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1

Regulation of NADPH Oxidase Activity in Phagocytes  

PubMed Central

The X+-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X+-CGD) variants are natural mutants characterized by defective NADPH oxidase activity but with normal Nox2 expression. According to the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic Nox2 domain, most of the X+-CGD mutations are located in/or close to the FAD/NADPH binding regions. A structure/function study of this domain was conducted in X+-CGD PLB-985 cells exactly mimicking 10 human variants: T341K, C369R, G408E, G408R, P415H, P415L, ?507QKT509-HIWAinsert, C537R, L546P, and E568K. Diaphorase activity is defective in all these mutants. NADPH oxidase assembly is normal for P415H/P415L and T341K mutants where mutation occurs in the consensus sequences of NADPH- and FAD-binding sites, respectively. This is in accordance with their buried position in the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic Nox2 domain. FAD incorporation is abolished only in the T341K mutant explaining its absence of diaphorase activity. This demonstrates that NADPH oxidase assembly can occur without FAD incorporation. In addition, a defect of NADPH binding is a plausible explanation for the diaphorase activity inhibition in the P415H, P415L, and C537R mutants. In contrast, Cys-369, Gly-408, Leu-546, and Glu-568 are essential for NADPH oxidase complex assembly. However, according to their position in the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic domain of Nox2, only Cys-369 could be in direct contact with cytosolic factors during oxidase assembly. In addition, the defect in oxidase assembly observed in the C369R, G408E, G408R, and E568K mutants correlates with the lack of FAD incorporation. Thus, the NADPH oxidase assembly process and FAD incorporation are closely related events essential for the diaphorase activity of Nox2. PMID:20724480

Debeurme, Franck; Picciocchi, Antoine; Dagher, Marie-Claire; Grunwald, Didier; Beaumel, Sylvain; Fieschi, Franck; Stasia, Marie-José

2010-01-01

2

A critical investigation of NADPH oxidase activity in human spermatozoa.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that human spermatozoa contain an NADPH oxidase that could generate reactive oxygen species involved in signalling pathways to promote fertility. The proposal depends on observations that the addition of NADPH to purified human spermatozoa stimulates chemiluminescence by the superoxide (O2-) probe, lucigenin. We confirmed these observations, but demonstrated that lucigenin increases NADPH consumption by spermatozoa and stimulates artefactual O2- production via a diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) sensitive flavoprotein. In the absence of cytochrome c, DPI-inhibitable NADPH oxidation by permeabilized spermatozoa was 8 times too small to account for the rate of NADPH-stimulated cytochrome c reduction. Thus NADPH can directly reduce cytochrome c by a flavoprotein dependent mechanism making this O2- assay also unreliable in sperm suspensions. We were unable to observe O2- production by 40 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy but could identify O(2)(-) generation from 2000 4beta-phorbol-12-myristate-13-actetate (PMA)-stimulated leukocytes. Using spectrophotometry, we did not detect the reduced cytochrome b(558) component of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase in human spermatozoa. No hydrogen peroxide generation was observed using a sensitive Amplex Red assay. We conclude that human spermatozoa do not possess significant NADPH oxidase activity and that the mechanism by which NADPH promotes capacitation must be re-evaluated. PMID:11228243

Richer, S C; Ford, W C

2001-03-01

3

Activation and assembly of the NADPH oxidase: a structural perspective  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidase of professional phagocytes is a crucial component of the innate immune response due to its fundamental role in the production of reactive oxygen species that act as powerful microbicidal agents. The activity of this multi-protein enzyme is dependent on the regulated assembly of the six enzyme subunits at the membrane where oxygen is reduced to superoxide anions. In the resting state, four of the enzyme subunits are maintained in the cytosol, either through auto-inhibitory interactions or through complex formation with accessory proteins that are not part of the active enzyme complex. Multiple inputs are required to disrupt these inhibitory interactions and allow translocation to the membrane and association with the integral membrane components. Protein interaction modules are key regulators of NADPH oxidase assembly, and the protein–protein interactions mediated via these domains have been the target of numerous studies. Many models have been put forward to describe the intricate network of reversible protein interactions that regulate the activity of this enzyme, but an all-encompassing model has so far been elusive. An important step towards an understanding of the molecular basis of NADPH oxidase assembly and activity has been the recent solution of the three-dimensional structures of some of the oxidase components. We will discuss these structures in the present review and attempt to reconcile some of the conflicting models on the basis of the structural information available. PMID:15588255

2004-01-01

4

NADPH oxidase restrains the matrix metalloproteinase activity of macrophages.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate numerous functions in normal and disease processes; thus, irreversibly blocking their activity is a key step in regulating MMP catalysis. We previously showed in vitro that oxidizing intermediates generated by phagocytes inactivate MMPs by modifying specific amino acids. To assess whether this mechanism operates in vivo, we focused on MMP-12, a macrophage-specific MMP known to mediate emphysema in mouse models. We found that mice lacking gp91(phox), a phagocyte-specific component of the NADPH oxidase, developed extensive, spontaneous emphysematous destruction of their peripheral air spaces, whereas mice deficient in both NADPH oxidase and MMP-12 were protected from spontaneous emphysema. Although gp91(phox)-null and wild-type macrophages produced equivalent levels of MMP-12 protein, the oxidant-deficient cells had greater MMP-12 activity than wild-type macrophages. These findings indicate that reactive intermediates provide a physiological mechanism to protect tissues from excessive macrophage-mediated damage during inflammation. PMID:15983040

Kassim, Sean Y; Fu, Xiaoyun; Liles, W Conrad; Shapiro, Steven D; Parks, William C; Heinecke, Jay W

2005-08-26

5

Advances and strategies in NADPH oxidase inhibitors and activators patents.  

PubMed

The NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes were identified as a family of seven isoforms contributing to the production of reactive oxygen species. During the past 15 years, this class of enzymes has increasingly gained interest from the academic and pharmaceutical laboratories. Extensive research efforts focused on the decryption of their mechanism of action has shown that Nox enzymes are the most important source of reactive oxygen species and key contributors in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Recent publications and patents suggest that NOX modulators may provide major opportunities in many diseases as novel therapeutics. This review covers application patents and current state-of-the-art on Nox modulators from 2005 to December 2013 and examines the different approaches patented to modulate the activity of Nox enzymes. PMID:25291313

Page, Patrick

2014-07-01

6

Modification of plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity in cucumber seedling roots in response to cadmium stress.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cadmium on plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase activity in cucumber roots. Plants were treated with cadmium for 1, 3 or 6 days. Some of the plants after 3-day exposure to cadmium were transferred to a medium without the heavy metal for the next 3 days. Treatment of plants with cadmium for 6 days stimulated the activity of NADPH oxidase. The highest stimulation of O2(•-) production by NADPH oxidase was observed in post-stressed plants, which was correlated with the stimulation of activity of PM H(+)-ATPase in the same conditions. In order to examine the effects of cadmium stresses on the expression level of genes encoding NADPH oxidase, putative cucumber homologs encoding RBOH proteins were selected and a real-time PCR assay was performed. NADPH is a substrate for oxidase; thus alterations in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme under cadmium stress were studied. The activity of NADPH dehydrogenases was increased under cadmium stress. The results indicate that PM NADPH oxidase could be involved in plants' response to cadmium stress by affecting the activity of PM H(+)-ATPase, and NADPH-generating enzymes could play important roles in this process. PMID:25804809

Jakubowska, Dagmara; Janicka-Russak, Ma?gorzata; Kaba?a, Katarzyna; Migocka, Magdalena; Reda, Ma?gorzata

2015-05-01

7

Complement-dependent NADPH oxidase enzyme activation in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase plays a central role in mediating oxidative stress during heart, liver, and lung ischemia/reperfusion injury, but limited information is available about NADPH oxidase in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our aim was to investigate the activation of NADPH oxidase in a swine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion damage. We induced renal ischemia/reperfusion in 10 pigs, treating 5 of them with human recombinant C1 inhibitor, and we collected kidney biopsies before ischemia and 15, 30, and 60 min after reperfusion. Ischemia/reperfusion induced a significant increase in NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4) expression at the tubular level, an upregulation of NOX-2 expression in infiltrating monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis along with a marked upregulation of NADPH-dependent superoxide generation. This burden of oxidative stress was associated with an increase in tubular and interstitial expression of the myofibroblast marker ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Interestingly, NOX-4 and NOX-2 expression and the overall NADPH oxidase activity as well as ?-SMA expression and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis were strongly reduced in C1-inhibitor-treated animals. In vitro, when we incubated tubular cells with the anaphylotoxin C3a, we observed an enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and ?-SMA protein expression, which were both abolished by NOX-4 silencing. In conclusion, our findings suggest that NADPH oxidase is activated during ischemia/reperfusion in a complement-dependent manner and may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of progressive renal damage in this setting. PMID:25017967

Simone, S; Rascio, F; Castellano, G; Divella, C; Chieti, A; Ditonno, P; Battaglia, M; Crovace, A; Staffieri, F; Oortwijn, B; Stallone, G; Gesualdo, L; Pertosa, G; Grandaliano, G

2014-09-01

8

HIF-1? Activation by Intermittent Hypoxia Requires NADPH Oxidase Stimulation by Xanthine Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) mediates many of the systemic and cellular responses to intermittent hypoxia (IH), which is an experimental model that simulates O2 saturation profiles occurring with recurrent apnea. IH-evoked HIF-1? synthesis and stability are due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases, especially Nox2. However, the mechanisms by which IH activates Nox2 are not known. We recently reported that IH activates xanthine oxidase (XO) and the resulting increase in ROS elevates intracellular calcium levels. Since Nox2 activation requires increased intracellular calcium levels, we hypothesized XO-mediated calcium signaling contributes to Nox activation by IH. We tested this possibility in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells subjected to IH consisting alternating cycles of hypoxia (1.5% O2 for 30 sec) and normoxia (21% O2 for 5 min). Kinetic analysis revealed that IH-induced XO preceded Nox activation. Inhibition of XO activity either by allopurinol or by siRNA prevented IH-induced Nox activation, translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox to the plasma membrane and their interaction with gp91phox. ROS generated by XO also contribute to IH-evoked Nox activation via calcium-dependent protein kinase C stimulation. More importantly, silencing XO blocked IH-induced upregulation of HIF-1? demonstrating that HIF-1? activation by IH requires Nox2 activation by XO. PMID:25751622

Nanduri, Jayasri; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy; Khan, Shakil A.; Wang, Ning; Makarenko, Vladislav; Semenza, Gregg L.; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

2015-01-01

9

Involvement of NADPH oxidases in suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 promoter-dependent transcriptional activities by sesamol  

PubMed Central

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been shown to play an important role in colon carcinogenesis. Moreover, one of the components of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), dominantly expressed in the colon, is implicated in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. We have reported that sesamol, one of the lignans in sesame seeds, suppressed COX-2 gene transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells, and also suppressed intestinal polyp formation in Apc-mutant mice. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the inhibition of COX-2 transcriptional activity by sesamol. We found that several NADPH oxidase inhibitors, such as apocynin, showed suppressive effects on COX-2 transcriptional activity. Moreover, sesamol significantly suppressed NOX1 mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrated that knockdown of NOX1 successfully suppressed COX-2 transcriptional activity. These results suggest that inhibition of NADPH oxidase, especially NOX1, may be involved in the mechanism of the suppression of COX-2 transcriptional activity by sesamol. PMID:25759517

Shimizu, Satomi; Ishigamori, Rikako; Fujii, Gen; Takahashi, Mami; Onuma, Wakana; Terasaki, Masaru; Yano, Tomohiro; Mutoh, Michihiro

2015-01-01

10

Involvement of NADPH oxidases in suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 promoter-dependent transcriptional activities by sesamol.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been shown to play an important role in colon carcinogenesis. Moreover, one of the components of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), dominantly expressed in the colon, is implicated in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. We have reported that sesamol, one of the lignans in sesame seeds, suppressed COX-2 gene transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells, and also suppressed intestinal polyp formation in Apc-mutant mice. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the inhibition of COX-2 transcriptional activity by sesamol. We found that several NADPH oxidase inhibitors, such as apocynin, showed suppressive effects on COX-2 transcriptional activity. Moreover, sesamol significantly suppressed NOX1 mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrated that knockdown of NOX1 successfully suppressed COX-2 transcriptional activity. These results suggest that inhibition of NADPH oxidase, especially NOX1, may be involved in the mechanism of the suppression of COX-2 transcriptional activity by sesamol. PMID:25759517

Shimizu, Satomi; Ishigamori, Rikako; Fujii, Gen; Takahashi, Mami; Onuma, Wakana; Terasaki, Masaru; Yano, Tomohiro; Mutoh, Michihiro

2015-03-01

11

Cholesterol: A modulator of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity - A cell-free study  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidase Nox2, a multi-subunit enzyme complex comprising membrane and cytosolic proteins, catalyzes a very intense production of superoxide ions O2•?, which are transformed into other reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, it has to be activated by addition of amphiphiles like arachidonic acid (AA). It has been shown that the membrane part of phagocyte NADPH oxidase is present in lipid rafts rich in cholesterol. Cholesterol plays a significant role in the development of cardio-vascular diseases that are always accompanied by oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the influence of cholesterol on the activation process of NADPH oxidase. Our results clearly show that, in a cell-free system, cholesterol is not an efficient activator of NADPH oxidase like arachidonic acid (AA), however it triggers a basal low superoxide production at concentrations similar to what found in neutrophile. A higher concentration, if present during the assembly process of the enzyme, has an inhibitory role on the production of O2•?. Added cholesterol acts on both cytosolic and membrane components, leading to imperfect assembly and decreasing the affinity of cytosolic subunits to the membrane ones. Added to the cytosolic proteins, it retains their conformations but still allows some conformational change induced by AA addition, indispensable to activation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:25462061

Masoud, Rawand; Bizouarn, Tania; Houée-Levin, Chantal

2014-01-01

12

TK1299, a highly thermostable NAD(P)H oxidase from Thermococcus kodakaraensis exhibiting higher enzymatic activity with NADPH.  

PubMed

Seven nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase homologs have been found in the genome of Thermococcus kodakaraensis. The gene encoding one of them, TK1299, consisted of 1326 nucleotides, corresponding to a polypeptide of 442 amino acids. To examine the molecular properties of TK1299, the structural gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and the gene product was characterized. Molecular weight of the recombinant protein was 49,375 Da when determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and 300 kDa when analyzed by gel filtration chromatography indicating that it existed in a hexameric form. The enzyme was highly thermostable even in boiling water where it exhibited more than 95% of the enzyme activity after incubation of 150 min. TK1299 catalyzed the oxidation of NADH as well as NADPH and predominantly converted O? to H?O (more than 75%). K(m) value of the enzyme towards NADH and NADPH was almost same (24 ± 2 ?M) where as specific activity was higher with NADPH compared to NADH. To our knowledge this is the most thermostable and unique NAD(P)H oxidase displaying higher enzyme activity with NADPH. PMID:23453203

Nisar, Muhammad Atif; Rashid, Naeem; Bashir, Qamar; Gardner, Qurra-tul-Ann Afza; Shafiq, Muhammad Hassan; Akhtar, Muhammad

2013-07-01

13

Rotenone induces neurotoxicity through Rac1-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase in SHSY-5Y cells  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases are attributed to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Oxidative stress has been considered a contributing factor in the pathology of impaired UPS by promoting protein misfolding and subsequent protein aggregate formation. Increasing evidence suggests that NADPH oxidase is a likely source of excessive oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanism of activation and its role in impaired UPS is not understood. We show that activation of NADPH oxidase in a neuroblastoma cell line (SHSY-5Y) resulted in increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, elevated cytosolic calcium, ER-stress, impaired UPS, and apoptosis. Rac1 inhibition mitigated the oxidative/nitrosative stress, prevented calcium-dependent ER-stress, and partially rescued UPS function. These findings demonstrate that Rac1 and NADPH oxidase play an important role in rotenone neurotoxicity. PMID:24374334

Pal, Rituraj; Monroe, Tanner O.; Palmieri, Michela; Sardiello, Marco; Rodney, George G.

2014-01-01

14

Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Activation in Oligodendrocytes Reduces Cytotoxicity Following Trauma  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury is a debilitating neurological disorder that initiates a cascade of cellular events that result in a period of secondary damage that can last for months after the initial trauma. The ensuing outcome of these prolonged cellular perturbations is the induction of neuronal and glial cell death through excitotoxic mechanisms and subsequent free radical production. We have previously shown that astrocytes can directly induce oligodendrocyte death following trauma, but the mechanisms regulating this process within the oligodendrocyte remain unclear. Here we provide evidence demonstrating that astrocytes directly regulate oligodendrocyte death after trauma by inducing activation of NADPH oxidase within oligodendrocytes. Spinal cord injury resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage which correlated with elevated expression of the gp91 phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of gp91 phox in oligodendrocytes in vitro and at 1 week following spinal cord injury. Exposure of oligodendrocytes to media from injured astrocytes resulted in an increase in oligodendrocyte NADPH oxidase activity. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation was sufficient to attenuate oligodendrocyte death in vitro and at 1 week following spinal cord injury, suggesting that excitotoxicity of oligodendrocytes after trauma is dependent on the intrinsic activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme. Acute administration of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate channel blocker 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione significantly improved locomotor behavior and preserved descending axon fibers following spinal cord injury. These studies lead to a better understanding of oligodendrocyte death after trauma and identify potential therapeutic targets in disorders involving demyelination and oligodendrocyte death. PMID:24260524

Johnstone, Joshua T.; Morton, Paul D.; Jayakumar, Arumugam R.; Johnstone, Andrea L.; Gao, Han; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Pearse, Damien D.; Norenberg, Michael D.; Bethea, John R.

2013-01-01

15

NAD(P)H oxidase activity in cultured human podocytes: Effects of adenosine triphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H oxidase activity in cultured human podocytes: Effects of adenosine triphosphate. Reactive oxygen species contribute to glomerular damage and proteinuria. In this study, we show that cultured human podocytes produce superoxide in response to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and we identified the oxidases involved in this process. Adenosine triphosphate (10?4 M for 4 hr) raised superoxide production from 1.28 ±

Stefan Greiber; Thomas Münzel; Stefanie Kästner; Barbara Müller; Peter Schollmeyer; Hermann Pavenstädt

1998-01-01

16

Protein kinase C-beta contributes to NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

We have analysed the involvement of the beta isotype of the protein kinase C (PKC) family in the activation of NADPH oxidase in primary neutrophils. Using immunofluorescence and cell fractionation, PKC-beta is shown to be recruited to the plasma membrane upon stimulation with phorbol ester and to the phagosomal membrane upon phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles (Fcgamma-receptor stimulus). The time course of recruitment is similar to that of NADPH oxidase activation by these stimuli. The PKC-beta specific inhibitor 379196 inhibits the response to PMA as well as to IgG-coated bacteria. Partial inhibition occurs between 10 and 100 nM of inhibitor, the concentration at which PKC-beta, but not other PKC isotypes, is targeted. Neutrophils isolated from a mouse that lacks PKC-beta also showed an inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by PMA and IgG-coated particles. The level of inhibition is comparable to that achieved with 379196 in human neutrophils. Thus the PKC-beta isotype mediates activation of NADPH oxidase by PMA and by stimulation of Fcgamma receptors in neutrophils. PMID:10727429

Dekker, L V; Leitges, M; Altschuler, G; Mistry, N; McDermott, A; Roes, J; Segal, A W

2000-01-01

17

The Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Choroidal Endothelial Cells and Choroidal Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Rac1, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, plays an important role in directed endothelial cell motility. We reported previously that Rac1 activation was necessary for choroidal endothelial cell migration across the retinal pigment epithelium, a critical step in the development of vision-threatening neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here we explored the roles of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activation in response to vascular endothelial growth factor treatment in vitro and in a model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. We found that vascular endothelial growth factor induced the activation of Rac1 and of NADPH oxidase in cultured human choroidal endothelial cells. Further, vascular endothelial growth factor led to heightened generation of reactive oxygen species from cultured human choroidal endothelial cells, which was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium, or the antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine. In a model of laser-induced injury, inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels as measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence and the volume of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Mice lacking functional p47phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, had reduced dihydroethidium fluorescence and choroidal neovascularization compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor activates Rac1 upstream from NADPH oxidase in human choroidal endothelial cells and increases generation of reactive oxygen species, contributing to choroidal neovascularization. These steps may contributed to the pathology of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. PMID:20802176

Monaghan-Benson, Elizabeth; Hartmann, John; Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Budd, Steve; Byfield, Grace; Parker, Augustus; Ahmad, Faisal; Huang, Wei; Runge, Marschall; Burridge, Keith; Madamanchi, Nageswara; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

18

NADPH oxidases and cancer.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by tumour cells remained incompletely understood until the discovery over the last 15 years of the family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs 1-5 and dual oxidases DUOX1/2) which are structural homologues of gp91phox, the major membrane-bound component of the respiratory burst oxidase of leucocytes. Knowledge of the roles of the NOX isoforms in cancer is rapidly expanding. Recent evidence suggests that both NOX1 and DUOX2 species produce ROS in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of chronic inflammatory stress; cytokine induction (by interferon-?, tumour necrosis factor ?, and interleukins IL-4 and IL-13) of NOX1 and DUOX2 may contribute to the development of colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis, respectively. NOX4 expression is increased in pre-malignant fibrotic states which may lead to carcinomas of the lung and liver. NOX5 is highly expressed in malignant melanomas, prostate cancer and Barrett's oesophagus-associated adenocarcinomas, and in the last it is related to chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux and inflammation. Over-expression of functional NOX proteins in many tissues helps to explain tissue injury and DNA damage from ROS that accompany pre-malignant conditions, as well as elucidating the potential mechanisms of NOX-related damage that contribute to both the initiation and the progression of a wide range of solid and haematopoietic malignancies. PMID:25818486

Roy, Krishnendu; Wu, Yongzhong; Meitzler, Jennifer L; Juhasz, Agnes; Liu, Han; Jiang, Guojian; Lu, Jiamo; Antony, Smitha; Doroshow, James H

2015-06-01

19

Ultrastructural localization of NADPH-oxidase activity in murine peritoneal macrophages during phagocytosis of Brucella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The localization of the enzyme NADPH oxidase in mouse peritoneal macrophages unstimulated or after phagocytosis ofBruceila suis was investigated by electron microscopy in normal mice and mice immunized againstB. suis. The enzyme was clearly visualized on mitochondrial cristae, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and the plasma membrane; its activity\\u000a correlated mainly with the state of the endoplasmic reticulum which itself reflected macrophage

Bernard Gay; Simone Sanchez-Teff; René Caravano

1984-01-01

20

Involvement of protein kinase D in Fc gamma-receptor activation of the NADPH oxidase in neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases involved in the activation of the NADPH oxidase by Fc gamma receptors in neutrophils were studied. Of three different protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, Gö 6976 inhibited the NADPH oxidase completely, whereas bisindolylmaleimide I and Ro 31-8220 caused a 70-80% inhibition. Thus a Gö 6976-sensitive, bisindolylmaleimide I/Ro 31-8220-insensitive component contributes to NADPH oxidase activation induced by Fc gamma receptors. Down-regulation of PKC isotypes resulted in inhibition of Fc gamma-receptor-activated NADPH oxidase, but a down-regulation-insensitive component was still present. This component was sensitive to Gö 6976, but insensitive to Ro 31-8220. It has been shown previously that protein kinase D/PKC-mu (PKD) shows this same pharmacology in vitro. We show that PKD is present in neutrophils and that, in contrast with PKC isotypes, PKD is not down-regulated. Therefore PKD may participate in NADPH oxidase activation. To obtain direct evidence for this we adopted an antisense approach. Antisense PKD inhibited NADPH oxidase induced by Fc gamma-receptor stimulation by 50% and the Ro 31-8220-insensitive component in the activation was inhibited by antisense PKD. In vitro kinase assays showed that PKD is activated by presenting IgG-opsonized particles to neutrophils. Furthermore, PKD localizes to the area of particle intake in the cell and phosphorylates two of the three cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase, p40(phox) and p47(phox). Taken together, these data indicate that Fc gamma receptors engage PKD in the regulation of the NADPH oxidase. PMID:11903052

Davidson-Moncada, Jan K; Lopez-Lluch, Guillermo; Segal, Anthony W; Dekker, Lodewijk V

2002-01-01

21

Activation of NADPH oxidase mediates increased endoplasmic reticulum stress and left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rabbits.  

PubMed

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are increased after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we proposed to test whether activation of the NADPH oxidase in the remote non-infarcted myocardium mediates ER stress and left ventricular (LV) remodeling after MI. Rabbits with MI or sham operation were randomly assigned to orally receive an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or placebo for 30days. The agents were administered beginning at 1week after surgery. MI rabbits exhibited decreases in LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction and the first derivative of the LV pressure rise, which were abolished by apocynin treatment. NADPH oxidase Nox2 protein and mRNA expressions were increased in the remote non-infarcted myocardium after MI. Immunolabeling further revealed that Nox2 was increased in cardiac myocytes in the remote myocardium. The apocynin treatment prevented increases in the Nox2 expression, NADPH oxidase activity, oxidative stress, myocyte apoptosis and GRP78, CHOP and cleaved caspase 12 protein expression in the remote myocardium. The apocynin treatment also attenuated increases in myocyte diameter and cardiac fibrosis. In cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes exposed to angiotensin II, an important stimulus for post-MI remodeling, Nox2 knockdown with siRNA significantly inhibited angiotensin II-induced NADPH oxidase activation, reactive oxygen species and GRP78 and CHOP protein expression. We conclude that NADPH oxidase inhibition attenuates increased ER stress in the remote non-infarcted myocardium and LV remodeling late after MI in rabbits. These findings suggest that the activation of NADPH oxidase in the remote non-infarcted myocardium mediates increased ER stress, contributing to myocyte apoptosis and LV remodeling after MI. PMID:25615792

Li, Bao; Tian, Jing; Sun, Yi; Xu, Tao-Rui; Chi, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Hu, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Yue-An; Qin, Fu-Zhong; Zhang, Wei-Fang

2015-05-01

22

Molecular Insights of p47phox Phosphorylation Dynamics in the Regulation of NADPH Oxidase Activation and Superoxide Production*  

PubMed Central

Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47phox is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47phox phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47phox protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47phox is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22phox binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47phox?/? coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47phox cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47phox membrane translocation, binding to p22phox and endothelial O2? production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47phox C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47phox conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells. PMID:24970888

Meijles, Daniel N.; Fan, Lampson M.; Howlin, Brendan J.; Li, Jian-Mei

2014-01-01

23

Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Activation of Rap1 GTPase can improve the integrity of the barrier of the retina pigment epithelium (RPE) and reduce choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation also reduces CNV. We hypothesize that Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and thereby reduces CNV formation. Using a murine model of laser-induced CNV, we determined that reduced Rap1 activity in RPE/choroid occurred with CNV formation and that activation of Rap1 by 2?-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT)-reduced laser-induced CNV via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. In RPE, inhibition of Rap1 by Rap1 GTPase-activating protein (Rap1GAP) increased ROS generation, whereas activation of Rap1 by 8CPT reduced ROS by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit p22phox with NOX4 or cytoplasmic subunit p47phox. Activation of NADPH oxidase with Rap1GAP reduced RPE barrier integrity via cadherin phosphorylation and facilitated choroidal EC migration across the RPE monolayer. Rap1GAP-induced ROS generation was inhibited by active Rap1a, but not Rap1b, and activation of Rap1a by 8CPT in Rap1b?/? mice reduced laser-induced CNV, in correlation with decreased ROS generation in RPE/choroid. These findings provide evidence that active Rap1 reduces CNV by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits and increasing the integrity of the RPE barrier.—Wang, H., Jiang, Y., Shi, D., Quilliam, L. A., Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, M., Wittchen, E. S., Li, D. Y., Hartnett, M. E. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization. PMID:24043260

Wang, Haibo; Jiang, Yanchao; Shi, Dallas; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Wittchen, Erika S.; Li, Dean Y.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

2014-01-01

24

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Plays a Vital Role in Regulation of Rice Seed Vigor via Altering NADPH Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been reported to be important in normal plant growth and stress responses. In this study, it was verified that PI3K played a vital role in rice seed germination through regulating NADPH oxidase activity. Suppression of PI3K activity by inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 could abate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which resulted in disturbance to the seed germination. And then, the signal cascades that PI3K promoted the ROS liberation was also evaluated. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppressed most of ROS generation in rice seed germination, which suggested that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS in this process. Pharmacological experiment and RT-PCR demonstrated that PI3K promoted the expression of Os rboh9. Moreover, functional analysis by native PAGE and the measurement of the 2, 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazo-lium-5- carboxanilide (XTT) formazan concentration both showed that PI3K promoted the activity of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the western blot analysis of OsRac-1 demonstrated that the translocation of Rac-1 from cytoplasm to plasma membrane, which was known as a key factor in the assembly of NADPH oxidase, was suppressed by treatment with PI3K inhibitors, resulting in the decreased activity of NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these data favored the novel conclusion that PI3K regulated NADPH oxidase activity through modulating the recruitment of Rac-1 to plasma membrane and accelerated the process of rice seed germination. PMID:22448275

Liu, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

2012-01-01

25

Localizing NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules to mediate various biological responses, including cell migration, growth, and gene expression. ROS are diffusible and short-lived molecules. Thus, localizing the ROS signal at the specific subcellular compartment is essential for activating redox signaling events after receptor activation. NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase is one of the major sources of ROS in vasculature; it consists of a catalytic subunit (Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, or Nox5), p22phox, p47phox, p67phox, and the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1. Targeting of NADPH oxidase to focal complexes in lamellipodia and membrane ruffles through the interaction of p47phox with the scaffold proteins TRAF4 and WAVE1 provides a mechanism for achieving localized ROS production, which is required for directed cell migration. ROS are believed to inactivate protein tyrosine phosphatases, which concentrate in specific subcellular compartments, thereby establishing a positive feedback system that activates redox signaling pathways to promote cell movement. Additionally, ROS production may be localized through interactions of NADPH oxidase with signaling platforms associated with lipid rafts and caveolae, as well as with endosomes. There is also evidence that NADPH oxidase is found in the nucleus, indicating its involvement in redox-responsive gene expression. This review focuses on targeting of NADPH oxidase to discrete subcellular compartments as a mechanism of localizing ROS and activation of downstream redox signaling events that mediate various cell functions.

Masuko Ushio-Fukai (IL; University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago REV)

2006-08-22

26

Vascular NAD(P)H oxidase activation in diabetes: a double-edged sword in redox signalling.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress mediated by hyperglycaemia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes significantly to the development and progression of diabetes and related vascular complications. NAD(P)H oxidase has been implicated as the major source of ROS generation in the vasculature in response to high glucose and advanced glycation end-products. Sustained activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in diabetes may diminish intracellular levels of NADPH, an essential cofactor for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and several antioxidant systems. Recent evidence suggests that basal ROS production via NAD(P)H oxidase may upregulate antioxidant enzyme defenses via redox signalling. Thus, NAD(P)H oxidase may serve as a double-edged sword, with transient activation providing a feedback defense against excessive ROS generation through the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and the redox-sensitive Nrf2-Keap1 signalling pathway. Overproduction of ROS leads to eNOS uncoupling, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired antioxidant defenses owing to depletion of intracellular NADPH. Given the largely negative outcome of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of diabetic complications, targeting the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nfr2 may provide an effective strategy to restore antioxidant defenses in diabetes. PMID:19179352

Gao, Ling; Mann, Giovanni E

2009-04-01

27

Effects of F/G-actin ratio and actin turn-over rate on NADPH oxidase activity in microglia  

PubMed Central

Background Most in vivo studies that have addressed the role of actin dynamics in NADPH oxidase function in phagocytes have used toxins to modulate the polymerization state of actin and mostly effects on actin has been evaluated by end point measurements of filamentous actin, which says little about actin dynamics, and without consideration for the subcellular distribution of the perturbed actin cytoskeleton. Results Here, we in addition to toxins use conditional expression of the major actin regulatory protein LIM kinase-1 (LIMK1), and shRNA knock-down of cofilin to modulate the cellular F/G-actin ratio in the Ra2 microglia cell line, and we use Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) in ?-actin-YFP-transduced cells to obtain a dynamic measure of actin recovery rates (actin turn-over rates) in different F/G-actin states of the actin cytoskeleton. Our data demonstrate that stimulated NADPH oxidase function was severely impaired only at extreme actin recovery rates and F/G-actin ratios, and surprisingly, that any moderate changes of these parameters of the actin cytoskeleton invariably resulted in an increased NADPH oxidase activity. Conclusion moderate actin polymerization and depolymerization both increase the FMLP and PMA-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity of microglia, which is directly correlated with neither actin recovery rate nor F/G- actin ratio. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase functions in an enhanced state of activity in stimulated phagocytes despite widely different states of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:20825680

2010-01-01

28

Acute NADPH oxidase activation potentiates cerebrovascular permeability response to bradykinin in ischemia-reperfusion.  

PubMed

Free radical generation is a key event in cerebral reperfusion injury. Bradykinin (Bk) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) have both been implicated in edema formation after stroke, although acute Bk application itself results in only a modest permeability increase. We have investigated the molecular mechanism by assessing the permeability of single pial venules in a stroke model. Increased permeability on reperfusion was dependent on the duration of ischemia and was prevented by applying the B(2) receptor antagonist HOE 140. Postreperfusion permeability increases were mimicked by applying Bk (5?M) for 10 min and blocked by coapplying the IL-1 receptor antagonist with Bk. Furthermore, 10 min pretreatment with IL-1? resulted in a 3 orders of magnitude leftward shift of the acutely applied Bk concentration-response curve. The left shift was abolished by scavenging free radicals with superoxide dismutase and catalase. Apocynin coapplied with IL-1? completely blocked the potentiation, implying that NADPH oxidase assembly is the immediate target of IL-1?. In conclusion, this is first demonstration that bradykinin, released during cerebral ischemia, leads to IL-1? release, which in turn activates NADPH oxidase leading to blood-brain barrier breakdown. PMID:21167936

Woodfin, Abigail; Hu, De-En; Sarker, Mosharraf; Kurokawa, Tsuyoshi; Fraser, Paul

2011-02-15

29

Targeting NADPH oxidases in vascular pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is a molecular dysregulation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is characterized by a loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Large clinical trials such as HOPE and HPS have not shown a clinical benefit of antioxidant vitamin C or vitamin E treatment, putting into question the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. A change in the understanding of the molecular nature of oxidative stress has been driven by the results of these trials. Oxidative stress is no longer perceived as a simple imbalance between the production and scavenging of ROS, but as a dysfunction of enzymes involved in ROS production. NADPH oxidases are at the center of these events, underlying the dysfunction of other oxidases including eNOS uncoupling, xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus NADPH oxidases are important therapeutic targets. Indeed, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) as well as drugs interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibit NADPH oxidase activation and expression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, AT1 receptor antagonists (sartans) and aliskiren, as well as spironolactone or eplerenone, have been discussed. Molecular aspects of NADPH oxidase regulation must be considered, while thinking about novel pharmacological targeting of this family of enzymes consisting of several homologs Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4 and Nox5 in humans. In order to properly design trials of antioxidant therapies, we must develop reliable techniques for the assessment of local and systemic oxidative stress. Classical antioxidants could be combined with novel oxidase inhibitors. In this review, we discuss NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as VAS2870, VAS3947, GK-136901, S17834 or plumbagin. Therefore, our efforts must focus on generating small molecular weight inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, allowing the selective inhibition of dysfunctional NADPH oxidase homologs. This appears to be the most reasonable approach, potentially much more efficient than non-selective scavenging of all ROS by the administration of antioxidants. PMID:22405985

Schramm, Agata; Matusik, Pawe?; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz J

2012-01-01

30

NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content of human Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed B lymphocytes correlate with expression of genes encoding components of the oxidase system.  

PubMed

We investigated the NADPH oxidase activity, cytochrome b558 content, and gene expression of gp91-phox and p47-phox in normal Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-transformed B lymphocytes, compared to EBV-transformed B lymphocytes from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), normal peripheral blood neutrophils or mononuclear cells, and the A301 or C8166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. CGD phenotypes included both "classic" disease with no detectable gp91-phox protein (termed X91(0)) and "variant" phenotype with reduced but detectable gp91-phox protein (X91(-)). Normal EBV-transformed B lymphocytes show a dose-dependent PMA-induced superoxide release. Culturing these cells with IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and TNF-alpha (1000 U/ml), alone or in combination for 7 days, caused a modest increase in their NADPH oxidase activity (P > 0.05 in all situations). Normal EBV-transformed B lymphocytes have lower NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content than peripheral blood neutrophils or mononuclear cells (P < 0.05 in all situations). In contrast, they have higher NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content than X91(-) CGD EBV-transformed B lymphocytes (P < 0.05 in all situations). A301 or C8166 lymphoblastoid cell lines and X91(0) CGD EBV-transformed B lymphocytes have barely detectable NADPH oxidase activity or cytochrome b558 content (P < 0.05 in all situations). Gene expression studies also show a modest increase in expression and transcription rates of gp91-phox and p47-phox genes in normal EBV-transformed B cells cultured with IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and TNF-alpha (1000 U/ml), alone or in combination for 7 days. We conclude that NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content correlate with gp91-phox and p47-phox gene expression in EBV-transformed B lymphocytes. PMID:9851826

Condino-Neto, A; Newburger, P E

1998-12-15

31

[Expression and activity of polymorphisms in the 67-kDa protein of the NADPH oxidase system].  

PubMed

The NADPH oxidase system plays a central role in the antimicrobial activity of phagocytes. This system is initiated by the translocation of cytosolic proteins p67phox, p47phox and p40phox to be in close contact with membrane flavocytochrome b558. This event begins the electron transfer from cytosolic NADPH to molecular oxygen to produce superoxide anions. Herein, a functional analysis is presented of p67phox polymorphisms identified from healthy humans. Mutations were generated in the p67phox cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis and then transiently expressed in COS7 cells that also expressed gp91phox, p22phox, and p47phox from stable transgenes. The changes Va1166lle, Pro329Ser and His389Gln correspond to possible polymorphisms identified in healthy individuals revealed a functional activity similar to COSphox cells transiently transfected with WT p67phox; therefore, these modifications are not associated with genetic deficiencies in NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, the COSphox system represents an easily transfectable model for analysis of NADPH oxidase function in intact cells. The analysis of mutant derivatives of p67phox provides insight into molecular mechanisms by which this subunit regulates the NADPH oxidase. PMID:15551878

Arias, Andrés Augusto; Dinauer, Mary C; Ding, Jiabin; Matute, Juan David; Patińo, Pablo Javier

2004-09-01

32

Calcium mobilization and Rac1 activation are required for VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) stimulation of NADPH oxidase activity.  

PubMed Central

VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation in atherosclerosis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and transplantation. VCAM-1 activates endothelial cell NADPH oxidase, and this oxidase activity is required for VCAM-1-dependent lymphocyte migration. We reported previously that a mouse microvascular endothelial cell line promotes lymphocyte migration that is dependent on VCAM-1, but not on other known adhesion molecules. Here we have investigated the signalling mechanisms underlying VCAM-1 function. Lymphocyte binding to VCAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface activated an endothelial cell calcium flux that could be inhibited with anti-alpha4-integrin and mimicked by anti-VCAM-1-coated beads. VCAM-1 stimulation of calcium responses could be blocked by an inhibitor of intracellular calcium mobilization, a calcium channel inhibitor or a calcium chelator, resulting in the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity. Addition of ionomycin overcame the calcium channel blocker suppression of VCAM-1-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity, but could not reverse the inhibitory effect imposed by intracellular calcium blockage, indicating that both intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization are required for VCAM-1-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, VCAM-1 specifically activated the Rho-family GTPase Rac1, and VCAM-1 activation of NADPH oxidase was blocked by a dominant negative Rac1. Thus VCAM-1 stimulates the mobilization of intracellular and extracellular calcium and Rac1 activity that are required for the activation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:14594451

Cook-Mills, Joan M; Johnson, Jacob D; Deem, Tracy L; Ochi, Atsuo; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yi

2004-01-01

33

Elimination of NADPH Oxidase Activity Promotes Reductive Stress and Sensitizes the Heart to Ischemic Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The NADPH oxidase family (Nox) produces reactive oxygen species by adding the electron donated by NADPH to oxygen. Excessive reactive oxygen species production under a variety of pathological conditions has been attributed to increased Nox activity. Here, we aimed at investigating the role of Nox in cardiac ischemic injury through gain? and loss?of?function approaches. Methods and Results We modulated Nox activity in the heart by cardiac?specific expression of Nox4 and dominant negative Nox4. Modulation of Nox activity drastically changes the cellular redox status. Increasing Nox activity by cardiac?specific overexpression of Nox4 imposed oxidative stress on the myocardium [increased NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H and decreased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio] and worsened cardiac energetics and contractile function after ischemia?reperfusion. Overexpression of the dominant negative Nox4 (DN), which abolished the Nox function, led to a markedly reduced state [decreased NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H and increased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio] at baseline and paradoxically promoted mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production during ischemia resulting in no recovery of heart function after reperfusion. Limiting the generation of reducing equivalent through modulating carbon substrates availability partially restored the NAD+/NADH ratio and protected dominant negative Nox4 hearts from ischemic injury. Conclusions This study reveals an important role of Nox in cardiac redox regulation and highlights the complexity of developing therapies that affect the intricately connected redox states. PMID:24470522

Yu, Qiujun; Lee, Chi Fung; Wang, Wang; Karamanlidis, Georgios; Kuroda, Junya; Matsushima, Shouji; Sadoshima, Junichi; Tian, Rong

2014-01-01

34

Novel p47phox-related organizers regulate NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) activity and localization  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms that determine localized formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidases (Nox) in nonphagocytic cells are unknown. We show that the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 and Tks5 are functional members of a p47phox-related organizer superfamily. Tks proteins selectively support Nox1 and Nox3 (vs. Nox2 and Nox4) activity in reconstituted cellular systems, and interact with the NoxA1 activator protein through an SH3-mediated interaction. Endogenous Tks4 is required for Rac GTPase-dependent ROS production by DLD1 colon cancer cells. Tks4 recruits Nox1 to invadopodia that form in DLD1 cells in a Tks- and Nox-dependent fashion. We propose that Tks organizers represent novel members of an organizer superfamily that link Nox to localized ROS formation. PMID:19755710

Gianni, Davide; Diaz, Begońa; Taulet, Nicolas; Fowler, Bruce; Courtneidge, Sara A.; Bokoch, Gary M.

2010-01-01

35

Sphingomyelinase promotes oxidant production and skeletal muscle contractile dysfunction through activation of NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Elevated concentrations of sphingomyelinase (SMase) have been detected in a variety of diseases. SMase has been shown to increase muscle derived oxidants and decrease skeletal muscle force; however, the sub-cellular site of oxidant production has not been elucidated. Using redox sensitive biosensors targeted to the mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (Nox2), we demonstrate that SMase increased Nox2-dependent ROS and had no effect on mitochondrial ROS in isolated FDB fibers. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of Nox2 activity prevented SMase induced ROS production and provided protection against decreased force production in the diaphragm. In contrast, genetic overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the mitochondria did not prevent increased ROS production and offered no protection against decreased diaphragm function in response to SMase. Our study shows that SMase induced ROS production occurs in specific sub-cellular regions of skeletal muscle; however, the increased ROS does not completely account for the decrease in muscle function. PMID:25653619

Loehr, James A.; Abo-Zahrah, Reem; Pal, Rituraj; Rodney, George G.

2015-01-01

36

Sphingomyelinase promotes oxidant production and skeletal muscle contractile dysfunction through activation of NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of sphingomyelinase (SMase) have been detected in a variety of diseases. SMase has been shown to increase muscle derived oxidants and decrease skeletal muscle force; however, the sub-cellular site of oxidant production has not been elucidated. Using redox sensitive biosensors targeted to the mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (Nox2), we demonstrate that SMase increased Nox2-dependent ROS and had no effect on mitochondrial ROS in isolated FDB fibers. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of Nox2 activity prevented SMase induced ROS production and provided protection against decreased force production in the diaphragm. In contrast, genetic overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the mitochondria did not prevent increased ROS production and offered no protection against decreased diaphragm function in response to SMase. Our study shows that SMase induced ROS production occurs in specific sub-cellular regions of skeletal muscle; however, the increased ROS does not completely account for the decrease in muscle function. PMID:25653619

Loehr, James A; Abo-Zahrah, Reem; Pal, Rituraj; Rodney, George G

2014-01-01

37

Nitroarachidonic acid prevents NADPH oxidase assembly and superoxide radical production in activated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Nitration of arachidonic acid (AA) to nitroarachidonic acid (AANO2) leads to anti-inflammatory intracellular activities during macrophage activation. However, less is known about the capacity of AANO2 to regulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under pro-inflammatory conditions. One of the immediate responses upon macrophage activation involves the production of superoxide radical (O2·?), due to the NADPH dependent univalent reduction of oxygen to O2·? by the phagocytic NADPH-oxidase isoform (NOX2), being the activity of NOX2 the main source of O2·? in monocytes/macrophages. Since NOX2 and AA pathways are connected, we propose that AANO2can modulate macrophage activation by inhibiting O2·? formation by NOX2. When macrophages were activated in the presence of AANO2, a significant inhibition of NOX2 activity was observed as evaluated by cytochrome c reduction, luminol chemiluminescence, Amplex Red fluorescence and flow cytometry; this process also occurs in physiological mimic conditions within the phagosomes. AANO2 decreased O2·? production in a dose-(IC50= 4.1 ± 1.8 ?M AANO2) and time-dependent manner. The observed inhibition was not due to a decreased phosphorylation of the cytosolic subunits (e.g. p40phox and p47phox), as analyzed by immunoprecipitation and western blot. However, a reduction of the migration to the membrane of p47phox was obtained suggesting that the protective actions involve the prevention of the correct assembly of the active enzyme in the membrane. Finally, the observed in vitro effects were confirmed in an in vivo inflammatory model, where subcutaneous injection of AANO2 was able to decrease NOX2 activity in macrophages from thioglycolate treated mice. PMID:23318789

González-Perilli, Lucía; Álvarez, María Noel; Prolo, Carolina; Radi, Rafael; Rubbo, Homero; Trostchansky, Andrés

2013-01-01

38

Nitric oxide reduces NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) activity by reversible S-nitrosylation.  

PubMed

The NADPH oxidases (Noxs) are a family of transmembrane oxidoreductases that produce superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nox5 was the last of the conventional Nox isoforms to be identified and is a calcium-dependent enzyme that does not depend on accessory subunits for activation. Recently, Nox5 was shown to be expressed in human blood vessels and therefore the goal of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) can modulate Nox5 activity. Endogenously produced NO potently inhibited basal and stimulated Nox5 activity and this inhibition was reversible with chronic, but not acute, exposure to L-NAME. Nox5 activity was reduced by NO donors, iNOS, and eNOS and in endothelial cells and LPS-stimulated smooth muscle cells in a manner dependent on NO concentration. ROS production was diminished by NO in an isolated enzyme activity assay replete with surplus calcium and NADPH. There was no evidence for NO-dependent changes in tyrosine nitration, glutathiolation, or phosphorylation of Nox5. In contrast, there was evidence for the increased nitrosylation of Nox5 as determined by the biotin-switch assay and mass spectrometry. Four S-nitrosylation sites were identified and of these, mutation of C694 dramatically lowered Nox5 activity, NO sensitivity, and biotin labeling. Furthermore, coexpression of the denitrosylation enzymes thioredoxin 1 and GSNO reductase prevented NO-dependent inhibition of Nox5. The potency of NO against other Nox enzymes was in the order Nox1 ? Nox3 > Nox5 > Nox2, whereas Nox4 was refractory. Collectively, these results suggest that endogenously produced NO can directly S-nitrosylate and inhibit the activity of Nox5. PMID:22387196

Qian, Jin; Chen, Feng; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy; Pandey, Deepesh; Moseley, M Arthur; Foster, Matthew W; Black, Stephen M; Venema, Richard C; Stepp, David W; Fulton, David J R

2012-05-01

39

Nitric Oxide reduces NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) activity by reversible S-nitrosylation  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a family of transmembrane oxidoreductases that produce superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nox5 was the last of the conventional Nox isoforms to be identified and is a calcium-dependent enzyme that does not depend on accessory subunits for activation. Recently, Nox5 was shown to be expressed in human blood vessels and therefore the goal of current study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) can modulate Nox5 activity. Endogenously produced NO potently inhibited basal and stimulated Nox5 activity and inhibition was reversible with chronic, but not acute exposure to L-NAME. Nox5 activity was reduced by NO donors, iNOS, eNOS and in endothelial cells and LPS-stimulated smooth muscle cells in a manner dependent on NO concentration. ROS production was diminished by NO in an isolated enzyme activity assay replete with surplus calcium and NADPH. There was no evidence for NO-dependent changes in tyrosine nitration, glutathiolation or phosphorylation of Nox5. In contrast, there was evidence for the increased nitrosylation of Nox5 as determined by the biotin-switch assay and mass spectrometry. Four S-nitrosylation sites were identified and of these, mutation of C694 dramatically lowered Nox5 activity, NO-sensitivity and biotin-labeling. Furthermore, co-expression of the denitrosylation enzymes thioredoxin (Trx1) and GSNO reductase (GSNOR) prevented NO-dependent inhibition of Nox5. The potency of NO against other Nox enzymes was Nox1?Nox3>Nox5>Nox2 whereas Nox4 was refractory. Collectively, these results suggest that endogenously produced NO can directly S-nitrosylate and inhibit the activity of Nox5. PMID:22387196

Qian, Jin; Chen, Feng; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy; Pandey, Deepesh; Moseleley, M. Arthur; Foster, Matthew W.; Black, Stephen M.; Venema, Richard C.; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J.R.

2012-01-01

40

Diacylglycerol Kinases Terminate Diacylglycerol Signaling during the Respiratory Burst Leading to Heterogeneous Phagosomal NADPH Oxidase Activation*  

PubMed Central

It is commonly assumed that all phagosomes have identical molecular composition. This assumption has remained largely unchallenged due to a paucity of methods to distinguish individual phagosomes. We devised an assay that extends the utility of nitro blue tetrazolium for detection and quantification of NAPDH oxidase (NOX) activity in individual phagosomes. Implementation of this assay revealed that in murine macrophages there is heterogeneity in the ability of individual phagosomes to generate superoxide, both between and within cells. To elucidate the molecular basis of the variability in NOX activation, we employed genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors to evaluate the uniformity in the distribution of phospholipid mediators of the oxidative response. Despite variability in superoxide generation, the distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, and phosphatidic acid was nearly identical in all phagosomes. In contrast, diacylglycerol (DAG) was not generated uniformly across the phagosomal population, varying in a manner that directly mirrored superoxide production. Modulation of DAG levels suggested that NOX activation is precluded when phagosomes fail to reach a critical DAG concentration. In particular, forced expression of diacylglycerol kinase ? abrogated DAG accumulation at the phagosome, leading to impaired respiratory burst. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of DAG kinases or expression of an inactive diacylglycerol kinase ? mutant increased the proportion of DAG-positive phagosomes, concomitantly potentiating phagosomal NOX activity. Our data suggest that diacylglycerol kinases limit the extent of NADPH oxidase activation, curtailing the production of potentially harmful reactive oxygen species. The resulting heterogeneity in phagosome responsiveness could enable the survival of a fraction of invading microorganisms. PMID:23814057

Schlam, Daniel; Bohdanowicz, Michal; Chatilialoglu, Alexandros; Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Ueyama, Takehiko; Du, Guangwei; Grinstein, Sergio; Fairn, Gregory D.

2013-01-01

41

Preferential inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase (NOX) activity by diphenyleneiodonium chloride with NADPH as donor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cell-surface NADH oxidase (NOX) protein of plant and animal cells will utilize both NADH and NADPH as reduced electron donors for activity. The two activities are distinguished by a differential inhibition by the redox inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Using both plasma membranes and cells, activity with NADPH as donor was markedly inhibited by DPI at submicromolar concentrations, whereas with NADH as donor, DPI was much less effective or had no effect on the activity. The possibility of the inhibition being the result of two different enzymes was eliminated by the use of a recombinant NOX protein. The findings support the concept that NOX proteins serve as terminal oxidases for plasma membrane electron transport involving cytosolic reduced pyridine nucleotides as the natural electron donors and with molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor.

Morre, D. James

2002-01-01

42

Intestinal NADPH Oxidase 2 Activity Increases in a Neonatal Rat Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a complication of prematurity. The etiology is unknown, but is related to enteral feeding, ischemia, infection, and inflammation. Reactive oxygen species production, most notably superoxide, increases in NEC. NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates superoxide, but its activity in NEC remains unknown. We hypothesize that NOX-derived superoxide production increases in NEC. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, formula-fed, formula/LPS, formula/hypoxia, and NEC (formula, hypoxia, and LPS). Intestinal homogenates were analyzed for NADPH-dependent superoxide production. Changes in superoxide levels on days 0-4 were measured. Inhibitors for nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME) and NOX2 (GP91-ds-tat) were utilized. RT-PCR for eNOS, NOX1, GP91phox expression was performed. Immunofluorescence studies estimated the co-localization of p47phox and GP91phox in control and NEC animals on D1, D2, and D4. NEC pups generated more superoxide than controls on D4, while all other groups were unchanged. NADPH-dependent superoxide production was greater in NEC on days 0, 3, and 4. GP91-ds-tat decreased superoxide production in both groups, with greater inhibition in NEC. L-NAME did not alter superoxide production. Temporally, superoxide production varied minimally in controls. In NEC, superoxide generation was decreased on day 1, but increased on days 3-4. GP91phox expression was higher in NEC on days 2 and 4. NOX1 and eNOS expression were unchanged from controls. GP91phox and p47phox had minimal co-localization in all control samples and NEC samples on D1 and D2, but had increased co-localization on D4. In conclusion, this study proves that experimentally-induced NEC increases small intestinal NOX activity. All components of NEC model are necessary for increased NOX activity. NOX2 is the major source, especially as the disease progresses. PMID:25517730

Welak, Scott R.; Rentea, Rebecca M.; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Heinzerling, Nathan; Biesterveld, Ben; Liedel, Jennifer L.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Fredrich, Katherine M.; Gourlay, David M.

