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1

Activation and assembly of the NADPH oxidase: a structural perspective  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidase of professional phagocytes is a crucial component of the innate immune response due to its fundamental role in the production of reactive oxygen species that act as powerful microbicidal agents. The activity of this multi-protein enzyme is dependent on the regulated assembly of the six enzyme subunits at the membrane where oxygen is reduced to superoxide anions. In the resting state, four of the enzyme subunits are maintained in the cytosol, either through auto-inhibitory interactions or through complex formation with accessory proteins that are not part of the active enzyme complex. Multiple inputs are required to disrupt these inhibitory interactions and allow translocation to the membrane and association with the integral membrane components. Protein interaction modules are key regulators of NADPH oxidase assembly, and the protein–protein interactions mediated via these domains have been the target of numerous studies. Many models have been put forward to describe the intricate network of reversible protein interactions that regulate the activity of this enzyme, but an all-encompassing model has so far been elusive. An important step towards an understanding of the molecular basis of NADPH oxidase assembly and activity has been the recent solution of the three-dimensional structures of some of the oxidase components. We will discuss these structures in the present review and attempt to reconcile some of the conflicting models on the basis of the structural information available. PMID:15588255

2004-01-01

2

Regulation of NADPH oxidase activity by Rac GTPase activating protein(s).  

PubMed Central

Activation of the NADPH oxidase of phagocytic cells requires the action of Rac2 or Rac1, members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins. Rac proteins are active when in the GTP-bound form and can be regulated by a variety of proteins that modulate the exchange of GDP for GTP and/or GTP hydrolysis. The p190 Rac GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) inhibits human neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity in a cell-free assay system with a K1 of approximately 100 nM. Inhibition by p190 was prevented by GTP gamma S, a nonhydrolyzable analogue of GTP. Similar inhibition was seen with a second protein exhibiting Rac GAP activity, CDC42Hs GAP. The effect of p190 on superoxide (O2-) formation was reversed by the addition of a constitutively GTP-bound Rac2 mutant or Rac1-GTP gamma S but not by RhoA-GTP gamma S. Addition of p190 to an activated oxidase produced no inhibitory effect, suggesting either that p190 no longer has access to Rac in the assembled oxidase or that Rac-GTP is not required for activity once O2- generation has been initiated. These data confirm the role of Rac in NADPH oxidase regulation and support the view that it is the GTP form of Rac that is necessary for oxidase activation. Finally, they raise the possibility that NADPH oxidase may be regulated by the action of GAPs for Rac proteins. Images PMID:8305740

Heyworth, P G; Knaus, U G; Settleman, J; Curnutte, J T; Bokoch, G M

1993-01-01

3

[Signaling function of phagocytic NADPH oxidase: activation of MAP kinase cascades in phagocytosis].  

PubMed

Until recently, the production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase has been considered only in the context of the oxidative damage to pathogens inside the phagosome. However, homologues of phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been found in almost all cell types, where they produce hydrogen peroxide and thereby regulate the initial intracellular stages of MAP kinase cascades. In the present work, the activation of two MAP kinase cascades, p38 and Erk1/2, during phagocytosis has been studied. It was found that phagocytosis activates both cascades. The activation of Erkl/2 is dependent, and the activation of p38 is not dependent, on the activity of NADPH oxidase. Thus, it can be stated that the activation of MAP kinases in phagocytes during phagocytosis occurs by a mechanism similar to that operating in nonphagocytizing cells, indicating the universality of the function of NADPH oxidases in different cell types. PMID:20386587

Markvicheva, K N; Gorokhovatski?, A Iu; Mishina, N M; Mudrik, N N; Vinokurov, L M; Luk'ianov, S A; Belousov, V V

2010-01-01

4

K+–Cl? cotransport mediates the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by regulating NADPH oxidase activation  

PubMed Central

Neutrophilic phagocytosis is an essential component of innate immunity. During phagocytosis, the generation of bactericidal hypochlorous acid (HOCl) requires the substrates, Cl? and superoxide produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase to kill the internalized pathogens. Here we show that the neutrophilic K+–Cl? cotransporter (KCC) constitutes a Cl? permeation pathway and mediates the bactericidal activity by regulating NADPH oxidase activation. Dihydroindenyloxy alkanoic acid (DIOA), a KCC inhibitor, suppressed the toxin- or chemical-induced efflux of 36Cl? or 86Rb+, and diminished the production of superoxide in human and murine neutrophils. Inhibition of KCC activity or knockdown of KCC expression, in particular KCC3, reduced the phosphorylation as well as the membrane recruitment of oxidase components. Activated neutrophils displayed a significant colocalization of KCC3 and early endosomal marker, indicating that KCC3 could be localized on the phagosomes once neutrophils are activated. The NADPH oxidase activity and the phosphorylation level of oxidase component were 50% lower in the neutrophils isolated from KCC3?/? mice than in the neutrophils isolated from KCC3+/+ mice. Mortality rate after intraperitoneal challenge with Staphylococcus aureus was higher in KCC3?/? mice, and the bacterial clearance was impaired in the survivors. We conclude that, in activated neutrophil, NADPH oxidase complexes are associated with KCC3 at the plasma membrane and are internalized to form phagosomes, where KCC activity and expression level affect the production of oxidants. PMID:22526882

Sun, Yuan-Ting; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Delpire, Eric; Shen, Meng-Ru

2012-01-01

5

Interaction between NADPH-oxidase and Rho-kinase in angiotensin II-induced microglial activation.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that the brain renin-angiotensin system may play a major role, via angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors, in the regulation of neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and progression of dopaminergic degeneration. Angiotensin-induced activation of the microglial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase complex and microglial Rho-kinase are particularly important in this respect. However, it is not known whether crosstalk between Rho-kinase and NADPH-oxidase leads to microglial activation. In the present study, we found that, in the substantia nigra of rats, NADPH-oxidase activation was involved in angiotensin-induced Rho-kinase activation, which, in turn, was involved in angiotensin-induced NADPH-oxidase activation. In N9 microglial cell line and primary microglial cultures, a crosstalk signaling between NADPH-oxidase and Rho-kinase occurred in a positive feedback fashion during angiotensin-induced microglial activation. Angiotensin-induced NADPH-oxidase activation and superoxide generation led to NF-?B translocation and Rho-kinase activation. Rho-kinase activation was involved in regulation of NADPH-oxidase activation via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, Rho-kinase activation, via NF-?B, upregulated AT1 receptor expression in microglial cells through a feed-forward mechanism. NADPH-oxidase and Rho-kinase pathways are known to be responsible for major components of the microglial response, such as changes involving microglial motility and phagocytosis, generation of superoxide, and release of inflammatory cytokines. The present results show that both pathways are linked by a common mechanism that may constitute a basic means of coordinating the microglial response. GLIA 2015;63:466-482. PMID:25377425

Rodriguez-Perez, Ana I; Borrajo, Ana; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Guerra, Maria J; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

2015-03-01

6

NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

2014-01-01

7

Cholesterol: A modulator of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity - A cell-free study  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidase Nox2, a multi-subunit enzyme complex comprising membrane and cytosolic proteins, catalyzes a very intense production of superoxide ions O2•?, which are transformed into other reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, it has to be activated by addition of amphiphiles like arachidonic acid (AA). It has been shown that the membrane part of phagocyte NADPH oxidase is present in lipid rafts rich in cholesterol. Cholesterol plays a significant role in the development of cardio-vascular diseases that are always accompanied by oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the influence of cholesterol on the activation process of NADPH oxidase. Our results clearly show that, in a cell-free system, cholesterol is not an efficient activator of NADPH oxidase like arachidonic acid (AA), however it triggers a basal low superoxide production at concentrations similar to what found in neutrophile. A higher concentration, if present during the assembly process of the enzyme, has an inhibitory role on the production of O2•?. Added cholesterol acts on both cytosolic and membrane components, leading to imperfect assembly and decreasing the affinity of cytosolic subunits to the membrane ones. Added to the cytosolic proteins, it retains their conformations but still allows some conformational change induced by AA addition, indispensable to activation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:25462061

Masoud, Rawand; Bizouarn, Tania; Houée-Levin, Chantal

2014-01-01

8

In vitro NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity of macrophages after Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) treatment.  

PubMed

It is believed that the enhanced microbicidal and tumoricidal capability of activated macrophages is related to the remarkable increase in the production of oxygen metabolites. Both the production of H2O2 and the oxidation of NAD(P)H are directly dependent upon NAD(P)H-oxidase. It has been established that the respiratory burst is due to activation of NAD(P)H-oxidase localised in the plasmalemma. Myeloperoxidase is believed to be involved in augmenting the cytotoxic activity of H2O2. It was observed that the macrophage cell line J774A.1 when treated with Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) and LPS showed enhanced NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase production as compared to macrophages treated with medium alone. The direct drug treatment to J774A cells showed activation as assessed by biochemical assays. These results suggest that high NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities may account for tumoricidal and microbicidal properties via macrophage activation. PMID:22295977

More, Priti; Pai, Kalpana

2012-06-01

9

Rotenone induces neurotoxicity through Rac1-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase in SHSY-5Y cells  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases are attributed to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Oxidative stress has been considered a contributing factor in the pathology of impaired UPS by promoting protein misfolding and subsequent protein aggregate formation. Increasing evidence suggests that NADPH oxidase is a likely source of excessive oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanism of activation and its role in impaired UPS is not understood. We show that activation of NADPH oxidase in a neuroblastoma cell line (SHSY-5Y) resulted in increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, elevated cytosolic calcium, ER-stress, impaired UPS, and apoptosis. Rac1 inhibition mitigated the oxidative/nitrosative stress, prevented calcium-dependent ER-stress, and partially rescued UPS function. These findings demonstrate that Rac1 and NADPH oxidase play an important role in rotenone neurotoxicity. PMID:24374334

Pal, Rituraj; Monroe, Tanner O.; Palmieri, Michela; Sardiello, Marco; Rodney, George G.

2014-01-01

10

Regulation of innate immunity by NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase is a critical regulator of both antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Activated in nature by microbes and microbial-derived products, the phagocyte NADPH oxidase is rapidly assembled, and generates reactive oxidant intermediates (ROIs) in response to infectious threat. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the NADPH oxidase characterized by recurrent and severe bacterial and fungal infections, and pathology related to excessive inflammation. Studies in CGD patients and CGD mouse models indicate that NADPH oxidase plays a key role in modulating inflammation and injury that is distinct from its antimicrobial function. The mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase mediates killing of pathogens and regulation of inflammation has broad relevance to our understanding of normal physiological immune responses and pathological states, such as acute lung injury and bacterial or fungal infections. PMID:22583699

Segal, Brahm H.; Grimm, Melissa J.; Khan, A. Nazmul H.; Han, Wei; Blackwell, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

11

NADPH-oxidase expression and in situ production of superoxide by osteoclasts actively resorbing bone  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have suggested that production of superoxide or other reactive oxygen species by activated osteoclasts may play a role in the complex process of bone resorption; however, the enzyme responsible for production of superoxide by osteoclasts has not been characterized. To determine if osteoclasts express NADPH-oxidase, a superoxide-generating enzyme found in phagocytic leukocytes, immunohistochemical studies were performed on tibia from 1-5-d-old rats using mAbs 449 and 48 and an antiserum specific for p47-phox. These antibodies recognize epitopes on the alpha and beta subunits of cytochrome b558, respectively, and the p47 cytosolic component of NADPH-oxidase. We found that osteoclasts attached to bone surfaces in tibia expressed all three components, as did mature polymorphonuclear and some mononuclear leukocytes in the bone marrow. In many adherent osteoclasts, the cytochrome b558 subunits were localized to the ruffled-border and bone interfaces. Studies were also performed on mature rat tibia that had undergone controlled fracture. By two weeks the healing fractures develop a callus rich in actively resorbing osteoclasts. Osteoclasts within the calluses, and attached to bone surface, also expressed the cytochrome b558 proteins. In addition to demonstrating the expression of NADPH-oxidase, the active production of superoxide by osteoclasts was also demonstrated in situ in freshly isolated tibia using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB)-Mn2+, a histochemical method specific for superoxide localization. Osteoclasts attached to bone surfaces contained deposits of oxidized DAB which were observed by light microscopy. Nonstimulated polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes in the bone marrow did not contain DAB deposits unless stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, a known activator of NADPH-oxidase. These findings indicate that osteoclasts contain NADPH-oxidase, and during the process of resorbing bone, are actively producing superoxide. PMID:8045939

1994-01-01

12

Fc?R-stimulated activation of the NADPH oxidase: phosphoinositide-binding protein p40phox regulates NADPH oxidase activity after enzyme assembly on the phagosome  

PubMed Central

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase generates superoxide for microbial killing, and includes a membrane-bound flavocytochrome b558 and cytosolic p67phox, p47phox, and p40phox subunits that undergo membrane translocation upon cellular activation. The function of p40phox, which binds p67phox in resting cells, is incompletely understood. Recent studies showed that phagocytosis-induced superoxide production is stimulated by p40phox and its binding to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P), a phosphoinositide enriched in membranes of internalized phagosomes. To better define the role of p40phox in Fc?R-induced oxidase activation, we used immunofluorescence and real-time imaging of Fc?R-induced phagocytosis. YFP-tagged p67phox and p40phox translocated to granulocyte phagosomes before phagosome internalization and accumulation of a probe for PI3P. p67phox and p47phox accumulation on nascent and internalized phagosomes did not require p40phox or PI3 kinase activity, although superoxide production before and after phagosome sealing was decreased by mutation of the p40phox PI3P-binding domain or wortmannin. Translocation of p40phox to nascent phagosomes required binding to p67phox but not PI3P, although the loss of PI3P binding reduced p40phox retention after phagosome internalization. We conclude that p40phox functions primarily to regulate Fc?R-induced NADPH oxidase activity rather than assembly, and stimulates superoxide production via a PI3P signal that increases after phagosome internalization. PMID:18711001

Tian, Wei; Li, Xing Jun; Stull, Natalie D.; Ming, Wenyu; Suh, Chang-Il; Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Grinstein, Sergio; Atkinson, Simon J.

2008-01-01

13

Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in endothelial cells by ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase is a major enzymatic source of oxygen free radicals in stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). The ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), isolated from the traditional medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, inhibits the release of superoxide anion (O2*-) by this enzyme. The compound acts by blocking the assembly of a functional NADPH oxidase complex. The underlying chemistry of this inhibitory activity, and its physiological significance to EC proliferation, have been investigated. A critical event is the reaction of ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidase. Analysis of this reaction reveals that apocynin is converted to a symmetrical dimer through the formation of a 5,5' carbon-carbon bond. Both reduced glutathione and L-cysteine inhibit this dimerization process. Catechols without the ortho-methoxy-substituted group do not undergo this chemical reaction. Superoxide production by an endothelial cell-free system incubated with apocynin was nearly completely inhibited after a lagtime for inhibition of ca. 2 min. Conversely, O2*- production was nearly completely inhibited, without a lagtime, by incubation with the dimeric form of apocynin. The apocynin dimer undergoes a two-electron transfer reaction with standard redox potentials of -0.75 and -1.34 V as determined by cyclic voltammetry. Inhibition of endothelial NADPH oxidase by apocynin caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. These findings identify a metabolite of an ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, which may be the active compound formed within stimulated ECs that prevents NADPH oxidase complex assembly and activation. PMID:12380644

Johnson, David K; Schillinger, Kurt J; Kwait, David M; Hughes, Chambers V; McNamara, Erin J; Ishmael, Fauod; O'Donnell, Robert W; Chang, Ming-Mei; Hogg, Michael G; Dordick, Jonathan S; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Ziegler, Linda M; Holland, James A

2002-01-01

14

Involvement of protein kinase D in Fc gamma-receptor activation of the NADPH oxidase in neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases involved in the activation of the NADPH oxidase by Fc gamma receptors in neutrophils were studied. Of three different protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, Gö 6976 inhibited the NADPH oxidase completely, whereas bisindolylmaleimide I and Ro 31-8220 caused a 70-80% inhibition. Thus a Gö 6976-sensitive, bisindolylmaleimide I/Ro 31-8220-insensitive component contributes to NADPH oxidase activation induced by Fc gamma receptors. Down-regulation of PKC isotypes resulted in inhibition of Fc gamma-receptor-activated NADPH oxidase, but a down-regulation-insensitive component was still present. This component was sensitive to Gö 6976, but insensitive to Ro 31-8220. It has been shown previously that protein kinase D/PKC-mu (PKD) shows this same pharmacology in vitro. We show that PKD is present in neutrophils and that, in contrast with PKC isotypes, PKD is not down-regulated. Therefore PKD may participate in NADPH oxidase activation. To obtain direct evidence for this we adopted an antisense approach. Antisense PKD inhibited NADPH oxidase induced by Fc gamma-receptor stimulation by 50% and the Ro 31-8220-insensitive component in the activation was inhibited by antisense PKD. In vitro kinase assays showed that PKD is activated by presenting IgG-opsonized particles to neutrophils. Furthermore, PKD localizes to the area of particle intake in the cell and phosphorylates two of the three cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase, p40(phox) and p47(phox). Taken together, these data indicate that Fc gamma receptors engage PKD in the regulation of the NADPH oxidase. PMID:11903052

Davidson-Moncada, Jan K; Lopez-Lluch, Guillermo; Segal, Anthony W; Dekker, Lodewijk V

2002-01-01

15

Molecular Insights of p47phox Phosphorylation Dynamics in the Regulation of NADPH Oxidase Activation and Superoxide Production*  

PubMed Central

Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47phox is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47phox phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47phox protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47phox is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22phox binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47phox?/? coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47phox cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47phox membrane translocation, binding to p22phox and endothelial O2? production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47phox C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47phox conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells. PMID:24970888

Meijles, Daniel N.; Fan, Lampson M.; Howlin, Brendan J.; Li, Jian-Mei

2014-01-01

16

RhoA/ROCK downregulates FPR2-mediated NADPH oxidase activation in mouse bone marrow granulocytes.  

PubMed

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) express the high and low affinity receptors to formylated peptides (mFPR1 and mFPR2 in mice, accordingly). RhoA/ROCK (Rho activated kinase) pathway is crucial for cell motility and oxidase activity regulated via FPRs. There are contradictory data on RhoA-mediated regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes. We have shown divergent Rho GTPases signaling via mFPR1 and mFPR2 to NADPH oxidase in PMNs from inflammatory site. The present study was aimed to find out the role of RhoA/ROCK in the respiratory burst activated via mFPR1 and mFPR2 in the bone marrow PMNs. Different kinetics of RhoA activation were detected with 0.1?M fMLF and 1?M WKYMVM operating via mFPR1 and mFPR2, accordingly. RhoA was translocated in fMLF-activated cells towards the cell center and juxtamembrane space versus uniform allocation in the resting cells. Specific inhibition of RhoA by CT04, Rho inhibitor I, weakly depressed the respiratory burst induced via mFPR1, but significantly increased the one induced via mFPR2. Inhibition of ROCK, the main effector of RhoA, by Y27632 led to the same effect on the respiratory burst. Regulation of mFPR2-induced respiratory response by ROCK was impossible under the cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D, whereas it persisted in the case of mFPR1 activation. Thus we suggest RhoA to be one of the regulatory and signal transduction components in the respiratory burst through FPRs in the mouse bone marrow PMNs. Both mFPR1 and mFPR2 binding with a ligand trigger the activation of RhoA. FPR1 signaling through RhoA/ROCK increases NADPH-oxidase activity. But in FPR2 action RhoA/ROCK together with cytoskeleton-linked systems down-regulates NADPH-oxidase. This mechanism could restrain the reactive oxygen species dependent damage of own tissues during the chemotaxis of PMNs and in the resting cells. PMID:24880063

Filina, Julia V; Gabdoulkhakova, Aida G; Safronova, Valentina G

2014-10-01

17

Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Activation of Rap1 GTPase can improve the integrity of the barrier of the retina pigment epithelium (RPE) and reduce choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation also reduces CNV. We hypothesize that Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and thereby reduces CNV formation. Using a murine model of laser-induced CNV, we determined that reduced Rap1 activity in RPE/choroid occurred with CNV formation and that activation of Rap1 by 2?-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT)-reduced laser-induced CNV via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. In RPE, inhibition of Rap1 by Rap1 GTPase-activating protein (Rap1GAP) increased ROS generation, whereas activation of Rap1 by 8CPT reduced ROS by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit p22phox with NOX4 or cytoplasmic subunit p47phox. Activation of NADPH oxidase with Rap1GAP reduced RPE barrier integrity via cadherin phosphorylation and facilitated choroidal EC migration across the RPE monolayer. Rap1GAP-induced ROS generation was inhibited by active Rap1a, but not Rap1b, and activation of Rap1a by 8CPT in Rap1b?/? mice reduced laser-induced CNV, in correlation with decreased ROS generation in RPE/choroid. These findings provide evidence that active Rap1 reduces CNV by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits and increasing the integrity of the RPE barrier.—Wang, H., Jiang, Y., Shi, D., Quilliam, L. A., Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, M., Wittchen, E. S., Li, D. Y., Hartnett, M. E. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization. PMID:24043260

Wang, Haibo; Jiang, Yanchao; Shi, Dallas; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Wittchen, Erika S.; Li, Dean Y.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

2014-01-01

18

Activation of NADPH oxidase is essential, but not sufficient, in controlling intracellular multiplication of Burkholderia pseudomallei in primary human monocytes.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Innate immune mechanisms against this pathogen, which might contribute to outcomes of melioidosis, are little known. We demonstrated here that B. pseudomallei could activate NADPH oxidase in primary human monocytes as judged by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p40(phox) phosphorylation after infection. However, as similar to other intracellular bacteria, this bacterium was able to resist and multiply inside monocytes despite being able to activate NADPH oxidase. In the presence of NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium or apocynin, intracellular multiplication of B. pseudomallei was significantly increased, suggesting that NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production is essential in suppressing intracellular multiplication of B. pseudomallei. Additionally, interferon-? (IFN-?)-mediated intracellular killing of B. pseudomallei requires NADPH oxidase activity, even though ROS level was not detected at higher levels in IFN-?-treated infected monocytes. Altogether, these results imply that the activation of NADPH plays an essential role in suppressing intracellular multiplication of B. pseudomallei in human monocytes, although this enzyme is not sufficient to stop intracellular multiplication. PMID:24376210

Wikraiphat, Chanthiwa; Pudla, Matsayapan; Baral, Pankaj; Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Utaisincharoen, Pongsak

2014-06-01

19

Reactive oxygen species production and activation mechanism of the rice NADPH oxidase OsRbohB.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by plant NADPH oxidases (NOXes) are important in plant innate immunity. The Oryza sativa respiratory burst oxidase homologue B (OsRbohB) gene encodes a NOX the regulatory mechanisms of which are largely unknown. Here, we used a heterologous expression system to demonstrate that OsRbohB shows ROS-producing activity. Treatment with ionomycin, a Ca(2+) ionophore, and calyculin A, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, activated ROS-producing activity; it was thus OsRbohB activated by both Ca(2+) and protein phosphorylation. Mutation analyses revealed that not only the first EF-hand motif but also the upstream amino-terminal region were necessary for Ca(2+)-dependent activation, while these regions are not required for phosphorylation-induced ROS production. PMID:22528669

Takahashi, Shinya; Kimura, Sachie; Kaya, Hidetaka; Iizuka, Ayako; Wong, Hann Ling; Shimamoto, Ko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

2012-07-01

20

Localizing NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules to mediate various biological responses, including cell migration, growth, and gene expression. ROS are diffusible and short-lived molecules. Thus, localizing the ROS signal at the specific subcellular compartment is essential for activating redox signaling events after receptor activation. NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase is one of the major sources of ROS in vasculature; it consists of a catalytic subunit (Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, or Nox5), p22phox, p47phox, p67phox, and the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1. Targeting of NADPH oxidase to focal complexes in lamellipodia and membrane ruffles through the interaction of p47phox with the scaffold proteins TRAF4 and WAVE1 provides a mechanism for achieving localized ROS production, which is required for directed cell migration. ROS are believed to inactivate protein tyrosine phosphatases, which concentrate in specific subcellular compartments, thereby establishing a positive feedback system that activates redox signaling pathways to promote cell movement. Additionally, ROS production may be localized through interactions of NADPH oxidase with signaling platforms associated with lipid rafts and caveolae, as well as with endosomes. There is also evidence that NADPH oxidase is found in the nucleus, indicating its involvement in redox-responsive gene expression. This review focuses on targeting of NADPH oxidase to discrete subcellular compartments as a mechanism of localizing ROS and activation of downstream redox signaling events that mediate various cell functions.

Masuko Ushio-Fukai (IL; University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago REV)

2006-08-22

21

Activation of endothelial cells after exposure to ambient ultrafine particles: The role of NADPH oxidase  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have shown that ultrafine particles (UFPs) may pass from the lungs to the circulation because of their very small diameter, and induce lung oxidative stress with a resultant increase in lung epithelial permeability. The direct effects of UFPs on vascular endothelium remain unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to UFPs leads to endothelial cell O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} generation via NADPH oxidase and results in activation of endothelial cells. Our results showed that UFPs, at a non-toxic dose, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVEC) that was inhibited by pre-treatment with the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, but not with the mitochondrial inhibitor, rotenone. UFP-induced ROS generation in MPMVEC was abolished by p67{sup phox} siRNA transfection and UFPs did not cause ROS generation in MPMVEC isolated from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice. UFP-induced ROS generation in endothelial cells was also determined in vivo by using a perfused lung model with imaging. Moreover, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining results showed that MPMVEC treated with UFPs resulted in the translocation of cytosolic proteins of NADPH oxidase, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox} and rac 1, to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase in the pulmonary endothelium is involved in ROS generation following exposure to UFPs. To investigate the activation of endothelial cells by UFP-induced oxidative stress, we determined the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MPMVEC. Our results showed that exposure of MPMVEC to UFPs caused increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs that was blocked by pre-treatment with DPI or p67{sup phox} siRNA. Exposure of MPMVEC obtained from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice to UFPs did not cause increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. These findings confirm that UFPs can cause endothelial cells to generate ROS directly via activation of NADPH oxidase. UFP-induced ROS lead to activation of MAPKs through induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs that may further result in endothelial dysfunction through production of cytokines such as IL-6. Our results suggest that endothelial oxidative stress may be an important mechanism for PM-induced cardiovascular effects.

