validation q(2) and a non-cross-validation r(2), which suggest that the three models have good predictive ability. The results indicated that the steric, hydrophobic and electrostatic fields play key roles in QSAR model. Furthermore, we employed molecular docking and re-docking simulation explored the binding relationship of the ligand and the receptor protein in detail. Molecular docking simulations identified several key interactions that were also indicated through 3D-QSAR analysis. On the basis of the obtained results, two compounds were designed and predicted by three models, the biological evaluation in vitro (IC50) demonstrated that these molecular models were effective for the development of novel potent thrombin inhibitors. PMID:26690913

  10. Discovery of Novel Types of Inhibitors of S-Adenosylmethionine Synthesis by Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John C.; Bock, Charles W.; Takusagawa, Fusao; Markham, George D.

    2010-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) lies at an intersection of nucleotide and amino acid metabolism, and performs a multitude of metabolic functions. AdoMet formation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (ATP : L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT)) which is a target for development of anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents. High affinity MAT inhibitors have been found through computational docking of more than 200,000 compounds for predicted binding to the crystallographically-defined nucleotide binding region of the enzyme's active site. Two of the top scoring candidate compounds had IC50 values less than 10 nM,, more than 10,000-fold lower than the substrates' KM values. The compounds are structurally unrelated to the natural ligands of the enzyme. The enzyme is protected from inhibition by ATP, but not by methionine, consistent with binding at the adenosyl region of the active site. These results validate in silico screening as a robust approach to the discovery of inhibitors of this chemotherapeutically relevant enzyme. PMID:19739644

  11. Research on the synthesis and scale inhibition performance of a new terpolymer scale inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yufei; Li, Meng; Zhang, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    A new terpolymer named β-CD-MA-SSS was produced using free-radical polymerization of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), maleic-anhydride (MA) and sodium-styrene-sulfonate (SSS) as monomers, with potassium persulfate (KPS) as initiator. Its performance as a scale inhibitor to prevent deposition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that β-CD-MA-SSS performed excellent scale inhibition and exhibited a high conversion rate under the following conditions: initiator consisting of 6%, molar ratio of reaction monomers SSS:MA = 0.8:1, MA:β-CD = 6:1, reaction temperature of 80 °C, reaction time of 6 h, and dropping time of 40 min when MA was dosed as a substrate, and SSS and KPS were dosed as dropping reactants simultaneously. Use of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for this inhibitor showed that the polymerization reaction had taken place with the reaction monomers under the above specified conditions. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the β-CD-MA-SSS had a strong chelating ability for calcium (Ca(2+)) and a good dispersion ability for calcium carbonate (CaCO3). PMID:27054733

  12. Voglibose-inspired synthesis of new potent α-glucosidase inhibitors N-1,3-dihydroxypropylaminocyclitols.

    PubMed

    Worawalai, Wisuttaya; Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

    2016-06-24

    Voglibose, an N-1,3-dihydroxypropylaminocyclitol, has widely been used as an effective α-glucosidase inhibitor for diabetes therapy. Several attempts have been made to synthesize closely related analogues through the coupling of various aminocyclitols and propane-1,3-diol; however, most of them showed weaker or no inhibition. In this communication, we synthesized a pair of new N-1,3-dihydroxypropylaminocyclitols (10 and 11) using (+)-proto-quercitol (1) as a cyclitol core structure. The newly synthesized compounds revealed potent rat intestinal α-glucosidases, particularly against maltase, with IC50 values at submicromolar. Subsequent study on mechanisms underlying the inhibition of 11 indicated the competitive manner towards maltase and sucrase. The potent inhibition of these compounds was elaborated by docking study, in which their binding profiles towards key amino acid residues in the active site were similar to that of voglibose. Therefore, introduction of propane-1,3-diol moiety to suitable cyclohexane core structure such as aminoquercitol would be a potential approach to discover a new series of effective α-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:27140506

  13. Design and Synthesis of New Benzimidazole and Pyrimidine Derivatives as α-glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Mobinikhaledi, Akbar; Asghari, Behvar; Jabbarpour, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    In an endeavor to find a novel series of antihyperglycemic agents, new benzimidazole and pyrimidine derivatives were successfully synthesized efficiently in high yield with high purity, starting from amino acids in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3). The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. All products were assayed for their inhibitory effects on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases. The results revealed that compounds with aromatic amino acids moiety showed significant inhibition activity on the tested enzymes. Among the benzimidazole derivatives 4c and 4d exhibited the best activity against both of the tested enzymes. Also, among the pyrimidine derivatives 5c and 5d possessed significant inhibition action on the enzymes. The IC50 values for the most potent benzimidazole yeast and intestinal α-glucosidases inhibitor (4d) were found to be 9.1 and 36.7 µM, respectively. The IC50 values for the inhibition of yeast and intestinal α-glucosidases by the most active pyrimidine compound (5d) were calculated to be 8.3 and 21.8 µM, respectively. Overall, this study proved that benzimidazole and pyrimidine derivatives with aromatic amino acids moieties can represent novel promising α-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:26330860

  14. Design, synthesis, crystal structures and antimicrobial activity of sulfonamide boronic acids as β-lactamase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Eidam, Oliv; Romagnoli, Chiara; Caselli, Emilia; Babaoglu, Kerim; Pohlhaus, Denise Teotico; Karpiak, Joel; Bonnet, Richard; Shoichet, Brian K.; Prati, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    We investigated a series of sulfonamide boronic acids that resulted from the merging of two unrelated AmpC β-lactamase inhibitor series. The new boronic acids differed in the replacement of the canonical carboxamide, found in all penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics, with a sulfonamide. Surprisingly, these sulfonamides had a highly distinct structure-activity relationship from the previously explored carboxamides, high ligand efficiencies (up to 0.91), Ki values down to 25 nM and up to 23 times better for smaller analogs. Conversely, Ki values were 10 to 20 times worse for larger molecules than in the carboxamide congener series. X-ray crystal structures (1.6–1.8 Å) of AmpC with three of the new sulfonamides suggest that this altered structure-activity relationship results from the different geometry and polarity of the sulfonamide versus the carboxamide. The most potent inhibitor reversed β-lactamase-mediated resistance to third generation cephalosporins, lowering their minimum inhibitory concentrations up to 32-fold in cell culture. PMID:20945905

  15. Efficient Synthesis of Conformationally Restricted Apoptosis Inhibitors Bearing a Triazole Moiety.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Miriam; Garrido, Maria; Bujons, Jordi; Orzáez, Mar; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Alfonso, Ignacio; Messeguer, Angel

    2015-09-28

    Apoptosis is a biological process relevant to different human diseases that is regulated through protein-protein interactions and complex formation. Peptidomimetic compounds based on linear peptoids and cyclic analogues with different ring sizes have been previously reported as potent apoptotic inhibitors. Among them, the presence of cis/trans conformers of an exocyclic tertiary amide bond in slow exchange has been characterized. This information encouraged us to perform an isosteric replacement of the amide bond by a 1,2,3-triazole moiety, in which different substitution patterns would mimic different amide rotamers. The syntheses of these restricted analogues have been carried out through an Ugi multicomponent reaction followed by an intramolecular cyclization. The unexpected formation of a β-lactam scaffold prompted us to study the course of the intramolecular cyclization of the Ugi adducts. In order to modulate this cyclization, a small library of compounds bearing both heterocyclic scaffolds has been synthesized and their activities as apoptosis inhibitors have been evaluated. PMID:26270744

  16. Estrogen receptor α inhibitor activates the unfolded protein response, blocks protein synthesis, and induces tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Andruska, Neal D; Zheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Xujuan; Mao, Chengjian; Cherian, Mathew M; Mahapatra, Lily; Helferich, William G; Shapiro, David J

    2015-04-14

    Recurrent estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast and ovarian cancers are often therapy resistant. Using screening and functional validation, we identified BHPI, a potent noncompetitive small molecule ERα biomodulator that selectively blocks proliferation of drug-resistant ERα-positive breast and ovarian cancer cells. In a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer, BHPI induced rapid and substantial tumor regression. Whereas BHPI potently inhibits nuclear estrogen-ERα-regulated gene expression, BHPI is effective because it elicits sustained ERα-dependent activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (EnR) stress sensor, the unfolded protein response (UPR), and persistent inhibition of protein synthesis. BHPI distorts a newly described action of estrogen-ERα: mild and transient UPR activation. In contrast, BHPI elicits massive and sustained UPR activation, converting the UPR from protective to toxic. In ERα(+) cancer cells, BHPI rapidly hyperactivates plasma membrane PLCγ, generating inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), which opens EnR IP3R calcium channels, rapidly depleting EnR Ca(2+) stores. This leads to activation of all three arms of the UPR. Activation of the PERK arm stimulates phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), resulting in rapid inhibition of protein synthesis. The cell attempts to restore EnR Ca(2+) levels, but the open EnR IP3R calcium channel leads to an ATP-depleting futile cycle, resulting in activation of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). eEF2 phosphorylation inhibits protein synthesis at a second site. BHPI's novel mode of action, high potency, and effectiveness in therapy-resistant tumor cells make it an exceptional candidate for further mechanistic and therapeutic exploration. PMID:25825714

  17. A sub-milligram-synthesis protocol for in vitro screening of HDAC11 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yinping; Jin, Jin; Wang, Congying; Lv, Wenhui; Li, Xuewei; Che, Xiaona; Gong, Yanchao; Li, Yanjun; Li, Quanli; Hou, Jingli; Wang, Peng G; Shen, Jie

    2016-05-15

    This work demonstrated the high efficiency of a sub-milligram-synthesis based medicinal chemistry method. Totally 72 compounds, consisting a tri-substituted pyrrolidine core, were prepared. Around 0.1mg of each compound was solid-phase synthesized. Based on the additive property of UV absorptions of unconjugated chromophores of a molecule, these compounds were quantified by UV measurement. A hit, whose IC50 value was 1.2μM in HDAC11 inhibition assays, highlights the applicability of the approach reported here in future optimization works. PMID:27055940

  18. The Peroxisomal NAD Carrier from Arabidopsis Imports NAD in Exchange with AMP1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schroers, Martin G.; Wiese, Jan; Facchinelli, Fabio; Wilkinson, Sabrina; Charton, Lennart; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2016-01-01

    Cofactors such as NAD, AMP, and Coenzyme A (CoA) are essential for a diverse set of reactions and pathways in the cell. Specific carrier proteins are required to distribute these cofactors to different cell compartments, including peroxisomes. We previously identified a peroxisomal transport protein in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) called the peroxisomal NAD carrier (PXN). When assayed in vitro, this carrier exhibits versatile transport functions, e.g. catalyzing the import of NAD or CoA, the exchange of NAD/NADH, and the export of CoA. These observations raise the question about the physiological function of PXN in plants. Here, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to address this question. First, we confirmed that PXN, when expressed in yeast, is active and targeted to yeast peroxisomes. Secondl, detailed uptake analyses revealed that the CoA transport function of PXN can be excluded under physiological conditions due to its low affinity for this substrate. Third, we expressed PXN in diverse mutant yeast strains and investigated the suppression of the mutant phenotypes. These studies provided strong evidences that PXN was not able to function as a CoA transporter or a redox shuttle by mediating a NAD/NADH exchange, but instead catalyzed the import of NAD into peroxisomes against AMP in intact yeast cells. PMID:27208243

  19. Bisphosphonate inhibitors reveal a large elasticity of plastidic isoprenoid synthesis pathway in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen.