2014-01-01

43

The NADPH Oxidase NOX4 Drives Cardiac Differentiation: Role in Regulating Cardiac Transcription Factors and MAP Kinase Activation  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the NOX family of NADPH oxidases have been described to act as second messengers regulating cell growth and differentiation. However, such a function has hitherto not been convincingly demonstrated. We investigated the role of NOX-derived ROS in cardiac differentiation using mouse embryonic stem cells. ROS scavengers prevented the appearance of spontaneously beating cardiac cells within embryoid bodies. Down-regulation of NOX4, the major NOX isoform present during early stages of differentiation, suppressed cardiogenesis. This was rescued by a pulse of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide 4 d before spontaneous beating appears. Mechanisms of ROS-dependent signaling included p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and nuclear translocation of the cardiac transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C). Our results provide first molecular evidence that the NOX family of NADPH oxidases regulate vertebrate developmental processes. PMID:16775014

Li, Jian; Stouffs, Michael; Serrander, Lena; Banfi, Botond; Bettiol, Esther; Charnay, Yves; Steger, Klaus; Krause, Karl-Heinz

2006-01-01

44

Sildenafil Promotes eNOS Activation and Inhibits NADPH Oxidase in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. Aims We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Main Outcome Measures Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Results Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of P-eNOS (Ser-1177), eNOS/HSP90 interaction, P-AKT, protein expression of gp91(phox), and 4-HNE, in the sickle cell mouse penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. PMID:24251665

Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.

2014-01-01

45

Contribution of NADPH Oxidase to Membrane CD38 Internalization and Activation in Coronary Arterial Myocytes  

PubMed Central

The CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway importantly contributes to the vasomotor response in different arteries. Although there is evidence indicating that the activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase is associated with CD38 internalization, the molecular mechanism mediating CD38 internalization and consequent activation in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli remains poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that CD38 may sense redox signals and is thereby activated to produce cellular response and that the NADPH oxidase isoform, NOX1, is a major resource to produce superoxide (O2·?) in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs) in response to muscarinic receptor agonist, which uses CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase signaling pathway to exert its action in these CAMs. These findings led us hypothesize that NOX1-derived O2·? serves in an autocrine fashion to enhance CD38 internalization, leading to redox activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in mouse CAMs. To test this hypothesis, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and a membrane protein biotinylation assay were used in the present study. We first demonstrated that CD38 internalization induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) was inhibited by silencing of NOX1 gene, but not NOX4 gene. Correspondingly, NOX1 gene silencing abolished ET-1-induced O2·? production and increased CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in CAMs, while activation of NOX1 by overexpression of Rac1 or Vav2 or administration of exogenous O2·? significantly increased CD38 internalization in CAMs. Lastly, ET-1 was found to markedly increase membrane raft clustering as shown by increased colocalization of cholera toxin-B with CD38 and NOX1. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence that Rac1-NOX1-dependent O2·? production mediates CD38 internalization in CAMs, which may represent an important mechanism linking receptor activation with CD38 activity in these cells. PMID:23940720

Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Ritter, Joseph K.; Abais, Justine M.; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

2013-01-01

46

Substance P Exacerbates Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration through Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Independent Activation of Microglial NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1?/?), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose–response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91phox and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25209287

Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

2014-01-01

47

?-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Helicobacter pylori-Induced Oncogene Expression and Hyperproliferation by Suppressing the Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Gastric Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Hyperproliferation and oncogene expression are observed in the mucosa of Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma. Expression of oncogenes such as ?-catenin and c-myc is related to oxidative stress. ?-Lipoic acid (?-LA), a naturally occurring thiol compound, acts as an antioxidant and has an anticancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ?-LA on H. pylori-induced hyperproliferation and oncogene expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells by determining cell proliferation (viable cell numbers, thymidine incorporation), levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activation (enzyme activity, subcellular levels of NADPH oxidase subunits), activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-?B, AP-1), expression of oncogenes (?-catenin, c-myc), and nuclear localization of ?-catenin. Furthermore, we examined whether NADPH oxidase mediates oncogene expression and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells using treatment of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. As a result, ?-LA inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and, thus, reduced ROS production, resulting in inhibition on activation of NF-?B and AP-1, induction of oncogenes, nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. DPI inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-?B and AP-1, oncogene expression and hyperproliferation by reducing ROS levels in AGS cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibiting NADPH oxidase by ?-LA could prevent oncogene expression and hyperproliferation occurring in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. PMID:25210229

Byun, Eunyoung; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Hyeyoung

2014-01-01

48

Increased NADPH-Oxidase Activity and Nox4 Expression During Chronic Hypertension Is Associated With Enhanced Cerebral Vasodilatation to NADPH In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—We examined the importance of NADPH-oxidase in reactive oxygen species production in cerebral arteries and its effect on vascular tone in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated whether chronic hypertension affects function or expression of this enzyme in cerebral vessels. Methods—Superoxide generation was detected in isolated rat basilar arteries with the use of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. mRNA expression of NADPH-oxidase subunits

Tamara M. Paravicini; Sophocles Chrissobolis; Grant R. Drummond; Christopher G. Sobey

2010-01-01

49

Role of the Rho GTPase Rac in the activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of the membrane-associated cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox) and 4 cytosolic components: p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and the small GTPase, Rac, in complex with RhoGDI. Superoxide is produced by the NADPH-driven reduction of molecular oxygen, via a redox gradient located in Nox2. Electron flow in Nox2 is initiated by interaction with cytosolic components, which translocate to the membrane, p67phox playing the central role. The participation of Rac is expressed in the following sequence: (1) Translocation of the RacGDP-RhoGDI complex to the membrane; (2) Dissociation of RacGDP from RhoGDI; (3) GDP to GTP exchange on Rac, mediated by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor; (4) Binding of RacGTP to p67phox; (5) Induction of a conformational change in p67phox, promoting interaction with Nox2. The particular involvement of Rac in NADPH oxidase assembly serves as a paradigm for signaling by Rho GTPases, in general. PMID:24598074

Pick, Edgar

2014-01-01

50

Cloning and sequencing of rabbit leukocyte NADPH oxidase genes reveals a unique p67phox homolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NADPH oxidase plays an impor- tant role in immune and nonimmune cell functions. Because rabbits represent an established model for studying a number of important disease processes that involve NADPH oxidase activity, we carried out studies to clone and sequence all five rabbit leukocyte NADPH oxidase genes. Comparison of the rabbit sequences with those of other species showed that,

Katherine A. Gauss; Patrice L. Mascolo; Daniel W. Siemsen; Laura K. Nelson; Peggy L. Bunger; Patrick J. Pagano; Mark T. Quinn

51

Thrombospondin-1 Regulates Blood Flow via CD47 Receptor-Mediated Activation of NADPH Oxidase 1  

PubMed Central

Objective Although the matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is highly expressed in the vessel wall in response to injury, its pathophysiological role in the development of vascular disease is poorly understood. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that TSP1 stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and induces vascular dysfunction by promoting oxidative stress. Methods and Results Nanomolar concentrations of TSP1 found in human vascular disease robustly stimulated superoxide (O2•-) levels in VSMCs at both cellular and tissue level as measured by cytochrome c and electron paramagnetic resonance. A peptide mimicking the C?terminus of TSP1 known to specifically bind CD47 recapitulated this response. Transcriptional knockdown of CD47 and a monoclonal inhibitory CD47 antibody abrogated TSP1-triggered O2•? in vitro and ex vivo. TSP1-treatment of VSMCs activated phospholipase C and protein kinase C, resulting in phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) organizer subunit p47phox and subsequent Nox1 activation, leading to impairment of arterial vasodilatation ex vivo. Further, we observed that blockade of CD47 and Nox1 gene silencing in vivo in rats improves TSP1-induced impairment of tissue blood flow following ischemia reperfusion. Conclusion Our data suggest a highly-regulated process of ROS stimulation and blood flow regulation promoted through a direct TSP1/CD47-mediated activation of Nox1. This is the first report to our knowledge of a matricellular protein acting as a ligand for Nox activation and through specific engagement of integrin-associated protein CD47. PMID:23087362

Csányi, Gábor; Yao, Mingyi; Rodriguez, Andres I.; Al Ghouleh, Imad; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Frazziano, Giovanna; Xiaojun, Huang; Kelley, Eric E.; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.; Pagano, Patrick J.

2014-01-01

52

Maturation of NADPH-d activity in the rat's barrel-field cortex and its relationship to cytochrome oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Histochemical detection of NADPH-d activity in rat barrel-field cortex reveals four types of distributions. (i) A transient, diffuse neuropil staining is visible in the cortical plate and in deeper layers until postnatal day (P) 4. Thereafter, until P15, it is segregated in whisker-specific patches in layer IV, then the pattern gradually disappears, becoming virtually indistinct by P21. This transient patterning of diffuse NADPH-d activity in layer IV disappears after cortical injections of kainic acid and is affected by neonatal damage to the contralateral snout. An intense labeling (ii) of scattered cells and (iii) of a plexus of fibers is present. With maturation, the cells become localized mostly in layers II/III, in the lower part of layer V, and in layer VI. They are sparse in layer I, in upper layer V, and in layer IV where their somata are located primarily in the interbarrel septa. (iv) Light staining of cortical neurons is detected mostly in layers II-IV but occasionally also in layers V-VI. Cytochrome c oxidase (CO)-positive patches associated with barrels are first detected in layer IV around P4-P5; their staining density increases with development, then stays high. In the adult, CO activity is moderate in supragranular layers, highest in the barrels in layer IV, low in upper layer V, medium dense in the deeper half of layer V, and low in lamina VI. Thus, NADPH-d and CO activities are not necessarily colocalized in the rodent barrel-field cortex. The varied (transient and long-lasting) distributions of NADPH-d activity indicate that the enzyme and its associated production of NO serve multiple roles in developing and adult barrel-field cortex. PMID:10328937

Vercelli, A; Repici, M; Biasiol, S; Jhaveri, S

1999-04-01

53

Arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel stimulate cell growth via NADPH oxidase activation.  

PubMed

Exposure to metals and metalloids including arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and nickel has been a worldwide health problem for several decades. The aim of this study was to learn how metal-induced oxidative stress triggers cell proliferation, a process of great significance for cancer. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and cell proliferation were measured as endpoints in both NOX-deficient and NOX-proficient cells. The X chromosome linked CGD (X-CGD) human promyelocytic leukemia PLB-985 cells lacking gp91phox and the X-CGD cells re-transfected with gp91phox (X-CGD-gp91(phox)) were used together with immortalized human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The cells were exposed to different concentrations of the metals alone or together with the NOX inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). We found that the studied metals increased NOX activity. They stimulated cell proliferation in HaCaT and X-CGD-gp91(phox) cells at concentrations below 1?M but not in the X-CGD cells that lack functional NOX. Addition of DPI attenuated the metal-induced cell proliferation. At concentrations above 1?M these metals inhibited cell proliferation. Based on these findings, we propose that many environmental pollutants, including metals and also endogenous NOX-activators such as oxidants and growth factors, interfere with cell growth kinetics by increasing the levels of the diffusible molecule H2O2. Here, we provide evidence that NOXs is central to the mechanism of metal-mediated reactive oxygen species production and stimulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25446860

Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin; Rannug, Agneta

2014-11-10

54

Requirement for posttranslational processing of Rac GTP-binding proteins for activation of human neutrophil NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Rac1 and Rac2 are closely related, low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins that have both been implicated in regulation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. This enzyme system is composed of multiple membrane-bound and cytosolic subunits and when activated catalyzes the one-electron reduction of oxygen to superoxide. Superoxide and its highly reactive derivatives are essential for killing microorganisms. Rac proteins undergo posttranslational processing, primarily the addition of an isoprenyl group to a carboxyl-terminal cysteine residue. We directly compared recombinant Rac1 and Rac2 in a human neutrophil cell-free NADPH oxidase system in which cytosol was replaced by purified recombinant cytosolic components (p47-phox and p67-phox). Processed Rac1 and Rac2 were both highly active in this system and supported comparable rates of superoxide production. Under different cell-free conditions, however, in which suboptimal amounts of cytosol were present in the assay mixture, processed Rac2 worked much better than Rac1 at all but the lowest concentrations. This suggests that a factor in the cytosol may suppress the activity of Rac1 but not of Rac2. Unprocessed Rac proteins were only weakly able to support superoxide generation in either system, but preloading of Rac1 or Rac2 with guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio-triphosphate) (GTP gamma S) restored activity. These results indicate that processing is required for nucleotide exchange but not for interaction with oxidase components. Images PMID:8387355

Heyworth, P G; Knaus, U G; Xu, X; Uhlinger, D J; Conroy, L; Bokoch, G M; Curnutte, J T

1993-01-01

55

NecroX-7 prevents oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in rats  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cardiomyopathy. In the present study, NecroXs, novel class of mitochondrial ROS/RNS scavengers, were evaluated for cardioprotection in in vitro and in vivo model, and the putative mechanism of the cardioprotection of NecroX-7 was investigated by global gene expression profiling and subsequent biochemical analysis. NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced death of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes at EC{sub 50} = 0.057 ?M. In doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy in rats, NecroX-7 significantly reduced the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which were increased by DOX treatment (p < 0.05). Microarray analysis revealed that 21 genes differentially expressed in tBHP-treated H9C2 cells were involved in ‘Production of reactive oxygen species’ (p = 0.022), and they were resolved by concurrent NecroX-7 treatment. Gene-to-gene networking also identified that NecroX-7 relieved cell death through Ncf1/p47phox and Rac2 modulation. In subsequent biochemical analysis, NecroX-7 inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity by 53.3% (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that NecroX-7, in part, provides substantial protection of cardiomyopathy induced by tBHP or DOX via NOX-mediated cell death. -- Highlights: ? NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced in vitro cardiac cell death. ? NecroX-7 ameliorated doxorubicin-induced in vivo cardiomyopathy. ? NecroX-7 prevented oxidative stress and necrosis-enriched transcriptional changes. ? NecroX-7 effectively inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. ? Cardioprotection of Necro-7 was brought on by modulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

Park, Joonghoon; Park, Eok; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Jin [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)] [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-hoon [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Sun Young; Kwak, Hyo-Shin; Park, Heui Sul; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Myoungsub; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Seo, Dong Ook [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)] [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soon Ha, E-mail: shakim@lgls.com [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-15

56

The antioxidant activity of soursop decreases the expression of a member of the NADPH oxidase family.  

PubMed

Cellular oxidative stress produced by an increase in free radicals is one of the factors that promote the development of chronic degenerative diseases; therefore, consuming natural antioxidants helps minimize their negative effects. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of the soursop extract (Annona muricata), its cytoprotective capacity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, the inhibitory potential of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the molecular mechanism of its antioxidant action, and its capacity to repair cellular damage in the fibroblast cell line. The soursop extract proved not to be cytotoxic in fibroblast cultures and showed cytoprotective capacity against hydrogen peroxide-induced stress; in cell culture it reduced the generation of ROS significantly by inhibiting a sub-unit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme (p47phox). The soursop extract can prevent damage caused by cellular oxidants. PMID:24337133

Zamudio-Cuevas, Y; Díaz-Sobac, R; Vázquez-Luna, A; Landa-Solís, C; Cruz-Ramos, M; Santamaría-Olmedo, M; Martínez-Flores, K; Fuentes-Gómez, A J; López-Reyes, A

2014-02-01

57

Role of NADPH Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in Mediating Inducible VT/VF and Triggered Activity in a Canine Model of Myocardial Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF) of focal origin due to triggered activity (TA) from delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) is reproducibly inducible after anterior coronary artery occlusion. Both VT/VF and TA can be blocked by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase would block VT/VF. Methods: 69 dogs received apocynin (APO), 4 mg/kg intraveneously (IV), oxypurinol (OXY), 4 mg/kg IV, or both APO and OXY (BOTH) agents, or saline 3 h after coronary occlusion. Endocardium from ischemic sites (3-D mapping) was sampled for Rac1 (GTP-binding protein in membrane NADPH oxidase) activation or standard microelectrode techniques. Results (mean ± SE, * p < 0.05): VT/VF originating from ischemic zones was blocked by APO in 6/10 *, OXY in 4/9 *, BOTH in 5/8 * or saline in 1/27; 11/16 VT/VFs blocked were focal. In isolated myocardium, TA was blocked by APO (10?6 M) or OXY (10?8 M). Rac1 levels in ischemic endocardium were decreased by APO or OXY. Conclusion: APO and OXY suppressed focal VT/VF due to DADs, but the combination of the drugs was not more effective than either alone. Both drugs inhibited ischemic Rac1 with inhibition by OXY suggesting ROS-induced ROS. The inability to totally prevent VT/VF suggests that other mechanisms also contribute to ischemic VT. PMID:25375191

Martins, James B.; Chaudhary, Ashok K.; Jiang, Shuxia; Kwofie, Michael; Mackie, Prescott; Miller, Francis J.

2014-01-01

58

Fulvene-5 inhibition of Nadph oxidases attenuates activation of epithelial sodium channels in A6 distal nephron cells  

PubMed Central

Nadph oxidase 4 is an important cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the kidney. Novel antioxidant drugs, such as Nox4 inhibitor compounds, are being developed. There is, however, very little experimental evidence for the biological role and regulation of Nadph oxidase isoforms in the kidney. Herein, we show that Fulvene-5 is an effective inhibitor of Nox-generated ROS and report the role of Nox isoforms in activating epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in A6 distal nephron cells via oxidant signaling and cell stretch activation. Using single-channel patch-clamp analysis, we report that Fulvene-5 blocked the increase in ENaC activity that is typically observed with H2O2 treatment of A6 cells: average ENaC NPo values decreased from a baseline level of 1.04 ± 0.18 (means ± SE) to 0.25 ± 0.08 following Fulvene-5 treatment. H2O2 treatment failed to increase ENaC activity in the presence of Fulvene-5. Moreover, Fulvene-5 treatment of A6 cells blocked the osmotic cell stretch response of A6 cells, indicating that stretch activation of Nox-derived ROS plays an important role in ENaC regulation. Together, these findings indicate that Fulvene-5, and perhaps other classes of antioxidant inhibitors, may represent a novel class of compounds useful for the treatment of pathological disorders stemming from inappropriate ion channel activity, such as hypertension. PMID:23863470

Trac, David; Liu, Bingchen; Pao, Alan C.; Thomas, Sheela V.; Park, Michael; Downs, Charles A.; Ma, He-Ping

2013-01-01

59

Cigarette smoke-induced kinin B1 receptor promotes NADPH oxidase activity in cultured human alveolar epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Pulmonary inflammation is an important pathological feature of tobacco smoke-related lung diseases. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is up-regulated in the rat trachea chronically exposed to cigarette-smoke. This study aimed at determining (1) whether exposure to total particulate matter of the cigarette smoke (TPM) can induce B1R in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, (2) the mechanism of B1R induction, (3) the functionality of de novo synthesized B1R, and (4) the role of B1R in TPM-induced increase of superoxide anion (O?(??)) level. Results show that A549 cells exposed to 10 ?g/ml TPM increased O?(??) level along with B1R (protein and mRNA) and IL-1? mRNA. In contrast, B2R and TNF-? mRNA were not affected by TPM. The increasing effect of TPM on O?(??) level was not significantly affected by the B1R antagonist SSR240612. TPM-increased B1R mRNA was prevented by co-treatments with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (potent antioxidant), diphenyleneiodonium (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), IL-1Ra (interleukin-1R antagonist) and SN-50 (specific inhibitor of NF-kB activation) but not by pentoxifylline (TNF-? release inhibitor), indomethacin and niflumic acid (COX-1 and -2 inhibitors). Stimulation of B1R with a selective agonist (des-Arg?-BK, 10 ?M; 30 min) increased O?(??)production which was prevented by apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium (NADPH oxidase inhibitors). Data suggest that the increased expression of B1R by TPM in A549 cells is mediated by oxidative stress, IL-1? and NF-kB but not by cyclooxygenases or TNF-?. The amplification of O?(??) levels via the activation of B1R-NADPH oxidase may exacerbate pulmonary inflammation and contribute to the chronicity of tobacco smoke-related lung diseases. PMID:21600945

Talbot, Sébastien; Lin, James Chi-Jen; Lahjouji, Karim; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Sénécal, Jacques; Morin, André; Couture, Réjean

2011-07-01

60

Attenuation of urokinase activity during experimental ischaemia protects the cerebral barrier from damage through regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and NAD(P)H oxidase.  

PubMed

Ischaemic injury impairs the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated the molecular causes of this defect with regard to the putative correlations among NAD(P)H oxidase, plasminogen-plasmin system components, and matrix metalloproteinases. Hence, the activities of NAD(P)H oxidase, matrix metalloproteinase-2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and superoxide anion levels, were assessed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) alone or OGD followed by reperfusion (OGD + R). The integrity of an in vitro model of BBB comprising HBMECs and astrocytes was studied by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance and the paracellular flux of albumin. OGD with or without reperfusion (OGD ± R) radically perturbed barrier function while concurrently enhancing uPA, tPA and NAD(P)H oxidase activities and superoxide anion release in HBMECs. Pharmacological inactivation of NAD(P)H oxidase attenuated OGD ± R-mediated BBB damage through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tPA, but not uPA activity. Overactivation of NAD(P)H oxidase in HBMECs via cDNA electroporation of its p22-phox subunit confirmed the involvement of tPA in oxidase-mediated BBB disruption. Interestingly, blockade of uPA or uPA receptor preserved normal BBB function by neutralizing both NAD(P)H oxidase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities. Hence, selective targeting of uPA after ischaemic strokes may protect cerebral barrier integrity and function by concomitantly attenuating basement membrane degradation and oxidative stress. PMID:24649947

Rakkar, Kamini; Srivastava, Kirtiman; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

2014-06-01

61

Kaempferol modulates pro-inflammatory NF-?B activation by suppressing advanced glycation endproducts-induced NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) are oxidative products formed from the reaction between carbohydrates and a free amino group of proteins that are provoked by reactive species (RS). It is also known that AGE enhance the generation of RS and that the binding of AGE to a specific AGE receptor (RAGE) induces the activation of the redox-sensitive, pro-inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). In this current study, we investigated the anti-oxidative effects of short-term kaempferol supplementation on the age-related formation of AGE and the binding activity of RAGE in aged rat kidney. We further investigated the suppressive action of kaempferol against AGE's ability to stimulate activation of pro-inflammatory NF-?B and its molecular mechanisms. For this study, we utilized young (6 months old), old (24 months old), and kaempferol-fed (2 and 4 mg/kg/day for 10 days) old rats. In addition, for the molecular work, the rat endothelial cell line, YPEN-1 was used. The results show that AGE and RAGE were increased during aging and that these increases were blunted by kaempferol. In addition, dietary kaempferol reduced age-related increases in NF-?B activity and NF-?B-dependant pro-inflammatory gene activity. The most significant new finding from this study is that kaempferol supplementation prevented age-related NF-?B activation by suppressing AGE-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase). Taken together, our results demonstrated that dietary kaempferol exerts its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions by modulating the age-related NF-?B signaling cascade and its pro-inflammatory genes by suppressing AGE-induced NADPH oxidase activation. Based on these data, dietary kaempferol is proposed as a possible anti-AGE agent that may have the potential for use in anti-inflammation therapies. PMID:20431987

Kim, Ji Min; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Dae Hyun; Yu, Byung Pal

2010-01-01

62

Erythrocyte NADPH oxidase activity modulated by Rac GTPases, PKC, and plasma cytokines contributes to oxidative stress in sickle cell disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation has emerged as an important pathogenic mechanism in sickle cell disease (SCD). One component of this inflammatory response is oxidant stress mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by leukocytes, endothelial cells, plasma enzymes, and sickle red blood cells (RBC). Sickle RBC ROS generation has been attributed to sickle hemoglobin auto-oxidation and Fenton chemistry reactions catalyzed by denatured heme moieties bound to the RBC membrane. In this study, we demonstrate that a significant part of ROS production in sickle cells is mediated enzymatically by NADPH oxidase, which is regulated by protein kinase C, Rac GTPase, and intracellular Ca2+ signaling within the sickle RBC. Moreover, plasma from patients with SCD and isolated cytokines, such as transforming growth factor ?1 and endothelin-1, enhance RBC NADPH oxidase activity and increase ROS generation. ROS-mediated damage to RBC membrane components is known to contribute to erythrocyte rigidity and fragility in SCD. Erythrocyte ROS generation, hemolysis, vaso-occlusion, and the inflammatory response to tissue damage may therefore act in a positive-feedback loop to drive the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease. These findings suggest a novel pathogenic mechanism in SCD and may offer new therapeutic targets to counteract inflammation and RBC rigidity and fragility in SCD. PMID:23349388

Pushkaran, Suvarnamala; Konstantinidis, Diamantis G.; Koochaki, Sebastian; Malik, Punam; Mohandas, Narla; Zheng, Yi; Joiner, Clinton H.; Kalfa, Theodosia A.

2013-01-01

63

Early Events Induced by the Elicitor Cryptogein in Tobacco Cells: Involvement of a Plasma Membrane NADPH Oxidase and Activation of Glycolysis and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.  

PubMed Central

Application of the elicitor cryptogein to tobacco (cv Xanthi) is known to evoke external medium alkalinization, active oxygen species production, and phytoalexin synthesis. These are all dependent on an influx of calcium. We show here that cryptogein also induces calcium-dependent plasma membrane depolarization, chloride efflux, cytoplasm acidification, and NADPH oxidation without changes in NAD+ and ATP levels, indicating that the elicitor-activated redox system, responsible for active oxygen species production, uses NADPH in vivo. NADPH oxidation activates the functioning of the pentose phosphate pathway, leading to a decrease in glucose 6-phosphate and to the accumulation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, 3- and 2-phosphoglyceric acid, and phosphoenolpyruvate. By inhibiting the pentose phosphate pathway, we demonstrate that the activation of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase is responsible for active oxygen species production, external alkalinization, and acidification of the cytoplasm. A model is proposed for the organization of the cryptogein responses measured to date. PMID:12237354

Pugin, A.; Frachisse, J. M.; Tavernier, E.; Bligny, R.; Gout, E.; Douce, R.; Guern, J.

1997-01-01

64

NADPH OXIDASE IN STROKE AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase (NOX) was originally identified in immune cells as playing an important microbicidal role. In stroke and cerebrovascular disease, inflammation is increasingly being recognized as contributing negatively to neurological outcome, with NOX as an important source of superoxide. Several labs have now shown that blocking or deleting NOX in the experimental stroke models protects from brain ischemic. Recent work has implicated glucose as an important NOX substrate leading to reperfusion injury, and that NOX inhibition can improve the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on stroke. NOX inhibition also appears to ameliorate complications of thrombolytic therapy by reducing blood brain barrier disruption, edema formation and hemorrhage. Further, NOX from circulating inflammatory cells seems to contribute more to ischemic injury more than NOX generated from endogenous brain residential cells. Several pharmacological inhibitors of NOX are now available. Thus, blocking NOX activation may prove to be a promising treatment for stroke as well as an adjunctive agent to prevent its secondary complications. PMID:22643077

Tang, Xian Nan; Cairns, Belinda; Kim, Jong Youl; Yenari, Midori A.

2013-01-01

65

Phagocyte NADPH oxidase and specific immunity.  

PubMed

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2 produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a well-known player in host defence. However, there is also increasing evidence for a regulatory role of NOX2 in adaptive immunity. Deficiency in phagocyte NADPH oxidase causes chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) in humans, a condition that can also be studied in CGD mice. Clinical observations in CGD patients suggest a higher susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, in particular lupus, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and rheumatoid arthritis. In mice, a strong correlation exists between a polymorphism in a NOX2 subunit and the development of autoimmune arthritis. NOX2 deficiency in mice also favours lupus development. Both CGD patients and CGD mice exhibit increased levels of immunoglobulins, including autoantibodies. Despite these phenotypes suggesting a role for NOX2 in specific immunity, mechanistic explanations for the typical increase of CGD in autoimmune disease and antibody levels are still preliminary. NOX2-dependent ROS generation is well documented for dendritic cells and B-lymphocytes. It is unclear whether T-lymphocytes produce ROS themselves or whether they are exposed to ROS derived from dendritic cells during the process of antigen presentation. ROS are signalling molecules in virtually any cell type, including T- and B-lymphocytes. However, knowledge about the impact of ROS-dependent signalling on T- and B-lymphocyte phenotype and response is still limited. ROS might contribute to Th1/Th2/Th17 cell fate decisions during T-lymphocyte activation and might enhance immunoglobulin production by B-lymphocytes. In dendritic cells, NOX2-derived ROS might be important for antigen processing and cell activation. PMID:25760962

Cachat, Julien; Deffert, Christine; Hugues, Stephanie; Krause, Karl-Heinz

2015-05-01

66

NADPH Oxidase-Induced NALP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Driven by Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein Which Contributes to Podocyte Injury in Hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major causes of end-stage renal disease, and previously we demonstrated that NALP3 inflammasome was involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Here we investigated the mechanisms of NALP3 inflammasome activation in podocyte injury during DN. We found that, besides the activation of NALP3 inflammasome and upregulated thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), the glomerular expression of gp91phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, was enhanced in DN mice simultaneously. Inhibiting NADPH oxidase abrogated NALP3 inflammasome activation, and IL-1? production and eventually protected podocytes from high glucose- (HG-) induced injury. TXNIP, an inhibitor of thioredoxin, acts as a suppressor for antioxidant defense system. Our observation indicated that in HG-exposed podocytes genetic deletion of TXNIP by shRNA reversed gp91phox overexpression and alleviated the injury of podocyte. Collectively, our findings proposed that HG-induced NADPH oxidase activation was driven by TXNIP which subsequently triggered NALP3 inflammasome activation in podocytes and ultimately led to podocyte injury, and blocking TXNIP/NADPH oxidase signaling may be a promising treatment for DN.

Gao, Pan; He, Fang-Fang; Tang, Hui; Lei, Chun-Tao; Chen, Shan; Meng, Xian-Fang; Su, Hua; Zhang, Chun

2015-01-01

67

NADPH oxidase: recent evidence for its role in erectile dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Important roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in physiology and pathophysiology have been increasingly recognized. Under normal conditions, ROS serve as signaling molecules in the regulation of cellular functions. However, enhanced ROS production as a result of the activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase contributes significantly to the pathogeneses of vascular diseases. Although it has become evident that increased ROS is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), the sources of ROS in the penis remain largely unknown. In recent years, emergent evidence suggests the possible role of NADPH oxidase in inducing ED. In this review, we examine the relationship between ROS and ED in different disease models and discuss the current evidence basis for NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in ED. PMID:18087638

Jin, Liming; Burnett, Arthur L.

2015-01-01

68

AMPK?2 deletion Causes Aberrant Expression and Activation of NAD(P)H Oxidase and Consequent Endothelial Dysfunction in vivo: Role of 26S Proteasomes  

PubMed Central

Rational AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor and ubiquitously expressed in vascular cells. Recent studies suggest that AMPK activation improves endothelial function by counteracting oxidative stress in endothelial cells. How AMPK suppresses oxidative stress remains to be established. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMPK in regulating NAD(P)H oxidase, oxidative stress and endothelial function. Methods and Results AMPK activity, the markers of oxidative stress, NAD(P)H oxidase subunit expression (gp91phox, p47phox, p67phox, NOX1-4), NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated superoxide production, 26S proteasome activity, I?B? degradation, and nuclear translocation of NF-?B (p50 and p65) were examined in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and mouse aortas isolated from AMPK?2 deficient mice. Compared to the wild type, acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in parallel with increased production of oxidants in AMPK?2?/? mice. Further, pretreatment of aorta with either superoxide dismutase or Tempol or apocynin significantly improved Ach-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in AMPK?2?/? mice. Analysis of aortic endothelial cells from AMPK?2?/? mice and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) expressing dominant negative AMPK or AMPK ?2-specific siRNA revealed that loss of AMPK activity increased NAD(P)H oxidase subunit expression (gp91phox, p47phox, p67phox, NOX1-4), NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated superoxide production, 26S proteasome activity, I?B? degradation, and nuclear translocation of NF-?B (p50 and p65), whereas AMPK activation by AICAR or over-expression of constitutively active AMPK had the opposite effect. Consistently, we found that genetic deletion of AMPK?2 in LDL receptor knockout (LDLr?/?) strain markedly increased 26S proteasome activity, I?B degradation, NF-?B transactivation, NAD(P)H oxidase subunit overexpression, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis, all of which were largely suppressed by chronic administration of MG132, a potent cell permeable proteasome inhibitor.. Conclusion We conclude that AMPK?2 functions as a physiological suppressor of NAD(P)H oxidase and ROS production in endothelial cells. In this way AMPK maintains the non-atherogenic and non-inflammatory phenotype of endothelial cells. PMID:20167927

Wang, Shuangxi; Zhang, Miao; Liang, Bin; Xu, Jian; Xie, Zhonglin; Liu, Chao; Viollet, Benoit; Yan, Daoguang; Zou, Ming-Hui

2010-01-01

69

Escherichia coli-Induced Activation of Neutrophil NADPH-Oxidase: Lipopolysaccharide and Formylated Peptides Act Synergistically To Induce Release of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view of neutrophil NADPH-oxidase activation during interaction with bacteria is that the production of toxic oxygen metabolites should be directed into the phagosome containing the engulfed prey. However, in this report we show that a common Escherichia coli strain, HB101, may induce a release of neutrophil oxygen metabolites to the extracellular milieu. This phenomenon is dependent on three

ANNA KARLSSON; MICHAEL MARKFJALL; NICKLAS STROMBERG; ANDCLAES DAHLGREN

70

Adverse Cognitive Effects of High-Fat Diet in a Murine Model of Sleep Apnea Are Mediated by NADPH Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, such as occurs in sleep apnea (SA), induces increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation and deficits in hippocampal learning and memory. Similar to IH, high fat-refined carbohydrate diet (HFD), a frequent occurrence in patients with SA, can also induce similar oxidative stress and cognitive deficits under normoxic conditions, suggesting that excessive NADPH oxidase activity may underlie central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction in both conditions. The effect of HFD and IH during the light period on two forms of spatial learning in the water maze as well as on markers of oxidative stress was assessed in male mice lacking NADPH oxidase activity (gp91phox-/Y) and wild-type littermates fed HFD. On a standard place training task, gp91phox_/Y displayed normal learning, and was protected from the spatial learning deficits observed in wild-type littermates exposed to IH. Moreover, anxiety levels were increased in wild-type mice exposed to HFD and IH as compared to controls, while no changes emerged in gp91phox_/Y mice. Additionally, wild-type mice, but not gp91phox_/Y mice, had significantly elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hippocampal lysates following IH-HFD exposures. The cognitive deficits of obesity and westernized diets and those of sleep disorders that are characterized by IH during sleep are both mediated, at least in part, by excessive NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:23064009

Nair, D.; Ramesh, V.; Gozal, D.

2012-01-01

71

Endothelin 1 activation of endothelin A receptor/NADPH oxidase pathway and diminished antioxidants critically contribute to endothelial progenitor cell reduction and dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension.  

PubMed

Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are reduced in hypertension, which inversely correlates with its mortality. Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension features elevated endothelin (ET) 1 and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that ET-1 induces EPC dysfunction by elevating oxidative stress through the ET(A)/NADPH oxidase pathway in salt-sensitive hypertension. Both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors were expressed in EPCs, but only ET(A) receptors were significantly increased in EPCs of DOCA-salt rats. EPC number and function were reduced in DOCA-salt rats compared with sham controls, and both were reversed by in vivo blockade of ET(A) receptors or NADPH oxidase. The enzymatic activities of NAPDH oxidase and its subunits gp91(phox), p22(phox), and Rac1 were augmented in EPCs of DOCA-salt rats, with concomitantly decreased antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase 1. Reactive oxygen species level was elevated in EPCs from DOCA-salt rats, accompanied by increased EPC telomerase inactivation, senescence, and apoptosis, which were rescued by ET(A) or NADPH oxidase blockade. Cell therapy of normal or treated DOCA EPCs, but not untreated DOCA EPCs, significantly increased capillary density and blood perfusion in ischemic hindlimbs of DOCA-salt rats. p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were increased in EPCs of DOCA-salt rats, which were reversed by ET(A) antagonist, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, or polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase. Finally, in ET(B)-deficient rats, plasma ET-1 was elevated, and EPC number and telomerase activity were diminished. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that both ET-1 activation of ET(A)/NADPH oxidase pathway and diminished antioxidants critically contribute to EPC reduction and dysfunction via increased oxidative stress in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:22431579

Chen, Dan-Dan; Dong, Yu-Gang; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Alex F

2012-05-01

72

Essential role of nuclear factor-?B for NADPH oxidase activity in normal and anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia leukocytes  

PubMed Central

This work investigated the functional role of nuclear factor–?B (NF-?B) in respiratory burst activity and in expression of the human phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase genes CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, and NCF2. U937 cells with a stably transfected repressor of NF-?B (I?B?-S32A/S36A) demonstrated significantly lower superoxide release and lower CYBB and NCF1 gene expression compared with control U937 cells. We further tested Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells from patients with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID), an inherited disorder of NF-?B function. Superoxide release and CYBB gene expression by EDA-ID cells were significantly decreased compared with healthy cells and similar to cells from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X910 CGD). NCF1 gene expression in EDA-ID S32I cells was decreased compared with healthy control cells and similar to that in autosomal recessive (A470) CGD cells. Gel shift assays demonstrated loss of recombinant human p50 binding to a NF-?B site 5? to the CYBB gene in U937 cells treated with NF-?B inhibitors, repressor-transfected U937 cells, and EDA-ID patients' cells. Zymosan phagocytosis was not affected by transfection of U937 cells with the NF-?B repressor. These studies show that NF-?B is necessary for CYBB and NCF1 gene expression and activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase in this model system. PMID:18523147

Luengo-Blanco, Marcos; Prando, Carolina; Bustamante, Jacinta; Aragăo-Filho, Walmir Cutrim; Pereira, Paulo Vitor Soeiro; Rehder, Jussara; Padden, Carolyn; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Condino-Neto, Antonio

2008-01-01

73

Female mice lacking active nadph-oxidase enzymes are protected against “western diet”--induced obesity and metabolic syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes have been implicated in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and inflammation in a variety of tissues. We examined the effects of feeding AIN-93G or a “Western diet” (WD) (45% fat, 0.5% cholesterol) on development of obesity and “metabolic syndrome” in wild type (WT) m...

74

NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells  

SciTech Connect

TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-? induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-? induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF-? induces MMP-9 expression via a NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent NF-?B signaling. • TNF-? activates MAPK phosphorylation through NADPH oxidase/ROS generation.

Yang, Chuen-Mao, E-mail: chuenmao@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Heart Failure Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Lee, I-Ta [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthetics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

2013-10-15

75

Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation  

SciTech Connect

Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. > GSE reduced arsenic-mediated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). > Beneficial effects of GSE on As-induced liver injury was via inhibition of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation.

Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing; Niu Nannan; Li Wenjie; Liu Fangli; Zhao Yang; Yu Zengli, E-mail: zly@zzu.edu.cn

2011-08-01

76

Perturbation of actin dynamics induces NF-?B activation in myelomonocytic cells through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway  

PubMed Central

Although several reports showed the effect of compounds disrupting microtubules on NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) activation, nothing is known about agents perturbing actin dynamics. In the present study, we have shown that actin cytoskeleton disruption induced by actin-depolymerizing agents such as cytochalasin D and latrunculin B and actin-polymerizing compounds such as jasplakinolide induced NF-?B activation in myelomonocytic cells. The transduction pathway involved the I?B (inhibitory ?B) kinase complex and a degradation of I?B?. We have shown that NF-?B activation in response to the perturbation of actin dynamics required reactive oxygen species, as demonstrated by the effect of antioxidants. Actin cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D induced O2? release from human monocytes, through the activation of the NADPH oxidase, as confirmed by the phosphorylation and by the membrane translocation of p47phox. NF-?B activation after actin cytoskeleton disruption could be physiologically relevant during monocyte activation and/or recruitment into injured tissues, where cellular attachment, migration and phagocytosis result in cyclic shifts in cytoskeletal organization and disorganization. PMID:15535802

2004-01-01

77

Lysophosphatidylcholine-induced elevation of asymmetric dimethylarginine level by the NADPH oxidase pathway in endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggested that endothelium is a main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the major source was via NADPH oxidase pathway. Various stimuli including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), a major component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), can enhance the activity of NADPH oxidase and lead to a marked ROS generation. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase

Su-Jie Jia; De-Jian Jiang; Chang-Ping Hu; Xiao-Hong Zhang; Han-Wu Deng; Yuan-Jian Li

2006-01-01

78

Regulation of Rice NADPH Oxidase by Binding of Rac GTPase to Its N-Terminal Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase play critical roles in various cellular activities, including plant innate immunity response. In contrast with the large multiprotein NADPH oxidase complex of phagocytes, in plants, only the homologs of the catalytic subunit gp91phox and the cytosolic regulator small GTPase Rac are found. Plant homologs of the gp91phox subunit are known as Rboh

Hann Ling Wong; Reinhard Pinontoan; Kokoro Hayashi; Ryo Tabata; Takashi Yaeno; Kana Hasegawa; Chojiro Kojima; Hirofumi Yoshioka; Koh Iba; Tsutomu Kawasaki; Ko Shimamoto

2007-01-01

79

Premature Skin Aging Features Rescued by Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Activity in XPC-Deficient Mice.  

PubMed

Xeroderma pigmentosum type C (XP-C) is characterized mostly by a predisposition to skin cancers and accelerated photoaging, but little is known about premature skin aging in this disease. By comparing young and old mice, we found that the level of progerin and p16(INK4a) expression, ?-galactosidase activity, and reactive oxygen species, which increase with age, were higher in young Xpc(-/-) mice than in young Xpc(+/+) ones. The expression level of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial functions in the skin of young Xpc(-/-) was as low as in control aged Xpc(+/+)animals. Furthermore, the metabolic profile in young Xpc(-/-) mice resembled that found in aged Xpc(+/+) mice. Furthermore, premature skin aging features in young Xpc(-/-) mice were mostly rescued by inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity by using a NOX1 peptide inhibitor, suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress due to overactivation of NOX1 has a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25437426

Hosseini, Mohsen; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Raad, Houssam; Harfouche, Ghida; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Mazurier, Frederic; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

2015-04-01

80

Fibrillar beta-amyloid peptide Abeta1-40activates microglial proliferation via stimulating TNF-alpha release and H2O2derived from NADPH oxidase: a cell culture study  

E-print Network

, catalase and EUKs (Fig. 6), indicating that A?-induced production or release of IL- 1? is dependent on hydrogen peroxide from active NADPH oxidase. Apocynin, catalase and EUKs alone also The effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor and hydrogen peroxide scavengers... on 24 hour treatment with A?1–40 peptide-induced NF-? release from microgliaFigure 5 The effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor and hydrogen peroxide scavengers on 24 hour treatment with A?1–40 peptide-induced TNF-? release from microglia. Microglial...

Jekabsone, Aiste; Mander, Palwinder K; Tickler, Anna; Sharpe, Martyn; Brown, Guy C

2006-09-07

81

NecroX-7 prevents oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cardiomyopathy. In the present study, NecroXs, novel class of mitochondrial ROS/RNS scavengers, were evaluated for cardioprotection in in vitro and in vivo model, and the putative mechanism of the cardioprotection of NecroX-7 was investigated by global gene expression profiling and subsequent biochemical analysis. NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced death of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes at EC(50)=0.057 ?M. In doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy in rats, NecroX-7 significantly reduced the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which were increased by DOX treatment (p<0.05). Microarray analysis revealed that 21 genes differentially expressed in tBHP-treated H9C2 cells were involved in 'Production of reactive oxygen species' (p=0.022), and they were resolved by concurrent NecroX-7 treatment. Gene-to-gene networking also identified that NecroX-7 relieved cell death through Ncf1/p47phox and Rac2 modulation. In subsequent biochemical analysis, NecroX-7 inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity by 53.3% (p<0.001). These findings demonstrate that NecroX-7, in part, provides substantial protection of cardiomyopathy induced by tBHP or DOX via NOX-mediated cell death. PMID:22659508

Park, Joonghoon; Park, Eok; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Park, Ji-hoon; Koo, Sun Young; Kwak, Hyo-Shin; Park, Heui Sul; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Myoungsub; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Seo, Dong Ook; Kim, Soon Ha

2012-08-15

82

p21-activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes  

PubMed Central

Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca2+ handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1-/-) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1-/- VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1-/- VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca2+]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca2+ release events and waves. The Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1-/- VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47phox-/-) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1-/- VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca2+ overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident. PMID:24380729

DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R. John; Banach, Kathrin

2014-01-01

83

Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating JNK and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Khz is a compound derived from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia that inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The results of the present study show that Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz induced apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and activating JNK to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was demonstrated by the translocation of regulatory subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox) to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz. Khz triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which activated JNK. JNK plays a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47(phox) and p67(phox) subunits and ROS generation. In summary, these data indicate that Khz preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells, and the signaling mechanisms involve an increase in [Ca(2+)](i), JNK activation, and ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and mitochondria. PMID:23056263

Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju sung; Kim, Zoo haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Wang, Ren Sheng

2012-01-01

84

Quercetin and its metabolites inhibit the membrane NADPH oxidase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts antioxidant effects reducing vascular superoxide (O2(-)) and improving endothelial function in animal models of cardiovascular disease. Herein we evaluated the effects of quercetin, and its plasma metabolites, on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity, the main source of O2(-) in the vessel wall, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin and kaempferol inhibited the NADPH-stimulated lucigenin-chemiluminescence signal in VSMCs from both strains. The inhibitory effect of quercetin-3-glucuronide increased after prolonged incubation and was inhibited in the presence of the ?-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharolactone. These effects were unrelated to their O2(-) scavenging properties, since they induced only a small inhibition of the rate of pyrogallol autoxidation at high concentrations. All bioflavonoids tested acted as non-competitive inhibitors with respect to NADPH. In conclusion, quercetin and its metabolites inhibit the NADPH oxidase activity in VSMCs reducing O2(-) generation more efficiently than their effect as O2(-) scavengers. The effect of quercetin-3-glucuronide was due to deconjugation and release of free quercetin. The effect is similar in VSMCs from normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25562607

Jimenez, R; Lopez-Sepulveda, R; Romero, M; Toral, M; Cogolludo, A; Perez-Vizcaino, F; Duarte, J

2015-02-11

85

Exploiting algal NADPH oxidase for biophotovoltaic energy  

E-print Network

synthetic gene construct containing the complete RBO1 gene model (Table 1). Three independently transformed strains were selected by antibiotic resistance and confirmed for RBO1 by PCR (Figure 5a). These were compared for light-dependent O#1;#3;2 production... the electron transport proteins that contribute power output in the devices remains a fundamental goal in the development of these biological solar cells. Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases (NOX) are found in animals, plants and algae. They are encoded in animals...

Anderson, Alexander; Laohavisit, Anuphon; Blaby, Ian K.; Bombelli, Paolo; Howe, Christopher J.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Davies, Julia M.; Smith, Alison G.

2015-01-29

86

A Drosophila model for the screening of bioavailable NADPH oxidase inhibitors and antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH oxidase is the major source of non-mitochondrial cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also is reported to be\\u000a a major cause of various diseases including atherosclerosis and hypertension. In order to screen a new curative reagent that\\u000a can suppress NADPH oxidase activity, we developed a Drosophila melanogaster fly that would overexpress human Dual oxidase 2 (hDuox2), a member of

Nguyen Thi Tu Anh; Maiko Nishitani; Shigeharu Harada; Masamitsu Yamaguchi; Kaeko Kamei

2011-01-01

87

Rac GTPase and the Regulation of NADPH Oxidase in Rice Innate Immunity Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase play critical roles in various plant growth, development and defense\\u000a against pathogens. Plant NADPH oxidases are called regulatory burst oxidase homolog or Rboh. Although Rboh has been isolated\\u000a from numerous plant species, the molecular mechanism of the regulation of its enzymatic activity remains unclear. All rboh genes identified to date possess a

Hann Ling Wong; Tsutomu Kawasaki; Ko Shimamoto

88

Adenosine A1 receptor activation is arrhythmogenic in the developing heart through NADPH oxidase/ERK- and PLC/PKC-dependent mechanisms.  

PubMed

Whether adenosine, a crucial regulator of the developing cardiovascular system, can provoke arrhythmias in the embryonic/fetal heart remains controversial. Here, we aimed to establish a mechanistic basis of how an adenosinergic stimulation alters function of the developing heart. Spontaneously beating hearts or dissected atria and ventricle obtained from 4-day-old chick embryos were exposed to adenosine or specific agonists of the receptors A(1)AR (CCPA), A(2A)AR (CGS-21680) and A(3)AR (IB-MECA). Expression of the receptors was determined by quantitative PCR. The functional consequences of blockade of NADPH oxidase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC) and L-type calcium channel (LCC) in combination with adenosine or CCPA, were investigated in vitro by electrocardiography. Furthermore, the time-course of ERK phosphorylation was determined by western blotting. Expression of A(1)AR, A(2A)AR and A(2B)AR was higher in atria than in ventricle while A(3)AR was equally expressed. Adenosine (100?M) triggered transient atrial ectopy and second degree atrio-ventricular blocks (AVB) whereas CCPA induced mainly Mobitz type I AVB. Atrial rhythm and atrio-ventricular propagation fully recovered after 60min. These arrhythmias were prevented by the specific A(1)AR antagonist DPCPX. Adenosine and CCPA transiently increased ERK phosphorylation and induced arrhythmias in isolated atria but not in ventricle. By contrast, A(2A)AR and A(3)AR agonists had no effect. Interestingly, the proarrhythmic effect of A(1)AR stimulation was markedly reduced by inhibition of NADPH oxidase, ERK, PLC, PKC or LCC. Moreover, NADPH oxidase inhibition or antioxidant MPG prevented both A(1)AR-mediated arrhythmias and ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that pacemaking and conduction disturbances are induced via A(1)AR through concomitant stimulation of NADPH oxidase and PLC, followed by downstream activation of ERK and PKC with LCC as possible target. PMID:21907719

Robin, Elodie; Sabourin, Jessica; Benoit, Rachel; Pedretti, Sarah; Raddatz, Eric

2011-12-01

89

Nadph oxidase regulates alveolar epithelial sodium channel activity and lung fluid balance in vivo via O2? signaling  

PubMed Central

To define roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in maintaining lung fluid balance in vivo, we used two novel whole animal imaging approaches. Live X-ray fluoroscopy enabled quantification of air space fluid content of C57BL/6J mouse lungs challenged by intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; results were confirmed by using conventional lung wet-to-dry weight ratios and Evans blue as measures of pulmonary edema. Visualization and quantification of ROS produced in lungs was performed in mice that had been administered a redox-sensitive dye, hydro-Cy7, by IT instillation. We found that inhibition of NADPH oxidase with a Rac-1 inhibitor, NSC23766, resulted in alveolar flooding, which correlated with a decrease in lung ROS production in vivo. Consistent with a role for Nox2 in alveolar fluid balance, Nox2?/? mice showed increased retention of air space fluid compared with wild-type controls. Interestingly, fluoroscopic analysis of C57BL/6J lungs IT instilled with LPS showed an acute stimulation of lung fluid clearance and ROS production in vivo that was abrogated by the ROS scavenger tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO). Acute application of LPS increased the activity of 20 pS nonselective ENaC channels in rat type 1 cells; the average number of channel and single-channel open probability (NPo) increased from 0.14 ± 0.04 to 0.62 ± 0.23. Application of TEMPO to the same cell-attached recording caused an immediate significant decrease in ENaC NPo to 0.04 ± 0.03. These data demonstrate that, in vivo, ROS has the capacity to stimulate lung fluid clearance by increasing ENaC activity. PMID:22160304

Goodson, Preston; Kumar, Amrita; Jain, Lucky; Kundu, Kousik; Murthy, Niren; Koval, Michael

2012-01-01

90

Targeting NADPH Oxidases for the Treatment of Cancer and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases are a family of oxidases that utilize molecular oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, thus indicating physiological functions of these Highly reactive and short lived species. The regulation of these NADPH oxidases (nox) enzymes is complex, with many members of this family exhibiting complexity in subunit composition, cellular location, and tissue specific expression. While the complexity of the nox family (Nox1–5, Duox1,2) is daunting, the complexity also allows for targeting of NADPH oxidases in disease states. This review will discuss which inflammatory and malignant disorders can be targeted by nox inhibitors, as well as clinical experience in the use of nox inhibitors. PMID:22581366

Bonner, Michael Y.; Arbiser, Jack L

2015-01-01

91

Uric Acid Promotes Apoptosis in Human Proximal Tubule Cells by Oxidative Stress and the Activation of NADPH Oxidase NOX 4  

PubMed Central

Mild hyperuricemia has been linked to the development and progression of tubulointerstitial renal damage. However the mechanisms by which uric acid may cause these effects are poorly explored. We investigated the effect of uric acid on apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2). Increased uric acid concentration decreased tubule cell viability and increased apoptotic cells in a dose dependent manner (up to a 7-fold increase, p<0.0001). Uric acid up-regulated Bax (+60% with respect to Ctrl; p<0.05) and down regulated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Apoptosis was blunted by Caspase-9 but not Caspase-8 inhibition. Uric acid induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane, elevations in reactive oxygen species and a pronounced up-regulation of NOX 4 mRNA and protein (p<0.05). In addition, both reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI as well as by Nox 4 knockdown. URAT 1 transport inhibition by probenecid and losartan and its knock down by specific siRNA, blunted apoptosis, suggesting a URAT 1 dependent cell death. In summary, our data show that uric acid increases the permissiveness of proximal tubule kidney cells to apoptosis by triggering a pathway involving NADPH oxidase signalling and URAT 1 transport. These results might explain the chronic tubulointerstitial damage observed in hyperuricaemic states and suggest that uric acid transport in tubular cells is necessary for urate-induced effects. PMID:25514209

Verzola, Daniela; Ratto, Elena; Villaggio, Barbara; Parodi, Emanuele Luigi; Pontremoli, Roberto; Garibotto, Giacomo; Viazzi, Francesca

2014-01-01

92

Rac1-mediated NADPH oxidase release of O2? regulates epithelial sodium channel activity in the alveolar epithelium  

PubMed Central

We examine whether alveolar cells can control release of O2? through regulated NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 (NOX2) activity to maintain lung fluid homeostasis. Using FACS to purify alveolar epithelial cells, we show that type 1 cells robustly express each of the critical NOX components that catalyze the production of O2? (NOX2 or gp91phox, p22phox, p67phox, p47phox, and p40phox subunits) as well as Rac1 at substantially higher levels than type 2 cells. Immunohistochemical labeling of lung tissue shows that Rac1 expression is cytoplasmic and resides near the apical surface of type 1 cells, whereas NOX2 coimmunoprecipitates with epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Since Rac1 is a known regulator of NOX2, and hence O2? release, we tested whether inhibition or activation of Rac1 influenced ENaC activity. Indeed, 1 ?M NSC23766 inhibition of Rac1 decreased O2? output in lung cells and significantly decreased ENaC activity from 0.87 ± 0.16 to 0.52 ± 0.16 [mean number of channels (N) and single-channel open probability (Po) (NPo) ± SE, n = 6; P < 0.05] in type 2 cells. NSC23766 (10 ?M) decreased ENaC NPo from 1.16 ± 0.27 to 0.38 ± 0.10 (n = 6 in type 1 cells). Conversely, 10 ng/ml EGF (a known stimulator of both Rac1 and O2? release) increased ENaC NPo values in both type 1 and 2 cells. NPo values increased from 0.48 ± 0.21 to 0.91 ± 0.28 in type 2 cells (P < 0.05; n = 10). In type 1 cells, ENaC activity also significantly increased from 0.40 ± 0.15 to 0.60 ± 0.23 following EGF treatment (n = 7). Sequestering O2? using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) compound prevented EGF activation of ENaC in both type 1 and 2 cells. In conclusion, we report that Rac1-mediated NOX2 activity is an important component in O2? regulation of ENaC. PMID:20097736

Takemura, Yoshizumi; Goodson, Preston; Bao, Hui Fang; Jain, Lucky

2010-01-01

93

NADPH oxidases are critical targets for prevention of ethanol-induced bone loss  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The molecular mechanisms through which chronic alcohol consumption induce bone loss and osteoporosis are largely unknown. Ethanol increases expression and activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzymes (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen spe...