Mo Yiqun; Wan Rong [Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, 485 E. Gray Street, Louisville, KY 40209 (United States); Chien Sufan [Department of Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Tollerud, David J. [Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, 485 E. Gray Street, Louisville, KY 40209 (United States); Zhang Qunwei [Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, 485 E. Gray Street, Louisville, KY 40209 (United States)], E-mail: Qunwei.Zhang@louisville.edu

2009-04-15

22

Anionic lipid-induced conformational changes in human phagocyte flavocytochrome b precede assembly and activation of the NADPH oxidase complex.  

PubMed

Phagocyte NADPH oxidases generate superoxide at high rates in defense against infectious agents, a process regulated by second messenger anionic lipids using incompletely understood mechanisms. We reconstituted the catalytic core of the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase, flavocytochrome b (Cyt b) in 99% phosphatidylcholine vesicles in order to correlate anionic lipid-dependent conformational changes in membrane-bound Cyt b and oxidase activity. The anionic lipid 10:0 phosphatidic acid (10:0 PA) specifically induced conformational changes in Cyt b as measured by a combination of fluorescence resonance energy transfer methods and size exclusion chromatography. The fluorescence lifetime of a complex between Cyt b and Cascade Blue-derivatized anti-p22(phox) antibody (CCB-CS9), increased after exposure to 10:PA by ?50% of the change observed when the complex is dissociated, indicating a structural rearrangement of p22(phox) and/or the Cyt b heme prosthetic groups. Half of the quenching relaxation occurred at 10:0 PA concentrations permissive to less than 10% full NADPH oxidase activity, but saturated near the saturation in activity in a matched cell-free oxidase assay. We conclude that anionic lipids modulate the conformation of Cyt b in the membrane and suggest they may serve to modulate the structure of Cyt b as a control mechanism for the NADPH oxidase. PMID:22430035

Taylor, Ross M; Riesselman, Marcia H; Lord, Connie I; Gripentrog, Jeannie M; Jesaitis, Algirdas J

2012-05-01

23

Cytokine-mediated induction of MHC class II in human neutrophils is dependent on NADPH oxidase activity.  

PubMed

In response to selected cytokines, neutrophils are induced to express MHC class II and acquire properties of antigen-presenting cells. Here we show that (a) GM-CSF- and IFN-?-mediated induction of MHC class II in human neutrophils is associated with intracellular ROS up-regulation, (b) cell-permeable ROS scavengers MnTMPyP and polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase and NADPH oxidase inhibitors diphenylene iodonium and apocynin abrogate both the cytokine-mediated ROS elevation and the induction of MHC class II and (c) neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients which lack NADPH oxidase activity fail to express MHC class II in response to the cytokines. Thus, NADPH oxidase activity is required for the cytokine-mediated induction of MHC class II expression in neutrophils. PMID:25464901

Pliyev, Boris K; Dimitrieva, Tatyana V; Savchenko, Valery G

2015-01-01

24

Phosphorylation of the leucocyte NADPH oxidase subunit p47(phox) by casein kinase 2: conformation-dependent phosphorylation and modulation of oxidase activity.  

PubMed Central

The leucocyte NADPH oxidase of neutrophils is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyses the reduction of oxygen to O(-)(2) at the expense of NADPH. The enzyme is dormant in resting neutrophils but becomes active when the cells are exposed to the appropriate stimuli. During oxidase activation, the highly basic cytosolic oxidase component p47(phox) becomes phosphorylated on several serines and migrates to the plasma membrane. Protein kinase CK2 is an essential serine/threonine kinase present in all eukaryotic organisms. The leucocyte NADPH oxidase subunit p47(phox) has several putative CK2 phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we report that CK2 is able to catalyse the phosphorylation of p47(phox) in vitro. Phosphoamino acid analysis of phosphorylated p47(phox) by CK2 indicated that the phosphorylation occurs on serine residues. CNBr mapping and phosphorylation of peptides containing the putative site of CK2 indicated that the main phosphorylated residues are Ser-208 and Ser-283 in the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, and Ser-348 in the C-terminal domain of p47(phox). Dependence of phosphorylation on the conformation of p47(phox) is supported by the finding that p47(phox) undergoes better phosphorylation by CK2 in the presence of arachidonic acid, a known activator of NADPH oxidase which induces conformational changes in p47(phox). In addition, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-o-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole, a CK2 inhibitor, potentiates formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced NADPH oxidase activity in DMSO-differentiated HL-60 cells. Taken together, we propose that CK2 is the p47(phox) kinase, and that phosphorylation of p47(phox) by CK2 regulates the deactivation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:11535139

Park, H S; Lee, S M; Lee, J H; Kim, Y S; Bae, Y S; Park, J W

2001-01-01

25

The requirement for phospholipase A2 for activation of the assembled NADPH oxidase in human neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors suppressed simultaneously, in a dose-dependent manner, the activation of NADPH oxidase and the release of 3H-labelled arachidonic acid ([3H]AA) stimulated by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or opsonized zymosan (OZ) in human neutrophils. In spite of total inhibition of superoxide production in the presence of the PLA2 inhibitors, 10 microM bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) or 20 microM quinacrine, a maximal phosphorylation of p47 and translocation of p47 and p67 to the neutrophil membranes induced by PMA or OZ was observed. Addition of 10 microM free AA, which by itself did not stimulate superoxide generation, restored oxidase activity in neutrophils treated with PLA2 inhibitors. These findings indicate that phosphorylation and translocation of the cytosolic factors to the membranes are not sufficient for generating superoxide; a functional PLA2 is also needed to stimulate the oxidase activity. The inhibition of PLA2 activity did not prevent the phosphorylation of p47, suggesting that the location of PLA2 is downstream of and does not activate protein kinase C. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8280102

Dana, R; Malech, H L; Levy, R

1994-01-01

26

Targeting NADPH oxidases in vascular pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is a molecular dysregulation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is characterized by a loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Large clinical trials such as HOPE and HPS have not shown a clinical benefit of antioxidant vitamin C or vitamin E treatment, putting into question the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. A change in the understanding of the molecular nature of oxidative stress has been driven by the results of these trials. Oxidative stress is no longer perceived as a simple imbalance between the production and scavenging of ROS, but as a dysfunction of enzymes involved in ROS production. NADPH oxidases are at the center of these events, underlying the dysfunction of other oxidases including eNOS uncoupling, xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus NADPH oxidases are important therapeutic targets. Indeed, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) as well as drugs interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibit NADPH oxidase activation and expression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, AT1 receptor antagonists (sartans) and aliskiren, as well as spironolactone or eplerenone, have been discussed. Molecular aspects of NADPH oxidase regulation must be considered, while thinking about novel pharmacological targeting of this family of enzymes consisting of several homologs Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4 and Nox5 in humans. In order to properly design trials of antioxidant therapies, we must develop reliable techniques for the assessment of local and systemic oxidative stress. Classical antioxidants could be combined with novel oxidase inhibitors. In this review, we discuss NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as VAS2870, VAS3947, GK-136901, S17834 or plumbagin. Therefore, our efforts must focus on generating small molecular weight inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, allowing the selective inhibition of dysfunctional NADPH oxidase homologs. This appears to be the most reasonable approach, potentially much more efficient than non-selective scavenging of all ROS by the administration of antioxidants. PMID:22405985

Schramm, Agata; Matusik, Pawe?; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz J

2012-01-01

27

Elimination of NADPH Oxidase Activity Promotes Reductive Stress and Sensitizes the Heart to Ischemic Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The NADPH oxidase family (Nox) produces reactive oxygen species by adding the electron donated by NADPH to oxygen. Excessive reactive oxygen species production under a variety of pathological conditions has been attributed to increased Nox activity. Here, we aimed at investigating the role of Nox in cardiac ischemic injury through gain? and loss?of?function approaches. Methods and Results We modulated Nox activity in the heart by cardiac?specific expression of Nox4 and dominant negative Nox4. Modulation of Nox activity drastically changes the cellular redox status. Increasing Nox activity by cardiac?specific overexpression of Nox4 imposed oxidative stress on the myocardium [increased NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H and decreased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio] and worsened cardiac energetics and contractile function after ischemia?reperfusion. Overexpression of the dominant negative Nox4 (DN), which abolished the Nox function, led to a markedly reduced state [decreased NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H and increased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio] at baseline and paradoxically promoted mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production during ischemia resulting in no recovery of heart function after reperfusion. Limiting the generation of reducing equivalent through modulating carbon substrates availability partially restored the NAD+/NADH ratio and protected dominant negative Nox4 hearts from ischemic injury. Conclusions This study reveals an important role of Nox in cardiac redox regulation and highlights the complexity of developing therapies that affect the intricately connected redox states. PMID:24470522

Yu, Qiujun; Lee, Chi Fung; Wang, Wang; Karamanlidis, Georgios; Kuroda, Junya; Matsushima, Shouji; Sadoshima, Junichi; Tian, Rong

2014-01-01

28

TNF-? Dilates Cerebral Arteries via NAD(P)H Oxidase-Dependent Ca2+ Spark Activation  

PubMed Central

Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), a pleiotropic cytokine, is elevated during stroke and cerebral ischemia. TNF-? regulates arterial diameter, although mechanisms mediating this effect are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TNF-? regulates the diameter of resistance-size (?150 ?m diameter) cerebral arteries by modulating local and global intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signals in smooth muscle cells. Laser-scanning confocal imaging revealed that TNF-? increased Ca2+ spark and Ca2+ wave frequency, but reduced global Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in smooth muscle cells of intact arteries. TNF-? elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in smooth muscle cells of intact arteries and this was prevented by apocynin or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), NAD(P)H oxidase blockers, but was unaffected by inhibitors of other ROS generating enzymes. In voltage-clamped (-40 mV) cells, TNF-? increased the frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ spark-induced large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa) channel transients ?1.7-fold and ?1.4-fold, respectively. TNF-?-induced transient KCa current activation was reversed by apocynin or MnTMPyP, a membrane-permeant antioxidant, and prevented by intracellular dialysis of catalase. TNF-? induced reversible and similar amplitude dilations in either endothelium-intact or-denuded pressurized (60 mm Hg) cerebral arteries. MnTMPyP, thapsigargin, a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATP-ase blocker that inhibits Ca2+ sparks, and iberiotoxin, a KCa channel blocker, reduced TNF-?-induced vasodilations to between 15 and 33% of control. In summary, data indicate that TNF-? activates NAD(P)H oxidase, resulting in an increase in intracellular H2O2 that stimulates Ca2+ sparks and transient KCa currents, leading to a reduction in global [Ca2+]i, and vasodilation. PMID:16267103

Cheranov, Sergey Y.; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

2005-01-01

29

Sphingomyelinase promotes oxidant production and skeletal muscle contractile dysfunction through activation of NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Elevated concentrations of sphingomyelinase (SMase) have been detected in a variety of diseases. SMase has been shown to increase muscle derived oxidants and decrease skeletal muscle force; however, the sub-cellular site of oxidant production has not been elucidated. Using redox sensitive biosensors targeted to the mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (Nox2), we demonstrate that SMase increased Nox2-dependent ROS and had no effect on mitochondrial ROS in isolated FDB fibers. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of Nox2 activity prevented SMase induced ROS production and provided protection against decreased force production in the diaphragm. In contrast, genetic overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the mitochondria did not prevent increased ROS production and offered no protection against decreased diaphragm function in response to SMase. Our study shows that SMase induced ROS production occurs in specific sub-cellular regions of skeletal muscle; however, the increased ROS does not completely account for the decrease in muscle function. PMID:25653619

Loehr, James A.; Abo-Zahrah, Reem; Pal, Rituraj; Rodney, George G.

2015-01-01

30

Generation of a conditional null allele of NADPH oxidase activator 1 (NOXA1).  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase complexes are multiprotein assemblies that generate reactive oxygen species in a variety of mammalian tissues. The canonical phagocytic oxidase consists of a heterodimeric, enzymatic core comprised of the transmembrane proteins, CYBB andCYBA and is regulated, in part, by an "organizing" function of NCF1 and an "activating" activity of NCF2. In contexts outside of the phagocyte, these regulatory functions may be encoded not only by NCF1 and NCF2, but also alternatively by their respective paralogues, NOXO1 and NOXA1. To allow tissue-specific dissection of Noxa1 function in mouse, we have generated an allele of Noxa1 suitable for conditional inactivation. Moreover, by crossing Noxa1 conditional allele carriers to B6.129S4-Meox2(tm1(Cre)Sor)/J mice, we have generated first, Noxa1-null heterozygotes, and ultimately, Noxa1-null homozygotes. Through the thoughtful use of tissue-specific, Cre-expressing mouse strains, the Noxa1 conditional allele will offer insight into the roles of NOXA1 in the variety of tissues in which it is expressed. PMID:20645308

Flaherty, John P; Spruce, Catrina A; Fairfield, Heather E; Bergstrom, David E

2010-09-01

31

NADPH Oxidase Promotes Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Pulmonary Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous, filamentous fungi, which can cause invasive aspergillosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD, reflecting the critical role for NADPH oxidase in antifungal host defense. Activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils can be coupled to the release of proteins and chromatin that comingle in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can augment extracellular antimicrobial host defense. NETosis can be driven by NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore undertook an analysis of whether NADPH oxidase was required for NETosis in Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Oropharyngeal instillation of live Aspergillus hyphae induced neutrophilic pneumonitis in both wild-type and NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox?/?) mice which had resolved in wild-type mice by day 5 but progressed in p47phox?/? mice. NETs, identified by immunostaining, were observed in lungs of wild-type mice but were absent in p47phox?/? mice. Using bona fide NETs and nuclear chromatin decondensation as an early NETosis marker, we found that NETosis required a functional NADPH oxidase in vivo and ex vivo. In addition, NADPH oxidase increased the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils. Together, our results show that NADPH oxidase is required for pulmonary clearance of Aspergillus hyphae and generation of NETs in vivo. We speculate that dual modulation of NETosis and apoptosis by NADPH oxidase enhances antifungal host defense and promotes resolution of inflammation upon infection clearance. PMID:24549323

Röhm, Marc; Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.

2014-01-01

32

Endosomal NADPH oxidase regulates c-Src activation following hypoxia/reoxygenation injury  

PubMed Central

c-Src has been shown to activate NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) following H/R (hypoxia/reoxygenation) by acting as a redox-dependent I?B? (inhibitory ?B) tyrosine kinase. In the present study, we have investigated the redox-dependent mechanism of c-Src activation following H/R injury and found that ROS (reactive oxygen species) generated by endosomal Noxs (NADPH oxidases) are critical for this process. Endocytosis following H/R was required for the activation of endosomal Noxs, c-Src activation, and the ability of c-Src to tyrosine-phosphorylate I?B?. Quenching intra-endosomal ROS during reoxygenation inhibited c-Src activation without affecting c-Src recruitment from the plasma membrane to endosomes. However, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown of Rac1 prevented c-Src recruitment into the endosomal compartment following H/R. Given that Rac1 is a known activator of Nox1 and Nox2, we investigated whether these two proteins were required for c-Src activation in Nox-deficient primary fibroblasts. Findings from these studies suggest that both Nox1 and Nox2 participate in the initial redox activation of c-Src following H/R. In summary, our results suggest that Rac1-dependent Noxs play a critical role in activating c-Src following H/R injury. This signalling pathway may be a useful therapeutic target for ischaemia/reperfusion-related diseases. PMID:18397177

Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yulong; Marden, Jennifer J.; Banfi, Botond; Engelhardt, John F.

2013-01-01

33

Ceramide kinase regulates TNF?-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity and eicosanoid biosynthesis in neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

A persistent inflammatory reaction is a hallmark of chronic and acute pathologies in the central nervous system (CNS) and greatly exacerbates neuronal degeneration. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory processes provoking oxidative stress, eicosanoid biosynthesis, and the production of bioactive lipids. We established in neuronal cells that TNF? exposure dramatically increased Mg(2+)-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) activity thus generating the bioactive lipid mediator ceramide essential for subsequent NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation and oxidative stress. Since many of the pleiotropic effects of ceramide are attributable to its metabolites, we examined whether ceramide kinase (CerK), converting ceramide to ceramide-1-phosphate, is implicated both in NOX activation and enhanced eicosanoid production in neuronal cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that TNF? exposure of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma caused a profound increase in CerK activity. Depleting CerK activity using either siRNA or pharmacology completely negated NOX activation and eicosanoid biosynthesis yet, more importantly, rescued neuronal viability in the presence of TNF?. These findings provided evidence for a critical function of ceramide-1-phospate and thus CerK activity in directly linking sphingolipid metabolism to oxidative stress. This vital role of CerK in CNS inflammation could provide a novel therapeutic approach to intervene with the adverse consequences of a progressive CNS inflammation. PMID:22230689

Barth, Brian M; Gustafson, Sally J; Hankins, Jody L; Kaiser, James M; Haakenson, Jeremy K; Kester, Mark; Kuhn, Thomas B

2012-06-01

34

Diacylglycerol Kinases Terminate Diacylglycerol Signaling during the Respiratory Burst Leading to Heterogeneous Phagosomal NADPH Oxidase Activation*  

PubMed Central

It is commonly assumed that all phagosomes have identical molecular composition. This assumption has remained largely unchallenged due to a paucity of methods to distinguish individual phagosomes. We devised an assay that extends the utility of nitro blue tetrazolium for detection and quantification of NAPDH oxidase (NOX) activity in individual phagosomes. Implementation of this assay revealed that in murine macrophages there is heterogeneity in the ability of individual phagosomes to generate superoxide, both between and within cells. To elucidate the molecular basis of the variability in NOX activation, we employed genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors to evaluate the uniformity in the distribution of phospholipid mediators of the oxidative response. Despite variability in superoxide generation, the distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, and phosphatidic acid was nearly identical in all phagosomes. In contrast, diacylglycerol (DAG) was not generated uniformly across the phagosomal population, varying in a manner that directly mirrored superoxide production. Modulation of DAG levels suggested that NOX activation is precluded when phagosomes fail to reach a critical DAG concentration. In particular, forced expression of diacylglycerol kinase ? abrogated DAG accumulation at the phagosome, leading to impaired respiratory burst. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of DAG kinases or expression of an inactive diacylglycerol kinase ? mutant increased the proportion of DAG-positive phagosomes, concomitantly potentiating phagosomal NOX activity. Our data suggest that diacylglycerol kinases limit the extent of NADPH oxidase activation, curtailing the production of potentially harmful reactive oxygen species. The resulting heterogeneity in phagosome responsiveness could enable the survival of a fraction of invading microorganisms. PMID:23814057

Schlam, Daniel; Bohdanowicz, Michal; Chatilialoglu, Alexandros; Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Ueyama, Takehiko; Du, Guangwei; Grinstein, Sergio; Fairn, Gregory D.

2013-01-01

35

NADPH oxidase (NOX2) activity is a modifier of survival in ALS.  

PubMed

NADPH-oxidases (NOX) catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a role in the development of neurological diseases, particularly those generated by the phagocytic isoform NOX2. Increased ROS has been observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) SOD1 transgenic mouse, and in this preclinical model the inactivation of NOX2 decreases ROS production and extends survival. Our aim was to evaluate NOX2 activity measuring neutrophil oxidative burst in a cohort of 83 ALS patients, and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Oxidative burst was measured directly in fresh blood using Phagoburst™ assay by flow cytometry. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), emitted in response to different stimuli, leads to produce ROS and corresponds to the percentage of oxidizing cells and their enzymatic activity (GeoMean). No difference was found between the MFI values in cases and controls. NOX2 activity was independent from gender and age, and in patients was not related to disease duration, site of onset (bulbar vs. spinal), or ALSFRS-R score. However, patients with a NOX2 activity lower than the median value showed a 1-year increase of survival from onset (p = 0.011). The effect of NOX2 was independent from other known prognostic factors. These findings are in keeping with the observations in the mouse model of ALS, and demonstrate the strong role of NOX2 in modifying progression in ALS patients. A proper modulation of NOX2 activity might hold therapeutic potential for ALS. PMID:25178511

Marrali, Giuseppe; Casale, Federico; Salamone, Paolina; Fuda, Giuseppe; Caorsi, Cristiana; Amoroso, Antonio; Brunetti, Maura; Restagno, Gabriella; Barberis, Marco; Bertuzzo, Davide; Canosa, Antonio; Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Chiò, Adriano

2014-11-01

36

Intestinal NADPH Oxidase 2 Activity Increases in a Neonatal Rat Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a complication of prematurity. The etiology is unknown, but is related to enteral feeding, ischemia, infection, and inflammation. Reactive oxygen species production, most notably superoxide, increases in NEC. NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates superoxide, but its activity in NEC remains unknown. We hypothesize that NOX-derived superoxide production increases in NEC. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, formula-fed, formula/LPS, formula/hypoxia, and NEC (formula, hypoxia, and LPS). Intestinal homogenates were analyzed for NADPH-dependent superoxide production. Changes in superoxide levels on days 0-4 were measured. Inhibitors for nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME) and NOX2 (GP91-ds-tat) were utilized. RT-PCR for eNOS, NOX1, GP91phox expression was performed. Immunofluorescence studies estimated the co-localization of p47phox and GP91phox in control and NEC animals on D1, D2, and D4. NEC pups generated more superoxide than controls on D4, while all other groups were unchanged. NADPH-dependent superoxide production was greater in NEC on days 0, 3, and 4. GP91-ds-tat decreased superoxide production in both groups, with greater inhibition in NEC. L-NAME did not alter superoxide production. Temporally, superoxide production varied minimally in controls. In NEC, superoxide generation was decreased on day 1, but increased on days 3-4. GP91phox expression was higher in NEC on days 2 and 4. NOX1 and eNOS expression were unchanged from controls. GP91phox and p47phox had minimal co-localization in all control samples and NEC samples on D1 and D2, but had increased co-localization on D4. In conclusion, this study proves that experimentally-induced NEC increases small intestinal NOX activity. All components of NEC model are necessary for increased NOX activity. NOX2 is the major source, especially as the disease progresses. PMID:25517730

Welak, Scott R.; Rentea, Rebecca M.; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Heinzerling, Nathan; Biesterveld, Ben; Liedel, Jennifer L.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Fredrich, Katherine M.; Gourlay, David M.

2014-01-01

37

Natural Compounds as Modulators of NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells, but their relative unbalance triggers also diseases through intracellular damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. The NOX physiological functions concern host defence, cellular signaling, regulation of gene expression, and cell differentiation. On the other hand, increased NOX activity contributes to a wide range of pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, organ failure, and cancer. Therefore targeting these enzymatic ROS sources by natural compounds, without affecting the physiological redox state, may be an important tool. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of NOX enzymes in physiology and pathology and provides an overview of the currently available NADPH oxidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts such as polyphenols. PMID:24381714

2013-01-01

38

Premature Skin Aging Features Rescued by Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Activity in XPC-Deficient Mice.  

PubMed

Xeroderma pigmentosum type C (XP-C) is characterized mostly by a predisposition to skin cancers and accelerated photoaging, but little is known about premature skin aging in this disease. By comparing young and old mice, we found that the level of progerin and p16(INK4a) expression, ?-galactosidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase with age, were higher in young Xpc(-/-) mice than in young Xpc(+/+) ones. The expression level of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial functions in the skin of young Xpc(-/-) was as low as in control aged Xpc(+/+)animals. Furthermore, the metabolic profile in young Xpc(-/-) mice resembled that found in aged Xpc(+/+) mice. Furthermore, premature skin aging features in young Xpc(-/-) mice were mostly rescued by inhibition of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity by using a novel NOX1 peptide inhibitor, suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress due to overactivation of NOX1 plays a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 01 December 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.511. PMID:25437426

Hosseini, Mohsen; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Raad, Houssam; Harfouche, Ghida; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Mazurier, Frederic; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

2014-12-01

39

Oxidative stress through activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in hypertensive mice with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

We have developed an experimental model of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in transgenic mice expressing human renin and human angiotensinogen (R + /A +) treated with high-salt diet and N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). We investigated whether oxidative stress is associated with spontaneous ICH in R + /A + mice. R + /A + mice on high-salt diet and l-NAME presented neurologic signs 57±13 (mean±s.e.m.) days after the start of treatment. Intracranial hemorrhage was shown with histologic examination. Levels of superoxide in brain homogenate were significantly increased in R + /A + mice with ICH (118±10RLU per sec per mg; RLU, relative light unit) compared with age-matched control mice (19±1) and R + /A + mice without ICH (53±3). NAD(P)H oxidase activity was significantly higher in R + /A + mice with ICH (34,933±2,420 RLU per sec per mg) than in control mice (4,984±248) and R + /A + mice without ICH (15,069±917). These results suggest that increased levels of superoxide are due, at least in part, to increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity. Increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity preceded signs of ICH, and increased further when R+ /A + mice developed ICH. These findings suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to spontaneous ICH in chronic hypertension. PMID:18301433

Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Miller, Jordan D; Chu, Yi; Baumbach, Gary L; Wilson, Saul; Faraci, Frank M; Sigmund, Curt D; Heistad, Donald D

2011-01-01

40

?-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Helicobacter pylori-Induced Oncogene Expression and Hyperproliferation by Suppressing the Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Gastric Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Hyperproliferation and oncogene expression are observed in the mucosa of Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma. Expression of oncogenes such as ?-catenin and c-myc is related to oxidative stress. ?-Lipoic acid (?-LA), a naturally occurring thiol compound, acts as an antioxidant and has an anticancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ?-LA on H. pylori-induced hyperproliferation and oncogene expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells by determining cell proliferation (viable cell numbers, thymidine incorporation), levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activation (enzyme activity, subcellular levels of NADPH oxidase subunits), activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-?B, AP-1), expression of oncogenes (?-catenin, c-myc), and nuclear localization of ?-catenin. Furthermore, we examined whether NADPH oxidase mediates oncogene expression and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells using treatment of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. As a result, ?-LA inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and, thus, reduced ROS production, resulting in inhibition on activation of NF-?B and AP-1, induction of oncogenes, nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. DPI inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-?B and AP-1, oncogene expression and hyperproliferation by reducing ROS levels in AGS cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibiting NADPH oxidase by ?-LA could prevent oncogene expression and hyperproliferation occurring in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. PMID:25210229

Byun, Eunyoung; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Hyeyoung

2014-01-01

41

Cross talk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological and pathological processes. In recent years, a feed-forward regulation of the ROS sources has been reported. The interactions between the main cellular sources of ROS, such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, however, remain obscure. This work summarizes the latest findings on the role of cross talk between mitochondria and NADPH

Sergey Dikalov

2011-01-01

42

Involvement of activation of NADPH oxidase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in renal cell injury induced by zinc.  