    PubMed

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Talts, Eero; Kännaste, Astrid; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a feedback inhibition of the chloroplastic 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis by end products dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) was postulated, but the extent to which DMADP and IDP can build up is not known. We used bisphosphonate inhibitors, alendronate and zoledronate, that inhibit the consumption of DMADP and IDP by prenyltransferases to gain insight into the extent of end product accumulation and possible feedback inhibition in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). A kinetic method based on dark release of isoprene emission at the expense of substrate pools accumulated in light was used to estimate the in vivo pool sizes of DMADP and upstream metabolites. Feeding with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of DXP reductoisomerase, alone or in combination with bisphosphonates was used to inhibit carbon input into DXP/MEP pathway or both input and output. We observed a major increase in pathway intermediates, 3- to 4-fold, upstream of DMADP in bisphosphonate-inhibited leaves, but the DMADP pool was enhanced much less, 1.3- to 1.5-fold. In combined fosmidomycin/bisphosphonate treatment, pathway intermediates accumulated, reflecting cytosolic flux of intermediates that can be important under strong metabolic pull in physiological conditions. The data suggested that metabolites accumulated upstream of DMADP consist of phosphorylated intermediates and IDP. Slow conversion of the huge pools of intermediates to DMADP was limited by reductive energy supply. These data indicate that the DXP/MEP pathway is extremely elastic, and the presence of a significant pool of phosphorylated intermediates provides an important valve for fine tuning the pathway flux. PMID:25926480

  20. Design, synthesis and SAR studies of GABA uptake inhibitors derived from 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Steffan, Tobias; Renukappa-Gutke, Thejavathi; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we disclose the design and synthesis of a series of 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid as core structures and the N-arylalkyl derivatives thereof as potential GABA transport inhibitors. The 2-position in the side chain of pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives was substituted with alkyl, hydroxy and amino groups to modulate the activity and selectivity to mGAT1 and mGAT4 proteins. SAR studies of the compounds performed for the four mouse GABA transporter proteins (mGAT1-mGAT4) implied significant potencies and subtype selectivities for 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives. The racemate rac-(u)-13c exhibited the highest potency (pIC50 5.67) at and selectivity for mGAT1 in GABA uptake assays. In fact, the potency of rac-(u)-13c at hGAT-1 (pIC50 6.14) was even higher than its potency at mGAT1. These uptake results for rac-(u)-13c are in line with the binding affinities to the aforesaid proteins mGAT1 (pKi 6.99) and hGAT-1 (pKi 7.18) determined by MS Binding Assay based on NO711 as marker quantified by LC-ESI-MS-MS analysis. Interestingly, the 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid rac-(u)-13d containing 2-{[tris(4-methoxyphenyl)]methoxy} ethyl group at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrolidine ring showed high potency at mGAT4 and a comparatively better selectivity for this protein (>15 against mGAT3) than the well known mGAT4 uptake inhibitor (S)-SNAP-5114. PMID:25698617

  1. The IκB kinase inhibitor ACHP strongly attenuates TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast formation and collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mia, Masum M; Bank, Ruud A

    2015-12-01

    Excessive accumulation of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) by myofibroblasts is a characteristic feature of fibrosis, a pathological state leading to serious organ dysfunction. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) is a strong inducer of myofibroblast formation and subsequent collagen production. Currently, there are no remedies for the treatment of fibrosis. Activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway by phosphorylating IκB with the enzyme IκB kinase (IKK) plays a major role in the induction of fibrosis. ACHP {2-Amino-6-[2-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-6-hydroxyphenyl]-4-(4-piperidinyl)-3 pyridinecarbonitrile}, a selective inhibitor of IKK, prohibits the activation of the NF-κB pathway. It is not known whether ACHP has potential anti-fibrotic properties. Using adult human dermal and lung fibroblasts we have investigated whether ACHP has the ability to inhibit the TGFβ1-induced transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and its excessive synthesis of ECM. The presence of ACHP strongly suppressed the induction of the myofibroblast markers alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and SM22α, as well as the deposition of the ECM components collagen type I and fibronectin. Furthermore, post-treatment with ACHP partly reversed the expression of αSMA and collagen type I production. Finally, ACHP suppressed the expression of the three collagen-modifying enzymes lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD1, PLOD2 and PLOD3) in dermal fibroblasts, but did not do so in lung fibroblasts. We conclude that the IKK inhibitor ACHP has potent antifibrotic properties, and that the NF-κB pathway plays an important role in myofibroblast biology. PMID:26337045

  2. Bisphosphonate Inhibitors Reveal a Large Elasticity of Plastidic Isoprenoid Synthesis Pathway in Isoprene-Emitting Hybrid Aspen1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a feedback inhibition of the chloroplastic 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis by end products dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) was postulated, but the extent to which DMADP and IDP can build up is not known. We used bisphosphonate inhibitors, alendronate and zoledronate, that inhibit the consumption of DMADP and IDP by prenyltransferases to gain insight into the extent of end product accumulation and possible feedback inhibition in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). A kinetic method based on dark release of isoprene emission at the expense of substrate pools accumulated in light was used to estimate the in vivo pool sizes of DMADP and upstream metabolites. Feeding with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of DXP reductoisomerase, alone or in combination with bisphosphonates was used to inhibit carbon input into DXP/MEP pathway or both input and output. We observed a major increase in pathway intermediates, 3- to 4-fold, upstream of DMADP in bisphosphonate-inhibited leaves, but the DMADP pool was enhanced much less, 1.3- to 1.5-fold. In combined fosmidomycin/bisphosphonate treatment, pathway intermediates accumulated, reflecting cytosolic flux of intermediates that can be important under strong metabolic pull in physiological conditions. The data suggested that metabolites accumulated upstream of DMADP consist of phosphorylated intermediates and IDP. Slow conversion of the huge pools of intermediates to DMADP was limited by reductive energy supply. These data indicate that the DXP/MEP pathway is extremely elastic, and the presence of a significant pool of phosphorylated intermediates provides an important valve for fine tuning the pathway flux. PMID:25926480

  3. A concise synthesis and evaluation of new malonamide derivatives as potential α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah M; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Rahman, A F M Motiur; Javaid, Kulsoom; Imad, Rehan; Yousuf, Sammer; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-04-15

    A series of new malonamide derivatives were synthesized by Michael addition reaction of N(1),N(3)-di(pyridin-2-yl)malonamide into α,β-unsaturated ketones mediated by DBU in DCM at ambient temperature. The inhibitory potential of these compounds in vitro, against α-glucosidase enzyme was evaluated. Result showed that most of malonamide derivatives were identified as a potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase enzyme. Among all the compounds, 4K (IC50=11.7±0.5μM) was found out as the most active one compared to standard drug acarbose (IC50=840±1.73μM). Further cytotoxicity of 4a-4m were also evaluated against a number of cancer and normal cell lines and interesting results were obtained. PMID:26972921

  4. Search for novel histone deacetylase inhibitors. Part II: design and synthesis of novel isoferulic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Previously, we described the discovery of potent ferulic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with halogeno-acetanilide as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). In order to improve the affinity and activity of these HDACIs, twenty seven isoferulic acid derivatives were described herein. The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, IF5 and IF6 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.73 ± 0.08 and 0.57 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. Especially, IF6 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate with IC50 value of 3.91 ± 0.97 μM against HeLa cells. The results indicated that these isoferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24702857

  5. The discovery of potent glycine transporter type-2 inhibitors: design and synthesis of phenoxymethylbenzamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiki; Arai, Tadamasa; Akahira, Masato; Nakajima, Mayumi; Nishimura, Kazumi; Omori, Yu; Kumagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Hayashi, Ryoji

    2014-09-15

    We describe the discovery of phenoxymethylbenzamide derivatives as a novel class of glycine transporter type-2 (GlyT-2) inhibitors. We found hit compound 1 (human GlyT-2, IC50=4040 nM) in our library and converted its 1-(1-(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl group to an 1-(N,N-dimethylaminopropyl)piperidyl group and its tert-butyl group to a trifluoromethyl group to obtain N-(1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)methyl)benzamide (20). Compound 20 showed good inhibitory activity against human GlyT-2 (IC50=15.3 nM) and exhibited anti-allodynia effects in a mouse neuropathic pain model. PMID:25176190

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Naphthoquinone Analogs as a Novel Class of Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Harshani R.; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Luo, Yunting; Kendig, Robert; Ge, Yiyu; Jain, Sanjula; Daniel, Kenyon; Santiago, Daniel; Guida, Wayne C.; Sebti, Saïd M.

    2012-01-01

    Screening of the NCI Diversity Set-1 identified PI-083 (NSC-45382) a proteasome inhibitor selective for cancer over normal cells. Focused libraries of novel compounds based on PI-083 chloronaphthoquinone and sulfonamide moieties were synthesized to gain a better understanding of the structure activity relationship responsible for chymotrypsin-like proteasome inhibitory activity. This led to the demonstration that the chloronaphthoquinone and the sulfonamide moieties are critical for inhibitory activity. The pyridyl group in PI-083 can be replaced with other heterocyclic groups without significant loss of activity. Molecular modeling studies were also performed to explore the detailed interactions of PI-083 and its derivatives with the β5 and β6 subunits of the 20S proteasome. The refined model showed an H-bond interaction between the Asp-114 and the sulfonamide moiety of the PI-083 in the β6 subunit. PMID:20621484

  7. Design and synthesis of orally bioavailable serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Marlys; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Manns, Sharada; Frazee, James S.; Nakamura, Hiroko; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Trizna, Walter; Wu, Charlene; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Nord, Melanie; Trejo, Rebecca; Head, Martha S.; Zhao, Baoguang; Smallwood, Angela M.; Hightower, Kendra; Laping, Nicholas J.; Schnackenberg, Christine G.; Thompson, Scott K.

    2010-09-27

    The lead serum and glucocorticoid-related kinase 1 (SGK1) inhibitors 4-(5-phenyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)benzoic acid (1) and {l_brace}4-[5-(2-naphthalenyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]phenyl{r_brace}acetic acid (2) suffer from low DNAUC values in rat, due in part to formation and excretion of glucuronic acid conjugates. These PK/glucuronidation issues were addressed either by incorporating a substituent on the 3-phenyl ring ortho to the key carboxylate functionality of 1 or by substituting on the group in between the carboxylate and phenyl ring of 2. Three of these analogs have been identified as having good SGK1 inhibition potency and have DNAUC values suitable for in vivo testing.

  8. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novobiocin Core Analogues as Hsp90 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Katherine M; Subramanian, Chitra; Sanchez, Jacqueline; Motiwala, Hashim F; Liu, Weiya; Cohen, Mark S; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey; Blagg, Brian S J

    2016-05-10

    Development of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) C-terminal inhibitors has emerged as an exciting strategy for the treatment of cancer. Previous efforts have focused on modifications to the natural products novobiocin and coumermycin. Moreover, variations in both the sugar and amide moieties have been extensively studied, whereas replacements for the coumarin core have received less attention. Herein, 24 cores were synthesized with varying distances and angles between the sugar and amide moieties. Compounds that exhibited good anti-proliferative activity against multiple cancer cell lines and Hsp90 inhibitory activity, were those that placed the sugar and amide moieties between 7.7 and 12.1 Å apart along with angles of 180°. PMID:27037933

  9. Synthesis and molecular docking studies of potent α-glucosidase inhibitors based on biscoumarin skeleton.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Rahim, Fazal; Wadood, Abdul; Kosar, Naveen; Taha, Muhammad; Lalani, Salima; Khan, Aisha; Fakhri, Muhammad Imran; Junaid, Muhammad; Rehman, Wajid; Khan, Momin; Perveen, Shahnaz; Sajid, Muhammad; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-06-23

    In our effort directed toward the discovery of new anti-diabetic agent for the treatment of diabetes, a library of biscoumarin derivative 1-18 was synthesized and evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. All eighteen (18) compounds displayed assorted α-glucosidase activity with IC50 values 16.5-385.9 μM, if compared with the standard acarbose (IC50 = 906 ± 6.387 μM). In addition, molecular docking studies were carried out to explore the binding interactions of biscoumarin derivatives with the enzyme. This study has identified a new class of potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:24844449

  10. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzothiazole Derivatives as Selective PI3Kβ Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuang; Cao, Ruiyuan; Liu, Xialing; Luo, Xiang; Zhong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    A novel series of PI3Kβ (Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases beta subunit) inhibitors with the structure of benzothiazole scaffold have been designed and synthesized. All the compounds have been evaluated for inhibitory activities against PI3Kα, β, γ, δ and mTOR (Mammalian target of rapamycin). Two superior compounds have been further evaluated for the IC50 values against PI3Ks/mTOR. The most promising compound 11 displays excellent anti-proliferative activity and selectivity in multiple cancer cell lines, especially in the prostate cancer cell line. Docking studies indicate the morpholine group in 2-position of benzothiazole is necessary for the potent antitumor activity, which confirms our design is reasonable. PMID:27384552

  11. Design, synthesis and bioactivity of novel phthalimide derivatives as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Si, Weijie; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Lanxiang; Mei, Xiangdong; Dong, Mengya; Zhang, Kaixin; Ning, Jun

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel phthalimide derivatives related to benzylpiperazine were synthesized and evaluated as cholinesterase inhibitors. The results showed that all compounds were able to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), with two of them dramatically inhibiting butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Most compounds exhibited potent anti-AChE activity in the range of nM concentrations. In particular, compounds 7aIII and 10a showed the most potent activity with the IC50 values of 18.44nM and 13.58nM, respectively. To understand the excellent activity of these compounds, the structure-activity relationship was further examined. The protein-ligand docking study demonstrated that the target compounds have special binding modes and these results are in agreement with the kinetic study. PMID:27017111

  12. Pharmacophore based virtual screening, synthesis and SAR of novel inhibitors of Mycobacterium sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Saha, Rikta; Tanwar, Omprakash; Alam, M Mumtaz; Zaman, M S; Khan, Shah A; Akhter, Mymoona