94

ERK1/2 pathway is involved in renal gluconeogenesis inhibition under conditions of lowered NADPH oxidase activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis occurring under conditions of lowered activity of NADPH oxidase (Nox), the enzyme considered to be one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species in kidneys. The in vitro experiments were performed on primary cultures of rat renal proximal tubules, with the use of apocynin, a selective Nox inhibitor, and TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a potent superoxide radical scavenger. In the in vivo experiments, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a well established model of diabetes type 2, were treated with apocynin solution in drinking water. The main in vitro findings are the following: (1) both apocynin and TEMPOL attenuate the rate of gluconeogenesis, inhibiting the step catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key enzyme of the process; (2) in the presence of the above-noted compounds the expression of PEPCK and the phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB and ERK1/2 kinases are lowered; (3) both U0126 (MEK inhibitor) and 3-(2-aminoethyl)-5-((4-ethoxyphenyl)methylene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (ERK inhibitor) diminish the rate of glucose synthesis via mechanisms similar to those of apocynin and TEMPOL. The observed apocynin in vivo effects include: (1) slight attenuation of hyperglycemia; (2) inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis; (3) a decrease in renal PEPCK activity and content. In view of the results summarized above, it can be concluded that: (1) the lowered activity of the ERK1/2 pathway is of importance for the inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis found under conditions of lowered superoxide radical production by Nox; (2) the mechanism of this phenomenon includes decreased PEPCK expression, resulting from diminished activity of transcription factor CREB; (3) apocynin-evoked inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis contributes to the hypoglycemic action of this compound observed in diabetic animals. Thus, the study has delivered some new insights into the recently discussed issue of the usefulness of Nox inhibition as a potential antidiabetic strategy. PMID:25601753

Winiarska, Katarzyna; Jarzyna, Robert; Dzik, Jolanta M; Jagielski, Adam K; Grabowski, Michal; Nowosielska, Agata; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz

2015-04-01

95

DELETION MUTAGENESIS OF p22phox SUBUNIT OF FLAVOCYTOCHROME b558: IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONS CRITICAL FOR gp91phox MATURATION AND NADPH OXIDASE ACTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH to generate the superoxide radical (O2-). The importance of this enzyme in innate immunity and inflammation is illustrated by chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a syndrome characterized by ab...

96

NAD(P)H Oxidase Role in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species have emerged as important molecules in cardiovascular function. Recent work has shown that NAD(P)H oxidases are major sources of superoxide in vascular cells and myocytes. The biochemical characterization, activation paradigms, structure, and function of this enzyme are now partly understood. Vascular NAD(P)H oxidases share some, but not all, characteristics of the neutrophil enzyme. In response to growth

Kathy K. Griendling; Dan Sorescu; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; David G. Harrison

97

NADPH oxidase and Nrf2 regulate gastric aspiration-induced inflammation and acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of neutrophils and release of reactive oxygen species are considered to be major pathogenic components driving acute lung injury (ALI). However, NADPH oxidase, the major source of reactive oxygen species in activated phagocytes, can paradoxically limit inflammation and injury. We hypothesized that NADPH oxidase protects against ALI by limiting neutrophilic inflammation and by activating Nrf2, a transcriptional factor that induces anti-oxidative and cytoprotective pathways. Our objective was to delineate the roles of NADPH oxidase and Nrf2 in modulating acute lung inflammation and injury in clinically relevant models of acute gastric aspiration injury, a major cause of ALI. Acid aspiration caused increased ALI (as assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid albumin concentration) in both NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox?/?) mice and in Nrf2?/? mice compared to wild-type mice. NADPH oxidase reduced airway neutrophil accumulation, but Nrf2 decreased ALI without affecting neutrophil recovery. Acid injury resulted in a 120-fold increase in mitochondrial DNA, a pro-inflammatory and injurious product of cellular necrosis, in cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pharmacologic activation of Nrf2 by the triterpenoid, CDDO-Im, limited aspiration-induced ALI in wild-type mice and reduced endothelial cell injury caused by mitochondrial extract-primed human neutrophils, leading to the conclusion that NADPH oxidase and Nrf2 have coordinated, but distinct, functions in modulating inflammation and injury. These results also point to Nrf2 as a therapeutic target to limit ALI by attenuating neutrophil-induced cellular injury. PMID:23296708

Davidson, Bruce A.; Vethanayagam, R. Robert; Grimm, Melissa J.; Mullan, Barbara A.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Freeman, Michael L.; Ayyasamy, Vanniarajan; Singh, Keshav K.; Sporn, Michael B.; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Hauser, Carl J.; Knight, Paul R.; Segal, Brahm H.

2012-01-01

98

NADPH Oxidase 4-Derived H2O2 Promotes Aberrant Retinal Neovascularization via Activation of VEGF Receptor 2 Pathway in Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major isoform of NADPH oxidase in retinal endothelial cells. Our previous study suggests that upregulation of Nox4 in retinal endothelial cells contributes to retinal vascular leakage in diabetes. In the current study, we investigated the role and mechanism of Nox4 in regulation of retinal neovascularization (NV), a hallmark of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Our results confirmed that Nox4 was expressed predominantly in retinal vasculature of mouse retina. Retinal expression of Nox4 was markedly increased in OIR, in parallel with enhanced phosphorylation of ERK. In human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs), overexpression of Nox4 by adenovirus significantly increased extracellular H2O2 generation, resulting in intensified VEGFR2 activation and exacerbated angiogenesis upon VEGF stimulation. In contrast, silencing Nox4 expression or scavenging H2O2 by polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) conjugated catalase inhibited endothelial migration, tube formation, and VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 signaling. Importantly, knockdown of retinal Nox4 by adenovirus-delivered siRNA significantly reduced ERK activation and attenuated retinal NV formation in OIR. Taken together, our data indicate that Nox4 promotes retinal NV formation through H2O2/VEGFR2/ERK signaling pathway. Reducing retinal Nox4 expression may represent a promising therapeutic approach for neovascular retinal diseases such as PDR.

Li, Jingming; Wang, Joshua J.; Zhang, Sarah X.

2015-01-01

99

Inhaled birch pollen extract induces airway hyperresponsiveness via oxidative stress but independently of pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity, or the Toll-like receptor 4-TRIF pathway  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress in allergic asthma may result from oxidase activity or pro-inflammatory molecules in pollens. Signaling via TLR4 and its adaptor TRIF has been implicated in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated acute lung injury and in T helper 2 immune responses. We investigated the contributions of oxidative stress and TLR4/TRIF signaling to experimental asthma induced by birch pollen exposure exclusively via the airways. Mice were exposed to native or heat-inactivated white birch pollen extract (BPEx) intratracheally and injected with the antioxidants, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or dimethylthiourea (DMTU) prior to sensitization, challenge, or all allergen exposures, to assess the role of oxidative stress and pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity in allergic sensitization, inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Additionally, TLR4 signaling was antagonized concomitantly with allergen exposure, or the development of allergic airway disease was evaluated in TLR4 or TRIF knockout mice. NAC inhibited BPEx-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and AHR except when given exclusively during sensitization, whereas DMTU was inhibitory even when administered with the sensitization alone. Heat-inactivation of BPEx had no effect on the development of allergic airway disease. Oxidative stress-mediated AHR was also TLR4- and TRIF-independent, however, TLR4 deficiency decreased, while TRIF deficiency increased BPEx-induced airway inflammation. In conclusion, oxidative stress plays a significant role in allergic sensitization to pollen via the airway mucosa, but the pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity and TLR4 or TRIF signaling are unnecessary for the induction of allergic airway disease and AHR. Pollen extract does, however, activate TLR4, thereby enhancing airway inflammation which is restrained by the TRIF-dependent pathway. PMID:23776177

Shalaby, Karim H.; Allard-Coutu, Alexandra; O’Sullivan, Michael; Nakada, Emily; Qureshi, Salman T.; Day, Brian J.; Martin, James G.

2013-01-01

100

Early NADPH oxidase-2 activation is crucial in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by different NADPH oxidases (NOX) play a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by different stimuli, such as angiotensin II and pressure overload. However, the role of the specific NOX isoforms in phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore we aimed to determine the involvement of the NOX isoforms NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Hereto rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were incubated with 100 ?M PE to induce hypertrophy after 24 and 48 h as determined via cell and nuclear size measurements using digital imaging microscopy, electron microscopy and an automated cell counter. Digital-imaging microscopy further revealed that in contrast to NOX1 and NOX4, NOX2 expression increased significantly up to 4 h after PE stimulation, coinciding and co-localizing with ROS production in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS production with apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or NOX2 docking sequence (Nox2ds)-tat peptide during these first 4 h of PE stimulation significantly inhibited PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells, both after 24 and 48 h of PE stimulation. These data show that early NOX2-mediated ROS production is crucial in PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells. PMID:24794531

Hahn, Nynke E.; Musters, René J.P.; Fritz, Jan M.; Pagano, Patrick J.; Vonk, Alexander B.A.; Paulus, Walter J.; van Rossum, Albert C.; Meischl, Christof; Niessen, Hans W.M.; Krijnen, Paul A.J.

2015-01-01

101

NADPH Oxidase 4 Regulates Cardiomyocyte Differentiation via Redox Activation of c-Jun Protein and the cis-Regulation of GATA-4 Gene Transcription*  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can modulate cellular phenotype and function in part through the redox modulation of the activity of transcription factors. We demonstrate here the potential of Nox4 to drive cardiomyocyte differentiation in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells, and we show that this involves the redox activation of c-Jun. This in turn acts to up-regulate GATA-4 expression, one of the earliest markers of cardiotypic differentiation, through a defined and highly conserved cis-acting motif within the GATA-4 promoter. These data therefore suggest a mechanism whereby ROS act in pluripotential cells in vivo to regulate the initial transcription of critical tissue-restricted determinant(s) of the cardiomyocyte phenotype, including GATA-4. The ROS-dependent activation, mediated by Nox4, of widely expressed redox-regulated transcription factors, such as c-Jun, is fundamental to this process. PMID:23589292

Murray, Thomas V. A.; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

2013-01-01

102

NADPH oxidase CYBA polymorphisms, oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of several major cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, stroke and diabetes. ROS (reactive oxygen species) affect multiple tissues either directly or through NO depletion. ROS induce cardiovascular dysfunction by modulating cell contraction/dilation, migration, growth/apoptosis and extracellular matrix protein turnover, which contribute to vascular and cardiac remodelling. Of the several sources of ROS within the cardiovascular system, a family of multisubunit NADPH oxidases appears to be a predominant contributor of superoxide anion. Recent findings suggest a significant role of the genetic background in NADPH oxidase regulation. Common genetic polymorphisms within the promoter and exonic sequences of CYBA, the gene that encodes the p22(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase, have been characterized in the context of cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to present the current state of research into these polymorphisms in their relationship to cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18184111

San José, Gorka; Fortuńo, Ana; Beloqui, Oscar; Díez, Javier; Zalba, Guillermo

2008-02-01

103

Spinal NADPH Oxidase is a Source of Superoxide in the Development of Morphine-Induced Hyperalgesia and Antinociceptive Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The role of superoxide and its active byproduct peroxynitrite as mediators of nociceptive signaling is emerging. We have recently reported that nitration and inactivation of spinal mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) provides a critical source of these reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during central sensitization associated with the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of spinal NADPH oxidase is another critical source for superoxide generation. Indeed, the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance was associated with increased activation of NADPH oxidase and superoxide release. Co-administration of morphine with systemic delivery of two structurally unrelated NADPH oxidase inhibitors namely apocynin or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), blocked NADPH oxidase activation and the development of hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance at doses devoid of behavioral side effects. These results suggest that activation of spinal NADPH oxidase contributes to the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance. The role of spinal NADPH oxidase was confirmed by showing that intrathecal delivery of apocynin blocked these events. Our results are the first to implicate the contribution of NADPH oxidase as an enzymatic source of superoxide and thus peroxynitrite in the development of central sensitization associated with morphine-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance. These results continue to support the critical role of these reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in pain while advancing our knowledge of their biomolecular sources. PMID:20637262

Doyle, Tim; Bryant, Leesa; Muscoli, Carolina; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Esposito, Emanuela; Chen, Zhoumou; Salvemini, Daniela

2010-01-01

104

The TLR7/8 agonist CL097 primes N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated NADPH oxidase activation in human neutrophils: critical role of p47phox phosphorylation and the proline isomerase Pin1.  

PubMed

Superoxide anion production by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase plays a key role in host defense; however, excessive superoxide production is believed to participate to inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils express several TLR that recognize a variety of microbial motifs or agonists. The interaction between TLR and their agonists is believed to help neutrophils to recognize and eliminate the pathogen. However, the effects of some TLR agonists on the NADPH oxidase activation and the mechanisms controlling these effects have not been elucidated. In this study, we show that the TLR7/8 agonist CL097 by itself did not induce NADPH oxidase activation in human neutrophils, but induced a dramatic increase of fMLF-stimulated activation. Interestingly, CL097 induced cytochrome b558 translocation to the plasma membrane and the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase cytosolic component p47phox on Ser(345), Ser(328), and Ser(315). Phosphorylation of Ser(328) and Ser(315) was significantly increased in CL097-primed and fMLF-stimulated neutrophils. Phosphorylation of Ser(345), Ser(328), and Ser(315) was decreased by inhibitors of p38 MAPK and the ERK1/2 pathway. Phosphorylation of Ser(328) was decreased by a protein kinase C inhibitor. Genistein, a broad-range protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibited the phosphorylation of these serines. Our results also show that CL097 induced proline isomerase 1 (Pin1) activation and that juglone, a Pin1 inhibitor, inhibited CL097-mediated priming of fMLF-induced p47phox phosphorylation and superoxide production. These results show that the TLR7/8 agonist CL097 induces hyperactivation of the NADPH oxidase by stimulating the phosphorylation of p47phox on selective sites in human neutrophils and suggest that p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, protein kinase C, and Pin1 control this process. PMID:23002436

Makni-Maalej, Karama; Boussetta, Tarek; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Belambri, Sahra Amel; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; El-Benna, Jamel

2012-11-01

105

Properties of phagocyte NADPH oxidase p47-phox mutants with unmasked SH3 (Src homology 3) domains: full reconstitution of oxidase activity in a semi-recombinant cell-free system lacking arachidonic acid.  

PubMed Central

In an early step in the assembly of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, p47-phox translocates from the cytosol to the membrane, mediated by engagement of the N-termini of two p47-phox Src homology 3 (SH3) domains with a proline-rich region (PRR) in the p22-phox subunit of cytochrome b (558). In response to phagocyte activation, several serine residues in a C-terminal arginine/lysine-rich domain of p47-phox are phosphorylated, leading to changes in the conformation of p47-phox and exposure of its N-terminal SH3 domain that is normally masked by internal association with the arginine/lysine-rich domain. We report that triple alanine substitutions at Asp-217, Glu-218 and Glu-223 in a short sequence that links the tandem p47-phox SH3 domains unmasked the N-terminal SH3 domain, similar to the effects of aspartic acid substitutions at Ser-310 and Ser-328 in the arginine/lysine-rich region. Recombinant p47-phox proteins with mutations in either the linker region or the arginine/lysine-rich domain were active in the absence of arachidonic acid stimulation in a cell-free NADPH oxidase system consisting of recombinant p67-phox, Rac1-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and neutrophil membranes. Supplementing neutrophil membranes with phosphoinositides or other negatively charged phospholipids markedly enhanced cell-free superoxide generation by these p47-phox mutants in the absence of arachidonic acid, to levels equivalent to those generated by wild-type p47-phox following arachidonic acid activation. This enhancement may be related to recruitment to the membrane of p47-phox mediated by a novel secondary phox homology (PX) domain binding site that broadly recognizes phospholipids. No specific enhancement by specific phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols was found to suggest a dominant role for the p47-phox primary PX domain binding site. Truncated p47-phox S310D S328D lacking the C-terminal PRR was inactive in the cell-free system without arachidonic acid, but was fully active with arachidonic acid. This suggests that activation of NADPH oxidase in an arachidonate-free cell-free system requires association of the p47-phox C-terminal PRR with the p67-phox C-terminal SH3 domain. PMID:12650641

Peng, Guihong; Huang, Jin; Boyd, Mellonie; Kleinberg, Michael E

2003-01-01

106

NOX3 NADPH Oxidase Couples Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 to Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1-Mediated Inflammation and Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Abstract Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24?h, which recovered by 72?h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 999–1010. PMID:20712533

Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P.

2011-01-01

107

A time course of NADPH-oxidase up-regulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in the hippocampus following neurotrauma.  

PubMed

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase; NOX) is a complex enzyme responsible for increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide (O2(•-)). NOX-derived O2(•-) is a key player in oxidative stress and inflammation-mediated multiple secondary injury cascades (SIC) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The O2(•-) reacts with nitric oxide (NO), produces various reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and contributes to apoptotic cell death. Following a unilateral cortical contusion, young adult rats were killed at various times postinjury (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Fresh tissue from the hippocampus was analyzed for NOX activity, and level of O2(•-). In addition we evaluated the translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins (p67(Phox), p47(Phox), and p40(Phox)) to the membrane, along with total NO and the activation (phosphorylation) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS). Results show that both enzymes and levels of O2(•-) and NO have time-dependent injury effects in the hippocampus. Translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins into membrane, NOX activity, and O2(•-) were also increased in a time-dependent fashion. Both NOX activity and O2(•-) were increased at 6 h. Levels of p-eNOS increased within 1h, with significant elevation of NO at 12h post-TBI. Levels of NO failed to show a significant association with p-eNOS, but did associate with O2(•-). NOX up-regulation strongly associated with both the levels of O2(•-) and the total NO. The initial 12 h post-TBI are very important as a possible window of opportunity to interrupt SIC. It may be important to selectively target the translocation of cytosolic subunits for the modulation of NOX function. PMID:25224032

Ansari, Mubeen A; Roberts, Kelly N; Scheff, Stephen W

2014-12-01

108

A time course of NADPH-oxidase up-regulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in the hippocampus following neurotrauma  

PubMed Central

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase; NOX) is a complex enzyme responsible for increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide (O2.?). NOX derived O2.? is a key player in oxidative stress and inflammation mediated multiple secondary injury cascades (SIC) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The O2.? reacts with nitric oxide (NO), produces various reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and contributes to apoptotic cell death. Following a unilateral cortical contusion, young adult rats were killed at various times post injury (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Fresh tissue from the hippocampus was analyzed for NOX activity, and level of O2.?. In addition we evaluated the translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins (p67Phox, p47Phox and p40Phox) to the membrane, along with total NO and the activation (phosphorylation) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS). Results show that both enzymes and levels of O2.? and NO have time dependent injury effects in the hippocampus. Translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins into membrane, NOX activity and O2.? were also increased in a time dependent fashion. Both, NOX activity and O2.? were increased at 6 h. Levels of p-eNOS increased within 1 h, with significant elevation of NO at 12 h post TBI. Levels of NO failed to show a significant association with p-eNOS, but did associate with O2.?. NOX up-regulation strongly associated with both the levels of O2.? and also total NO. The initial 12 hours post TBI are very important as a possible window of opportunity to interrupt SIC. It may be important to selectively target the translocation of cytosolic subunits for the modulation of NOX function. PMID:25224032

Ansari, Mubeen A.; Roberts, Kelly N.; Scheff, Stephen W.

2015-01-01

109

A Drosophila model for the screening of bioavailable NADPH oxidase inhibitors and antioxidants.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase is the major source of non-mitochondrial cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also is reported to be a major cause of various diseases including atherosclerosis and hypertension. In order to screen a new curative reagent that can suppress NADPH oxidase activity, we developed a Drosophila melanogaster fly that would overexpress human Dual oxidase 2 (hDuox2), a member of the NADPH oxidase family, as a screening model. These flies (GMR-GAL4/UAS-hDuox2) had a high generation of ROS in the posterior region of the eye discs along with an easily recognizable rough-eye phenotype, which is an ideal and convenient marker for further screening steps. Moreover, the hDuox2-induced rough-eye phenotype can be rescued by feeding with a culture medium containing mulberry leaves (MLs), which reportedly have an antimetabolic effect. Some commercially available antioxidants such as quercetin-3-O-D-glucoside or quercetin-3-O-glucose-6''-acetate, or the naringin contained in MLs and other herbs, also have shown a similar suppressing effect on the rough-eye phenotype. Our results suggest that flavonoid glycoside is absorbed from the intestine and functions in the body of D. melanogaster as it does in mammalian models such as rats. Thus, the GMR-GAL4/UAS-hDuox2 fly line is a promising model for the screening of novel drugs such as NADPH oxidase inhibitors and/or antioxidants. PMID:21312054

Anh, Nguyen Thi Tu; Nishitani, Maiko; Harada, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Kamei, Kaeko

2011-06-01

110

NADPH oxidases as novel pharmacologic targets against influenza A virus infection.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses represent a major global health care challenge, with imminent pandemics, emerging antiviral resistance, and long lag times for vaccine development, raising a pressing need for novel pharmacologic strategies that ideally target the pathology irrespective of the infecting strain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) pervade all facets of cell biology with both detrimental and protective properties. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that activation of the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) isoform of the NADPH oxidase family of ROS-producing enzymes promotes lung oxidative stress, inflammation, injury, and dysfunction resulting from influenza A viruses of low to high pathogenicity, as well as impeding virus clearance. By contrast, the dual oxidase isoforms produce ROS that provide vital protective antiviral effects for the host. In this review, we propose that inhibitors of NOX2 are better alternatives than broad-spectrum antioxidant approaches for treatment of influenza pathologies, for which clinical efficacy may have been limited owing to poor bioavailability and inadvertent removal of beneficial ROS. Finally, we briefly describe the current suite of NADPH oxidase inhibitors and the molecular features of the NADPH oxidase enzymes that could be exploited by drug discovery for development of more specific and novel inhibitors to prevent or treat disease caused by influenza. PMID:25301784

Vlahos, Ross; Selemidis, Stavros

2014-12-01

111

Attenuation of brain edema and spatial learning de?cits by the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity using apocynin following diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

Diffuse brain injury (DBI) is a leading cause of mortality and disability among young individuals and adults worldwide. In specific cases, DBI is associated with permanent spatial learning dysfunction and motor deficits due to primary and secondary brain damage. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) is a major complex that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the ischemic period. The complex aggravates brain damage and cell death following ischemia/reperfusion injury; however, its role in DBI remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that levels of NOX2 (a catalytic subunit of NOX) protein expression and the activation of NOX are enhanced following DBI induction in rats and are involved in aggravating secondary brain damage. A rat model of DBI was created using a modified weight-drop device. Our results demonstrated that NOX2 protein expression and NOX activity were enhanced in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus at 48 and 72 h following DBI induction. Treatment with apocynin (50 mg/kg body weight), a specific inhibitor of NOX, injected intraperitoneally 30 min prior to DBI significantly attenuated NOX2 protein expression and NOX activation. Moreover, treatment with apocynin reduced brain edema and improved spatial learning function assessed using the Morris water maze. These results reveal that treatment with apocynin may provide a new neuroprotective therapeutic strategy against DBI by diminishing the upregulation of NOX2 protein and NOX activity. PMID:23128834

Song, Si-Xin; Gao, Jun-Ling; Wang, Kai-Jie; Li, Ran; Tian, Yan-Xia; Wei, Jian-Qiang; Cui, Jian-Zhong

2013-01-01

112

Targeting NADPH Oxidase Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a state of chronic vasculopathy characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, but the sources and mechanisms responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are unknown. Aims We evaluated whether SCD activates NADPH oxidase, induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, and decreases antioxidants in the SCD mouse penis. We further tested the hypothesis that targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the SCD mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Hemizygous (hemi) mice served as controls. Mice received an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. Markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes. Main Outcome Measures Sources of ROS, oxidative stress, and enzymatic antioxidants in the SCD penis. Results Relative to hemi mice, SCD increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox, 4-HNE-modified proteins, induced eNOS uncoupling, and reduced Gpx1 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of sickle mice reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of p47phox, gp91phox (but not p67phox) and 4-HNE, but only slightly (P > 0.05) prevented eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of hemi mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are sources of oxidative stress in the SCD penis; decreased GPx1 further contributes to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase upregulation decreases oxidative stress, implying a major role for NADPH oxidase as a ROS source and a potential target for improving vascular function in the SCD mouse penis. PMID:22620981

Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Sezen, Sena F.; Burnett, Arthur L.

2012-01-01

113

A novel superoxide-producing NAD(P)H oxidase in kidney.  

PubMed

During phagocytosis, gp91(phox), the catalytic subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, becomes activated to produce superoxide, a precursor of microbicidal oxidants. Currently increasing evidence suggests that nonphagocytic cells contain similar superoxide-producing oxidases, which are proposed to play crucial roles in various events such as cell proliferation and oxygen sensing for erythropoiesis. Here we describe the cloning of human cDNA that encodes a novel NAD(P)H oxidase, designated NOX4. The NOX4 protein of 578 amino acids exhibits 39% identity to gp91(phox) with special conservation in membrane-spanning regions and binding sites for heme, FAD, and NAD(P)H, indicative of its function as a superoxide-producing NAD(P)H oxidase. The membrane fraction of kidney-derived human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, expressing NOX4, exhibits NADH- and NADPH-dependent superoxide-producing activities, both of which are inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an agent known to block oxygen sensing, and decreased in cells expressing antisense NOX4 mRNA. The human NOX4 gene, comprising 18 exons, is located on chromosome 11q14.2-q21, and its expression is almost exclusively restricted to adult and fetal kidneys. In human renal cortex, high amounts of the NOX4 protein are present in distal tubular cells, which reside near erythropoietin-producing cells. In addition, overexpression of NOX4 in cultured cells leads to increased superoxide production and decreased rate of growth. The present findings thus suggest that the novel NAD(P)H oxidase NOX4 may serve as an oxygen sensor and/or a regulator of cell growth in kidney. PMID:11032835

Shiose, A; Kuroda, J; Tsuruya, K; Hirai, M; Hirakata, H; Naito, S; Hattori, M; Sakaki, Y; Sumimoto, H

2001-01-12

114

Hace1 controls ROS generation of vertebrate Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase complexes  

PubMed Central

The Hace1-HECT E3 ligase is a tumor suppressor that ubiquitylates the activated GTP-bound form of the Rho family GTPase Rac1, leading to Rac1 proteasomal degradation. Here we show that, in vertebrates, Hace1 targets Rac1 for degradation when Rac1 is localized to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase holoenzyme. This event blocks de novo reactive oxygen species generation by Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidases, and thereby confers cellular protection from reactive oxygen species-induced DNA damage and cyclin D1-driven hyper-proliferation. Genetic inactivation of Hace1 in mice or zebrafish, as well as Hace1 loss in human tumor cell lines or primary murine or human tumors, leads to chronic NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species elevation, DNA damage responses and enhanced cyclin D1 expression. Our data reveal a conserved ubiquitin-dependent molecular mechanism that controls the activity of Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase complexes, and thus constitutes the first known example of a tumor suppressor protein that directly regulates reactive oxygen species production in vertebrates. PMID:23864022

Daugaard, Mads; Nitsch, Roberto; Razaghi, Babak; McDonald, Lindsay; Jarrar, Ameer; Torrino, Stéphanie; Castillo-Lluva, Sonia; Rotblat, Barak; Li, Liheng; Malliri, Angeliki; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Mettouchi, Amel; Berman, Jason N.; Penninger, Josef M.; Sorensen, Poul H.

2013-01-01

115

NADPH oxidase 4 limits bone mass by promoting osteoclastogenesis  

PubMed Central

ROS are implicated in bone diseases. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), a constitutively active enzymatic source of ROS, may contribute to the development of such disorders. Therefore, we studied the role of NOX4 in bone homeostasis. Nox4–/– mice displayed higher bone density and reduced numbers and markers of osteoclasts. Ex vivo, differentiation of monocytes into osteoclasts with RANKL and M-CSF induced Nox4 expression. Loss of NOX4 activity attenuated osteoclastogenesis, which was accompanied by impaired activation of RANKL-induced NFATc1 and c-JUN. In an in vivo model of murine ovariectomy–induced osteoporosis, pharmacological inhibition or acute genetic knockdown of Nox4 mitigated loss of trabecular bone. Human bone obtained from patients with increased osteoclast activity exhibited increased NOX4 expression. Moreover, a SNP of NOX4 was associated with elevated circulating markers of bone turnover and reduced bone density in women. Thus, NOX4 is involved in bone loss and represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24216508

Goettsch, Claudia; Babelova, Andrea; Trummer, Olivia; Erben, Reinhold G.; Rauner, Martina; Rammelt, Stefan; Weissmann, Norbert; Weinberger, Valeska; Benkhoff, Sebastian; Kampschulte, Marian; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Brandes, Ralf P.; Schröder, Katrin

2013-01-01

116

NADPH oxidase involvement in the pathology of Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrophil oxidants are hypothesized to damage the gastric mucosa and promote carcinogenesis in people infected with Helicobacter pylori. To investigate this process we used wild-type and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) mice with a targeted disruption of the gp91phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase. The mice were innoculated with a mouse-adapted strain of H. pylori and changes in gastric pathology were

Jacqueline I. Keenan; Richard A. Peterson; Mark B. Hampton

2005-01-01

117

Angiotensin II impairs neurovascular coupling in neocortex through NADPH oxidase-derived radicals.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts detrimental effects on cerebral circulation, the mechanisms of which have not been elucidated. In particular, Ang II impairs the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) produced by neural activity, a critical mechanism that matches substrate delivery with energy demands in brain. We investigated whether Ang II exerts its deleterious actions by activating Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors on cerebral blood vessels and producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidase. Somatosensory cortex CBF was monitored in anesthetized mice by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Ang II (0.25 microg/kg per minute IV) attenuated the CBF increase produced by mechanical stimulation of the vibrissae. The effect was blocked by the AT1 antagonist losartan and by ROS scavenger superoxide dismutase or tiron and was not observed in mice lacking the gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase or in wild-type mice treated with the NADPH oxidase peptide inhibitor gp91ds-tat. Ang II increased ROS production in cerebral microvessels, an effect blocked by the ROS scavenger Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin and by the NADPH oxidase assembly inhibitor apocynin. Ang II did not increase ROS production in gp91-null mice. Double-label immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that AT1 and gp91phox immunoreactivities were present in endothelium and adventitia of neocortical arterioles. Collectively, these findings suggest that Ang II impairs functional hyperemia by activating AT1 receptors and inducing ROS production via a gp91phox containing NADPH oxidase. The data provide the mechanistic basis for the cerebrovascular dysregulation induced by Ang II and suggest novel therapeutic strategies to counteract the effects of hypertension on the brain. PMID:15499027

Kazama, Ken; Anrather, Josef; Zhou, Ping; Girouard, Helene; Frys, Kelly; Milner, Teresa A; Iadecola, Costantino

2004-11-12

118

Nonhematopoietic NADPH oxidase regulation of lung eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in experimentally induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary eosinophilia is one of the most consistent hallmarks of asthma. Infiltration of eosinophils into the lung in experimental asthma is dependent on the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. Ligation of VCAM-1 activates endothelial cell NADPH oxidase, which is required for VCAM-1-dependent leukocyte migration in vitro. To examine whether endothelial-derived NADPH oxidase modulates eosinophil recruitment in vivo, mice deficient in NADPH oxidase (CYBB mice) were irradiated and received wild-type hematopoietic cells to generate chimeric CYBB mice. In response to ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, the chimeric CYBB mice had increased numbers of eosinophils bound to the endothelium as well as reduced eosinophilia in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage. This occurred independent of changes in VCAM-1 expression, cytokine/chemokine levels (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IFN?, or eotaxin), or numbers of T cells, neutrophils, or mononuclear cells in the lavage fluids or lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. Importantly, the OVA-challenged chimeric CYBB mice had reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The AHR in OVA-challenged chimeric CYBB mice was restored by bypassing the endothelium with intratracheal administration of eosinophils. These data suggest that VCAM-1 induction of NADPH oxidase in the endothelium is necessary for the eosinophil recruitment during allergic inflammation. Moreover, these studies provide a basis for targeting VCAM-1-dependent signaling pathways in asthma therapies. PMID:17293377

Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Earwood, Julie; Bansal, Shelly; Jansen, Michael; Babcock, George; Garvy, Beth; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

2009-01-01

119

NADPH oxidases are involved in differentiation and pathogenicity in Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidases have been shown to be involved in various differentiation processes in fungi. We investigated the role of two NADPH oxidases in the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea. The genes bcnoxA and bcnoxB were cloned and characterized; their deduced amino acid sequences show high homology to fungal NADPH oxidases. Analyses of single and double knock-out mutants of both NADPH oxidase genes showed that both bcnoxA and bcnoxB are involved in formation of sclerotia. Both genes have a great impact on pathogenicity: whereas bcnoxB mutants showed a retarded formation of primary lesions, probably due to an impaired formation of penetration structures, bcnoxA mutants were able to penetrate host tissue in the same way as the wild type but were much slower in colonizing the host tissue. Double mutants showed an additive effect: they were aberrant in penetration and colonization of plant tissue and, therefore, almost nonpathogenic. To study the structure of the fungal Nox complex in more detail, bcnoxR (encoding a homolog of the mammalian p67(phox), a regulatory subunit of the Nox complex) was functionally characterized. The phenotype of DeltabcnoxR mutants is identical to that of DeltabcnoxAB double mutants, providing evidence that BcnoxR is involved in activation of both Bcnox enzymes. PMID:18624644

Segmüller, Nadja; Kokkelink, Leonie; Giesbert, Sabine; Odinius, Daniela; van Kan, Jan; Tudzynski, Paul

2008-06-01

120

Spinal sigma-1 receptors activate NADPH oxidase 2 leading to the induction of pain hypersensitivity in mice and mechanical allodynia in neuropathic rats.  

PubMed

We have recently demonstrated that spinal sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) mediate pain hypersensitivity in mice and neuropathic pain in rats. In this study, we examine the role of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) on Sig-1R-induced pain hypersensitivity and the induction of chronic neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve in rats. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated in mice and CCI-rats. Western blotting and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining were performed to assess the changes in Nox2 activation and ROS production in spinal cord, respectively. Direct activation of spinal Sig-1Rs with the Sig-1R agonist, PRE084 induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, which were dose-dependently attenuated by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, NAC or the Nox inhibitor, apocynin. PRE084 also induced an increase in Nox2 activation and ROS production, which were attenuated by pretreatment with the Sig-1R antagonist, BD1047 or apocynin. CCI-induced nerve injury produced an increase in Nox2 activation and ROS production in the spinal cord, all of which were attenuated by intrathecal administration with BD1047 during the induction phase of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, administration with BD1047 or apocynin reversed CCI-induced mechanical allodynia during the induction phase, but not the maintenance phase. These findings demonstrate that spinal Sig-1Rs modulate Nox2 activation and ROS production in the spinal cord, and ultimately contribute to the Sig-1R-induced pain hypersensitivity and the peripheral nerve injury-induced induction of chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:23732704

Choi, Sheu-Ran; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Kang, Suk-Yun; Moon, Ji-Young; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Oh, Seog-Bae; Lee, Jang-Hern

2013-08-01

121

Regulation of NADPH Oxidase 5 by Protein Kinase C Isoforms  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase5 (Nox5) is a novel Nox isoform which has recently been recognized as having important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, fetal ventricular septal defect and cancer. The activity of Nox5 and production of reactive oxygen species is regulated by intracellular calcium levels and phosphorylation. However, the kinases that phosphorylate Nox5 remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the phosphorylation of Nox5 is PKC dependent, but this contention was based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors and the isoforms of PKC involved remain unknown. Thus, the major goals of this study were to determine whether PKC can directly regulate Nox5 phosphorylation and activity, to identify which isoforms are involved in the process, and to understand the functional significance of this pathway in disease. We found that a relatively specific PKC? inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, dose-dependently inhibited PMA-induced superoxide production from Nox5. PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity was significantly reduced in cells with genetic silencing of PKC? and PKC?, enhanced by loss of PKC? and the silencing of PKC? expression was without effect. A constitutively active form of PKC? robustly increased basal and PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity and promoted the phosphorylation of Nox5 on Ser490, Thr494, and Ser498. In contrast, constitutively active PKC? potently inhibited both basal and PMA-dependent Nox5 activity. Co-IP and in vitro kinase assay experiments demonstrated that PKC? directly binds to Nox5 and modifies Nox5 phosphorylation and activity. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose significantly increased PKC? activation, and enhanced Nox5 derived superoxide in a manner that was in prevented by a PKC? inhibitor, Go 6976. In summary, our study reveals that PKC? is the primary isoform mediating the activation of Nox5 and this maybe of significance in our understanding of the vascular complications of diabetes and other diseases with increased ROS production. PMID:24505490

Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Haigh, Steven; Johnson, John; Lucas, Rudolf; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J. R.

2014-01-01

122

Correction of Aberrant NADPH Oxidase Activity in Blood-Derived Mononuclear Cells from Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients by a Naturally Fermented Papaya Preparation  

PubMed Central

Abstract Supplementation of standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) to adult diabetic mice improves dermal wound healing outcomes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients elicit a compromised respiratory burst activity resulting in increased risk of infections for the diabetic patients. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to determine the effect of FPP supplementation on human diabetic PBMC respiratory burst activity and to understand underlying mechanisms of such action of FPP. Results: When stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the production of reactive oxygen species by T2DM PBMC was markedly compromised compared to that of the PBMC from non-DM donors. FPP treated ex vivo improved respiratory burst outcomes in T2DM PBMC. FPP treatment significantly increased phosphorylation of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. In addition, the protein and mRNA expression of Rac2 was potently upregulated after FPP supplemention. The proximal human Rac2 gene promoter is G–C rich and contains consensus binding sites for Sp1 and AP-1. While FPP had no significant effect on the AP-1 DNA binding activity, the Sp1 DNA binding activity was significantly upregulated in PBMC after treatment of the cells with FPP. Innovation: This work provided first evidence that compromised respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC may be corrected by a nutritional supplement. Conclusion: FPP can correct respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC via an Sp-1-dependant pathway. Studies testing the outcome of FPP supplementation in diabetic patients are warranted. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 485–491. PMID:22369197

Dickerson, Ryan; Deshpande, Bhakthi; Gnyawali, Urmila; Lynch, Debbie; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

2012-01-01

123

NADPH Oxidase Inhibition Improves Neurological Outcomes in Surgically-Induced Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Neurosurgical procedures can result in brain injury by various means including direct trauma, hemorrhage, retractor stretch, and electrocautery. This surgically-induced brain injury (SBI) can cause post-operative complications such as brain edema. By creating a mouse model of SBI, we tested whether NADPH oxidase, an important reactive oxygen species producing enzyme, is involved in SBI using transgenic mice lacking gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase (gp91phox KO) and apocynin, a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Neurological function and brain edema were evaluated at 24 hours post-SBI in gp91phox KO and wild-type littermates grouped into SBI and sham-surgery groups. Alternatively, mice were grouped into vehicle- and apocynin-treated (5mg/kg, i.p. 30 minutes before SBI) groups. Oxidative stress indicated by lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured at 3 and 24 hours post SBI. The gp91phox KO mice, but not the apocynin-treated mice showed significantly improved neurological scores. Brain edema was observed in both gp91phox KO and wild-type groups after SBI; however, there was no significant difference between these two groups. Brain edema was also not affected by apocynin-pretreatment. LPO levels were significantly higher in SBI group in both gp91phox KO and wild-type groups as compared to sham group. A trend, although without statistical significance, was noted towards attenuation of LPO in the gp91phox KO animals as compared to wild-type group. LPO levels were significantly attenuated at 3 hours post-SBI by apocynin pretreatment but not at 24 hours post-SBI. These results suggest that chronic and acute inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity does not reduce brain edema after SBI. Long-term inhibition of NADPH oxidase, however improves neurological functions after SBI. PMID:17317004

Lo, Wendy; Bravo, Thomas; Jadhav, Vikram; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

2007-01-01

124

NADPH oxidase inhibition improves neurological outcomes in surgically-induced brain injury.  

PubMed

Neurosurgical procedures can result in brain injury by various means including direct trauma, hemorrhage, retractor stretch, and electrocautery. This surgically-induced brain injury (SBI) can cause post-operative complications such as brain edema. By creating a mouse model of SBI, we tested whether NADPH oxidase, an important reactive oxygen species producing enzyme, is involved in SBI using transgenic mice lacking gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase (gp91phox KO) and apocynin, a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Neurological function and brain edema were evaluated at 24 h post-SBI in gp91phox KO and wild-type littermates grouped into SBI and sham-surgery groups. Alternatively, mice were grouped into vehicle- and apocynin-treated (5 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before SBI) groups. Oxidative stress indicated by lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured at 3 and 24 h post-SBI. The gp91phox KO mice, but not the apocynin-treated mice showed significantly improved neurological scores. Brain edema was observed in both gp91phox KO and wild-type groups after SBI; however, there was no significant difference between these two groups. Brain edema was also not affected by apocynin-pretreatment. LPO levels were significantly higher in SBI group in both gp91phox KO and wild-type groups as compared to sham group. A trend, although without statistical significance, was noted towards attenuation of LPO in the gp91phox KO animals as compared to wild-type group. LPO levels were significantly attenuated at 3 h post-SBI by apocynin-pretreatment but not at 24 h post-SBI. These results suggest that chronic and acute inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity does not reduce brain edema after SBI. Long-term inhibition of NADPH oxidase, however improves neurological functions after SBI. PMID:17317004

Lo, Wendy; Bravo, Thomas; Jadhav, Vikram; Titova, Elena; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

2007-03-13

125

Role of the NADPH oxidases in the subfornical organ in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species and the NADPH oxidases contribute to hypertension via mechanisms that remain undefined. Reactive oxygen species produced in the central nervous system have been proposed to promote sympathetic outflow, inflammation, and hypertension, but the contribution of the NADPH oxidases to these processes in chronic hypertension is uncertain. We therefore sought to identify how NADPH oxidases in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain regulate blood pressure and vascular inflammation during sustained hypertension. We produced mice with loxP sites flanking the coding region of the NADPH oxidase docking subunit p22(phox). SFO-targeted injections of an adenovirus encoding cre-recombinase markedly diminished p22(phox), Nox2, and Nox4 mRNA in the SFO, as compared with a control adenovirus encoding red-fluorescent protein injection. Increased superoxide production in the SFO by chronic angiotensin II infusion (490 ng/kg min(-1) × 2 weeks) was blunted in adenovirus encoding cre-recombinase-treated mice, as detected by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Deletion of p22(phox) in the SFO eliminated the hypertensive response observed at 2 weeks of angiotensin II infusion compared with control adenovirus encoding red-fluorescent protein-treated mice (mean arterial pressures=97 ± 15 versus 154 ± 6 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.0001). Angiotensin II infusion also promoted marked vascular inflammation, as characterized by accumulation of activated T-cells and other leukocytes, and this was prevented by deletion of the SFO p22(phox). These experiments definitively identify the NADPH oxidases in the SFO as a critical determinant of the blood pressure and vascular inflammatory responses to chronic angiotensin II, and further support a role of reactive oxygen species in central nervous system signaling in hypertension. PMID:23248154

Lob, Heinrich E; Schultz, David; Marvar, Paul J; Davisson, Robin L; Harrison, David G

2013-02-01

126

Role of the NADPH Oxidases in the Subfornical Organ in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the NADPH oxidases contribute to hypertension via mechanisms that remain undefined. ROS produced in the central nervous system have been proposed to promote sympathetic outflow, inflammation and hypertension, but the contribution of the NADPH oxidases to these processes in chronic hypertension is uncertain. We therefore sought to identify how NADPH oxidases in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain regulate blood pressure and vascular inflammation during sustained hypertension. We produced mice with loxP sites flanking the coding region of the NADPH oxidase docking subunit p22phox. SFO-targeted injections of an adenovirus encoding cre-recombinase (AdCre) markedly diminished p22phox, Nox2 and Nox4 mRNA in the SFO as compared to a control adenovirus (AdRFP) injection. Increased superoxide production in the SFO by chronic angiotensin II infusion (490 ng/kg/min × 2 weeks), was blunted in AdCre-treated mice as detected by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Deletion of p22phox in the SFO eliminated the hypertensive response observed at two weeks of angiotensin II infusion compared to AdRFP-treated mice (mean arterial pressures = 97±15 vs. 154±6 mmHg respectively, p = 0.0001). Angiotensin II-infusion also promoted marked vascular inflammation, as characterized by accumulation of activated T cells and other leukocytes, and this was prevented by deletion of the SFO p22phox. These experiments definitively identify the NADPH oxidases in the SFO as a critical determinant of the blood pressure and vascular inflammatory responses to chronic angiotensin II, and further support a role of ROS in central nervous system signaling in hypertension. PMID:23248154

Lob, Heinrich E.; Schultz, David; Marvar, Paul J.; Davisson, Robin L.; Harrison, David G.

2013-01-01

127

NADPH oxidases are involved in differentiation and pathogenicity in Botrytis cinerea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidases have been shown to be involved in various differentiation processes in fungi. We investigated the role of two NADPH oxidases in the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea. The genes bcnoxA and bcnoxB were cloned and characterized; their deduced amino acid sequences show high homology to fungal NADPH oxidases. Analyses of single and double knock-out mutants

Nadja Segmüller; Leonie Kokkelink; Sabine Giesbert; Daniela Odinius; Jan van Kan; Paul Tudzynski

2008-01-01

128

Does NAD(P)H oxidase-derived H2O2 participate in hypotonicity-induced insulin release by activating VRAC in ?-cells?  

PubMed

NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-derived H(2)O(2) was recently proposed to act, in several cells, as the signal mediating the activation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC) under a variety of physiological conditions. The present study aims at investigating whether a similar situation prevails in insulin-secreting BRIN-BD11 and rat ?-cells. Exogenous H(2)O(2) (100 to 200 ?M) at basal glucose concentration (1.1 to 2.8 mM) stimulated insulin secretion. The inhibitor of VRAC, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) inhibited the secretory response to exogenous H(2)O(2). In patch clamp experiments, exogenous H(2)O(2) was observed to stimulate NPPB-sensitive anion channel activity, which induced cell membrane depolarization. Exposure of the BRIN-BD11 cells to a hypotonic medium caused a detectable increase in intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), a universal NOX inhibitor. NOX inhibitors such as DPI and plumbagin nearly totally inhibited insulin release provoked by exposure of the BRIN-BD11 cells to a hypotonic medium. Preincubation with two other drugs also abolished hypotonicity-induced insulin release and reduced basal insulin output: 1) N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor that serves as general antioxidant and 2) betulinic acid a compound that almost totally abolished NOX4 expression. As NPPB, each of these inhibitors (DPI, plumbagin, preincubation with NAC or betulinic acid) strongly reduced the volume regulatory decrease observed following a hypotonic shock, providing an independent proof that VRAC activation is mediated by H(2)O(2). Taken together, these data suggest that NOX-derived H(2)O(2) plays a key role in the insulin secretory response of BRIN-BD11 and native ?-cells to extracellular hypotonicity. PMID:22089811

Crutzen, R; Shlyonsky, V; Louchami, K; Virreira, M; Hupkens, E; Boom, A; Sener, A; Malaisse, W J; Beauwens, R

2012-02-01

129

NADPH oxidase activation and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal/aquaporin-4 adducts as possible new players in oxidative neuronal damage presents in drug-resistant epilepsy.  

PubMed

A correlation between epilepsy and cellular redox imbalance has been suggested, although the mechanism by which oxidative stress (OS) can be implicated in this disorder is not clear. In the present study several oxidative stress markers and enzymes involved in OS have been determined. In particular, we examined the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein adducts (HNE-PA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, and the activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), as cellular source of superoxide (O2(-)), in surgically resected epileptic tissue from drug-resistant patients (N=50). In addition, we investigated whether oxidative-mediated protein damage can affect aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel implicated in brain excitability and epilepsy. Results showed high levels of HNE-PA in epileptic hippocampus, in both neurons and glial cells and cytoplasmic positivity for p47(phox) and p67(phox) suggesting NOX2 activation. Interestingly, in epileptic tissue immunohistochemical localization of AQP4 was identified not only in perivascular astrocytic endfeet, but also in neurons. Nevertheless, negativity for AQP4 was observed in neurons in degeneration. Of note, HNE-mediated post-translational modifications of AQP4 were increased in epileptic tissues and double immunofluorescence clearly demonstrated co-localization of AQP4 and HNE-PA in epileptic hippocampal structures. The idea is that sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharges activates NOX2 with O2(-) production, leading to lipid peroxidation. The resulting generation of HNE targets AQP4, affecting water and ion balance. Therefore, we suggest that seizure induces oxidative damage as well as neuronal loss, thereby promoting neuronal hyperexcitability, also affecting water and ion balance by AQP4 modulation, and thus generating a vicious cycle. PMID:25460197

Pecorelli, A; Natrella, F; Belmonte, G; Miracco, C; Cervellati, F; Ciccoli, L; Mariottini, A; Rocchi, R; Vatti, G; Bua, A; Canitano, R; Hayek, J; Forman, H J; Valacchi, G

2015-03-01

130

The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (acetovanillone) induces oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Apocynin (acetovanillone) is often used as a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In N11 glial cells, apocynin induced, in a dose-dependent way, a significant increase of both malonyldialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) and lactate dehydrogenase release (index of a cytotoxic effect). Apocynin evoked also, in a significant way, an increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and a decrease of the intracellular glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio, accompanied by augmented efflux of glutathione and glutathione disulfide. Apocynin induced the activation of both pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle, which was blocked when the cells were incubated with glutathione together with apocynin. The cell incubation with glutathione prevented also the apocynin-induced increase of malonyldialdehyde generation and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Apocynin exerted an oxidant effect also in a cell-free system: indeed, in aqueous solution, it evoked a faster oxidation of the thiols glutathione and dithiothreitol, and elicited the generation of reactive oxygen species, mainly superoxide anions. Our results suggest that apocynin per se can induce an oxidative stress and exert a cytotoxic effect in N11 cells and other cell types, and that some effects of apocynin in in vitro and in vivo experimental models should be interpreted with caution.