PubMed

Zinc is employed as a supplement; however, zinc-related nephropathy is not generally known. In this study, we investigated zinc-induced renal cell injury using a pig kidney-derived cultured renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK(1), with proximal kidney tubule-like features, and examined the involvement of free radicals and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cell injury. The LLC-PK(1) cells showed early uptake of zinc (30 microM), and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an index of cell injury, was observed 24 hr after uptake. Three hours after zinc exposure, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased. An antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), inhibited a zinc-related increase in ROS generation and zinc-induced renal cell injury. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), inhibited a zinc-related increase in ROS generation and cell injury. We investigated translocation from the cytosol fraction of the p67(phox) subunit, which is involved in the activation of NADPH oxidase, to the membrane fraction, and translocation was induced 3 hr after zinc exposure. We examined the involvement of ERK1/2 in the deterioration of zinc-induced renal cell injury, and the association between ERK1/2 and an increase in ROS generation. Six hours after zinc exposure, the activation (phosphorylation) of ERK1/2 was observed. An antioxidant, DPPD, inhibited the zinc-related activation of ERK1/2. An MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, almost completely inhibited zinc-related cell injury (the release of LDH), but did not influence ROS generation. These results suggest that early intracellular uptake of zinc by LLC-PK(1) cells causes the activation of NADPH oxidase, and that ROS generation by the activation of the enzyme leads to the deterioration of renal cell injury via the activation of ERK1/2. PMID:15928461

Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Kawai, Yoshiko; Kohda, Yuka; Gemba, Munekazu

2005-05-01

43

Centrally administered lipopolysaccharide elicits sympathetic excitation via NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling  

PubMed Central

Objective The mechanisms by which inflammation activates sympathetic drive in heart failure and hypertension remain ill-defined. In this study, an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce the expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in the brain, in the absence of other excitatory mediators, and the downstream signaling pathways leading to sympathetic activation were examined using ICV injections of blocking or inhibiting agents. Methods and Results In anesthetized rats, ICV injection of LPS (5 µg) increased (p<0.05) renal sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure and heart rate. LPS increased (p<0.05) hypothalamic mRNA for NAD(P)H oxidase subunits p47 phox and gp91phox, NAD(P)H-oxidase-dependent superoxide generation, hypothalamic mRNA for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of TNF-? and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, dihydroethidium staining for superoxide expression and c-Fos activity (indicating neuronal excitation) increased. The superoxide scavenger tempol significantly (p<0.05) diminished the expression of inflammatory mediators, as well as superoxide expression and neuronal excitation in paraventricular nucleus. SB203580 (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor) also reduced the expression of inflammatory mediators in hypothalamus and CSF. Tempol, apocynin (NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor), SB203580 and NS398 (COX-2 inhibitor) all reduced CSF PGE2 and the sympatho-excitatory response to LPS. LPS also increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor mRNA, a response blocked by apocynin and tempol but not by SB203580. Conclusion These findings suggest that central inflammation in pathophysiological conditions activates the sympathetic nervous system via NAD(P)H-oxidase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent synthesis of PGE2. PMID:20027123

Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Yu, Yang; Wei, Shun-Guang; Felder, Robert B.

2010-01-01

44

Antioxidant effect of imperatorin from Angelica dahurica in hypertension via inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation and MAPK pathway.  

PubMed

Imperatorin (IMP) is an active furocoumarin in the traditional Chinese medicine Angelica dahurica and has been demonstrated to have vasodilatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IMP on blood pressure (BP) and antioxidant effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. SHR were administered IMP (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg/d) or tempol (18 mg/kg/d) daily by gavage for 12 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, proteinuria levels, and superoxide dismutase activity were evaluated with commercial kits. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits of the renal cortical tissues were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Twenty-four hour urinary 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2? was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Systolic BP and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by treatment with IMP (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg/d) in SHR. Meanwhile, we found that renal cortical superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in IMP-treated groups. Renal cortical and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances' levels, the 24-hour urinary excretion of 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2?, and proteinuria in the IMP-treated group, were lower than SHR group. After that, we found the messenger RNA expressions and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were markedly reduced after IMP treated in SHR. IMP also reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in renal cortical in SHR. In addition, H2O2-induced ROS production in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was markedly attenuated by IMP. H2O2-induced activation of MAPK, protein kinase B, and expression of NADPH oxidase were also attenuated by pretreatment of IMP. In summary, IMP showed antihypertensive effect via prevention of renal injury not only by reducing NADPH oxidase but also by inhibiting of MAPK pathway. PMID:24973900

Cao, Yanjun; Zhang, Yanmin; Wang, Nan; He, Langchong

2014-08-01

45

A Nonpolar Blueberry Fraction Blunts NADPH Oxidase Activation in Neuronal Cells Exposed to Tumor Necrosis Factor-?  

PubMed Central

Inflammation and oxidative stress are key to the progressive neuronal degeneration common to chronic pathologies, traumatic injuries, and aging processes in the CNS. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) orchestrates cellular stress by stimulating the production and release of neurotoxic mediators including reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidases (NOX), ubiquitously expressed in all cells, have recently emerged as pivotal ROS sources in aging and disease. We demonstrated the presence of potent NOX inhibitors in wild Alaska bog blueberries partitioning discretely into a nonpolar fraction with minimal antioxidant capacity and largely devoid of polyphenols. Incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with nonpolar blueberry fractions obstructed the coalescing of lipid rafts into large domains disrupting NOX assembly therein and abolishing ROS production characteristic for TNF-? exposure. These findings illuminate nutrition-derived lipid raft modulation as a novel therapeutic approach to blunt inflammatory and oxidative stress in the aging or diseased CNS. PMID:22530077

Gustafson, Sally J.; Dunlap, Kriya L.; McGill, Colin M.; Kuhn, Thomas B.

2012-01-01

46

Germling fusion via conidial anastomosis tubes in the grey mould Botrytis cinerea requires NADPH oxidase activity.  

PubMed

In many filamentous ascomycete species, the early steps of colony development include fusion between germinating vegetative spores (conidial germlings). Often these fusion events are mediated by specialized hyphal structures, so-called conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs). Here, we show that germling fusion in the grey mould Botrytis cinerea is mediated by hyphal structures possessing the typical features of CATs. Formation of these structures is delayed when spores are germinating on complex media compared to growth on poor substrates. Fusion frequency is also influenced by the growth conditions of the precultures from which spores were obtained. During germination on hydrophobic plant surfaces, which induce pathogenic development, CAT formation is significantly suppressed. Screening of existing B. cinerea gene knockout mutants identified strains lacking the NADPH oxidase BcNoxA or the potential Nox regulator BcNoxR as fusion deficient, suggesting a potential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling in CAT formation and fusion. PMID:22385620

Roca, M Gabriela; Weichert, Martin; Siegmund, Ulrike; Tudzynski, Paul; Fleissner, André

2012-03-01

47

Role of NADPH Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in Mediating Inducible VT/VF and Triggered Activity in a Canine Model of Myocardial Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF) of focal origin due to triggered activity (TA) from delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) is reproducibly inducible after anterior coronary artery occlusion. Both VT/VF and TA can be blocked by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase would block VT/VF. Methods: 69 dogs received apocynin (APO), 4 mg/kg intraveneously (IV), oxypurinol (OXY), 4 mg/kg IV, or both APO and OXY (BOTH) agents, or saline 3 h after coronary occlusion. Endocardium from ischemic sites (3-D mapping) was sampled for Rac1 (GTP-binding protein in membrane NADPH oxidase) activation or standard microelectrode techniques. Results (mean ± SE, * p < 0.05): VT/VF originating from ischemic zones was blocked by APO in 6/10 *, OXY in 4/9 *, BOTH in 5/8 * or saline in 1/27; 11/16 VT/VFs blocked were focal. In isolated myocardium, TA was blocked by APO (10?6 M) or OXY (10?8 M). Rac1 levels in ischemic endocardium were decreased by APO or OXY. Conclusion: APO and OXY suppressed focal VT/VF due to DADs, but the combination of the drugs was not more effective than either alone. Both drugs inhibited ischemic Rac1 with inhibition by OXY suggesting ROS-induced ROS. The inability to totally prevent VT/VF suggests that other mechanisms also contribute to ischemic VT. PMID:25375191

Martins, James B.; Chaudhary, Ashok K.; Jiang, Shuxia; Kwofie, Michael; Mackie, Prescott; Miller, Francis J.

2014-01-01

48

The ADP-stimulated NADPH oxidase activates the ASK-1/MKK4/JNK pathway in alveolar macrophages  

PubMed Central

The role of H2O2 as a second messenger in signal transduction pathways is well established. We show here that the NADPH oxidase-dependent production of O2•? and H2O2 or respiratory burst in alveolar macrophages (AM) (NR8383 cells) is required for ADP-stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation and the activation of JNK1/2, MKK4 (but not MKK7) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1). ASK1 binds only to the reduced form of thioredoxin (Trx). ADP induced the dissociation of ASK1/Trx complex and thus resulted in ASK1 activation, as assessed by phosphorylation at Thr845, which was enhanced after treatment with aurothioglucose (ATG), an inhibitor of Trx reductase. While dissociation of the complex implies Trx oxidation, protein electrophoretic mobility shift assay detected oxidation of Trx only after bolus H2O2 but not after ADP stimulation. These results demonstrate that the ADP-stimulated respiratory burst activated the ASK1-MKK4-JNK1/c-Jun signaling pathway in AM and suggest that transient and localized oxidation of Trx by the NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of H2O2 may play a critical role in ASK1 activation and the inflammatory response. PMID:17015265

Liu, Honglei; Zhang, Hongqiao; Iles, Karen E.; Rinna, Alessandra; Merrill, Gary; Yodoi, Junji; Torres, Martine; Forman, Henry Jay

2009-01-01

49

Siglec-E Promotes ?2-Integrin-dependent NADPH Oxidase Activation to Suppress Neutrophil Recruitment to the Lung*  

PubMed Central

Siglec-E is a sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin expressed on murine myeloid cells. It has recently been shown to function as a negative regulator of ?2-integrin-dependent neutrophil recruitment to the lung following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we demonstrate that siglec-E promoted neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following CD11b ?2-integrin ligation with fibrinogen in a sialic acid-dependent manner, but it had no effect on ROS triggered by a variety of other stimulants. Siglec-E promotion of ROS was likely mediated via Akt activation, because siglec-E-deficient neutrophils plated on fibrinogen exhibited reduced phosphorylation of Akt, and the Akt inhibitor, MK2206, blocked fibrinogen-induced ROS. In vivo imaging showed that siglec-E also promoted ROS in acutely inflamed lungs following exposure of mice to LPS. Importantly, siglec-E-promoted ROS were required for its inhibitory function, as the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, reversed the siglec-E-mediated suppression of neutrophil recruitment and blocked neutrophil ROS production in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that siglec-E functions as an inhibitory receptor of neutrophils via positive regulation of NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production. Our findings have implications for the inhibitory role of siglec-9 on human neutrophils in sepsis and acute lung injury. PMID:24895121

McMillan, Sarah J.; Sharma, Ritu S.; Richards, Hannah E.; Hegde, Vikas; Crocker, Paul R.

2014-01-01

50

Functional effect of the p22phox -930A/G polymorphism on p22phox expression and NADPH oxidase activity in hypertension.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress induced by superoxide is implicated in hypertension. NADPH oxidase is the main source of superoxide in phagocytic and vascular cells, and the p22phox subunit is involved in NADPH oxidase activation. Recently we reported an association of -930A/G polymorphism in the human p22phox gene promoter with hypertension. This study was designed to investigate the functional role of this polymorphism in hypertension. We thus investigated the relationships between the -930A/G polymorphism and p22phox expression and NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide production in phagocytic cells from 70 patients with essential hypertension and 70 normotensive controls. Genotyping of the polymorphism was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. NADPH oxidase activity was determined by chemiluminescence assays, and p22phox mRNA and protein expression was measured by Northern and Western blotting, respectively. Compared with hypertensive subjects with the AA/AG genotype, hypertensive subjects with the GG genotype exhibited increased (P<0.05) phagocytic p22phox mRNA (1.26+/-0.06 arbitrary unit [AU] versus 0.99+/-0.03 AU) and protein levels (0.58+/-0.05 AU versus 0.34+/-0.04 AU) and enhanced NADPH oxidase activity (1998+/-181 counts/s versus 1322+/-112 counts/s). No differences in these parameters were observed among genotypes in normotensive cells. Transfection experiments on vascular smooth muscle cells showed that the A-to-G substitution of this polymorphism produced an increased reporter gene expression in hypertensive cells. Nitric oxide production, as assessed by measurement of serum nitric oxide metabolites, was lower in GG hypertensive subjects than in AA/AG hypertensive subjects. In conclusion, these results suggest that hypertensive subjects carrying the GG genotype of the p22phox -930A/G polymorphism are highly exposed to NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:15210651

San José, Gorka; Moreno, María U; Oliván, Sara; Beloqui, Oscar; Fortuño, Ana; Díez, Javier; Zalba, Guillermo

2004-08-01

51

P2x7 Receptor-NADPH Oxidase-Axis Mediates Protein radical Formation And Kupffer Cell Activation in Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Steatohepatitis in Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

While some studies show that carbon tetrachloride-mediated metabolic oxidative stress exacerbates steatohepatitic-like lesions in obese mice, the redox mechanisms that trigger the innate immune system and accentuate the inflammatory cascade remain unclear. Here we have explored the role of the purinergic receptor P2X7-NADPH oxidase axis as a primary event in recognizing the heightened release of extracellular ATP from CCl4-treated hepatocytes and generating redoxmediated Kupffer cell activation in obese mice. We found that an underlying condition of obesity led to the formation of protein radicals and post-translational nitration, primarily in Kupffer cells, at 24 h post-CCl4 administration. The free radical-mediated oxidation of cellular macromolecules, which was NADPH oxidase- and P2X7 receptor-dependent, correlated well with the release of TNF- ? and MCP-2 from Kupffer cells. The Kupffer cells in CCl4-treated mice exhibited increased expression of MHC Class II proteins and showed an activated phenotype. Increased expression of MHC Class II was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin , P2X7 receptor antagonist A438709 hydrochloride, and genetic deletions of the NADPH oxidase p47 phox subunit or the P2X7 receptor. The P2X7 receptor acted upstream of NADPH oxidase activation by up-regulating the expression of the p47 phox subunit and p47 phox binding to the membrane subunit, gp91 phox. We conclude that the P2X7 receptor is a primary mediator of oxidative stress-induced exacerbation of inflammatory liver injury in obese mice via NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanisms. PMID:22343416

Chatterjee, Saurabh; Rana, Ritu; Corbett, Jean; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Goldstein, Joyce; Mason, Ronald P.

2012-01-01

52

Early Events Induced by the Elicitor Cryptogein in Tobacco Cells: Involvement of a Plasma Membrane NADPH Oxidase and Activation of Glycolysis and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.  

PubMed Central

Application of the elicitor cryptogein to tobacco (cv Xanthi) is known to evoke external medium alkalinization, active oxygen species production, and phytoalexin synthesis. These are all dependent on an influx of calcium. We show here that cryptogein also induces calcium-dependent plasma membrane depolarization, chloride efflux, cytoplasm acidification, and NADPH oxidation without changes in NAD+ and ATP levels, indicating that the elicitor-activated redox system, responsible for active oxygen species production, uses NADPH in vivo. NADPH oxidation activates the functioning of the pentose phosphate pathway, leading to a decrease in glucose 6-phosphate and to the accumulation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, 3- and 2-phosphoglyceric acid, and phosphoenolpyruvate. By inhibiting the pentose phosphate pathway, we demonstrate that the activation of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase is responsible for active oxygen species production, external alkalinization, and acidification of the cytoplasm. A model is proposed for the organization of the cryptogein responses measured to date. PMID:12237354

Pugin, A.; Frachisse, J. M.; Tavernier, E.; Bligny, R.; Gout, E.; Douce, R.; Guern, J.

1997-01-01

53

Essential role of nuclear factor-kappaB for NADPH oxidase activity in normal and anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia leukocytes.  

PubMed

This work investigated the functional role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in respiratory burst activity and in expression of the human phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase genes CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, and NCF2. U937 cells with a stably transfected repressor of NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha-S32A/S36A) demonstrated significantly lower superoxide release and lower CYBB and NCF1 gene expression compared with control U937 cells. We further tested Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells from patients with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID), an inherited disorder of NF-kappaB function. Superoxide release and CYBB gene expression by EDA-ID cells were significantly decreased compared with healthy cells and similar to cells from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X91(0) CGD). NCF1 gene expression in EDA-ID S32I cells was decreased compared with healthy control cells and similar to that in autosomal recessive (A47(0)) CGD cells. Gel shift assays demonstrated loss of recombinant human p50 binding to a NF-kappaB site 5' to the CYBB gene in U937 cells treated with NF-kappaB inhibitors, repressor-transfected U937 cells, and EDA-ID patients' cells. Zymosan phagocytosis was not affected by transfection of U937 cells with the NF-kappaB repressor. These studies show that NF-kappaB is necessary for CYBB and NCF1 gene expression and activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase in this model system. PMID:18523147

Luengo-Blanco, Marcos; Prando, Carolina; Bustamante, Jacinta; Aragão-Filho, Walmir Cutrim; Pereira, Paulo Vitor Soeiro; Rehder, Jussara; Padden, Carolyn; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Newburger, Peter E; Condino-Neto, Antonio

2008-08-15

54

Essential role of nuclear factor-?B for NADPH oxidase activity in normal and anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia leukocytes  

PubMed Central

This work investigated the functional role of nuclear factor–?B (NF-?B) in respiratory burst activity and in expression of the human phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase genes CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, and NCF2. U937 cells with a stably transfected repressor of NF-?B (I?B?-S32A/S36A) demonstrated significantly lower superoxide release and lower CYBB and NCF1 gene expression compared with control U937 cells. We further tested Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells from patients with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID), an inherited disorder of NF-?B function. Superoxide release and CYBB gene expression by EDA-ID cells were significantly decreased compared with healthy cells and similar to cells from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X910 CGD). NCF1 gene expression in EDA-ID S32I cells was decreased compared with healthy control cells and similar to that in autosomal recessive (A470) CGD cells. Gel shift assays demonstrated loss of recombinant human p50 binding to a NF-?B site 5? to the CYBB gene in U937 cells treated with NF-?B inhibitors, repressor-transfected U937 cells, and EDA-ID patients' cells. Zymosan phagocytosis was not affected by transfection of U937 cells with the NF-?B repressor. These studies show that NF-?B is necessary for CYBB and NCF1 gene expression and activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase in this model system. PMID:18523147

Luengo-Blanco, Marcos; Prando, Carolina; Bustamante, Jacinta; Aragão-Filho, Walmir Cutrim; Pereira, Paulo Vitor Soeiro; Rehder, Jussara; Padden, Carolyn; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Condino-Neto, Antonio

2008-01-01

55

Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation  

SciTech Connect

Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. > GSE reduced arsenic-mediated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). > Beneficial effects of GSE on As-induced liver injury was via inhibition of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation.

Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing; Niu Nannan; Li Wenjie; Liu Fangli; Zhao Yang; Yu Zengli, E-mail: zly@zzu.edu.cn

2011-08-01

56

Angiotensin AT2 receptor stimulation inhibits activation of NADPH oxidase and ameliorates oxidative stress in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease in CATH.a cells.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has long been considered as a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The brain has an independent local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates NADPH-dependent oxidases, which are a major source of superoxide and are upregulated in major aging-related diseases such as hypertension and neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we firstly examined whether CGP42112, an AT2 receptor (AT2R) agonist, may exert direct protective effects on the rotenone-induced CATH.a cell injury in vitro. We used CATH.a cell line to evaluate changes in cultured dopaminergic neuron levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also evaluated expression of NADPH oxidase, AT1 and AT2 receptors in treated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), rotenone, Ang II, AT2R agonist CGP42112, or AT2R antagonist PD123319, alone and combined (n=6, each group). Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to determine messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of the AT1, AT2 receptors and NADPH oxidase. ROS generation was determined by the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe assay. The levels of SOD and GSH were measured by using available kits. In our study, CGP42112 (100nM) significantly reduced rotenone-induced oxidative stress and elevated the total SOD activity and GSH level. In addition, CGP42112 significantly increased AT2R expression and attenuated Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase activation, and these effects were completely abolished by the AT2R antagonist, PD123319 (1?M). Our results suggest that CGP42112 attenuates rotenone-induced oxidative stress in CATH.a neuron via activating AT2R and suppressing NADPH oxidase expression. PMID:25446015

Lu, Jie; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Teng; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Hongrui; Gao, Qing; Pan, Yang; Tian, Youyong; Zhang, Yingdong

2015-01-01

57

STIM1 for stimulation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

In this issue of Blood, Zhang et al show that mice lacking the stromal-interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) gene in bone marrow cells are more susceptible to bacterial infection but are resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury because of defective activation of phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. PMID:24700712

Ye, Richard D

2014-04-01

58

Role of NADPH oxidase versus neutrophil proteases in antimicrobial host defense.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in mediating antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Patients with chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates (ROIs), suffer from life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. The mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase mediate host defense are unclear. In addition to ROI generation, neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation is linked to the release of sequestered proteases that are posited to be critical effectors of host defense. To definitively determine the contribution of NADPH oxidase versus neutrophil serine proteases, we evaluated susceptibility to fungal and bacterial infection in mice with engineered disruptions of these pathways. NADPH oxidase-deficient mice (p47(phox-/-)) were highly susceptible to pulmonary infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. In contrast, double knockout neutrophil elastase (NE)(-/-)×cathepsin G (CG)(-/-) mice and lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin C/dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI)-deficient mice that are defective in neutrophil serine protease activation demonstrated no impairment in antifungal host defense. In separate studies of systemic Burkholderia cepacia infection, uniform fatality occurred in p47(phox-/-) mice, whereas NE(-/-)×CG(-/-) mice cleared infection. Together, these results show a critical role for NADPH oxidase in antimicrobial host defense against A. fumigatus and B. cepacia, whereas the proteases we evaluated were dispensable. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase dependent pathways separate from neutrophil serine protease activation are required for host defense against specific pathogens. PMID:22163282

Vethanayagam, R Robert; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Grimm, Melissa J; Lewandowski, David C; Pham, Christine T N; Blackwell, Timothy S; Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Walsh, Thomas J; Urban, Constantin F; Segal, Brahm H

2011-01-01

59

Combating oxidative stress in vascular disease: NADPH oxidases as therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases are a family of enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The NOX1 (NADPH oxidase 1) and NOX2 oxidases are the major sources of ROS in the artery wall in conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and ageing, and so they are important contributors to the oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation that underlies arterial remodelling and atherogenesis. In this Review, we advance the concept that compared to the use of conventional antioxidants, inhibiting NOX1 and NOX2 oxidases is a superior approach for combating oxidative stress. We briefly describe some common and emerging putative NADPH oxidase inhibitors. In addition, we highlight the crucial role of the NADPH oxidase regulatory subunit, p47phox, in the activity of vascular NOX1 and NOX2 oxidases, and suggest how a better understanding of its specific molecular interactions may enable the development of novel isoform-selective drugs to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21629295

Drummond, Grant R.; Selemidis, Stavros; Griendling, Kathy K.; Sobey, Christopher G.

2012-01-01

60

Renalase is an ?-NAD(P)H oxidase/anomerase.  

PubMed

Renalase is a protein hormone secreted into the blood by the kidney that is reported to lower blood pressure and slow heart rate. Since its discovery in 2005, renalase has been the subject of conjecture pertaining to its catalytic function. While it has been widely reported that renalase is the third monoamine oxidase (monoamine oxidase C) that oxidizes circulating catecholamines such as epinephrine, there has been no convincing demonstration of this catalysis in vitro. Renalase is a flavoprotein whose structural topology is similar to known oxidases, lysine demethylases, and monooxygenases, but its active site bears no resemblance to that of any known flavoprotein. We have identified the catalytic activity of renalase as an ?-NAD(P)H oxidase/anomerase, whereby low equilibrium concentrations of the ?-anomer of NADPH and NADH initiate rapid reduction of the renalase flavin cofactor. The reduced cofactor then reacts with dioxygen to form hydrogen peroxide and releases nicotinamide dinucleotide product in the ?-form. These processes yield an apparent turnover number (0.5 s(-1) in atmospheric dioxygen) that is at least 2 orders of magnitude more rapid than any reported activity with catechol neurotransmitters. This highly novel activity is the first demonstration of a role for naturally occurring ?-NAD(P)H anomers in mammalian physiology and the first report of a flavoprotein catalyzing an epimerization reaction. PMID:23964689

Beaupre, Brett A; Carmichael, Brenton R; Hoag, Matthew R; Shah, Dhara D; Moran, Graham R

2013-09-18

61

Reduction of NADPH-oxidase activity ameliorates the cardiovascular phenotype in a mouse model of Williams-Beuren Syndrome.  