    2015-02-01

    A planned 3D-pharmacophore mapping was carried out on the basis of chemical features associated with known Stf0 inhibitors. Four models (model 1-4) were obtained after GASP (Genetic Algorithm Similarity Program) refinement of seven models (D-1 to D-7) generated by using DISCOtech. The selected GASP model-1 has two hydrogen bond acceptor, two hydrogen bond donor and four hydrophobic points. This model was used for virtual screening (VS) of large public databases along with in house generated knowledge base database. VS followed by docking of selected compounds on Stf0 active site was carried and pose analysis done. Seven hits were identified after all the computational studies, of which 2 hits were synthesized along with their analogs and evaluated for antitubercular activity. IH-45 was found promising after in vitro assay. PMID:25541388

  13. Rational design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of allylidene hydrazinecarboximidamide derivatives as BACE-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Priti; Wadhwa, Pankaj K; Rohilla, Shilpa; Jadhav, Hemant R

    2016-01-01

    BACE-1 (β-secretase) is considered to be one of the promising targets for treatment of Alzheimer's disease as it catalyzes the rate limiting step of Aβ-42 production. Herein, we report a novel class of allylidene hydrazinecarboximidamide derivatives as moderately potent BACE-1 inhibitors, having aminoguanidine substitution on allyl linker with two aromatic groups on either side. A library of derivatives was designed based on the docking studies, synthesized and evaluated for BACE-1 inhibition in vitro. The designed ligands displayed interactions with the catalytic aspartate dyad through guanidinium functionality. Further, the aromatic rings placed on either side of the linker occupied S1 and S3 active site regions contributing to the activity. These ligands were also predicted to follow Lipinski rule and cross blood brain barrier. Compound 2.21, having high docking score, was found to be most active with IC50 of 6.423μM indicating good correlation with docking prediction. PMID:26614409

  14. Synthesis of pyrazole derivatives and their evaluation as photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Tartari, Alfredo; Manfrini, Maurizio; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2004-04-01

    Two series of new pyrazoles, namely six pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine-2,4-dione and four pyrazolo[1,5-c][1,3,5]thiadiazine-2-one derivatives, were synthesized as potential inhibitors of the photosynthetic electron transport chain at the photosystem II level. The compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, elemental, and IR analyses. Their biological activity was evaluated in vivo upon both the growth of blue-green algae and the photosynthetic oxygen evolution by eukaryotic algae and in vitro as the ability to interfere with light-driven reduction of ferricyanide by isolated spinach chloroplasts. Some compounds exhibited remarkable inhibitory properties, comparable to those of the reference commercial herbicides lenacil, diuron, and hexazinone. Results suggest that the substitution of triazine with thiadiazine ring may act as amplifier for herbicidal activity. PMID:15053526

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Stable Colchicine Binding Site Tubulin Inhibitors as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To block the metabolically labile sites of novel tubulin inhibitors targeting the colchicine binding site based on SMART, ABI, and PAT templates, we have designed, synthesized, and biologically tested three focused sets of new derivatives with modifications at the carbonyl linker, the para-position in the C ring of SMART template, and modification of A ring of the PAT template. Structure–activity relationships of these compounds led to the identification of new benzimidazole and imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-fused ring templates, represented by compounds 4 and 7, respectively, which showed enhanced antitumor activity and substantially improved the metabolic stability in liver microsomes compared to SMART. MOM group replaced TMP C ring and generated a potent analogue 15, which showed comparable potency to the parent SMART compound. Further modification of PAT template yielded another potent analogue 33 with 5-indolyl substituent at A ring. PMID:25122533

  16. Synthesis and Structure Activity Relationship of 3-Hydroxypyridin-2-thione Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sodji, Quaovi H.; Patil, Vishal; Kornacki, James R.; Mrksich, Milan; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously identified 3-hydroxypyridin-2-thione (3HPT) as a novel zinc binding group for histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. Early structure activity relationship (SAR) studies led to various small molecules possessing selective inhibitory activity against HDAC6 or HDAC8 but are devoid of HDAC1 inhibition. To further delineate the depth of the SAR of 3HPT-derived HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), we have extended the SAR studies to include the linker region and the surface recognition group to optimize the HDAC inhibition. The current efforts resulted in the identification of two lead compounds 10d and 14e with potent HDAC6 and HDAC8 activities, but that are inactive against HDAC1. These new HDACi possess anti-cancer activities against various cancer cell lines including Jurkat J-γ1 against which SAHA and the previously disclosed 3HPT-derived HDACi were inactive. PMID:24304348

  17. Design and synthesis of benzylpiperidine inhibitors targeting the menin-MLL1 interface.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Xu, Wei; Tang, Le; Su, Minbo; Chen, Danqi; Chen, Yue-Lei; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Shen, Jingkang; Zhou, Yubo; Xiong, Bing

    2016-09-15

    Menin is an essential oncogenic cofactor for mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)-mediated leukemogenesis, functioning through its direct interaction with MLL1 protein. Therefore, targeting the menin-MLL1 protein-protein interface represents a promising strategy to block MLL-mediated leukemogenesis. On the basis of co-crystal structure analysis, starting from thienopyrimidine chemotype, we have investigated the detailed structure-activity relationship of the piperazinyl-dihydrothiazole moiety. Several compounds were found with potent inhibitory activity against menin and better activities in cell-based experiments than MI-2-2. Molecular docking analysis revealed a less explored subpocket, which could be used for the design of new menin-MLL1 inhibitors. PMID:27528435

  18. Chiral gold(I) vs chiral silver complexes as catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of the second generation GSK-hepatitis C virus inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, María; de Cózar, Abel

    2011-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of a GSK 2nd generation inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, by enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a leucine derived iminoester and tert-butyl acrylate, was studied. The comparison between silver(I) and gold(I) catalysts in this reaction was established by working with chiral phosphoramidites or with chiral BINAP. The best reaction conditions were used for the total synthesis of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor by a four step procedure affording this product in 99% ee and in 63% overall yield. The origin of the enantioselectivity of the chiral gold(I) catalyst was justified according to DFT calculations, the stabilizing coulombic interaction between the nitrogen atom of the thiazole moiety and one of the gold atoms being crucial. PMID:21915198

  19. New strategies to maximize therapeutic opportunities for NAMPT inhibitors in oncology.

    PubMed

    Roulston, Anne; Shore, Gordon C

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is crucial for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis in mammalian cells. NAMPT inhibitors represent multifunctional anticancer agents that act on NAD(+) metabolism to shut down glycolysis, nucleotide biosynthesis, and ATP generation and act indirectly as PARP and sirtuin inhibitors. The selectivity of NAMPT inhibitors preys on the increased metabolic requirements to replenish NAD(+) in cancer cells. Although initial clinical studies with NAMPT inhibitors did not achieve single-agent therapeutic levels before dose-limiting toxicities were reached, a new understanding of alternative rescue pathways and a biomarker that can be used to select patients provides new opportunities to widen the therapeutic window and achieve efficacious doses in the clinic. Recent work has also illustrated the potential for drug combination strategies to further enhance the therapeutic opportunities. This review summarizes recent discoveries in NAD(+)/NAMPT inhibitor biology in the context of exploiting this new knowledge to optimize the clinical outcomes for this promising new class of agents. PMID:27308565

  20. Dissecting the Diphenylene Iodonium-Sensitive NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase of Zucchini Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Trost, P.; Foscarini, S.; Preger, V.; Bonora, P.; Vitale, L.; Pupillo, P.

    1997-01-01

    Quinone oxidoreductase activities dependent on pyridine nucleotides are associated with the plasma membrane (PM) in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyls. In the presence of NADPH, lipophilic ubiquinone homologs with up to three isoprenoid units were reduced by intact PM vesicles with a Km of 2 to 7 [mu]M. Affinities for both NADPH and NADH were similar (Km of 62 and 51 [mu]M, respectively). Two NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase forms were identified. The first, labeled as peak I in gel-filtration experiments, behaves as an intrinsic membrane complex of about 300 kD, it slightly prefers NADH over NADPH, it is markedly sensitive to the inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, and it is active with lipophilic quinones. The second form (peak II) is an NADPH-preferring oxidoreductase of about 90 kD, weakly bound to the PM. Peak II is diphenylene iodonium-insensitive and resembles, in many properties, the soluble NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase that is also present in the same tissue. Following purification of peak I, however, the latter gave rise to a quinone oxidoreductase of the soluble type (peak II), based on substrate and inhibitor specificities and chromatographic and electrophoretic evidence. It is proposed that a redox protein of the same class as the soluble NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (F. Sparla, G. Tedeschi, and P. Trost [1996] Plant Physiol. 112:249-258) is a component of the diphenylene iodonium-sensitive PM complex capable of reducing lipophilic quinones. PMID:12223742

  1. The human NAD metabolome: Functions, metabolism and compartmentalization

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, Andrey; Kulikova, Veronika; Ziegler, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The metabolism of NAD has emerged as a key regulator of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Being a major component of both bioenergetic and signaling pathways, the molecule is ideally suited to regulate metabolism and major cellular events. In humans, NAD is synthesized from vitamin B3 precursors, most prominently from nicotinamide, which is the degradation product of all NAD-dependent signaling reactions. The scope of NAD-mediated regulatory processes is wide including enzyme regulation, control of gene expression and health span, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and calcium signaling. In these processes, nicotinamide is cleaved from NAD+ and the remaining ADP-ribosyl moiety used to modify proteins (deacetylation by sirtuins or ADP-ribosylation) or to generate calcium-mobilizing agents such as cyclic ADP-ribose. This review will also emphasize the role of the intermediates in the NAD metabolome, their intra- and extra-cellular conversions and potential contributions to subcellular compartmentalization of NAD pools. PMID:25837229

  2. Synthesis, Kinetic Characterization and Metabolism of Diastereomeric 2-(1-(4-Phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)ethyl)thiiranes as Potent Gelatinase and MT1-MMP Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gooyit, Major; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Boggess, Bill; Oliver, Allen G.; Fridman, Rafael; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2010-01-01

    Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Hence, small molecule inhibitors of these enzymes are highly sought for use as potential therapeutic agents. 2-(4-Phenoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)thiirane (SB-3CT) has previously been demonstrated to be a potent and selective inhibitor of gelatinases, however, it is rapidly metabolized because of oxidation at the para position of the phenoxy ring and at the α-position to the sulfonyl group. α-Methyl variants of SB-3CT were conceived to improve metabolic stability and as mechanistic probes. We describe herein the synthesis and evaluation of these structural variants as potent inhibitors of gelatinases. Two (compounds 5b and 5d) among the four synthetic stereoisomers were found to exhibit slow-binding inhibition of gelatinases and MMP-14 (MT1-MMP), which is a hallmark of the mechanism of this class of inhibitors. The ability of these compounds to inhibit MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14 could target cancer tissues more effectively. Metabolism of the newly synthesized inhibitors showed that both oxidation at the α-position to the sulfonyl group and oxidation at the para position of the terminal phenyl ring were prevented. Instead oxidation on the thiirane sulfur is the only biotransformation pathway observed for these gelatinase inhibitors. PMID:19824893

  3. Design, Synthesis, Protein−Ligand X-ray Structure, and Biological Evaluation of a Series of Novel Macrocyclic Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Protease Inhibitors to Combat Drug Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Kulkarni, Sarang; Anderson, David D.; Hong, Lin; Baldridge, Abigail; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Chumanevich, Alexander A.; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Tojo, Yasushi; Amano, Masayuki; Koh, Yasuhiro; Tang, Jordan; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2010-04-05

    The structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of nonpeptidic macrocyclic HIV protease inhibitors are described. The inhibitors are designed to effectively fill in the hydrophobic pocket in the S1'-S2' subsites and retain all major hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein backbone similar to darunavir (1) or inhibitor 2. The ring size, the effect of methyl substitution, and unsaturation within the macrocyclic ring structure were assessed. In general, cyclic inhibitors were significantly more potent than their acyclic homologues, saturated rings were less active than their unsaturated analogues and a preference for 10- and 13-membered macrocylic rings was revealed. The addition of methyl substituents resulted in a reduction of potency. Both inhibitors 14b and 14c exhibited marked enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity, and they exerted potent activity against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Protein-ligand X-ray structures of inhibitors 2 and 14c provided critical molecular insights into the ligand-binding site interactions.