Riganti, Chiara [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Turin (Italy); Costamagna, Costanzo [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Turin (Italy); Bosia, Amalia [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Turin (Italy); Ghigo, Dario [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: dario.ghigo@unito.it

2006-05-01

131

Glucose, palmitate and pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate production and activity of a phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase in rat pancreatic islets and a clonal beta cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Acute or chronic exposure of beta cells to glucose, palmitic acid or pro-inflammatory cytokines will result in increased production\\u000a of the p47\\u000a phox\\u000a component of the NADPH oxidase and subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Rat pancreatic islets or clonal rat BRIN BD11 beta cells were incubated in the presence of glucose, palmitic acid or pro-inflammatory\\u000a cytokines for periods

D. Morgan; H. R. Oliveira-Emilio; D. Keane; A. E. Hirata; M. Santos da Rocha; S. Bordin; R. Curi; P. Newsholme; A. R. Carpinelli

2007-01-01

132

Enhanced Depolarization-Induced Pulmonary Vasoconstriction Following Chronic Hypoxia Requires EGFR-Dependent Activation of NAD(P)H Oxidase 2  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Chronic hypoxia (CH) enhances depolarization-induced myofilament Ca2+ sensitization and resultant pulmonary arterial constriction through superoxide (O2?)-dependent stimulation of RhoA. Because NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) has been implicated in the development of pulmonary hypertension, we hypothesized that vascular smooth muscle (VSM) depolarization increases NOX-derived O2? production leading to myofilament Ca2+ sensitization and augmented vasoconstrictor reactivity following CH. As epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediates Rac1-dependent NOX activation in renal mesangial cells, we further sought to examine the role EGFR plays in this response. Results: Vasoconstrictor responses to depolarizing concentrations of KCl were greater in lungs isolated from CH (4 wk, 0.5 atm) rats compared to normoxic controls, and this effect of CH was abolished by the general NOX inhibitor, apocynin. CH similarly augmented KCl-induced vasoconstriction and O2? generation (assessed using the fluorescent indicator, dihydroethidium) in Ca2+-permeabilized, pressurized small pulmonary arteries. These latter responses to CH were prevented by general inhibition of NOX isoforms (apocynin, diphenylene iodonium), and by selective inhibition of NOX 2 (gp91ds-tat), Rac1 (NSC 23766), and EGFR (AG 1478). Consistent with these observations, CH increased KCl-induced EGFR phosphorylation, and augmented depolarization-induced Rac1 activation in an EGFR-dependent manner. Innovation: This study establishes a novel signaling axis in VSM linking membrane depolarization to contraction that is independent of Ca2+ influx, and which mediates myofilament Ca2+ sensitization in the hypertensive pulmonary circulation. Conclusion: CH augments membrane depolarization-induced pulmonary VSM Ca2+ sensitization and vasoconstriction through EGFR-dependent stimulation of Rac1 and NOX 2. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1777–1788. PMID:22966991

Norton, Charles E.; Broughton, Brad R.S.; Jernigan, Nikki L.; Walker, Benjimen R.

2013-01-01

133

Isoproterenol induced stressful reactions in the brain are characterized by inflammation due to activation of NADPH oxidase and ER stress: attenuated by Apocynin, Rehmannia complex and Triterpene acids.  

PubMed

Inflammatory changes in the cerebral network are present in early mechanisms involved in neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer disease (AD), and aging brain. We intended to verify that these are likely due to an activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Apocynin (APO) an inhibitor of NOX is potential to ameliorate these changes. Rehmannia complex (Reh) a famous prescription in China and the triterpene acids (TTA) isolated from Reh may relieve the isoproterenol (ISO) induced chronic inflammation in the brain, compared with APO. Rats were administered with ISO for 10 days and astrocytes were incubated with ISO for 24 h. Changes in neural MMP (matrix metalloproteinase), Cx43, AQP4 (aquaporin 4), NF?B, I?B?, and p-PERK (PKB like kinase) were conducted and intervened with APO, Reh and TTA, in vivo and in vitro, respectively. An increased MDA and upregulated NOX subunit p47phox, ETA, PERK in association with abnormal MMP-2/9 and Cx40/43 were found in cerebral tissue of ISO-injected rats. Astrocytes incubated with ISO exhibited upregulated APQ4, I?B?, NF?B and p-PERK/PERK and downregulated Cx43. These were significantly abrogated by APO and Reh, in vivo, and APO and TTA in vitro. In conclusion, neural damages induced by ISO were characterized by inflammatory changes in cerebral tissue and astrocytes, which were blunted significantly by APO, Reh and TTA, respectively. Reh and TTA are potential in alleviating the early pathogenesis in neurodegenerative changes in AD in the clinical settings through suppressing NOX and ER stress in the brain. PMID:24570113

Mo, Guo-Long; Li, Ying; Du, Rong-Hui; Dai, De-Zai; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Dai, Yin

2014-04-01

134

Nitric oxide, an endothelial cell relaxation factor, inhibits neutrophil superoxide anion production via a direct action on the NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide provokes vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation. We examined the effect of nitric oxide on superoxide anion production by three sources: activated intact neutrophils, xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine, and the NADPH oxidase. Nitric oxide significantly inhibited the generation of superoxide anion by neutrophils exposed to either FMLP (10(-7)M) or PMA (150 ng/ml) (IC50 = 30 microM). To determine whether the effect of nitric oxide on the respiratory burst was due to simple scavenging of O2+, kinetic studies that compared effects on neutrophils and the cell-free xanthine oxidase system were performed. Nitric oxide inhibited O2+ produced by xanthine oxidase only when added simultaneously with substrate, consistent with the short half-life of NO in oxygenated solution. In contrast, the addition of nitric oxide to neutrophils 20 min before FMLP resulted in the inhibition of O2+ production, which suggests formation of a stable intermediate. The effect of nitric oxide on the cell-free NADPH oxidase superoxide-generating system was also examined: The addition of NO before arachidonate activation (t = -6 min) significantly inhibited superoxide anion production. Nitric oxide did not inhibit O2+ when added at NADPH initiation (t = 0). Treatment of the membrane but not cytosolic component of the oxidase was sufficient to inhibit O2+ generation. The data suggest that nitric oxide inhibits neutrophil O2+ production via direct effects on membrane components of the NADPH oxidase. This action must occur before the assembly of the activated complex. PMID:1325992

Clancy, R M; Leszczynska-Piziak, J; Abramson, S B

1992-01-01

135

Role of NADPH Oxidase and Stat3 in Statin-Mediated Protection against Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reduc- tase (statins) reduce signs of diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients and animals. Indirect clinical evidence supports the actions of statins in improving cardiovascular function, but the mechanisms of their protective actions in the retina are not understood. Prior studies have implicated oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase-mediated activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription

Mohamed Al-Shabrawey; Manuela Bartoli; Azza B. El-Remessy; Guochuan Ma; Suraporn Matragoon; Tahira Lemtalsi; R. William Caldwell; Ruth B. Caldwell

2008-01-01

136

Oxidative innate immune defenses by Nox/Duox family NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in innate immunity was first recognized in professional phagocytes undergoing a “respiratory burst” upon activation. This robust oxygen consumption is related to a superoxide-generating enzyme, the phagocytic NADPH oxidase (Nox2 or phox). The oxidase is essential for microbial killing, since patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from enhanced susceptibility to microbial infections. ROS derived from superoxide attack bacteria in the isolated niche of the neutrophil phagosome. The oxidase is electrogenic, alters ion currents across membranes, induces apoptosis, regulates cytokine production, influences gene expression, and promotes formation of extracellular traps. Recently, new homologues of Nox2 were discovered establishing the Nox family of NADPH oxidases that encompasses seven members. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon epithelium, and can be induced by LPS or IFN-?. Nox4 was implicated in innate immunity since LPS induces Nox4-dependent ROS generation. Duox1 and Duox2 localize to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in major airways, salivary glands, and the gastrointestinal tract, and provide extracellular hydrogen peroxide to lactoperoxidase to produce antimicrobial hypothiocyanite ions. Th1 and Th2 cytokines regulate expression of Dual oxidases in human airways and may thereby act in host defense or in proinflammatory responses. PMID:18511861

Rada, Balázs; Leto, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

137

Oxidative innate immune defenses by Nox/Duox family NADPH oxidases.  

PubMed

The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in innate immunity was first recognized in professional phagocytes undergoing a 'respiratory burst'upon activation. This robust oxygen consumption is related to a superoxide-generating enzyme, the phagocytic NADPH oxidase (Nox2-based or phox). The oxidase is essential for microbial killing, since patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from enhanced susceptibility to microbial infections. ROS derived from superoxide attack bacteria in the isolated niche of the neutrophil phagosome. The oxidase is electrogenic, alters ion currents across membranes, induces apoptosis, regulates cytokine production, influences gene expression, and promotes formation of extracellular traps. Recently, new homologues of Nox2 were discovered establishing the Nox family of NADPH oxidases that encompasses seven members. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon epithelium, and can be induced by LPS or IFN- gamma. Nox4 was implicated in innate immunity since LPS induces Nox4-dependent ROS generation. Duox1 and Duox2 localize to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in major airways, salivary glands, and the gastrointestinal tract, and provide extracellular hydrogen peroxide to lactoperoxidase to produce antimicrobial hypothiocyanite ions. Th1 and Th2 cytokines regulate expression of dual oxidases in human airways and may thereby act in host defense or in proinflammatory responses. PMID:18511861

Rada, Balázs; Leto, Thomas L

2008-01-01

138

Impact of myeloperoxidase and NADPH-oxidase polymorphisms in drug-induced agranulocytosis.  

PubMed

Therapy of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine is limited by a comparatively high incidence of agranulocytosis in 0.8% of patients. This severe side effect is possibly based on the clozapine-mediated stimulation of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors release, followed by induction of granulocyte proliferation and induction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and NADPH-oxidase. Because NADPH-oxidase/MPO may oxidize clozapine to highly reactive nitrenium ions, we investigated the role of hereditary polymorphisms in the NADPH oxidase/myeloperoxidase system in agranulocytosis patients who received clozapine (n = 49), ticlopidine (n = 11), and other drugs prior to the event. The low active MPO -436A allelic variant frequency was 22.2% in cases and 19.9% in controls, but AA carriers were overrepresented among cases compared with the sum of AG and GG-carriers (odds ratio 4.16, 95% confidence limits 0.86-20.3, P = 0.056). Particularly in clozapine-induced agranulocytosis, this finding was most pronounced (P = 0.04). In the CYBA gene, encoding the p22phox subunit of the NADPH-oxidase, 2 polymorphisms were investigated. C242T (His72Tyr) had an allele frequency of 31.9% and 32.2% (P = NS) and A640G in the 3'-UTR was less frequent in cases (48.7%) than controls (60.0%), odds ratio 0.63 (0.39-1.02), P = 0.048. CYBA 640GG-carriers were marginally less frequent in cases compared with controls (28.2% vs. 38.7%, P = 0.062). Sequencing the entire coding region of the NADPH subunit CYBB (gpS1phase) disclosed that CYBB is a highly conserved gene, which does not represent a risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. The impact of the polymorphic myeloperoxidase, however, needs further verification to predict a patient's risk to develop drug-induced agranulocytosis. PMID:15538122

Mosyagin, Igor; Dettling, Michael; Roots, Ivar; Mueller-Oerlinghausen, Bruno; Cascorbi, Ingolf

2004-12-01

139

NADPH Oxidase and the Cardiovascular Toxicity Associated with Smoking  

PubMed Central

Smoking is one of the most serious but preventable causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Key aspects of pathological process associated with smoking include endothelial dysfunction, a prothrombotic state, inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and hypoxia. Multiple molecular events are involved in smokinginduced CVD. However, the dysregulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and metabolism mainly contribute to the development of diverse CVDs, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been established as a source of ROS responsible for the pathogenesis of CVD. NOX activation and resultant ROS production by cigarette smoke (CS) treatment have been widely observed in isolated blood vessels and cultured vascular cells, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells. NOX-mediated oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in animal studies. Of the various NOX isoforms, NOX2 has been reported to mediate ROS generation by CS, but other isoforms were not tested thoroughly. Of the many CS constituents, nicotine, methyl vinyl ketone, and ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, such as, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, appear to be primarily responsible for NOX-mediated cytotoxicity, but additional validation will be needed. Human epidemiological studies have reported relationships between polymorphisms in the CYBA gene encoding p22phox, a catalytic subunit of NOX and susceptibility to smoking-related CVDs. In particular, G allele carriers of A640G and -930A/G polymorphisms were found to be vulnerable to smoking-induced cardiovascular toxicity, but results for C242T studies are conflicting. On the whole, evidence implicates the etiological role of NOX in smoking-induced CVD, but the clinical relevance of NOX activation by smoking and its contribution to CVD require further validation in human studies. A detailed understanding of the role of NOX would be helpful to assess the risk of smoking to human health, to define high-risk subgroups, and to develop strategies to prevent or treat smoking-induced CVD. PMID:25343008

Kim, Mikyung; Han, Chang-ho

2014-01-01

140

Release of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors and cell death are mediated by CK2 and NADPH oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of the NADPH oxidase subunit, NOX2, and increased oxidative stress are associated with neuronal death after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Inhibition of NOX2 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) leads to neuronal survival, but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we show that in copper\\/zinc-superoxide dismutase transgenic (SOD1 Tg) mice, degradation of CK2? and CK2?? and dephosphorylation of CK2?

Gab Seok Kim; Joo Eun Jung; Purnima Narasimhan; Hiroyuki Sakata; Hideyuki Yoshioka; Yun Seon Song; Nobuya Okami; Pak H Chan

2012-01-01

141

Unconventional Roles of the NADPH Oxidase: Signaling, Ion Homeostasis, and Cell Death  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the central role of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase in mediating bacterial killing has long been appreciated, this sophisticated enzyme complex serves various other important functions. This Perspective focuses on these underappreciated roles of phagocytic NADPH oxidase, highlighting recent work implicating reactive oxygen species in triggering an unconventional form of cell death.

Benjamin E. Steinberg (Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto; Program in Cell Biology REV)

2007-03-27

142

NADPH Oxidase Deficient Mice Develop Colitis and Bacteremia upon Infection with Normally Avirulent,  

E-print Network

by the large intestinal mucosa and the role of NADPH oxidase in maintaining microbe-host mutualism microbiota and their products across the intestinal epithelial cell layer represent a permanent challenge to the intestinal immune system. The production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase is thought to be a key

Boyer, Edmond

143

The voltage dependence of NADPH oxidase reveals why phagocytes need proton channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme NADPH oxidase in phagocytes is important in the body's defence against microbes: it produces superoxide anions (O2-, precursors to bactericidal reactive oxygen species). Electrons move from intracellular NADPH, across a chain comprising FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) and two haems, to reduce extracellular O2 to O2-. NADPH oxidase is electrogenic, generating electron current (Ie) that is measurable under voltage-clamp

Thomas E. DeCoursey; Deri Morgan; Vladimir V. Cherny

2003-01-01

144

Kaempferol modulates pro-inflammatory NF-?B activation by suppressing advanced glycation endproducts-induced NADPH oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) are oxidative products formed from the reaction between carbohydrates and a free amino\\u000a group of proteins that are provoked by reactive species (RS). It is also known that AGE enhance the generation of RS and that\\u000a the binding of AGE to a specific AGE receptor (RAGE) induces the activation of the redox-sensitive, pro-inflammatory transcription\\u000a factor, nuclear

Ji Min Kim; Eun Kyeong Lee; Dae Hyun Kim; Byung Pal Yu; Hae Young Chung

2010-01-01

145

The Role of NADPH Oxidase in Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Mice  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea, characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxemia, is an independent risk factor for the development of pulmonary hypertension. However, the exact mechanisms of this disorder remain to be defined. Enhanced NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide (O2?·) generation in the pulmonary vasculature play a critical role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, the current study explores the hypothesis that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) causes pulmonary hypertension, in part, by increasing NADPH oxidase–derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypertension. To test this hypothesis, male C57Bl/6 mice and gp91phox knockout mice were exposed to CIH for 8 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. CIH mice were placed in a chamber where the oxygen concentration was cycled between 21% and 10% O2 45 times per hour. Exposure to CIH for 8 weeks increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricle (RV):left ventricle (LV) + septum (S) weight ratio, an index of RV hypertrophy, and thickness of the right ventricular anterior wall as measured by echocardiography. CIH exposure also caused pulmonary vascular remodeling as demonstrated by increased muscularization of the distal pulmonary vasculature. CIH-induced pulmonary hypertension was associated with increased lung levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits, Nox4 and p22phox, as well as increased activity of platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? and its associated downstream effector, Akt kinase. These CIH-induced derangements were attenuated in similarly treated gp91phox knockout mice. These findings demonstrate that NADPH oxidase–derived ROS contribute to the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypertension caused by CIH. PMID:18952568

Nisbet, Rachel E.; Graves, Anitra S.; Kleinhenz, Dean J.; Rupnow, Heidi L.; Reed, Alana L.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Mitchell, Patrick O.; Sutliff, Roy L.; Hart, C. Michael

2009-01-01

146

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O3 fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O3, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O3 can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D’Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-01-01

147

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.  

PubMed

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-10-01

148

Reactive Oxygen Species and Inhibitors of Inflammatory Enzymes, NADPH Oxidase, and iNOS in Experimental Models of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are emerging as important players in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Out of several ROS-generating systems, the inflammatory enzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were believed to play major roles. Mounting evidence suggests that activation of NADPH oxidase and the expression of iNOS are directly linked to the generation of highly reactive ROS which affects various cellular components and preferentially damage midbrain dopaminergic neurons in PD. Therefore, appropriate management or inhibition of ROS generated by these enzymes may represent a therapeutic target to reduce neuronal degeneration seen in PD. Here, we have summarized recently developed agents and patents claimed as inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and iNOS enzymes in experimental models of PD. PMID:22577256

Koppula, Sushruta; Kumar, Hemant; Kim, In Su; Choi, Dong-Kug

2012-01-01

149

Role of NADH\\/NADPH Oxidase-Derived H2O2 in Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that oxidative mechanisms may be involved in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy. We previously showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) increases superoxide production by activating an NADH\\/NADPH oxidase, which contributes to hypertrophy. In this study, we determined whether Ang II stimulation of this oxidase results in H2O2 production by studying the effects of Ang II on

A. Maziar Zafari; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Marjorie Akers; Qiqin Yin; David G. Harrison; W. Robert Taylor; Kathy K. Griendling

150

NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Induces Endoplasmatic Reticulum Stress in Neutrophil-Like HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily produced via NADPH oxidase play an important role for killing microorganisms in neutrophils. In this study we examined if ROS production in Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) differentiated into neutrophil-like cells (dHL60) induces ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). To cause ROS production cells were treated with PMA or by chronic hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia failed to induce ROS production and did not cause activation of the UPR in dHL60 cells. PMA, a pharmacologic NADPH oxidase activator, induced ER stress in dHL60 cells as monitored by IRE-1 and PERK pathway activation, and this was independent of calcium signaling. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI, abolished both ROS production and UPR activation. These results show that ROS produced by NADPH oxidase induces ER stress and suggests a close association between the redox state of the cell and the activation of the UPR in neutrophil-like HL60 cells. PMID:25668518

Kuwabara, Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba; Zhang, Liling; Schuiki, Irmgard; Curi, Rui; Volchuk, Allen; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana Carolina

2015-01-01

151

Targeting and Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Nox Family NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nox family NADPH oxidases serve a variety of functions requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including antimicrobial defense, biosynthetic processes, oxygen sensing, and redox-based cellular signaling. We explored targeting, assembly, and activation of several Nox family oxidases, since ROS production appears to be regulated both spatially and temporally. Nox1 and Nox3 are similar to the phagocytic (Nox2-based) oxidase, functioning as multicomponent superoxide-generating enzymes. Factors regulating their activities include cytosolic activator and organizer proteins and GTP-Rac. Their regulation varies, with the following rank order: Nox2?>?Nox1?>?Nox3. Determinants of subcellular targeting include: (a) formation of Nox-p22phox heterodimeric complexes allowing plasma membrane translocation, (b) phospholipids-binding specificities of PX domain-containing organizer proteins (p47phox or Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1 and p40phox), and (c) variably splicing of Noxo1 PX domains directing them to nuclear or plasma membranes. Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are targeted by different mechanisms. Plasma membrane targeting results in H2O2 release, not superoxide, to support extracellular peroxidases. Human Duox1 and Duox2 have no demonstrable peroxidase activity, despite their extensive homology with heme peroxidases. The dual oxidases were reconstituted by Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2) or two Duoxa1 variants, which dictate maturation, subcellular localization, and the type of ROS generated by forming stable complexes with Duox. Antioxid Redox Signal. 11, 2607–2619. PMID:19438290

Morand, Stanislas; Hurt, Darrell; Ueyama, Takehiko

2009-01-01

152

INCREASED NADPH OXIDASE DERIVED SUPEROXIDE IS INVOLVED IN THE NEURONAL CELL DEATH INDUCED BY HYPOXIA ISCHEMIA IN NEONATAL HIPPOCAMPAL SLICE CULTURES  

PubMed Central

Neonatal brain hypoxia ischemia (HI) results in neuronal cell death. Previous studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, play a key role in this process. However, the cellular sources have not been established. In this study we examined the role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex in neonatal HI brain injury and elucidated its mechanism of activation. Rat hippocampal slices were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic the conditions seen in HI. Initial studies confirmed an important role for NADPH oxidase derived superoxide in the oxidative stress associated with OGD. Further, the OGD-mediated increase in apoptotic cell death was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. The activation of NADPH oxidase was found to be dependent on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated phosphorylation and activation of the p47phox subunit. Using an adeno-associated virus antisense construct to selectively decrease p47phox expression in neurons, and showed that this lead to inhibition both of the increase in superoxide and neuronal cell death associated with OGD. We also found that NADPH oxidase inhibition in a neonatal rat model of HI or scavenging hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduced brain injury. Thus, we conclude that activation of the NADPH oxidase complex contributes to the oxidative stress during HI and that therapies targeted against this complex could exhibit neuroprotection against the brain injury associated with neonatal HI. PMID:22728269

Lu, Qing; Wainwright, Mark S.; Harris, Valerie A.; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Hou, Yali; Rau, Thomas; Poulsen, David J.; Black, Stephen M

2012-01-01

153

Loss of functional NADPH oxidase-2 protects against alcohol-induced bone resorption in female p47phox-/- mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. We have previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol abuse produces bone loss through NOX-dependent mechanisms. In the current study, s...

154

Regional Expression of NAD(P)H Oxidase and Superoxide Dismutase in the Brain of Rats with Neurogenic Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Single injection of small quantities of phenol into the kidney cortex causes hypertension which is mediated by renal afferent sympathetic pathway activation. This phenomenon can be prevented by superoxide dismutase (SOD) infusion in the lateral ventricle, suggesting the role of superoxide (O2–·? ) in noradrenergic control of arterial pressure. Since NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of O2–·? ,

Yongli Bai; Bahman Jabbari; Shaohua Ye; Vito M. Campese; Nosratola D. Vaziri

2009-01-01

155

Hyperbaric Oxygen Suppresses NADPH Oxidase in a Rat Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—One of the major contributors to brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is oxidative stress, and 1 of the major enzymatic sources of superoxide anion production in the brain is NADPH oxidase. Therefore, we studied whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) suppresses neuronal NADPH oxidase in a rat model of SAH. Methods—Eighty-three Sprague-Dawley male rats were assigned to sham, SAH,

Robert P. Ostrowski; Jiping Tang; John H. Zhang

2009-01-01

156

Myocardial Ischemia\\/Reperfusion Injury in NADPH Oxidase-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that oxygen-derived free radicals are involved in the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia\\/reperfusion (MI\\/R) injury. Specifically, neutrophils have been shown to mediate postischemic ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial necrosis. We hypothesized that MI\\/R injury would be reduced in the absence (2\\/2) of NADPH oxidase. Heterozygous control mice (n523) and NADPH oxidase-\\/- mice (n524) were subjected to 30 minutes

Michaela R. Hoffmeyer; Steven P. Jones; Christopher R. Ross; Matthew B. Grisham; F. Stephen Laroux; Timothy J. Stalker; Rosario Scalia; David J. Lefer

157

Suppression of NADPH oxidase- and mitochondrion-derived superoxide by Notoginsenoside R1 protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through estrogen receptor-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways.  

PubMed

Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel phytoestrogen that is isolated from Panax notoginseng. We have recently found that NGR1 showed neuroprotection in vitro against oxidative stress through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways. However, whether NGR1 has neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo is unknown. In this study, we used in vivo and in vitro models of cerebral I/R injury that demonstrate middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats, as well as oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R) in primary cortical neurons. These models were used to evaluate NGR1 neuroprotection. Three-day pretreatment with NGR1 (20 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly improved neurologic outcomes and reduced cerebral infarct volume. Pretreatment of primary cortical neurons with NGR1 (25 ?M) for 24 h prevented apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by OGD/R. NGR1 inhibited apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. NGR1 prevented oxidative stress by suppressing NADPH oxidase- and mitochondrion-derived superoxide and inhibiting production of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in vivo and in vitro. NGR1 induced ER-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways by increasing ER?, ER?, phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK3?, nuclear Nrf2, and HO-1 expression in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with ICI-182780, LY294002, or Snpp abolished NGR1-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro. In conclusion, NGR1 showed neuroprotection against cerebral I/R injury in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism of NGR1 neuroprotection involves inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction via ER-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways. PMID:24720662

Meng, X; Wang, M; Wang, X; Sun, G; Ye, J; Xu, H; Sun, X

2014-07-01

158

The superoxide-generating oxidase of leucocytes. NADPH-dependent reduction of flavin and cytochrome b in solubilized preparations.  

PubMed Central

An NADPH-dependent O2.- -generating oxidase was solubilized from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated pig neutrophils by using a mixture of detergents. Recovery of oxidase was approx. 40%. The extract contained cytochrome b-245 (331 pmol/mg of protein) and FAD (421 pmol/mg of protein); approx. 30% of each was reduced within 60s when NADPH was added to anaerobic incubations. Three different additives, quinacrine, p-chloromercuribenzoate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, strongly inhibited O2.- generation; they also inhibited the reduction by NADPH of cytochrome b at the same low concentrations. In the presence of p-chloromercuribenzoate cytochrome b reduction was strongly inhibited and flavin reduction was less inhibited. A detergent extract prepared from non-stimulated neutrophils also contained flavin and cytochrome b, but its rate of O2.- production was less than 1% of that from activated cells; its initial rate of cytochrome b and flavin reduction was low, although the state of reduction at equilibrium was similar to that of extracts of activated cells. Even in the non-activated cell extract the reduction of flavin and cytochrome was made fast and complete when Methyl Viologen was added to the anaerobic incubations. The oxidase was temperature-sensitive, with a sharp maximum at 25 degrees C; temperatures above this caused loss of O2.- generation, and this coincided with loss of the characteristic cytochrome b spectrum, indicate of denaturation of the cytochrome. The cytochrome b formed a complex with butyl isocyanide (close to 100% binding at 10mM); butyl isocyanide also inhibited the oxidase activity of stimulated whole neutrophils (22.5% inhibition at 10mM). Photoreduced FMN stimulated O2 uptake by the oxidase. The results support a scheme of electron transport within the oxidase complex involving NADPH, FAD, cytochrome b-245 and O2 in that sequence. PMID:6497852

Cross, A R; Parkinson, J F; Jones, O T

1984-01-01

159

Epidermal growth factor stimulates nuclear factor-?B activation and heme oxygenase-1 expression via c-Src, NADPH oxidase, PI3K, and Akt in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Previous report showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes tumor progression. Several studies demonstrated that growth factors can induce heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression, protect against cellular injury and cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the c-Src, NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/Akt, and NF-?B signaling pathways in EGF-induced HO-1 expression in human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF caused HO-1 to be expressed in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Treatment of HT-29 cells with AG1478 (an EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibitor), small interfering RNA of EGFR (EGFR siRNA), a dominant negative mutant of c-Src (c-Src DN), DPI (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), glutathione (an ROS inhibitor), LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), and an Akt DN inhibited EGF-induced HO-1 expression. Stimulation of cells with EGF caused an increase in c-Src phosphorylation at Tyr406 in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF induced an increase in p47(phox) translocation from the cytosol to membranes. The EGF-induced ROS production was inhibited by DPI. Stimulation of cells with EGF resulted in an increase in Akt phosphorylation at Ser473, which was inhibited by c-Src DN, DPI, and LY 294002. Moreover, treatment of HT-29 cells with a dominant negative mutant of I?B (I?B?M) inhibited EGF-induced HO-1 expression. Stimulation of cells with EGF induced p65 translocation from the cytosol to nuclei. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF induced an increase in ?B-luciferase activity, which was inhibited by a c-Src DN, LY 294002, and an Akt DN. Furthermore, EGF-induced colon cancer cell proliferation was inhibited by Sn(IV)protoporphyrin-IX (snPP, an HO-1 inhibitor). Taken together, these results suggest that the c-Src, NADPH oxidase, PI3K, and Akt signaling pathways play important roles in EGF-induced NF-?B activation and HO-1 expression in HT-29 cells. Moreover, overexpression of HO-1 mediates EGF-induced colon cancer cell proliferation. PMID:25122478

Lien, Gi-Shih; Wu, Ming-Shun; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Bing-Chang

2014-01-01

160

Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulates Nuclear Factor-?B Activation and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression via c-Src, NADPH Oxidase, PI3K, and Akt in Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Previous report showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes tumor progression. Several studies demonstrated that growth factors can induce heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression, protect against cellular injury and cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the c-Src, NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/Akt, and NF-?B signaling pathways in EGF-induced HO-1 expression in human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF caused HO-1 to be expressed in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Treatment of HT-29 cells with AG1478 (an EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibitor), small interfering RNA of EGFR (EGFR siRNA), a dominant negative mutant of c-Src (c-Src DN), DPI (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), glutathione (an ROS inhibitor), LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), and an Akt DN inhibited EGF-induced HO-1 expression. Stimulation of cells with EGF caused an increase in c-Src phosphorylation at Tyr406 in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF induced an increase in p47phox translocation from the cytosol to membranes. The EGF-induced ROS production was inhibited by DPI. Stimulation of cells with EGF resulted in an increase in Akt phosphorylation at Ser473, which was inhibited by c-Src DN, DPI, and LY 294002. Moreover, treatment of HT-29 cells with a dominant negative mutant of I?B (I?B?M) inhibited EGF-induced HO-1 expression. Stimulation of cells with EGF induced p65 translocation from the cytosol to nuclei. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF induced an increase in ?B-luciferase activity, which was inhibited by a c-Src DN, LY 294002, and an Akt DN. Furthermore, EGF-induced colon cancer cell proliferation was inhibited by Sn(IV)protoporphyrin-IX (snPP, an HO-1 inhibitor). Taken together, these results suggest that the c-Src, NADPH oxidase, PI3K, and Akt signaling pathways play important roles in EGF-induced NF-?B activation and HO-1 expression in HT-29 cells. Moreover, overexpression of HO-1 mediates EGF-induced colon cancer cell proliferation. PMID:25122478

Lien, Gi-Shih; Wu, Ming-Shun; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Bing-Chang

2014-01-01

161

NADPH OXIDASE 4 MEDIATES TGF-?-INDUCED SMOOTH MUSCLE ?-ACTIN VIA p38MAPK AND SRF  

PubMed Central

In contrast to other cell types, vascular smooth muscle cells modify their phenotype in response to external signals. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is critical for maintenance of smooth muscle gene expression; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely characterized. Using smooth muscle ?-actin (SMA) as a prototypical smooth muscle gene and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) as a differentiating agent, we examined Nox4-dependent signaling. TGF-? increases Nox4 expression and activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Transfection of HASMC with siRNA against Nox4 (siNox4) abolishes TGF-?-induced SMA expression and stress fiber formation. siNox4 also significantly inhibits TGF-?-stimulated p38MAPK phosphorylation, as well as that of its substrate, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK-2). Moreover, the p38MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 nearly completely blocks the SMA increase induced by TGF-?. Inhibition of either p38MAPK or NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species impairs the TGF-?-induced phosphorylation of Ser103 on serum response factor (SRF) and reduces its transcriptional activity. Binding of SRF to myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) is also necessary, because downregulation of MRTF by siRNA abolishes TGF-?-induced SMA expression. Taken together, these data suggest that Nox4 regulates SMA expression via activation of a p38MAPK/SRF/MRTF pathway in response to TGF-?. PMID:21074607

Martin-Garrido, Abel; Brown, David I.; Lyle, Alicia N.; Dikalova, Anna; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Lassčgue, Bernard; Martín, Alejandra San; Griendling, Kathy K.

2010-01-01

162

Francisella Acid Phosphatases Inactivate the NADPH Oxidase in Human Phagocytes  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis contains four putative acid phosphatases that are conserved in Francisella novicida. An F. novicida quadruple mutant (AcpA, AcpB, AcpC, and Hap [?ABCH]) is unable to escape the phagosome or survive in macrophages and is attenuated in the mouse model. We explored whether reduced survival of the ?ABCH mutant within phagocytes is related to the oxidative response by human neutrophils and macrophages. F. novicida and F. tularensis subspecies failed to stimulate reactive oxygen species production in the phagocytes, whereas the F. novicida ?ABCH strain stimulated a significant level of reactive oxygen species. The ?ABCH mutant, but not the wild-type strain, strongly colocalized with p47phox and replicated in phagocytes only in the presence of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor or within macrophages isolated from p47phox knockout mice. Finally, purified AcpA strongly dephosphorylated p47phox and p40phox, but not p67phox, in vitro. Thus, Francisella acid phosphatases play a major role in intramacrophage survival and virulence by regulating the generation of the oxidative burst in human phagocytes. PMID:20348422

Mohapatra, Nrusingh P.; Soni, Shilpa; Rajaram, Murugesan V. S.; Dang, Pham My-Chan; Reilly, Tom J.; El-Benna, Jamel; Clay, Corey D.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Gunn, John S.

2010-01-01

163

NO-mediated regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase by laminar shear stress in human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The flowing blood generates shear stress at the endothelial cell surface. In endothelial cells, NAD(P)H oxidase complexes have been identified as major sources of superoxide anion (.O(2)(-)) formation. In this study, we analysed the effect of laminar shear stress on .O(2)(-) formation by cytochrome c reduction assay and on NAD(P)H oxidase subunit expression by standard calibrated competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot in human endothelial cells. Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to laminar shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer for up to 24 h. Short-term application of shear stress transiently induced .O(2)(-) formation. This was inhibited by NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat, but NAD(P)H oxidase subunit expression was unchanged. Long-term arterial laminar shear stress (30 dyne cm(-2), 24 h) down-regulated .O(2)(-) formation, and mRNA and protein expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits Nox2/gp91(phox) and p47(phox). In parallel, endothelial NO formation and eNOS, but not Cu/Zn SOD, protein expression was increased. Down-regulation of .O(2)(-) formation, gp91(phox) and p47(phox) expression by long-term laminar shear stress was blocked by l-NAME. NO donor DETA-NO down-regulates .O(2)(-) formation, gp91(phox) and p47(phox) expression in static cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest a transient activation of .O(2)(-) formation by short-term shear stress, followed by a down-regulation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase in response to long-term laminar shear stress. NO-mediated down-regulation by shear stress preferentially affects the gp91(phox)/p47(phox)-containing NAD(P)H oxidase complex. This mechanism might contribute to the regulation of endothelial NO/.O(2)(-) balance and the vasoprotective potential of physiological levels of laminar shear stress. PMID:16873416

Duerrschmidt, Nicole; Stielow, Claudia; Muller, Gregor; Pagano, Patrick J; Morawietz, Henning

2006-10-15

164

The NADPH oxidase of phagocytic cells is an electron pump that alkalinises the phagocytic vacuole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phagocytic cells of the immune system contain an oxidase that is important for the killing and digestion of engulfed microbes. This is an electron transport chain that transfers electrons from NADPH in the cytosol to oxygen to form superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in the phagocytic vacuole. Absence or abnormality of this oxidase results in the syndrome of CGD, characterised

A. W. Segal

1995-01-01

165

Temporal changes in the expression of mRNA of NADPH oxidase subunits in renal epithelial cells exposed to oxalate or calcium oxalate crystals  

PubMed Central

Background. Exposure of renal epithelial cells to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and cell injury. We have hypothesized that Ox and CaOx crystals activate NADPH oxidase through upregulation of its various subunits. Methods. Human renal epithelial-derived cell line, HK-2, was exposed to 100 ?mol Ox or 66.7 ?g/cm2 CaOx monohydrate crystals for 6, 12, 24 or 48 h. After exposure, the cells and media were processed to determine activation of NADPH oxidase, production of superoxide and 8-isoprostane (8IP), and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). RT-PCR was performed to determine mRNA expression of NADPH subunits p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox as well as Rac-GTPase. Results. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals resulted in increase in LDH release, production of 8-IP, NADPH oxidase activity and production of superoxide. Exposure to CaOx crystals resulted in significantly higher NADPH oxidase activity, production of superoxide and LDH release than Ox exposure. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals altered the expression of various subunits of NADPH oxidase. More consistent were increases in the expression of membrane-bound p22phox and cytosolic p47phox. Significant and strong correlations were seen between NADPH oxidase activity, the expression of p22phox and p47phox, production of superoxide and release of LDH when cells were exposed to CaOx crystals. The expressions of neither p22phox nor p47phox were significantly correlated with increased NADPH oxidase activity after the Ox exposure. Conclusions. As hypothesized, exposure to Ox or CaOx crystals leads to significant increases in the expression of p22phox and p47phox, leading to activation of NADPH oxidase. Increased NADPH oxidase activity is associated with increased superoxide production and lipid peroxidation. Different pathways appear to be involved in the stimulation of renal epithelial cells by exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals. PMID:21079197

Khan, Saeed R.; Khan, Aslam; Byer, Karen J.

2011-01-01

166

NADPH Oxidase as a Therapeutic Target for Oxalate Induced Injury in Kidneys  

PubMed Central

A major role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes is to catalyze the production of superoxides and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS, in turn, play a key role as messengers in cell signal transduction and cell cycling, but when they are produced in excess they can lead to oxidative stress (OS). Oxidative stress in the kidneys is now considered a major cause of renal injury and inflammation, giving rise to a variety of pathological disorders. In this review, we discuss the putative role of oxalate in producing oxidative stress via the production of reactive oxygen species by isoforms of NADPH oxidases expressed in different cellular locations of the kidneys. Most renal cells produce ROS, and recent data indicate a direct correlation between upregulated gene expressions of NADPH oxidase, ROS, and inflammation. Renal tissue expression of multiple NADPH oxidase isoforms most likely will impact the future use of different antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibitors to minimize OS and renal tissue injury in hyperoxaluria-induced kidney stone disease. PMID:23840917

Peck, Ammon B.; Khan, Saeed R.

2013-01-01

167

NADPH Oxidase Biology and the Regulation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Signaling and Cancer Drug Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The outdated idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are only dangerous products of cellular metabolism, causing toxic and mutagenic effects on cellular components, is being replaced by the view that ROS have several important functions in cell signaling. In aerobic organisms, ROS can be generated from different sources, including the mitochondrial electron transport chain, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and lipoxygenase, but the only enzyme family that produces ROS as its main product is the NADPH oxidase family (NOX enzymes). These transfer electrons from NADPH (converting it to NADP?) to oxygen to make O2•?. Due to their stability, the products of NADPH oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide are considered the most favorable ROS to act as signaling molecules. Transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in carcinogenesis are modulated by NADPH oxidase, and it has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapies. The present review discusses the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates signal transduction pathways in view of tyrosine kinase receptors, which are pivotal to regulating the hallmarks of cancer, and how ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of several cancer drugs employed in clinical practice. PMID:23434665

Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

2013-01-01

168

NADPH Oxidase-Driven Phagocyte Recruitment Controls Candida albicans Filamentous Growth and Prevents Mortality  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is a human commensal and clinically important fungal pathogen that grows as both yeast and hyphal forms during human, mouse and zebrafish infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play diverse roles in immunity, including their long-appreciated function as microbicidal oxidants. Here we demonstrate a non-traditional mechanistic role of NADPH oxidase in promoting phagocyte chemotaxis and intracellular containment of fungi to limit filamentous growth. We exploit the transparent zebrafish model to show that failed NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocyte recruitment to C. albicans in the first four hours post-infection permits fungi to germinate extracellularly and kill the host. We combine chemical and genetic tools with high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to implicate both phagocyte oxidase and dual-specific oxidase in recruitment, suggesting that both myeloid and non-myeloid cells promote chemotaxis. We show that early non-invasive imaging provides a robust tool for prognosis, strongly connecting effective early immune response with survival. Finally, we demonstrate a new role of a key regulator of the yeast-to-hyphal switching program in phagocyte-mediated containment, suggesting that there are species-specific methods for modulation of NADPH oxidase-independent immune responses. These novel links between ROS-driven chemotaxis and fungal dimorphism expand our view of a key host defense mechanism and have important implications for pathogenesis. PMID:24098114

Brothers, Kimberly M.; Gratacap, Remi L.; Barker, Sarah E.; Newman, Zachary R.; Norum, Ashley; Wheeler, Robert T.

2013-01-01

169

NADPH oxidase-driven phagocyte recruitment controls Candida albicans filamentous growth and prevents mortality.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is a human commensal and clinically important fungal pathogen that grows as both yeast and hyphal forms during human, mouse and zebrafish infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play diverse roles in immunity, including their long-appreciated function as microbicidal oxidants. Here we demonstrate a non-traditional mechanistic role of NADPH oxidase in promoting phagocyte chemotaxis and intracellular containment of fungi to limit filamentous growth. We exploit the transparent zebrafish model to show that failed NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocyte recruitment to C. albicans in the first four hours post-infection permits fungi to germinate extracellularly and kill the host. We combine chemical and genetic tools with high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to implicate both phagocyte oxidase and dual-specific oxidase in recruitment, suggesting that both myeloid and non-myeloid cells promote chemotaxis. We show that early non-invasive imaging provides a robust tool for prognosis, strongly connecting effective early immune response with survival. Finally, we demonstrate a new role of a key regulator of the yeast-to-hyphal switching program in phagocyte-mediated containment, suggesting that there are species-specific methods for modulation of NADPH oxidase-independent immune responses. These novel links between ROS-driven chemotaxis and fungal dimorphism expand our view of a key host defense mechanism and have important implications for pathogenesis. PMID:24098114

Brothers, Kimberly M; Gratacap, Remi L; Barker, Sarah E; Newman, Zachary R; Norum, Ashley; Wheeler, Robert T

2013-01-01

170

Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-1 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Khz-cp is a crude polysaccharide extract that is obtained after nuclear fusion in Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia (Khz). It inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Methods Khz-cp was extracted by solvent extraction. The anti-proliferative activity of Khz-cp was confirmed by using Annexin-V/PI-flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular calcium increase and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed by using flow cytometry and inverted microscope. SNU-1 cells were treated with p38, Bcl-2 and Nox family siRNA. siRNA transfected cells was employed to investigate the expression of apoptotic, growth and survival genes in SNU-1 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the expression of the genes. Results In the present study, Khz-cp induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz-cp was found to induce apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activating P38 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-cp-induced apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-cp-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was shown by the translocation of the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz-cp. Khz-cp triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i that activated P38. P38 was considered to play a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47phox and p67phox subunits and ROS generation. Conclusions In summary, these data indicate that Khz-cp preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and that the signaling mechanisms involve an increase in [Ca2+]i, P38 activation, and ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and mitochondria. PMID:25012725

2014-01-01

171

Endotoxin priming of neutrophils requires NADPH oxidase-generated oxidants and is regulated by the anion transporter ClC-3.  

PubMed

Several soluble mediators, including endotoxin, prime neutrophils for an enhanced respiratory burst in response to subsequent stimulation. Priming of neutrophils occurs in vitro, and primed neutrophils are found in vivo. We previously localized the anion transporter ClC-3 to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) secretory vesicles and demonstrated that it is required for normal NADPH oxidase activation in response to both particulate and soluble stimuli. We now explore the contribution of the NADPH oxidase and ClC-3 to endotoxin-mediated priming. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from Neisseria meningitidis enhances the respiratory burst in response to formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, an effect that was impaired in PMNs lacking functional ClC-3 and under anaerobic conditions. Mobilization of receptors to the cell surface and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by LOS were both impaired in PMN with the NADPH oxidase chemically inhibited or genetically absent and in cells lacking functional ClC-3. Furthermore, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase or ClC-3 in otherwise unstimulated cells elicited a phenotype similar to that seen after endotoxin priming, suggesting that basal oxidant production helps to maintain cellular quiescence. In summary, NADPH oxidase activation was required for LOS-mediated priming, but basal oxidants kept unstimulated cells from becoming primed. ClC-3 contributes to both of these processes. PMID:17908687

Moreland, Jessica G; Davis, A Paige; Matsuda, James J; Hook, Jessica S; Bailey, Gail; Nauseef, William M; Lamb, Fred S

2007-11-23

172

Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Mediates Protective Effect of Cardiotonic Pills against Rat Heart Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Cardiotonic pill (CP) is a compound Chinese medicine currently used in China for treatment of ischemic angina pectoris. Our previous results indicated that a single dosing of CP pretreatment at 0.8?g/kg attenuates ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R-) induced myocardial injury and cardiac microcirculatory disturbance. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of CP at low dosage in a multiple dosing manner and to uncover the mechanism of antioxidative activity of CP. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending artery occlusion for 30?min followed by 60?min reperfusion. CP was administrated daily by gavage for six days at 0.1, 0.4, and 0.8?g/kg/day before I/R. Results showed that multiple dosing of CP at three doses significantly reduced I/R-induced myocardial injury, microcirculatory disturbance, and oxidative stress. CP dramatically inhibited I/R-induced nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit gp91phox expression and p67phox and p47phox translocation from cytosol to cell membrane. Translocation of cytosolic subunits to membrane is required for the activation of NADPH oxidase. These data suggested that multiple dosing of CP at doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.8?g/kg/day reduced I/R-induced rat myocardial injury and microcirculatory disturbance, which was mediated by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:23840265

Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhao, Na; Liu, Yu-Ying; Hu, Bai-He; Sun, Kai; Chang, Xin; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan

2013-01-01

173

FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo is mediated by PKC?, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although PKC and inflammatory pathways have been implicated in fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance, the sequence of events leading to impaired insulin signaling is unknown. We used Wistar rats to investigate whether PKC? and oxidative stress play causal roles in this process and whether this occurs via IKK?- and JNK-dependent pathways. Rats received a 7-h infusion of Intralipid plus heparin (IH) to elevate circulating free fatty acids (FFA). During the last 2 h of the infusion, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with tracer was performed to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), prevented IH-induced hepatic insulin resistance in parallel with prevention of decreased I?B? content, increased JNK phosphorylation (markers of IKK? and JNK activation, respectively), increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, and impaired insulin signaling in the liver without affecting IH-induced hepatic PKC? activation. Furthermore, an antisense oligonucleotide against PKC? prevented IH-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) (marker of NADPH oxidase activation) and hepatic insulin resistance. Apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevented IH-induced hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance similarly to NAC. These results demonstrate that PKC?, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress play a causal role in FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo and suggest that the pathway of FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance is FFA ? PKC? ? NADPH oxidase and oxidative stress ? IKK?/JNK ? impaired hepatic insulin signaling. PMID:24824652

Pereira, Sandra; Park, Edward; Mori, Yusaku; Haber, C Andrew; Han, Ping; Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Stavar, Laura; Oprescu, Andrei I; Koulajian, Khajag; Ivovic, Alexander; Yu, Zhiwen; Li, Deling; Bowman, Thomas A; Dewald, Jay; El-Benna, Jamel; Brindley, David N; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Lam, Tony K T; Najjar, Sonia M; McKay, Robert A; Bhanot, Sanjay; Fantus, I George; Giacca, Adria

2014-07-01

174

Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages  

SciTech Connect

Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. • p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon, E-mail: parkp@yu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-15

175

The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superoxide (O2.-)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O2.- generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: 1. Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; 2. Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; 3. Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; 4. Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; 5. A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; 6. p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.

Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Rafalowski, Meirav; Federman-Gross, Aya; Pick, Edgar

2015-02-01

176

Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

177

Endothelin-1 Stimulates Arterial VCAM-1 Expression Via NADPH OxidaseDerived Superoxide in  

E-print Network

Endothelin-1 Stimulates Arterial VCAM-1 Expression Via NADPH Oxidase­Derived Superoxide elevated in carotid arteries of deoxycortico- sterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats, a model known for its suppressed plasma renin levels. This study tested the hypothesis that ET-1 augments arterial VCAM

Engelhardt, John F.

178

Role of the NADPH Oxidases DUOX and NOX4 in Thyroid Oxidative Stress.  

PubMed

Somatic mutations are present at high levels in the rat thyroid gland, indicating that the thyrocyte is under oxidative stress, a state in which cellular oxidant levels are high. The most important class of free radicals, or reactive metabolites, is reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2 (-)), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main source of ROS in every cell type seems to be mitochondrial respiration; however, recent data support the idea that NADPH:O(2) oxidoreductase flavoproteins or simply NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes specialized in controlled ROS generation at the subcellular level. Several decades ago, high concentrations of H2O2 were detected at the apical surface of thyrocytes, where thyroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. Only in the last decade has the enzymatic source of H2O2 involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis been well characterized. The cloning of two thyroid genes encoding NADPH oxidases dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DUOX1 and DUOX2) revealed that DUOX2 mutations lead to hereditary hypothyroidism in humans. Recent reports have also described the presence of NOX4 in the thyroid gland and have suggested a pathophysiological role of this member of the NOX family. In the present review, we describe the participation of NADPH oxidases not only in thyroid physiology but also in gland pathophysiology, particularly the involvement of these enzymes in the regulation of thyroid oxidative stress. PMID:24847449

Carvalho, Denise P; Dupuy, Corinne

2013-09-01

179

NADPH Oxidase Plays a Central Role in Cone Cell Death in Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a collection of diseases in which rod photoreceptors die from a variety of mutations. After rods die, the level of tissue oxygen in the outer retina becomes elevated and there is progressive oxidative damage to cones that ultimately triggers apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase and/or xanthine oxidase serve as critical intermediaries between increased tissue oxygen and the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative damage to cones. Apocynin, a blocker of NADPH oxidase, but not allopurinol, a blocker of xanthine oxidase, markedly reduced the superoxide radicals visualized by hydroethidine in the outer retina in the retinal degeneration-1 (rd1+/+) model of RP. Compared to rd1+/+ mice treated with vehicle, those treated with apocynin, but not those treated with allopurinol, had significantly less oxidative damage in the retina measured by ELISA for carbonyl adducts. Apocynin-treated, but not allopurinol-treated, rd1+/+ mice had preservation of cone cell density, increased mRNA levels for m- and s-cone opsin, and increased mean photopic b-wave amplitude. In Q344ter mice, a model of dominant RP in which mutant rhodopsin is expressed, apocynin treatment preserved photopic electroretinogram b-wave amplitude compared to vehicle-treated controls. These data indicate that NADPH oxidase, but not xanthine oxidase, plays a critical role in generation of the oxidative stress that leads to cone cell death in RP and inhibition of NADPH oxidase provides a new treatment strategy. PMID:19493169

Usui, Shinichi; Oveson, Brian C.; Lee, Sun Young; Jo, Young-Joon; Yoshida, Tsunehiko; Miki, Akiko; Miki, Katsuaki; Iwase, Takeshi; Lu, Lili; Campochiaro, Peter A.

2010-01-01

180

Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common pathophysiological process resulting from chronic liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Although significant research has been carried out on the role of leptin-induced NADPH oxidase in fibrogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that connect the leptin-NADPH oxidase axis in upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling have been unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis. Human NASH livers and a high-fat (60% kcal) diet-fed chronic mouse model, where hepatotoxin bromodichloromethane was used to induce NASH, were used for this study. To prove the role of the leptin-NADPH oxidase-miR21 axis, mice deficient in genes for leptin, p47phox, and miR21 were used. Results showed that wild-type mice and human livers with NASH had increased oxidative stress, increased p47phox expression, augmented NF-?B activation, and increased miR21 levels. These mice and human livers showed increased TGF-?, SMAD2/3-SMAD4 colocalizations in the nucleus, increased immunoreactivity against Col1?, and ?-SMA with a concomitant decrease in protein levels of SMAD7. Mice that were deficient in leptin or p47phox had decreased activated NF-?B and miR21 levels, suggesting the role of leptin and NADPH oxidase in inducing NF-?B-mediated miR21 expression. Further miR21 knockout mice had decreased colocalization events of SMAD2/3-SMAD4 in the nucleus, increased SMAD7 levels, and decreased fibrogenesis. Taken together, the studies show the novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-? signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH. PMID:25501551

Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

2015-02-15

181

Pyocyanin-Enhanced Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Requires the NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Beyond intracellular killing, a novel neutrophil-based antimicrobial mechanism has been recently discovered: entrapment and killing by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs consist of extruded nuclear DNA webs decorated with granule proteins. Although NET formation is an important innate immune mechanism, uncontrolled NET release damages host tissues and has been linked to several diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF). The major CF airway pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes chronic infection. Pseudomonas imbedded within biofilms is protected against the immune system, but maintains chronic inflammation that worsens disease symptoms. Aberrant NET release from recruited neutrophils was found in CF, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most important Pseudomonas virulence factors is pyocyanin, a redox-active pigment that has been associated with diminished lung function in CF. Here we show that pyocyanin promotes NET formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Most CF Pseudomonas clinical isolates tested produce pyocyanin in vitro. Pyocyanin-derived reactive oxygen species are required for its NET release. Inhibitor experiments demonstrated involvement of Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) in pyocyanin-induced NET formation. Pyocyanin-induced NETs also require the NADPH oxidase because NET release in chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils was greatly reduced. Comparison of neutrophils from gp91phox- and p47phox-deficient patients revealed that pyocyanin-triggered NET formation is proportional to their residual superoxide production. Our studies identify pyocyanin as the first secreted bacterial toxin that enhances NET formation. The involvement of NADPH oxidase in pyocyanin-induced NET formation represents a novel mechanism of pyocyanin toxicity. PMID:23342104

Rada, Balázs; Jendrysik, Meghan A.; Pang, Lan; Hayes, Craig P.; Yoo, Dae-goon; Park, Jonathan J.; Moskowitz, Samuel M.; Malech, Harry L.; Leto, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

182

Indicaxanthin inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 activation and NF-?B-dependent release of inflammatory mediators and prevents the increase of epithelial permeability in IL-1?-exposed Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1?, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1? brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-?B, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 ?M), and IL-1? prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1? also prevented the IL-1?-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-?B was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level. PMID:23931157

Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

2014-02-01

183

NADPH oxidase-dependent H2O2 production is required for salt-induced antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) in the antioxidant defense system was assessed in salt-challenged Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. In the wild-type, short-term salt exposure led to a transient and significant increase of H2O2 concentration, followed by a marked increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.16), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities. Pre-treatment with either a chemical trap for H2O2 (dimethylthiourea) or two widely used NADPH oxidase inhibitors (imidazol and diphenylene iodonium) significantly decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities under salinity. Double mutant atrbohd/f plants failed to induce the antioxidant response under the culture conditions. Under long-term salinity, the wild-type was more salt-tolerant than the mutant based on the plant biomass production. The better performance of the wild-type was related to a significantly higher photosynthetic activity, a more efficient K(+) selective uptake, and to the plants' ability to deal with the salt-induced oxidative stress as compared to atrbohd/f. Altogether, these data suggest that the early H2O2 generation by NADPH oxidase under salt stress could be the beginning of a reaction cascade that triggers the antioxidant response in A. thaliana in order to overcome the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thereby mitigating the salt stress-derived injuries. PMID:25462961

Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Benzarti, Maâli; Debez, Ahmed; Bailly, Christophe; Savouré, Arnould; Abdelly, Chedly

2015-02-01

184

Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

McNally, J. Scott; Davis, Michael E.; Giddens, Don P.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

2003-01-01

185

Identification of Renox, an NAD(P)H oxidase in kidney  

PubMed Central

Oxygen sensing is essential for homeostasis in all aerobic organisms, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Data suggest that a phagocytic-like NAD(P)H oxidase producing reactive oxygen species serves as a primary sensor for oxygen. We have characterized a source of superoxide anions in the kidney that we refer to as a renal NAD(P)H oxidase or Renox. Renox is homologous to gp91phox (91-kDa subunit of the phagocyte oxidase), the electron-transporting subunit of phagocytic NADPH oxidase, and contains all of the structural motifs considered essential for binding of heme, flavin, and nucleotide. In situ RNA hybridization revealed that renox is highly expressed at the site of erythropoietin production in the renal cortex, showing the greatest accumulation of renox mRNA in proximal convoluted tubule epithelial cells. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts overexpressing transfected Renox show increased production of superoxide and develop signs of cellular senescence. Our data suggest that Renox, as a renal source of reactive oxygen species, is a likely candidate for the oxygen sensor function regulating oxygen-dependent gene expression and may also have a role in the development of inflammatory processes in the kidney. PMID:10869423

Geiszt, Miklós; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Várnai, Péter; Leto, Thomas L.