PubMed

A hallmark feature of Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a generalized arteriopathy due to elastin deficiency, presenting as stenoses of medium and large arteries and leading to hypertension and other cardiovascular complications. Deletion of a functional NCF1 gene copy has been shown to protect a proportion of WBS patients against hypertension, likely through reduced NADPH-oxidase (NOX)-mediated oxidative stress. DD mice, carrying a 0.67 Mb heterozygous deletion including the Eln gene, presented with a generalized arteriopathy, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy, associated with elevated angiotensin II (angII), oxidative stress parameters, and Ncf1 expression. Genetic (by crossing with Ncf1 mutant) and/or pharmacological (with ang II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, or NOX inhibitor apocynin) reduction of NOX activity controlled hormonal and biochemical parameters in DD mice, resulting in normalized blood pressure and improved cardiovascular histology. We provide strong evidence for implication of the redox system in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular disease in a mouse model of WBS. The phenotype of these mice can be ameliorated by either genetic or pharmacological intervention reducing NOX activity, likely through reduced angII-mediated oxidative stress. Therefore, anti-NOX therapy merits evaluation to prevent the potentially serious cardiovascular complications of WBS, as well as in other cardiovascular disorders mediated by similar pathogenic mechanism. PMID:22319452

Campuzano, Victoria; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Terrado, Verena; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Carolina; Coustets, Mathilde; Menacho-Márquez, Mauricio; Nevado, Julián; Bustelo, Xosé R; Francke, Uta; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

2012-02-01

62

Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase is synergistic with glial iNOS expression in inducing neuronal death: a dual-key mechanism of inflammatory neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inflammation-activated glia are seen in many CNS pathologies and may kill neurons through the release of cytotoxic mediators, such as nitric oxide from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and possibly superoxide from NADPH oxidase (NOX). We set out to determine the relative role of these species in inducing neuronal death, and to test the dual-key hypothesis that the production of

Palwinder Mander; Guy C Brown

2005-01-01

63

HaCaT Keratinocytes Overexpressing the S100 Proteins S100A8 and S100A9 Show Increased NADPH Oxidase and NF-?B Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium- and arachidonic acid (AA)-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 are involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation in phagocytes. They are specifically expressed in myeloid cells, and are also found in epithelial cells in various (patho)physiological conditions. We have investigated the consequences of S100A8\\/A9 overexpression in epithelial cell lines on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and downstream

Malgorzata Benedyk; Claudia Sopalla; Wolfgang Nacken; Günther Bode; Harut Melkonyan; Botond Banfi; Claus Kerkhoff

2007-01-01

64

p21-Activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes.  

PubMed

Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca(2+) handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1(-/-)) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca(2+) transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1(-/-) VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1(-/-) VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca(2+) release events and waves. The Ca(2+) overload in Pak1(-/-) VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1(-/-) VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47(phox-/-)) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1(-/-) VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca(2+) overload in Pak1(-/-) VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca(2+) overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident. PMID:24380729

DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R John; Banach, Kathrin

2014-02-01

65

p21-activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes  

PubMed Central

Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca2+ handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1-/-) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1-/- VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1-/- VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca2+]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca2+ release events and waves. The Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1-/- VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47phox-/-) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1-/- VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca2+ overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident. PMID:24380729

DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R. John; Banach, Kathrin

2014-01-01

66

NecroX-7 prevents oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cardiomyopathy. In the present study, NecroXs, novel class of mitochondrial ROS/RNS scavengers, were evaluated for cardioprotection in in vitro and in vivo model, and the putative mechanism of the cardioprotection of NecroX-7 was investigated by global gene expression profiling and subsequent biochemical analysis. NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced death of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes at EC(50)=0.057 ?M. In doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy in rats, NecroX-7 significantly reduced the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which were increased by DOX treatment (p<0.05). Microarray analysis revealed that 21 genes differentially expressed in tBHP-treated H9C2 cells were involved in 'Production of reactive oxygen species' (p=0.022), and they were resolved by concurrent NecroX-7 treatment. Gene-to-gene networking also identified that NecroX-7 relieved cell death through Ncf1/p47phox and Rac2 modulation. In subsequent biochemical analysis, NecroX-7 inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity by 53.3% (p<0.001). These findings demonstrate that NecroX-7, in part, provides substantial protection of cardiomyopathy induced by tBHP or DOX via NOX-mediated cell death. PMID:22659508

Park, Joonghoon; Park, Eok; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Park, Ji-hoon; Koo, Sun Young; Kwak, Hyo-Shin; Park, Heui Sul; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Myoungsub; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Seo, Dong Ook; Kim, Soon Ha

2012-08-15

67

ATP stimulates PGE(2)/cyclin D1-dependent VSMCs proliferation via STAT3 activation: role of PKCs-dependent NADPH oxidase/ROS generation.  

PubMed

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that function as synthetic units play important roles in cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, have been shown to act via activation of P2 purinoceptors implicated in various inflammatory diseases, we hypothesized that extracellular nucleotides contribute to vascular diseases via up-regulation of inflammatory proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in VSMCs. However, the mechanisms of ATP-induced cPLA2 and COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis remain largely unclear. We showed that pretreatment with the inhibitors of STAT3 (CBE), NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or apocynin (APO)], ROS [N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC)], and PKC (Ro-318220, Gö6983, or Rottlerin) or transfection with siRNAs of STAT3 and p47(phox) markedly inhibited ATP?S-induced cPLA2 and COX-2 mRNA/protein expression and promoter activity and PGE2 secretion. ATP?S further stimulated PKC, p47(phox), and STAT3 translocation. Moreover, ATP?S-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and translocation was inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitors of PKC, NADPH oxidase, and ROS. ATP?S enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and ROS generation in VSMCs, which were reduced by pretreatment with Ro-318220, Gö6983, or Rottlerin. Finally, we found that ATP?S significantly induced cyclin D1 expression and VSMCs proliferation, which were inhibited by pretreatment with NAC, APO, DPI, Ro-318220, Gö6983, Rottlerin, or CBE or transfection with siRNAs of COX-2 and cyclin D1. We also demonstrated that ATP?S induced cyclin D1 expression via a PGE2-dependent pathway. These results suggested that ATP?S-induced cPLA2/COX-2 expression and PGE2 secretion is mediated through a PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/STAT3-dependent pathway in VSMCs. PMID:23318226

Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Chih-Chung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Yang, Chuen-Mao

2013-04-01

68

Quercetin and its metabolites inhibit the membrane NADPH oxidase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts antioxidant effects reducing vascular superoxide (O2(-)) and improving endothelial function in animal models of cardiovascular disease. Herein we evaluated the effects of quercetin, and its plasma metabolites, on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity, the main source of O2(-) in the vessel wall, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin and kaempferol inhibited the NADPH-stimulated lucigenin-chemiluminescence signal in VSMCs from both strains. The inhibitory effect of quercetin-3-glucuronide increased after prolonged incubation and was inhibited in the presence of the ?-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharolactone. These effects were unrelated to their O2(-) scavenging properties, since they induced only a small inhibition of the rate of pyrogallol autoxidation at high concentrations. All bioflavonoids tested acted as non-competitive inhibitors with respect to NADPH. In conclusion, quercetin and its metabolites inhibit the NADPH oxidase activity in VSMCs reducing O2(-) generation more efficiently than their effect as O2(-) scavengers. The effect of quercetin-3-glucuronide was due to deconjugation and release of free quercetin. The effect is similar in VSMCs from normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25562607

Jimenez, R; Lopez-Sepulveda, R; Romero, M; Toral, M; Cogolludo, A; Perez-Vizcaino, F; Duarte, J

2015-02-11

69

NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells.  

PubMed

TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47(phox), p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. PMID:23774252

Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der

2013-10-15

70

Nadph oxidase regulates alveolar epithelial sodium channel activity and lung fluid balance in vivo via O2? signaling  

PubMed Central

To define roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in maintaining lung fluid balance in vivo, we used two novel whole animal imaging approaches. Live X-ray fluoroscopy enabled quantification of air space fluid content of C57BL/6J mouse lungs challenged by intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; results were confirmed by using conventional lung wet-to-dry weight ratios and Evans blue as measures of pulmonary edema. Visualization and quantification of ROS produced in lungs was performed in mice that had been administered a redox-sensitive dye, hydro-Cy7, by IT instillation. We found that inhibition of NADPH oxidase with a Rac-1 inhibitor, NSC23766, resulted in alveolar flooding, which correlated with a decrease in lung ROS production in vivo. Consistent with a role for Nox2 in alveolar fluid balance, Nox2?/? mice showed increased retention of air space fluid compared with wild-type controls. Interestingly, fluoroscopic analysis of C57BL/6J lungs IT instilled with LPS showed an acute stimulation of lung fluid clearance and ROS production in vivo that was abrogated by the ROS scavenger tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO). Acute application of LPS increased the activity of 20 pS nonselective ENaC channels in rat type 1 cells; the average number of channel and single-channel open probability (NPo) increased from 0.14 ± 0.04 to 0.62 ± 0.23. Application of TEMPO to the same cell-attached recording caused an immediate significant decrease in ENaC NPo to 0.04 ± 0.03. These data demonstrate that, in vivo, ROS has the capacity to stimulate lung fluid clearance by increasing ENaC activity. PMID:22160304

Goodson, Preston; Kumar, Amrita; Jain, Lucky; Kundu, Kousik; Murthy, Niren; Koval, Michael

2012-01-01

71

Nadph oxidase regulates alveolar epithelial sodium channel activity and lung fluid balance in vivo via O?? signaling.  

PubMed

To define roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in maintaining lung fluid balance in vivo, we used two novel whole animal imaging approaches. Live X-ray fluoroscopy enabled quantification of air space fluid content of C57BL/6J mouse lungs challenged by intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; results were confirmed by using conventional lung wet-to-dry weight ratios and Evans blue as measures of pulmonary edema. Visualization and quantification of ROS produced in lungs was performed in mice that had been administered a redox-sensitive dye, hydro-Cy7, by IT instillation. We found that inhibition of NADPH oxidase with a Rac-1 inhibitor, NSC23766, resulted in alveolar flooding, which correlated with a decrease in lung ROS production in vivo. Consistent with a role for Nox2 in alveolar fluid balance, Nox2(-/-) mice showed increased retention of air space fluid compared with wild-type controls. Interestingly, fluoroscopic analysis of C57BL/6J lungs IT instilled with LPS showed an acute stimulation of lung fluid clearance and ROS production in vivo that was abrogated by the ROS scavenger tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO). Acute application of LPS increased the activity of 20 pS nonselective ENaC channels in rat type 1 cells; the average number of channel and single-channel open probability (NPo) increased from 0.14 ± 0.04 to 0.62 ± 0.23. Application of TEMPO to the same cell-attached recording caused an immediate significant decrease in ENaC NPo to 0.04 ± 0.03. These data demonstrate that, in vivo, ROS has the capacity to stimulate lung fluid clearance by increasing ENaC activity. PMID:22160304

Goodson, Preston; Kumar, Amrita; Jain, Lucky; Kundu, Kousik; Murthy, Niren; Koval, Michael; Helms, My N

2012-02-15

72

NADPH oxidase is involved in angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cardiac muscle cells: Effects of apocynin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II stimulates NADPH oxidase activity in vascular cells. However, it is not fully understood whether angiotensin II, which plays an important role in heart failure, stimulates NADPH oxidase activation and expression in cardiac myocytes. Previous studies have shown that angiotensin II induces myocyte apoptosis, but whether the change is mediated via NADPH oxidase remains to be elucidated. In this

Fuzhong Qin; Ravish Patel; Chen Yan; Weimin Liu

2006-01-01

73

PtdIns(3)P-DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS OF p40PHOX IN ACTIVATION OF THE NEUTROPHIL NADPH OXIDASE  

PubMed Central

In response to bacterial infection, the neutrophil NADPH oxidase assembles on phagolysosomes to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxygen, forming superoxide and downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS). The active oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome together with three cytosolic phox proteins, p40phox, p47phox and p67phox, and the small GTPase Rac2, and is regulated through a process involving Protein Kinase Cs, MAP kinases, and PI 3-kinases. The role of p40phox remains less well defined than those of p47phox and p67phox. We investigated the biological role of p40phox in differentiated PLB-985 neutrophils, and show that depletion of endogenous p40phox using lentiviral shRNA reduces ROS production and impairs bacterial killing under conditions where p67phox levels remain constant. Biochemical studies using a cytosol-reconstituted permeabilized human neutrophil cores system that recapitulates intracellular oxidase activation revealed that depletion of p40phox reduces both the maximal rate and total amount of ROS produced without altering the KM of the oxidase for NADPH. Using a series of mutants, p47PX-p40phox chimeras, and deletion constructs, we found that the p40phox PX domain has PtdIns(3)P-dependent and independent functions. Translocation of p67phox requires the PX domain but not 3-phosphoinositide binding. Activation of the oxidase by p40phox, however, requires both PtdIns(3)P binding and an SH3 domain competent to bind to poly-Pro ligands. Mutations that disrupt the closed auto-inhibited form of full-length p40phox can increase oxidase activity ?2.5-fold above that of wild-type p40phox, but maintain the requirement for PX and SH3 domain function. We present a model where p40phox translocates p67phox to the region of the cytochrome and subsequently switches the oxidase to an activated state dependent upon PtdIns(3)P and SH3 domain engagement. PMID:18029359

Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Glazier, Christina M.; Stewart, Mary Q.; Brown, Glenn E.; Ellson, Chris D.; Yaffe, Michael B.

2009-01-01

74

Uric Acid Promotes Apoptosis in Human Proximal Tubule Cells by Oxidative Stress and the Activation of NADPH Oxidase NOX 4  

PubMed Central

Mild hyperuricemia has been linked to the development and progression of tubulointerstitial renal damage. However the mechanisms by which uric acid may cause these effects are poorly explored. We investigated the effect of uric acid on apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2). Increased uric acid concentration decreased tubule cell viability and increased apoptotic cells in a dose dependent manner (up to a 7-fold increase, p<0.0001). Uric acid up-regulated Bax (+60% with respect to Ctrl; p<0.05) and down regulated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Apoptosis was blunted by Caspase-9 but not Caspase-8 inhibition. Uric acid induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane, elevations in reactive oxygen species and a pronounced up-regulation of NOX 4 mRNA and protein (p<0.05). In addition, both reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI as well as by Nox 4 knockdown. URAT 1 transport inhibition by probenecid and losartan and its knock down by specific siRNA, blunted apoptosis, suggesting a URAT 1 dependent cell death. In summary, our data show that uric acid increases the permissiveness of proximal tubule kidney cells to apoptosis by triggering a pathway involving NADPH oxidase signalling and URAT 1 transport. These results might explain the chronic tubulointerstitial damage observed in hyperuricaemic states and suggest that uric acid transport in tubular cells is necessary for urate-induced effects. PMID:25514209

Verzola, Daniela; Ratto, Elena; Villaggio, Barbara; Parodi, Emanuele Luigi; Pontremoli, Roberto; Garibotto, Giacomo; Viazzi, Francesca

2014-01-01

75

Uric Acid Promotes Apoptosis in Human Proximal Tubule Cells by Oxidative Stress and the Activation of NADPH Oxidase NOX 4.  

PubMed

Mild hyperuricemia has been linked to the development and progression of tubulointerstitial renal damage. However the mechanisms by which uric acid may cause these effects are poorly explored. We investigated the effect of uric acid on apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2). Increased uric acid concentration decreased tubule cell viability and increased apoptotic cells in a dose dependent manner (up to a 7-fold increase, p<0.0001). Uric acid up-regulated Bax (+60% with respect to Ctrl; p<0.05) and down regulated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Apoptosis was blunted by Caspase-9 but not Caspase-8 inhibition. Uric acid induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane, elevations in reactive oxygen species and a pronounced up-regulation of NOX 4 mRNA and protein (p<0.05). In addition, both reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI as well as by Nox 4 knockdown. URAT 1 transport inhibition by probenecid and losartan and its knock down by specific siRNA, blunted apoptosis, suggesting a URAT 1 dependent cell death. In summary, our data show that uric acid increases the permissiveness of proximal tubule kidney cells to apoptosis by triggering a pathway involving NADPH oxidase signalling and URAT 1 transport. These results might explain the chronic tubulointerstitial damage observed in hyperuricaemic states and suggest that uric acid transport in tubular cells is necessary for urate-induced effects. PMID:25514209

Verzola, Daniela; Ratto, Elena; Villaggio, Barbara; Parodi, Emanuele Luigi; Pontremoli, Roberto; Garibotto, Giacomo; Viazzi, Francesca

2014-01-01

76

Different Degrees of NADPH Oxidase 2 Regulation and In Vivo Platelet Activation: Lesson From Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

PubMed Central

Background In vitro study showed that NADPH oxidase (NOx), the most important enzyme producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays a role in the process of platelet activation. However, it is unclear if changes in its activity affect platelet activation in vivo. Methods and Results In vivo and ex vivo experiments assessing platelet activation were investigated in healthy subjects, obese patients, and subjects with different low rates of NOx2 activity, namely X?linked chronic granulomatous disease (X?CGD) patients and X?CGD carriers. We included 27 X?CGD patients, 31 women carriers of hereditary deficiency of NOx2, 31 obese women, and 62 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. Plasma levels of soluble sCD40 L (sCD40L) and soluble P (sP)?selectin, 2 markers of in vivo platelet activation, were reduced in X?CGD patients (sCD40L=?55%; sP?selectin=?51%, P<0.001) and in X?CGD carriers (sCD40L=?41%; sP?selectin=?57%, P<0.001) compared with respective controls. Conversely, obese women, who disclosed NOx2 upregulation, had significantly higher plasma levels of sCD40L (+47%, P<0.001) and sP?selectin (+70%, P<0.001) compared with controls. Ex vivo study showed platelet isoprostane downexpression and enhanced platelet NO generation in both X?CGD patients and X?CGD carriers compared with controls; opposite findings were observed in obese patients. Correlation analysis showed that platelet NOx2 regulation was directly associated with plasma levels of sCD40L (R=0.336, P<0.001) and sP?selectin (R=0.441; P<0.001). Conclusions The study provides the first evidence that in vivo platelet activation is significantly and directly associated with NOx2 activity. Platelet NOx2 may be a novel target for platelet activation inhibition. PMID:24973227

Carnevale, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Sanguigni, Valerio; Plebani, Alessandro; Rossi, Paolo; Pignata, Claudio; Martire, Baldassarre; Finocchi, Andrea; Pietrogrande, Maria Cristina; Azzari, Chiara; Soresina, Anna Rosa; Martino, Silvana; Cirillo, Emilia; Martino, Francesco; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

2014-01-01

77

A newly synthesized molecule derived from ruthenium cation, with antitumour activity, activates NADPH oxidase in human neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

To determine the nature of the mechanism by which certain derived ruthenium (Ru) complexes induce regression in tumour growth, we have investigated the possibility that this mechanism was associated with an increase of superoxide anion (O2-. production by phagocytic cells, which are usually found in tumour nodes. Here we present evidence that a newly synthesized complex, Ru3+-propylene-1, 2-diaminotetra-acetic acid (Ru-PDTA), derived from Ru and the sequestering ligand (PDTA), specifically stimulates O2-. production. This increase was associated with the translocation of cytosolic factors p47(phox) and p67(phox) of NADPH oxidase to the plasma membrane. The Ru-PDTA-complex-dependent O2-. production was abrogated by staurosporine, partially inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, and it was insensitive to pertussis toxin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP pretreatment. An increase of cytosolic Ca2+ levels were also detected in neutrophils treated with the Ru-PDTA complex. Also, Ru-PDTA complex induced the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of several proteins as assessed by Western blotting. Present data are consistent with the possibility that Ru-PDTA-dependent antitumour effects are due in part to the complex's ability to stimulate the release of toxic oxygen metabolites from phagocytic cells infiltrating tumour masses. PMID:9371715

Carballo, M; Vilaplana, R; Márquez, G; Conde, M; Bedoya, F J; González-Vílchez, F; Sobrino, F

1997-01-01

78

Regulation of superoxide anion production by NADPH oxidase in monocytes/macrophages: contributions to atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Monocyte extravasation into the vessel wall has been shown to be a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Upon activation, monocytes produce a burst of superoxide anion due to activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex. Monocyte-derived superoxide anion contributes to oxidant stress in inflammatory sites, is required for monocyte-mediated LDL oxidation, and alters basic cell functions such as adhesion and proliferation. We hypothesize that monocyte-derived superoxide anion production contributes to atherosclerotic lesion formation. In this brief review, we summarize our current understanding of the signal transduction pathways regulating NADPH oxidase activation and related superoxide anion production in activated human monocytes. Novel pathways are identified that may serve as future targets for therapeutic intervention in this pathogenic process. The contributions of superoxide anion and NADPH oxidase to atherogenesis are discussed. Future experiments are needed to clarify the exact role of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion in atherogenesis, particularly that derived from monocytes. PMID:14525794

Cathcart, Martha K

2004-01-01

79

DELETION MUTAGENESIS OF p22phox SUBUNIT OF FLAVOCYTOCHROME b558: IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONS CRITICAL FOR gp91phox MATURATION AND NADPH OXIDASE ACTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH to generate the superoxide radical (O2-). The importance of this enzyme in innate immunity and inflammation is illustrated by chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a syndrome characterized by ab...

80

Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase is synergistic with glial iNOS expression in inducing neuronal death: a dual-key mechanism of inflammatory neurodegeneration  

E-print Network

) are lethal neurodegenerative disorders character- ised by the progressive accumulation of a protease resistant isoform (PrPsc) of the normal host prion protein (PrPc), in amyloid plaques [60]. An inflammatory response, predominantly mediated by microglia... of (1400W), a NADPH oxidase (apocynin) a peroxynitrite scavenger (FeTPPS), but not by a blocker of the NMDA receptor (MK-801). As PMA activates the protein kinase C pathway, the effects of PMA might be due to reasons other than stimulating the microglial...

Mander, Palwinder K; Brown, Guy C

2005-09-12

81

ATP Mediates NADPH Oxidase/ROS Generation and COX-2/PGE2 Expression in A549 Cells: Role of P2 Receptor-Dependent STAT3 Activation  

PubMed Central

Background Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are frequently implicated in lung inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP have been shown to act via activation of P2 purinoceptors, leading to COX-2 expression in various inflammatory diseases, such as lung inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying ATP-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release remain unclear. Principal Findings Here, we showed that ATP?S induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells revealed by western blot and real-time PCR. Pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor (PPADS and suramin), PKC (Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, and Rottlerin), ROS (Edaravone), NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin], Jak2 (AG490), and STAT3 [cucurbitacin E (CBE)] and transfection with siRNAs of PKC?, PKC?, PKC?, p47phox, Jak2, STAT3, and cPLA2 markedly reduced ATP?S-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. In addition, pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor attenuated PKCs translocation from the cytosol to the membrane in response to ATP?S. Moreover, ATP?S-induced ROS generation and p47phox translocation was also reduced by pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor, PKC, and NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, ATP?S stimulated Jak2 and STAT3 activation which were inhibited by pretreatment with PPADS, suramin, Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, GF109203X, Rottlerin, Edaravone, DPI, and apocynin in A549 cells. Significance Taken together, these results showed that ATP?S induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production via a P2 receptor/PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/Jak2/STAT3/cPLA2 signaling pathway in A549 cells. Increased understanding of signal transduction mechanisms underlying COX-2 gene regulation will create opportunities for the development of anti-inflammation therapeutic strategies. PMID:23326583

Cheng, Shin-Ei; Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Chih-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

2013-01-01

82

Carbon ion beams induce hepatoma cell death by NADPH oxidase-mediated mitochondrial damage.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also the target of cellular ROS. ROS damage to mitochondria leads to dysfunction that further enhances the production of mitochondrial ROS. This feed-forward vicious cycle between mitochondria and ROS induces cell death. Within a few minutes of radiation exposure, NADPH oxidase is activated to elevate the ROS level. Activated NADPH oxidase might induce the feed-forward cycle of mitochondria and this is a possible mechanism for cancer cell death induced by heavy ion irradiation. We found that after 4?Gy of (12) C(6+) ion radiation of HepG2 cells, the NADPH oxidase membrane subunit gp91(phox) was not involved in enzyme activation through increased expression; however, the subunit p47(phox) was involved in activation by being translocated to the membrane. (12) C(6+) ion radiation clearly decreased the ??m of HepG2 cells, increasing mitochondrial DNA damage and inducing cell death. Pretreatment with apocynin (APO, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) effectively prevented the ??m decrease, mitochondrial DNA damage, and cell death induced by radiation. However, these protective effects were not observed with APO treatment after irradiation exposure. These data demonstrated that NADPH oxidase activation was an initiator in mitochondrial damage. Once mitochondria entered the feed-forward cycle, cell fate was no longer controlled by NADPH oxidase. Only antioxidants that targeted mitochondria such as MitoQ could break the cycle and release cells from death. PMID:23804302

Sun, Chao; Wang, Zhenhua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Hongyan; Di, Cuixia; Wu, Zhenhua; Gan, Lu; Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

83

NAD(P)H Oxidase Role in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species have emerged as important molecules in cardiovascular function. Recent work has shown that NAD(P)H oxidases are major sources of superoxide in vascular cells and myocytes. The biochemical characterization, activation paradigms, structure, and function of this enzyme are now partly understood. Vascular NAD(P)H oxidases share some, but not all, characteristics of the neutrophil enzyme. In response to growth

Kathy K. Griendling; Dan Sorescu; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; David G. Harrison

84

Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway. PMID:23500715

Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

2013-05-01

85

NADPH oxidase-mediated Rac1 GTP activity is necessary for nongenomic actions of the mineralocorticoid receptor in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in the central nervous system play important roles in spatial memory, fear memory, salt sensitivity, and hypertension. Corticosterone binds to MRs to induce presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor aggregation, which are necessary for induction of long-term potentiation under psychological stress. On the other hand, cognitive dysfunction is an important problem clinically in patients with hypertension, diabetes, and cerebral infarction, and all of these conditions are associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Oxidative stress has been shown to modify the genomic actions of MRs in the peripheral organs; however, there have been no reports until now about the relation between the nongenomic actions of MRs and ROS in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ROS and the nongenomic actions of MR. We examined the nongenomic actions of MR by measuring the slope of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and found that ROS induced an additive increase of these potentials, which was accompanied by Rac1 GTP activation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, blocked the nongenomic actions of MRs. A Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, was also found to block synaptic enhancement and ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by NADPH and corticosterone. We concluded that NADPH oxidase activity and Rac1 GTP activity are indispensable for the nongenomic actions of MRs and that Rac1 GTP activation induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the brain. PMID:22114025

Kawakami-Mori, Fumiko; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Mu, Shengyu; Wang, Hong; Ogura, Sayoko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Fujita, Toshiro

2012-02-15

86

NADPH oxidase expression in active multiple sclerosis lesions in relation to oxidative tissue damage and mitochondrial injury  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species, and we recently provided evidence for oxidative damage of oligodendrocytes and dystrophic axons in early stages of active multiple sclerosis lesions. In this study, we identified potential sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through gene expression in carefully staged and dissected lesion areas and by immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression. Genome-wide microarrays confirmed mitochondrial injury in active multiple sclerosis lesions, which may serve as an important source of reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found differences in the gene expression levels of various nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits between initial multiple sclerosis lesions and control white matter. These results were confirmed at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry, showing upregulation of the subunits gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 in activated microglia in classical active as well as slowly expanding lesions. The subunits gp91phox and p22phox were constitutively expressed in microglia and were upregulated in the initial lesion. In contrast, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 expression were more restricted to the zone of initial damage or to lesions from patients with acute or early relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Double labelling showed co-expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits in activated microglia and infiltrated macrophages, suggesting the assembly of functional complexes. Our data suggest that the inflammation-associated oxidative burst in activated microglia and macrophages plays an important role in demyelination and free radical-mediated tissue injury in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:22366799

Fischer, Marie T.; Sharma, Rakhi; Lim, Jamie L.; Haider, Lukas; Frischer, Josa M.; Drexhage, Joost; Mahad, Don; Bradl, Monika; van Horssen, Jack

2012-01-01

87

Influence of rosuvastatin on the NAD(P)H oxidase activity in the retina and electroretinographic response of spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Retinal complications may be encountered during the development of hypertension as a response to oxidative stress. Statins may reduce the risk of developing hypertension and ocular diseases. We evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin (ROSU) on retinal functionality and oxidative stress levels in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experimental approach: Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and SHR were treated for 3 weeks with rosuvastatin (10?mg?kg?1?day?1). Electroretinograms (ERG) were recorded before and after rosuvastatin treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in the retina with dihydroethidium staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity was evaluated. Key results: Retinal ganglion cell ROS and retinal NAD(P)H oxidase activity were higher in SHR than in WKY rats, respectively (17.1±1.1 vs 10.2±1.2?AU, P<0.01; 38095±8900 vs 14081±5820?RLU?mg?1; P<0.05). The ERG b-wave amplitude in SHR was significantly lower than that in WKY rats. Rosuvastatin reduced SBP in SHR but did not change plasma lipid levels. Rosuvastatin treatment in SHR significantly decreased ROS levels (11.2±1.3, P<0.01), NAD(P)H activity in retinal ganglion cells (9889±4290; P<0.05), and increased retinal plasmalogen content in SHR, but did not modify the ERG response. Conclusions and implications: Rosuvastatin, beyond lowering cholesterol levels, was able to lower ROS in the retina induced by hypertension, but without improving retinal function in SHR. These findings point to a complex relationship between ROS in the pathogenesis of retinal disease and hypertension. PMID:17572703

Sicard, P; Acar, N; Grégoire, S; Lauzier, B; Bron, A M; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bretillon, L; Vergely, C; Rochette, L

2007-01-01

88

Expression of NADPH oxidase by trophoblast cells: potential implications for the postimplanting mouse embryo.  