  4. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 5-phenylpyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives as potent reversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinge; Xin, Minhang; Huang, Wei; Ren, Yanliang; Jin, Qiu; Tang, Feng; Jiang, Hailong; Wang, Yazhou; Yang, Jie; Mo, Shifu; Xiang, Hua

    2015-01-15

    A series of novel reversible Btk inhibitors has been designed based on the structure of the recently reported preclinical drug RN486. The synthesis and SAR of these compounds are described. Among these derivatives, compound 16b was identified to be a potent and orally available reversible agent with satisfactory Btk enzymatic and cellular inhibition in vitro, as well as favorable PK properties and inhibition of arthritis in vivo. PMID:25515957

  5. Meeting Organocatalysis with Drug Discovery: Asymmetric Synthesis of 3,3'-Spirooxindoles Fused with Tetrahydrothiopyrans as Novel p53-MDM2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengzheng; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Shanchao; Dong, Guoqiang; Miao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2016-03-01

    An organocatalytic enantioselective Michael-Michael cascade reaction is developed for the synthesis of chiral spirotetrahydrothiopyrans. This highly functionalized scaffold was assembled in moderate to good yield (55-74%) and excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (>30:1 dr, ≥ 99% ee) with the creation of four consecutive stereogenic centers. The novel spiro-oxindole scaffold is validated as a new class of p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitors with good antitumor activity. PMID:26883465

  6. The novel azole R126638 is a selective inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel

    2004-09-01

    R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14 alpha-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14 alpha-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC(50)s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 microM for itraconazole and 3.1 microM for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC(50) = 3.5 microM), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (IC(50) > 10 microM). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 microM, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 microM, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6 beta hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast

  7. Ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 induced by protein synthesis inhibitors regulates TNF-{alpha}-mediated activation of NF-{kappa}B and caspase-8

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Hirotsugu; Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Igarashi, Masayuki; Nagai, Kazuo; Kataoka, Takao

    2008-04-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) plays a major role in the inducible resistance to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. It has been established that the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) sensitizes many types of cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced apoptosis, mainly due to its ability to block de novo synthesis of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). Nevertheless, we have surprisingly found that CHX, as well as its structural analogue acetoxycycloheximide (Ac-CHX), prevents TNF-{alpha}-mediated activation of NF-{kappa}B and caspase-8 in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Both CHX and Ac-CHX reduced the expression of cell surface TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in a dose-dependent manner, while Ac-CHX was approximately 100-fold more effective than CHX. Consistent with this observation, Ac-CHX induced the proteolytic cleavage of TNF-R1 and its release into the culture medium. CHX and Ac-CHX profoundly decreased constitutive and inducible expression of c-FLIP, whereas these compounds potentiated TNF-{alpha}-induced caspase-8 activation only when metalloprotease inhibitors were present. Thus, our results indicate that ectodomain shedding of TNF-R1 induced by protein synthesis inhibitors regulates TNF-{alpha}-mediated activation of NF-{kappa}B and caspase-8.

  8. Effects of chitin synthesis inhibitors on incorporation of nucleosides into DNA and RNA in a cell line from Manduca sexta (L).

    PubMed

    Klitschka, G E; Mayer, R T; Droleskey, R E; Norman, J O; Chen, A C

    1986-06-01

    Five putative chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) were tested to determine if they inhibited nucleoside incorporation into acid precipitable material in a cell line from Manduca sexta (L.). The results varied. Diflubenzuron (DFB) (100 micron) inhibited cytidine incorporation by 38%; EL-494 (100 micron) inhibited adenosine incorporation by 43%; Bay Sir 8514 (100 micron) inhibited uridine incorporation by 24%. Superdiflubenzuron (100 micron) was the worst inhibitor overall (18-22%) for the benzoylphenyl urea CSI. The triazine CSI, CGA 19255, was the best inhibitor tested with 60% inhibition for cytidine and 49% for adenosine incorporation into DNA and RNA. Examination of cells incubated with diflubenzuron by scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct external morphological changes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that crystalline structures accumulated in the cytoplasm of cells treated with DFB. The crystalline structures were assumed to be diflubenzuron and they persisted even after diflubenzuron was removed from the medium. PMID:2422789

  9. Synthesis and inhibitory activity of oligosaccharide thiazolines as a class of mechanism-based inhibitors for endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Takegawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2008-01-01

    A facile synthesis of oligosaccharide-thiazoline derivatives of N-glycans as a novel class of inhibitors for endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases was described. It was found that the external sugar residues on the N-glycan core could enhance the inhibitory potency. While the Manβ1,4GlcNAc- and Man3GlcNAc-thiazolines were only moderate inhibitors, the large Man9GlcNAc-thiazoline demonstrated potent inhibitory activity, with an IC50 of 0.22 and 0.42 μM against the Arthrobacter enzyme (Endo-A) and the human endo-β-N-acetylglycosaminidase (hENGase), respectively. It was also observed that the oligosaccharide thiazolines could differentially inhibit endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases from different sources. These oligosaccharide thiazolines represent the first class of endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase inhibitors. PMID:18304822

  10. Design of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with C3-Substituted Hexahydrocyclopentafuranyl Urethanes as P2-Ligands: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Protein-Ligand X-ray Crystal Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K; Chapsal, Bruno D; Parham, Garth L; Steffey, Melinda; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2011-11-07

    We report the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and the X-ray crystal structure of a novel inhibitor bound to the HIV-1 protease. Various C3-functionalized cyclopentanyltetrahydrofurans (Cp-THF) were designed to interact with the flap Gly48 carbonyl or amide NH in the S2-subsite of the HIV-1 protease. We investigated the potential of those functionalized ligands in combination with hydroxyethylsulfonamide isosteres. Inhibitor 26 containing a 3-(R)-hydroxyl group on the Cp-THF core displayed the most potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Our studies revealed a preference for the 3-(R)-configuration over the corresponding 3-(S)-derivative. Inhibitor 26 exhibited potent activity against a panel of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. A high resolution X-ray structure of 26-bound HIV-1 protease revealed important molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions.

  11. Highly Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Novel Tricyclic P2 Ligands: Design, Synthesis, and Protein-Ligand X-ray Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Parham, Garth L.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Nyalapatla, Prasanth R.; Osswald, Heather L.; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2013-10-08

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating stereochemically defined fused tricyclic P2 ligands are described. Various substituent effects were investigated to maximize the ligand-binding site interactions in the protease active site. Inhibitors 16a and 16f showed excellent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity, although the incorporation of sulfone functionality resulted in a decrease in potency. Both inhibitors 16a and 16f maintained activity against a panel of multidrug resistant HIV-1 variants. A high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of 16a-bound HIV-1 protease revealed important molecular insights into the ligand-binding site interactions, which may account for the inhibitor’s potent antiviral activity and excellent resistance profiles.

  12. Synthesis of carbon-14 and stable isotope labeled Avagacestat: a novel gamma secretase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Richard C; Easter, John A; Cassidy, Michael P; Gillman, Kevin W; Olson, Richard E; Bonacorsi, Samuel J

    2014-08-01

    Bristol-Myers Squibb and others are developing drugs that target novel mechanisms to combat Alzheimer's disease. γ-Secretase inhibitors are one class of potential therapies that have received considerable attention. (R)-2-(4-Chloro-N-(2-fluoro-4-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)benzyl)phenylsulfonamido)-5,5,5-trifluoropentanamide (Avagacestat) is a γ-secretase-inhibiting drug that has been investigated by Bristol-Myers Squibb in preclinical and clinical studies. An important step in the development process was the synthesis of a carbon-14-labeled analog for use in a human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion study and a stable isotope labeled analog for use as a standard in bioanalytical assays to accurately quantify the concentration of the drug in biological samples. Carbon-14 labeled Avagacestat was synthesized in seven steps in a 33% overall yield from carbon-14 labeled potassium cyanide. A total of 5.95 mCi was prepared with a specific activity of 0.81 μCi/mg and a radiochemical purity of 99.9%. (13) C6 -Labeled Avagacestat was synthesized in three steps in a 15% overall yield from 4-chloro[(13) C6 ]aniline. A total of 585 mg was prepared with a ultraviolet purity of 99.9%. PMID:25196195

  13. Synthesis and docking studies of 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone analogs as potential lipoxygenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chean Hui; Rullah, Kamal; Aluwi, Mohd Fadhlizil Fasihi Mohd; Abas, Faridah; Lam, Kok Wai; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Narayanaswamy, Radhakrishnan; Jamaludin, Fadzureena; Shaari, Khozirah

    2014-01-01

    The natural product molecule 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA) isolated from the medicinal plant Melicope ptelefolia was shown to exhibit potent lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity. It is known that LOX plays an important role in inflammatory response as it catalyzes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid to form hydroperoxides. The search for selective LOX inhibitors may provide new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the synthesis of tHGA analogs using simple Friedel-Craft acylation and alkylation reactions with the aim of obtaining a better insight into the structure-activity relationships of the compounds. All the synthesized analogs showed potent soybean 15-LOX inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.31-27.61 μM) where compound 3e was two-fold more active than tHGA. Molecular docking was then applied to reveal the important binding interactions of compound 3e in soybean 15-LOX binding site. The findings suggest that the presence of longer acyl bearing aliphatic chain (5Cs) and aromatic groups could significantly affect the enzymatic activity. PMID:25100256

  14. Novel 2-aminopyrimidine carbamates as potent and orally active inhibitors of Lck: synthesis, SAR, and in vivo antiinflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew W; Newcomb, John; Nunes, Joseph J; McGowan, David C; Armistead, David M; Boucher, Christina; Buchanan, John L; Buckner, William; Chai, Lilly; Elbaum, Daniel; Epstein, Linda F; Faust, Theodore; Flynn, Shaun; Gallant, Paul; Gore, Anu; Gu, Yan; Hsieh, Faye; Huang, Xin; Lee, Josie H; Metz, Daniela; Middleton, Scot; Mohn, Deanna; Morgenstern, Kurt; Morrison, Michael J; Novak, Perry M; Oliveira-dos-Santos, Antonio; Powers, David; Rose, Paul; Schneider, Stephen; Sell, Stephanie; Tudor, Yanyan; Turci, Susan M; Welcher, Andrew A; White, Ryan D; Zack, Debra; Zhao, Huilin; Zhu, Li; Zhu, Xiaotian; Ghiron, Chiara; Amouzegh, Patricia; Ermann, Monika; Jenkins, James; Johnston, David; Napier, Spencer; Power, Eoin

    2006-08-10

    The lymphocyte-specific kinase (Lck) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase of the Src family expressed in T cells and NK cells. Genetic evidence in both mice and humans demonstrates that Lck kinase activity is critical for signaling mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which leads to normal T cell development and activation. A small molecule inhibitor of Lck is expected to be useful in the treatment of T cell-mediated autoimmune and inflammatory disorders and/or organ transplant rejection. In this paper, we describe the synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and pharmacological characterization of 2-aminopyrimidine carbamates, a new class of compounds with potent and selective inhibition of Lck. The most promising compound of this series, 2,6-dimethylphenyl 2-((3,5-bis(methyloxy)-4-((3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl)oxy)phenyl)amino)-4-pyrimidinyl(2,4-bis(methyloxy)phenyl)carbamate (43) exhibits good activity when evaluated in in vitro assays and in an in vivo model of T cell activation. PMID:16884310

  15. Effects of inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis in the uterus of ovariectomized rats and rats in natural oestrus: relation with calcium.

    PubMed

    Cantabrana, B; Baamonde, A; Andres-Trelles, F; Hidalgo, A

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of 4 inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis (ESIs)--mepacrine (MEP, 10(-5) - 3 x 10(-4) M), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDHGA, 10(-6) - 2 x 10(-5) M), indomethacin (IND, 2 x 10(-6) M and 2 x 10(-5) M) and imidazole (IMI, 10(-5) M and 10(-4) M)--on the motility induced by oxytocin (OT, 0.5 and 4 mU/ml) in uterus of rats in natural oestrus and of ovariectomized rats have been studied. 2. MEP, NDHGA and IND, but not IMI, inhibited the motility induced by both concentrations of OT in natural oestrus. Ovariectomy enhanced the effects of all ESIs, except the one of MEP. 3. MEP and NDHGA, but not IND or IMI, inhibited the contractions induced by methacholine (10(-5) M) and prostaglandin F2a (10(-6) M) and relaxed in a dose-dependent way the tonic component of the contractile response to KCl 60 mM (DI50: 6.14 +/- 0.38 and 1.38 +/- 0.29 x 10(-5) M, respectively). 4. CaCl2 (0.1-10 mM) reverted the relaxation of KCl contractions produced by MEP but not by NDHGA. PMID:2298392

  16. The LSD1 inhibitor RN-1 induces fetal hemoglobin synthesis and reduces disease pathology in sickle cell mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuaiying; Lim, Kim-Chew; Shi, Lihong; Lee, Mary; Jearawiriyapaisarn, Natee; Myers, Greggory; Campbell, Andrew; Harro, David; Iwase, Shigeki; Trievel, Raymond C; Rivers, Angela; DeSimone, Joseph; Lavelle, Donald; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Engel, James Douglas