2000-01-01

186

Hyperglycaemia promotes human brain microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of protein kinase C-ßI and prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Blood–brain barrier disruption represents a key feature in hyperglycaemia-aggravated cerebral damage after an ischaemic stroke. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to play a critical role. This study examined whether apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) might contribute to hyperglycaemia-evoked barrier damage and assessed the specific role of PKC in this phenomenon. Treatments with hyperglycaemia (25 mM) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator, 100 nM) significantly increased NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- generation, proapoptotic protein Bax expression, TUNEL-positive staining and caspase-3/7 activities. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase, PKC-a, PKC-ß or PKC-ßI via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2•- by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP normalised all the aforementioned increases induced by hyperglycaemia. Suppression of these PKC isoforms also negated the stimulatory effects of hyperglycaemia on the protein expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound components, Nox2 and p22-phox which determine the overall enzymatic activity. Silencing of PKC-ßI gene through use of specific siRNAs abolished the effects of both hyperglycaemia and PMA on endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- production and apoptosis and consequently improved the integrity and function of an in vitro model of human cerebral barrier comprising HBMEC, astrocytes and pericytes. Hyperglycaemia-mediated apoptosis of HBMEC contributes to cerebral barrier dysfunction and is modulated by sequential activations of PKC-ßI and NADPH oxidase. PMID:24936444

Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

2014-01-01

187

Leonurine (SCM-198) attenuates myocardial fibrotic response via inhibition of NADPH oxidase 4.  

PubMed

In our previous studies, we have reported that leonurine, a plant phenolic alkaloid in Herba leonuri, exerted cardioprotective properties in a number of preclinical experiments. Herein, we investigated the roles and the possible mechanisms of leonurine for reducing fibrotic responses in angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. In in vitro experiments performed in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, leonurine (10-20 ?M) pretreatment attenuated Ang II-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9, and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and types I and III collagen. A small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown strategy for NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) revealed that Nox4 was required for Ang II-induced activation of cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo studies using a post-MI model in rats indicated that administration of leonurine inhibited myocardial fibrosis while reducing cardiac Nox4 expression, ROS production, NF-?B activation, and plasma MMP-2 activity. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that leonurine could prevent cardiac fibrosis and the activation of cardiac fibroblasts partly through modulation of a Nox4-ROS pathway. PMID:23127783

Liu, Xin-Hua; Pan, Li-Long; Deng, Hai-Yan; Xiong, Qing-Hui; Wu, Dan; Huang, Guo-Ying; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

2013-01-01

188

Angiotensin II evokes sensory long-term facilitation of the carotid body via NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

We previously reported that reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) induces sensory plasticity of the carotid body, manifested as a progressive increase in baseline sensory activity or sensory long-term facilitation (sLTF). ANG II, a peptide generated within the carotid body, is a potent activator of Nox2. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ANG II evokes sLTF of the carotid body via Nox2 activation. Experiments were performed on carotid bodies ex vivo from adult rats and mice. Sensory activity was recorded from the carotid sinus nerve. Repetitive (5 times for 30 s each at 5-min intervals), but not continuous (for 150 s), application of 60 pM ANG II evoked robust sLTF of the carotid body. ACh, ATP, substance P, and KCl, when applied repetitively, stimulated the carotid body but did not evoke sLTF. Reactive oxygen species levels increased in response to repetitive applications of ANG II, and this effect was blocked by apocynin, an inhibitor of Nox2, as well as losartan, an angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist. Losartan, apocynin, and 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride prevented ANG II-induced sLTF, which was absent in mice deficient in gp91(phox), the catalytic subunit of the Nox2 complex. These results demonstrate that repetitive application of ANG II induces sLTF of the carotid body via activation of Nox2 by AT(1) receptors. PMID:21636565

Peng, Ying-Jie; Raghuraman, Gayatri; Khan, Shakil A; Kumar, Ganesh K; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

2011-10-01

189

Normobaric hyperoxia protects the blood brain barrier through inhibiting Nox2 containing NADPH oxidase in ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) has been shown to be neuro- and vaso-protective during ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Activation of NADPH oxidase critically contributes to ischemic brain damage via increase in ROS production. We herein tested the hypothesis that NBO protects the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via inhibiting gp91phox (or called Nox2) containing NADPH oxidase in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Wild-type C57/BL6 mice and gp91phoxknockout mice were given NBO (95% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) during 90-min MCAO, followed by 22.5 hrs of reperfusion. BBB damage was quantified by measuring Evans blue extravasation. The protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tight junction protein occludin and gp91phox were assessed with western blot. Gel zymography was used to assess the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9. In the wild type mice, cerebral ischemia and reperfusion led to remarkable Evans blue extravasation, significantly increased gp91phox and MMP-9 levels and decreased occludin levels in the ischemic brain tissue. In gp91phox knockout mice, the changes in Evans blue extravasation, MMP-9 and occludin were at much smaller magnitudes when compared to the wild type. Importantly, NBO treatment significantly reduced the changes in all measured parameters in wild type mice, while did not cause additional reductions in these changes when gp91phox was knocked out. These results indicate that activation of Nox2 containing NADPH oxidase is implicated in the induction of MMP-9, loss of occludin and BBB disruption in ischemic stroke, and inhibition of Nox2 may be an important mechanism underlying NBO-afforded BBB protection. PMID:22146586

Liu, Wenlan; Chen, Qingquan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Ke Jian

2011-01-01

190

METHAMPHETAMINE ALTERS OCCLUDIN EXPRESSION VIA NADPH OXIDASE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE INSULT AND INTACT CAVEOLAE  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse with neurotoxic and vascular effects that may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, potential sources of METH-induced generation of ROS are not fully understood. The present study is focused on the role of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) in METH-induced dysfunction of brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced a time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of NOX subunit p47, followed by its binding with gp91 and p22, and the formation of an active NOX complex. An increase in NOX activity was associated with elevated production of ROS, alterations of occludin levels, and increased transendothelial migration of monocytes. Inhibition of NOX by NSC 23766 attenuated METH-induced ROS generation, changes in occludin protein levels, and monocyte migration. Because an active NOX complex is localized to caveolae, we next evaluated the role of caveolae in METH-mediated toxicity to brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and caveolin-1 protein. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity or caveolin-1 silencing protected against METH-induced alterations of occludin levels. These findings indicate an important role of NOX and functional caveolae in METH-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells that contribute to the subsequent alterations of occludin levels and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells. PMID:21435178

Park, Minseon; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

2011-01-01

191

NADPH oxidase controls phagosomal pH and antigen cross-presentation in human dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is critical for the bactericidal activity of phagocytic cells and plays a major role in innate immunity. We showed recently that NOX2 activity in mouse dendritic cells (DCs) prevents acidification of phagosomes, promoting antigen cross-presentation. Inorder to investigate the role of NOX2 in the regulation of the phagosomal pH in human DCs, we analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phagosomal/endosomal pH in monocyte-derived DCs and macrophages (MŘs) from healthy donors or patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). As expected, we found that human MŘs acidify their phagosomes more efficiently than human DCs. Accordingly, the expression of the vacuolar proton ATPase (V-H+-ATPase) was higher in MŘs than in DCs. Phagosomal ROS production, however, was also higher in MŘs than in DCs, due to higher levels of gp91phox expression and recruitment to phagosomes. In contrast, in the absence of active NOX2, the phagosomal and endosomal pH decreased. Both in the presence of a NOX2 inhibitor and in DCs derived from patients with CGD, the cross-presentation of 2 model tumor antigens was impaired. We conclude that NOX2 activity participates in the regulation of the phagosomal and endosomal pH in human DCs, and is required for efficient antigen cross-presentation. PMID:18682599

Mantegazza, Adriana R.; Savina, Ariel; Vermeulen, Mónica; Pérez, Laura; Geffner, Jorge; Hermine, Olivier; Rosenzweig, Sergio D.; Faure, Florence

2008-01-01

192

Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2Dependent Evasion of the Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A type III protein secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) has been found to be required for virulence and survival within macrophages. Here, SPI2 was shown to allow Salmonella typhimurium to avoid NADPH oxidase-dependent killing by macrophages. The ability of SPI2-mutant bacteria to survive in macrophages and to cause lethal infection in mice was restored by abrogation

Andrés Vazquez-Torres; Yisheng Xu; Jessica Jones-Carson; David W. Holden; Scott M. Lucia; Mary C. Dinauer; Pietro Mastroeni; Ferric C. Fang

2000-01-01

193

Endotoxin Priming of Neutrophils Requires Endocytosis and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Endosomal Reactive Oxygen Species*  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)) microbicidal function. Nox2 also plays a role in intracellular signaling, but the site of oxidase assembly is unknown. It has been proposed to occur on secondary granules. We previously demonstrated that intracellular NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production is required for endotoxin priming. We hypothesized that endotoxin drives Nox2 assembly on endosomes. Endotoxin induced ROS generation within an endosomal compartment as quantified by flow cytometry (dihydrorhodamine 123 and Oxyburst Green). Inhibition of endocytosis by the dynamin-II inhibitor Dynasore blocked endocytosis of dextran, intracellular generation of ROS, and priming of PMN by endotoxin. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a ROS-containing endosomal compartment that co-labeled with gp91phox, p40phox, p67phox, and Rab5, but not with the secondary granule marker CD66b. To further characterize this compartment, PMNs were fractionated by nitrogen cavitation and differential centrifugation, followed by free flow electrophoresis. Specific subfractions made superoxide in the presence of NADPH by cell-free assay (cytochrome c). Subfraction content of membrane and cytosolic subunits of Nox2 correlated with ROS production. Following priming, there was a shift in the light membrane subfractions where ROS production was highest. CD66b was not mobilized from the secondary granule compartment. These data demonstrate a novel, nonphagosomal intracellular site for Nox2 assembly. This compartment is endocytic in origin and is required for PMN priming by endotoxin. PMID:22235113

Lamb, Fred S.; Hook, Jessica S.; Hilkin, Brieanna M.; Huber, Jody N.; Volk, A. Paige Davis; Moreland, Jessica G.

2012-01-01

194

Sleep Fragmentation Promotes NADPH Oxidase 2-Mediated Adipose Tissue Inflammation Leading to Insulin Resistance in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Short sleep has been implicated in higher risk of obesity in humans, and is associated with insulin resistance. However, the effects of fragmented sleep (SF) rather than curtailed sleep on glucose homeostasis are unknown. Methods Wild type and NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) null male mice were subjected to SF or sleep control (SC) conditions for 3 days-3 weeks. Systemic and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) insulin sensitivity tests, glucose tolerance test, FACS and immunohistochemistry for macrophages and sub-types (M1 and M2) and Nox expression and activity were examined. Results Here show that SF in the absence of sleep curtailment induces time-dependent insulin resistance, in vivo and also in vitro in VAT. Oxidative stress pathways were up-regulated by SF in VAT, and were accompanied by M1 macrophage polarization. SF-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in VAT were completely abrogated in genetically altered mice lacking Nox2 activity. Conclusions These studies imply that SF, a frequent occurrence in many disorders and more specifically in sleep apnea, is a potent inducer of insulin resistance via activation of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, thereby opening the way for therapeutic strategies. PMID:23897221

Zhang, Shelley X.L.; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Wang, Yang; Carreras, Alba; Hakim, Fahed; Neel, Brian A.; Brady, Matthew J.; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Hirotsu, Camila; Gozal, David

2013-01-01

195

Role of NADPH oxidase in the regulation of autophagy in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

In the past several years, it has been demonstrated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as intracellular signalling molecules to activate or inhibit specific signalling pathways and regulate physiological cellular functions. It is now well-established that ROS regulate autophagy, an intracellular degradation process. However, the signalling mechanisms through which ROS modulate autophagy in a regulated manner have only been minimally clarified. NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes are membrane-bound enzymatic complexes responsible for the dedicated generation of ROS. Different isoforms of Nox exist with different functions. Recent studies demonstrated that Nox-derived ROS can promote autophagy, with Nox2 and Nox4 representing the isoforms of Nox implicated thus far. Nox2- and Nox4-dependent autophagy plays an important role in the elimination of pathogens by phagocytes and in the regulation of vascular- and cancer-cell survival. Interestingly, we recently found that Nox is also important for autophagy regulation in cardiomyocytes. We found that Nox4, but not Nox2, promotes the activation of autophagy and survival in cardiomyocytes in response to nutrient deprivation and ischaemia through activation of the PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) signalling pathway. In the present paper, we discuss the importance of Nox family proteins and ROS in the regulation of autophagy, with a particular focus on the role of Nox4 in the regulation of autophagy in the heart. PMID:25515000

Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Yee, Derek; Ammann, Paul; Nagarajan, Narayani; Volpe, Massimo; Frati, Giacomo; Sadoshima, Junichi

2015-04-01

196

NADPH Oxidase and the Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinsonian Mice  

PubMed Central

Several lines of investigation have implicated oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we characterized the involvement of NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen, in the 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced PD mice model and compared for the first time the effects of this neurotoxin in mice lacking gp91phox?/?, the catalytic subunit of Nox2, and pharmacological inhibition of Nox with apocynin. Six-OHDA induced increased protein expression of p47phox, a Nox subunit, in striatum. gp91phox?/? mice appear to be completely protected from dopaminergic cell loss, whereas the apocynin treatment conferred only a limited neuroprotection. Wt mice treated with apocynin and gp91phox?/? mice both exhibited ameliorated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The microglial activation observed within the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 6-OHDA-injected Wt mice was prevented by apocynin treatment and was not detected in gp91phox?/? mice. Apocynin was not able to attenuate astrocyte activation in SN. The results support a role for Nox2 in the 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and glial cell activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and reveal that no comparable 6-OHDA effects were observed between apocynin-treated and gp91phox?/? mice groups. PMID:24379900

Hernandes, Marina S.; Café-Mendes, Cecília C.; Britto, Luiz R. G.

2013-01-01

197

NADPH oxidase inhibition ameliorates Trypanosoma cruzi-induced myocarditis during Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, invades nucleated mammalian cells including macrophages. In this study, we investigated the crosstalk between T. cruzi-induced immune activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory responses, and their role in myocardial pathology. Splenocytes of infected mice (C3H/HeN) responded to Tc-antigenic stimulus by more than a two-fold increase in NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, ROS generation, cytokine production (IFN-? > IL-4 > TNF? > IL1-? ? IL6), and predominant expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Inhibition of NOX, but not of myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase, controlled the ROS (>98%) and cytokine (70–89%) release by Tc-stimulated splenocytes of infected mice. Treatment of infected mice with apocynin (NOX inhibitor) in drinking water resulted in a 50–90% decline in endogenous NOX/ROS and cytokine levels, and splenic phagocytes’ proliferation. The splenic percentage of T cells was maintained, though more than a 40% decline in splenic index (spleen weight/body weight) indicated decreased T-cell proliferation in apocynin-treated/infected mice. The blood and tissue parasite burden were significantly increased in apocynin-treated/infected mice, yet acute myocarditis, ie inflammatory infiltrate consisting of macrophages, neutrophils, and CD8+ T cells, and tissue oxidative adducts (eg 8-isoprostanes, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 4-hydroxynonenal) were diminished in apocynin-treated/infected mice. Consequently, hypertrophy (increased cardiomyocytes’ size and ?-MHC, BNP, and ANP mRNA levels) and fibrosis (increased collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and lipid contents) of the heart during the chronic phase were controlled in apocynin-treated mice. We conclude that NOX/ROS is a critical regulator of the splenic response (phagocytes, T cells, and cytokines) to T. cruzi infection, and bystander effects of heart-infiltrating phagocytes and CD8+ T cells resulting in cardiac remodelling in chagasic mice. PMID:21952987

Dhiman, Monisha; Garg, Nisha Jain

2015-01-01

198

The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate attenuates endothelial cyclooxygenase-2 induction through both NADP(H) oxidase and PKC? inhibition  

PubMed Central

A high intake of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] has been associated with systemic antiinflammatory effects and cardiovascular protection. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is responsible for the overproduction of prostaglandins (PG) at inflammatory sites, and its expression is increased in atheroma. We studied the effects of DHA on COX-2 expression and activity in human saphenous vein endothelial cells challenged with proinflammatory stimuli. A ?24-h exposure to DHA reduced COX-2 expression and activity induced by IL-1, without affecting COX-1 expression. DHA effect depended on the NF-?B-binding site in the COX-2 promoter. EMSAs confirmed that DHA attenuated NF-?B activation. Because MAPK, PKC, and NAD(P)H oxidase all participate in IL-1-mediated COX-2 expression, we also tested whether these enzymes were involved in DHA effects. Western blots showed that DHA blocked nuclear p65 NF-?B subunit translocation by decreasing cytokine-stimulated reactive oxygen species and ERK1/2 activation by effects on both NAD(P)H oxidase and PKC? activities. Finally, to address the question whether DHA itself or DHA-derived products were responsible for these effects, we inhibited the most important enzymes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, showing that 15-lipoxygenase-1 products mediate part of DHA effects. These studies provide a mechanistic basis for antiinflammatory and possibly plaque-stabilizing effects of DHA PMID:17018645

Massaro, Marika; Habib, Aida; Lubrano, Laura; Turco, Serena Del; Lazzerini, Guido; Bourcier, Todd; Weksler, Babette B.; De Caterina, Raffaele

2006-01-01

199

Angiotensin II-NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide mediates diabetes-attenuated cell excitability of aortic baroreceptor neurons.  

PubMed

Overactivation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels is involved in diabetes-depressed excitability of aortic baroreceptor neurons in nodose ganglia. This involvement links to the autonomic dysfunction associated with high morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The present study examined the effects of an angiotensin II type I receptor (AT(1)R) antagonist (losartan), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin), and a superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol) on the enhanced HCN currents and attenuated cell excitability in diabetic nodose neurons. In sham and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats, HCN currents and cell excitability of aortic baroreceptor neurons were recorded by the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The angiotensin II level in nodose ganglia from diabetic rats was higher than that from sham rats (101.6 ± 4.8 vs. 38.9 ± 4.2 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05). Single-cell RT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, and chemiluminescence data showed that mRNA and protein expression of AT(1)R, protein expression of NADPH oxidase components, and superoxide production in nodose neurons were increased in diabetic rats compared with those from sham rats. HCN current density was higher and cell excitability was lower in aortic baroreceptor neurons from diabetic rats than that from sham rats. Losartan (1 ?M), apocynin (100 ?M), and tempol (1 mM) normalized the enhanced HCN current density and increased the cell excitability in the aortic baroreceptor neurons of diabetic rats. These findings suggest that endogenous angiotensin II-NADPH oxidase-superoxide signaling contributes to the enhanced HCN currents and the depressed cell excitation in the aortic baroreceptor neurons of diabetic rats. PMID:21940665

Li, Yu-Long; Zheng, Hong

2011-12-01

200

SK3 channel and mitochondrial ROS mediate NADPH oxidase-independent NETosis induced by calcium influx  

PubMed Central

Neutrophils cast neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to defend the host against invading pathogens. Although effective against microbial pathogens, a growing body of literature now suggests that NETs have negative impacts on many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Identifying mechanisms that regulate the process termed “NETosis” is important for treating these diseases. Although two major types of NETosis have been described to date, mechanisms regulating these forms of cell death are not clearly established. NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) generates large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is essential for NOX-dependent NETosis. However, major regulators of NOX-independent NETosis are largely unknown. Here we show that calcium activated NOX-independent NETosis is fast and mediated by a calcium-activated small conductance potassium (SK) channel member SK3 and mitochondrial ROS. Although mitochondrial ROS is needed for NOX-independent NETosis, it is not important for NOX-dependent NETosis. We further demonstrate that the activation of the calcium-activated potassium channel is sufficient to induce NOX-independent NETosis. Unlike NOX-dependent NETosis, NOX-independent NETosis is accompanied by a substantially lower level of activation of ERK and moderate level of activation of Akt, whereas the activation of p38 is similar in both pathways. ERK activation is essential for the NOX-dependent pathway, whereas its activation is not essential for the NOX-independent pathway. Despite the differential activation, both NOX-dependent and -independent NETosis require Akt activity. Collectively, this study highlights key differences in these two major NETosis pathways and provides an insight into previously unknown mechanisms for NOX-independent NETosis. PMID:25730848

Douda, David Nobuhiro; Khan, Meraj A.; Grasemann, Hartmut; Palaniyar, Nades

2015-01-01

201

Uric acid induces NADPH oxidase-independent neutrophil extracellular trap formation.  

PubMed

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are composed of extracellular DNA fibers with antimicrobial peptides that capture and kill microbes. NETs play a critical role in innate host defense and in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. While the mechanism of NET formation remains unclear, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) are known to be an important requirement. In this study, we investigated the effect of uric acid (UA) on NET formation. UA, a well-known ROS scavenger, was found to suppress Nox-dependent ROS release in a dose-dependent manner. Low concentrations of UA significantly inhibited Nox-dependent NET formation. However, high concentrations of UA unexpectedly induced, rather than inhibited, NET formation. NETs were directly induced by UA alone in a Nox-independent manner, as revealed by experiments using control neutrophils treated with ROS inhibitors or neutrophils of patients with chronic granulomatous disease who have a congenital defect in ROS production. Furthermore, we found that UA-induced NET formation was partially mediated by NF-?B activation. Our study is the first to demonstrate the novel function of UA in NET formation and may provide insight into the management of patients with hyperuricemia. PMID:24326071

Arai, Yasuyuki; Nishinaka, Yoko; Arai, Toshiyuki; Morita, Makiko; Mizugishi, Kiyomi; Adachi, Souichi; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Kouhei

2014-01-10

202

N-Linked glycosylation of the superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase Nox1.  

PubMed

Nox1 is a membrane-integrated protein that belongs to the Nox family of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases. Here we show that human Nox1 undergoes glycosylation at Asn-162 and Asn-236 in the second and third extracellular loops, respectively. Simultaneous threonine substitution for these residues completely abrogates the glycosylation, but does not prevent Nox1 from forming a heterodimer with p22(phox), trafficking to the cell surface, or producing superoxide. In the absence of p22(phox), Nox1 is transported to the plasma membrane mainly as a form with high mannose N-glycans, although their conversion into complex N-glycans is induced by expression of p22(phox). These findings indicate that glycosylation and subsequent N-glycan maturation of Nox1 are both dispensable for its cell surface recruitment. Superoxide production by unglycosylated Nox1 is largely dependent on p22(phox), which is abrogated by glutamine substitution for Pro-156 in p22(phox), a mutation leading to a defective interaction with the Nox1-activating protein Noxo1. Thus p22(phox) directly contributes to Nox1 activation in a glycosylation-independent manner, besides its significant role in Nox1 glycan maturation. PMID:24365146

Miyano, Kei; Sumimoto, Hideki

2014-01-17

203

Optimization of important early ADME(T) parameters of NADPH oxidase-4 inhibitor molecules.  

PubMed

Through their reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing function, NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes have been linked to several oxidative stress related diseases. In our recently published paper [1] we have already shown the NOX4 inhibitory effect of diverse, molecule sub-libraries and their biological importance. We also presented our work connected to potential anti-tumour molecules and the relationship between their biological activity and physico-chemical properties [2]. As an extension of these studies further physico-chemical and biological investigation has been carried out on a molecule group included NOX4 inhibitory chromanone compounds. Here we describe the optimization of early ADME(T) parameters determining lipophilicity, phospholipophilicity and permeability linked to structure-activity relationship. We prove that optimal lipo- and phospholipophilicty can be also determined in case of NOX4 inhibitors and a comparison will be made between the chemically similar isochromanone and chromanone molecular libraries. It will be also shown how to predict the effect of different substituents on permeability, lipo- and phospholipophilicity and also the biological differences between anti-tumour molecules and NOX4 inhibitors according to their penetration ability. PMID:22385185

Borbély, Gábor; Huszár, Ménika; Varga, Attila; Futosi, Krisztina; Mócsai, Attila; Orfi, László; Idei, Miklós; Mandl, József; Kéri, György; Vántus, Tibor

2012-03-01

204

Nox Family NADPH Oxidases in Mechano-Transduction: Mechanisms and Consequences  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The majority of cells in a multi-cellular organism are continuously exposed to ever-changing physical forces. Mechano-transduction links these events to appropriate reactions of the cells involving stimulation of signaling cascades, reorganization of the cytoskeleton and alteration of gene expression. Recent Advances: Mechano-transduction alters the cellular redox balance and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADPH) oxidases of the Nox family are prominent ROS generators and thus, contribute to this stress-induced ROS formation. Critical Issues: Different types and patterns of mechano-stress lead to Nox-dependent ROS formation and Nox-mediated ROS formation contributes to cellular responses and adaptation to physical forces. Thereby, Nox enzymes can mediate vascular protection during physiological mechano-stress. Despite this, over-activation and induction of Nox enzymes and a subsequent substantial increase in ROS formation also promotes oxidative stress in pathological situations like disturbed blood flow or extensive stretch. Future Directions: Individual protein targets of Nox-mediated redox-signaling will be identified to better understand the specificity of Nox-dependent ROS signaling in mechano-transduction. Nox-inhibitors will be tested to reduce cellular activation in response to mechano-stimuli. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 887–898. PMID:23682993

Weissmann, Norbert; Schröder, Katrin

2014-01-01

205

Urotensin II Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport Signaling Pathways via the NADPH Oxidase Pathway  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have demonstrated that the urotensin (UII) and its receptor are up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of mice with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the significance of UII in skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UII on NADPH oxidase and glucose transport signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of mice with T2DM and in C2C12 mouse myotube cells. KK/upj-AY/J mice (KK) mice were divided into the following groups: KK group, with saline treatment for 2 weeks; KK+ urantide group, with daily 30 µg/kg body weight injections over the same time period of urantide, a potent urotensin II antagonist peptide; Non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice were used as normal controls. After urantide treatment, mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, in addition to measurements of the levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase and the phosphorylated AKT, PKC and ERK. C2C12 cells were incubated with serum-free DMEM for 24 hours before conducting the experiments, and then administrated with 100 nM UII for 2 hours or 24 hours. Urantide treatment improved glucose tolerance, decreased the translocation of the NADPH subunits p40-phox and p47-phox, and increased levels of the phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK. In contrast, UII treatment increased ROS production and p47-phox and p67-phox translocation, and decreased the phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK; Apocynin abrogated this effect. In conclusion, UII increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase, leading to the inhibition of signaling pathways involving glucose transport, such as AKT/PKC/ERK. Our data imply a role for UII at the molecular level in glucose homeostasis, and possibly in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2DM. PMID:24116164

Wang, Hong-Xia; Wu, Xin-Rui; Yang, Hui; Yin, Chun-Lin; Shi, Li-Jin; Wang, Xue-Jiang

2013-01-01

206

Oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk: the role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase and its genetic variants.  

PubMed

Several risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) induce atherosclerosis through endothelial activation and dysfunction, and ample evidence now suggests that the balance between production and removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - a condition termed oxidative stress - is implicated in such processes. A main source of ROS in vascular cells is the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase system. This is a membrane-associated enzyme, composed of five subunits, catalyzing the one-electron reduction of oxygen, using NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. One of the system subunits, termed p22-phox, has a polymorphic site on exon 4, associated with variable enzyme activity. This polymorphism is generated by a point mutation (C(242)T) producing a substitution of histidine with tyrosine at position 72, which affects one of the heme binding sites essential for the NAD(P)H enzyme activity. The consequent decrease of superoxide production thus characterizes a phenotype candidate for conferring to the carrier a reduced susceptibility to CAD. At present, however, the body of evidence from current literature is not yet sufficient to confirm or exclude the hypothesis that the C(242)T polymorphism protects from CAD. The functional effects of this polymorphism and the potential and its pathophysiological consequences also need further investigation. PMID:15860042

Soccio, M; Toniato, E; Evangelista, V; Carluccio, M; De Caterina, R

2005-05-01

207

NADPH oxidase elevations in pyramidal neurons drive psychosocial stress-induced neuropathology  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the development of behavioral and histopathological alterations in animal models of psychosis. Here we investigate the causal contribution of reactive oxygen species generation by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2 to neuropathological alterations in a rat model of chronic psychosocial stress. In rats exposed to social isolation, the earliest neuropathological alterations were signs of oxidative stress and appearance of NOX2. Alterations in behavior, increase in glutamate levels and loss of parvalbumin were detectable after 4 weeks of social isolation. The expression of the NOX2 subunit p47phox was markedly increased in pyramidal neurons of isolated rats, but below detection threshold in GABAergic neurons, astrocytes and microglia. Rats with a loss of function mutation in the NOX2 subunit p47phox were protected from behavioral and neuropathological alterations induced by social isolation. To test reversibility, we applied the antioxidant/NOX inhibitor apocynin after initiation of social isolation for a time period of 3 weeks. Apocynin reversed behavioral alterations fully when applied after 4 weeks of social isolation, but only partially after 7 weeks. Our results demonstrate that social isolation induces rapid elevations of the NOX2 complex in the brain. Expression of the enzyme complex was strongest in pyramidal neurons and a loss of function mutation prevented neuropathology induced by social isolation. Finally, at least at early stages, pharmacological targeting of NOX2 activity might reverse behavioral alterations. PMID:22832955

Schiavone, S; Jaquet, V; Sorce, S; Dubois-Dauphin, M; Hultqvist, M; Bäckdahl, L; Holmdahl, R; Colaianna, M; Cuomo, V; Trabace, L; Krause, K-H

2012-01-01

208

Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases rat sternohyoid muscle NADPH oxidase expression with attendant modest oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) causes upper airway muscle dysfunction. We hypothesized that the superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) is upregulated in CIH-exposed muscle causing oxidative stress. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (5% O2 at the nadir for 90 s followed by 210 s of normoxia), for 8 h per day for 14 days. The effect of CIH exposure on the expression of NOX subunits, total myosin and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adducts in sternohyoid muscle was determined by western blotting and densitometry. Sternohyoid protein free thiol and carbonyl group contents were determined by 1D electrophoresis using specific fluorophore probes. Aconitase and glutathione reductase activities were measured as indices of oxidative stress. HIF-1? content and key oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were determined. Contractile properties of sternohyoid muscle were determined ex vivo in the absence and presence of apocynin (putative NOX inhibitor). We observed an increase in NOX 2 and p47 phox expression in CIH-exposed sternohyoid muscle with decreased aconitase and glutathione reductase activities. There was no evidence, however, of increased lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation in CIH-exposed muscle. CIH exposure did not affect sternohyoid HIF-1? content or aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. Citrate synthase activity was also unaffected by CIH exposure. Apocynin significantly increased sternohyoid force and power. We conclude that CIH exposure upregulates NOX expression in rat sternohyoid muscle with concomitant modest oxidative stress but it does not result in a HIF-1?-dependent increase in glycolytic enzyme activity. Constitutive NOX activity decreases sternohyoid force and power. Our results implicate NOX-dependent reactive oxygen species in CIH-induced upper airway muscle dysfunction which likely relates to redox modulation of key regulatory proteins in excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:25688214

Williams, Robert; Lemaire, Paul; Lewis, Philip; McDonald, Fiona B.; Lucking, Eric; Hogan, Sean; Sheehan, David; Healy, Vincent; O'Halloran, Ken D.

2015-01-01

209

Andrographolide inhibits TNF?-induced ICAM-1 expression via suppression of NADPH oxidase activation and induction of HO-1 and GCLM expression through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 and PI3K/Akt/AP-1 pathways in human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Andrographolide, the major bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, has been demonstrated to have various biological properties including anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and anti-hepatotoxicity. Oxidative stress is considered a major risk factor in aging, inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus. NADPH oxidase is a major source of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we used EA.hy926 endothelial-like cells to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide. Andrographolide attenuated TNF?-induced ROS generation, Src phosphorylation, membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox), and ICAM-1 gene expression. In the small hairpin RNA interference assay, shp47(phox) abolished TNF?-induced p65 nuclear translocation, ICAM-1 gene expression, and adhesion of HL-60 cells. Andrographolide induced the gene expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) in a time-dependent manner. Cellular glutathione (GSH) content was increased by andrographolide. shGCLM attenuated the andrographolide-induced increase in GSH content and reversed the andrographolide inhibition of HL-60 adhesion. shHO-1 showed a similar effect on andrographolide inhibition of HL-60 adhesion to shGCLM. The mechanism underlying the up-regulation of HO-1 and GCLM by andrographolide was dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway, and both the Nrf2 and AP-1 transcriptional factors were involved. Our results suggest that andrographolide attenuates TNF?-induced ICAM-1 expression at least partially through suppression of NADPH oxidase activation and induction of HO-1 and GCLM expression, which is PI3K/Akt pathway-dependent. PMID:24998495

Lu, Chia-Yang; Yang, Ya-Chen; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Kai-Li; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen

2014-09-01

210

Nonopsonic Phagocytosis of Zymosan and Mycobacterium kansasii by CR3 (CD11b/CD18) Involves Distinct Molecular Determinants and Is or Is Not Coupled with NADPH Oxidase Activation  

PubMed Central

Complement receptor type 3 (CR3) was initially described as an opsonic receptor. Subsequently, CR3-mediated lectin-sugar recognition mechanisms have been shown to play a major role in the nonopsonic phagocytosis of several pathogens, among them Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Little is known about the binding and signal transduction mechanisms operating during nonopsonic ingestion through CR3 of different microorganisms. In the present study, we used CHO cells stably transfected with CR3 to show that CR3 was able to mediate internalization of zymosan and pathogenic mycobacteria (Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium) but not that of nonpathogenic species (Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium phlei). A combination of mannan and ?-glucan inhibited the phagocytosis of zymosan but had no effect on M. kansasii ingestion. Among six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the CD11b subunit of CR3 that decreased zymosan ingestion, only three inhibited M. kansasii phagocytosis. In particular, MAbs known to block the CR3 lectin site affected only internalization of zymosan. Using U937 macrophages, we observed that zymosan ingestion through CR3 induced superoxide production measured by cytochrome c reduction and by translocation of the NADPH oxidase cytosolic component p47phox to the phagosomal membrane, whereas phagocytosis of viable or heat-killed M. kansasii did not. Furthermore, lack of superoxide anion production during phagocytosis of M. kansasii was not due to inhibition of NADPH oxidase per se or superoxide anion scavenging. Together, our results indicate that (i) nonopsonic phagocytosis of zymosan and M. kansasii by CR3 implicates different molecular mechanisms involving multiple and distinct epitopes of CD11b and (ii) CR3 may transduce different cellular responses depending on the sites mediating nonopsonic phagocytosis. PMID:10899880

Le Cabec, Véronique; Cols, Carine; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle

2000-01-01

211

NADPH-oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species mediate the cerebrovascular dysfunction induced by the amyloid beta peptide.  

PubMed

Overproduction of the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms of its pathogenic effects have not been defined. Patients with AD have cerebrovascular alterations attributable to the deleterious effects of Abeta on cerebral blood vessels. We report here that NADPH oxidase, the major source of free radicals in blood vessels, is responsible for the cerebrovascular dysregulation induced by Abeta. Thus, the free-radical production and the associated alterations in vasoregulation induced by Abeta are abrogated by the NADPH oxidase peptide inhibitor gp91ds-tat and are not observed in mice lacking the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase (gp91phox). Furthermore, oxidative stress and cerebrovascular dysfunction do not occur in transgenic mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein but lacking gp91phox. The mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase-derived radicals mediate the cerebrovascular dysfunction involve reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide. Thus, a gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase is the critical link between Abeta and cerebrovascular dysfunction, which may underlie the alteration in cerebral blood flow regulation observed in AD patients. PMID:15716413

Park, Laibaik; Anrather, Josef; Zhou, Ping; Frys, Kelly; Pitstick, Rose; Younkin, Steven; Carlson, George A; Iadecola, Costantino

2005-02-16

212

Neuroprotection from Retinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by NOX2 NADPH Oxidase Deletion  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine whether NOX2, one of the homologs of NADPH oxidase, plays a role in neuronal cell death during retinal ischemia. Methods. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury was generated in C57/BL6 and NOX2?/? mice by increasing the intraocular pressure (IOP) to 110 mm Hg for 40 minutes followed by reperfusion. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to measure NOX2 expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was assessed by dihydroethidium imaging of superoxide formation and Western blot analysis for tyrosine nitration. TUNEL assay was performed to determine cell death at 3 days after I/R. Survival of neurons within the ganglion cell layer (GCL) was assessed at 7 days after I/R by confocal morphometric imaging of retinal wholemounts immunostained with NeuN antibody. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor ?B (NF-??) was measured by Western blot analysis. Results. NOX2 mRNA and protein and ROS were significantly increased in wild-type I/R retinas. This effect was associated with a 60% decrease in the number of GCL neurons and a 10-fold increase in TUNEL-positive cells compared with the fellow sham control eyes. Phosphorylation of ERK and NF-?B was significantly increased in wild-type I/R retinas. Each of these effects was markedly attenuated in the NOX2?/? retina (P < 0.01). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that the deletion of NOX2 can reduce I/R-induced cell death and preserve retinal GCL neurons after I/R injury. The neuronal cell injury caused by I/R is associated with the activation of ERK and NF-?B signaling mechanisms. PMID:21917939

Yokota, Harumasa; Narayanan, Subhadra P.; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Hua; Rojas, Modesto; Xu, Zhimin; Lemtalsi, Tahira; Nagaoka, Taiji; Yoshida, Akitoshi; Brooks, Steven E.; Caldwell, Robert W.

2011-01-01

213

Testosterone induces leucocyte migration by NADPH oxidase-driven ROS- and COX2-dependent mechanisms.  

PubMed

The mechanisms whereby testosterone increases cardiovascular risk are not clarified. However, oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be determinants. Herein, we sought to determine whether exogenous testosterone, at physiological levels, induces leucocyte migration, a central feature in immune and inflammatory responses and the mediating mechanisms. We hypothesized that testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPH oxidase (NADPHox)-driven reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent mechanisms. Sixteen-week-old Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection (5 ml) of either testosterone (10-7 mol/l) or saline. Rats were pre-treated with 5 ml of sodium salicylate (SS, non-selective COX inhibitor, 1.25×10-3 mol/l, 1 h prior to testosterone or saline), flutamide (androgen receptor antagonist, 10-5 mol/l), apocynin (NADPHox inhibitor, 3×10-4 mol/l), N-[2-Cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl]methanesulfonamide (NS398, COX2 inhibitor, 10-4 mol/l) or saline, 4 h before testosterone or saline administration. Leucocyte migration was assessed 24 h after testosterone administration by intravital microscopy of the mesenteric bed. Serum levels of testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. NADPHox activity was assessed in membrane fractions of the mesenteric bed by dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence and in isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by HPLC. NADPHox subunits and VCAM (vascular cell adhesion molecule) expression were determined by immunoblotting. Testosterone administration did not change serum levels of endogenous testosterone, but increased venular leucocyte migration to the adventia, NADPHox activity and expression (P<0.05). These effects were blocked by flutamide. SS inhibited testosterone-induced leucocyte migration (P<0.05). Apocynin and NS398 abolished testosterone-induced leucocyte migration and NADPHox activity (P<0.05). Testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPHox- and COX2-dependent mechanisms and may contribute to inflammatory processes and oxidative stress in the vasculature potentially increasing cardiovascular risk. PMID:25700020

Chignalia, Andreia Z; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Debbas, Victor; Dull, Randal O; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Touyz, Rhian M; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Fortes, Zuleica B; Tostes, Rita C

2015-07-01

214

Inhibition of NADPH oxidase prevents acute lung injury in obese rats following severe trauma.  

PubMed

Lung capillary filtration coefficient (Kf) and impacts of oxidative stress have not been determined in the setting of severe trauma, especially in obese patients who exhibit increased lung injury. We hypothesized that severe trauma leads to a greater increase in lung Kf in obesity due to exacerbated production of and/or vulnerability to oxidative stress. Severe trauma was induced in lean and obese Zucker rats by muscle injury, fibula fracture, and bone component injection to both hindlimbs, with or without 24-h treatments of apocynin, a NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. Lung wet/dry weight ratios, lung vascular Kf, lung neutrophil counts, lung NOX and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and plasma IL-6 levels were measured 24 h after trauma. In an additional study, lungs were isolated from nontrauma lean and obese rats to determine the acute effect of phenazime methosulfate, a superoxide donor, on pulmonary vascular Kf. After trauma, compared with lean rats, obese rats exhibited greater increases in lung capillary Kf, neutrophil accumulation, NOX and MPO activity, and plasma IL-6. The lung wet/dry weight ratio was increased in obese rats but not in lean rats. Apocynin treatment decreased lung Kf, neutrophil counts, NOX and MPO activities, wet/dry weight ratio, and plasma IL-6 in obese rats. Phenazime methosulfate treatment resulted in a greater increase in lung Kf in nontrauma obese rats compared with nontrauma lean rats. These results suggest that obese rats are susceptible to lung injury following severe trauma due to increased production of and responsiveness to pulmonary oxidative stress. PMID:24414071

Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Mittwede, Peter N; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

2014-03-01

215

Inhibition of NADPH oxidase prevents acute lung injury in obese rats following severe trauma  

PubMed Central

Lung capillary filtration coefficient (Kf) and impacts of oxidative stress have not been determined in the setting of severe trauma, especially in obese patients who exhibit increased lung injury. We hypothesized that severe trauma leads to a greater increase in lung Kf in obesity due to exacerbated production of and/or vulnerability to oxidative stress. Severe trauma was induced in lean and obese Zucker rats by muscle injury, fibula fracture, and bone component injection to both hindlimbs, with or without 24-h treatments of apocynin, a NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. Lung wet/dry weight ratios, lung vascular Kf, lung neutrophil counts, lung NOX and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and plasma IL-6 levels were measured 24 h after trauma. In an additional study, lungs were isolated from nontrauma lean and obese rats to determine the acute effect of phenazime methosulfate, a superoxide donor, on pulmonary vascular Kf. After trauma, compared with lean rats, obese rats exhibited greater increases in lung capillary Kf, neutrophil accumulation, NOX and MPO activity, and plasma IL-6. The lung wet/dry weight ratio was increased in obese rats but not in lean rats. Apocynin treatment decreased lung Kf, neutrophil counts, NOX and MPO activities, wet/dry weight ratio, and plasma IL-6 in obese rats. Phenazime methosulfate treatment resulted in a greater increase in lung Kf in nontrauma obese rats compared with nontrauma lean rats. These results suggest that obese rats are susceptible to lung injury following severe trauma due to increased production of and responsiveness to pulmonary oxidative stress. PMID:24414071

Lu, Silu; Mittwede, Peter N.; Clemmer, John S.; Hester, Robert L.

2014-01-01

216

Antimutagenic activity of oxidase enzymes  

SciTech Connect

By means of a cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in plant cells (Welsh onion, wheat) it was found that the cofactors nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and riboflavin possess antimutagenic activity.

Agabeili, R.A.

1986-11-01

217

Small-molecule inhibitors of NADPH oxidase 4.  

PubMed

NOX enzymes are the major contributors in many oxidative damage related diseases. Unfortunately, at present no specific NOX inhibitor is available. Here, we describe the discovery and development of novel NOX4 inhibitors. Compound libraries were tested in a cell-based assay as a primary screen, monitoring H2O2 production. Twenty-four compounds inhibited Nox4 activity with low-micromolar IC(50) values of which three were selected for further drug development. PMID:20731357

Borbély, Gábor; Szabadkai, István; Horváth, Zoltán; Markó, Péter; Varga, Zoltán; Breza, Nóra; Baska, Ferenc; Vántus, Tibor; Huszár, Mónika; Geiszt, Miklós; Hunyady, László; Buday, László; Orfi, László; Kéri, György

2010-09-23

218

NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, improves renal glutathione status in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a comparison with melatonin.  

PubMed

Apocynin (4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone) is the most commonly used NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor. However, its application raises serious controversies, as the compound has been reported to reveal some prooxidative effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate apocynin action on glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidant, metabolism in kidneys of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, a well established model of diabetes type 2. Additionally, apocynin effects were compared with those of melatonin. The experiments were performed on five groups of animals: (1) untreated lean (?/+) ZDF rats, (2) ZDF ?/+ rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, (3) untreated obese diabetic (fa/fa) ZDF rats, (4) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, and (5) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with melatonin (20 mg/l) in drinking water. After 8weeks of the treatment, the following parameters were measured in kidneys: NADPH oxidase activity, the rate of hydroxyl free radicals (HFR) production, GSH and GSSG content and the activities of the enzymes of glutathione metabolism: ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Compared to ?/+ controls, ZDF fa/fa rats exhibited increased Nox activity, accelerated HFR generation and dramatically lowered GSH/GSSG ratio accompanied by increased GPx and diminished GCS activities. In case of diabetic animals, apocynin treatment resulted in attenuation of both Nox activity and HFR production, restoration of control GSH/GSSG ratio (due to both an increase in GSH and a decline in GSSG content), normalization of GPx activity and a slight increase in GCS activity. Similar observations were made upon melatonin application to ZDF fa/fa rats. Thus, it is concluded that, in the diabetic model studied, apocynin extends a beneficial effect on renal glutathione homeostasis. The mechanism of this phenomenon involves attenuation of glutathione peroxidase activity, which is overstimulated under conditions of oxidative stress accompanying diabetes. PMID:24797087

Winiarska, Katarzyna; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz; Lewandowski, Krystian; Orlowska, Marta; Usarek, Michal

2014-07-25

219

Phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase [Nox2] in cellular dysfunction in models of glucolipotoxicity and diabetes.  

PubMed

Increased intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] has been implicated in the pathology of metabolic [diabetes] and neurodegenerative [Alzheimer's] diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests NADPH oxidases [Noxs] as the principal source for cellular ROS in humans. Of this class of enzymes, the phagocyte-like Nox [Nox2] has come under intense scrutiny as one of the "culprits" for the induction of cellular damage culminating in the onset of diabetes and its complications. Functional regulation of Nox2 is fairly complex due to its membranous [gp91(phox), p22(phox)] and cytosolic [p40(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox) and Rac1] cores, which require specific post-translational modification steps [phosphorylation and lipidation] for their membrane association. Therefore, optimal efficacy of Nox2 depends upon precise regulation of these signaling steps followed by translocation of the cytosolic components to the membrane. Interestingly, numerous recent studies have reported sustained activation of Nox2, ROS-derived oxidative stress, and cellular dysfunction in in vitro and in vivo models of glucolipotoxicity and diabetes. These investigations employed a variety of cell-permeable peptides and pharmacological inhibitors to impede Nox2 holoenzyme assembly and activation in pancreatic islet ?-cells, cardiomyocytes and retinal endothelial cells under conditions of glucolipotoxicity and diabetes. Herein, we highlight the existing evidence to implicate Nox2 as the "trigger" of cellular damage, and identify critical gaps in our current understanding that need to be addressed to further affirm the roles of Nox2 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. PMID:24462914

Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Kowluru, Renu A

2014-04-01

220

Polarity proteins Bem1 and Cdc24 are components of the filamentous fungal NADPH oxidase complex  

PubMed Central

Regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by membrane-bound fungal NADPH oxidases (Nox) plays a key role in fungal morphogenesis, growth, and development. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the plant symbiotic fungus, Epichloë festucae, requires functional assembly of a multisubunit complex composed of NoxA, a regulatory component, NoxR, and the small GTPase RacA. However, the mechanism for assembly and activation of this complex at the plasma membrane is unknown. We found by yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays that E. festucae NoxR interacts with homologs of the yeast polarity proteins, Bem1 and Cdc24, and that the Phox and Bem1 (PB1) protein domains found in these proteins are essential for these interactions. GFP fusions of BemA, Cdc24, and NoxR preferentially localized to actively growing hyphal tips and to septa. These proteins interact with each other in vivo at these same cellular sites as shown by bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays. The PB1 domain of NoxR is essential for localization to the hyphal tip. An E. festucae ?bemA mutant was defective in hyphal morphogenesis and growth in culture and in planta. The changes in fungal growth in planta resulted in a defective symbiotic interaction phenotype. Our inability to isolate a ?cdc24 mutant suggests this gene is essential. These results demonstrate that BemA and Cdc24 play a critical role in localizing NoxR protein to sites of fungal hyphal morphogenesis and growth. Our findings identify a potential shared ancestral link between the protein machinery required for fungal polarity establishment and the Nox complex controlling cellular differentiation. PMID:21282602

Takemoto, Daigo; Kamakura, Sachiko; Saikia, Sanjay; Becker, Yvonne; Wrenn, Ruth; Tanaka, Aiko; Sumimoto, Hideki; Scott, Barry

2011-01-01

221

NADPH Oxidase 1, a Novel Molecular Source of ROS in Hippocampal Neuronal Death in Vascular Dementia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common pathological factor that contributes to neurodegenerative diseases such as vascular dementia (VaD). Although oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD, the molecular mechanism underlying the selective vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to oxidative damage remains unknown. We assessed whether the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) complex, a specialized superoxide generation system, plays a role in VaD by permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries in rats. Results: Male Wistar rats (10 weeks of age) were subjected to bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]). Nox1 expression gradually increased in hippocampal neurons, starting at 1 week after 2VO and for approximately 15 weeks after 2VO. The levels of superoxide, DNA oxidation, and neuronal death in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, as well as consequential cognitive impairment, were increased in 2VO rats. Both inhibition of Nox by apocynin, a putative Nox inhibitor, and adeno-associated virus-mediated Nox1 knockdown significantly reduced 2VO-induced reactive oxygen species generation, oxidative DNA damage, hippocampal neuronal degeneration, and cognitive impairment. Innovation and Conclusion: We provided evidence that neuronal Nox1 is activated in the hippocampus under CCH, causing oxidative stress and consequential hippocampal neuronal death and cognitive impairment. This evidence implies that Nox1-mediated oxidative stress plays an important role in neuronal cell death and cognitive dysfunction in VaD. Nox1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for VaD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 533–550. PMID:24294978

Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Seo, Ju-Ha; Kim, Hahn Young; Shin, Chan Young; Han, Jung-Soo; Han, Seol-Heui; Kim, Yoon-Seong

2014-01-01

222

Restricted expression of NADPH oxidase/peroxidase gene (Duox) in zone VII of the ascidian endostyle.  