PubMed

Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide-generating sites suggests NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate [reduced form]) oxidase expression at the maternal-fetal interface. To explore this possibility, we have characterized the expression and activity of the NADPH oxidase complex in trophoblast cells during the postimplantation period. Implantation sites and ectoplacental cones (EPCs) from 7.5-gestational day embryos from CD1 mice were used as a source for expression analyses of NADPH oxidase catalytic and regulatory subunits. EPCs grown in primary culture were used to investigate the production of superoxide anion through dihydroxyethidium oxidation in confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical assays. NADPH subunits Cybb (gp91phox), Cyba (p22phox), Ncf4 (p40phox), Ncf1 (p47phox), Ncf2 (p67phox), and Rac1 were expressed by trophoblast cells. The fundamental subunits of membrane CYBB and cytosolic NCF2 were markedly upregulated after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) treatment, as detected by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed colocalization of cytosolic and plasma membrane NADPH oxidase subunits mainly after PMA treatment, suggesting assembly of the complex after enzyme activation. Cultured EPCs produced superoxide in a NADPH-dependent manner, associating the NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide production with postimplantation trophoblast physiology. NADPH-oxidase cDNA subunit sequencing showed a high degree of homology between the trophoblast and neutrophil isoforms of the oxidase, emphasizing a putative role for reactive oxygen species production in phagocytic activity and innate immune responses. PMID:22075471

Gomes, Sara Z; Lorenzon, Aline R; Vieira, Juliana S; Rocha, Clarissa R R; Bandeira, Clara; Hoshida, Mara S; Lopes, Lucia Rosseti; Bevilacqua, Estela

2012-02-01

89

Inhaled birch pollen extract induces airway hyperresponsiveness via oxidative stress but independently of pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity, or the Toll-like receptor 4-TRIF pathway  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress in allergic asthma may result from oxidase activity or pro-inflammatory molecules in pollens. Signaling via TLR4 and its adaptor TRIF has been implicated in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated acute lung injury and in T helper 2 immune responses. We investigated the contributions of oxidative stress and TLR4/TRIF signaling to experimental asthma induced by birch pollen exposure exclusively via the airways. Mice were exposed to native or heat-inactivated white birch pollen extract (BPEx) intratracheally and injected with the antioxidants, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or dimethylthiourea (DMTU) prior to sensitization, challenge, or all allergen exposures, to assess the role of oxidative stress and pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity in allergic sensitization, inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Additionally, TLR4 signaling was antagonized concomitantly with allergen exposure, or the development of allergic airway disease was evaluated in TLR4 or TRIF knockout mice. NAC inhibited BPEx-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and AHR except when given exclusively during sensitization, whereas DMTU was inhibitory even when administered with the sensitization alone. Heat-inactivation of BPEx had no effect on the development of allergic airway disease. Oxidative stress-mediated AHR was also TLR4- and TRIF-independent, however, TLR4 deficiency decreased, while TRIF deficiency increased BPEx-induced airway inflammation. In conclusion, oxidative stress plays a significant role in allergic sensitization to pollen via the airway mucosa, but the pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity and TLR4 or TRIF signaling are unnecessary for the induction of allergic airway disease and AHR. Pollen extract does, however, activate TLR4, thereby enhancing airway inflammation which is restrained by the TRIF-dependent pathway. PMID:23776177

Shalaby, Karim H.; Allard-Coutu, Alexandra; O’Sullivan, Michael; Nakada, Emily; Qureshi, Salman T.; Day, Brian J.; Martin, James G.

2013-01-01

90

NADPH Oxidase 4 Regulates Cardiomyocyte Differentiation via Redox Activation of c-Jun Protein and the cis-Regulation of GATA-4 Gene Transcription*  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can modulate cellular phenotype and function in part through the redox modulation of the activity of transcription factors. We demonstrate here the potential of Nox4 to drive cardiomyocyte differentiation in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells, and we show that this involves the redox activation of c-Jun. This in turn acts to up-regulate GATA-4 expression, one of the earliest markers of cardiotypic differentiation, through a defined and highly conserved cis-acting motif within the GATA-4 promoter. These data therefore suggest a mechanism whereby ROS act in pluripotential cells in vivo to regulate the initial transcription of critical tissue-restricted determinant(s) of the cardiomyocyte phenotype, including GATA-4. The ROS-dependent activation, mediated by Nox4, of widely expressed redox-regulated transcription factors, such as c-Jun, is fundamental to this process. PMID:23589292

Murray, Thomas V. A.; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

2013-01-01

91

A low temperature-inducible protein AtSRC2 enhances the ROS-producing activity of NADPH oxidase AtRbohF.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play critical roles in plant environmental responses. Arabidopsis thaliana NADPH oxidase AtRbohF-mediated ROS-production is involved in abiotic stress responses. Because overproduction of ROS is highly toxic to cells, the activity of AtRbohF needs to be tightly regulated in response to diverse stimuli. The ROS-producing activity of AtRbohF is activated by Ca(2+) and protein phosphorylation, but other regulatory factors for AtRbohF are mostly unknown. In this study, we screened for proteins that interact with the N-terminal cytosolic region of AtRbohF by a yeast two-hybrid screen, and isolated AtSRC2, an A. thaliana homolog of SRC2 (soybean gene regulated by cold-2). A co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that AtSRC2 interacts with the N-terminal region of AtRbohF in plant cells. Intracellular localization of GFP-tagged AtSRC2 was partially overlapped with that of GFP-tagged AtRbohF at the cell periphery. Co-expression of AtSRC2 enhanced the Ca(2+)-dependent ROS-producing activity of AtRbohF in HEK293T cells, but did not affect its phosphorylation-dependent activation. Low-temperature treatment induced expression of the AtSRC2 gene in Arabidopsis roots in proportion to levels of ROS production that was partially dependent on AtRbohF. Our findings suggest that AtSRC2 is a novel activator of Ca(2+)-dependent AtRbohF-mediated ROS production and may play a role in cold responses. PMID:23872431

Kawarazaki, Tomoko; Kimura, Sachie; Iizuka, Ayako; Hanamata, Shigeru; Nibori, Hitomi; Michikawa, Masataka; Imai, Aya; Abe, Mitsutomo; Kaya, Hidetaka; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

2013-12-01

92

ATL9, a RING Zinc Finger Protein with E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Implicated in Chitin- and NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Defense Responses  

PubMed Central

Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are signals detected by plants that activate basal defenses. One of these PAMPs is chitin, a carbohydrate present in the cell walls of fungi and in insect exoskeletons. Previous work has shown that chitin treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana induced defense-related genes in the absence of a pathogen and that the response was independent of the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. One of these genes is ATL9 (?=?ATL2G), which encodes a RING zinc-finger like protein. In the current work we demonstrate that ATL9 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression pattern of ATL9 is positively correlated with basal defense responses against Golovinomyces cichoracearum, a biotrophic fungal pathogen. The basal levels of expression and the induction of ATL9 by chitin, in wild type plants, depends on the activity of NADPH oxidases suggesting that chitin-mediated defense response is NADPH oxidase dependent. Although ATL9 expression is not induced by treatment with known defense hormones (SA, JA or ET), full expression in response to chitin is compromised slightly in mutants where ET- or SA-dependent signaling is suppressed. Microarray analysis of the atl9 mutant revealed candidate genes that appear to act downstream of ATL9 in chitin-mediated defenses. These results hint at the complexity of chitin-mediated signaling and the potential interplay between elicitor-mediated signaling, signaling via known defense pathways and the oxidative burst. PMID:21203445

Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Stone, Sophia; Yang, Xin; Antico, Jay; Callis, Judy; Ramonell, Katrina M.; Somerville, Shauna

2010-01-01

93

Upregulation of cannabinoid receptor-1 and fibrotic activation of mouse hepatic stellate cells during Schistosoma J. infection: role of NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

The endocannabinoid system (CS) has been implicated in the development of hepatic fibrosis such as schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis (SSLF). However, the mechanisms mediating the action of the CS in hepatic fibrosis are unclear. The present study hypothesized that Schistosoma J. infection upregulates cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) due to activation of NADPH oxidase leading to a fibrotic phenotype in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The SSLF model was developed by infecting mice with Schistosoma J. cercariae in the skin, and HSCs from control and infected mice were then isolated, cultured, and confirmed by analysis of HSC markers ?-SMA and desmin. CB1 significantly increased in HSCs isolated from mice with SSLF, which was accompanied by a greater expression of fibrotic markers ?-SMA, collagen I, and TIMP-1. CB1 upregulation and enhanced fibrotic changes were also observed in normal HSCs treated with soluble egg antigen (SEA) from Schistosoma J. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis further demonstrated that superoxide (O2(-)) production was increased in infected HSCs or normal HSCs stimulated with SEA. Both Nox4 and Nox1 siRNA prevented SEA-induced upregulation of CB1, ?-SMA, collagen I, and TIMP-1 by inhibition of O2(-) production, while CB1 siRNA blocked SEA-induced fibrotic changes without effect on O2(-) production in these HSCs. Taken together, these data suggest that the fibrotic activation of HSCs on Schistosoma J. infection or SEA stimulation is associated with NADPH oxidase-mediated redox regulation of CB1 expression, which may be a triggering mechanism for SSLF. PMID:24657416

Wang, Mi; Abais, Justine M; Meng, Nan; Zhang, Yang; Ritter, Joseph K; Li, Pin-Lan; Tang, Wang-Xian

2014-06-01

94

Glucose and NADPH oxidase drive neuronal superoxide formation in stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective Hyperglycemia has been recognized for decades to be an exacerbating factor in ischemic stroke, but the mechanism of this effect remains unresolved. Here we evaluated superoxide production by neuronal NADPH oxidase as a link between glucose metabolism and neuronal death in ischemia-reperfusion. Methods Superoxide production was measured by the ethidium method in cultured neurons treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation and in mice treated with forebrain ischemia-reperfusion. The role of NADPH oxidase was examined using genetic disruption of its p47phox subunit and with the pharmacological inhibitor, apocynin. Results In neuron cultures, post-ischemic superoxide production and cell death were completely prevented by removing glucose from the medium, by inactivating NADPH oxidase, or by inhibiting the hexose monophosphate shunt which generates NADPH from glucose. In murine stroke, neuronal superoxide production and death were decreased by the glucose anti-metabolite, 2-deoxyglucose, and increased by high blood glucose concentrations. Inactivating NADPH oxidase with either apocynin or deletion of the p47phox subunit blocked neuronal superoxide production and negated the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia. Interpretation These findings identify glucose as the requisite electron donor for reperfusion-induced neuronal superoxide production and establish a previously unrecognized mechanism by which hyperglycemia can exacerbate ischemic brain injury. PMID:19107988

Suh, Sang Won; Shin, Byung Seop; Ma, Hualong; Van Hoecke, Michaël; Brennan, Angela M.; Yenari, Midori A.; Swanson, Raymond A.

2015-01-01

95

Mitochondrial regulation of NADPH oxidase in hindlimb unweighting rat cerebral arteries.  

PubMed

Exposure to microgravity results in post-flight cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been indicated in this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondria regulated NADPH oxidase in hindlimb unweighting (HU) rat cerebral and mesenteric arteries. Four-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. Vascular superoxide generation, protein and mRNA levels of Nox2/Nox4, and the activity of NADPH oxidase were examined in the present study. Compared with control rats, the levels of superoxide increased in cerebral (P<0.001) but not in mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells. The protein and mRNA levels of Nox2 and Nox4 were upregulated significantly (P<0.001 and P<0.001 for Nox2, respectively; P<0.001 and P<0.001 for Nox4, respectively) in HU rat cerebral arteries but not in mesenteric arteries. NADPH oxidases were activated significantly by HU (P<0.001) in cerebral arteries but not in mesenteric arteries. Chronic treatment with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoTEMPO attenuated superoxide levels (P<0.001), decreased the protein and mRNA expression levels of Nox2/Nox4 (P<0.01 and P<0.05 for Nox2, respectively; P<0.001 and P<0.001 for Nox4, respectively) and the activity of NADPH oxidase (P<0.001) in HU rat cerebral arteries, but exerted no effects on HU rat mesenteric arteries. Therefore, mitochondria regulated the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases during simulated microgravity. Both mitochondria and NADPH oxidase participated in vascular redox status regulation. PMID:24759683

Zhang, Ran; Ran, Hai-hong; Peng, Liang; Xu, Fei; Sun, Jun-fang; Zhang, Lan-ning; Fan, Yong-yan; Peng, Li; Cui, Geng

2014-01-01

96

Mitochondrial Regulation of NADPH Oxidase in Hindlimb Unweighting Rat Cerebral Arteries  

PubMed Central

Exposure to microgravity results in post-flight cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been indicated in this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondria regulated NADPH oxidase in hindlimb unweighting (HU) rat cerebral and mesenteric arteries. Four-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. Vascular superoxide generation, protein and mRNA levels of Nox2/Nox4, and the activity of NADPH oxidase were examined in the present study. Compared with control rats, the levels of superoxide increased in cerebral (P<0.001) but not in mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells. The protein and mRNA levels of Nox2 and Nox4 were upregulated significantly (P<0.001 and P<0.001 for Nox2, respectively; P<0.001 and P<0.001 for Nox4, respectively) in HU rat cerebral arteries but not in mesenteric arteries. NADPH oxidases were activated significantly by HU (P<0.001) in cerebral arteries but not in mesenteric arteries. Chronic treatment with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoTEMPO attenuated superoxide levels (P<0.001), decreased the protein and mRNA expression levels of Nox2/Nox4 (P<0.01 and P<0.05 for Nox2, respectively; P<0.001 and P<0.001 for Nox4, respectively) and the activity of NADPH oxidase (P<0.001) in HU rat cerebral arteries, but exerted no effects on HU rat mesenteric arteries. Therefore, mitochondria regulated the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases during simulated microgravity. Both mitochondria and NADPH oxidase participated in vascular redox status regulation. PMID:24759683

Xu, Fei; Sun, Jun-fang; Zhang, Lan-ning; Fan, Yong-yan; Peng, Li; Cui, Geng

2014-01-01

97

Cytosolic phospholipase A2 and its mode of activation in human neutrophils by opsonized zymosan. Correlation between 42/44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed Central

The role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and its mode of activation by opsonized zymosan (OZ) was studied in human neutrophils in comparison with activation by PMA. The activation of cPLA2 by 1 mg/ml OZ or 50 ng/ml PMA is evidenced by its translocation to the membrane fractions on stimulation. This translocation is consistent with dithiothreitol (DTT)-resistant phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity detected in the membranes of activated cells. Neutrophils stimulated by either OZ or PMA exhibited an immediate stimulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). The inhibition of ERKs, DTT-resistant PLA2 and NADPH oxidase activities by the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor PD-98059 indicates that ERKs mediate the activation of cPLA2 and NADPH oxidase stimulated by either OZ or PMA. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF-109203X inhibited epidermal growth factor receptor peptide kinase activity, the release of [3H]arachidonic acid, DTT-resistant PLA2 activity and superoxide generation induced by PMA, but did not inhibit any of these activities induced by OZ. PKC activity was similarly inhibited by GF-109203X in membrane fractions separated from neutrophils stimulated by either PMA or OZ. In the presence of the tyrosine kinase inhibit orgenistein, ERKs, PLA2 and NADPH oxidase activities were inhibited in cells stimulated by OZ, whereas they were hardly affected in cells stimulated by PMA. The results suggest that the activation of cPLA2 by PMA or OZ is mediated by ERKs. Whereas PMA stimulates ERKs activity through a PKC-dependent pathway, signal transduction stimulated by OZ involves tyrosine kinase activity leading to activation of ERKs via a PKC-independent pathway. PMID:9307039

Hazan, I; Dana, R; Granot, Y; Levy, R

1997-01-01

98

A time course of NADPH-oxidase up-regulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in the hippocampus following neurotrauma  

PubMed Central

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase; NOX) is a complex enzyme responsible for increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide (O2.?). NOX derived O2.? is a key player in oxidative stress and inflammation mediated multiple secondary injury cascades (SIC) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The O2.? reacts with nitric oxide (NO), produces various reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and contributes to apoptotic cell death. Following a unilateral cortical contusion, young adult rats were killed at various times post injury (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Fresh tissue from the hippocampus was analyzed for NOX activity, and level of O2.?. In addition we evaluated the translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins (p67Phox, p47Phox and p40Phox) to the membrane, along with total NO and the activation (phosphorylation) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS). Results show that both enzymes and levels of O2.? and NO have time dependent injury effects in the hippocampus. Translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins into membrane, NOX activity and O2.? were also increased in a time dependent fashion. Both, NOX activity and O2.? were increased at 6 h. Levels of p-eNOS increased within 1 h, with significant elevation of NO at 12 h post TBI. Levels of NO failed to show a significant association with p-eNOS, but did associate with O2.?. NOX up-regulation strongly associated with both the levels of O2.? and also total NO. The initial 12 hours post TBI are very important as a possible window of opportunity to interrupt SIC. It may be important to selectively target the translocation of cytosolic subunits for the modulation of NOX function. PMID:25224032

Ansari, Mubeen A.; Roberts, Kelly N.; Scheff, Stephen W.

2015-01-01

99

Distinct Ligand-dependent Roles for p38 MAPK in Priming and Activation of the Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase*  

E-print Network

of Biological Engineering, Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E18-580, Cambridge NADPH oxi- dase enzyme is primed for enhanced superoxide produc- tion when the cells receive is eliminated by p38 MAPK inhibitors regardless of the priming agent. We further report that incubation of neu

100

NETosis and NADPH oxidase: at the intersection of host defense, inflammation, and injury  

PubMed Central

Neutrophils are armed with both oxidant-dependent and -independent pathways for killing pathogens. Activation of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase constitutes an emergency response to infectious threat and results in the generation of antimicrobial reactive oxidants. In addition, NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils is linked to activation of granular proteases and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETosis involves the release of nuclear and granular components that can target extracellular pathogens. NETosis is activated during microbial threat and in certain conditions mimicking sepsis, and can result in both augmented host defense and inflammatory injury. In contrast, apoptosis, the physiological form of neutrophil death, not only leads to non-inflammatory cell death but also contributes to alleviate inflammation. Although there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the specific contribution of NETs to host defense, we speculate that the coordinated activation of NADPH oxidase and NETosis maximizes microbial killing. Work in engineered mice and limited patient experience point to varying susceptibility of bacterial and fungal pathogens to NADPH oxidase versus NET constituents. Since reactive oxidants and NET constituents can injure host tissue, it is important that these pathways be tightly regulated. Recent work supports a role for NETosis in both acute lung injury and in autoimmunity. Knowledge gained about mechanisms that modulate NETosis may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to limit inflammation-associated injury. PMID:23459634

Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.; Grimm, Melissa J.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Röhm, Marc; Urban, Constantin F.; Segal, Brahm H.

2013-01-01

101

The PPAR? ligand, rosiglitazone, reduces vascular oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase expression in diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic vascular dysfunction. The sources and regulation of reactive oxygen species production in diabetic vasculature continue to be defined. Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) ligands reduced superoxide anion (O2?) generation in vascular endothelial cells in vitro by reducing NADPH oxidase and increasing Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression, the current study examined the

Jinah Hwang; Dean J. Kleinhenz; Heidi L. Rupnow; Adam G. Campbell; Peter M. Thulé; Roy L. Sutliff; C. Michael Hart

2007-01-01

102

Regulation of NAD(P)H oxidases by AMPK in cardiovascular systems  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are ubiquitously produced in cardiovascular systems. Under physiological conditions, ROS/RNS function as signaling molecules that are essential in maintaining cardiovascular function. Aberrant concentrations of ROS/RNS have been demonstrated in cardiovascular diseases due to increased production or decreased scavenging, which have been considered as common pathways for the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, (re)stenosis, and congestive heart failure. NAD(P)H oxidases are primary sources of ROS and can be induced or activated by all known cardiovascular risk factors. Stresses, hormones, vasoactive agents, and cytokines via different signaling cascades control the expression and activity of these enzymes and of their regulatory subunits. But the molecular mechanisms by which NAD(P)H oxidase is regulated in cardiovascular systems remain poorly characterized. Investigations by us and others suggest that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as an energy sensor and modulator, is highly sensitive to ROS/RNS. We have also obtained convincing evidence that AMPK is a physiological suppressor of NAD(P)H oxidase in multiple cardiovascular cell systems. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of how AMPK functions as a physiological repressor of NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:22357101

Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

2012-01-01

103

Exercise training protects against atherosclerotic risk factors through vascular NADPH oxidase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase downregulation in obese rats.  