    2015-07-16

    Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has been shown to induce fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels in cultured human erythroid cells in vitro. Here we report the in vivo effects of LSD1 inactivation by a selective and more potent inhibitor, RN-1, in a sickle cell disease (SCD) mouse model. Compared with untreated animals, RN-1 administration leads to induced HbF synthesis and to increased frequencies of HbF-positive cells and mature erythrocytes, as well as fewer reticulocytes and sickle cells, in the peripheral blood of treated SCD mice. In keeping with these observations, histologic analyses of the liver and spleen of treated SCD mice verified that they do not exhibit the necrotic lesions that are usually associated with SCD. These data indicate that RN-1 can effectively induce HbF levels in red blood cells and reduce disease pathology in SCD mice, and may therefore offer new therapeutic possibilities for treating SCD. PMID:26031919

  17. Discovery of a potent inhibitor of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL from NMR and parallel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Petros, Andrew M; Dinges, Jurgen; Augeri, David J; Baumeister, Steven A; Betebenner, David A; Bures, Mark G; Elmore, Steven W; Hajduk, Philip J; Joseph, Mary K; Landis, Shelley K; Nettesheim, David G; Rosenberg, Saul H; Shen, Wang; Thomas, Sheela; Wang, Xilu; Zanze, Irini; Zhang, Haichao; Fesik, Stephen W

    2006-01-26

    The antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2 play key roles in the maintenance of normal cellular homeostasis. However, their overexpression can lead to oncogenic transformation and is responsible for drug resistance in certain types of cancer. This makes Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2 attractive targets for the development of potential anticancer agents. Here we describe the structure-based discovery of a potent Bcl-x(L) inhibitor directed at a hydrophobic groove on the surface of the protein. This groove represents the binding site for BH3 peptides from proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members such as Bak and Bad. Application of NMR-based screening yielded an initial biaryl acid with an affinity (K(d)) of approximately 300 microM for the protein. Following the classical "SAR by NMR" approach, a second-site ligand was identified that bound proximal to the first-site ligand in the hydrophobic groove. From NMR-based structural studies and parallel synthesis, a potent ligand was obtained, which binds to Bcl-x(L) with an inhibition constant (K(i)) of 36 +/- 2 nM. PMID:16420051

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-fluoro-3-phenyl-7-piperazinyl quinolone derivatives as potential topoisomerase I inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Raoling; Zhao, Qian; Xie, Zhouling; Lu, Lu; Guo, Qinglong; Li, Zhiyu; Zhao, Li

    2016-10-21

    The design and synthesis of a new series of 6-fluoro-3-phenyl-7-piperazinyl quinolone derivatives, built on the structure of 1-ethyl-3-(6-nitrobenzoxazol-2-yl)-6,8-difluoro-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4(1H)-quinolone, are described. These compounds provide new scaffold for the discovery of Topoisomerase I (Top I) inhibitors and target based assay showed that they can obviously inhibited Top I at 100 μM. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these new compounds was evaluated against A549, Hela, BGC-823, and HepG2 cell lines. Compounds 18a-g showed potent inhibitory activity against the growth of those cancer cell lines. The most positive compounds 18f and 18g demonstrated as potent as camptothecin in Top I inhibition assay and MTT assay. Compounds 18f and 18g led to an obvious increase in the percentage of S phase of the cells in 24 h. The in vivo data showed that 18f and 18g inhibited tumor growth with the inhibitory rate of 29.25% and 42.75% at 20 mg/kg, respectively. The data suggested the therapeutic potential for further development. PMID:27416553

  19. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Dual Hotspot Small-Molecule HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    LaLonde, Judith M.; Kwon, Young Do; Jones, David M.; Sun, Alexander W.; Courter, Joel R.; Soeta, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Princiotto, Amy M.; Wu, Xueling; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Sodroski, Joseph; Madani, Navid; Smith, III, Amos B.

    2012-06-19

    Cellular infection by HIV-1 is initiated with a binding event between the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 and the cellular receptor protein CD4. The CD4-gp120 interface is dominated by two hotspots: a hydrophobic gp120 cavity capped by Phe43{sub CD4} and an electrostatic interaction between residues Arg59{sub CD4} and Asp368{sub gp120}. The CD4 mimetic small-molecule NBD-556 (1) binds within the gp120 cavity; however, 1 and related congeners demonstrate limited viral neutralization breadth. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, characterization, and X-ray structures of gp120 in complex with small molecules that simultaneously engage both binding hotspots. The compounds specifically inhibit viral infection of 42 tier 2 clades B and C viruses and are shown to be antagonists of entry into CD4-negative cells. Dual hotspot design thus provides both a means to enhance neutralization potency of HIV-1 entry inhibitors and a novel structural paradigm for inhibiting the CD4-gp120 protein-protein interaction.

  20. Diastereoselective solution and multipin-based combinatorial array synthesis of a novel class of potent phosphinic metalloprotease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Makaritis, Anastasios; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Dive, Vincent; Yiotakis, Athanasios

    2003-05-01

    The solution-phase synthesis and resolution of new phosphinopeptidic building blocks containing a triple bond was realized in high yields and optical purities (units 3 a-d). The absolute configuration of the target compounds was unambiguously established by NMR studies. A post-assembly diversification strategy of these blocks was developed through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a variety of in situ prepared nitrile oxides. This strategy led to the rapid and efficient diastereoselective preparation of a novel class of isoxazole-containing phosphinic peptides (peptides 5 a-i). Solid-phase version of this strategy was efficiently achieved on multipin solid technology, by developing a new protocol for the coupling of P-unprotected dipeptidic blocks with solid supported amino acids in a quantitative and diastereoselective manner. Optimization of dipolar cycloadditions onto pin-embodied phosphinic peptides allowed the convenient preparation of this new class of pseudopeptides. The crude phosphinic peptides (9 a-k) were obtained in high yields and purity as determined by RP-HPLC. Inhibition assays of some of these peptides revealed that they behave as very potent inhibitors of MMPs, outmatching previously reported phosphinic peptides, in terms of potency (K(i) in the range of few nM). PMID:12740857

  1. New IKK inhibitors: Synthesis of new imidazo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives using microwave assistance and biological evaluation as IKK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Moarbess, Georges; Guichou, Jean-François; Paniagua-Gayraud, Stéphanie; Chouchou, Adrien; Marcadet, Olivier; Leroy, Fiona; Ruédas, Rémi; Cuq, Pierre; Deleuze-Masquéfa, Carine; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2016-06-10

    The inhibition of the NF-κB-dependent pathways by IKK inhibitors plays an important role in immunity, inflammation, and cancer. New imidazoquinoxalines tricyclic derivatives are prepared using microwave assistance and their biological activities as IKK inhibitors are described. Compounds 6a present a potent inhibition activity and selectivity for IKK2. Docking studies in the IKK2 binding site allowed identification of residues most likely to interact with theses inhibitors and explain their potent IKK2 inhibition activity and selectivity. PMID:27017554

  2. Exploration of Cyanine Compounds as Selective Inhibitors of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is involved in many biological activities, such as gene transcription, signal transduction, and RNA processing. Overexpression of PRMT1 is related to cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, and cancers; therefore, selective PRMT1 inhibitors serve as chemical probes to investigate the biological function of PRMT1 and drug candidates for disease treatment. Our previous work found trimethine cyanine compounds that effectively inhibit PRMT1 activity. In our present study, we systematically investigated the structure–activity relationship of cyanine structures. A pentamethine compound, E-84 (compound 50), showed inhibition on PRMT1 at the micromolar level and 6- to 25-fold selectivity over CARM1, PRMT5, and PRMT8. The cellular activity suggests that compound 50 permeated the cellular membrane, inhibited cellular PRMT1 activity, and blocked leukemia cell proliferation. Additionally, our molecular docking study suggested compound 50 might act by occupying the cofactor binding site, which provided a roadmap to guide further optimization of this lead compound. PMID:25559100

  3. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF NEW PHTHALAZINE SUBSTITUTED β-LACTAM DERIVATIVES AS CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS.

    PubMed

    Berber, Nurcan; Arslan, Mustafa; Bilen, Çiğdem; Sackes, Zübeyde; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    A new series of phthalazine substituted β-lactam derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory effects on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase (hCA I and II) were evaluated. 2H-Indazolo[2,1-b]phthala- zine-trione derivative was prepared with 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, dimedone, and phthalhydrazide in the presence of TFA in DMF, and the nitro group was reduced to 13-(4-aminophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro- 2H-indazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione with SnCl2 · 2H2O. The reduced compound was re- acted with different aromatic aldehydes, and phthalazine substituted imines were synthesized. The imine compounds undergo (2+2) cycloaddition reactions with ketenes to produce 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthala-zine-trione substituted β-lactam derivatives. The β-lactam compounds were tested as inhibitors of the CA isoenzyme activity. The results showed that all the synthesized compounds inhibited the CA isoenzyme activity. 1-(4-(3,3-dimethyl- 1,6,1 1-trioxo-2,3,4,6,11,13-hexahydro-1H-indazolo[1,2-b]phthalazin-13- yl)phenyl)-2-oxo-4-p-tolylazetidin-3-yl acetate (IC50 = 6.97 µM for hCA I and 8.48 µM for hCA II) had the most inhibitory effect. PMID:26615643

  4. Identification of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: virtual screening, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Junhao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Shengping; Liu, Haomiao; Zhao, Leilei; Cheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

    2014-09-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV is an important approach for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. In this study, we reported a multistage virtual screening workflow that integrated 3D pharmacophore models, structural consensus docking, and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area binding energy calculation to identify novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. After screening our in-house database, two hit compounds, HWL-405 and HWL-892, having persistent high performance in all stages of virtual screening were identified. These two hit compounds together with several analogs were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV. The experimental data indicated that most designed compounds exhibited significant dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity. Among them, compounds 35f displayed the greatest potency against dipeptidyl peptidase IV in vitro with the IC50 value of 78 nm. In an oral glucose tolerance test in normal male Kunming mice, compound 35f reduced blood glucose excursion in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:24674599

  5. Facile and efficient synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives as EGFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Wu, Xue; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jiao; Liu, Jianli; Song, Zhongxing; Tang, Zhishu

    2016-06-01

    Series of 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives were conveniently and efficiently synthesized and their antitumor activities were evaluated by MTT assay in three human cancer cell lines: H1975, HepG2 and SMMC-7721. New compounds 19a-19h were designed and synthesized to seek for powerful EGFR inhibitors and to explore whether methyl group at C-2 position of quinazoline ring has a positive effect on EGFR inhibition. All the compounds of 19a-19h were found potent against all three cell lines and five compounds (19c, 19d, and 19f-19h) were found more potent against H1975 than gefitinib. SAR studies revealed that methyl group at C-2 position of quinazoline ring could significantly improve the antitumor potency of 4-anilinoquinazolines. The same conclusion was also drawn according to the results of Western blotting analysis. Among all the tested compounds, 19g exhibited extremely potent against H1975 with an IC50 value of 0.11μM, remarkably lower than that of gefitinib (1.23μM). The results of western blotting analysis showed that compounds 19c and 19g could notably inhibit the expression of phosphorylated EGFR, especially 19g, almost inhibited completely. PMID:27118497

  6. Design and synthesis of novel hydroxypyridinone derivatives as potential tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Xia; Dong, Xiao-Wu; Hu, Yong-Zhou; Dai, Xiao-Yan; Wei, Xiaoyi; Hider, Robert C; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Zhou, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Two groups of novel hydroxypyridinone derivatives 6(a-e) and 12(a-c), were designed as potential tyrosinase inhibitors, and synthesized using kojic acid as a starting material. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of these two groups was demonstrated to be potent, especially compounds 6e and 12a, whose IC50 values for monophenolase activity were 1.95μM and 2.79μM, respectively. Both of these values are lower than that of kojic acid (IC50=12.50μM). Compounds 6e and 12a were investigated for the inhibitory effect on diphenolase activity. The results showed that the inhibitory mechanism of these two compounds was reversible and that the inhibitory type was a competitive-uncompetitive mixed-type. The values of IC50 of 6e and 12a on the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase were determined to be 8.97μM and 26.20μM, respectively. The inhibitory constants (KI and KIS) of 6e were determined as 17.17μM and 22.09μM, respectively; and the KI and KIS values of 12a were 34.41μM and 79.02μM, respectively. Compound 6e showed a greater ability to reduce copper and a stronger copper chelating ability than kojic acid. PMID:27185329

  7. A lysophosphatidic acid analogue is revealed as a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Geneviéve; Granci, Virginie; Rogalle, Pierre; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Wilson, Michéle; Klaébé, Alain; Tercé, François; Chap, Hugues; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Gaits, Frédérique