PubMed

The ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a marine invertebrate chordate, is an emerging model system for developmental and evolutionary studies. The endostyle, one of the characteristic organs of ascidians, is a pharyngeal structure with iodine-concentrating and peroxidase activities and is therefore considered to be homologous to the follicular thyroid of higher vertebrates. We have previously reported that a limited part of the endostyle (zone VII) is marked by the expression of orthologs of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2/FoxE) genes. In this study, we have identified the Ciona homolog of NADPH oxidase/peroxidase (Duox), which provides hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) for iodine metabolism by TPO in the vertebrate thyroid. Expression patterns assessed by in situ hybridization have revealed that Ciona Duox (Ci-Duox) is predominantly expressed in the dorsal part of zone VII of the endostyle. Furthermore, two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization with Ci-Duox and Ciona TPO (CiTPO) has revealed that the ventral boundary of the Ci-Duox domain of expression is more dorsal than that of CiTPO. We have also characterized several genes, such as Ci-Fgf8/17/18, 5HT7, and Ci-NK4, which are predominantly expressed in the ventral part of zone VII, in a region complementary to the Ci-Duox expression domain. These observations suggest that, at the molecular level, zone VII has a complex organization that might have some impact on the specification of cell types and functions in this thyroid-equivalent element of the ascidian endostyle. PMID:16823546

Hiruta, Jin; Mazet, Francoise; Ogasawara, Michio

2006-12-01

223

Nitroglycerine-Induced Nitrate Tolerance Compromises Propofol Protection of the Endothelial Cells against TNF-?: The Role of PKC-?2 and NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Continuous treatment with organic nitrates causes nitrate tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is involved with protein kinase C (PKC) signal pathway and NADPH oxidase activation. We determined whether chronic administration with nitroglycerine compromises the protective effects of propofol against tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) induced toxicity in endothelial cells by PKC-?2 dependent NADPH oxidase activation. Primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were either treated or untreated with TNF-? (40?ng/mL) alone or in the presence of the specific PKC-?2 inhibitor CGP53353 (1??M)), nitroglycerine (10??M), propofol (100??M), propofol plus nitroglycerin, or CGP53353 plus nitroglycerine, respectively, for 24 hours. TNF-? increased the levels of superoxide, Nox (nitrate and nitrite), malondialdehyde, and nitrotyrosine production, accompanied by increased protein expression of p-PKC-?2, gP91phox, and endothelial cell apoptosis, whereas all these changes were further enhanced by nitroglycerine. CGP53353 and propofol, respectively, reduced TNF-? induced oxidative stress and cell toxicity. CGP53353 completely prevented TNF-? induced oxidative stress and cell toxicity in the presence or absence of nitroglycerine, while the protective effects of propofol were neutralized by nitroglycerine. It is concluded that nitroglycerine comprises the protective effects of propofol against TNF-? stimulation in endothelial cells, primarily through PKC-?2 dependent NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:24396568

Su, Wating; Liu, Huimin; Xia, Zhong-yuan; Yang, Qing-jun; Qiao, Xin; Du, Yun; Zhang, Liangqing; Xia, Zhengyuan

2013-01-01

224

Role of NADPH Oxidase in Formation and Function of Multinucleated Giant Cells  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play essential roles in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. One of the unique features of these phagocytic leukocytes is their ability to fuse, forming multinucleated giant cells. Multinucleated giant cells are important mediators of tissue remodeling and repair and are also responsible for removal or sequestration of foreign material, intracellular bacteria and non-phagocytosable pathogens, such as parasites and fungi. Depending on the tissue where fusion occurs and the inflammatory insult, multinucleated giant cells assume distinctly different phenotypes. Nevertheless, the ultimate outcome is the formation of large cells that can resorb bone tissue (osteoclasts) or foreign material and pathogens (giant cells) extracellularly. While progress has been made in recent years, the mechanisms and factors involved in macrophage fusion are still not fully understood. In addition to cytokines and a number of adhesion proteins and receptors, it is becoming increasingly clear that NADPH oxidase-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) also play an important role in macrophage fusion. In this review, we provide an overview of macrophage multinucleation, with a specific focus on the role of NADPH oxidases and ROS in macrophage fusion and in the function of multinucleated giant cells. In addition, we provide an updated overview of the role of these cells in inflammation and various autoimmune diseases. PMID:20375608

Quinn, Mark T.; Schepetkin, Igor A.

2009-01-01

225

NADPH oxidase 4 is a critical mediator in Ataxia telangiectasia disease  

PubMed Central

Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar degeneration and a greatly increased incidence of cancer among other symptoms, is caused by a defective or missing ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. The ATM protein has roles in DNA repair and in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is involved in manifesting A-T disease. We showed that NOX4 expression levels are higher in A-T cells, and that ATM inhibition leads to increased NOX4 expression in normal cells. A-T cells exhibit elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks and replicative senescence, all of which are partially abrogated by down-regulation of NOX4 with siRNA. Sections of degenerating cerebelli from A-T patients revealed elevated NOX4 levels. ATM-null mice exhibit A-T disease but they die from cancer before the neurological symptoms are manifested. Injecting Atm-null mice with fulvene-5, a specific inhibitor of NOX4 and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), decreased their elevated cancer incidence to that of the controls. We conclude that, in A-T disease in humans and mice, NOX4 may be critical mediator and targeting it will open up new avenues for therapeutic intervention in neurodegeneration. PMID:25646414

Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E.; Aziz, Towqir; Choudhuri, Rohini; Maeda, Daisuke; Parekh, Palak R.; Bonner, Michael Y.; Arbiser, Jack L.; Bonner, William M.

2015-01-01

226

Topological organization of NADPH-oxidase in haematopoietic stem cell membrane: preliminary study by fluorescence near-field optical microscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the local distribution and organization of the plasma membrane NADPH-oxidase (NOX) in human haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) by means of the fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscopy approach. The presence of NOX in haematopoietic stem cells is thought to have a functional role as O(2) sensor and/or as low-level reactive oxygen species (ROS) producer to be used as redox messenger for controlling cell growth and differentiation. Given the harmful potential of ROS, a fine-tuning of NOX activity is needed. The high resolution imaging of haematopoietic stem cell membrane obtained in this study combined with the immunodetection of NOX indicates for this the occurrence of a cluster-organized structure. These membrane 'rafts'-like micro-compartments may constitute localized protein aggregates whereby the assembly/activation of the NOX components are functionally integrated with upstream factors constituting signal-transduction platforms. PMID:18331504

Frassanito, M C; Piccoli, C; Capozzi, V; Boffoli, D; Tabilio, A; Capitanio, N

2008-03-01

227

Resveratrol treatment rescues neurovascular coupling in aged mice: role of improved cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and downregulation of NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling is essential for the maintenance of normal neuronal function. Increased oxidative stress that occurs with aging was shown to impair neurovascular coupling, which likely contributes to a significant age-related decline in higher cortical function, increasing the risk for vascular cognitive impairment. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that exerts significant antiaging protective effects in large vessels, but its effects on the cerebromicrovasculature remain poorly defined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the capacity of resveratrol to improve neurovascular coupling in aging. In aged (24-mo-old) C57BL/6 mice N(?)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive, nitric oxide-mediated CBF responses to whisker stimulation and to the endothelium-dependent dilator acethylcholine (ACh) were impaired compared with those in young (3-mo-old) mice. Treatment of aged mice with resveratrol rescued neurovascular coupling and ACh-induced responses, which was associated with downregulation of cortical expression of NADPH oxidase and decreased levels of biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress (3-nitrotyrosine, 8-isoprostanes). Resveratrol also attenuated age-related increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cultured cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (DCF fluorescence, flow cytometry). In conclusion, treatment with resveratrol rescues cortical neurovascular coupling responses to increased neuronal activity in aged mice, likely by restoring cerebromicrovascular endothelial function via downregulation of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production. Beneficial cerebromicrovascular effects of resveratrol may contribute to its protective effects on cognitive function in aging. PMID:24322615

Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Ashpole, Nicole M; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Ballabh, Praveen; Koller, Akos; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

2014-02-01

228

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) associates with NADPH oxidase and is required for phagocytosis of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes by macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

PDI, a redox chaperone, is involved in host cell uptake of bacteria\\/viruses, phagosome formation, and vascular NADPH oxidase regulation. PDI involvement in phagocyte infection by parasites has been poorly explored. Here, we investigated the role of PDI in in vitro infection of J774 macrophages by amastigote and promastigote forms of the protozoan Leishmania chagasi and assessed whether PDI associates with

Celio X. C. Santos; Beatriz S. Stolf; Paulo V. A. Takemoto; Angelica M. Amanso; Lucia R. Lopes; Edna B. Souza; Hiro Goto; Francisco R. M. Laurindo

2009-01-01

229

Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

230

Delivery of Nox2-NADPH oxidase siRNA with polyketal nanoparticles for improving cardiac function following myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most common cause of heart failure (HF), the leading cause of death in the developed world. Oxidative stress due to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling leading to HF. NADPH oxidase with Nox2 as the catalytic subunit is a major source for cardiac ROS production. Nox2-NADPH expression is significantly increased in the infarcted myocardium, primarily in neutrophils, macrophages and myocytes. Moreover, mice lacking the Nox2 gene are protected from ischemic injury, implicating Nox2 as a potential therapeutic target. RNAi-mediated gene silencing holds great promise as a therapeutic owing to its high specificity and potency. However, in vivo delivery hurdles have limited its effective clinical use. Here, we demonstrate acid-degradable polyketal particles as delivery vehicles for Nox2-siRNA to the post-MI heart. In vitro, Nox2-siRNA particles are effectively taken up by macrophages and significantly knockdown Nox2 expression and activity. Following in vivo intramyocardial injection in experimental mice models of MI, Nox2-siRNA particles prevent upregulation of Nox2 and significantly recovered cardiac function. This study highlights the potential of polyketals as siRNA delivery vehicles to the MI heart and represents a viable therapeutic approach for targeting oxidative stress. PMID:23856052

Somasuntharam, Inthirai; Boopathy, Archana V.; Khan, Raffay S.; Martinez, Mario D.; Brown, Milton E.; Murthy, Niren; Davis, Michael E.

2013-01-01

231

Protein disulfide isomerase expression increases in resistance arteries during hypertension development. Effects on Nox1 NADPH oxidase signaling  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in vascular function and remodeling in hypertension through redox signaling processes. Previous studies demonstrated that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) regulates Nox1 expression and ROS generation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the role of PDI in conductance and resistance arteries during hypertension development remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate PDI expression and NADPH oxidase dependent ROS generation during hypertension development. Mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) and thoracic aorta were isolated from 6, 8, and 12 week-old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar rats. ROS production (dihydroethidium fluorescence), PDI (WB, imunofluorescence), Nox1 and NOX4 (RT-PCR) expression were evaluated. Results show a progressive increase in ROS generation in MRA and aorta from 8 to 12 week-old SHR. This effect was associated with a concomitant increase in PDI and Nox1 expression only in MRA. Therefore, suggesting a positive correlation between PDI and Nox1 expression during the development of hypertension in MRA. In order to investigate if this effect was due to an increase in arterial blood pressure, pre hypertensive SHR were treated with losartan (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days), an AT1 receptor antagonist. Losartan decreased blood pressure and ROS generation in both vascular beds. However, only in SHR MRA losartan treatment lowered PDI and Nox1 expression to control levels. In MRA PDI inhibition (bacitracin, 0.5 mM) decreased Ang II redox signaling (p-ERK 1/2). Altogether, our results suggest that PDI plays a role in triggering oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction in resistance but not in conductance arteries, increasing Nox1 expression and activity. Therefore, PDI could be a new player in oxidative stress and functional alterations in resistance arteries during the establishment of hypertension.

Androwiki, Aline C. D.; Camargo, Lívia de Lucca; Sartoretto, Simone; Couto, Gisele K.; Ribeiro, Izabela M. R.; Veríssimo-Filho, Sidney; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Lopes, Lucia R.

2015-01-01

232

12/15-Lipoxygenase-Derived Lipid Metabolites Induce Retinal Endothelial Cell Barrier Dysfunction: Contribution of NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of 12/15- lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) metabolites on retinal endothelial cell (REC) barrier function. FITC-dextran flux across the REC monolayers and electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) were used to evaluate the effect of 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetreanoic acids (HETE) on REC permeability and transcellular electrical resistance (TER). Effect of 12- or 15-HETE on the levels of zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), NOX2, pVEGF-R2 and pSHP1 was examined in the presence or absence of inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. In vivo studies were performed using Ins2Akita mice treated with or without the 12/15-LOX inhibitor baicalein. Levels of HETE and inflammatory mediators were examined by LC/MS and Multiplex Immunoassay respectively. ROS generation and NOX2 expression were also measured in mice retinas. 12- and 15- HETE significantly increased permeability and reduced TER and ZO-1expression in REC. VEGF-R2 inhibitor reduced the permeability effect of 12-HETE. Treatment of REC with HETE also increased ROS generation and expression of NOX2 and pVEGF-R2 and decreased pSHP1 expression. Treatment of diabetic mice with baicalein significantly decreased retinal HETE, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-6, ROS generation, and NOX2 expression. Baicalein also reduced pVEGF-R2 while restored pSHP1 levels in diabetic retina. Our findings suggest that 12/15-LOX contributes to vascular hyperpermeability during DR via NADPH oxidase dependent mechanism which involves suppression of protein tyrosine phosphatase and activation of VEGF-R2 signal pathway. PMID:23437353

Megyerdi, Sylvia; Mussell, Rene; Choksi, Karishma; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Elmarakby, Ahmed; Rizk, Nasser; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed

2013-01-01

233

In Silico Sequence Analysis Reveals New Characteristics of Fungal NADPH Oxidase Genes  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases (Noxes), transmembrane proteins found in most eukaryotic species, generate reactive oxygen species and are thereby involved in essential biological processes. However, the fact that genes encoding ferric reductases and ferric-chelate reductases share high sequence similarities and domains with Nox genes represents a challenge for bioinformatic approaches used to identify Nox-encoding genes. Further, most studies on fungal Nox genes have focused mainly on functionality, rather than sequence properties, and consequently clear differentiation among the various Nox isoforms has not been achieved. We conducted an extensive sequence analysis to identify putative Nox genes among 34 eukaryotes, including 28 fungal genomes and one Oomycota genome. Analyses were performed with respect to phylogeny, transmembrane helices, di-histidine distance and glycosylation. Our analyses indicate that the sequence properties of fungal Nox genes are different from those of human and plant Nox genes, thus providing novel insight that will enable more accurate identification and characterization of fungal Nox genes. PMID:25346600

Détry, Nicolas; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Asiegbu, Fred O.

2014-01-01

234

NADPH oxidase inhibitors: a decade of discovery from Nox2ds to HTS  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases (Nox) are established as major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Over the past two decades, Nox-derived ROS have emerged as pivotal in the development of myriad diseases involving oxidative stress. In contrast, Nox are also involved in signaling mechanisms necessary for normal cell function. The study of these enzymes in physiological and pathophysiological conditions is made considerably more complex by the discovery of 7 isoforms: Nox1 through 5 as well as Duox1 and 2, each with its own specific cytosolic components, regulatory control mechanisms, subcellular localization and/or tissue distribution. A clear understanding of the role individual isoforms play in a given system is hindered by the lack of isoform-specific inhibitors. In animal models, knockdown or knockout methodologies are providing definitive answers to perplexing questions of the complex interplay of multiple Nox isoforms in cell and tissue signaling. However, the complex structures and interactions of these heteromeric isozymes predict pleiotropic actions of the Nox subunits and thus suppression of these proteins is almost certain to have untoward effects. Thus, as both therapies and pharmacological tools, molecule-based inhibitors continue to prove extremely useful and rational in design. Unfortunately, many of the available inhibitors have proven non-specific, falling into the category of scavengers or inhibitors of more than one source of ROS. Here, we will review some of the efforts that have been undertaken to develop specific inhibitors of NADPH oxidase over the past decade, from the peptidic inhibitor Nox2ds-tat to more recent small molecule inhibitors that have emerged from high-throughput screening campaigns. PMID:22585059

Cifuentes-Pagano, Eugenia; Csanyi, Gabor; Pagano, Patrick J.

2015-01-01

235

Similar and distinct roles of NADPH oxidase components in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.  

PubMed

The fungal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) complex, which has been implicated in the production of low-level reactive oxygen species (ROS), contains mainly NoxA, NoxB (gp91(phox) homologues) and NoxR (p67(phox) homologue). Here, we report the developmental and pathological functions of NoxB and NoxR in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Loss-of-function genetics revealed that all three Nox components are required for the accumulation of cellular hydrogen peroxide (H?O?). Alternaria alternata strains lacking NoxA, NoxB or NoxR also displayed an increased sensitivity to H?O? and many ROS-generating oxidants. These phenotypes are highly similar to those previously seen for the ?yap1 mutant lacking a YAP1 transcriptional regulator and for the ?hog1 mutant lacking a HOG1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, implicating a possible link among them. A fungal strain carrying a NoxA NoxB or NoxA NoxR double mutation was more sensitive to the test compounds than the strain mutated at a single gene, implicating a synergistic function among Nox components. The ?noxB mutant strain failed to produce any conidia; both ?noxA and ?noxR mutant strains showed a severe reduction in sporulation. Mutant strains carrying defective NoxB had higher chitin content than the wild-type and were insensitive to calcofluor white, Congo red and the fungicides vinclozolin and fludioxonil. Virulence assays revealed that all three Nox components are required for the elaboration of the penetration process. The inability to penetrate the citrus host, observed for ?nox mutants, could be overcome by wounding and by reacquiring a dominant Nox gene. The A.?alternata?NoxR did not influence the expression of NoxB, but negatively regulated NoxA. Importantly, the expression of both YAP1 and HOG1 genes, whose products are involved in resistance to ROS, was down-regulated in fungi carrying defective NoxA, NoxB or NoxR. Our results highlight the requirement of Nox in ROS resistance and provide insights into its critical role in regulating both YAP1 and HOG1 in A.?alternata. PMID:23527595

Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2013-08-01

236

Autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease with absence of the 67-kD cytosolic NADPH oxidase component: identification of mutation and detection of carriers.  

PubMed

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by the failure of phagocytic leukocytes to kill certain bacteria and fungi. This is caused by deficiencies in one of the components of NADPH oxidase, the enzyme in phagocytic leukocytes that generates superoxide. In a rare, autosomal recessive form of CGD, a 67-kD cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase (p67-phox) is missing. Until now, mutations in the gene coding for this protein have not been identified. We now report on a 10-year-old girl with lymph node and liver abscesses who was recognized as an A67(0) CGD patient by lack of NADPH oxidase activity in her granulocytes, a cytosolic defect in a cell-free oxidase system, and lack of immunoreactive material with an antiserum against the p67-phox protein. mRNA for this protein was present in normal amounts in her monocytes. This p67-phox mRNA was reverse-transcribed, and the coding region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in six overlapping fragments and was sequenced. The patient appeared to be homozygous for a G-233-->A mutation, resulting in a nonconservative amino acid change (78Gly-->Glu). This mutation was also found in the genomic DNA of this patient but not in that of 38 normal donors. Both parents and a sister proved to be carriers of the disease, as deduced from the mutation in only one allele. The carrier state was also manifested by intermediate superoxide production by their intact granulocytes and in the cell-free system. PMID:8286749

de Boer, M; Hilarius-Stokman, P M; Hossle, J P; Verhoeven, A J; Graf, N; Kenney, R T; Seger, R; Roos, D

1994-01-15

237

NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species: A new mechanism for X-ray-induced HeLa cell death  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative damage is an important mechanism in X-ray-induced cell death. Radiolysis of water molecules is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to X-ray-induced cell death. In this study, we showed by ROS detection and a cell survival assay that NADPH oxidase has a very important role in X-ray-induced cell death. Under X-ray irradiation, the upregulation of the expression of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit gp91{sup phox} was dose-dependent. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic subunit p47{sup phox} was translocated to the cell membrane and localized with p22{sup phox} and gp91{sup phox} to form reactive NADPH oxidase. Our data suggest, for the first time, that NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of ROS is an important contributor to X-ray-induced cell death. This suggests a new target for combined gene transfer and radiotherapy.

Liu Qing [Department of Radiobiology, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Rd., Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, 509 Nanchang Rd., Lanzhou 730000 (China); He Xiaoqing [First Affiliated Hospital of Lanzhou University, 1 Donggang West Rd., Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu Yongsheng [Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural, 1 Xujiaping Rd., Lanzhou 730046 (China); Du Bingbing; Wang Xiaoyan [College of Medicine, Lanzhou University, 222, South Tianshui Rd., Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Weisheng [Gansu Province People's Hospital, 160 Donggang West Rd., Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jia Pengfei [Institute of Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, 222, South Tianshui Rd., Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong Jingmei [Institute of Sports Medicine, Lanzhou City University, Jiefang Rd., Lanzhou 730070 (China); Ma Jianxiu [College of Medicine, Northwest University for Nationalities, 1 Northwest New Village, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang Xiaohu [Department of Radiology, Gansu Province Cancer Hospital, 2 Xiaoxihu East Rd., Lanzhou 730050 (China); Li Sha [Department of Radiology, Lanzhou General Hospital of PLA, 98 Xiaoxihu West Rd., 730050 (China); Zhang Hong [Department of Radiobiology, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Rd., Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, 509 Nanchang Rd., Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: zhangh@impcas.ac.cn

2008-12-19

238

Toll-like Receptor 2 Mediates Peripheral Nerve Injury-induced NADPH Oxidase 2 Expression in Spinal Cord Microglia*  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) is up-regulated in spinal cord microglia after spinal nerve injury, demonstrating that it is critical for microglia activation and subsequent pain hypersensitivity. However, the mechanisms and molecules involved in Nox2 induction have not been elucidated. Previous studies have shown that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia activation. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR in Nox2 expression in spinal cord microglia after peripheral nerve injury. Studies using TLR knock-out mice have shown that nerve injury-induced microglial Nox2 up-regulation is abrogated in TLR2 but not in TLR3 or -4 knock-out mice. Intrathecal injection of lipoteichoic acid, a TLR2 agonist, induced Nox2 expression in spinal cord microglia both at the mRNA and protein levels. Similarly, lipoteichoic acid stimulation induced Nox2 expression and reactive oxygen species production in primary spinal cord glial cells in vitro. Studies on intracellular signaling pathways indicate that NF-?B and p38 MAP kinase activation is required for TLR2-induced Nox2 expression in glial cells. Conclusively, our data show that TLR2 mediates nerve injury-induced Nox2 gene expression in spinal cord microglia via NF-?B and p38 activation and thereby may contribute to spinal cord microglia activation. PMID:23386616

Lim, Hyoungsub; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Sung Joong

2013-01-01

239

Septic impairment of capillary blood flow requires NADPH oxidase but not NOS and is rapidly reversed by ascorbate through an eNOS-dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NADPH oxidase in the impairment of capillary blood flow in sepsis and in the reversal of this impairment by ascorbate. Design Prospective, controlled laboratory study. Setting Animal laboratory in research institute. Subjects Adult male wild type (WT), nNOS?/?, iNOS?/?, eNOS?/?, and gp91phox?/?mice. Interventions Sepsis was induced by feces injection into peritoneum (FIP). A bolus of ascorbate or NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin was injected intravenously at 6 hrs post-FIP. Alternatively, NOS cofactor (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) or nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) was superfused on the surface of extensor digitorum longus muscle. Measurements and Main Results Capillary blood flow impairment and NOS activity in extensor digitorum longus muscle were measured by intravital microscopy and by enzymatic assay, respectively. Sepsis at 6 hrs impaired flow in WT mice. Apocynin, and knockout of gp91phox but not of any NOS isoforms, rescued this impairment. Constitutive NOS activity was unaffected by sepsis, but it was abolished by nNOS knockout (iNOS activity was negligible in all mice). Ascorbate rapidly (10 mins) rescued impaired flow in WT, nNOS?/?, iNOS?/? but not eNOS?/? mice. Ascorbate also improved survival of WT mice after FIP. BH4 and SNAP rescued flow in WT mice, while BH4 failed to rescue it in eNOS?/? mice. Conclusion Capillary blood flow impairment in septic skeletal muscle requires NADPH oxidase but not NOS, and it is rapidly reversed by ascorbate and BH4 through an eNOS-dependent mechanism. PMID:18596627

Tyml, Karel; Li, Fuyan; Wilson, John X.

2008-01-01

240

Intermittent High Glucose Implements Stress-Induced Senescence in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells: Role of Superoxide Production by NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Impaired glucose tolerance characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which occurs frequently in elderly persons and represents an important preliminary step in diabetes mellitus, poses an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cellular senescence is reported to precede atherosclerosis. We reported that continuous high glucose stimulus causes endothelial senescence more markedly than hypertension or dyslipidemia stimulus. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of fluctuating glucose levels on human endothelial senescence. Constant high glucose increased senescence-associated-?-galactosidase(SA-?-gal) activity, a widely used marker for cellular senescence. Interestingly, in intermittent high glucose, this effect was more pronounced as well as increase of p21 and p16INK4a , senescence related proteins with DNA damage. However, telomerase was not activated and telomere length was not shortened, thus stress-induced senescence was shown. However, constant high glucose activated telomerase and shortened telomere length, which suggested replicative senescence. Intermittent but not constant high glucose strikingly up-regulated the expression of p22phox, an NADPH oxidase component, increasing superoxide. The small interfering RNA of p22phox undermined the increase in SA-?-gal activity induced by intermittent high glucose. Conclusively, intermittent high glucose can promote vascular endothelial senescence more than constant high glucose, which is in partially dependent on superoxide overproduction. PMID:25879533

Maeda, Morihiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hattori, Yuichi; Kuzuya, Masafumi

2015-01-01

241

Anandamide Protects HT22 Cells Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide by Inhibiting CB1 Receptor-Mediated Type 2 NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Background. Endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) protects neurons from oxidative injury in rodent models; however the mechanism of AEA-induced neuroprotection remains to be determined. Activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) contributes to oxidative damage of the brain, and inhibition of Nox2 can attenuate cerebral oxidative stress. We aimed to determine whether the neuronal Nox2 was involved in protection mediated by AEA. Methods. The mouse hippocampal neuron cell line HT22 was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to mimic oxidative injury of neurons. The protective effect of AEA was assessed by measuring cell metabolic activity, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, cellular morphology, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant and oxidant levels and Nox2 expression. Results. HT22 cells exposed to H2O2 demonstrated morphological changes, decreased LDH release, reduced metabolic activity, increased levels of intracellular ROS and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased expression of Nox2. AEA prevented these effects, a property abolished by simultaneous administration of CB1 antagonist AM251 or CB1-siRNA. Conclusion. Nox2 inhibition is involved in AEA-induced cytoprotection against oxidative stress through CB1 activation in HT22 cells. PMID:25136404

Jia, Ji; Wu, Mingchun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiajing; Zhai, Qian; Jiang, Tao; Xiong, Lize

2014-01-01

242

Characterization of Rice NADPH Oxidase Genes and Their Expression under Various Environmental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases (Noxs) are key producers of reactive oxygen species under both normal and stress conditions in plants. We demonstrate that at least eleven genes in the genome of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were predicted to encode Nox proteins, including nine genes (OsNox1–9) that encode typical Noxs and two that encode ancient Nox forms (ferric reduction oxidase 1 and 7, OsFRO1 and OsFRO7). Phylogenetic analysis divided the Noxs from nine plant species into six subfamilies, with rice Nox genes distributed among subfamilies I to V. Gene expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR indicated that the expression of rice Nox genes depends on organs and environmental conditions. Exogenous calcium strongly stimulated the expression of OsNox3, OsNox5, OsNox7, and OsNox8, but depressed the expression of OsFRO1. Drought stress substantially upregulated the expression of OsNox1–3, OsNox5, OsNox9, and OsFRO1, but downregulated OsNox6. High temperature upregulated OsNox5–9, but significantly downregulated OsNox1–3 and OsFRO1. NaCl treatment increased the expression of OsNox2, OsNox8, OsFRO1, and OsFRO7, but decreased that of OsNox1, OsNox3, OsNox5, and OsNox6. These results suggest that the expression profiles of rice Nox genes have unique stress-response characteristics, reflecting their related but distinct functions in response to different environmental stresses. PMID:23629674

Wang, Gang-Feng; Li, Wen-Qiang; Li, Wen-Yan; Wu, Guo-Li; Zhou, Cong-Yi; Chen, Kun-Ming

2013-01-01

243

Role of intracellular calcium and NADPH oxidase NOX5-S in acid-induced DNA damage in Barrett's cells and Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Mechanisms whereby acid reflux may accelerate the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. Acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to cause DNA damage in Barrett's cells. We have previously shown that NADPH oxidase NOX5-S is responsible for acid-induced H2O2 production in Barrett's cells and in EA cells. In this study we examined the role of intracellular calcium and NADPH oxidase NOX5-S in acid-induced DNA damage in a Barrett's EA cell line FLO and a Barrett's cell line CP-A. We found that pulsed acid treatment significantly increased tail moment in FLO and CP-A cells and histone H2AX phosphorylation in FLO cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased intracellular Ca(2+) in FLO cells, an increase that is blocked by Ca(2+)-free medium with EGTA and thapsigargin. Acid-induced increase in tail moment was significantly decreased by NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium in FLO cells, and by blockade of intracellular Ca(2+) increase or knockdown of NOX5-S with NOX5 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) in FLO and CP-A cells. Acid-induced increase in histone H2AX phosphorylation was significantly decreased by NOX5 siRNA in FLO cells. Conversely, overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased tail moment and histone H2AX phosphorylation in FLO cells. We conclude that pulsed acid treatment causes DNA damage via increase of intracellular calcium and activation of NOX5-S. It is possible that in BE acid reflux increases intracellular calcium, activates NOX5-S, and increases ROS production, which causes DNA damage, thereby contributing to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:24699332

Li, Dan; Cao, Weibiao

2014-05-15

244

Hepatocytes produce TNF-? following hypoxia-reoxygenation and liver ischemia-reperfusion in a NADPH oxidase- and c-Src-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Cell line studies have previously demonstrated that hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) leads to the production of NADPH oxidase 1 and 2 (NOX1 and NOX2)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) required for the activation of c-Src and NF-?B. We now extend these studies into mouse models to evaluate the contribution of hepatocytes to the NOX- and c-Src-dependent TNF-? production that follows H/R in primary hepatocytes and liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). In vitro, c-Src-deficient primary hepatocytes produced less ROS and TNF-? following H/R compared with controls. In vivo, c-Src-KO mice also had impaired TNF-? and NF-?B responses following partial lobar liver I/R. Studies in NOX1 and p47phox knockout primary hepatocytes demonstrated that both NOX1 and p47phox are partially required for H/R-mediated TNF-? production. To further investigate the involvement of NADPH oxidases in the production of TNF-? following liver I/R, we performed additional in vivo experiments in knockout mice deficient for NOX1, NOX2, p47phox, Rac1, and/or Rac2. Cumulatively, these results demonstrate that NOX2 and its activator subunits (p47phox and Rac) control the secretion of TNF-? by the liver following I/R. Interestingly, in the absence of Kupffer cells and NOX2, NOX1 played a dominant role in TNF-? production following hepatic I/R. However, NOX1 deletion alone had little effect on I/R-induced TNF-?. Thus Kupffer cell-derived factors and NOX2 act to suppress hepatic NOX1-dependent TNF-? production. We conclude that c-Src and NADPH oxidase components are necessary for redox-mediated production of TNF-? following liver I/R and that hepatocytes play an important role in this process. PMID:23639811

Spencer, Netanya Y.; Zhou, Weihong; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yulong; Luo, Meihui; Yan, Ziying; Lynch, Thomas J.; Abbott, Duane; Banfi, Botond

2013-01-01

245

The localization of NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species in in vitro-cultured Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. hypocotyls discloses their differing roles in rhizogenesis.  

PubMed

This work demonstrated how reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the regulation of rhizogenesis from hypocotyls of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. cultured on a medium containing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The increase of NADPH oxidase activity was correlated with an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and induction of mitotic activity in vascular cylinder cells, leading to root formation from cultured hypocotyls. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, inhibited H2O2 production and blocked rhizogenesis. Ultrastructural studies revealed differences in H2O2 localization between the vascular cylinder cells and cortex parenchyma cells of cultured explants. We suggest that NADPH oxidase is responsible for H2O2 level regulation in vascular cylinder cells, while peroxidase (POD) participates in H2O2 level regulation in cortex cells. Blue formazan (NBT) precipitates indicating superoxide radical (O2 (•-)) accumulation were localized within the vascular cylinder cells during the early stages of rhizogenesis and at the tip of root primordia, as well as in the distal and middle parts of newly formed organs. 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining of H2O2 was more intense in vascular bundle cells and in cortex cells. In newly formed roots, H2O2 was localized in vascular tissue. Adding DPI to the medium led to a decrease in the intensity of NBT and DAB staining in cultured explants. Accumulation of O2 (•-) was then limited to epidermis cells, while H2O2 was accumulated only in vascular tissue. These results indicate that O2 (•-) is engaged in processes of rhizogenesis induction involving division of competent cells, while H2O2 is engaged in developmental processes mainly involving cell growth. PMID:25172434

Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Ma?gorzata; Desel, Christine; Michalec-Warzecha, ?aneta; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Konieczny, Robert

2015-03-01

246

Neonatal hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in the rat brain: the role of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Recently, the consequences of diabetes on the central nervous system (CNS) have received great attention. However, the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia affects the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In addition, recent studies have shown that hyperglycemia induces oxidative damage in the adult rat brain. In this regard, no study has assessed oxidative stress as a possible mechanism that affects the brain normal function in neonatal hyperglycemic rats. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether neonatal hyperglycemia elicits oxidative stress in the brain of neonate rats subjected to a streptozotocin-induced neonatal hyperglycemia model (5-day-old rats). The activities of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase (6-PGD), NADPH oxidase (Nox), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), the production of superoxide anion, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), and the protein carbonyl content were measured. Neonatal hyperglycemic rats presented increased activities of G6PD, 6PGD, and Nox, which altogether may be responsible for the enhanced production of superoxide radical anion that was observed. The enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and GSHPx) that were observed in neonatal hyperglycemic rats, which may be caused by a rebound effect of oxidative stress, were not able to hinder the observed lipid peroxidation (TBA-RS) and protein damage in the brain. Consequently, these results suggest that oxidative stress could represent a mechanism that explains the harmful effects of neonatal hyperglycemia on the CNS. PMID:25682169

Rosa, Andrea Pereira; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo Dias; de Souza, Laila Oliveira; Bitencourt, Fernanda; Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Coelho, Juliana Gonzales; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

2015-05-01

247

Nephropathy and elevated BP in mice with podocyte-specific NADPH oxidase 5 expression.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes are a significant source of reactive oxygen species, which contribute to glomerular podocyte dysfunction. Although studies have implicated Nox1, -2, and -4 in several glomerulopathies, including diabetic nephropathy, little is known regarding the role of Nox5 in this context. We examined Nox5 expression and regulation in kidney biopsies from diabetic patients, cultured human podocytes, and a novel mouse model. Nox5 expression increased in human diabetic glomeruli compared with nondiabetic glomeruli. Stimulation with angiotensin II upregulated Nox5 expression in human podocyte cultures and increased reactive oxygen species generation. siRNA-mediated Nox5 knockdown inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species and altered podocyte cytoskeletal dynamics, resulting in an Rac-mediated motile phenotype. Because the Nox5 gene is absent in rodents, we generated transgenic mice expressing human Nox5 in a podocyte-specific manner (Nox5(pod+)). Nox5(pod+) mice exhibited early onset albuminuria, podocyte foot process effacement, and elevated systolic BP. Subjecting Nox5(pod+) mice to streptozotocin-induced diabetes further exacerbated these changes. Our data show that renal Nox5 is upregulated in human diabetic nephropathy and may alter filtration barrier function and systolic BP through the production of reactive oxygen species. These findings provide the first evidence that podocyte Nox5 has an important role in impaired renal function and hypertension. PMID:24262797

Holterman, Chet E; Thibodeau, Jean-François; Towaij, Chelsea; Gutsol, Alex; Montezano, Augusto C; Parks, Robin J; Cooper, Mark E; Touyz, Rhian M; Kennedy, Christopher R J

2014-04-01

248

Role of Neuronal NADPH Oxidase 1 in the Peri-Infarct Regions after Stroke  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanism underlying the selective vulnerability of neurons to oxidative damage caused by ischemia—reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. We sought to determine the role of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) in cerebral I/R-induced brain injury and survival of newborn cells in the ischemic injured region. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. After reperfusion, infarction size, level of superoxide and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-2dG), and Nox1 immunoreactivity were determined. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Nox1 was used to investigate the role of Nox1 in I/R-induced oxidative damage, neuronal death, motor function recovery, and ischemic neurogenesis. After I/R, Nox1 expression and 8-oxo-2dG immunoreactivity was increased in cortical neurons of the peri-infarct regions. Both infarction size and neuronal death in I/R injury were significantly reduced by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated transduction of Nox1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). AAV-mediated Nox1 knockdown enhanced functional recovery after MCAO. The level of survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the peri-infarct regions were increased by Nox1 inhibition. Our data suggest that Nox-1 may be responsible for oxidative damage to DNA, subsequent cortical neuronal degeneration, functional recovery, and regulation of ischemic neurogenesis in the peri-infarct regions after stroke. PMID:25617620

Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Hahn-Young; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Choi, Wahn Soo; Lee, Jongmin

2015-01-01

249

The role of the NADPH oxidase NOX2 in prion pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis. PMID:25502554

Sorce, Silvia; Nuvolone, Mario; Keller, Annika; Falsig, Jeppe; Varol, Ahmet; Schwarz, Petra; Bieri, Monika; Budka, Herbert; Aguzzi, Adriano

2014-12-01

250

The Role of the NADPH Oxidase NOX2 in Prion Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis. PMID:25502554

Sorce, Silvia; Nuvolone, Mario; Keller, Annika; Falsig, Jeppe; Varol, Ahmet; Schwarz, Petra; Bieri, Monika; Budka, Herbert; Aguzzi, Adriano

2014-01-01

251

SOD1 mutations disrupt redox-sensitive Rac regulation of NADPH oxidase in a familial ALS model.  

PubMed

Neurodegeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with enhanced redox stress caused by dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1). SOD1 is a cytosolic enzyme that facilitates the conversion of superoxide (O(2)(*-)) to H(2)O(2). Here we demonstrate that SOD1 is not just a catabolic enzyme, but can also directly regulate NADPH oxidase-dependent (Nox-dependent) O(2)(*-) production by binding Rac1 and inhibiting its GTPase activity. Oxidation of Rac1 by H(2)O(2) uncoupled SOD1 binding in a reversible fashion, producing a self-regulating redox sensor for Nox-derived O(2)(*-) production. This process of redox-sensitive uncoupling of SOD1 from Rac1 was defective in SOD1 ALS mutants, leading to enhanced Rac1/Nox activation in transgenic mouse tissues and cell lines expressing ALS SOD1 mutants. Glial cell toxicity associated with expression of SOD1 mutants in culture was significantly attenuated by treatment with the Nox inhibitor apocynin. Treatment of ALS mice with apocynin also significantly increased their average life span. This redox sensor mechanism may explain the gain-of-function seen with certain SOD1 mutations associated with ALS and defines new therapeutic targets. PMID:18219391

Harraz, Maged M; Marden, Jennifer J; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Yulong; Williams, Aislinn; Sharov, Victor S; Nelson, Kathryn; Luo, Meihui; Paulson, Henry; Schöneich, Christian; Engelhardt, John F

2008-02-01

252

APR-246/PRIMA-1MET inhibits thioredoxin reductase 1 and converts the enzyme to a dedicated NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

The low-molecular-weight compound APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET) restores wild-type conformation and function to mutant p53, and triggers apoptosis in tumor cells. We show here that APR-246 also targets the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), a key regulator of cellular redox balance. APR-246 inhibited both recombinant TrxR1 in vitro and TrxR1 in cells. A Sec-to-Cys mutant of TrxR1 was not inhibited by APR-246, suggesting targeting of the selenocysteine residue in wild-type TrxR1. Preheated APR-246 and its conversion product methylene quinuclidinone (MQ) were much more efficient TrxR1 inhibitors than APR-246 itself, indicating that MQ is the active compound responsible for TrxR1 enzyme inhibition. TrxR1 inhibited by MQ was still functional as a pro-oxidant NADPH oxidase. Knockdown of TrxR1 caused a partial and reproducible attenuation of APR-246-induced tumor cell death independently of p53 status. Cellular TrxR1 activity was also inhibited by APR-246 irrespective of p53 status. We show that APR-246 can directly affect cellular redox status via targeting of TrxR1. Our findings provide an explanation for the previously observed effects of APR-246 on tumor cells lacking mutant p53. PMID:24157875

Peng, X; Zhang, M-Q-Z; Conserva, F; Hosny, G; Selivanova, G; Bykov, V J N; Arnér, E S J; Wiman, K G

2013-01-01

253

Identification of NoxD/Pro41 as the homologue of the p22(phox) NADPH oxidase subunit in fungi.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidases (Nox) are membrane complexes that produce O2 (-) . Researches in mammals, plants and fungi highlight the involvement of Nox-generated ROS in cell proliferation, differentiation and defense. In mammals, the core enzyme gp91(phox) /Nox2 is associated with p22(phox) forming the flavocytochrome b558 ready for activation by a cytosolic complex. Intriguingly, no homologue of the p22(phox) gene has been found in fungal genomes, questioning how the flavoenzyme forms. Using whole genome sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis and structural studies, we identify the fungal p22(phox) homologue as being mutated in the Podospora anserina mutant IDC(509) . Functional studies show that the fungal p22(phox) , PaNoxD, acts along PaNox1, but not PaNox2, a second fungal gp91(phox) homologue. Finally, cytological analysis of functional tagged versions of PaNox1, PaNoxD and PaNoxR shows clear co-localization of PaNoxD and PaNox1 and unravel a dynamic assembly of the complex in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the vacuolar system. PMID:25424886

Lacaze, Isabelle; Lalucque, Hervé; Siegmund, Ulrike; Silar, Philippe; Brun, Sylvain

2015-03-01

254

The regulatory roles of NADPH oxidase, intra- and extra-cellular HSP70 in pancreatic islet function, dysfunction and diabetes.  

PubMed

The 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70) family is important for a dynamic range of cellular processes that include protection against cell stress, modulation of cell signalling, gene expression, protein synthesis, protein folding and inflammation. Within this family, the inducible 72 kDa and the cognate 73 kDa forms are found at the highest level. HSP70 has dual functions depending on location. For example, intracellular HSP70 (iHSP70) is anti-inflammatory whereas extracellular HSP70 (eHSP70) has a pro-inflammatory function, resulting in local and systemic inflammation. We have recently identified a divergence in the levels of eHSP70 and iHSP70 in subjects with diabetes compared with healthy subjects and also reported that eHSP70 was correlated with insulin resistance and pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction/death. In the present review, we describe possible mechanisms by which HSP70 participates in cell function/dysfunction, including the activation of NADPH oxidase isoforms leading to oxidative stress, focusing on the possible role of HSPs and signalling in pancreatic islet ?- and ?-cell physiological function in health and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25881670

Krause, Mauricio; Bock, Patricia Martins; Takahashi, Hilton Kenji; Homem De Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo; Newsholme, Philip

2015-06-01

255

Thrombin and NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated regulation of CD44 and BMP4-Id pathway in VSMC, restenosis, and atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

To characterize novel signaling pathways that underlie NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated signaling in atherosclerosis, we first examined differences in thrombin-induced gene expression between wild-type and p47phox(-/-) (NAD[P]H oxidase-deficient) VSMC. Of the 9000 genes analyzed by cDNA microarray method at the G1/S transition point, 76 genes were similarly and significantly modulated in both the cell types, whereas another 22 genes that encompass various functional groups were regulated in NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent manner. Among these 22 genes, thrombin-induced NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated regulation of Klf15, Igbp1, Ak4, Adamts5, Ech1, Serp1, Sec61a2, Aox1, Aoh1, Fxyd5, Rai14, and Serpinh1 was shown for the first time in VSMC. The role of NAD(P)H oxidase in the regulation of a subset of these genes (CD44, BMP4, Id1, and Id3) was confirmed using modulators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a ROS scavenger and in gain-of-function experiments. We then characterized regulation of these genes in restenosis and atherosclerosis. In both apoE(-/-) mice and in a mouse vascular injury model, these genes are regulated in NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent manner during vascular lesion formation. Based on these findings, we propose that NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent gene expression in general, and the CD44 and BMP4-Id signaling pathway in particular, is important in restenosis and atherosclerosis. PMID:16601225

Vendrov, Aleksandr E; Madamanchi, Nageswara R; Hakim, Zeenat S; Rojas, Mauricio; Runge, Marschall S

2006-05-26

256

Tanshinone IIA prevents the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and iNOS in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Tanshinone IIA is one of the major constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge known as Danshen. Recent reports have shown that Tanshinone IIA has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and traumatic injury of the spinal cord in rats. However, whether Tanshinone IIA has any neuroprotective effect in Parkinson's disease remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether Tanshinone IIA promotes the survival of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. MPTP induced degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons and microglial activation as visualized by tyrosine hydroxylase and CD11b immunoreactivity. The results of Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of NADPH oxidase and iNOS in the MPTP-treated substantia nigra pars compacta. Treatment with Tanshinone IIA prevented degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons and increased the level of striatal dopamine content. This neuroprotection afforded by Tanshinone IIA was associated with the suppression of microglial activation and reduced expression of NADPH oxidase and iNOS. The present findings show that Tanshinone IIA may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties and may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25491263

Ren, Bo; Zhang, Yu-xin; Zhou, Hong-xia; Sun, Fa-wei; Zhang, Zuo-feng; Wei, ZifFeng; Zhang, Cheng-yun; Si, Dao-wen

2015-01-15

257

P. gingivalis-Nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase Inhibits ATP-Induced Reactive-Oxygen-Species via P2X7 Receptor/NADPH-Oxidase Signaling and Contributes to Persistence  

PubMed Central

Summary Ligation of P2X7 receptors with a “danger signal”, extracellular ATP (eATP), has recently been shown to result in production of intracellular reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) in macrophages. We show that primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs) produce sustained, robust cellular ROS upon stimulation by eATP. The induction of ROS was mediated by P2X7 receptor signaling coupled with NADPH-oxidase activation, as determined by pharmacological inhibition and RNA-interference. Furthermore, Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral opportunistic pathogen, up-regulated the antioxidant glutathione response, modulated eATP-induced cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS generated the through P2X7/NADPH-oxidase interactome, and subsequently blocked oxidative-stress in GECs via temporal secretion of a P. gingivalis effector, nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase (Ndk). An ndk-deficient P. gingivalis mutant lacked the ability to inhibit ROS production and persist intracellularly following eATP stimulation. Treatment with recombinant Ndk significantly diminished eATP-evoked ROS production. P. gingivalis infection elicited a strong, time-dependent increase in anti-oxidative mitochondrial UCP2 levels, whereas ndk-deficient mutant did not cause any change. The results reveal a novel signaling cascade that is tightly coupled with eATP signaling and ROS regulation. Ndk by P. gingivalis counteracts these antimicrobial signaling activities by secreting Ndk, thus contributing to successful persistence of the pathogen. PMID:23241000

Choi, Chul Hee; Spooner, Ralee; DeGuzman, Jefferson; Koutouzis, Theofilos; Ojcius, David M.; Yilmaz, Özlem

2012-01-01

258

NADPH oxidase-2 inhibition restores contractility and intracellular calcium handling and reduces arrhythmogenicity in dystrophic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy may affect cardiac muscle, producing a dystrophic cardiomyopathy in humans and the mdx mouse. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress participates in disrupting calcium handling and contractility in the mdx mouse with established cardiomyopathy. We found increased expression (fivefold) of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 in the mdx hearts compared with wild type, along with increased superoxide production. Next, we tested the impact of NOX2 inhibition on contractility and calcium handling in isolated cardiomyocytes. Contractility was decreased in mdx myocytes compared with wild type, and this was restored toward normal by pretreating with apocynin. In addition, the amplitude of evoked intracellular Ca(2+) concentration transients that was diminished in mdx myocytes was also restored with NOX2 inhibition. Total sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content was reduced in mdx hearts and normalized by apocynin treatment. Additionally, NOX2 inhibition decreased the production of spontaneous diastolic calcium release events and decreased the SR calcium leak in mdx myocytes. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) synthase 1 (NOS-1) expression was increased eightfold in mdx hearts compared with wild type. Nevertheless, cardiac NO production was reduced. To test whether this paradox implied NOS-1 uncoupling, we treated cardiac myocytes with exogenous tetrahydrobioterin, along with the NOX inhibitor VAS2870. These agents restored NO production and phospholamban phosphorylation in mdx toward normal. Together, these results demonstrate that, in mdx hearts, NOX2 inhibition improves the SR calcium handling and contractility, partially by recoupling NOS-1. These findings reveal a new layer of nitroso-redox imbalance in dystrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25015966

Gonzalez, Daniel R; Treuer, Adriana V; Lamirault, Guillaume; Mayo, Vera; Cao, Yenong; Dulce, Raul A; Hare, Joshua M

2014-09-01

259

Loss of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide skews macrophage phenotypes to delay type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Macrophages are early islet-infiltrating cells seen in type 1 diabetes (T1D). While proinflammatory M1 macrophages induce T1D, M2 macrophages have been shown to delay this autoimmune disease in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the environmental cues that govern macrophage polarization and differentiation remain unresolved. We previously demonstrated the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in T1D, as NOD mice deficient in NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived superoxide (Ncf1(m1J)) were protected against T1D partly because of blunted Toll-like receptor-dependent macrophage responses. We provide evidence that NOX-derived ROS contribute to macrophage differentiation in T1D. During spontaneous diabetes progression, T1D-resistant NOD.Ncf1(m1J) islet-resident macrophages displayed a dampened M1 and increased M2 phenotype. The transfer of diabetogenic T cells into NOX-deficient NOD.Rag.Ncf1(m1J) recipients resulted in decreased TNF-?(+) and IL-1?(+) islet-infiltrating M1 macrophages and a concomitant enhancement in arginase-1(+) M2 macrophages. Mechanistic analysis of superoxide-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages revealed a marked diminution in a proinflammatory M1 phenotype due to decreased P-STAT1 (Y701) and interferon regulatory factor 5 compared with NOD mice. We have therefore defined a novel mechanistic link between NOX-derived ROS and macrophage phenotypes, and implicated superoxide as an important factor in macrophage differentiation. Thus, targeting macrophage redox status may represent a promising therapy in halting human T1D. PMID:25288672

Padgett, Lindsey E; Burg, Ashley R; Lei, Weiqi; Tse, Hubert M

2015-03-01

260

NADPH Oxidase-generated Hydrogen Peroxide Induces DNA Damage in Mutant FLT3-expressing Leukemia Cells.  

PubMed

Internal tandem duplication of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase (FLT3-ITD) receptor is present in 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and it has been associated with an aggressive AML phenotype. FLT3-ITD expressing cell lines have been shown to generate increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the molecular basis of how FLT3-ITD-driven ROS leads to the aggressive form of AML is not clearly understood. Our group has previously reported that inhibition of FLT3-ITD signaling results in post-translational down-regulation of p22(phox), a small membrane-bound subunit of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex. Here we demonstrated that 32D cells, a myeloblast-like cell line transfected with FLT3-ITD, have a higher protein level of p22(phox) and p22(phox)-interacting NOX isoforms than 32D cells transfected with the wild type FLT3 receptor (FLT3-WT). The inhibition of NOX proteins, p22(phox), and NOX protein knockdowns caused a reduction in ROS, as measured with a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-specific dye, peroxy orange 1 (PO1), and nuclear H2O2, as measured with nuclear peroxy emerald 1 (NucPE1). These reductions in the level of H2O2 following the NOX knockdowns were accompanied by a decrease in the number of DNA DSBs. We showed that 32D cells that express FLT3-ITD have a higher level of both oxidized DNA and DNA DSBs than their wild type counterparts. We also observed that NOX4 and p22(phox) localize to the nuclear membrane in MV4-11 cells expressing FLT3-ITD. Taken together these data indicate that NOX and p22(phox) mediate the ROS production from FLT3-ITD that signal to the nucleus causing genomic instability. PMID:25697362

Stanicka, Joanna; Russell, Eileen G; Woolley, John F; Cotter, Thomas G

2015-04-10

261

A morphometric study of the progressive changes on NADPH diaphorase activity in the developing rat's barrel field.  

PubMed

The distribution of NADPH diaphorase (NADPH-d)/nitric oxide synthase (NOS) neurons was evaluated during the postnatal development of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of the rat. Both cell counts and area measurements of barrel fields were carried out throughout cortical maturation. In addition, NADPH-d and cytochrome oxidase (CO) activities were also compared in both coronal and tangential sections of rat SI between postnatal days (P) 10 and 90. Throughout this period, the neuropil distributions of both enzymes presented a remarkable similarity and have not changed noticeably. Their distribution pattern show the PMBSF as a two-compartmented structure, displaying a highly reactive region (barrel hollows) flanked by less reactive regions (barrel septa). The number of NADPH-d neurons increased significantly in the barrel fields between P10 and P23, with peak at P23. The dendritic arborization of NADPH-d neurons became more elaborated during barrel development. In all ages evaluated, the number of NADPH-d cells was always higher in septa than in the barrel hollows. Both high neuropil reactivity and differential distribution of NADPH-d neurons during SI development suggest a role for nitric oxide throughout barrel field maturation. PMID:15288499

Freire, Marco Aurélio M; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Carvalho, Walther A; Guimarăes, Joanilson S; Franca, Joăo G; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W; Pereira, Antonio

2004-09-01

262

Expression and functional significance of NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) and its splice variants in human blood vessels  

PubMed Central

The expression and functional significance of NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) and its five isoforms in vascular cells is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine whether Nox5-?, -?, -?, -?, and -? (short) are expressed in human blood vessels and evaluate their respective functions. Nox5 mRNA and protein were detected in human blood vessels, cultured human vascular smooth muscle (HVSMC) and endothelium, but not fibroblasts. The most abundant isoforms were ? and ?, whereas ? and ? were not detected. Nox5-? and -? produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), but -?, -?, and -? were not catalytically active. Coexpression of the active Nox5 isoforms with inactive Nox5 variants suppressed ROS production, and coimmunoprecipitation revealed that Nox5-? binds the inactive ? variant, which may account for reduced ROS production. In HVSMC, angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and TNF-? increased endogenous Nox5 mRNA levels, while adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nox5 promoted p38 MAPK, JAK2, JNK, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells (EC), but only increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HVSMC. At higher levels of Nox5, there was evidence of increased apoptosis in EC, but not in HVSMC, as detected by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. Although catalytically inactive, Nox5-? potently activated ERK in HVSMC, and increased expression of Nox5-? promoted HVSMC proliferation. Nox5 is expressed in human blood vessels. The Nox5-? and -? splice variants are the major isoforms that are expressed and the only variants capable of ROS production. Nox5-? can inhibit Nox5 activity and activate ERK and HVSMC proliferation. PMID:22427510

Pandey, Deepesh; Patel, Anand; Patel, Vijay; Chen, Feng; Qian, Jin; Wang, Yusi; Barman, Scott A.; Venema, Richard C.; Stepp, David W.; Daniel Rudic, R.