PubMed

Exercise training reverses atherosclerotic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic effects in aorta from rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control (CD) diet for 12 weeks. The HFD rats were then divided into four groups: (i) sedentary HFD-fed rats (HFD-S); (ii) exercise trained (motor treadmill 5 days/week, 60 min/day, 12 weeks) HFD-fed rats (HFD-Ex); (iii) modified diet (HFD to CD) sedentary rats (HF/CD-S); and (iv) an exercise-trained modified diet group (HF/CD-Ex). Tissue levels of NADPH oxidase (activity and expression), NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1, Nox2, Nox4, p47(phox) , superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the aorta. Plasma cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6) levels were also measured. Obesity was accompanied by increases in NADPH oxidase activity, p47(phox) translocation, Nox4 and VCAM-1 protein expression, MAPK (ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK) phosphorylation and plasma TNF-? and IL-6 levels. Exercise training and switching from the HFD to CD reversed almost all these molecular changes. In addition, training increased aortic SOD-1 protein expression and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that protective effects of exercise training on atherosclerotic risk factors induced by obesity are associated with downregulation of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK activity and increased SOD-1 expression. PMID:25399833

Touati, Sabeur; Montezano, Augusto Ci; Meziri, Fayçal; Riva, Catherine; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

2015-02-01

104

Bidirectional interactions between NOX2-type NADPH oxidase and the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidases are important for neuronal function but detailed subcellular localization studies have not been performed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of functional NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-type complex in neuronal growth cones and its bidirectional relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. NADPH oxidase inhibition resulted in reduced F-actin content, retrograde F-actin flow, and neurite outgrowth. Stimulation of NADPH oxidase via protein kinase C activation increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in the growth cone periphery. The main enzymatic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2/gp91(phox) localized to the growth cone plasma membrane and showed little overlap with the regulatory subunit p40(phox) . p40(phox) itself exhibited colocalization with filopodial actin bundles. Differential subcellular fractionation revealed preferential association of NOX2/gp91(phox) and p40(phox) with the membrane and the cytoskeletal fraction, respectively. When neurite growth was evoked with beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, we observed a significant increase in colocalization of p40(phox) with NOX2/gp91(phox) at apCAM adhesion sites. Together, these findings suggest a bidirectional functional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones, which contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for actin organization and dynamics in neuronal growth cones as well as neurite outgrowth. Here, we report that the cytosolic subunit p40(phox) of the NOX2-type NADPH oxidase complex is partially associated with F-actin in neuronal growth cones, while ROS produced by this complex regulates F-actin dynamics and neurite growth. These findings provide evidence for a bidirectional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones. PMID:24702317

Munnamalai, Vidhya; Weaver, Cory J; Weisheit, Corinne E; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Quinn, Mark T; Suter, Daniel M

2014-08-01

105

A new genetic subgroup of chronic granulomatous disease with autosomal recessive mutations in p40phox and selective defects in neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity  

PubMed Central

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an immunodeficiency with recurrent pyogenic infections and granulomatous inflammation, results from loss of phagocyte superoxide production by recessive mutations in any 1 of 4 genes encoding subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. These include gp91phox and p22phox, which form the membrane-integrated flavocytochrome b, and cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. A fifth subunit, p40phox, plays an important role in phagocytosis-induced superoxide production via a phox homology (PX) domain that binds to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P). We report the first case of autosomal recessive mutations in NCF4, the gene encoding p40phox, in a boy who presented with granulomatous colitis. His neutrophils showed a substantial defect in intracellular superoxide production during phagocytosis, whereas extracellular release of superoxide elicited by phorbol ester or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) was unaffected. Genetic analysis of NCF4 showed compound heterozygosity for a frameshift mutation with premature stop codon and a missense mutation predicting a R105Q substitution in the PX domain. Parents and a sibling were healthy heterozygous carriers. p40phoxR105Q lacked binding to PtdIns(3)P and failed to reconstitute phagocytosis-induced oxidase activity in p40phox-deficient granulocytes, with premature loss of p40phoxR105Q from phagosomes. Thus, p40phox binding to PtdIns(3)P is essential for phagocytosis-induced oxidant production in human neutrophils and its absence can be associated with disease. PMID:19692703

Matute, Juan D.; Arias, Andres A.; Wright, Nicola A. M.; Wrobel, Iwona; Waterhouse, Christopher C. M.; Li, Xing Jun; Marchal, Christophe C.; Stull, Natalie D.; Lewis, David B.; Steele, MacGregor; Kellner, James D.; Yu, Weiming; Meroueh, Samy O.; Nauseef, William M.

2009-01-01

106

Diaphragm dysfunction caused by sphingomyelinase requires the p47(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity is elevated in inflammatory states and may contribute to muscle weakness in these conditions. Exogenous SMase depresses muscle force in an oxidant-dependent manner. However, the pathway stimulated by SMase that leads to muscle weakness is unclear. In non-muscle cells, SMase activates the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase, which requires the p47(phox) subunit for enzyme function. We targeted p47(phox) genetically and pharmacologically (apocynin) to examine the role of NADPH oxidase on SMase-induced increase in oxidants and diaphragm weakness. SMase increased cytosolic oxidants (arbitrary units: control 203±15, SMase 276±22; P<0.05) and depressed maximal force in wild type mice (N/cm(2): control 20±1, SMase 16±0.6; P<0.05). However, p47(phox) deficient mice were protected from increased oxidants (arbitrary units: control 217±27, SMase 224±17) and loss of force elicited by SMase (N/cm(2): control 20±1, SMase 19±1). Apocynin appeared to partially prevent the decrease in force caused by SMase (n=3 mice/group). Thus, our study suggests that NADPH oxidase plays an important role on oxidant-mediated diaphragm weakness triggered by SMase. These observations provide further evidence that NADPH oxidase modulates skeletal muscle function. PMID:25448394

Bost, Elaina R; Frye, Gregory S; Ahn, Bumsoo; Ferreira, Leonardo F

2015-01-01

107

NADPH oxidase 4 limits bone mass by promoting osteoclastogenesis  

PubMed Central

ROS are implicated in bone diseases. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), a constitutively active enzymatic source of ROS, may contribute to the development of such disorders. Therefore, we studied the role of NOX4 in bone homeostasis. Nox4–/– mice displayed higher bone density and reduced numbers and markers of osteoclasts. Ex vivo, differentiation of monocytes into osteoclasts with RANKL and M-CSF induced Nox4 expression. Loss of NOX4 activity attenuated osteoclastogenesis, which was accompanied by impaired activation of RANKL-induced NFATc1 and c-JUN. In an in vivo model of murine ovariectomy–induced osteoporosis, pharmacological inhibition or acute genetic knockdown of Nox4 mitigated loss of trabecular bone. Human bone obtained from patients with increased osteoclast activity exhibited increased NOX4 expression. Moreover, a SNP of NOX4 was associated with elevated circulating markers of bone turnover and reduced bone density in women. Thus, NOX4 is involved in bone loss and represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24216508

Goettsch, Claudia; Babelova, Andrea; Trummer, Olivia; Erben, Reinhold G.; Rauner, Martina; Rammelt, Stefan; Weissmann, Norbert; Weinberger, Valeska; Benkhoff, Sebastian; Kampschulte, Marian; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Brandes, Ralf P.; Schröder, Katrin

2013-01-01

108

Upregulation of Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels (KCNN4) in Porcine Coronary Smooth Muscle Requires NADPH Oxidase 5 (NOX5)  

PubMed Central

Aims NADPH oxidase (NOX) is the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and is proposed to play a key role in redox signaling involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Growth factors and cytokines stimulate coronary SMC (CSMC) phenotypic modulation, proliferation, and migration during atherosclerotic plaque development and restenosis. We previously demonstrated that increased expression and activity of intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCNN4) is necessary for CSMC phenotypic modulation and progression of stenotic lesions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether NOX is required for KCNN4 upregulation induced by mitogenic growth factors. Methods and Results Dihydroethidium micro-fluorography in porcine CSMCs demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) increased superoxide production, which was blocked by the NOX inhibitor apocynin (Apo). Apo also blocked bFGF-induced increases in KCNN4 mRNA levels in both right coronary artery sections and CSMCs. Similarly, immunohistochemistry and whole cell voltage clamp showed bFGF-induced increases in CSMC KCNN4 protein expression and channel activity were abolished by Apo. Treatment with Apo also inhibited bFGF-induced increases in activator protein-1 promoter activity, as measured by luciferase activity assay. qRT-PCR demonstrated porcine coronary smooth muscle expression of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NOX5 isoforms. Knockdown of NOX5 alone prevented both bFGF-induced upregulation of KCNN4 mRNA and CSMC migration. Conclusions Our findings provide novel evidence that NOX5-derived ROS increase functional expression of KCNN4 through activator protein-1, providing another potential link between NOX, CSMC phenotypic modulation, and atherosclerosis. PMID:25144362

Gole, Hope K. A.; Tharp, Darla L.; Bowles, Douglas K.

2014-01-01

109

Angiotensin II impairs neurovascular coupling in neocortex through NADPH oxidase-derived radicals.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts detrimental effects on cerebral circulation, the mechanisms of which have not been elucidated. In particular, Ang II impairs the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) produced by neural activity, a critical mechanism that matches substrate delivery with energy demands in brain. We investigated whether Ang II exerts its deleterious actions by activating Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors on cerebral blood vessels and producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidase. Somatosensory cortex CBF was monitored in anesthetized mice by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Ang II (0.25 microg/kg per minute IV) attenuated the CBF increase produced by mechanical stimulation of the vibrissae. The effect was blocked by the AT1 antagonist losartan and by ROS scavenger superoxide dismutase or tiron and was not observed in mice lacking the gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase or in wild-type mice treated with the NADPH oxidase peptide inhibitor gp91ds-tat. Ang II increased ROS production in cerebral microvessels, an effect blocked by the ROS scavenger Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin and by the NADPH oxidase assembly inhibitor apocynin. Ang II did not increase ROS production in gp91-null mice. Double-label immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that AT1 and gp91phox immunoreactivities were present in endothelium and adventitia of neocortical arterioles. Collectively, these findings suggest that Ang II impairs functional hyperemia by activating AT1 receptors and inducing ROS production via a gp91phox containing NADPH oxidase. The data provide the mechanistic basis for the cerebrovascular dysregulation induced by Ang II and suggest novel therapeutic strategies to counteract the effects of hypertension on the brain. PMID:15499027

Kazama, Ken; Anrather, Josef; Zhou, Ping; Girouard, Helene; Frys, Kelly; Milner, Teresa A; Iadecola, Costantino

2004-11-12

110

Endothelial actin depolymerization mediates NADPH oxidase-superoxide production during flow reversal  

PubMed Central

Slow moving blood flow and changes in flow direction, e.g., negative wall shear stress, can cause increased superoxide (O2·?) production in vascular endothelial cells. The mechanism by which shear stress increases O2·? production, however, is not well established. We tested the hypothesis that actin depolymerization, which occurs during flow reversal, mediates O2·? production in vascular endothelial cells via NADPH oxidase, and more specifically, the subunit p47phox. Using a swine model, we created complete blood flow reversal in one carotid artery, while the contralateral vessel maintained forward blood flow as control. We measured actin depolymerization, NADPH oxidase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the presence of various inhibitors. Flow reversal was found to induce actin depolymerization and a 3.9 ± 1.0-fold increase in ROS production as compared with forward flow. NADPH oxidase activity was 1.4 ± 0.2 times higher in vessel segments subjected to reversed blood flow when measured by a direct enzyme assay. The NADPH oxidase subunits gp91phox (Nox2) and p47phox content in the vessels remained unchanged after 4 h of flow reversal. In contrast, p47phox phosphorylation was increased in vessels with reversed flow. The response caused by reversed flow was reduced by in vivo treatment with jasplakinolide, an actin stabilizer (only a 1.7 ± 0.3-fold increase). Apocynin (an antioxidant) prevented reversed flow-induced ROS production when the animals were treated in vivo. Cytochalasin D mimicked actin depolymerization in vitro and caused a 5.2 ± 3.0-fold increase in ROS production. These findings suggest that actin filaments play an important role in negative shear stress-induced ROS production by potentiating NADPH oxidase activity, and more specifically, the p47phox subunit in vascular endothelium. PMID:24186098

Choy, Jenny S.; Lu, Xiao; Yang, Junrong; Zhang, Zhen-Du

2013-01-01

111

Impact of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside on Glycated LDL-Induced NADPH Oxidase Activation, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cell Viability in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Elevated levels of glycated low density lipoprotein (glyLDL) are frequently detected in diabetic patients. Previous studies demonstrated that glyLDL increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activated NADPH oxidase (NOX) and suppressed mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) enzyme activities in vascular endothelial cells (EC). The present study examined the effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a type of anthocyanin abundant in dark-skinned berries, on glyLDL-induced ROS production, NOX activation and mETC enzyme activity in porcine aortic EC (PAEC). Co-treatment of C3G prevented glyLDL-induced upregulation of NOX4 and intracellular superoxide production in EC. C3G normalized glyLDL-induced inhibition on the enzyme activities of mETC Complex I and III, as well as the abundances of NADH dehydrogenase 1 in Complex I and cytochrome b in Complex III in EC. Blocking antibody for the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) prevented glyLDL-induced changes in NOX and mETC enzymes. Combination of C3G and RAGE antibody did not significantly enhance glyLDL-induced inhibition of NOX or mETC enzymes. C3G reduced glyLDL-induced RAGE expression with the presence of RAGE antibody. C3G prevented prolonged incubation with the glyLDL-induced decrease in cell viability and the imbalance between key regulators for cell viability (cleaved caspase 3 and B cell Lyphoma-2) in EC. The findings suggest that RAGE plays an important role in glyLDL-induced oxidative stress in vascular EC. C3G may prevent glyLDL-induced NOX activation, the impairment of mETC enzymes and cell viability in cultured vascular EC. PMID:23443099

Xie, Xueping; Zhao, Ruozhi; Shen, Garry X.

2012-01-01

112

Novel Role for Non-muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) in Hyperoxia-induced Recruitment of Cytoskeletal Proteins, NADPH Oxidase Activation, and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Lung Endothelium*  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that hyperoxia (HO) activates lung endothelial cell NADPH oxidase and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS)/superoxide via Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of p47phox and cortactin. Here, we demonstrate that the non-muscle ?214-kDa myosin light chain (MLC) kinase (nmMLCK) modulates the interaction between cortactin and p47phox that plays a role in the assembly and activation of endothelial NADPH oxidase. Overexpression of FLAG-tagged wild type MLCK in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells enhanced interaction and co-localization between cortactin and p47phox at the cell periphery and ROS production, whereas abrogation of MLCK using specific siRNA significantly inhibited the above. Furthermore, HO stimulated phosphorylation of MLC and recruitment of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated cortactin, MLC, Src, and p47phox to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEM), whereas silencing nmMLCK with siRNA blocked recruitment of these components to CEM and ROS generation. Exposure of nmMLCK?/? null mice to HO (72 h) reduced ROS production, lung inflammation, and pulmonary leak compared with control mice. These results suggest a novel role for nmMLCK in hyperoxia-induced recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins and NADPH oxidase components to CEM, ROS production, and lung injury. PMID:22219181

Usatyuk, Peter V.; Singleton, Patrick A.; Pendyala, Srikanth; Kalari, Satish K.; He, Donghong; Gorshkova, Irina A.; Camp, Sara M.; Moitra, Jaideep; Dudek, Steven M.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

2012-01-01

113

Regulation of NADPH Oxidase 5 by Protein Kinase C Isoforms  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase5 (Nox5) is a novel Nox isoform which has recently been recognized as having important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, fetal ventricular septal defect and cancer. The activity of Nox5 and production of reactive oxygen species is regulated by intracellular calcium levels and phosphorylation. However, the kinases that phosphorylate Nox5 remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the phosphorylation of Nox5 is PKC dependent, but this contention was based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors and the isoforms of PKC involved remain unknown. Thus, the major goals of this study were to determine whether PKC can directly regulate Nox5 phosphorylation and activity, to identify which isoforms are involved in the process, and to understand the functional significance of this pathway in disease. We found that a relatively specific PKC? inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, dose-dependently inhibited PMA-induced superoxide production from Nox5. PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity was significantly reduced in cells with genetic silencing of PKC? and PKC?, enhanced by loss of PKC? and the silencing of PKC? expression was without effect. A constitutively active form of PKC? robustly increased basal and PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity and promoted the phosphorylation of Nox5 on Ser490, Thr494, and Ser498. In contrast, constitutively active PKC? potently inhibited both basal and PMA-dependent Nox5 activity. Co-IP and in vitro kinase assay experiments demonstrated that PKC? directly binds to Nox5 and modifies Nox5 phosphorylation and activity. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose significantly increased PKC? activation, and enhanced Nox5 derived superoxide in a manner that was in prevented by a PKC? inhibitor, Go 6976. In summary, our study reveals that PKC? is the primary isoform mediating the activation of Nox5 and this maybe of significance in our understanding of the vascular complications of diabetes and other diseases with increased ROS production. PMID:24505490

Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Haigh, Steven; Johnson, John; Lucas, Rudolf; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J. R.

2014-01-01

114

Role of the NADPH oxidases in the subfornical organ in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species and the NADPH oxidases contribute to hypertension via mechanisms that remain undefined. Reactive oxygen species produced in the central nervous system have been proposed to promote sympathetic outflow, inflammation, and hypertension, but the contribution of the NADPH oxidases to these processes in chronic hypertension is uncertain. We therefore sought to identify how NADPH oxidases in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain regulate blood pressure and vascular inflammation during sustained hypertension. We produced mice with loxP sites flanking the coding region of the NADPH oxidase docking subunit p22(phox). SFO-targeted injections of an adenovirus encoding cre-recombinase markedly diminished p22(phox), Nox2, and Nox4 mRNA in the SFO, as compared with a control adenovirus encoding red-fluorescent protein injection. Increased superoxide production in the SFO by chronic angiotensin II infusion (490 ng/kg min(-1) × 2 weeks) was blunted in adenovirus encoding cre-recombinase-treated mice, as detected by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Deletion of p22(phox) in the SFO eliminated the hypertensive response observed at 2 weeks of angiotensin II infusion compared with control adenovirus encoding red-fluorescent protein-treated mice (mean arterial pressures=97 ± 15 versus 154 ± 6 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.0001). Angiotensin II infusion also promoted marked vascular inflammation, as characterized by accumulation of activated T-cells and other leukocytes, and this was prevented by deletion of the SFO p22(phox). These experiments definitively identify the NADPH oxidases in the SFO as a critical determinant of the blood pressure and vascular inflammatory responses to chronic angiotensin II, and further support a role of reactive oxygen species in central nervous system signaling in hypertension. PMID:23248154

Lob, Heinrich E; Schultz, David; Marvar, Paul J; Davisson, Robin L; Harrison, David G

2013-02-01

115

NADPH oxidase activation and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal/aquaporin-4 adducts as possible new players in oxidative neuronal damage presents in drug-resistant epilepsy.  

PubMed

A correlation between epilepsy and cellular redox imbalance has been suggested, although the mechanism by which oxidative stress (OS) can be implicated in this disorder is not clear. In the present study several oxidative stress markers and enzymes involved in OS have been determined. In particular, we examined the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein adducts (HNE-PA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, and the activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), as cellular source of superoxide (O2(-)), in surgically resected epileptic tissue from drug-resistant patients (N=50). In addition, we investigated whether oxidative-mediated protein damage can affect aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel implicated in brain excitability and epilepsy. Results showed high levels of HNE-PA in epileptic hippocampus, in both neurons and glial cells and cytoplasmic positivity for p47(phox) and p67(phox) suggesting NOX2 activation. Interestingly, in epileptic tissue immunohistochemical localization of AQP4 was identified not only in perivascular astrocytic endfeet, but also in neurons. Nevertheless, negativity for AQP4 was observed in neurons in degeneration. Of note, HNE-mediated post-translational modifications of AQP4 were increased in epileptic tissues and double immunofluorescence clearly demonstrated co-localization of AQP4 and HNE-PA in epileptic hippocampal structures. The idea is that sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharges activates NOX2 with O2(-) production, leading to lipid peroxidation. The resulting generation of HNE targets AQP4, affecting water and ion balance. Therefore, we suggest that seizure induces oxidative damage as well as neuronal loss, thereby promoting neuronal hyperexcitability, also affecting water and ion balance by AQP4 modulation, and thus generating a vicious cycle. PMID:25460197

Pecorelli, A; Natrella, F; Belmonte, G; Miracco, C; Cervellati, F; Ciccoli, L; Mariottini, A; Rocchi, R; Vatti, G; Bua, A; Canitano, R; Hayek, J; Forman, H J; Valacchi, G

2015-03-01

116

Death Receptors 4 and 5 Activate Nox1 NADPH Oxidase through Riboflavin Kinase to Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Apoptotic Cell Death*  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the proapoptotic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, death receptors 4 (DR4) and 5 (DR5), conventionally induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in tumor cells. Here we report that stimulation of DR4 and/or DR5 by the agonistic protein KD548-Fc, an Fc-fused DR4/DR5 dual-specific Kringle domain variant, activates plasma membrane-associated Nox1 NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide anion and subsequently accumulates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and eventual apoptotic cell death in human HeLa and Jurkat tumor cells. KD548-Fc treatment induces the formation of a DR4/DR5 signaling complex containing riboflavin kinase (RFK), Nox1, the Nox1 subunits (Rac1, Noxo1, and Noxa1), TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). Depletion of RFK, but not the Nox1 subunits, TRADD and TRAF2, failed to recruit Nox1 and Rac1 to DR4 and DR5, demonstrating that RFK plays an essential role in linking DR4/DR5 with Nox1. Knockdown studies also reveal that RFK, TRADD, and TRAF2 play critical, intermediate, and negligible roles, respectively, in the KD548-Fc-mediated ROS accumulation and downstream signaling. Binding assays using recombinantly expressed proteins suggest that DR4/DR5 directly interact with cytosolic RFK through RFK-binding regions within the intracellular death domains, and TRADD stabilizes the DR4/DR5-RFK complex. Our results suggest that DR4 and DR5 have a capability to activate Nox1 by recruiting RFK, resulting in ROS-mediated apoptotic cell death in tumor cells. PMID:22158615

Park, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Chang-Han; Kim, Aeyung; Jeong, Ki Jun; Kim, Chul-Ho; Kim, Yong-Sung

2012-01-01

117

Phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase promotes cytokine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in pancreatic ?-cells: evidence for regulation by Rac1  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of cellular signal transduction cascades such as proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Chronic exposure of isolated ?-cells to proinflammatory cytokines elevates intracellular oxidative stress leading to the demise of pancreatic ?-cells culminating in the onset of diabetes. Although the mitochondrial electron transport chain is felt to be the primary source of ROS, several lines of recent evidence suggest that phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase plays a central role in cytokine-mediated ROS generation and apoptosis of ?-cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the regulation of NADPH oxidase remain unknown. To address this, insulin-secreting INS 832/13 cells were treated with cytomix (IL-1?, IFN-?, and TNF-?; 10 ng/ml each) for different time intervals (0–24 h). A significant, time-dependent increase in NADPH oxidase activation/intracellular ROS production, p47phox subunit, but not p67phox subunit, expression of the phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase were demonstrable under these conditions. Furthermore, siRNA-p47phox transfection or exposure of INS 832/13 cells to apocynin, a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, markedly attenuated cytomix-induced ROS generation in these cells. Cytomix-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in INS 832/13 cells was evident by a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and upregulated caspase 3 activity. Cytomix treatment also caused a transient (within 15 min) activation of Rac1, a component of the NADPH oxidase holoenzyme. Furthermore, GGTI-2147 and NSC23766, known Rac1 inhibitors, not only attenuated the cytomix-induced Rac1 activation but also significantly prevented loss of MMP (NSC23766 > GGTI-2147). However, NSC23766 had no effect on cytomix-induced NO generation or caspase 3 activation, suggesting additional regulatory mechanisms might underlie these signaling steps. Together, these findings suggested that Rac1-mediated regulation of phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase contributes to cytokine-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in the ?-cell. PMID:20943855

Subasinghe, Wasanthi; Syed, Ismail

2011-01-01

118

Biphasic Regulation of the NADPH Oxidase by HGF/c-Met Signaling Pathway in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Redox signaling is emerging as an essential mechanism in the regulation of biological activities of the cell. The HGF/c-Met signaling pathway has been implicated as a key regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. We previously demonstrated that genetic deletion of c-met in hepatocytes disrupts redox homeostasis by a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase. Here, we were focused to address the mechanism of NADPH oxidase regulation by HGF/c-Met signaling in primary mouse hepatocytes and its relevance. HGF induced a biphasic mechanism of NADPH oxidase regulation. The first phase employed the rapid increase in production of ROS as signaling effectors to activate the Nrf2-mediated protective response resulting in up-regulation of the antioxidant proteins, such as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The second phase operated under a prolonged HGF exposure, caused a suppression of the NADPH oxidase components, including NOX2, NOX4, p22 and p67, and was able to abrogate the TGF?-induced ROS production and improve cell viability. In conclusion, HGF/c-Met induces a Nrf2-mediated protective response by a double mechanism driven by NADPH oxidase. PMID:23333744

Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Enriquez-Cortina, Cristina; López-Reyes, Alberto; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño, Natalia; Domínguez-Meraz, Marcela; Bucio, Leticia; Souza, Verónica; Factor, Valentina M.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis E.

2013-01-01

119

Selective Rac1 inhibition protects renal tubular epithelial cells from oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative cell injury  

PubMed Central

Oxalate-induced oxidative cell injury is one of the major mechanisms implicated in calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth of kidney stones. We previously demonstrated that oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals play a significant role in renal injury. Since NADPH oxidase activation requires several regulatory proteins, the primary goal of this study was to characterize the role of Rac GTPase in oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative injury in renal epithelial cells. Our results show that oxalate significantly increased membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity of renal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. We found that NSC23766, a selective inhibitor of Rac1, blocked oxalate-induced membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity. In the absence of Rac1 inhibitor, oxalate exposure significantly increased hydrogen peroxide formation and LDH release in renal epithelial cells. In contrast, Rac1 inhibitor pretreatment, significantly decreased oxalate-induced hydrogen peroxide production and LDH release. Furthermore, PKC ? and ? inhibitor, oxalate exposure did not increase Rac1 protein translocation, suggesting that PKC resides upstream from Rac1 in the pathway that regulates NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that Rac1-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase might be a crucial mechanism responsible for oxalate-induced oxidative renal cell injury. These findings suggest that Rac1 signaling plays a key role in oxalate-induced renal injury, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to prevent calcium oxalate crystal deposition in stone formers and reduce recurrence. PMID:21814770

Thamilselvan, Vijayalakshmi; Menon, Mani

2013-01-01

120

Selective Rac1 inhibition protects renal tubular epithelial cells from oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative cell injury.  

PubMed

Oxalate-induced oxidative cell injury is one of the major mechanisms implicated in calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth of kidney stones. We previously demonstrated that oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals play a significant role in renal injury. Since NADPH oxidase activation requires several regulatory proteins, the primary goal of this study was to characterize the role of Rac GTPase in oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative injury in renal epithelial cells. Our results show that oxalate significantly increased membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity of renal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. We found that NSC23766, a selective inhibitor of Rac1, blocked oxalate-induced membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity. In the absence of Rac1 inhibitor, oxalate exposure significantly increased hydrogen peroxide formation and LDH release in renal epithelial cells. In contrast, Rac1 inhibitor pretreatment, significantly decreased oxalate-induced hydrogen peroxide production and LDH release. Furthermore, PKC ? and ? inhibitor, oxalate exposure did not increase Rac1 protein translocation, suggesting that PKC resides upstream from Rac1 in the pathway that regulates NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that Rac1-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase might be a crucial mechanism responsible for oxalate-induced oxidative renal cell injury. These findings suggest that Rac1 signaling plays a key role in oxalate-induced renal injury, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to prevent calcium oxalate crystal deposition in stone formers and reduce recurrence. PMID:21814770

Thamilselvan, Vijayalakshmi; Menon, Mani; Thamilselvan, Sivagnanam

2012-08-01

121

Role of NF-kappaB in transcriptional regulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.  