    2002-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that cross-desensitization experiments performed with the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogues (R)- and (S)-N-palmitoyl-norleucinol 1-phosphate (PNPAs) inhibited LPA-induced platelet aggregation without any stereospecificity. Here we report opposite biological effects of the two enantiomers on mitogenesis of IMR-90 fibroblasts in relation to their respective metabolism. (R)PNPA was proliferative, while (S)PNPA induced apoptosis by specifically inhibiting phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis at the last step of the CDP-choline pathway controlled by cholinephosphotransferase. This effect was not direct but required dephosphorylation of PNPAs by ecto-lipid phosphate phosphatase before cellular uptake of the generated N-palmitoyl-norleucinols (PNOHs). Inhibition of cholinephosphotransferase by the derivative (S)PNOH was confirmed by an in vitro assay. (S)PNPA proapoptotic effects led us to clarify the mechanism linking cholinephosphotransferase inhibition to apoptosis. Three proapoptotic responses were observed: the activation of caspase-3, the production of ceramides from newly synthesized pools (as demonstrated by the inhibitor Fumonisin B1) and finally the activation of stress-activated protein kinase, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2, as a result of ceramide increase. Thus our data demonstrate that synthetic analogues of LPA might display stereospecific effects leading to apoptosis independently of classical LPA-activated pathways. PMID:12197836

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Conformationally Constrained Inhibitors Targeting EGFR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This letter describes the construction of conformationally constrained quinazoline analogues. Structure–activity relationship studies led to the identification of the lead compound 9n. Compound 9n exhibits effective in vitro activity against A431WT,overexpression and H1975[L858R/T790M] cancer cell lines but is significantly less effective against EGFR negative cancer cell lines (SW620, A549, and K562). Compound 9n was also assessed for potency in enzymatic assays and in vivo antitumor studies. The results indicated that 9n is a potent kinase inhibitor against both wild-type and T790M mutant EGFR kinase. Meanwhile, an oral administration of 9n at a dose of 200 mg/kg produced a considerable antitumor effect in a A431 xenograft model, as compared to gefitinib. A preliminary pharmacokinetic study of 9n also indicates it has good pharmacokinetic properties, and therefore, it is a good starting point for further development. PMID:24900594

  9. Synthesis of giant globular multivalent glycofullerenes as potent inhibitors in a model of Ebola virus infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Antonio; Sigwalt, David; Illescas, Beatriz M.; Luczkowiak, Joanna; Rodríguez-Pérez, Laura; Nierengarten, Iwona; Holler, Michel; Remy, Jean-Serge; Buffet, Kevin; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael; Nierengarten, Jean-François; Martín, Nazario

    2016-01-01

    The use of multivalent carbohydrate compounds to block cell-surface lectin receptors is a promising strategy to inhibit the entry of pathogens into cells and could lead to the discovery of novel antiviral agents. One of the main problems with this approach, however, is that it is difficult to make compounds of an adequate size and multivalency to mimic natural systems such as viruses. Hexakis adducts of [60]fullerene are useful building blocks in this regard because they maintain a globular shape at the same time as allowing control over the size and multivalency. Here we report water-soluble tridecafullerenes decorated with 120 peripheral carbohydrate subunits, so-called ‘superballs’, that can be synthesized efficiently from hexakis adducts of [60]fullerene in one step by using copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry. Infection assays show that these superballs are potent inhibitors of cell infection by an artificial Ebola virus with half-maximum inhibitory concentrations in the subnanomolar range.

  10. Development of hydroxylated naphthylchalcones as polyphenol oxidase inhibitors: Synthesis, biochemistry and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sini; Shimmon, Ronald; Conn, Costa; Baker, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (Tyrosinase) has received great attention, since it is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. In this study, novel hydroxy naphthylchalcone compounds were synthesized, and their inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase activity were evaluated. The structures of the compounds synthesized were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FTIR and HRMS. Two of the compounds synthesized inhibited the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase in a dose dependent manner and exhibited much higher tyrosinase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 10.4μM and 14.4μM, respectively) than the positive control, kojic acid (IC50: 27.5μM). Kinetic analysis showed that their inhibition was reversible. Both the novel compounds displayed competitive inhibition with their Ki values of 3.8μM and 4.5μM, respectively. Docking results confirmed that the active inhibitors strongly interacted with the mushroom tyrosinase residues. This study suggests hydroxy naphthylchalcone compounds to serve as promising candidates for use as depigmentation agents. PMID:26496408

  11. Long-term memory: disruption by inhibitors of protein synthesis and cytoplasmic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, J.F.; Landry, D.W.; Bennett, E.L.; Jarvik, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Colchicine (60 ..mu..g/kg), an inhibitor of axoplasmic transport, administered subcutaneously to mice has no detectable effect on retention when given shortly after active avoidance training, nor did a pertaining injection of anisomycin (ANI) have an amnesic effect. However, when ANI was administered shortly prior to training and colchicine was administered after training, retention performance was impaired. The amnesic effect was dependent on the time at which colchicine was administered. The amnesic effect was also obtained when ANI was combined with either vinblastine (6 ..mu..g/kg) or podophyllotoxin (3 ..mu..g/kg), drugs that inhibit axoplasmic transport. Intracerebral injections of colchicine (60 ng to 60 pg) caused amnesia in subjects pretreated with ANI, but not in subjects pretreated with saline. Lumicolchicine, an isomer of colchicine, which has similar central nervous system effects but has a low binding affinity for microtubule protein, did not impair retention in ANI pretreated mice. It is suggested that axonal transport of recently synthesized protein is required for long-term memory storage.

  12. Discovery, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Novel Group of Selective Inhibitors of Filoviral Entry

    PubMed Central

    Yermolina, Maria V.; Wang, Jizhen; Caffrey, Michael; Rong, Lijun L.; Wardrop, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we report the development of an anti-filoviral screening system, based on a pseudotyping strategy, and its application in the discovery of a novel group of small molecules that selectively inhibit the Ebola and Marburg glycoprotein (GP)-mediated infection of human cells. Using Ebola Zaire GP-pseudotyped HIV particles bearing a luciferase reporter gene and 293T cells, a library of 237 small molecules was screened for inhibition of GP-mediated viral entry. From this assay, lead compound 8a was identified as a selective inhibitor of filoviral entry with an IC50 of 30 μM. In order to analyze functional group requirements for efficacy, a structure-activity relationship analysis of this 3,5-disubstituted isoxazole was then conducted with 56 isoxazole and triazole derivatives prepared using “click” chemistry. This study revealed that while the isoxazole ring can be replaced by a triazole system, the 5-(diethylamino)acetamido substituent found in 8a is required for inhibition of viral-cell entry. Variation of the 3-aryl substituent provided a number of more potent anti-viral agents with IC50 values ranging to 2.5 μM. Lead compound 8a and three of its derivatives were also found to block the Marburg glycoprotein (GP)-mediated infection of human cells. PMID:21204524

  13. Synthesis of Triphenylethylene Bisphenols as Aromatase Inhibitors That Also Modulate Estrogen Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Liu, Jinzhong; Skaar, Todd C; O'Neill, Elizaveta; Yu, Ge; Flockhart, David A; Cushman, Mark

    2016-01-14

    A series of triphenylethylene bisphenol analogues of the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen were synthesized and evaluated for their abilities to inhibit aromatase, bind to estrogen receptor α (ER-α) and estrogen receptor β (ER-β), and antagonize the activity of β-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The long-range goal has been to create dual aromatase inhibitor (AI)/selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The hypothesis is that in normal tissue the estrogenic SERM activity of a dual AI/SERM could attenuate the undesired effects stemming from global estrogen depletion caused by the AI activity of a dual AI/SERM, while in breast cancer tissue the antiestrogenic SERM activity of a dual AI/SERM could act synergistically with AI activity to enhance the antiproliferative effect. The potent aromatase inhibitory activities and high ER-α and ER-β binding affinities of several of the resulting analogues, together with the facts that they antagonize β-estradiol in a functional assay in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and they have no E/Z isomers, support their further development in order to obtain dual AI/SERM agents for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26704594

  14. Novel pyrazolopyridine derivatives as potential angiogenesis inhibitors: Synthesis, biological evaluation and transcriptome-based mechanistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Michailidou, Maria; Giannouli, Vassiliki; Kotsikoris, Vasilios; Papadodima, Olga; Kontogianni, Georgia; Kostakis, Ioannis K; Lougiakis, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos N; Marakos, Panagiotis; Pouli, Nicole; Loutrari, Heleni

    2016-10-01

    Modified purine derivatives exemplified by pyrazolopyrimidines have emerged as highly selective inhibitors of several angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases. Herein, we designed and synthesized a new series of substituted pyrazolopyridines and explored their ability to influence crucial pro-angiogenic attributes of endothelial cells. Four of the synthesized compounds, possessing analogous substitution pattern, were found able to inhibit at low micromolar concentrations endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, constitutively or in response to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and to attenuate VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 and downstream kinases AKT and ERK1/2. Administration of effective compounds in mice delayed the growth of syngeneic Lewis lung carcinoma transplants and reduced tumor microvessel density, without causing toxicity. Genome-wide microarray and gene ontology analyses of treated endothelial cells revealed derivative 18c as the most efficient modulator of gene expression and "mitotic cell cycle/cell division" along with "cholesterol biosynthesis" as the most significantly altered biological processes. PMID:27240270

  15. HIV-1 integrase strand-transfer inhibitors: design, synthesis and molecular modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Laura; De Grazia, Sara; Ferro, Stefania; Gitto, Rosaria; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger; Chimirri, Alba

    2011-02-01

    This study is focused on a new series of benzylindole derivatives with various substituents at the benzene-fused ring, suggested by our 3D pharmacophore model developed for HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (INIs). All synthesized compounds proved to be active in the nanomolar range (6-35 nM) on the strand-transfer step (ST). In particular, derivative 4-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5,7-dimethoxy-1H-indol-3-yl]-2-hydroxy-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (8e), presenting the highest best-fit value on pharmacophore model, showed a potency comparable to that of clinical INSTIs GS 9137 (1) and MK-0518 (2). The binding mode of our molecules has been investigated using the recently published crystal structure of the complex of full-length integrase from the prototype foamy virus in complex with its cognate DNA (PFV-IN/DNA). The results highlighted the ability of derivative 8e to assume the same binding mode of MK-0518 and GS 9137. PMID:21227550

  16. Design and synthesis of thiourea derivatives with sulfur-containing heterocyclic scaffolds as potential tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingping; Shu, Chen; Liu, Lujie; Huang, Qingchun; Peng, Yanqing

    2016-04-15

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme during the production of melanins in plants and animals. A class of novel N-aryl-N'-substituted phenylthiourea derivatives (3a-i, 6a-k) were designed, synthesized and their inhibitory effects on the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were evaluated. The results showed some 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2-[[(phenylamino)thioxomethyl]amino]-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylic acid derivatives (3a-i) exhibited moderate inhibitory potency on diphenolase activity of tyrosinase. When the scaffold of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylic acid was replaced with 2-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio acetic acid, the inhibitory activity of compounds (6a-k) against tyrosinase was improved obviously; especially, the inhibitory activity of compound 6h (IC50=6.13 μM) is significantly higher than kojic acid (IC50=33.3 μM). Moreover, the analysis on inhibition mechanism revealed that compound 6h might plays the role as a noncompetitive inhibitor. PMID:26972919

  17. Synthesis of NAM-thiazoline derivatives as novel O-GlcNAcase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hanchu; Chen, Wei; Liu, Tian; Lu, Huizhe; Yang, Qing; Dong, Yanhong; Liang, Xiaomei; Jin, Shuhui; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-06-24

    Human O-GlcNAcase (GH 84) and human β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase (GH 20) from Homo sapiens are two therapeutic enzyme targets that share the same catalytic mechanism but play different physiological roles in vivo. Selective inhibition toward one of these enzymes is therefore of importance to regulate the corresponding bioprocess. Here ten new NAM-thiazoline derivatives were synthesized and subsequently characterized by NMR and HRMS. A preliminary bioassay showed that most of the synthesized compounds exhibited obvious selective inhibition against human O-GlcNAcase over human β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase. Among the compounds tested, compound 7d (IC50 = 6.4 µM, hOGA; IC50>1 mM, hHex) and 7f (IC50 = 11.9 µM, hOGA; IC50>1 mM, hHex) proved to be a highly selective and potent inhibitor. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated a correlation between the inhibitory activity and the size of the groups linked to the thiazoline ring. PMID:27233493

  18. A toxic RNA catalyzes the in cellulo synthesis of its own inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Park, HaJeung; Disney, Matthew D

    2014-10-01

    Potent modulators of RNA function can be assembled in cellulo by using the cell as a reaction vessel and a disease-causing RNA as a catalyst. When designing small molecule effectors of function, a balance between permeability and potency must be struck. Low molecular weight compounds are more permeable whereas higher molecular weight compounds are more potent. The advantages of both types of compounds could be synergized if low molecular weight molecules could be transformed into potent, multivalent ligands by a reaction that is catalyzed by binding to a target in cells expressing a genetic defect. It was shown that this approach is indeed viable in cellulo. Small molecule modules with precisely positioned alkyne and azide moieties bind adjacent internal loops in r(CCUG)(exp), the causative agent of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), and are transformed into oligomeric, potent inhibitors of DM2 RNA dysfunction by a Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction, a variant of click chemistry. PMID:25164984