2012-01-01

263

Expression and functional significance of NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) and its splice variants in human blood vessels.  

PubMed

The expression and functional significance of NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) and its five isoforms in vascular cells is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine whether Nox5-?, -?, -?, -?, and -? (short) are expressed in human blood vessels and evaluate their respective functions. Nox5 mRNA and protein were detected in human blood vessels, cultured human vascular smooth muscle (HVSMC) and endothelium, but not fibroblasts. The most abundant isoforms were ? and ?, whereas ? and ? were not detected. Nox5-? and -? produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), but -?, -?, and -? were not catalytically active. Coexpression of the active Nox5 isoforms with inactive Nox5 variants suppressed ROS production, and coimmunoprecipitation revealed that Nox5-? binds the inactive ? variant, which may account for reduced ROS production. In HVSMC, angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and TNF-? increased endogenous Nox5 mRNA levels, while adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nox5 promoted p38 MAPK, JAK2, JNK, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells (EC), but only increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HVSMC. At higher levels of Nox5, there was evidence of increased apoptosis in EC, but not in HVSMC, as detected by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. Although catalytically inactive, Nox5-? potently activated ERK in HVSMC, and increased expression of Nox5-? promoted HVSMC proliferation. Nox5 is expressed in human blood vessels. The Nox5-? and -? splice variants are the major isoforms that are expressed and the only variants capable of ROS production. Nox5-? can inhibit Nox5 activity and activate ERK and HVSMC proliferation. PMID:22427510

Pandey, Deepesh; Patel, Anand; Patel, Vijay; Chen, Feng; Qian, Jin; Wang, Yusi; Barman, Scott A; Venema, Richard C; Stepp, David W; Rudic, R Daniel; Fulton, David J R

2012-05-15

264

NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

Eum, Sung Yong [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)], E-mail: sungyong.eum@uky.edu; Andras, Ibolya [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

2009-10-15

265

Application of a novel thermostable NAD(P)H oxidase from hyperthermophilic archaeon for the regeneration of both NAD? and NADP?.  

PubMed

A novel thermostable NAD(P)H oxidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkNOX) catalyzes oxidation of NADH and NADPH with oxygen from atmospheric air as an electron acceptor. Although the optimal temperature of TkNOX is >90°C, it also shows activity at 30°C. This enzyme was used for the regeneration of both NADP(+) and NAD(+) in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of racemic 1-phenylethanol. NADP(+) regeneration at 30°C was performed by TkNOX coupled with (R)-specific ADH from Lactobacillus kefir, resulting in successful acquisition of optically pure (S)-1-phenylethanol. The use of TkNOX with moderately thermostable (S)-specific ADH from Rhodococcus erythropolis enabled us to operate the enantioselective bioconversion accompanying NAD(+) regeneration at high temperatures. Optically pure (R)-1-phenylethanol was successfully obtained by this system after a shorter reaction time at 45-60°C than that at 30°C, demonstrating an advantage of the combination of thermostable enzymes. The ability of TkNOX to oxidize both NADH and NADPH with remarkable thermostability renders this enzyme a versatile tool for regeneration of the oxidized nicotinamide cofactors without the need for extra substrates other than dissolved oxygen from air. PMID:21830202

Wu, Xi; Kobori, Hiroki; Orita, Izumi; Zhang, Chong; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Xing, Xin-Hui; Fukui, Toshiaki

2012-01-01

266

Angiotensin II and NADPH oxidase increase ADMA in vascular smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Asymmetrical dimethylarginine inhibits nitric oxide synthase, cationic amino acid transport, and endothelial function. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors often have endothelial dysfunction associated with increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine and markers of reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species, generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, enhance cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Incubation of rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells with angiotensin II doubled the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase but decreased the activities of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase by 35% and of cationic amino acid transport by 20% and doubled cellular (but not medium) asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations (P<0.01). This was blocked by tempol or candesartan. Cells stably transfected with p22(phox) had a 50% decreased protein expression and activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase despite increased promoter activity and mRNA. The decreased DDAH protein expression and the increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentration in p22(phox)-transfected cells were prevented by proteosomal inhibition. These cells had enhanced protein arginine methylation, a 2-fold increased expression of protein arginine methyltransferase-3 (P<0.05) and a 30% reduction in cationic amino acid transport activity (P<0.05). Asymmetrical dimethylarginine was increased from 6+/-1 to 16+/-3 micromol/L (P<0.005) in p22(phox)-transfected cells. Thus, angiotensin II increased cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine via type 1 receptors and reactive oxygen species. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase increased cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine by increasing enzymes that generate it, enhancing the degradation of enzymes that metabolize it, and reducing its cellular transport. This could underlie increases in cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine during oxidative stress. PMID:20696982

Luo, Zaiming; Teerlink, Tom; Griendling, Kathy; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

2010-09-01

267

Inhibition of NADPH oxidase protects against metastasis of human lung cancer by decreasing microRNA-21.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to detect the effect of NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition on metastasis of lung cancer. Primary human lung cancer cells were isolated from surgical tissues using the Cancer Cell Isolation Kit. Invasion was detected using the BD Biocoat Matrigel Invasion Chamber assay. Expressions of microRNA-21 (miR-21), PTEN, MMP9, and p47 were detected by qPCR. Groups of nude mice were challenged with A549 cells with or without DPI and detected for tumor metastasis and survival. NOX inhibition in human lung cancer cells significantly reduced their invasive potential in vitro. NOX inhibition in vivo led to decreased metastasis of human lung cancer and prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing nude mice. Further, NOX inhibition resulted in decreased expression of miR-21 in human lung cancer cells. Increased expression of miR-21 abrogated the effect of NOX inhibitor on metastasis of human lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Decreased expression of miR-21 facilitated the effect of NOX inhibitor on metastasis of human lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, increased expression of PTEN and decreased expression of MMP9 were observed in human lung cancer cells in response to NOX inhibition. Finally, close correlations of miR-21 expression levels with NADPH oxidase expression level and differentiation state of tumor cells were observed in lung cancer patients. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase protected against metastasis of human lung cancer cells by decreasing miR-21 expression, which could facilitate the understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and provided clues for the development of novel therapeutics for lung cancer patients. PMID:25563770

Yan, Song; Liu, Gang; Pei, Changyan; Chen, Wenqing; Li, Pei; Wang, Qiang; Jin, Xintian; Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Mengzhu; Liu, Xiyu

2015-04-01

268

Inhibitory Action of NoxA1 on Dual Oxidase Activity in Airway Cells*S?  

PubMed Central

Imbalance between pro- and antioxidant mechanisms in the lungs can compromise pulmonary functions, including blood oxygenation, host defense, and maintenance of an anti-inflammatory environment. Thus, tight regulatory control of reactive oxygen species is critical for proper lung function. Increasing evidence supports a role for the NADPH oxidase dual oxidase (Duox) as an important source for regulated H2O2 production in the respiratory tract epithelium. In this study Duox expression, function, and regulation were investigated in a fully differentiated, mucociliary airway epithelium model. Duox-mediated H2O2 generation was dependent on calcium flux, which was required for dissociation of the NADPH oxidase regulatory protein Noxa1 from plasma membrane-bound Duox. A functional Duox1-based oxidase was reconstituted in model cell lines to permit mutational analysis of Noxa1 and Duox1. Although the activation domain of Noxa1 was not required for Duox function, mutation of a proline-rich domain in the Duox C terminus, a potential interaction motif for the Noxa1 Src homology domain 3, caused up-regulation of basal and stimulated H2O2 production. Similarly, knockdown of Noxa1 in airway cells increased basal H2O2 generation. Our data indicate a novel, inhibitory function for Noxa1 in Duox regulation. This represents a new paradigm for control of NADPH oxidase activity, where second messenger-promoted conformational change of the Nox structure promotes oxidase activation by relieving constraint induced by regulatory components. PMID:18606821

Pacquelet, Sandrine; Lehmann, Mandy; Luxen, Sylvia; Regazzoni, Karine; Frausto, Monika; Noack, Deborah; Knaus, Ulla G.

2008-01-01

269

A novel role of microglial NADPH oxidase in mediating extra-synaptic function of norepinephrine in regulating brain immune homeostasis.  

PubMed

Although the peripheral anti-inflammatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) is well documented, the mechanism by which this neurotransmitter functions as an anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system (CNS) is unclear. This article aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of NE in inflammation-based dopaminergic neurotoxicity models. In mice, NE-depleting toxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) was injected at 6 months of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. It was found that NE depletion enhanced LPS-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. This piece of in vivo data prompted us to conduct a series of studies in an effort to elucidate the mechanism as to how NE affects dopamine neuron survival by using primary midbrain neuron/glia cultures. Results showed that submicromolar concentrations of NE dose-dependently protected dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. However, NE-elicited neuroprotection was not totally abolished in cultures from ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR)-deficient mice, suggesting that novel pathways other than ?2-AR are involved. To this end, It was found that submicromolar NE dose-dependently inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX2)-generated superoxide, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of NE. This novel mechanism was indeed adrenergic receptors independent since both (+) and (-) optic isomers of NE displayed the same potency. We further demonstrated that NE inhibited LPS-induced NOX2 activation by blocking the translocation of its cytosolic subunit to plasma membranes. In summary, we revealed a potential physiological role of NE in maintaining brain immune homeostasis and protecting neurons via a novel mechanism. GLIA 2015;63:1057-1072. PMID:25740080

Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shi-Jun; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Sanders, Virginia; Xie, Keqin; Wang, Qingshan; Hong, Jau-Shyong

2015-06-01

270

Sinomenine, a natural dextrorotatory morphinan analog, is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective through inhibition of microglial NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of inflammation resulting in dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD) are complex and incompletely understood. Microglia-mediated inflammation has recently been implicated as a critical mechanism responsible for progressive neurodegeneration. Methods Mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of sinomenine (SN)-mediated anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in both the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-mediated models of PD. Results SN showed equivalent efficacy in protecting against DA neuron death in rat midbrain neuron-glial cultures at both micro- and sub-picomolar concentrations, but no protection was seen at nanomolar concentrations. The neuroprotective effect of SN was attributed to inhibition of microglial activation, since SN significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by microglia. In addition, from the therapeutic point of view, we focused on sub-picomolar concentration of SN for further mechanistic studies. We found that 10-14 M of SN failed to protect DA neurons against MPP+-induced toxicity in the absence of microglia. More importantly, SN failed to show a protective effect in neuron-glia cultures from mice lacking functional NADPH oxidase (PHOX), a key enzyme for extracellular superoxide production in immune cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SN reduced LPS-induced extracellular ROS production through the inhibition of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47phoxtranslocation to the cell membrane. Conclusion Our findings strongly suggest that the protective effects of SN are most likely mediated through the inhibition of microglial PHOX activity. These findings suggest a novel therapy to treat inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17880684

Qian, Li; Xu, Zongli; Zhang, Wei; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

2007-01-01

271

Molecular Mechanisms of the Crosstalk Between Mitochondria and NADPH Oxidase Through Reactive Oxygen Species—Studies in White Blood Cells and in Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. There is a growing body of evidence for a crosstalk between different enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. With the present study, we sought to determine the underlying crosstalk mechanisms, the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and its link to endothelial dysfunction. Results: NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation (oxidative burst and translocation of cytosolic Nox subunits) was observed in response to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) formation in human leukocytes. In vitro, mtROS-induced Nox activation was prevented by inhibitors of the mPTP, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase cSrc, Nox itself, or an intracellular calcium chelator and was absent in leukocytes with p47phox deficiency (regulates Nox2) or with cyclophilin D deficiency (regulates mPTP). In contrast, the crosstalk in leukocytes was amplified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (type 2) (MnSOD+/?) deficiency. In vivo, increases in blood pressure, degree of endothelial dysfunction, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysregulation/uncoupling (e.g., eNOS S-glutathionylation) or Nox activity, p47phox phosphorylation in response to angiotensin-II (AT-II) in vivo treatment, or the aging process were more pronounced in MnSOD+/? mice as compared with untreated controls and improved by mPTP inhibition by cyclophilin D deficiency or sanglifehrin A therapy. Innovation: These results provide new mechanistic insights into what extent mtROS trigger Nox activation in phagocytes and cardiovascular tissue, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions: Our data show that mtROS trigger the activation of phagocytic and cardiovascular NADPH oxidases, which may have fundamental implications for immune cell activation and development of AT-II-induced hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 247–266. PMID:23845067

Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Steven, Sebastian; Kossmann, Sabine; Scholz, Alexander; Daub, Steffen; Oelze, Matthias; Xia, Ning; Hausding, Michael; Mikhed, Yuliya; Zinßius, Elena; Mader, Michael; Stamm, Paul; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Li, Huige; Schulz, Eberhard; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas

2014-01-01

272

Genetic targeting or pharmacologic inhibition of NADPH oxidase nox4 provides renoprotection in long-term diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy may occur, in part, as a result of intrarenal oxidative stress. NADPH oxidases comprise the only known dedicated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-forming enzyme family. In the rodent kidney, three isoforms of the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase are expressed (Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4). Here we show that Nox4 is the main source of renal ROS in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy induced by streptozotocin administration in ApoE(-/-) mice. Deletion of Nox4, but not of Nox1, resulted in renal protection from glomerular injury as evidenced by attenuated albuminuria, preserved structure, reduced glomerular accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, attenuated glomerular macrophage infiltration, and reduced renal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and NF-?B in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice. Importantly, administration of the most specific Nox1/4 inhibitor, GKT137831, replicated these renoprotective effects of Nox4 deletion. In human podocytes, silencing of the Nox4 gene resulted in reduced production of ROS and downregulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic markers that are implicated in diabetic nephropathy. Collectively, these results identify Nox4 as a key source of ROS responsible for kidney injury in diabetes and provide proof of principle for an innovative small molecule approach to treat and/or prevent chronic kidney failure. PMID:24511132

Jha, Jay C; Gray, Stephen P; Barit, David; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam; Namikoshi, Tamehachi; Thallas-Bonke, Vicki; Wingler, Kirstin; Szyndralewiez, Cedric; Heitz, Freddy; Touyz, Rhian M; Cooper, Mark E; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A

2014-06-01

273

NADPH oxidase and eNOS control cardiomyogenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells on ascorbic acid treatment.  

PubMed

Ascorbic acid (AA) increases cardiomyogenesis of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Herein we show that treatment of mouse ES cells with AA enhanced cardiac differentiation accompanied by an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase isoforms NOX2 and NOX4, phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and cyclic GMP (cGMP) formation, indicating that reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as nitric oxide (NO) may be involved in cardiomyogenesis. In whole mount embryoid bodies as well as isolated Flk-1-positive (Flk-1(+)) cardiovascular progenitor cells ROS elevation by AA was observed in early stages of differentiation (Days 4-7), and absent at Day 10. In contrast NO generation following incubation with AA was absent at Day 4 and increased at Days 7 and 10. AA-mediated cardiomyogenesis was blunted by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors diphenylen iodonium (DPI) and apocynin, the free radical scavengers N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (NMPG) and ebselen, and the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. Downregulation of NOX4 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in significant inhibition of cardiomyogenesis and abolished the stimulation of MHC-ß and MLC2v gene expression observed on AA treatment. Our data demonstrate that AA stimulates cardiomyocyte differentiation from ES cells by signaling pathways that involve ROS generated at early stages and NO at late stages of cardiomyogenesis. PMID:21570463

Bartsch, Caroline; Bekhite, Mohamed M; Wolheim, Anne; Richter, Madeleine; Ruhe, Carola; Wissuwa, Bianka; Marciniak, Anja; Müller, Jörg; Heller, Regine; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Sauer, Heinrich; Wartenberg, Maria

2011-07-15

274

Role of Putative Second Transmembrane Region of Nox2 Protein in the Structural Stability and Electron Transfer of the Phagocytic NADPH Oxidase*  

PubMed Central

Flavocytochrome b558 (cytb) of phagocytes is a heterodimeric integral membrane protein composed of two subunits, p22phox and gp91phox. The latter subunit, also known as Nox2, has a cytosolic C-terminal “dehydrogenase domain” containing FAD/NADPH-binding sites. The N-terminal half of Nox2 contains six predicted transmembrane ?-helices coordinating two hemes. We studied the role of the second transmembrane ?-helix, which contains a “hot spot” for mutations found in rare X+ and X? chronic granulomatous disease. By site-directed mutagenesis and transfection in X-CGD PLB-985 cells, we examined the functional and structural impact of seven missense mutations affecting five residues. P56L and C59F mutations drastically influence the level of Nox2 expression indicating that these residues are important for the structural stability of Nox2. A53D, R54G, R54M, and R54S mutations do not affect spectral properties of oxidized/reduced cytb, oxidase complex assembly, FAD binding, nor iodonitrotetrazolium (INT) reductase (diaphorase) activity but inhibit superoxide production. This suggests that Ala-53 and Arg-54 are essential in control of electron transfer from FAD. Surprisingly, the A57E mutation partially inhibits FAD binding, diaphorase activity, and oxidase assembly and affects the affinity of immunopurified A57E cytochrome b558 for p67phox. By competition experiments, we demonstrated that the second transmembrane helix impacts on the function of the first intracytosolic B-loop in the control of diaphorase activity of Nox2. Finally, by comparing INT reductase activity of immunopurified mutated and wild type cytb under aerobiosis versus anaerobiosis, we showed that INT reduction reflects the electron transfer from NADPH to FAD only in the absence of superoxide production. PMID:21659519

Picciocchi, Antoine; Debeurme, Franck; Beaumel, Sylvain; Dagher, Marie-Claire; Grunwald, Didier; Jesaitis, Algirdas J.; Stasia, Marie-José

2011-01-01

275

NADPH-oxidase-driven oxygen radical production determines chondrocyte death and partly regulates metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage matrix degradation during interferon-?-stimulated immune complex arthritis  

PubMed Central

In previous studies we have found that Fc?RI determines chondrocyte death and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated cartilage destruction during IFN-?-regulated immune complex arthritis (ICA). Binding of immune complexes (ICs) to Fc?RI leads to the prominent production of oxygen radicals. In the present study we investigated the contribution of NADPH-oxidase-driven oxygen radicals to cartilage destruction by using p47phox-/- mice lacking a functional NADPH oxidase complex. Induction of a passive ICA in the knee joints of p47phox-/- mice resulted in a significant elevation of joint inflammation at day 3 when compared with wild-type (WT) controls as studied by histology. However, when IFN-? was overexpressed by injection of adenoviral IFN-? in the knee joint before ICA induction, a similar influx of inflammatory cells was found at days 3 and 7, comprising mainly macrophages in both mouse strains. Proteoglycan depletion from the cartilage layers of the knee joints in both groups was similar at days 3 and 7. Aggrecan breakdown in cartilage caused by MMPs was further studied by immunolocalisation of MMP-mediated neoepitopes (VDIPEN). VDIPEN expression in the cartilage layers of arthritic knee joints was markedly lower (between 30 and 60%) in IFN-?-stimulated arthritic p47phox-/- mice at day 7 than in WT controls, despite significant upregulation of mRNA levels of various MMPs such as MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-12 and MMP-13 in synovia and MMP-13 in cartilage layers as measured with quantitative RT-PCR. The latter observation suggests that oxygen radicals are involved in the activation of latent MMPs. Chondrocyte death, determined as the percentage of empty lacunae in articular cartilage, ranged between 20 and 60% at day 3 and between 30 and 80% at day 7 in WT mice, and was completely blocked in p47phox-/- mice at both time points. Fc?RI mRNA expression was significantly lower, and Fc?RII and Fc?RIII were higher, in p47phox-/- mice than in controls. NADPH-oxidase-driven oxygen radical production determines chondrocyte death and aggravates MMP-mediated cartilage destruction during IFN-?-stimulated IC-mediated arthritis. Upregulation of Fc?RI by oxygen radicals may contribute to cartilage destruction. PMID:15987491

van Lent, Peter LEM; Nabbe, Karin CAM; Blom, Arjen B; Sloetjes, Annet; Holthuysen, Astrid EM; Kolls, Jay; Van De Loo, Fons AJ; Holland, Steven M; Van Den Berg, Wim B

2005-01-01

276

Oxidase Activity of a Flavin-Dependent Thymidylate Synthase  

PubMed Central

Summary Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthases (FDTSs) catalyze the production of 2?-deoxythymidine-5?-monophosphate (dTMP) from 2?-deoxyuridine-5?-monophosphate (dUMP) and N5, N10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (CH2H4folate). In contrast to human and other classical thymidylate synthases, the activity of FDTS depends on a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) coenzyme, and its catalytic mechanism is very different. Several human pathogens rely on this recently discovered enzyme, making it an attractive target for novel antibiotics. Like many other flavoenzymes, FDTS can function as an oxidase, which catalyzes the reduction of oxygen (O2) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2?-phosphate (NADPH) or other reducing agents. In the present study we exploit the oxidase activity of FDTS from Thermatoga maritima to probe the binding and release features of the substrates and products during its synthase activity. The results from both steady state and single turnover experiments suggest a sequential kinetic mechanism of substrate binding during FDTS oxidase activity. CH2H4folate competitively inhibits the oxidase activity, which indicates that CH2H4folate and O2 compete for the same reduced and dUMP-activated enzymatic complex (FDTS-FADH2-NADP+-dUMP). These studies imply that the binding of CH2H4folate precedes NADP+ release during FDTS synthase activity. The inhibition constant of CH2H4folate towards the oxidase activity was determined to be rather small (2 ?M), which indicates a tight binding of CH2H4folate to the FDTS-FADH2-NADP+-dUMP complex. PMID:19459936

Wang, Zhen; Chernyshev, Anatoly; Koehn, Eric M.; Manuel, Antonio; Lesley, Scott A.; Kohen, Amnon

2009-01-01

277

Transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, by nuclear factor-{kappa}B in human aortic smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Inflammation-induced changes in the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) play a key role in atherogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation are scantily elucidated. Since nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) controls the expression of many genes associated to inflammation-related diseases, in this study we have investigated the role of NF-{kappa}B signaling in the regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 transcription in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cultured cells were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}), a potent inducer of both Nox and NF-{kappa}B, up to 24 h. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dichlorofluorescein assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis showed that inhibition of NF-{kappa}B pathway reduced significantly the TNF{alpha}-dependent up-regulation of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species production, Nox1 and Nox4 expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical NF-{kappa}B elements in the promoters of Nox1 and Nox4. Transient overexpression of p65/NF-{kappa}B significantly increased the promoter activities of both isoforms. Physical interaction of p65/NF-{kappa}B proteins with the predicted sites was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These findings demonstrate that NF-{kappa}B is an essential regulator of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase in SMCs. Elucidation of the complex relationships between NF-{kappa}B and Nox enzymes may lead to a novel pharmacological strategy to reduce both inflammation and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and its associated complications.

Manea, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.manea@icbp.ro [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology 'Nicolae Simionescu', 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania)] [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology 'Nicolae Simionescu', 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania); Tanase, Laurentia I.; Raicu, Monica; Simionescu, Maya [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology 'Nicolae Simionescu', 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania)] [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology 'Nicolae Simionescu', 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania)

2010-06-11

278

NAD(P)H oxidase and pro-inflammatory response during maximal exercise: role of C242T polymorphism of the P22PHOX subunit.  

PubMed

Intense exercise induces a pro-inflammatory status through a mechanism involving the NAD(P)H oxidase system. We focused our attention on p22phox, a subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase, and on its allelic polymorphism C242T, which is known to affect the functional activity of the enzyme. We investigated whether the p22phox C242T variants exhibit systemic effects in healthy subjects by analyzing the proinflammatory and cardiocirculatory responses to physical exercise in endurance athletes. The group of study consisted of 97 long distance runners, 37 +/- 4.4 yrs of age, with similar training history. The subjects underwent a maximal stress test during which both inflammatory and cardiopulmonary parameters were monitored. Our results demonstrate that T allele deeply influences the neutrophil activation in response to intense exercise, since T carriers were characterized by significantly lower release of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a classical leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory cytokine. In addition, the presence of T allele was associated with a higher cardiopulmonary efficiency as evidenced by a significantly lower Heart Rate (HR) at the peak of exercise and, when a dominant model was assumed, by a higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). On the other hand, no effects of 242T mutation on the plasmatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and on the cortisol responses to the physical exercise were detected. In conclusion, our data support a systemic role for p22phox C242T polymorphism that, modifying the intensity of the inflammatory response, can influence the cardiovascular adaptations elicited by aerobic training. These results contribute to support the hypothesis of a systemic effect for the C242T polymorphism and of its possible functional rebound in healthy subjects. PMID:20378006

Izzicupo, P; Di Valerio, V; D' Amico, M A; Di Mauro, M; Pennelli, A; Falone, S; Alberti, G; Amicarelli, F; Miscia, S; Gallina, S; Di Baldassarre, A

2010-01-01

279

Lupus-associated causal mutation in neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) brings unique insights to the structure and function of NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease, is a debilitating multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and extensive immune dysregulation in multiple organ systems, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we present a multidisciplinary approach resulting in the identification of neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) as an important risk factor for SLE and the detailed characterization of its causal variant. We show that NCF2 is strongly associated with increased SLE risk in two independent populations: childhood-onset SLE and adult-onset SLE. The association between NCF2 and SLE can be attributed to a single nonsynonymous coding mutation in exon 12, the effect of which is the substitution of histidine-389 with glutamine (H389Q) in the PB1 domain of the NCF2 protein, with glutamine being the risk allele. Computational modeling suggests that the NCF2 H389Q mutation reduces the binding efficiency of NCF2 with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1. The model predicts that NCF2/H389 residue interacts with Vav1 residues E509, N510, E556, and G559 in the ZF domain of Vav1. Furthermore, replacing H389 with Q results in 1.5 kcal/mol weaker binding. To examine the effect of the NCF2 H389Q mutation on NADPH oxidase function, site-specific mutations at the 389 position in NCF2 were tested. Results show that an H389Q mutation causes a twofold decrease in reactive oxygen species production induced by the activation of the Vav-dependent Fc? receptor-elicited NADPH oxidase activity. Our study completes the chain of evidence from genetic association to specific molecular function. PMID:22203994

Jacob, Chaim O; Eisenstein, Miriam; Dinauer, Mary C; Ming, Wenyu; Liu, Qiang; John, Sutha; Quismorio, Francesco P; Reiff, Andreas; Myones, Barry L; Kaufman, Kenneth M; McCurdy, Deborah; Harley, John B; Silverman, Earl; Kimberly, Robert P; Vyse, Timothy J; Gaffney, Patrick M; Moser, Kathy L; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Langefeld, Carl D; Armstrong, Don L; Zidovetzki, Raphael

2012-01-10

280

MS# THORAX/2009/113456 Re re revised NOX4/NADPH oxidase expression is increased in pulmonary fibroblasts from patients with  

E-print Network

in pulmonary fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and mediates TGF- 1-induced NOX4/NADPH oxidase in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis inserm-00515220,version1-6Sep2010 Author to the development of fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Transforming growth factor-Ă?1 (TGF-Ă?1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Glycated albumin triggers fibrosis and apoptosis via an NADPH oxidase/Nox4-MAPK pathway-dependent mechanism in renal proximal tubular cells.  

PubMed

Glycated albumin (GA), an Amadori product used as a marker of hyperglycemia and the early-stage glycation products compared to AGEs, might further promote kidney lesions in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanisms how GA cause proximal tubular cells damage remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of GA on fibrosis and apoptosis of renal proximal tubular cells (NRK-52E) in vitro experiments. Our results showed that GA promoted ?-SMA, fibronectin (FN) and TGF-? expressions in NRK-52E cells. GA also increased cell apoptosis and stimulated the expressions of pro-caspase 3/cleaved-caspase 3. GA overloading enhanced the phosphorylation of MAPK pathway. GA-induced ?-SMA, FN, TGF-? and caspase 3 expressions were completely suppressed by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (Apo), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the latent antioxidant Astragaloside IV (AS-IV). Real-time PCR showed that GA increased Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 mRNA expressions, especially the Nox4 expression. Furthermore, Nox4 siRNA blocked GA-induced tubular damages and the MAPK pathway activation. These results demonstrate that GA increases the permissiveness of proximal tubular cells to fibrosis and apoptosis in vitro by triggering a pathway that involves NADPH oxidase/Nox4-MAPK signaling pathway. This event may represent a key cellular effect in increasing the susceptibility of tubular cells to fibrosis and apoptosis when the tubules cope with a high GA load. This effect is instrumental to renal damage and disease progression in patients with DN. PMID:25681565

Qi, Weiwei; Niu, Jianying; Qin, Qiaojing; Qiao, Zhongdong; Gu, Yong

2015-04-15

282

An essential role of NAD(P)H oxidase 2 in UVA-induced calcium oscillations in mast cells.  

PubMed

Solar UVA radiation (320-400 nm) is known to have immunomodulatory effects, but the detailed mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. UVA irradiation has been shown to induce calcium oscillations in rat peritoneal mast cells due to NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activation, but the specific NOX isoforms have not been identified. In the present work effects of UVA irradiation were investigated in isolated rat peritoneal mast cells, in cultured rat mast cell line RBL-2H3, and in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). It was found that UVA irradiation by alternate 340/380 nm (3.2-5.6 ?W cm(-2)) or by LED (380 nm, 80 ?W cm(-2)) induced calcium oscillations in isolated rat peritoneal mast cells, in RBL-2H3, and in BMMC. Such UVA-induced calcium oscillations resembled closely those induced by surface IgE receptor (Fc?RI) activation. It was found that RBL-2H3 expressed high levels of gp91(phox) (NOX2), p22(phox), p67(phox), p47(phox), p40(phox), Rac1, Rac2, moderate levels of DUOX2, but did not express NOX1, NOX3, NOX4, or DUOX1. The specific cellular localizations of gp91(phox) (NOX2), p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox) and Rac1/2 were confirmed by immunocytochemistry. UVA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RBL-2H3 was completely suppressed by the NOX inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or by the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). siRNA suppression of gp91(phox) (NOX2), p22(phox) and p47(phox) expression inhibited markedly UVA-induced calcium oscillations, ROS and IL-6/LTC4 production in RBL-2H3. Taken together these data indicate that NOX2 plays an essential role in UVA irradiation-induced calcium oscillations, ROS and mediator production in mast cells. PMID:25460548

Li, Zhi Ying; Jiang, Wen Yi; Cui, Zong Jie

2015-02-01

283

NADPH oxidase mediates synergistic effects of IL-17 and TNF-? on CXCL1 expression by epithelial cells after lung ischemia-reperfusion  

PubMed Central

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to increased mortality and morbidity in lung transplant patients. Lung I/R injury involves inflammation contributed by innate immune responses. IL-17 and TNF-?, from iNKT cells and alveolar macrophages, respectively, contribute importantly to lung I/R injury. This study tests the hypothesis that IL-17 and TNF-? synergistically mediate CXCL1 (a potent neutrophil chemokine) production by alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cells via an NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism during lung I/R. Using a hilar clamp model, wild-type and p47phox?/? (NADPH oxidase-deficient) mice underwent left lung I/R, with or without recombinant IL-17 and/or TNF-? treatment. Wild-type mice undergoing I/R treated with combined IL-17 and TNF-? had significantly enhanced lung dysfunction, edema, CXCL1 production, and neutrophil infiltration compared with treatment with IL-17 or TNF-? alone. However, p47phox?/? mice had significantly less pulmonary dysfunction, CXCL1 production, and lung injury after I/R that was not enhanced by combined IL-17-TNF-? treatment. Moreover, in an acute in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation model, murine ATII cells showed a multifold synergistic increase in CXCL1 expression after combined IL-17-TNF-? treatment compared with treatment with either cytokine alone, which was significantly attenuated by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Conditioned media transfer from hypoxia-reoxygenation-exposed iNKT cells and macrophages, major sources of IL-17 and TNF-?, respectively, to ATII cells significantly enhanced CXCL1 production, which was blocked by NADPH oxidase inhibitor. These results demonstrate that IL-17 and TNF-? synergistically mediate CXCL1 production by ATII cells after I/R, via an NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism, to induce neutrophil infiltration and lung I/R injury. PMID:24186876

Sharma, Ashish K.; Mulloy, Daniel P.; Le, Lamvy T.

2013-01-01

284

Increased accumulation of neutrophils and decreased fibrosis in the lung of NADPH oxidase-deficient C57BL/6 mice exposed to carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have been introduced into a large number of new technologies and consumer products. The combination of their exceptional features with very broad applications raised concerns regarding their potential health effects. The prime target for SWCNT toxicity is believed to be the lung where exposure may occur through inhalation, particularly in occupational settings. Our previous work has demonstrated that SWCNT cause robust inflammatory responses in rodents with very early termination of the acute phase and rapid onset of chronic fibrosis. Timely elimination of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) through apoptosis and their subsequent clearance by macrophages is a necessary stage in the resolution of pulmonary inflammation whereby NADPH oxidase contributes to control of apoptotic cell death and clearance of PMNs. Thus, we hypothesized that NADPH oxidase may be an important regulator of the transition from the acute inflammation to the chronic fibrotic stage in response to SWCNT. To experimentally address the hypothesis, we employed NADPH oxidase-deficient mice which lack the gp91{sup phox} subunit of the enzymatic complex. We found that NADPH oxidase null mice responded to SWCNT exposure with a marked accumulation of PMNs and elevated levels of apoptotic cells in the lungs, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased production of the anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokine, TGF-{beta}, and significantly lower levels of collagen deposition, as compared to C57BL/6 control mice. These results demonstrate a role for NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in determining course of pulmonary response to SWCNT.

Shvedova, A.A. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Physiology and Pharmacology Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)], E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov; Kisin, E.R. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Murray, A.R. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Physiology and Pharmacology Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kommineni, C. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Castranova, V. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Physiology and Pharmacology Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fadeel, B. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute Stockholm (Sweden); Kagan, V.E. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2008-09-01

285

Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Expression in Ralstonia solanacearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum revealed several genes that putatively code for poly- phenol oxidases (PPOs). To study the actual expression of these genes, we looked for and detected all kinds of PPO activities, including laccase, cresolase, and catechol oxidase activities, in cellular extracts of this micro- organism. The conditions for the PPO assays were optimized for the

Diana Hernandez-Romero; Francisco Solano; Antonio Sanchez-Amat

2005-01-01

286

Persistence of the bacterial pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease monocytes and macrophages lacking a functional NADPH oxidase1  

PubMed Central

Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative pathogen in patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a deficiency in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Repeated isolation of genetically identical strains from the same patient over years, and prolonged waxing and waning seropositivity in some subjects, raises the possibility of long-term persistence. G. bethesdensis resists killing by serum, CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and antimicrobial peptides, indicating resistance to non-oxidative killing mechanisms. While G. bethesdensis extends the survival of PMN, persistent intracellular bacterial survival might rely on longer-lived macrophages and their precursor monocytes. Therefore, we examined phagocytic killing by primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Cells from both normal and CGD subjects internalized G. bethesdensis similarly. G. bethesdensis stimulated superoxide production in normal monocytes, but to a lesser degree than in normal PMN. Normal but not CGD monocytes and MDM killed G. bethesdensis and required in vitro treatment with interferon-? (IFN-?) to maintain this killing effect. Although in vitro IFN-? did not enhance G. bethesdensis killing in CGD monocytes, it restricted growth in proportion to CGD PMN residual superoxide production, providing a potential method to identify patients responsive to IFN-? therapy. In IFN-?-treated CGD MDM, G. bethesdensis persisted for the duration of the study (7 days) without decreasing viability of the host cells. These results indicate that G. bethesdensis is highly resistant to oxygen-independent microbicides of myeloid cells, requires an intact NADPH oxidase for clearance, and can persist long-term in CGD mononuclear phagocytes, likely relating to the persistence of this microorganism in infected CGD patients. PMID:23956436

Chu, Jessica; Song, Helen H.; Zarember, Kol A.; Mills, Teresa A.; Gallin, John I.

2013-01-01

287

Superoxide Production in Galleria mellonella Hemocytes: Identification of Proteins Homologous to the NADPH Oxidase Complex of Human Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

The insect immune response has a number of structural and functional similarities to the innate immune response of mammals. The objective of the work presented here was to establish the mechanism by which insect hemocytes produce superoxide and to ascertain whether the proteins involved in superoxide production are similar to those involved in the NADPH oxidase-induced superoxide production in human neutrophils. Hemocytes of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) were shown to be capable of phagocytosing bacterial and fungal cells. The kinetics of phagocytosis and microbial killing were similar in the insect hemocytes and human neutrophils. Superoxide production and microbial killing by both cell types were inhibited in the presence of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride. Immunoblotting of G. mellonella hemocytes with antibodies raised against human neutrophil phox proteins revealed the presence of proteins homologous to gp91phox, p67phox, p47phox, and the GTP-binding protein rac 2. A protein equivalent to p40phox was not detected in insect hemocytes. Immunofluorescence analysis localized insect 47-kDa and 67-kDa proteins throughout the cytosol and in the perinuclear region. Hemocyte 67-kDa and 47-kDa proteins were immunoprecipitated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight analysis. The results revealed that the hemocyte 67-kDa and 47-kDa proteins contained peptides matching those of p67phox and p47phox of human neutrophils. The results presented here indicate that insect hemocytes phagocytose and kill bacterial and fungal cells by a mechanism similar to the mechanism used by human neutrophils via the production of superoxide. We identified proteins homologous to a number of proteins essential for superoxide production in human neutrophils and demonstrated that significant regions of the 67-kDa and 47-kDa insect proteins are identical to regions of the p67phox and p47phox proteins of neutrophils. PMID:15972506

Bergin, David; Reeves, Emer P.; Renwick, Julie; Wientjes, Frans B.; Kavanagh, Kevin

2005-01-01

288

Mitochondrial-localized NADPH oxidase 4 is a source of superoxide in angiotensin II-stimulated neurons.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays an important role in the central regulation of systemic cardiovascular function. ANG II-mediated intraneuronal signaling has been shown to be predicated by an increase in mitochondrial superoxide (O??-), yet the source of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains unclear. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a member of the NADPH oxidase family, has been reported to be localized in mitochondria of various cell types and has been implicated in brain angiotensinergic signaling. However, the subcellular localization and function of Nox4 in neurons has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that Nox4 is expressed in neuron mitochondria and is involved in ANG II-dependent O??--mediated intraneuronal signaling. To query this, Nox4 immunofluorescent staining and mitochondrial enrichment were performed in a mouse catecholaminergic neuronal cell model (CATH.a). Nox4 was shown to be present in neuron mitochondria as evidenced by colocalization with both the mitochondrial-localized protein manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and dye MitoTracker Red. Moreover, Nox4 expression was significantly increased in enriched mitochondrial fractions compared with whole cell lysates. Additionally, adenoviral-encoded small interfering RNA for Nox4 (AdsiNox4) caused a robust knockdown in Nox4 mRNA and protein levels, which led to the attenuation of ANG II-induced mitochondrial O??- production. Finally, in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain, Nox4 not only demonstrated mitochondrial localization but was induced by chronic, peripheral infusion of ANG II. Collectively, these data suggest that Nox4 is a source of O??- in neuron mitochondria that contributes to ANG II intraneuronal signaling. PMID:23624625

Case, Adam J; Li, Shumin; Basu, Urmi; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C

2013-07-01

289

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-derived NADPH fuels superoxide production in the failing heart  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the failing heart, NADPH oxidase and uncoupled NO synthase utilize cytosolic NADPH to form superoxide. NADPH is supplied principally by the pentose phosphate pathway, whose rate-limiting enzyme is glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiac G6PD activation dr...

290

Organochlorine Insecticides Induce NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Reactive Oxygen Species in Human Monocytic Cells via Phospholipase A2/Arachidonic Acid.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulative organohalogen chemicals, such as organochlorine (OC) insecticides, have been increasingly associated with disease etiology; however, the mechanistic link between chemical exposure and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes, is complex and poorly defined. Systemic oxidative stress stemming from OC exposure might play a vital role in the development of these pathologies. Monocytes are important surveillance cells of the innate immune system that respond to extracellular signals possessing danger-associated molecular patterns by synthesizing oxyradicals, such as superoxide, for the purpose of combating infectious pathogens. We hypothesized that OC chemicals can be toxic to monocytes because of an inappropriate elevation in superoxide-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing cellular oxidative damage. Reactive oxyradicals are generated in monocytes in large part by NADPH oxidase (Nox). The present study was conducted to examine the ability of two chlorinated cyclodiene compounds, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin, as well as p,p'-DDE, a chlorinated alicyclic metabolite of DDT, to stimulate Nox activity in a human monocytic cell line and to elucidate the mechanisms for this activation. Human THP-1 monocytes treated with either trans-nonachlor or dieldrin (0.1-10 ?M in the culture medium) exhibited elevated levels of intracellular ROS, as evidenced by complementary methods, including flow cytometry analysis using the probe DCFH-DA and hydroethidine-based fluorometric and UPLC-MS assays. In addition, the induced reactive oxygen flux caused by trans-nonachlor was also observed in two other cell lines, murine J774 macrophages and human HL-60 cells. The central role of Nox in OC-mediated oxidative stress was demonstrated by the attenuated superoxide production in OC-exposed monocytes treated with the Nox inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium and VAS-2870. Moreover, monocytes challenged with OCs exhibited increased phospho-p47(phox) levels and enhanced p47(phox) membrane localization compared to that in vehicle-treated cells. p47(phox) is a cytosolic regulatory subunit of Nox, and its phosphorylation and translocation to the NOX2 catalytic subunit in membranes is a requisite step for Nox assembly and activation. Dieldrin and trans-nonachlor treatments of monocytes also resulted in marked increases in arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosanoid production, which could be abrogated by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor arachidonoyltrifluoromethyl ketone (ATK) but not by calcium-independent PLA2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone. This suggested that cytosolic PLA2 plays a crucial role in the induction of Nox activity by increasing the intracellular pool of AA that activates protein kinase C, which phosphorylates p47(phox). In addition, ATK also blocked OC-induced p47(phox) serine phosphorylation and attenuated ROS levels, which further supports the notion that the AA pool liberated by cytosolic PLA2 is responsible for Nox activation. Together, the results suggest that trans-nonachlor and dieldrin are capable of increasing intracellular superoxide levels via a Nox-dependent mechanism that relies on elevated intracellular AA levels. These findings are significant because chronic activation of monocytes by environmental toxicants might contribute to pathogenic oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25633958

Mangum, Lee C; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Stokes, John V; Matthews, Anberitha T; Lee, Jung Hwa; Chambers, Janice E; Ross, Matthew K

2015-04-20

291

NADPH Oxidase Deficient Mice Develop Colitis and Bacteremia upon Infection with Normally Avirulent, TTSS-1- and TTSS-2-Deficient Salmonella Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Infections, microbe sampling and occasional leakage of commensal microbiota and their products across the intestinal epithelial cell layer represent a permanent challenge to the intestinal immune system. The production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase is thought to be a key element of defense. Patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are deficient in one of the subunits of NADPH oxidase. They display a high incidence of Crohn’s disease-like intestinal inflammation and are hyper-susceptible to infection with fungi and bacteria, including a 10-fold increased risk of Salmonellosis. It is not completely understood which steps of the infection process are affected by the NADPH oxidase deficiency. We employed a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea to study how NADPH oxidase deficiency (Cybb?/?) affects microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa. In this animal model, wild type S. Typhimurium causes pronounced enteropathy in wild type mice. In contrast, an avirulent S. Typhimurium mutant (S.Tmavir; invGsseD), which lacks virulence factors boosting trans-epithelial penetration and growth in the lamina propria, cannot cause enteropathy in wild type mice. We found that Cybb?/? mice are efficiently infected by S.Tmavir and develop enteropathy by day 4 post infection. Cell depletion experiments and infections in Cybb?/?Myd88?/? mice indicated that the S.Tmavir-inflicted disease in Cybb?/? mice hinges on CD11c+CX3CR1+ monocytic phagocytes mediating colonization of the cecal lamina propria and on Myd88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses. Interestingly, in mixed bone marrow chimeras a partial reconstitution of Cybb-proficiency in the bone marrow derived compartment was sufficient to ameliorate disease severity. Our data indicate that NADPH oxidase expression is of key importance for restricting the growth of S.Tmavir in the mucosal lamina propria. This provides important insights into microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa and the role of NADPH oxidase in maintaining microbe-host mutualism at this exposed body surface. PMID:24143212

Slack, Emma Marie Caroline; Müller, Andreas J.; Kremer, Marcus; Van Maele, Laurye; Cayet, Delphine; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

2013-01-01

292

NDS27 combines the effect of curcumin lysinate and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin to inhibit equine PKC? and NADPH oxidase involved in the oxidative burst of neutrophils.  

PubMed

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are involved in host defence against infections by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but excessive PMN stimulation is associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. After appropriate stimuli, protein kinase C (PKC) triggers the assembly of NADPH oxidase (Nox2) which produces superoxide anion (O2 (•) (-)), from which ROS derive. The therapeutic use of polyphenols is proposed to lower ROS production by limiting Nox2 and PKC activities. The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant effect of NDS27 and NDS28, two water-soluble forms of curcumin lysinate respectively complexed with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), on the activity of Nox2 and PKC?, involved in the Nox2 activation pathway. Our results, showed that NDS27 is the best inhibitor for Nox2 and PKC?. This was illustrated by the combined effect of HP?CD and curcumin lysinate: HP?CD, but not ?-CD, improved the release of curcumin lysinate and its exchange against lipid or cholesterol as demonstrated by the lipid colouration with Oil Red O, the extraction of radical lipophilic probes recorded by ESR and the HPLC measurements of curcumin. HP?CD not only solubilised and transported curcumin, but also indirectly enhanced its action on both PKC and Nox2 activities. The modulatory effect of NDS27 on the Nox2 activation pathway of neutrophils may open therapeutic perspectives for the control of pathologies with excessive inflammatory reactions. PMID:25493216

Derochette, Sandrine; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Franck, Thierry; Collienne, Simon; Ceusters, Justine; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Serteyn, Didier

2014-01-01

293

The Plant NADPH Oxidase RBOHD Mediates Rapid Systemic Signaling in Response to Diverse Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-to-cell communication and long-distance signaling play a key role in the response of plants to pests, mechanical wounding, and extreme environmental conditions. Here, we report on a rapid systemic signal in Arabidopsis thaliana that traveled at a rate of 8.4 centimeters per minute and was dependent on the respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (RbohD) gene. Signal propagation was accompanied by

Gad Miller; Karen Schlauch; Rachel Tam; Diego Cortes; Miguel A. Torres; Vladimir Shulaev; Jeffery L. Dangl; Ron Mittler

2009-01-01

294

Reduced renal responses to nitric oxide synthase inhibition in mice lacking the gene for gp91phox subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase.  

PubMed

Both short-term and long-term nitric oxide (NO) blockade were shown to cause an increase in O(2)(-) activity. To assess the contribution of such enhanced O(2)(-) activity in the kidney, responses to administration of the NO synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 200 microg.min(-1).kg body wt(-1)) were assessed in knockout mice the lacking NAD(P)H oxidase subunit gp91(phox) (KO; n = 10) and in wild-type (WT; n = 10) mice. Renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined by PAH and inulin clearances, respectively. Baseline RBF was higher in KO compared with WT mice (5.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.3 ml.min(-1).g(-1); P < 0.04) without significant differences in GFR (0.62 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.73 +/- 0.05 ml.min(-1).g(-1)) and in mean arterial pressure (MAP; 91 +/- 6 vs. 88 +/- 4 mmHg). L-NAME infusion for 60 min caused similar increases in MAP (114 +/- 6 vs. 113 +/- 3 mmHg) in both groups but resulted in a lesser degree of reduction in RBF in KO compared with WT mice (-7 +/- 3 vs. -17 +/- 3%; P < 0.02), although GFR remained unchanged in both groups. The natriuretic response to systemic L-NAME infusion was attenuated in KO compared with WT mice (Delta: 3.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.6 micromol.min(-1).g(-1)). L-NAME increased urinary 8-isoprostane excretion rate in WT (5.9 +/- 1 to 7.7 +/- 1 pg.min(-1).g(-1); P < 0.02) but not in KO mice (5.6 +/- 1 to 4.9 +/- 0.3 pg.min(-1).g(-1)). In contrast, responses to another vasoconstrictor, norepinephrine, were similar in both strains of mice. These data indicate that activation of NAD(P)H oxidase results in the enhancement of O(2)(-) activity that influences renal hemodynamics and excretory function in the condition of NO deficiency. PMID:18596078

Haque, Mohammed Z; Majid, Dewan S A

2008-09-01

295

Diapocynin, a Dimer of the NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin, Reduces ROS Production and Prevents Force Loss in Eccentrically Contracting Dystrophic Muscle  

PubMed Central

Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX) have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:25329652

Ismail, Hesham M.; Scapozza, Leonardo; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dorchies, Olivier M.

2014-01-01

296

Relationship Between Coronary Plaque Formation and NAD(P)H Oxidase-derived Reactive Oxygen Species - Comparison of Intravascular Ultrasound Finding of Atherosclerotic Lesions with Histochemical Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vessel wall plays an essential role in atherogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that the generation of ROS via NAD(P)H oxidase was correlated with plaque instability using coronary specimens obtained by directional coronary atherectomy (DCA). In this study, the relation between plaque formation and ROS generation was studied based on pre-interventional

MITSUYASU TERASHIMA; NOBUTAKA INOUE; YOSHITAKA OHASHI; MITSUHIRO YOKOYAMA

297

Dual Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species and NADPH Oxidase RBOHD in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria Pathosystem1[W  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NADPH oxidases have been reported to suppress the spread of pathogen- and salicylic acid-induced cell death. Here, we present dual roles of RBOHD (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog D) in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria pathosystem, suggesting either initiation or prevention of cell death dependent on the distance from pathogen attack. Our data demonstrate that a rbohD knockout mutant exhibits increased spread of cell death at the macroscopic level upon inoculation with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. However, the cellular patterns of reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death are fundamentally different in the AtrbohD mutant compared with the wild type. Functional RBOHD causes marked extracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation as well as cell death in distinct, single cells of A. brassicicola-infected wild-type plants. This single cell response is missing in the AtrbohD mutant, where infection triggers spreading-type necrosis preceded by less distinct chloroplastic hydrogen peroxide accumulation in large clusters of cells. While the salicylic acid analog benzothiadiazole induces the action of RBOHD and the development of cell death in infected tissues, the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibits cell death, indicating that both salicylic acid and ethylene positively regulate RBOHD and cell death. Moreover, A. brassicicola-infected AtrbohD plants hyperaccumulate ethylene and free salicylic acid compared with the wild type, suggesting negative feedback regulation of salicylic acid and ethylene by RBOHD. We propose that functional RBOHD triggers death in cells that are damaged by fungal infection but simultaneously inhibits death in neighboring cells through the suppression of free salicylic acid and ethylene levels. PMID:19726575

Pogány, Miklós; von Rad, Uta; Grün, Sebastian; Dongó, Anita; Pintye, Alexandra; Simoneau, Philippe; Bahnweg, Günther; Kiss, Levente; Barna, Balázs; Durner, Jörg

2009-01-01

298

Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

2014-01-01

299

NADH/NADPH oxidase p22 phox C242T polymorphism and lipid peroxidation in coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system is a major source of superoxide anion (.O2-) production in the human vasculature and may therefore influence lipid peroxidation and severity of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate a hypothetical influence of the p22 phox C242T polymorphism on the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA), extent and clinical onset of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients. We studied 108 male Caucasians with angiographically documented CAD and 45 controls free of vascular disease under 60 years of age. p22 phox C242T genotypes and MDA levels were determined. Additional information was obtained from each subject on classic risk factors and clinical events of CAD. Genotype distribution in CAD-patients and controls was thymine-thymine (TT): 13.8% (13.3%), cytosine-thymine (CT): 46.3% (53.3%) and cytosine-cytosine (CC): 39.8% (33.3%), respectively. No significant influence was seen of the p22 phox C242T polymorphism on corresponding mean MDA levels in both groups. Furthermore, age at onset of first time angina pectoris (AP) and myocardial infarction (MCI) was not significantly different between genotype groups. It is concluded that the C242T polymorphism of the p22 phox gene is not associated with lipid peroxidation as measured by MDA, and is not a genetic risk marker for CAD Caucasians. PMID:11722480

Stanger, O; Renner, W; Khoschsorur, G; Rigler, B; Wascher, T C

2001-11-01

300

An in vitro ischemic penumbral mimic perfusate increases NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide production in cultured hippocampal neurons  

PubMed Central

The currently accepted scheme for reactive oxygen species production during ischemia/reperfusion injury is characterized by a deleterious mitochondria-derived burst of radical generation during reperfusion; however, recent examination of the penumbra suggests a central role for NADPH-oxidase (Nox)-mediated radical generation during the ischemic period. Therefore, we utilized a novel in vitro model of the penumbra to examine the free radical profile of ischemic murine hippocampal neurons using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and also the role of Nox in this generation and in cell fate. We report that free radical production increased ~ 75% at 2-hrs of ischemia, and this increase was abolished by: (1) scavenging of extracellular free radicals with superoxide dismutase (SOD), (2) a general anion channel antagonist, or (3) the Nox inhibitor apocynin. Similarly, at 24-hrs of ischemia, [ATP] decreased > 95% and vital dye uptake increased 6-fold relative to controls; whereas apocynin, the Cl? channel antagonist 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB), or the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) each provided moderate neuroprotection, ameliorating 13–32% of [ATP]-depletion and 19–56% of vital dye uptake at 24-hrs. Our results support a cytotoxic role for Nox-mediated free radical production from penumbral neurons during the ischemic period. PMID:22459046

PAMENTER, Matthew E; ALI, Sameh S; TANG, Qingbo; FINLEY, J Cameron; GU, Xiang Q; DUGAN, Laura L; HADDAD, Gabriel G

2012-01-01

301

BcNoxD, a putative ER protein, is a new component of the NADPH oxidase complex in Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In fungi these multi-enzyme complexes are involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to mammalian systems, the composition and recruitment of the fungal Nox complexes are unresolved. Here we introduce a new Nox component, the membrane protein NoxD in the grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It has high homology to the ER protein Pro41 from Sordaria?macrospora, similar functions to the catalytic Nox subunit BcNoxA in differentiation and pathogenicity, and shows similarities to phagocytic p22phox. BcNoxA and BcNoxD interact with each other. Both proteins are involved in pathogenicity, fusion of conidial anastomosis tubes (CAT) and formation of sclerotia and conidia. These data support our earlier view based on localization studies, for an ER-related function of the Nox complex. We present the first evidence that some functions of the BcNoxA complex are indeed linked to the ER, while others clearly require export from the ER. PMID:25402961

Siegmund, Ulrike; Marschall, Robert; Tudzynski, Paul

2015-03-01

302

Inactivation of NADPH Oxidases NOX4 and NOX5 Protects Human Primary Fibroblasts from Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage.  