PubMed

Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disease. Activation of these phagocytes induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 and TNF-alpha and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2*-). Recently, we found that TNF-alpha treatment of human monocytic cells (MonoMac1) and isolated human monocytes resulted in up-regulation of the NADPH oxidase gene, neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2). These results suggested that TNF-alpha, produced by activated macrophages, could serve as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of the oxidase, resulting in increased and/or prolonged production of O2*-. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in NADPH oxidase regulation by TNF-alpha, we evaluated transcriptional regulation of oxidase genes in MonoMac1 cells and human monocytes. We show that TNF-alpha-treated cells have increased levels of mRNA and up-regulated expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox), p67(phox), and gp91(phox), as well as increased oxidase activity. Pharmacological inhibitors of NF-kappaB activation blocked TNF-alpha-induced up-regulation of NCF1, NCF2, and CYBB message, which correlated with a reduction in expression of the corresponding oxidase proteins and decreased O2*- production. These data demonstrate that the increase in and/or maintenance of O2*- production in TNF-alpha-treated MonoMac1 cells and monocytes are a result, in part, of transcriptional up-regulation of three essential NADPH oxidase genes via the NF-kappaB pathway. This novel finding supports a model, whereby TNF-alpha-dependent activation of NF-kappaB up-regulates phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity, leading to enhanced ROS production and further NF-kappaB activation, potentially contributing to sustained oxidant production in chronic inflammation. PMID:17537988

Gauss, Katherine A; Nelson-Overton, Laura K; Siemsen, Daniel W; Gao, Ying; DeLeo, Frank R; Quinn, Mark T

2007-09-01

122

Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast switch is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase generated reactive oxygen species  

PubMed Central

Tumour–stroma interaction is a prerequisite for tumour progression in skin cancer. Hereby, a critical step in stromal function is the transition of tumour-associated fibroblasts to MFs (myofibroblasts) by growth factors, for example TGF? (transforming growth factor beta(). In this study, the question was addressed of whether fibroblast-associated NAD(P)H oxidase (NADH/NADPH oxidase), known to be activated by TGF?1, is involved in the fibroblast-to-MF switch. The up-regulation of ?SMA (alpha smooth muscle actin), a biomarker for MFs, is mediated by a TGF?1-dependent increase in the intracellular level of ROS (reactive oxygen species). This report demonstrates two novel aspects of the TGF?1 signalling cascade, namely the generation of ROS due to a biphasic NAD(P)H oxidase activity and a ROS-dependent downstream activation of p38 leading to a transition of dermal fibroblasts to MFs that can be inhibited by the selective NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin. These data suggest that inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase activity prevents the fibroblast-to-MF switch and may be important for chemoprevention in context of a ‘stromal therapy’ which was described earlier. PMID:24299025

Alili, Lirija; Sack, Maren; Puschmann, Katharina; Brenneisen, Peter

2013-01-01

123

NAD(P)H Oxidase and eNOS Play Differential Roles in Cytomegalovirus Infection-Induced Microvascular Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection promotes oxidative stress and reduces nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in endothelial cells. These events are among the earliest vascular responses to cardiovascular risk factors. We assessed the roles of NAD(P)H oxidase and NO bioavailability in microvascular responses to persistent CMV infection alone or with hypercholesterolemia. Wildtype (WT) or gp91phox (NAD(P)H oxidase subunit) knockout mice received mock-inoculum or 3×104PFU murine CMV (mCMV) IP 5wks before placement on normal or high cholesterol diet (?HC) for 4wks before assessment of arteriolar function and venular blood cell recruitment using intravital microscopy. Some WT groups received sepiapterin (a precursor of the nitric oxide synthase co-factor, tetrahydrobiopterin), or apocynin (NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor/antioxidant). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired in mCMV vs. mock WT, regardless of diet. This was not affected by sepiapterin, and pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide synthase reduced dilation similarly in Mock and mCMV mice. Apocynin or deficiency of total, but not only blood cell or vascular wall (tested using bone marrow chimeras), gp91phox protected against arteriolar dysfunction. Blood cell recruitment was induced by mCMV-HC. Sepiapterin, but not NAD(P)H oxidase deficiency/apocynin, reduced leukocyte accumulation, whereas platelet adhesion was reduced by sepiapterin, apocynin or total, platelet-specific or vascular wall gp91phox-deficiency. These data implicate activation of both hematopoietic and vessel wall NAD(P)H oxidase in mCMV-induced arteriolar dysfunction, and platelet and vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in the thrombogenic phenotype induced by mCMV-HC. In contrast, findings with sepiapterin suggest eNOS dysfunction, perhaps uncoupling, mediates venular, but not arteriolar, responses to mCMV-HC, thus indicating that NAD(P)H oxidase and eNOS differentially regulate microvascular responses to mCMV. PMID:22033010

Leskov, Igor L.; Whitsett, Jennifer; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Stokes, Karen Y.

2011-01-01

124

NADPH Oxidase and the Cardiovascular Toxicity Associated with Smoking  

PubMed Central

Smoking is one of the most serious but preventable causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Key aspects of pathological process associated with smoking include endothelial dysfunction, a prothrombotic state, inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and hypoxia. Multiple molecular events are involved in smokinginduced CVD. However, the dysregulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and metabolism mainly contribute to the development of diverse CVDs, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been established as a source of ROS responsible for the pathogenesis of CVD. NOX activation and resultant ROS production by cigarette smoke (CS) treatment have been widely observed in isolated blood vessels and cultured vascular cells, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells. NOX-mediated oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in animal studies. Of the various NOX isoforms, NOX2 has been reported to mediate ROS generation by CS, but other isoforms were not tested thoroughly. Of the many CS constituents, nicotine, methyl vinyl ketone, and ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, such as, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, appear to be primarily responsible for NOX-mediated cytotoxicity, but additional validation will be needed. Human epidemiological studies have reported relationships between polymorphisms in the CYBA gene encoding p22phox, a catalytic subunit of NOX and susceptibility to smoking-related CVDs. In particular, G allele carriers of A640G and -930A/G polymorphisms were found to be vulnerable to smoking-induced cardiovascular toxicity, but results for C242T studies are conflicting. On the whole, evidence implicates the etiological role of NOX in smoking-induced CVD, but the clinical relevance of NOX activation by smoking and its contribution to CVD require further validation in human studies. A detailed understanding of the role of NOX would be helpful to assess the risk of smoking to human health, to define high-risk subgroups, and to develop strategies to prevent or treat smoking-induced CVD. PMID:25343008

Kim, Mikyung; Han, Chang-ho

2014-01-01

125

Finding the switch: turning a baeyer-villiger monooxygenase into a NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

By a targeted enzyme engineering approach, we were able to create an efficient NADPH oxidase from a monooxygenase. Intriguingly, replacement of only one specific single amino acid was sufficient for such a monooxygenase-to-oxidase switch-a complete transition in enzyme activity. Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis and elucidation of the crystal structure of the C65D PAMO mutant revealed that the mutation introduces small changes near the flavin cofactor, resulting in a rapid decay of the peroxyflavin intermediate. The engineered biocatalyst was shown to be a thermostable, solvent tolerant, and effective cofactor-regenerating biocatalyst. Therefore, it represents a valuable new biocatalytic tool. PMID:25423359

Brondani, Patrícia B; Dudek, Hanna M; Martinoli, Christian; Mattevi, Andrea; Fraaije, Marco W

2014-12-10

126

The NADPH-oxidase AtrbohB plays a role in Arabidopsis seed after-ripening  

E-print Network

The NADPH-oxidase AtrbohB plays a role in Arabidopsis seed after-ripening Kerstin Mu¨ller1 , Anna: abscisic acid (ABA), after-ripening, alternative splicing, Arabidopsis thaliana, cress (Lepidium sativum identified a role for the NADPH-oxidase AtrbohB in after-ripening. Semiquantitative PCR was used

Leubner, Gerhard

127

Unconventional Roles of the NADPH Oxidase: Signaling, Ion Homeostasis, and Cell Death  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the central role of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase in mediating bacterial killing has long been appreciated, this sophisticated enzyme complex serves various other important functions. This Perspective focuses on these underappreciated roles of phagocytic NADPH oxidase, highlighting recent work implicating reactive oxygen species in triggering an unconventional form of cell death.

Benjamin E. Steinberg (Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto; Program in Cell Biology REV)

2007-03-27

128

Identification of a region in p47phox/NCF1 crucial for phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX2) activation.  

PubMed

A point mutation in the mouse Ncf1(m1J) gene decreases production of ROS by the phagocytic NOX2 complex. Three mRNA splice variants are expressed, but only one is expressed as a protein, although at lower levels than the WT NCF1 (also known as p47phox). Our aim was to investigate whether the mutant p47phox, lacking 8 aa, is active, but as a result of its low expression, ROS production is decreased in Ncf1(m1J) mice, or whether the mutant p47phox completely lacks the capability to activate the NOX2 complex. The p47phox mutant (?228-235), which was equal to the protein in Ncf1(m1J) mice, failed to activate the NOX2 complex. When the deleted region was narrowed down to 2 aa, the p47phox protein remained inactive and failed to translocate to the membrane upon activation. Single amino acid substitutions revealed Thr233 to be vital for ROS production. Residues Tyr231 and Val232 also seemed to be important for p47phox function, as p47phox_Y231G and p47phox_V232G resulted in a >50% decrease in ROS production by the NOX2 complex. In addition, we identified the epitope of the D-10 anti-p47phox mAb. In conclusion, the p47phox protein variant expressed in Ncf1(m1J) mice is completely defective in activating the NOX2 complex to produce ROS, and the effect is dependent on SH3 region amino acids at positions 231-233, which are vital for the proper assembly of the NOX2 complex. PMID:23271700

Sareila, Outi; Jaakkola, Noora; Olofsson, Peter; Kelkka, Tiina; Holmdahl, Rikard

2013-03-01

129

NADPH oxidase in plasma membrane is involved in stomatal closure induced by dehydroascorbate.  

PubMed

Stoma is surrounded by two guard cells, and regulates the contents of water and CO(2) in plant, its opening and closing was affected by various factors. Recently, dehydroascorbate was found to induce stomata closure and H(2)O(2) generation. However, the mechanism of H(2)O(2) production is not clear. DPI and imidazole inhibit the flavoprotein and the b(-type) cytochrome components of the NADPH oxidase complex. Application of DPI or imidazole with DHA together impaired stomatal closure and elevation of H(2)DCF-DA fluorescent intensity induced by DHA in guard cells. CoCl(2) and PD98059, as the blocker of calcium channel and the inhibitor of MAPKKK, both impaired stomatal closure induced by DHA. The results suggested that DHA-induced H(2)O(2) generation via activation of NADPH oxidase, and thus resulting in stomatal closure. Moreover, Ca(2+) channel and MAPK cascades were involved in stomatal closure induced by DHA. PMID:22153236

Shi, Yong Chun; Fu, Yun Peng; Liu, Wei Qun

2012-02-01

130

NADPH OXIDASES IN LUNG BIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY. HOST DEFENSE ENZYMES, AND MORE  

PubMed Central

The deliberate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocyte NADPH oxidase is widely appreciated as a critical component of antimicrobial host defense. Recently, additional homologs of NADPH oxidase (NOX) have been discovered throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, which appear to possess diverse functions in addition to host defense, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation of gene expression. Several of these NOX homologs are also expressed within the respiratory tract, where they participate in innate host defense as well as in epithelial and inflammatory cell signaling and gene expression, and fibroblast and smooth muscle cell proliferation, in response to bacterial or viral infection and environmental stress. Inappropriate expression or activation of NOX/DUOX during various lung pathologies suggests their specific involvement in respiratory disease. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the general functional properties of mammalian NOX enzymes, and their specific importance in respiratory tract physiology and pathology. PMID:18164271

van der Vliet, Albert

2008-01-01

131

Propofol alleviates acute lung injury following orthotopic autologous liver transplantation in rats via inhibition of the NADPH oxidase pathway.  

PubMed

Acute lung injury (ALI) induced by liver transplantation is detrimental to patient survival, and therapeutic strategies remain limited. Thus, the protective effects of propofol, a commonly used anesthetic with antioxidative and anti?inflammatory properties, were investigated in the present study on ALI induced by orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT). The protective mechanism of propofol was determined to be associated with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase, by comparing its effects with the positive controls apocynin (AP; an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and N?acegysteine (NAC; a scavenger of reactive oxygen species). The results demonstrated that two proteins (p47phox and gp91phox) of the NADPH oxidase system presented increased expression in rats with ALI induced by OALT, thus leading to increased activation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. Preconditioning with NAC or AP eliminated this increase, suggesting that antioxidative treatment, particularly with inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, is a promising protective strategy against ALI induced by OALT. Propofol preconditioning at a high (100 mg/kg) or low (50 mg/kg) dose promoted similar protective effects, with the high?dose propofol producing a more marked effect than the low dose. The results suggested that propofol may protect against ALI induced by OALT, the mechanism of which may involve a reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction mediated by NADPH oxidase inhibition. PMID:25385444

Luo, Gangjian; Zhu, Guosong; Yuan, Dongdong; Yao, Weifeng; Chi, Xinjin; Hei, Ziqing

2015-03-01

132

Regulation of NADPH oxidase gene expression with PKA and cytokine IL-4 in neurons and microglia.  

PubMed

Neuronal excitation is mediated by the activation of NMDA receptor and associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species due to the activation of NADPH oxidase complex proteins. The activation of Gs protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces neuronal activation in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated signal cascade and regulates NADPH oxidase activity. However, it is unknown whether PKA regulates NADPH oxidase gene expression in neurons and microglia. In the present research, the NADPH oxidase gene expression was studied in rat cortical neurons and microglia in vitro. Purified microglial cells were identified with OX-42 antibody and they also expressed apolipoprotein E (ApoE). The time-dependent effect of cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) (20 ng/ml) in NADPH oxidase gene expression was studied in microglial cells. The levels of mRNA were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of NOX1, NOX2, and NCF2 was upregulated after IL-4 treatment for 4 h, but it was downregulated after 8-24 h. The expression of NCF1 was suppressed during any time of cytokine effect. IL-4 upregulated arginase1 (Arg1) and serine racemase1 (SRR1) gene expressions in microglia. Amyloid beta (Ab) suppressed NOX2, NCF1, and NCF2 gene expressions and upregulated glutamate cystine transporter (xCT), although IL-4 attenuated the effect of Ab (500 ?M) in the upregulation of xCT gene expression. The activation of PKA with agonist dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) (100 ?M) induced the upregulation of Arg1 gene expression in microglia involving in the process of microglial activation. The transcription of NOX1, NOX2, and NCF1 was suppressed in microglial cells after dbcAMP treatment within 24 h. Neurons were identified with the microtubule-associated protein tau. The uniform distribution of tau along axons was established in normal neurons. Tau protein was redistributed after PKA agonist dbcAMP treatment for 24 h. L-glutamate (50 ?M) caused the apoptotic processes and the accumulation of tau in the soma of neurons and along axons. The activation of PKA for 24 h induced the transcriptional upregulation of NOX1 and NCF1 in cortical neurons. However, L-glutamate suppressed NOX1 gene expression in neurons. These data demonstrate that the effects of IL-4 and dbcAMP are similar in the regulation of SRR1, Arg1, and NADPH oxidase complex gene expressions in neurons and microglia. IL-4 prevents glutamate release from microglia suppressing xCT expression induced by Ab. These findings suggest that the activation of GPCR in PKA-mediated pathway leads to transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase complex. The modulation of GPCR activation may inhibit the oxidative stress in neurons. PMID:22565378

Savchenko, Valentina L

2013-04-01

133

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.  

PubMed

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-10-01

134

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O3 fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O3, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O3 can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D’Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-01-01

135

Endothelin-1-induced oxidative stress in DOCA-salt hypertension involves NADPH-oxidase-independent mechanisms.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated recently [Callera, Touyz, Teixeira, Muscara, Carvalho, Fortes, Schiffrin and Tostes (2003) Hypertension 42, 811-817] that increased vascular oxidative stress in DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate)-salt rats is associated with activation of the ET (endothelin) system via ETA receptors. The exact source of ET-1-mediated oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ET-1 increases generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in DOCA-salt hypertension through NADPH-oxidase-dependent mechanisms. Xanthine oxidase, eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) were also examined as potential ET-1 sources of ROS as well as mitochondrial respiration. DOCA-salt and control UniNX (uninephrectomized) rats were treated with the ETA antagonist BMS182874 (40 mg.day(-1).kg(-1) of body weight) or vehicle. Plasma TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances) were increased in DOCA-salt compared with UniNX rats. Activity of NADPH and xanthine oxidases in aorta, mesenteric arteries and heart was increased in DOCA-salt rats. BMS182874 decreased plasma TBARS levels without influencing NADPH and xanthine oxidase activities in DOCA-salt rats. Increased p22(phox) protein expression and increased p47(phox) membrane translocation in arteries from DOCA-salt by rats were not affected by BMS182874 treatment. Increased eNOS and COX-2 expression, also observed in aortas from DOCA-salt rats, was unaltered by BMS182874. Increased mitochondrial generation of ROS in DOCA-salt rats was normalized by BMS182874. ETA antagonism also increased the expression of mitochondrial MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase) in DOCA-salt rats. In conclusion, activation of NADPH oxidase does not seem to be the major source of oxidative stress induced by ET-1/ETA in DOCA-salt hypertension, which also appears to be independent of increased activation of xanthine oxidase or eNOS/COX-2 overexpression. Mitochondria may play a role in ET-1-driven oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased mitochondrial-derived ROS in this model of hypertension. PMID:16271043

Callera, Glaucia E; Tostes, Rita C; Yogi, Alvaro; Montezano, Augusto C I; Touyz, Rhian M

2006-02-01

136

Regulation of myocardial growth and death by NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidases (Nox) are transmembrane proteins dedicated to producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, by transferring electrons from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen. Nox2 and Nox4 are expressed in the heart and play an important role in mediating oxidative stress at baseline and under stress. Nox2 is primarily localized on the plasma membrane, whereas Nox4 is found primarily on intracellular membranes, on mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum or the nucleus. Although Nox2 plays an important role in mediating angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, Nox4 mediates cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in response to pressure overload. Expression of Nox4 is upregulated by hypertrophic stimuli, and Nox4 in mitochondria plays an essential role in mediating oxidative stress during pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Upregulation of Nox4 induces oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, including aconitase, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial cell death. On the other hand, Noxs also appear to mediate physiological functions, such as erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of Noxs in mediating oxidative stress and both pathological and physiological functions of Noxs in the heart. PMID:21215757

Maejima, Yasuhiro; Kuroda, Junya; Matsushima, Shouji; Ago, Tetsuro; Sadoshima, Junichi

2011-01-01

137

Assembly of NADPH Oxidase in Human Neutrophils Is Modulated by the Opacity-Associated Protein Expression State of Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus, Gc) triggers a potent inflammatory response and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Gc survives exposure to neutrophils despite these cells' antimicrobial products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production in neutrophils is initiated by NADPH oxidase, which converts oxygen into superoxide. The subunits of NADPH oxidase are spatially separated between granules (gp91phox/p22phox) and the cytoplasm (p47phox, p67phox, and p40phox). Activation of neutrophils promotes the coassembly of NADPH oxidase subunits at phagosome and/or plasma membranes. While Gc-expressing opacity-associated (Opa) proteins can induce neutrophils to produce ROS, Opa-negative (Opa?) Gc does not stimulate neutrophil ROS production. Using constitutively Opa? and OpaD-positive (OpaD+) Gc bacteria in strain FA1090, we now show that the difference in ROS production levels in primary human neutrophils between these backgrounds can be attributed to differential assembly of NADPH oxidase. Neutrophils infected with Opa? Gc showed limited translocation of NADPH oxidase cytoplasmic subunits to cellular membranes, including the bacterial phagosome. In contrast, these subunits rapidly translocated to neutrophil membranes following infection with OpaD+ Gc. gp91phox and p22phox were recruited to Gc phagosomes regardless of bacterial Opa expression. These results suggest that Opa? Gc interferes with the recruitment of neutrophil NADPH oxidase cytoplasmic subunits to membranes, in particular, the p47phox “organizing” subunit, to prevent assembly of the holoenzyme, resulting in an absence of the oxidative burst. PMID:24343654

Smirnov, Asya; Daily, Kylene P.

2014-01-01

138

virB-Mediated Survival of Brucella abortus in Mice and Macrophages Is Independent of a Functional Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase or NADPH Oxidase in Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brucella abortus virB locus is required for establishing chronic infection in the mouse. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated whether virB is involved in evasion of the bactericidal activity of NADPH oxidase and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages. Elimination of NADPH oxidase or iNOS activity in macrophages in vitro increased recovery of wild-type

Yao-Hui Sun; Andreas B. den Hartigh; Renato de Lima Santos; L. Garry Adams; Renee M. Tsolis

2002-01-01

139

NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Induces Endoplasmatic Reticulum Stress in Neutrophil-Like HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily produced via NADPH oxidase play an important role for killing microorganisms in neutrophils. In this study we examined if ROS production in Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) differentiated into neutrophil-like cells (dHL60) induces ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). To cause ROS production cells were treated with PMA or by chronic hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia failed to induce ROS production and did not cause activation of the UPR in dHL60 cells. PMA, a pharmacologic NADPH oxidase activator, induced ER stress in dHL60 cells as monitored by IRE-1 and PERK pathway activation, and this was independent of calcium signaling. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI, abolished both ROS production and UPR activation. These results show that ROS produced by NADPH oxidase induces ER stress and suggests a close association between the redox state of the cell and the activation of the UPR in neutrophil-like HL60 cells. PMID:25668518

Kuwabara, Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba; Zhang, Liling; Schuiki, Irmgard; Curi, Rui; Volchuk, Allen; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana Carolina

2015-01-01

140

Inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis contributes to hypoglycaemic action of NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase, catalysing superoxide radical (O?(.-)) formation, is considered as a main source of reactive oxygen species in kidneys and its increased activity is supposed to be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, on renal gluconeogenesis, which is an important source of endogenous glucose under diabetic conditions. The following observations were made during the experiments performed on isolated renal proximal tubules of control and alloxan diabetic rabbits: (1) apocynin (200 ?M) inhibited the rate of glucose synthesis by 45-80%, depending on the substrate applied; (2) the rate of glucose production was also significantly diminished in the presence of TEMPOL (5mM), a superoxide radical scavenger, suggesting that the decrease in O?(.-) formation might be involved in apocynin-evoked gluconeogenesis inhibition; (3) the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and/or aldolase were lowered in the presence of either apocynin or TEMPOL, as concluded from the intracellular levels of gluconeogenic intermediates. The data from in vivo experiments indicated that apocynin treatment (2g/l of drinking water): (1) significantly (by about 30%) attenuated serum glucose concentration in diabetic rabbits and did not affect glycaemia in control animals; (2) normalized diabetes-stimulated rate of glucose synthesis and slightly inhibited gluconeogenesis in control rabbits; (3) normalized diabetes-increased activity of mitochondrial PEPCK and lowered cytosolic PEPCK activity by about 20% below the value for untreated control animals; (4) slightly decreased the activity of mitochondrial PEPCK and did not change the activity of cytosolic one in control rabbits. Thus, it is concluded that: (1) the inhibition of NADPH oxidase might contribute to lowered rate of renal gluconeogenesis, probably due to decreasing PEPCK activity; (2) inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis is involved in apocynin hypoglycaemic action in vivo; (3) apocynin might be beneficial for diabetes treatment. PMID:20934416

Winiarska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Michal; Rogacki, Maciej K

2011-01-15

141

Loss of functional NADPH oxidase-2 protects against alcohol-induced bone resorption in female p47phox-/- mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. We have previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol abuse produces bone loss through NOX-dependent mechanisms. In the current study, s...

142

Propofol Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Production Through Activation of Nrf2/GSH and Suppression of NADPH Oxidase in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells.  