  19. Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: Synthesis, biological assay and docking study of nitro acridone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Mehtab; Aslam, Afroz; Nami, Shahab A A; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Alam, Mahboob; Lee, Dong-Ung; Rehman, Sumbul; Silva, P S Pereira; Silva, M Ramos

    2016-08-01

    The reaction of o-halobenzoic acid with aniline derivatives and their subsequent cyclization reaction yielded the acridone derivatives. The series of nitro acridone derivatives were prepared by Ullmann condensation in presence of copper as catalyst and were characterized by FTIR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and mass spectra. The structure of 5-nitro-(2-phenyl amino) benzoic acid (4) was confirmed by X-ray crystallography and was found to crystallize in P21/c space group. The in vitro efficacy of the compounds for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antimicrobial inhibitory activities have been evaluated against the standard drugs Ampicillin and Gentamicin against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. 1,7-Dinitroacridone was found to be the most potent AChE inhibitor (IC50=0.22μM). Moreover, the compounds have been screened for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. Also, docking study results were found to be in good agreement with the results obtained through in vitro experiments. The docking study further predicted possible binding conformation. PMID:27295412

  20. Synthesis of novel beta-lactone inhibitors of fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robyn D; Ma, Gil; Oyola, Yatsandra; Zancanella, Manuel; Knowles, Lynn M; Cieplak, Piotr; Romo, Daniel; Smith, Jeffrey W

    2008-09-11

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is necessary for growth and survival of tumor cells and is a promising drug target for oncology. Here, we report on the syntheses and activity of novel inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of FAS. Using the structure of orlistat as a starting point, which contains a beta-lactone as the central pharmacophore, 28 novel congeners were synthesized and examined. Structural features such as the length of the alpha- and beta-alkyl chains, their chemical composition, and amino ester substitutions were altered and the resulting compounds explored for inhibitory activity toward the thioesterase domain of FAS. Nineteen congeners show improved potency for FAS in biochemical assays relative to orlistat. Three of that subset, including the natural product valilactone, also display an increased potency in inducing tumor cell death and improved solubility compared to orlistat. These findings support the idea that an orlistat congener can be optimized for use in a preclinical drug design and for clinical drug development. PMID:18710210

  1. Synthesis of Novel β-Lactone Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Robyn D.; Ma, Gil; Oyola, Yatsandra; Zancanella, Manuel; Knowles, Lynn M.; Cieplak, Piotr; Romo, Daniel; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is necessary for growth and survival of tumor cells and is a promising drug target for oncology. Here, we report on the syntheses and activity of novel inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of FAS. Using the structure of orlistat as a starting point, which contains a β-lactone as the central pharmacophore, 28 novel congeners were synthesized and examined. Structural features such as the length of the α- and β-alkyl chains, their chemical composition, and amino ester substitutions were altered and the resulting compounds explored for inhibitory activity toward the thioesterase domain of FAS. Nineteen congeners show improved potency for FAS in biochemical assays relative to orlistat. Three of that subset, including the natural product valilactone, also display an increased potency in inducing tumor cell death and improved solubility compared to orlistat. These findings support the idea that an orlistat congener can be optimized for use in a preclinical drug design and for clinical drug development. PMID:18710210

  2. Pyrano-isochromanones as IL-6 inhibitors: synthesis, in vitro and in vivo antiarthritic activity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shreyans K; Singh, Surjeet; Khajuria, Anamika; Guru, Santosh K; Joshi, Prashant; Meena, Samdarshi; Nadkarni, Janhavi R; Singh, Amarinder; Bharate, Sonali S; Bhushan, Shashi; Bharate, Sandip B; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2014-08-28

    Bergenin (1), a unique fused C-glycoside isolated from Bergenia species, possesses interesting anti-inflammatory and antipain activities. To study SAR of this scaffold, first-generation derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The C-7 substituted derivatives showed inhibition of IL-6 as well as TNF-α production. Bergenin and its most potent IL-6 inhibitor derivatives 4e and 4f were then investigated in a panel of in vitro and in vivo inflammation/arthritis models. These compounds significantly decreased the expression of NF-kB and IKK-β in THP-1 cells. In in vivo study in BALB/c mice, a dose-dependent inhibition of SRBC-induced cytokines, reduction in humoral/cell-mediated immunity, and antibody titer was observed. The CIA study in DBA/1J mice indicated that compounds led to reduction in swelling of paws, cytokine levels, and anticollagen IgG1/IgG2a levels. The significant in vivo immunosuppressive efficacy of pyrano-isochromanones demonstrates the promise of this scaffold for development of next-generation antiarthritic drugs. PMID:25111439

  3. Synthesis of water soluble glycosides of pentacyclic dihydroxytriterpene carboxylic acids as inhibitors of α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiancong; Nie, Xuliang; Hong, Yanping; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Guoqiang; Yin, Xiaoli; Wang, Chunrong; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    A series of compounds were synthesized by glycosylation of maslinic acid (MA) and corosolic acid (CA) with monosaccharides and disaccharides, and the structures of the derivatives were elucidated by standard spectroscopic methods including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of all the novel compounds were evaluated in vitro. The solubility and inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase assays showed that the bis-disaccharide glycosides of triterpene acids possessed higher water solubility and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the bis-monosaccharide glycosides. Among these compounds, maslinic acid bis-lactoside (8e, IC50 = 684 µM) and corosolic acid bis-lactoside (9e, IC50 = 428 µM) had the best water solubility, and 9e exhibited a better inhibitory activity than acarbose (IC50 = 478 µM). However, most of glycosylated derivatives possessed lower inhibitory activities than the parent compounds, although their water solubility was enhanced obviously. Moreover, the kinetic inhibition studies indicated that 9e was a non-competitive inhibitor, and structure-activity relationships of the derivatives are also discussed. PMID:26974355

  4. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Series of Novel Inhibitor of Nek2/Hec1 Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiao-Long; Li, Guideng; Wu, Guikai; Zhu, Jiewen; Zhou, Longen; Chen, Phang-Lang; Chamberlin, A. Richard; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Hec1 (High Expression in Cancer 1) is an oncogene overly expressed in many human cancers. Small molecule INH (Inhibitor of Nek2/Hec1) targeting the Hec1 and its regulator, Nek2, in the mitotic pathway was identified to inactivate Hec1/Nek2 function mediated by protein degradation that subsequently leads to chromosome mis-segregation and cell death. To further improve the efficacy of INH, a series of INH analogues was designed, synthesized and evaluated. Among these 33 newly-synthesized analogues, three of them, 6, 13 and 21, have 6-8 fold more potent cell killing activity than the previous lead compound INH1. Compounds 6 and 21 were chosen for analyzing the underlying action mechanism. They target directly the Hec1/Nek2 pathway and cause chromosome mis-alignment as well as cell death, a mechanism similar to that of INH1. This initial exploration of structural/functional relationship of INH may advance the progress for developing clinically applicable INH analogue. PMID:19243176

  5. Synthesis and in Vitro Biological Evaluation of Carbonyl Group-Containing Inhibitors of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Efange, Simon M. N.; Khare, Anil B.; von Hohenberg, Krystyna; Mach, Robert H.; Parsons, Stanley M.; Tu, Zhude

    2010-01-01

    To identify selective high-affinity inhibitors of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), we have interposed a carbonyl group between the phenyl and piperidyl groups of the prototypical VAChT ligand vesamicol, and its more potent analogues benzovesamicol and 5-aminobenzovesamicol. Of 33 compounds synthesized and tested, six display very high affinity for VAChT (Ki, 0.25 – 0.66 nM) and greater than 500-fold selectivity for VAChT over σ1 and σ2 receptors. Twelve compounds have high affinity (Ki, 1.0–10 nM) and good selectivity for VAChT. Furthermore, three halogenated compounds, namely, trans-3-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (28b) (Ki = 2.7 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 70), trans-3-[4-(5-iodothienylcarbonyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (28h) (Ki = 0.66 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 294), and 5-amino-3-[4-(p-fluorobenzoyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (30b) (Ki = 2.40 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 410) display moderate to high selectivity for VAChT. These three compounds can be synthesized with the corresponding radioisotopes so as to serve as PET/SPECT probes for imaging the VAChT in vivo. PMID:20218624

  6. Synthesis of trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of antennal esterases of insects.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, A; Villuendas, I; Guerrero, A

    1994-04-01

    A variety of long chain aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones I-XIV has been conveniently prepared, many of them for the first time, from the corresponding Grignard or organolithium derivatives. Two of them, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one (XV) and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one (XVI), structurally-closed analogues of (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate, the sex pheromone of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, have been stereospecifically synthesized in excellent yield by a convenient new method. The procedure involves lithiation of the corresponding iododerivative XXIX and XXX with one equivalent of tert-BuLi to obviate addition of the reagent to the enyne system. Some of the compounds have already been tested and found to be good inhibitors of antennal esterases in the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis and the pheromone action in the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa. beta-Thiotrifluoromethyl ketones XVII-XX, which are expected to enhance the inhibition activity of the parent ketones due to their higher hydration constants, have also been prepared in good yields. PMID:7922135

  7. Synthesis and bioactivity of pyrazole and triazole derivatives as potential PDE4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Sheng; Tian, Hao; Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Hu, De-Kun; Liu, Xing-Yu; Jin, Hong-Wei; Song, Gao-Peng; Cui, Zi-Ning

    2016-08-01

    A series of pyrazole and triazole derivatives containing 5-phenyl-2-furan functionality were designed and synthesized as phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitors. The bioassay results showed that title compounds exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against PDE4B and blockade of LPS-induced TNFα release. Meanwhile, the activity of compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole (series II) was higher than that of pyrazole-attached derivatives (series I). The primary structure-activity relationship study and docking results showed that the 1,2,4-triazole moiety of compound IIk played a key role to form integral hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interaction with PDE4B protein while the rest part of the molecule extended into the catalytic domain to block the access of cAMP and formed the foundation for inhibition of PDE4. Compound IIk would be great promise as a hit compound for further study based on the preliminary structure-activity relationship and molecular modeling studies. PMID:27289320

  8. Design, synthesis and structural exploration of novel fluorinated dabigatran derivatives as direct thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Lin; Ren, Yu-Jie; Dong, Ming-Hui; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-one fluorinated dabigatran derivatives were designed based on the bioisosteric principle. All derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their thrombin inhibitory activity in vitro. Among these compounds, 14h, 14m, 14s and 14t were potent and the activity was in the range of reference drug, dabigatran. Three structural changes were introduced in these 21 compounds to elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the drugs. In addition, prodrugs of compounds 14h and 14s were developed to investigate their anticoagulant activities in vivo. In these experiments, compound 16 showed a fairly strong inhibitory effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, and demonstrated potent activity for inhibiting arteriovenous thrombosis with an inhibition rate of (73 ± 6) %, which was comparable to that of dabigatran etexilate (76 ± 2) %. Moreover, molecular docking studies were performed to understand the binding interactions of active compounds 14h, 14s and 14t with thrombin protein (PDB ID:1KTS). Contour maps obtained from the 3D-QSAR model are meaningful in designing more active molecules to act as direct inhibitors of thrombin. PMID:25874337

  9. Coumarin or benzoxazinone based novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: synthesis, molecular docking and anticonvulsant studies.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Uslu, Harun; Sarı, Suat; Alagöz, Mehmet Abdullah; Karakurt, Arzu; Alıcı, Bülent; Bilen, Cigdem; Yavuz, Emre; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2016-10-01

    Among many others, coumarin derivatives are known to show human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitory activity. Since hCA inhibition is one of the underlying mechanisms that account for the activities of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), hCA inhibitors are expected to have anti-seizure properties. There are also several studies reporting compounds with an imidazole and/or benzimidazole moiety which exert these pharmacological properties. In this study, we prepared fifteen novel coumarin-bearing imidazolium and benzimidazolium chloride, nine novel benzoxazinone-bearing imidazolium and benzimidazolium chloride derivatives and evaluated their hCA inhibitory activities and along with fourteen previously synthesized derivatives we scanned their anticonvulsant effects. As all compounds inhibited purified hCA isoforms I and II, some of them also proved protective against Maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and ScMet induced seizures in mice. Molecular docking studies with selected coumarin derivatives have revealed that these compounds bind to the active pocket of the enzyme in a similar fashion to that previously described for coumarin derivatives. PMID:26207513