PubMed

Human exposure to ionizing radiation from medical procedures has increased sharply in the last three decades. Recent epidemiological studies suggest a direct relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and health problems, including cancer incidence. Therefore, minimizing the impact of radiation exposure in patients has become a priority in the development of future clinical practices. Crucial players in radiation-induced DNA damage include reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the sources of these have remained elusive. To the best of our knowledge, we show here for the first time that two members of the ROS-generating NADPH oxidase family (NOXs), NOX4 and NOX5, are involved in radiation-induced DNA damage. Depleting these two NOXs in human primary fibroblasts resulted in reduced levels of DNA damage as measured by levels of radiation-induced foci, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the comet assay coupled with increased cell survival. NOX involvement was substantiated with fulvene-5, a NOXs-specific inhibitor. Moreover, fulvene-5 mitigated radiation-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo. Our results provide evidence that the inactivation of NOXs protects cells from radiation-induced DNA damage and cell death. These findings suggest that NOXs inhibition may be considered as a future pharmacological target to help minimize the negative effects of radiation exposure for millions of patients each year. PMID:25706776

Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E; Aziz, Towqir; Choudhuri, Rohini; Maeda, Daisuke; Parekh, Palak R; Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L; Bonner, William M

2015-03-01

303

Dynamic optical imaging of metabolic and NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in live mouse brain using fluorescence lifetime unmixing  

PubMed Central

Superoxide is the single-electron reduction product of molecular oxygen generated by mitochondria and the innate immune enzyme complex, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), and its isoforms. Initially identified as critical to the host defense against infection, superoxide has recently emerged as an important signaling molecule and as a proposed mediator of central nervous system injury in stroke, neurodegenerative conditions, and aging itself. Complete understanding of superoxide in central nervous system disease has been hampered by lack of noninvasive imaging techniques to evaluate this highly reactive, short-lived molecule in vivo. Here we describe a novel optical imaging technique to monitor superoxide real time in intact animals using a fluorescent probe compound and fluorescence lifetime contrast-based unmixing. Specificity for superoxide was confirmed using validated mouse models with enhanced or attenuated brain superoxide production. Application of fluorescence lifetime unmixing removed autofluorescence, further enhanced sensitivity and specificity of the technique, permitted visualization of physiologically relevant levels of superoxide, and allowed superoxide in specific brain regions (e.g., hippocampus) to be mapped. Lifetime contrast-based unmixing permitted disease model-specific and brain region-specific differences in superoxide levels to be observed, suggesting this approach may provide valuable information on the role of mitochondrial and Nox-derived superoxide in both normal function and pathologic conditions in the central nervous system. PMID:21847136

Hall, David J; Han, Sung-Ho; Chepetan, Andre; Inui, Edny G; Rogers, Mike; Dugan, Laura L

2012-01-01

304

IFN?/TNF? synergism induces a non-canonical STAT2/IRF9-dependent pathway triggering a novel DUOX2 NADPH Oxidase-mediated airway antiviral response  

PubMed Central

Airway epithelial cells are key initial innate immune responders in the fight against respiratory viruses, primarily via the secretion of antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines that act in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to trigger the establishment of an antiviral state. It is currently thought that the early antiviral state in airway epithelial cells primarily relies on IFN? secretion and the subsequent activation of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor complex, composed of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9, which regulates the expression of a panoply of interferon-stimulated genes encoding proteins with antiviral activities. However, the specific pathways engaged by the synergistic action of different cytokines during viral infections, and the resulting physiological outcomes are still ill-defined. Here, we unveil a novel delayed antiviral response in the airways, which is initiated by the synergistic autocrine/paracrine action of IFN? and TNF?, and signals through a non-canonical STAT2- and IRF9-dependent, but STAT1-independent cascade. This pathway ultimately leads to the late induction of the DUOX2 NADPH oxidase expression. Importantly, our study uncovers that the development of the antiviral state relies on DUOX2-dependent H2O2 production. Key antiviral pathways are often targeted by evasion strategies evolved by various pathogenic viruses. In this regard, the importance of the novel DUOX2-dependent antiviral pathway is further underlined by the observation that the human respiratory syncytial virus is able to subvert DUOX2 induction. PMID:23545780

Fink, Karin; Martin, Lydie; Mukawera, Esperance; Chartier, Stéfany; De Deken, Xavier; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Miot, Françoise; Grandvaux, Nathalie

2013-01-01

305

Additive effect of polymorphisms in the ?2 -adrenoceptor and NADPH oxidase p22 phox genes contributes to the loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate in Chinese.  

PubMed

Because increased oxidative stress may mediate the detrimental actions of enhanced sympathetic nervous activity on renal function and vice versa, we investigated the effect of the polymorphic Arg16Gly in the ?2 -adrenoceptor (ADRB2) gene, Trp64Arg in the ?3 -adrenoceptor (ADRB3) gene and C242T in the NADPH oxidase p22phox (CYBA) gene on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a Chinese population. Initially recruited from different outpatient services of HeBei General Hospital in northern China, 668 individuals were finally included in the study, with complete demographic information. Laboratory tests were performed and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was derived from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation for the Chinese population. Plasma noradrenaline levels and genotype were determined by HPLC and the TaqMan method, respectively. Only across the Arg16Gly polymorphism did eGFR show significant difference: it was lower in individuals with the Gly16Gly variation, who also had the highest plasma noradrenaline levels. This polymorphism remained a significant determinant of eGFR after multivariate analysis. Of importance, the multifactor dimensionality reduction method further detected a significant synergism between the Arg16Gly and C242T polymorphisms in reducing eGFR. These observations clarify the effects of the studied polymorphisms on eGFR and exemplify gene-gene interactions influencing renal function. PMID:24890187

Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Ma, JingTao; Feng, Zhen; Niu, Kai; Liu, Bing

2014-09-01

306

Upregulation of phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase by cytokines in pancreatic beta-cells: Attenuation of oxidative and nitrosative stress by 2-bromopalmitate  

PubMed Central

Phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase (Nox2) has been shown to play regulatory roles in the metabolic dysfunction of the islet ?-cell under the duress of glucolipotoxic conditions and exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. However, the precise mechanisms underlying Nox2 activation by these stimuli remain less understood. To this end, we report a time-dependent phosphorylation of p47phox, a cytosolic subunit of Nox2, by cytomix (IL-1?+TNF?+IFN?) in insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cells. Furthermore, cytomix induced the expression of gp91phox, a membrane component of Nox2. 2-Bromopalmitate (2-BP), a known inhibitor of protein palmitoylation, markedly attenuated cytokine-induced, Nox2-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide (NO) generation. However, 2-BP failed to exert any significant effects on cytomix-induced CHOP expression, a marker for endoplasmic reticulum stress. Together, our findings identify palmitoyltransferase as a target for inhibition of cytomix-induced oxidative (ROS generation) and nitrosative (NO generation) stress in the pancreatic ?-cell. PMID:23092759

Mohammed, Abiy M.; Syeda, Khadija; Hadden, Timothy; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

2012-01-01

307

Role of NADPH oxidase NOX5-S, NF-?B, and DNMT1 in acid-induced p16 hypermethylation in Barrett's cells  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via promoter hypermethylation may play an important role in the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). We have previously shown that acid-induced p16 gene promoter hypermethylation may depend on activation of NADPH oxidase NOX5-S in BAR-T cells and OE33 EA cells. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is known to participate in maintaining established patterns of DNA methylation in dividing cells and may play an important role in the development of cancer. Therefore, we examined whether DNMT1 is involved in acid-induced p16 gene promoter hypermethylation in BAR-T cells. We found that the acid significantly increased p16 gene promoter methylation, decreased p16 mRNA, and increased cell proliferation, effects that may depend on activation of DNMT1 in BAR-T cells. DNMT1 is overexpressed in EA cells FLO and OE33 and EA tissues. Acid treatment upregulated DNMT1 mRNA expression and increased DNMT1 promoter activity. Acid-induced increases in DNMT1 mRNA expression and promoter activity were significantly decreased by knockdown of NOX5-S and NF-?B1 p50. Conversely, overexpression of NOX5-S, p50, or p65 significantly increased DNMT1 promoter activity. Knockdown of NOX5-S significantly decreased the acid-induced increase in luciferase activity in cells transfected with pNF?B-Luc. An NF-?B binding element GGGGTATCCC was identified in the DNMT1 gene promoter. We conclude that the acid-induced increase in p16 gene promoter methylation, downregulation of p16 mRNA, and increase in cell proliferation may depend on activation of DNMT1 in BAR-T cells. Acid-induced DNMT1 expression may depend on sequential activation of NOX5-S and NF-?B1 p50. PMID:24025864

Hong, Jie; Li, Dan; Wands, Jack; Souza, Rhonda

2013-01-01

308

NADPH-Diaphorase Activity in Normally Developing and Intracranially Transplanted Retinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity and distribution of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d), an enzyme that is widely distributed in the central nervous system and involved in the production of the free radical nitric oxide, were investigated histochemically in the normal developing and intracranially transplanted retinas. In the normal rat retina, NADPH-d activity was first detected in cells in the ganglion cells layer

S. T. Chen; J. P. Wang; C. L. Shen; L. S. Jen

1999-01-01

309

NADPH oxidase 4 contributes to transformation phenotype of melanoma cells by regulating G2-M cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in carcinogenic development of melanoma, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We studied the expression and function of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox)4 in human melanoma cells. Nox4 was up-regulated in 13 of 20 melanoma cell lines tested. Silencing of Nox4 expression in melanoma MM-BP cells by small interfering RNAs decreased ROS production and thereby inhibited anchorage-independent cell growth and tumorigenecity in nude mice. Consistently, a general Nox inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium, and antioxidants vitamine E and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate blocked cell proliferation of MM-BP cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that Nox4 small interfering RNAs and diphenylene iodonium induced G(2)-M cell cycle arrest, which was also observed with another melanoma cell line, 928mel. This was accompanied by induction of the Tyr-15 phosphorylated, inactive form of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (a hallmark of G(2)-M checkpoint) and hyperphosphorylation of cdc25c leading to its increased binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Ectopic expression of catalase, a scavenger of ROS, also caused accumulation of cells in G(2)-M phase. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of Nox4 was detected in 31.0% of 13 melanoma patients samples, suggesting the association of Nox4 expression with some steps of melanoma development. The findings suggest that Nox4-generated ROS are required for transformation phenotype of melanoma cells and contribute to melanoma growth through regulation of G(2)-M cell cycle progression. PMID:19276355

Yamaura, Maki; Mitsushita, Junji; Furuta, Shuichi; Kiniwa, Yukiko; Ashida, Atsuko; Goto, Yasuhumi; Shang, Wei H; Kubodera, Makoto; Kato, Masayoshi; Takata, Minoru; Saida, Toshiaki; Kamata, Tohru

2009-03-15

310

Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dose-dependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1), which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment. PMID:17786977

Wartenberg, Maria; Wirtz, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Hescheler, Jürgen; Peters, Saskia C; Sauer, Heinrich

2008-01-01

311

The NADPH Oxidase Complexes in Botrytis cinerea: Evidence for a Close Association with the ER and the Tetraspanin Pls1  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic systems that generate reactive-oxygen species (ROS) in multicellular eukaryotes. In several fungi they have been shown to be involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to the well characterized mammalian systems, basic information on the composition, recruitment, and localization of fungal Nox complexes and on the molecular mechanisms of their cellular effects are still lacking. Here we give a detailed analysis of components of the Nox complexes in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It had previously been shown that the two catalytic transmembrane subunits BcNoxA and B are important for development of sclerotia and for full virulence, with BcNoxA being involved in spreading of lesions and BcNoxB in penetration; BcNoxR functions as a regulator of both subunits. Here we present evidence (using for the first time a functional GFP fusion able to complement the ?bcnoxA mutant) that BcNoxA localizes mainly to the ER and at the plasma membrane; BcNoxB shows a similar localization pattern, while the regulator BcNoxR is found in vesicles throughout the hyphae and at the hyphal tip. To identify possible interaction partners, which could be involved in the localization or recruitment of the Nox complexes, we functionally characterized the tetraspanin Pls1, a transmembrane protein, which had been suggested to be a NoxB-interacting partner in the saprophyte Podospora anserina. Knock-out experiments and GFP fusions substantiate a link between BcNoxB and BcPls1 because both deletion mutants have overlapping phenotypes (especially a defect in penetration), and the proteins show a similar localization pattern (ER). However, in contrast to the corresponding protein in P. anserina BcPls1 is important for female fertility, but not for ascospore germination. PMID:23418468

Siegmund, Ulrike; Heller, Jens; van Kann, Jan A. L.; Tudzynski, Paul

2013-01-01

312

Polyphenol oxidase activity in annual forage clovers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated phenol reactions in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) bind forage protein and reduce proteolysis, producing beneficial effects on forage protein degradability, silage fermentation, and soil-N cycling. We evaluated PPO activity in seven previously untested annual c...

313

Oscillatory shear stress stimulates endothelial production of O2- from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidases, leading to monocyte adhesion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arterial regions exposed to oscillatory shear (OS) in branched arteries are lesion-prone sites of atherosclerosis, whereas those of laminar shear (LS) are relatively well protected. Here, we examined the hypothesis that OS and LS differentially regulate production of O2- from the endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, is responsible for their opposite effects on a critical atherogenic event, monocyte adhesion. We used aortic endothelial cells obtained from C57BL/6 (MAE-C57) and p47phox-/- (MAE-p47-/-) mice, which lack a component of NAD(P)H oxidase. O2- production was determined by dihydroethidium staining and an electron spin resonance using an electron spin trap methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine. Chronic exposure (18 h) to an arterial level of OS (+/- 5 dynes/cm2) increased O2- (2-fold) and monocyte adhesion (3-fold) in MAE-C57 cells, whereas chronic LS (15 dynes/cm2, 18 h) significantly decreased both monocyte adhesion and O2- compared with static conditions. In contrast, neither LS nor OS were able to induce O2- production and monocyte adhesion to MAE-p47-/-. Treating MAE-C57 with a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase compound, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase, also inhibited OS-induced monocyte adhesion. In addition, over-expressing p47phox in MAE-p47-/- restored OS-induced O2- production and monocyte adhesion. These results suggest that chronic exposure of endothelial cells to OS stimulates O2- and/or its derivatives produced from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, leads to monocyte adhesion, an early and critical atherogenic event.

Hwang, Jinah; Saha, Aniket; Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George P.; McNally, J. Scott; Holland, Steven M.; Dikalov, Sergei; Giddens, Don P.; Griendling, Kathy K.; Harrison, David G.; Jo, Hanjoong

2003-01-01

314

NOD2 is Involved in the Inflammatory Response after Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Triggers NADPH Oxidase 2-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species  

PubMed Central

Background: Increasing evidences suggest that innate immunity is involved in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the liable innate immune receptors have not been completely elucidated. Here, we explored the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a member of the cytosolic NOD-like receptor family, in acute focal cerebral I/R injury. Methods: An in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model that in wild type (WT) and NOD2 deficient (NOD2-/-) mice and in vitro model of oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in cultured primary microglia and astrocytes were used to investigate the expression of NOD2 and explore the roles of NOD2 in ischemic stroke. Results: Our results showed that NOD2 expression was significantly increased in microglia and astrocytes in response to the I/R insult. Pretreatment with muramyl dipeptide, an extrinsic ligand of NOD2, significantly increased the infarct volume and neurological dysfunction in mice subjected to MCAO. Genetic ablation of the NOD2 gene significantly improved stroke outcomes and reduced inflammation, as evidenced by a lower expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF? in conjunction with attenuated activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and JNK. Moreover, NOD2 deficiency prevented the upregulation of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and ROS generation induced by I/R. Mechanistically, NOD2-induced production of IL-6 in primary cultured microglia was mediated through activation of NOX2. Conclusions: This study showed the contribution of NOD2 to inflammatory response and provided direct evidence that NOX2-mediated oxidative stress as an important target molecule linked NOD2 to inflammatory damage in ischemic stroke. Pharmacological targeting of NOD2-mediated inflammatory response at multiple levels may help design a new approach to develop therapeutic strategies for prevention of deterioration of cerebral function and for the treatment of stroke.

Liu, Huiqing; Wei, Xinbing; Kong, Lingjun; Liu, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Li; Yan, Shi; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Lin

2015-01-01

315

NADPH oxidase NOX5-S and nuclear factor ?B1 mediate acid-induced microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not known. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E? (PGE?) has been shown to be important in esophageal tumorigenesis. We have shown that COX-2 mediates acid-induced PGE? production. The prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) responsible for acid-induced PGE2 production in BE, however, is not known. We found that microsomal PGES1 (mPGES1), mPGES2, and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) were present in FLO EA cells. Pulsed acid treatment significantly increased mPGES1 mRNA and protein levels but had little or no effect on mPGES2 or cPGES mRNA. Knockdown of mPGES1 by mPGES1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked acid-induced increase in PGE2 production and thymidine incorporation. Knockdown of NADPH oxidase, NOX5-S, a variant lacking calcium-binding domains, by NOX5 siRNA significantly inhibited acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression, thymidine incorporation, and PGE2 production. Overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased the luciferase activity in FLO cells transfected with a nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in vivo activation reporter plasmid pNF-?B-Luc. Knockdown of NF-?B1 p50 by p50 siRNA significantly decreased acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression, thymidine incorporation, and PGE? production. Two novel NF-?B binding elements, GGAGTCTCCC and CGGGACACCC, were identified in the mPGES1 gene promoter. We conclude that mPGES1 mediates acid-induced increase in PGE? production and cell proliferation. Acid-induced mPGES1 expression depends on activation of NOX5-S and NF-?B1 p50. Microsomal PGES1 may be a potential target to prevent or treat EA. PMID:23439561

Zhou, Xiaoxu; Li, Dan; Resnick, Murray B; Wands, Jack; Cao, Weibiao

2013-05-01

316

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Stefania Pasqualini; Emma Tedeschini; Giuseppe Frenguelli; Nicole Wopfner; Fatima Ferreira; Gennaro D’Amato; Luisa Ederli

2011-01-01

317

NADPH Oxidase p22phox C242T Polymorphism and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A growing number of studies on the associations between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease have recently been published, but the results remain inconsistent. Material/Methods We performed an updated meta-analysis to evaluate this association. Eight case-control studies were included, involving 2045 cases and 2102 controls. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q test and the I2 statistic. Begg and Egger’s tests were conducted to evaluate publication bias. Odds ratio (OR) was tested to identify the associations. Results Significant associations between p22phox gene C242T polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) risk were observed in the allelic genetic model (OR=1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.77, p=0.048). No statistical significant association was found in the dominant model (OR=0.74, 95% CI 0.54–1.02, p=0.064) and recessive model (OR=1.40, 95% CI 0.89–2.19, p=0.146). Subgroup analysis showed an association in European populations for recessive model (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.06–4.26, p=0.034) and no significant evidence of association in Asian populations was found (dominant model: OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.41–1.00, p=0.05; recessive model: OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.53–1.81, p=0.948; allelic model: OR=1.51, 95% CI 0.98–2.32, p=0.061). Conclusions p22phox gene C242T polymorphism was associated with ICVD risk in the allelic genetic model, as well as in European populations for recessive model. No evidence showed association between p22phox gene C242T polymorphism and ICVD risk in the dominant model and recessive model. Furthermore, no association existed in Asian populations for any of the 3 genetic models and European populations in the dominant model and allelic model. PMID:25619262

Li, Pingping; Qiu, Tangmeng; Qin, Chao

2015-01-01

318

Long term liver specific glucokinase gene defect induced diabetic cardiomyopathy by up regulating NADPH oxidase and down regulating insulin receptor and p-AMPK  

PubMed Central

Background The liver-specific glucokinase knockout (gckw/–) mouse experiences long-term hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. This study was designed to evaluate the functional and structural changes in the myocardium of 60 week-old gckw/– mice, and to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone on the myocardium in this model. Methods 60 week-old gckw/– mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: gckw/–, gckw/– mice treated with insulin (1 U/kg) and gckw/– mice treated with rosiglitazone (18 mg/kg). Insulin or rosiglitazone treatment was for 4 weeks. Gckw/w litermates were used as controls. Echocardiography, electrocardiogram, biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural, real time PCR and Western blot studies were performed to examine for structural and functional changes. Results Long-term liver-specific gck knockout in mice elicits hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Compared to age matched gckw/w mice, 60 week-old gckw/– mice showed decreased LV internal dimension, increased posterior wall thickness, lengthened PR and QRS intervals, up-regulated MLC2 protein expression, decreased SOD activity, increased MDA levels and up-regulated Cyba mRNA. Morphological studies revealed that there was an increase in the amount of PAS and Masson positively stained material, as did the number and proportion of the cell occupied by mitochondria in the gckw/– mice. Western blot analysis revealed that the levels of the insulin receptor, Akt, phosphorylated AMPK beta and phosphorylated ACC were reduced in gckw/– mice. These effects were partly attenuated or ablated by treatment with rosiglitazone. Conclusions Our results indicate that changes in the myocardium occur in the liver-specific glucokinase knockout mouse and suggest that reduced glucokinase expression in the liver may induce diabetic cardiomyopathy by up regulating NADPH oxidase and down regulating insulin receptor and p-AMPK protein levels. Rosiglitazone treatment may protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy by altering the levels of a set of proteins involved in cardiac damage. PMID:24447392

2014-01-01

319

Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 ?M) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

2014-10-01

320

Sesamin ameliorates arterial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats via downregulation of NADPH oxidase subunits and upregulation of eNOS expression  

PubMed Central

Aim: Sesamin is one of the major lignans in sesame seeds with antihyperlipidemic, antioxidative and antihypertensive activities. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sesamin on arterial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Methods: SHRs were orally administered sesamin (40, 80 and 160 mg·kg?1·d?1) for 16 weeks. After the rats were killed, thoracic aortas were dissected out. The vasorelaxation responses of aortic rings to ACh and nitroprusside were measured. The expression of eNOS and NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox and p22phox in aortas were detected using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Aortic nitrotyrosine was measured with ELISA. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and MDA levels in aortas were also determined. Results: The aortic rings of SHRs showed significantly smaller ACh-induced and nitroprusside-induced relaxation than those of control rats. Treatment of SHRs with sesamin increased both the endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner. In aortas of SHRs, the level of T-AOC and the expression of nitrotyrosine, p22phox and p47phox proteins were markedly increased, while the level of MDA and the expression of eNOS protein were significantly decreased. Treatment of SHRs with sesamin dose-dependently reversed these biochemical and molecular abnormalities in aortas. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with sesamin improves arterial function in SHR through the upregulation of eNOS expression and downregulation of p22phox and p47phox expression. PMID:23624755

Zhang, Jun-xiu; Yang, Jie-ren; Chen, Guo-xiang; Tang, Li-juan; Li, Wen-xing; Yang, Hui; Kong, Xiang

2013-01-01

321

Investigation of the C242T polymorphism of NAD(P)H oxidase p22 phox gene and ischaemic heart disease using family-based association methods.  

PubMed

Ischaemic heart disease is a complex phenotype arising from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species leading to endothelial dysfunction is believed to be important in the pathogenesis of ischaemic heart disease. The NAD(P)H oxidase system generates superoxide anions in vascular cells; however, the role of the C242T polymorphism of the NAD(P)H oxidase p22 phox gene in ischaemic heart disease is unclear due to contradictory results from case-control studies. Consequently, we applied family-based association tests to investigate the role of this polymorphism in ischaemic heart disease in a well-defined Irish population. A total of 1023 individuals from 388 families (discordant sibships and parent/child trios) were recruited. Linkage disequilibrium between the polymorphism and ischaemic heart disease was tested using the combined transmission disequilibrium test (TDT)/sib-TDT (cTDT) and pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT). Both cTDT and PDT analyses found no statistically significant excess transmission of either allele to affected individuals (P =0.30 and P =0.28, respectively). Using robust family-based association tests specifically designed for the study of complex diseases, we found no evidence that the C242T polymorphism of the p22 phox gene has a significant role in the development of ischaemic heart disease in our population. PMID:12877653

Spence, M S; McGlinchey, P G; Patterson, C C; Allen, A R; Murphy, G; Bayraktutan, U; Fogarty, D G; Evans, A E; McKeown, P P

2003-12-01

322

Genetic silencing of Nox2 and Nox4 reveals differential roles of these NADPH oxidase homologues in the vasopressor and dipsogenic effects of brain angiotensin II.  

PubMed

The renin-angiotensin system exerts a tremendous influence over fluid balance and arterial pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, acts in the central nervous system to regulate neurohumoral outflow and thirst. Dysregulation of Ang-II signaling in the central nervous system is implicated in cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently we established that NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide acting in the forebrain subfornical organ is critical in the physiological responses to central Ang-II. In addition, we have found that Nox2 and Nox4 are the most abundantly expressed Nox homologues within Ang-II-sensitive sites in the forebrain. To dissect out the functional importance and unique roles of these Nox enzymes in the pressor and dipsogenic effects of central Ang-II, we developed adenoviral vectors expressing small interfering RNA to selectively silence Nox2 or Nox4 expression in the subfornical organ. Our results demonstrate that both Nox2 and Nox4 are required for the full vasopressor effects of brain Ang-II but that only Nox2 is coupled to the Ang-II-induced water intake response. These studies establish the importance of both Nox2- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidases in the actions of Ang-II in the central nervous system and are the first to reveal differential involvement of these Nox enzymes in the various physiological effects of central Ang-II. PMID:19805637

Peterson, Jeffrey R; Burmeister, Melissa A; Tian, Xin; Zhou, Yi; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Stupinski, John A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

2009-11-01

323

Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes  

SciTech Connect

Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·?} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA produces alterations in mitochondrial function. • ??{sub m} decrease in state 3 may be responsible for the decreased ATP production. • Mild uncoupling prevents mitochondrial oxidative damage.

Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2013-07-01

324

Studies of Mitochondrial and Nonmitochondrial Sources Implicate Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase(s) in the Increased Skeletal Muscle Superoxide Generation That Occurs During Contractile Activity  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims The sources of cytosolic superoxide in skeletal muscle have not been defined. This study examined the subcellular sites that contribute to cytosolic superoxide in mature single muscle fibers at rest and during contractile activity. Results: Isolated fibers from mouse flexor digitorum brevis loaded with superoxide and nitric-oxide-sensitive fluorescent probes, specific pathway inhibitors and immunolocalization techniques were used to identify subcellular sites contributing to cytosolic superoxide. Treatment with the electron transport chain complex III inhibitor, antimycin A, but not the complex I inhibitor, rotenone, caused increased cytosolic superoxide through release from the mitochondrial intermembrane space via voltage-dependent anion or Bax channels, but inhibition of these channels did not affect contraction-induced increases in cytosolic superoxide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitors decreased cytosolic superoxide at rest and following contractions. Protein and mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase subunits was demonstrated in single fibers. NOX2, NOX4, and p22phox subunits localized to the sarcolemma and transverse tubules; NOX4 was additionally expressed in mitochondria. Regulatory p40phox and p67phox proteins were found in the cytoplasm of resting fibers, but following contractions, p40phox appeared to translocate to the sarcolemma. Innovation: Superoxide and other reactive oxygen species generated by skeletal muscle are important regulators of muscle force production and adaptations to contractions. This study has defined the relative contribution of mitochondrial and cytosolic sources of superoxide within the cytosol of single muscle fibers at rest and during contractions. Conclusion: Muscle mitochondria do not modulate cytosolic superoxide in skeletal muscle but NADPH oxidase is a major contributor both at rest and during contractions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 603–621. PMID:23050834

Sakellariou, Giorgos Konstantinos; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Palomero, Jesus; Kayani, Anna; Zibrik, Lea; McArdle, Anne

2013-01-01

325

Gibberellin oxidase activities in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids.  

PubMed

Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids isolated from root nodules of soybean (Glycine max.) plants converted the gibberellin (GA) precursor [(14)C1]GA12 into several products identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as [(14)C1]GA24, [(14)C1]GA9, [(14)C1]GA15, GA9 17-nor-16-one and unidentified products. The oxidation of GA12, catalyzed by the GA 20-oxidase, was present in symbiotic bacteroids from plants around flowering, but not in bacteroids from plants at either an early vegetative stage or at late growth stages. Expression of cps and ks genes, involved in ent-kaurene biosynthesis, was also demonstrated in bacteroids from soybean plants around flowering. Earlier precursors of the GA pathway, ent-[(14)C1]kaurenoic acid or [(14)C4]GA12-aldehyde, were efficiently utilized by B. japonicum bacteroids to give labelled GA9 plus intermediates partially oxidized at C-20, as well as GA9 17-nor-16-one and an unidentified product. No 3? or 13-hydroxylated [(14)C]GAs were detected in any of the incubations. Moreover the C19-GAs [(14)C1]GA4 or [(14)C1]GA20 were recovered unconverted upon incubation with the bacteroids which supports the absence of GA 3?-hydroxylase activity in B. japonicum. The bacterial 20-oxidase utilized the 13-hydroxylated substrates [(14)C1]GA53, [(14)C1]GA44 or [(14)C1]GA19, although with less efficiency than [(14)C1]GA12 to give [(14)C1]GA20 as final product, while the 3?-hydroxylated substrate [(14)C1]GA14 was converted to [(14)C1]GA4 to a very small extent. Endogenous GA9 and GA24 were identified by GC-MS in methanolic nodule extracts. These results suggest that B. japonicum bacteroids would synthesize GA9 under the symbiotic conditions present in soybean root nodules. PMID:24378220

Méndez, Constanza; Baginsky, Cecilia; Hedden, Peter; Gong, Fan; Carú, Margarita; Rojas, María Cecilia

2014-02-01

326

NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducer activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are a rich source of biologically-active phytochemicals and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Specific phytochemicals and extracts of their plant sources have the ability to reduce the risk for chronic degenerative diseases by induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, many of which also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. One such multifunctional cytoprotective enzyme is NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase. In this study, we prepared extracts of 27 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants which belong to 18 different plant families and tested their ability to induce NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells grown in microtiter plate wells. In addition to the Brassicaceae, a known source of NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity, we found substantial inducer activity in extracts from the Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, and the Asteraceae families. Five out of a total of eight active extracts are from plants which belong to the Asteraceae family. We further show that artemisinin, an agent which is used clinically for the treatment of malaria, contributes but does not fully account for the inducer activity of the extract of Artemisia monosperma. In contrast to artemisinin, deoxyartemisinin is inactive in this assay, demonstrating the critical role of the endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin for inducer activity. Thus, the NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity of extracts of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants indicates the presence of specific phytochemicals which have the potential to protect against chronic degenerative diseases. PMID:23512501

Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Alyahya, Muhammad A; Higgins, Maureen; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

2013-04-01

327

Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.

2013-08-01

328

Alzheimer disease ?-amyloid activity mimics cholesterol oxidase  

PubMed Central

The abnormal accumulation of amyloid ?-peptide (A?) in the form of senile (or amyloid) plaques is one of the main characteristics of Alzheimer disease (AD). Both cholesterol and Cu2+ have been implicated in AD pathogenesis and plaque formation. A? binds Cu2+ with very high affinity, forming a redox-active complex that catalyzes H2O2 production from O2 and cholesterol. Here we show that A?:Cu2+ complexes oxidize cholesterol selectively at the C-3 hydroxyl group, catalytically producing 4-cholesten-3-one and therefore mimicking the activity of cholesterol oxidase, which is implicated in cardiovascular disease. A? toxicity in neuronal cultures correlated with this activity, which was inhibited by Cu2+ chelators including clioquinol. Cell death induced by staurosporine or H2O2 did not elevate 4-cholesten-3-one levels. Brain tissue from AD subjects had 98% more 4-cholesten-3-one than tissue from age-matched control subjects. We observed a similar increase in the brains of Tg2576 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic littermates; the increase was inhibited by in vivo treatment with clioquinol, which suggests that brain A? accumulation elevates 4-cholesten-3-one levels in AD. Cu2+-mediated oxidation of cholesterol may be a pathogenic mechanism common to atherosclerosis and AD. PMID:16127459

Puglielli, Luigi; Friedlich, Avi L.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Nagano, Seiichi; Opazo, Carlos; Cherny, Robert A.; Barnham, Kevin J.; Wade, John D.; Melov, Simon; Kovacs, Dora M.; Bush, Ashley I.

2005-01-01

329

Superoxide anion production by NADPH oxidase plays a major role in erectile dysfunction in middle-aged rats: prevention by antioxidant therapy.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION.: Prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases progressively with aging, but the ED pathophysiology at its early stages is still poorly investigated. AIM.: This study aimed to evaluate the functional and molecular alterations of erectile function at middle age, focusing on the contribution of oxidative stress in erectile tissue for the ED. METHODS.: Young (3.5-month) and middle-aged (10-month) male Wistar rats were used. Rat corpus cavernosum (RCC) was dissected free and mounted in 10-mL organ baths containing Krebs solution. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in anesthetized rats was evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Concentration-response curves to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent agents, as well as to electrical field stimulation (EFS), were obtained in RCC strips. Measurement of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), gp91(phox) and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) expressions in RCC were evaluated. RESULTS.: ICP was significantly reduced in middle-aged compared with young rats. RCC relaxations to acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-2) ?M), sodium nitroprusside (10(-8) to 10(-2) ?M), sildenafil (10(-9) to 10(-5) ?M), BAY 41-2272 (10(-9) to 10(-5) ?M), and EFS (4-32?Hz) were decreased in middle-aged group, which were nearly normalized by apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor; 10(-4) ?M) or SOD (75?U/mL). Prolonged treatment with apocynin (85?mg/rat/day, 4 weeks) also restored the impaired relaxations in middle-aged rats. Relaxations to 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt (8-Br-cGMP; 10(-8) to 3?×?10(-4) ?M) remained unchanged between groups. Basal and stimulated cGMP production were lower in middle-aged group, an effect fully restored by apocynin and SOD. Protein expression of nNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) (Ser-1177) reduced, whereas gp(91phox) mRNA expression increased in RCC from middle-aged rats. CONCLUSIONS.: ED in middle-aged rats is associated with decreased NO bioavailability in erectile tissue due to upregulation of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91(phox) and downregulation of nNOS/p-eNOS. Antioxidant therapies may be a good pharmacological approach to prevent ED at its early stages. PMID:23347406

Silva, Fábio H; Mónica, Fabíola Z; Báu, Fernando R; Brugnerotto, Ana F; Priviero, Fernanda B M; Toque, Haroldo A; Antunes, Edson

2013-04-01

330

POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN BANANA CHIPS DURING OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various treatments were used to determine polyphenol oxidase activity changes during osmotic dehydration of banana slices. A temperature of 35 °C and 5.0 pH were used as the most adequate conditions for polyphenol oxidase activity determination when 4-methyl catechol was used as a substrate. Enzyme activity change was determined in the central and edge region of fruit. The central part

K. N. Waliszewski; R. H. Garcia; M. Ramirez; M. A. Garcia

2000-01-01

331

Platelet phenolsulphotransferase activity, monoamine oxidase activity and peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding in demented patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Blood platelet phenolsulphotransferase and monoamine oxidase activities, as well as platelet peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding have been studied in several neuropsychiatric disorders, in order to identify biochemical markers for altered brain functioning. In the present work, we determined platelet phenolsulphotransferase and monoamine oxidase activities in demented patients: they showed significantly higher phenolsulphotransferase and monoamine oxidase activities than controls. A significant

P. Bongioanni; M. Donato; M. Castagna; F. Gemignani

1996-01-01

332

The NADPH oxidase Nox2 regulates VEGFR1/CSF-1R-mediated microglial chemotaxis and promotes early postnatal infiltration of phagocytes in the subventricular zone of the mouse cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase Nox2 generates superoxide ions implicated in the elimination of microorganisms and the redox control of inflammatory signaling. However, the role of Nox2 in phagocyte functions unrelated to immunity or pathologies is unknown. During development, oriented cell migrations insure the timely recruitment and function of phagocytes in developing tissues. Here, we have addressed the role of Nox2 in the directional migration of microglial cells during development. We show that microglial Nox2 regulates the chemotaxis of purified microglia mediated by the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1). Stimulation of these receptors triggers activation of Nox2 at the leading edge of polarized cells. In the early postnatal stages of mouse brain development, Nox2 is activated in macrophages / microglial cells in the lateral ventricle or the adjacent subventricular zone (SVZ). Fluorescent microglia injected into the lateral ventricle infiltrate the dorso-caudal SVZ through a mechanism that is blocked by pretreatment of the injected cells with an irreversible Nox inhibitor. Infiltration of endogenous microglia into the caudal SVZ of the cerebral cortex is prevented by (1) Nox2 gene deficiency, (2) treatment with a Nox2 inhibitor (apocynin), and (3) invalidation of the VEGFR1 kinase. We conclude that phagocytes move out of the lateral ventricle soon after birth and infiltrate the cortical SVZ through a mechanism requiring microglial Nox2 and VEGFR1 activation. Nox2 therefore modulates the migration of microglia and their development. PMID:23836548

Lelli, Aurélia; Gervais, Annie; Colin, Catherine; Chéret, Cyril; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Carmeliet, Peter; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Boillée, Séverine; Mallat, Michel

2013-09-01

333

A COUPLED MICROSOMAL-ACTIVATING/EMBRYO CULTURE SYSTEM: TOXICITY OF REDUCED BETA-NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE (NADPH)  

EPA Science Inventory

An NADPH-dependent microsomal-activating system has been coupled to a rat embryo culture in vitro. No embryonic morphological abnormalities or decrease in final yolk sac or embryo DNA and protein contents occurred when 0.2 mM NADPH was used in this coupled system. In contrast, 1....

334

Transtympanic Administration of Short Interfering (si)RNA for the NOX3 Isoform of NADPH Oxidase Protects Against Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cisplatin produces hearing loss in cancer patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea leads to lipid peroxidation, death of outer hair cells (OHCs), and hearing loss. The cochlea expresses a unique isoform of NADPH oxidase, NOX3, which serves as the primary source of ROS generation in the cochlea. Inhibition of NOX3 could offer a unique protective target against cisplatin ototoxicity. Here, we document that knockdown of NOX3 using short interfering (si) RNA abrogated cisplatin ototoxicity, as evidenced by protection of OHCs from damage and reduced threshold shifts in auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Transtympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of NOX3 in OHCs, spiral ganglion (SG) cells, and stria vascularis (SV) in the rat. NOX3 siRNA also reduced the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), biomarkers of cochlear damage. Also, transtympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of Bax, abolished the decrease in expression of Bcl2, and reduced apoptosis induced by cisplatin in the cochlea. These data suggest that NOX3 regulates stress-related genes in the cochlea, such as TRPV1 and KIM-1, and initiates apoptosis in the cochlea. This appears to be the first study of the efficacy of transtympanic delivery of siRNA attenuating cisplatin ototoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 589–598. PMID:20214492

Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheehan, Kelly E.; Ramkumar, Vickram

2010-01-01

335

Appressorium-localized NADPH oxidase B is essential for aggressiveness and pathogenicity in the host-specific, toxin-producing fungus Alternaria alternata?Japanese pear pathotype.  

PubMed

Black spot disease, Alternaria alternata?Japanese pear pathotype, produces the host-specific toxin AK-toxin, an important pathogenicity factor. Previously, we have found that hydrogen peroxide is produced in the hyphal cell wall at the plant-pathogen interaction site, suggesting that the fungal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation machinery is important for pathogenicity. In this study, we identified two NADPH oxidase (NoxA and NoxB) genes and produced nox disruption mutants. ?noxA and ?noxB disruption mutants showed increased hyphal branching and spore production per unit area. Surprisingly, only the ?noxB disruption mutant compromised disease symptoms. A fluorescent protein reporter assay revealed that only NoxB localized at the appressoria during pear leaf infection. In contrast, both NoxA and NoxB were highly expressed on the cellulose membrane, and these Nox proteins were also localized at the appressoria. In the ?noxB disruption mutant, we could not detect any necrotic lesions caused by AK-toxin. Moreover, the ?noxB disruption mutant did not induce papilla formation on pear leaves. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the ?noxB disruption mutant also did not penetrate the cuticle layer. Moreover, ROS generation was not essential for penetration, suggesting that NoxB may have an unknown function in penetration. Taken together, our results suggest that NoxB is essential for aggressiveness and basal pathogenicity in A.?alternata. PMID:23279187

Morita, Yuichi; Hyon, Gang-Su; Hosogi, Naoki; Miyata, Nao; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Inada, Noriko; Park, Pyoyun; Ikeda, Kenichi

2013-05-01

336

TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor gene: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4  

SciTech Connect

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), oxidative stress, and elevated inflammatory cytokines are some of the components that contribute to plaque formation in the vasculature. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is released during vascular injury, and contributes to lesion formation also by affecting VSMC proliferation. Recently, an A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2B}AR) knockout mouse illustrated that this receptor is a tissue protector, in that it inhibits VSMC proliferation and attenuates the inflammatory response following injury, including the release of TNF-{alpha}. Here, we show a regulatory loop by which TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR in VSMC in vitro and in vivo. The effect of this cytokine is mimicked by its known downstream target, NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4). Nox4 upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR, and Nox inhibitors dampen the effect of TNF-{alpha}. Hence, our study is the first to show that signaling associated with Nox4 is also able to upregulate the tissue protecting A{sub 2B}AR.

St Hilaire, Cynthia; Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon H.; Smith, Barbara D. [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Ravid, Katya [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)], E-mail: ravid@biochem.bumc.bu.edu

2008-10-24

337

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated Angiopoietin-2-dependent Autocrine Angiogenesis Is Regulated by NADPH Oxidase 2 (Nox2) in Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells.  

PubMed

Sepsis-mediated endothelial Angiopoeitin-2 (Ang2) signaling may contribute to microvascular remodeling in the developing lung. The mechanisms by which bacterial cell wall components such as LPS mediate Ang2 signaling in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) remain understudied. In HPMEC, LPS-induced Ang2, Tie2, and VEGF-A protein expression was preceded by increased superoxide formation. NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) inhibition, but not Nox4 or Nox1 inhibition, attenuated LPS-induced superoxide formation and Ang2, Tie2, and VEGF-A expression. Nox2 silencing, but not Nox4 or Nox1 silencing, inhibited LPS-mediated inhibitor of ?-B kinase ? (IKK?) and p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B and AP-1. In HPMECs, LPS increased the number of angiogenic tube and network formations in Matrigel by >3-fold. Conditioned media from LPS-treated cells also induced angiogenic tube and network formation in the presence of Toll-like receptor 4 blockade but not in the presence of Ang2 and VEGF blockade. Nox2 inhibition or conditioned media from Nox2-silenced cells attenuated LPS-induced tube and network formation. Ang2 and VEGF-A treatment rescued angiogenesis in Nox2-silenced cells. We propose that Nox2 regulates LPS-mediated Ang2-dependent autocrine angiogenesis in HPMECs through the IKK?/NF-?B and MAPK/AP-1 pathways. PMID:25568324

Menden, Heather; Welak, Scott; Cossette, Stephanie; Ramchandran, Ramani; Sampath, Venkatesh

2015-02-27

338

Polyphenol Contents and Polyphenol Oxidase Activities of Some Nigerian Kolanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of polyphenol and activities of polyphenol oxidases in some Nigerian kolanuts were investigated. Garcina cola had the least polyphenol content of 15.60±1.70 (mg\\/g), while Cola nitida (red) recorded the highest value of 33.50±2.51mg\\/g. Polyphenol oxidase from Garcina cola had its optimum pH of activity in t he acidic region (pH 3), but the white and red species of

T. P. Prohp; K. E. Ekpo; E. V. Osagie; A. Osagie; H. Obi

2009-01-01

339

Lysyl oxidase activity regulates oncogenic stress response and tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest, is induced in response to various stresses. Oncogenic stress-induced senescence (OIS) results in blocked proliferation and constitutes a fail-safe program counteracting tumorigenesis. The events that enable a tumor in a benign senescent state to escape from OIS and become malignant are largely unknown. We show that lysyl oxidase activity contributes to the decision to maintain senescence. Indeed, in human epithelial cell the constitutive expression of the LOX or LOXL2 protein favored OIS escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize OIS. The relevance of these in vitro observations is supported by in vivo findings: in a transgenic mouse model of aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), increasing lysyl oxidase activity accelerates senescence escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize senescence, delay tumorigenesis, and increase survival. Mechanistically, we show that lysyl oxidase activity favors the escape of senescence by regulating the focal-adhesion kinase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that lysyl oxidase activity participates in primary tumor growth by directly impacting the senescence stability. PMID:24113189

Wiel, C; Augert, A; Vincent, D F; Gitenay, D; Vindrieux, D; Le Calvé, B; Arfi, V; Lallet-Daher, H; Reynaud, C; Treilleux, I; Bartholin, L; Lelievre, E; Bernard, D

2013-01-01

340

Lysyl oxidase activity regulates oncogenic stress response and tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest, is induced in response to various stresses. Oncogenic stress-induced senescence (OIS) results in blocked proliferation and constitutes a fail-safe program counteracting tumorigenesis. The events that enable a tumor in a benign senescent state to escape from OIS and become malignant are largely unknown. We show that lysyl oxidase activity contributes to the decision to maintain senescence. Indeed, in human epithelial cell the constitutive expression of the LOX or LOXL2 protein favored OIS escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize OIS. The relevance of these in vitro observations is supported by in vivo findings: in a transgenic mouse model of aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), increasing lysyl oxidase activity accelerates senescence escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize senescence, delay tumorigenesis, and increase survival. Mechanistically, we show that lysyl oxidase activity favors the escape of senescence by regulating the focal-adhesion kinase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that lysyl oxidase activity participates in primary tumor growth by directly impacting the senescence stability. PMID:24113189

Wiel, C; Augert, A; Vincent, D F; Gitenay, D; Vindrieux, D; Le Calvé, B; Arfi, V; Lallet-Daher, H; Reynaud, C; Treilleux, I; Bartholin, L; Lelievre, E; Bernard, D

2013-01-01

341

Reconstitution of bactericidal activity in chronic granulomatous disease cells by glucose-oxidase-containing liposomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited primary immunodeficiency characterized by phagocytes devoid of a functioning nicotinamide adenine dinucle- otide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. The failure of CGD phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) results in a marked increase in the susceptibility of affected patients to life-threatening bacte- rial and fungal infections. This study in- vestigated whether loading of CGD

Claudia E. Gerber; Gernot Bruchelt; Ulrike B. Falk; Andrea Kimpfler; Oliver Hauschild; Selim Kuci; Thomas Bachi; Dietrich Niethammer; Rolf Schubert

2001-01-01

342

Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surprising because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M; Braun, Caroline L; Davis, Lawrence C; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

2015-04-01

343

Cytochemical localisation of the NADPH diaphorase activity in the Leydig cells of the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the NADPH diaphorase activity was studied in mouse Leydig cells by means of light and electron microscopy.\\u000a When observed by the light microscope, most Leydig cells appeared intensely stained; a few cells (about 10%) showed a slightly\\u000a positive or apparently negative reaction. The inhibitory effects of NG-nitro-l-arginine and iodonium diphenyl on frozen sections suggest the colocalisation of

F. Giannessi; R. Ruffoli; M. A. Giambelluca; G. Morelli; F. Menchini Fabris

1998-01-01

344

Combined NADPH Oxidase 1 and Interleukin 10 Deficiency Induces Chronic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Causes Ulcerative Colitis-Like Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which progressively extents. Its etiology remains unknown and the number of treatments available is limited. Studies of UC patients have identified an unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the non-inflamed colonic mucosa. Animal models with impaired ER stress are sensitive to intestinal inflammation, suggesting that an unbalanced ER stress could cause inflammation. However, there are no ER stress-regulating strategies proposed in the management of UC partly because of the lack of relevant preclinical model mimicking the disease. Here we generated the IL10/Nox1dKO mouse model which combines immune dysfunction (IL-10 deficiency) and abnormal epithelium (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) deficiency) and spontaneously develops a UC-like phenotype with similar complications (colorectal cancer) than UC. Our data identified an unanticipated combined role of IL10 and Nox1 in the fine-tuning of ER stress responses in goblet cells. As in humans, the ER stress was unbalanced in mice with decreased eIF2? phosphorylation preceding inflammation. In IL10/Nox1dKO mice, salubrinal preserved eIF2? phosphorylation through inhibition of the regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 PP1R15A/GADD34 and prevented colitis. Thus, this new experimental model highlighted the central role of epithelial ER stress abnormalities in the development of colitis and defined the defective eIF2? pathway as a key pathophysiological target for UC. Therefore, specific regulators able to restore the defective eIF2? pathway could lead to the molecular remission needed to treat UC. PMID:25014110

Tréton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallée, Mélissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyčre, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frédérick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

2014-01-01

345

Evidence for the involvement of NADPH oxidase in adenosine receptor-mediated control of coronary flow using A1 and A3 knockout mice  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidase (Nox) subunits 1, 2 (gp91 phox), and 4 are the major sources for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular system. In conditions such as ischemia–reperfusion injury, and hypoxia, both ROS and adenosine are released suggesting a possible interaction. We hypothesized that ROS generated through Nox is involved in adenosine-induced coronary flow (CF) responses. Adenosine (10?8–10?5.5 mol/L) increased CF in isolated hearts from wild-type (WT; C57BL/6), A1 adenosine receptor (AR) knockout (A1KO), A3AR KO (A3KO) and A1 and A3AR double KO (A1/A3DKO) mice. The Nox inhibitors apocynin (10?5 mol/L) and gp91 ds-tat (10?6 mol/L) or the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase-mimicking agent EUK134 (50 ?mol/L) decreased the adenosine-enhanced CF in the WT and all the KOs. Additionally, adenosine increased phosphorylation of p47-phox subunit and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 without changing protein expression of Nox isoforms in WT. Moreover, intracellular superoxide production was increased by adenosine and CGS-21680 (a selective A2A agonist), but not BAY 60-6583 (a selective A2B agonist), in mouse coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) and endothelial cells (CAECs). This superoxide increase was inhibited by the gp91 ds-tat and ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059). In conclusion, adenosine-induced increase in CF in isolated heart involves Nox2-generated superoxide, possibly through ERK 1/2 phosphorylation with subsequent p47-phox subunit phosphorylation. This adenosine/Nox/ROS interaction occurs in both CASMCs and CAECs, and involves neither A1 nor A3 ARs, but possibly A2A ARs in mouse. PMID:24159377

El-Awady, Mohammed S; Rajamani, Uthra; Teng, Bunyen; Tilley, Stephen L; Mustafa, S Jamal

2013-01-01

346

Mitochondria and NADPH oxidases are the major sources of TNF-?/cycloheximide-induced oxidative stress in murine intestinal epithelial MODE-K cells.  

PubMed

TNF-?/cycloheximide (CHX)-induced apoptosis of the mouse intestinal epithelial cell line MODE-K corresponds with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the study is to investigate the sources of ROS production contributing to apoptotic cell death during TNF-?/CHX-induced oxidative stress in MODE-K cells. Total ROS or mitochondrial superoxide anion production was measured simultaneously with cell death in the absence or presence of pharmacological inhibitors of various ROS-producing systems, and of ROS scavengers/antioxidants. The influence of TNF-?/CHX on mitochondrial membrane potential (?m) and cellular oxygen consumption was also studied. TNF-?/CHX time-dependently increased intracellular total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide anion production in MODE-K cells, starting from 2h. Inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) by a pan-NOX inhibitor (VAS-2870) and a specific inhibitor of Rac1 (NSC23766) significantly reduced TNF-?/CHX-induced total ROS and cell death levels. The mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitors, amytal (IQ site of complex I) and TTFA (Qp site of complex II) showed a pronounced decrease in TNF-?/CHX-induced total ROS, mitochondrial superoxide anion and cell death levels. TNF-?/CHX treatment caused an immediate decrease in mitochondrial respiration, and a loss of ?m and increase in mitochondrial dysfunction from 1h on. The results suggest that mitochondria and NOX are the two major sources of ROS overproduction during TNF-?/CHX-induced cell death in MODE-K cells, with superoxide anions being the major ROS species. Particularly, the quinone-binding sites of mitochondrial complex I (site IQ) and complex II (site Qp) seem to be the major sites of mitochondrial ROS production. PMID:25725292

Babu, Dinesh; Leclercq, Georges; Goossens, Vera; Vanden Berghe, Tom; Van Hamme, Evelien; Vandenabeele, Peter; Lefebvre, Romain A

2015-06-01

347

Dual oxidases  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an important role in various physiological processes including host defence, mitogenesis, hormone biosynthesis, apoptosis and fertilization. Currently, the most characterized ROS-producing system operates in phagocytic cells, where ROS generated during phagocytosis act in host defence. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the NOX/DUOX family of NADPH oxidases. NOX/DUOX enzymes function in a variety of tissues, including colon, kidney, t