  10. Design and synthesis of bicyclic pyrimidinones as potent and orally bioavailable HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Muraglia, Ester; Kinzel, Olaf; Gardelli, Cristina; Crescenzi, Benedetta; Donghi, Monica; Ferrara, Marco; Nizi, Emanuela; Orvieto, Federica; Pescatore, Giovanna; Laufer, Ralph; Gonzalez-Paz, Odalys; Di Marco, Annalise; Fiore, Fabrizio; Monteagudo, Edith; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Felock, Peter J; Rowley, Michael; Summa, Vincenzo

    2008-02-28

    HIV integrase is one of the three enzymes encoded by HIV genome and is essential for viral replication, but integrase inhibitors as marketed drugs have just very recently started to emerge. In this study, we show the evolution from the N-methylpyrimidinone structure to bicyclic pyrimidinones. Introduction of a suitably substituted amino moiety modulated the physical-chemical properties of the molecules and conferred nanomolar activity in the inhibition of spread of HIV-1 infection in cell culture. An extensive SAR study led to sulfamide (R)- 22b, which inhibited the strand transfer with an IC50 of 7 nM and HIV infection in MT4 cells with a CIC95 of 44 nM, and ketoamide (S)- 28c that inhibited strand transfer with an IC50 of 12 nM and the HIV infection in MT4 cells with a CIC95 of 13 nM and exhibited a good pharmacokinetic profile when dosed orally to preclinical species. PMID:18217703

  11. Synthesis of a Vpr-Binding Derivative for Use as a Novel HIV-1 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Kyoji; Ishii, Hideki; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Kawaji, Kumi; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Honda, Kaori; Osada, Hiroyuki; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Suzuki, Masaaki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. We previously identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-importin α interaction and inhibits HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner by blocking nuclear import of the pre-integration complex. However, it was unstable. Here, we synthesized a stable derivative of hematoxylin that bound specifically and stably to Vpr and inhibited HIV-1 replication in macrophages. Furthermore, like hematoxylin, the derivative inhibited nuclear import of Vpr in an in vitro nuclear import assay, but had no effect on Vpr-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest or caspase activity. Interestingly, this derivative bound strongly to amino acid residues 54–74 within the C-terminal α-helical domain (αH3) of Vpr. These residues are highly conserved among different HIV strains, indicating that this region is a potential target for drug-resistant HIV-1 infection. Thus, we succeeded in developing a stable hematoxylin derivative that bound directly to Vpr, suggesting that specific inhibitors of the interaction between cells and viral accessory proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:26701275

  12. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel macrocyclic bisbibenzyl analogues as tubulin polymerization inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Li, Lin; Hu, Qing-Wen; Xie, Fei; Zheng, Hong-Bo; Niu, Huan-Min; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    A series of novel macrocyclic bisbibenzyl analogues was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in vitro. All of the compounds were tested in five anthropic cancer cell lines, including a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Among these novel molecules, compounds 88, 92 and 94 displayed excellent anticancer activity against Hela, k562, HCC1428, HT29, and PC-3/Doc cell lines, with average IC50 values ranging from 2.23 μM to 3.86 μM, and were more potent than the parental compound marchantin C and much more potent than the positive control Adriamycin. In addition, the mechanism of action of compound 88 was investigated by cell cycle analysis and a tubulin polymerization assay in HCC1482 cells. The binding mode of compound 88 to tubulin was also investigated utilizing a molecular docking study. In conclusion, the present study improves our understanding of the action of bisbibenzyl-based tubulin polymerization inhibitors and provides a new molecular scaffold for the further development of antitumor agents that target tubulin. PMID:27318123

  13. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Triketone-Quinoline Hybrids as Novel 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Yan; Cao, Run-Jie; Chen, Tao; Wu, Feng-Xu; Hao, Ge-Fei; Chen, Qiong; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2015-06-17

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.27, HPPD) is one of the most important targets for herbicide discovery. In the search for new HPPD inhibitors with novel scaffolds, triketone-quinoline hybrids were designed and subsequently optimized on the basis of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed potent inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD (AtHPPD), and some of them exhibited broad-spectrum and promising herbicidal activity at the rate of 150 g ai/ha by postemergence application. Most promisingly, compound III-l, 3-hydroxy-2-(2-methoxy-7-(methylthio)quinoline-3-carbonyl)cyclohex-2-enone (Ki = 0.009 μM, AtHPPD), had broader spectrum of weed control than mesotrione. Furthermore, compound III-l was much safer to maize at the rate of 150 g ai/ha than mesotrione, demonstrating its great potential as herbicide for weed control in maize fields. Therefore, triketone-quinoline hybrids may serve as new lead structures for novel herbicide discovery. PMID:26006257

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Conformationally Constrained Inhibitors Targeting EGFR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianwei; Chen, Wenteng; Xia, Guangxin; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Jiaan; Tan, Biqin; Zhang, Chunchun; Yu, Wanwan; Weng, Qinjie; Liu, Haiyan; Hu, Miao; Deng, Hailin; Hao, Yu; Shen, Jingkang; Yu, Yongping

    2013-10-10

    This letter describes the construction of conformationally constrained quinazoline analogues. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of the lead compound 9n . Compound 9n exhibits effective in vitro activity against A431(WT,overexpression) and H1975([L858R/T790M]) cancer cell lines but is significantly less effective against EGFR negative cancer cell lines (SW620, A549, and K562). Compound 9n was also assessed for potency in enzymatic assays and in vivo antitumor studies. The results indicated that 9n is a potent kinase inhibitor against both wild-type and T790M mutant EGFR kinase. Meanwhile, an oral administration of 9n at a dose of 200 mg/kg produced a considerable antitumor effect in a A431 xenograft model, as compared to gefitinib. A preliminary pharmacokinetic study of 9n also indicates it has good pharmacokinetic properties, and therefore, it is a good starting point for further development. PMID:24900594

  15. Molecular docking study, synthesis and biological evaluation of Mannich bases as Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sayan Dutta; Bommaka, Manish Kumar; Mazaira, Gisela I; Galigniana, Mario D; Subrahmanyam, Chavali Venkata Satya; Gowrishankar, Naryanasamy Lachmana; Raghavendra, Nulgumnalli Manjunathaiah

    2015-09-01

    The ubiquitously expressed heat shock protein 90 is an encouraging target for the development of novel anticancer agents. In a program directed towards uncovering novel chemical scaffolds against Hsp90, we performed molecular docking studies using Tripos-Sybyl drug designing software by including the required conserved water molecules. The results of the docking studies predicted Mannich bases derived from 2,4-dihydroxy acetophenone/5-chloro 2,4-dihydroxy acetophenone as potential Hsp90 inhibitors. Subsequently, a few of them were synthesized (1-6) and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral analysis. The synthesized Mannich compounds were evaluated for their potential to suppress Hsp90 ATPase activity by the colorimetric Malachite green assay. Subsequently, the molecules were screened for their antiproilferative effect against PC3 pancreatic carcinoma cells by adopting the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. The activity profile of the identified derivatives correlated well with their docking results. PMID:26116388

  16. Design, synthesis, and antitumor evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Xiaoguang; Hou, Jinning; Huang, Yongxue; Xu, Wenfang

    2015-01-01

    In our previous research, a novel series of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold were designed and synthesized, among which amides D3 and D7 and ureido D18 were far superior to the positive control (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]) in HDAC inhibition, but were only comparable to SAHA in antiproliferation on tumor cell lines. Herein, further structural derivation of lead compounds D3, D7, and D18 was carried out to improve their cellular activities. Most of our newly synthesized compounds exhibited more potent HDAC inhibitory activities than the positive control SAHA, and several derivatives were even better than their parent compounds. However, compared with SAHA and our lead compounds, only secondary amine series compounds exhibited improved antiproliferative activities, likely due to their appropriate topological polar surface area values and cell permeabilities. In a human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) xenograft model, the most potent secondary amine 9d exhibited similar in vivo antitumor activity to that of SAHA. PMID:26504374

  17. Identification of anthranilamide derivatives as potential factor Xa inhibitors: drug design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Junhao; Yang, Lingyun; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Zhao, Leilei; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Muxing; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

    2015-05-01

    The coagulation enzyme factor Xa (fXa) plays a crucial role in the blood coagulation cascade. In this study, three-dimensional fragment based drug design (FBDD) combined with structure-based pharmacophore (SBP) model and structural consensus docking were employed to identify novel fXa inhibitors. After a multi-stage virtual screening (VS) workflow, two hit compounds 3780 and 319 having persistent high performance were identified. Then, these two hit compounds and several analogs were synthesized and screened for in-vitro inhibition of fXa. The experimental data showed that most of the designed compounds displayed significant in vitro potency against fXa. Among them, compound 9b displayed the greatest in vitro potency against fXa with the IC50 value of 23 nM and excellent selectivity versus thrombin (IC50 = 40 μM). Moreover, the prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT) was measured for compound 9b to evaluate its in vitro anticoagulant activity. As a result, compound 9b exhibited pronounced anticoagulant activity with the 2 × PT value of 8.7 μM. PMID:25839438

  18. Triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as Selective Inhibitors of Mycobacterial Lipoamide Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Bryk, Ruslana; Arango, Nancy; Venugopal, Aditya; Warren, J. David; Park, Yun-Hee; Patel, Mulchand S.; Lima, Christopher D.; Nathan, Carl

    2010-06-25

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains the leading single cause of death from bacterial infection. Here we explored the possibility of species-selective inhibition of lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), an enzyme central to Mtb's intermediary metabolism and antioxidant defense. High-throughput screening of combinatorial chemical libraries identified triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as high-nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb's Lpd that were noncompetitive versus NADH, NAD{sup +}, and lipoamide and >100-fold selective compared to human Lpd. Efficacy required the dimethoxy and dichlorophenyl groups. The structure of an Lpd-inhibitor complex was resolved to 2.42 {angstrom} by X-ray crystallography, revealing that the inhibitor occupied a pocket adjacent to the Lpd NADH/NAD{sup +} binding site. The inhibitor did not overlap with the adenosine moiety of NADH/NAD{sup +} but did overlap with positions predicted to bind the nicotinamide rings in NADH and NAD{sup +} complexes. The dimethoxy ring occupied a deep pocket adjacent to the FAD flavin ring where it would block coordination of the NADH nicotinamide ring, while the dichlorophenyl group occupied a more exposed pocket predicted to coordinate the NAD{sup +} nicotinamide. Several residues that are not conserved between the bacterial enzyme and its human homologue were predicted to contribute both to inhibitor binding and to species selectivity, as confirmed for three residues by analysis of the corresponding mutant Mtb Lpd proteins. Thus, nonconservation of residues lining the electron-transfer tunnel in Mtb Lpd can be exploited for development of species-selective Lpd inhibitors.

  19. Synthesis, biological evaluation and modeling studies of terphenyl topoisomerase IIα inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jin; Zhao, Baobing; Zhong, Wanxia; Shen, Yuemao; Lin, Houwen

    2015-04-13

    We report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel terphenyls. Compound 17 had the most potent anticancer activity, indicating that the phenolic hydroxyl was a key group. A DNA relaxation test showed that compound 17 had a strong inhibitory effect on TOP2α, but not on TOP1, which was consistent with the docking analysis results. We performed a 3D-QSAR study using CoMFA and CoMSIA to determine, for the first time, the chemical-biological relationship in the inhibition of TOP by terphenyls. The CoMFA and CoMSIA model had good modeling statistics: leave-one-out q(2) of 0.605 and 0.622, r(2) of 0.998 and 0.994, and r(2)pred (test set) of 0.742 and 0.660. These results suggest that the ortho-phenolic hydroxyl on ring A is important for producing terphenyls with more efficacious activity. PMID:25800514

  20. Quinazoline-based multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors: synthesis, modeling, antitumor and antiangiogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Conconi, Maria Teresa; Marzaro, Giovanni; Urbani, Luca; Zanusso, Ilenia; Di Liddo, Rosa; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Brun, Paola; Tonus, Francesca; Ferrarese, Alessandro; Guiotto, Adriano; Chilin, Adriana

    2013-09-01

    In this work the synthesis and the biological evaluation of some novel anilinoquinazoline derivatives carrying modifications in the quinazoline scaffold and in the aniline moiety were reported. Preliminary cytotoxicity studies identified three derivatives, carrying dioxygenated rings fused on the quinazoline portion and the biphenylamino substituent as aniline portion, as the most effective compounds. Further investigations revealed that these compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity on a wide panel of human tumor cell lines through the inhibition of both receptor and nonreceptor TKs. Furthermore, the compound bearing the dioxolane nucleus was also able to inhibit in vivo tumor growth. Molecular modeling of these compounds into kinase domain suggested that the phenyl group allows favorable interaction energies with the target proteins: this feature is favored by fused dioxygenated ring at the 6,7 positions, whereas free rotating functions do not allow the correct placement of the molecule, thus impairing the inhibitory potency. Finally, the biphenylamino derivatives, at noncytotoxic concentrations, acted as antiangiogenic agents both in in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:23900004