PubMed

Propofol is a widely used intravenous anesthetic. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) in propofol protection in inflammatory conditions induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cell line) were incubated with propofol (10, 25, and 50 ?mol/L) for 1 h and then treated with LPS (100 ng/mL) for 24 h. Results indicated that propofol not only attenuated LPS-induced expression of iNOS, NOX, and COX2, but decreased the production of ROS, NO, and PGE2 as well. Propofol also increased the GSH levels and the mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2. Notably, Nrf2 siRNA and the inhibitors of COX-2 and NOX attenuated the inhibition of propofol on ROS production. In conclusion, propofol reduced LPS-induced ROS production via inhibition of inflammatory factors and enhancement of Nrf2-related antioxidant defense, providing its cytoprotective evidence under inflammatory conditions. PMID:25342287

Hsu, Hung-Te; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Yun; Cheng, Kuang-I; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Lo, Yi-Ching

2015-02-01

143

Oxidative- Nitrosative Stress in a Rabbit Pup Model of Germinal Matrix hemorrhage: Role of NAD(P)H Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) is the most common neurological problem of premature infants. Despite this, mechanisms of brain injury from IVH are elusive. We hypothesized that GMH-IVH, by induction of NAD(P)H oxidases, might cause oxidative/nitrosative stress contributing to brain injuries and that NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition could offer neuroprotection . Methods To test this hypothesis, we exploited our rabbit pup model of glycerol-induced GMH-IVH. We delivered rabbit pups prematurely (E29) by C-section and administered intra-peritoneal glycerol at 2h postnatal age. Free-radical adducts, including nitrotyrosine, 4-hyroxynonenal and 8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] as well as O2·? and H2O2 levels were measured in the forebrain. To determine the source of free-radical generation, we used inhibitors for NAD(P)H oxidase (apocynin), xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), COX-2 (indomethacin) or NO synthases (L-NAME). IVH pups were treated with apocynin and cell death was compared between apocynin-treated and vehicle-treated pups. Results Nitrotyrosine, 4-hyroxynonenal and 8-OHdG levels were higher in pups with IVH than controls. Likewise, O2·? and H2O2 levels were significantly greater in both the periventricular area and cerebral cortex of pups with IVH than controls. In pups with IVH, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was more in the periventricular area than in cortex. Apocynin, but not allopurinol, indomethacin or L-NAME, inhibited ROS generation. Importantly, apocynin reduced cell death in pups with IVH. Conclusion Activation of NAD(P)H oxidase was the predominant mechanism of free-radical generation in pups with IVH. NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition by apocynin might suppress ROS production and confer neuroprotection in premature infants with IVH. PMID:19372442

Zia, Muhammad T.; Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Hu, Furong; Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Lagamma, Edmund F.; Ungvari, Zoltan; Ballabh, Praveen

2009-01-01

144

NADPH Oxidase as a Therapeutic Target for Neuroprotection against Ischaemic Stroke: Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to contribute to stroke injury, particularly during reperfusion, and antioxidants targeting this process have resulted in improved outcomes experimentally. Unfortunately these improvements have not been successfully translated to the clinical setting. Targeting the source of oxidative stress may provide a superior therapeutic approach. The NADPH oxidases are a family of enzymes dedicated solely to ROS production and pre-clinical animal studies targeting NADPH oxidases have shown promising results. However there are multiple factors that need to be considered for future drug development: There are several homologues of the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. All have differing physiological roles and may contribute differentially to oxidative damage after stroke. Additionally, the role of ROS in brain repair is largely unexplored, which should be taken into consideration when developing drugs that inhibit specific NADPH oxidases after injury. This article focuses on the current knowledge regarding NADPH oxidase after stroke including in vivo genetic and inhibitor studies. The caution required when interpreting reports of positive outcomes after NADPH oxidase inhibition is also discussed, as effects on long term recovery are yet to be investigated and are likely to affect successful clinical translation. PMID:24961415

McCann, Sarah K.; Roulston, Carli L.

2013-01-01

145

Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Phosphorylation in the Regulation of NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

Abstract The NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzyme family generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to cell signaling, innate immune responses, proliferation, and transcription. The signaling mechanisms that regulate this important enzyme family are only beginning to be understood. Evidence is emerging which suggests that phosphorylation of Nox and/or their regulatory components may be important means of modulating their activity. We describe here the evidence for Nox regulation through the action of kinases, and speculate on how such regulatory mechanisms might contribute to the development of pathological disease states. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2429–2441. PMID:19358632

Diebold, Becky; Kim, Jun-Sub; Gianni, Davide

2009-01-01

146

The superoxide-generating oxidase of leucocytes. NADPH-dependent reduction of flavin and cytochrome b in solubilized preparations.  

PubMed Central

An NADPH-dependent O2.- -generating oxidase was solubilized from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated pig neutrophils by using a mixture of detergents. Recovery of oxidase was approx. 40%. The extract contained cytochrome b-245 (331 pmol/mg of protein) and FAD (421 pmol/mg of protein); approx. 30% of each was reduced within 60s when NADPH was added to anaerobic incubations. Three different additives, quinacrine, p-chloromercuribenzoate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, strongly inhibited O2.- generation; they also inhibited the reduction by NADPH of cytochrome b at the same low concentrations. In the presence of p-chloromercuribenzoate cytochrome b reduction was strongly inhibited and flavin reduction was less inhibited. A detergent extract prepared from non-stimulated neutrophils also contained flavin and cytochrome b, but its rate of O2.- production was less than 1% of that from activated cells; its initial rate of cytochrome b and flavin reduction was low, although the state of reduction at equilibrium was similar to that of extracts of activated cells. Even in the non-activated cell extract the reduction of flavin and cytochrome was made fast and complete when Methyl Viologen was added to the anaerobic incubations. The oxidase was temperature-sensitive, with a sharp maximum at 25 degrees C; temperatures above this caused loss of O2.- generation, and this coincided with loss of the characteristic cytochrome b spectrum, indicate of denaturation of the cytochrome. The cytochrome b formed a complex with butyl isocyanide (close to 100% binding at 10mM); butyl isocyanide also inhibited the oxidase activity of stimulated whole neutrophils (22.5% inhibition at 10mM). Photoreduced FMN stimulated O2 uptake by the oxidase. The results support a scheme of electron transport within the oxidase complex involving NADPH, FAD, cytochrome b-245 and O2 in that sequence. PMID:6497852

Cross, A R; Parkinson, J F; Jones, O T

1984-01-01

147

Dual role of phagocytic NADPH oxidase in bacterial killing.  

PubMed

The classical model of bacterial killing by phagocytic cells has been recently challenged by questioning the toxic effect of oxygen products and attributing the fundamental role to K(+) ions in releasing antimicrobial proteins within the phagosome. In the present study we followed O(2)(*-) production, changes of membrane potential, K(+) efflux, and bacterial killing in the presence of increasing concentrations of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. Efficiency of bacterial killing was assessed on the basis of bacterial survival measured by a new semiautomated method. Very low rates of O(2)(*-) production were accompanied by significant membrane depolarization and K(+) release and parallel improvement of bacterial killing. When O(2)(*-) production exceeded 20% of its maximal capacity, no further change was detected in the membrane potential and only minimal further K(+) efflux occurred, yet bacterial survival decreased parallel to the increase of O(2)(*-) production. The presented results indicate that both electrophysiological changes (depolarization and consequent ion movements) and the chemical effect of reactive oxygen species play a significant role in the killing of certain pathogens. The observation that an increase of membrane depolarization can compensate for decreased O(2)(*-) production may be important for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:15251984

Rada, Balázs K; Geiszt, Miklós; Káldi, Krisztina; Timár, Csaba; Ligeti, Erzsébet

2004-11-01

148

Francisella Acid Phosphatases Inactivate the NADPH Oxidase in Human Phagocytes  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis contains four putative acid phosphatases that are conserved in Francisella novicida. An F. novicida quadruple mutant (AcpA, AcpB, AcpC, and Hap [?ABCH]) is unable to escape the phagosome or survive in macrophages and is attenuated in the mouse model. We explored whether reduced survival of the ?ABCH mutant within phagocytes is related to the oxidative response by human neutrophils and macrophages. F. novicida and F. tularensis subspecies failed to stimulate reactive oxygen species production in the phagocytes, whereas the F. novicida ?ABCH strain stimulated a significant level of reactive oxygen species. The ?ABCH mutant, but not the wild-type strain, strongly colocalized with p47phox and replicated in phagocytes only in the presence of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor or within macrophages isolated from p47phox knockout mice. Finally, purified AcpA strongly dephosphorylated p47phox and p40phox, but not p67phox, in vitro. Thus, Francisella acid phosphatases play a major role in intramacrophage survival and virulence by regulating the generation of the oxidative burst in human phagocytes. PMID:20348422

Mohapatra, Nrusingh P.; Soni, Shilpa; Rajaram, Murugesan V. S.; Dang, Pham My-Chan; Reilly, Tom J.; El-Benna, Jamel; Clay, Corey D.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Gunn, John S.

2010-01-01

149

Molecular evolution of the reactive oxygen-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox\\/Duox) family of enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: NADPH-oxidases (Nox) and the related Dual oxidases (Duox) play varied biological and pathological roles via regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Members of the Nox\\/Duox family have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, including mammals, nematodes, fruit fly, green plants, fungi, and slime molds; however, little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes.

Tsukasa Kawahara; Mark T Quinn; J David Lambeth

2007-01-01

150

Temporal changes in the expression of mRNA of NADPH oxidase subunits in renal epithelial cells exposed to oxalate or calcium oxalate crystals  

PubMed Central

Background. Exposure of renal epithelial cells to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and cell injury. We have hypothesized that Ox and CaOx crystals activate NADPH oxidase through upregulation of its various subunits. Methods. Human renal epithelial-derived cell line, HK-2, was exposed to 100 ?mol Ox or 66.7 ?g/cm2 CaOx monohydrate crystals for 6, 12, 24 or 48 h. After exposure, the cells and media were processed to determine activation of NADPH oxidase, production of superoxide and 8-isoprostane (8IP), and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). RT-PCR was performed to determine mRNA expression of NADPH subunits p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox as well as Rac-GTPase. Results. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals resulted in increase in LDH release, production of 8-IP, NADPH oxidase activity and production of superoxide. Exposure to CaOx crystals resulted in significantly higher NADPH oxidase activity, production of superoxide and LDH release than Ox exposure. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals altered the expression of various subunits of NADPH oxidase. More consistent were increases in the expression of membrane-bound p22phox and cytosolic p47phox. Significant and strong correlations were seen between NADPH oxidase activity, the expression of p22phox and p47phox, production of superoxide and release of LDH when cells were exposed to CaOx crystals. The expressions of neither p22phox nor p47phox were significantly correlated with increased NADPH oxidase activity after the Ox exposure. Conclusions. As hypothesized, exposure to Ox or CaOx crystals leads to significant increases in the expression of p22phox and p47phox, leading to activation of NADPH oxidase. Increased NADPH oxidase activity is associated with increased superoxide production and lipid peroxidation. Different pathways appear to be involved in the stimulation of renal epithelial cells by exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals. PMID:21079197

Khan, Saeed R.; Khan, Aslam; Byer, Karen J.

2011-01-01

151

Intensification of Doxorubicin-Related Oxidative Stress in the Heart by Hypothyroidism Is Not Related to the Expression of Cytochrome P450 NADPH-Reductase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, As Well As Activity of Xanthine Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 NADPH-reductase (P450R), inducible synthase (iNOS) and xanthine oxidase play an important role in the antracycline-related cardiotoxicity. The expression of P450R and iNOS is regulated by triiodothyronine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyreosis on oxidative stress secondary to doxorubicin administration. 48 hours after methimazole giving cessation, rats were exposed to doxorubicin (2.0, 5.0 and 15?mg/kg). Blood and heart were collected 4, 48 and 96?h after the drug administration. Animals exposed exclusively to doxorubicin or untreated ones were also assessed. The hypothyreosis (0.025% of methimazole) significantly increased the doxorubicin effect on the cardiac carbonyl group and they may increase the glutathione level. An insignificant effect of methimazole was noticed in case of the cardiac lipid peroxidation product, the amount of DNA oxidative damages, iNOS and xanthine oxidase-enzymes responsible for red-ox activation of doxorubicin. However, the concentration of P450R was affected by a lower dose of methimazole in rats administered with doxorubicin. Since in rats receiving doxorubicin changes in oxidative stress caused by methimazole were not accompanied by elevation of bioreductive enzymes, it may be concluded that these changes in the oxidative stress were not related to the tested enzymes. PMID:22966413

Dudka, Jaroslaw; Burdan, Franciszek; Korga, Agnieszka; Iwan, Magdalena; Madej-Czerwonka, Barbara; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, Monika; Korobowicz-Markiewicz, Agnieszka; Jodlowska-Jedrych, Barbara; Matysiak, Wlodzimierz

2012-01-01

152

NADPH Oxidase Biology and the Regulation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Signaling and Cancer Drug Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The outdated idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are only dangerous products of cellular metabolism, causing toxic and mutagenic effects on cellular components, is being replaced by the view that ROS have several important functions in cell signaling. In aerobic organisms, ROS can be generated from different sources, including the mitochondrial electron transport chain, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and lipoxygenase, but the only enzyme family that produces ROS as its main product is the NADPH oxidase family (NOX enzymes). These transfer electrons from NADPH (converting it to NADP?) to oxygen to make O2•?. Due to their stability, the products of NADPH oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide are considered the most favorable ROS to act as signaling molecules. Transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in carcinogenesis are modulated by NADPH oxidase, and it has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapies. The present review discusses the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates signal transduction pathways in view of tyrosine kinase receptors, which are pivotal to regulating the hallmarks of cancer, and how ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of several cancer drugs employed in clinical practice. PMID:23434665

Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

2013-01-01

153

NADPH oxidase in the renal microvasculature is a primary target for blood pressure-lowering effects by inorganic nitrate and nitrite.  

PubMed

Renal oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency are key events in hypertension. Stimulation of a nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway with dietary nitrate reduces blood pressure, but the mechanisms or target organ are not clear. We investigated the hypothesis that inorganic nitrate and nitrite attenuate reactivity of renal microcirculation and blood pressure responses to angiotensin II (ANG II) by modulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and NO bioavailability. Nitrite in the physiological range (10(-7)-10(-5) mol/L) dilated isolated perfused renal afferent arterioles, which were associated with increased NO. Contractions to ANG II (34%) and simultaneous NO synthase inhibition (56%) were attenuated by nitrite (18% and 26%). In a model of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase-1 knockouts), abnormal ANG II-mediated arteriolar contractions (90%) were normalized by nitrite (44%). Mechanistically, effects of nitrite were abolished by NO scavenger and xanthine oxidase inhibitor, but only partially attenuated by inhibiting soluble guanylyl cyclase. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin attenuated ANG II-induced contractility (35%) similar to that of nitrite. In the presence of nitrite, no further effect of apocynin was observed, suggesting NADPH oxidase as a possible target. In preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells and kidney cortex, nitrite reduced both basal and ANG II-induced NADPH oxidase activity. These effects of nitrite were also abolished by xanthine oxidase inhibition. Moreover, supplementation with dietary nitrate (10(-2) mol/L) reduced renal NADPH oxidase activity and attenuated ANG II-mediated arteriolar contractions and hypertension (99±2-146±2 mm Hg) compared with placebo (100±3-168±3 mm Hg). In conclusion, these novel findings position NADPH oxidase in the renal microvasculature as a prime target for blood pressure-lowering effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite. PMID:25312440

Gao, Xiang; Yang, Ting; Liu, Ming; Peleli, Maria; Zollbrecht, Christa; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Persson, A Erik G; Carlström, Mattias

2015-01-01

154

NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase dependent superoxide production is increased in proliferative lupus nephritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Lupus nephritis (LN) is an immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Proliferative LN (PLN, International Society of Nephrology and Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classes III and IV)) often leads to renal injury or failure despite traditional induction and maintenance therapy. Successful targeted therapeutic development requires insight into mediators of inflammation in PLN. Superoxide (SO) and its metabolites are mediators of the innate immune response through their ability to mediate reduction-oxidation signaling. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) modulates inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that markers of SO production would be increased in active PLN and that SO production would be dependent on the activity of select enzymes in the renal cortex. Methods Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were enrolled at the time of renal biopsy for active LN of all classes. Serum collected at baseline was analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection for markers of SO production (durable modifications of serum protein Tyr ultimately requiring SO as a substrate). Renal cortex from MRL/MpJ-FASlpr (MRL/lpr) mice with and without functional eNOS was analyzed during active disease for superoxide (SO) production with and without inhibitors of SO producing enzymes. Results Serum protein modifications indicative of total SO production were significantly higher in patients with PLN. These markers were increased in association with more active, inflammatory PLN. Mice lacking functional eNOS had 80% higher levels of renal cortical SO during active disease, and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase reduced these levels by 60% and 77%, respectively. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that SO production is unique to active PLN in a NOS and NADPH oxidase-dependent fashion. These findings suggest the emulating or augmenting eNOS activity or inhibiting NADPH oxidase SO production may be targets of therapy in patients with PLN. The markers of SO production used in this study could rationally be used to select SO-modulating therapies and serve as pharmacodynamic indicators for dose titration. PMID:24106214

Oates, Jim C.; Mashmoushi, Ahmad K.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Gilkeson, Gary S.

2013-01-01

155

NADPH Oxidase-Driven Phagocyte Recruitment Controls Candida albicans Filamentous Growth and Prevents Mortality  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is a human commensal and clinically important fungal pathogen that grows as both yeast and hyphal forms during human, mouse and zebrafish infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play diverse roles in immunity, including their long-appreciated function as microbicidal oxidants. Here we demonstrate a non-traditional mechanistic role of NADPH oxidase in promoting phagocyte chemotaxis and intracellular containment of fungi to limit filamentous growth. We exploit the transparent zebrafish model to show that failed NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocyte recruitment to C. albicans in the first four hours post-infection permits fungi to germinate extracellularly and kill the host. We combine chemical and genetic tools with high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to implicate both phagocyte oxidase and dual-specific oxidase in recruitment, suggesting that both myeloid and non-myeloid cells promote chemotaxis. We show that early non-invasive imaging provides a robust tool for prognosis, strongly connecting effective early immune response with survival. Finally, we demonstrate a new role of a key regulator of the yeast-to-hyphal switching program in phagocyte-mediated containment, suggesting that there are species-specific methods for modulation of NADPH oxidase-independent immune responses. These novel links between ROS-driven chemotaxis and fungal dimorphism expand our view of a key host defense mechanism and have important implications for pathogenesis. PMID:24098114

Brothers, Kimberly M.; Gratacap, Remi L.; Barker, Sarah E.; Newman, Zachary R.; Norum, Ashley; Wheeler, Robert T.

2013-01-01

156

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activate NADPH oxidase in adipocytes and raise the H2O2 pool to prevent cAMP-stimulated protein kinase a activation and inhibit lipolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) —aspirin, naproxen, nimesulide, and piroxicam— lowered activation of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-II) in isolated rat adipocytes, decreasing adrenaline- and dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP)-stimulated lipolysis. The molecular bases of insulin-like actions of NSAID were studied. Results Based on the reported inhibition of lipolysis by H2O2, catalase was successfully used to block NSAID inhibitory action on Bt2cAMP-stimulated lipolysis. NSAID, at (sub)micromolar range, induced an H2O2 burst in rat adipocyte plasma membranes and in whole adipocytes. NSAID-mediated rise of H2O2 was abrogated in adipocyte plasma membranes by: diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX); the NOX4 antibody; and cytochrome c, trapping the NOX-formed superoxide. These three compounds prevented the inhibition of Bt2cAMP-stimulated lipolysis by NSAIDs. Inhibition of aquaporin-mediated H2O2 transport with AgNO3 in adipocytes allowed NOX activation but prevented the lipolysis inhibition promoted by NSAID: i.e., once synthesized, H2O2 must reach the lipolytic machinery. Since insulin inhibits adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis, the effect of aspirin on isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in rat adipocytes was studied. As expected, isoproterenol-mediated lipolysis was blunted by both insulin and aspirin. Conclusions NSAIDs activate NOX4 in adipocytes to produce H2O2, which impairs cAMP-dependent PKA-II activation, thus preventing isoproterenol-activated lipolysis. H2O2 signaling in adipocytes is a novel and important cyclooxygenase-independent effect of NSAID. PMID:23718778

2013-01-01

157

Four novel mutations in the gene encoding gp91-phox of human NADPH oxidase: consequences for oxidase assembly.  

PubMed

The superoxide-forming nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase of human phagocytes comprises membrane-bound and cytosolic proteins, which, upon cell activation, assemble on the plasma membrane to form the active enzyme. Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are defective in one of the phagocyte oxidase (phox) components, p47-phox or p67-phox, which reside in the cytosol of resting phagocytes, or gp91-phox or p22-phox, which constitute the membrane-bound cytochrome b(558). In four X-linked CGD patients we have identified novel missense mutations in CYBB, the gene encoding gp91-phox. These mutations were associated with normal amounts of nonfunctional cytochrome b(558) in the patients' neutrophils. In phorbol-myristate-stimulated neutrophils and in a cell-free translocation assay with neutrophil membranes and cytosol, the association of p47-phox and p67-phox with the membrane fraction of the cells with Cys369-->Arg, Gly408-->Glu, and Glu568--> Lys substitutions was strongly disturbed. Only a Thr341-->Lys substitution, residing in a region of gp91-phox involved in flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding, supported a normal translocation. Thus, the introduction or reversal of charge at residues 369, 408, and 568 in gp91-phox destroys the correct binding of p47-phox and p67-phox to cytochrome b(558). Based on mutagenesis studies of structurally related flavin-dependent oxidoreductases, we propose that the Thr341-->Lys substitution results in impaired hydride transfer from NADPH to FAD. Because we found no electron transfer in solubilized neutrophil plasma membranes from any of the four patients, we conclude that all four amino acid replacements are critical for electron transfer. Apparently, an intimate relation exists between domains of gp91-phox involved in electron transfer and in p47/p67-phox binding. (Blood. 2000;95:666-673) PMID:10627478

Leusen, J H; Meischl, C; Eppink, M H; Hilarius, P M; de Boer, M; Weening, R S; Ahlin, A; Sanders, L; Goldblatt, D; Skopczynska, H; Bernatowska, E; Palmblad, J; Verhoeven, A J; van Berkel, W J; Roos, D

2000-01-15

158

Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-1 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Khz-cp is a crude polysaccharide extract that is obtained after nuclear fusion in Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia (Khz). It inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Methods Khz-cp was extracted by solvent extraction. The anti-proliferative activity of Khz-cp was confirmed by using Annexin-V/PI-flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular calcium increase and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed by using flow cytometry and inverted microscope. SNU-1 cells were treated with p38, Bcl-2 and Nox family siRNA. siRNA transfected cells was employed to investigate the expression of apoptotic, growth and survival genes in SNU-1 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the expression of the genes. Results In the present study, Khz-cp induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz-cp was found to induce apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activating P38 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-cp-induced apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-cp-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was shown by the translocation of the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz-cp. Khz-cp triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i that activated P38. P38 was considered to play a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47phox and p67phox subunits and ROS generation. Conclusions In summary, these data indicate that Khz-cp preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and that the signaling mechanisms involve an increase in [Ca2+]i, P38 activation, and ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and mitochondria. PMID:25012725

2014-01-01

159

Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Induced Colitis Increases NADPH Oxidase 1 Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Neutrophil Recruitment in the Colon: Preventive Effect of Apocynin  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) mediated injury has been implicated in several inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are the major source of endogenous ROS. Here, we investigated the role of NOXs derived-ROS in a mouse model of colitis induced by the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Intraperitoneal injection of TNF? (10??g · kg?1) induced an acute inflammation of the colon and a marked increase in expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), a colon specific NADPH oxidase isoform. TNF?-induced colitis was also characterized by high production of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and mucosal infiltration of neutrophils, NOX2-expressing cells. Concomitantly, ROS production and lipid peroxidation were significantly enhanced while catalase activity and glutathione level were reduced indicating a redox imbalance in the colon. Furthermore, the redox-sensitive MAP kinases, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, were activated during TNF?-induced colitis. Pretreatment of mice with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor with antioxidant properties, before TNF? challenge, prevented all these events. These data suggest that ROS derived from NADPH oxidases (mainly NOX1 and NOX2) and MAP kinase pathways could contribute to the induction and expansion of oxidative lesions characteristics of IBD and that apocynin could potentially be beneficial in IBD treatment. PMID:25276054

Mouzaoui, Souad; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Makhezer, Nesrine; Kroviarski, Yolande; El-Benna, Jamel; Dang, Pham My-Chan

2014-01-01

160

Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Modulate Immune Responses Independently of NADPH Oxidase in the Ovarian Tumor Microenvironment in Mice  

PubMed Central

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase generates superoxide anion and downstream reactive oxidant intermediates in response to infectious threat, and is a critical mediator of antimicrobial host defense and inflammatory responses. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are recruited by cancer cells, accumulate locally and systemically in advanced cancer, and can abrogate anti-tumor immunity. Prior studies have implicated the phagocyte NADPH oxidase as being an important component promoting MDSC accumulation and immunosuppression in cancer. We therefore used engineered NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox?/?) mice to delineate the role of this enzyme complex in MDSC accumulation and function in a syngeneic mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer. We found that the presence of NADPH oxidase did not affect tumor progression. The accumulation of MDSCs locally and systemically was similar in tumor-bearing wild-type (WT) and p47phox?/? mice. Although MDSCs from tumor-bearing WT mice had functional NADPH oxidase, the suppressive effect of MDSCs on ex vivo stimulated T cell proliferation was NADPH oxidase-independent. In contrast to other tumor-bearing mouse models, our results show that MDSC accumulation and immunosuppression in syngeneic epithelial ovarian cancer is NADPH oxidase-independent. We speculate that factors inherent to the tumor, tumor microenvironment, or both determine the specific requirement for NADPH oxidase in MDSC accumulation and function. PMID:23922763

Vethanayagam, R. Robert; Grimm, Melissa J.; Singel, Kelly L.; Kolomeyevskaya, Nonna; Sexton, Kevin J.; Parameswaran, Anupama; Abrams, Scott I.; Odunsi, Kunle; Segal, Brahm H.

2013-01-01

161

Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Mediates Protective Effect of Cardiotonic Pills against Rat Heart Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Cardiotonic pill (CP) is a compound Chinese medicine currently used in China for treatment of ischemic angina pectoris. Our previous results indicated that a single dosing of CP pretreatment at 0.8?g/kg attenuates ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R-) induced myocardial injury and cardiac microcirculatory disturbance. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of CP at low dosage in a multiple dosing manner and to uncover the mechanism of antioxidative activity of CP. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending artery occlusion for 30?min followed by 60?min reperfusion. CP was administrated daily by gavage for six days at 0.1, 0.4, and 0.8?g/kg/day before I/R. Results showed that multiple dosing of CP at three doses significantly reduced I/R-induced myocardial injury, microcirculatory disturbance, and oxidative stress. CP dramatically inhibited I/R-induced nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit gp91phox expression and p67phox and p47phox translocation from cytosol to cell membrane. Translocation of cytosolic subunits to membrane is required for the activation of NADPH oxidase. These data suggested that multiple dosing of CP at doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.8?g/kg/day reduced I/R-induced rat myocardial injury and microcirculatory disturbance, which was mediated by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:23840265

Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhao, Na; Liu, Yu-Ying; Hu, Bai-He; Sun, Kai; Chang, Xin; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan

2013-01-01

162

ANXUR Receptor-Like Kinases Coordinate Cell Wall Integrity with Growth at the Pollen Tube Tip Via NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

It has become increasingly apparent that the extracellular matrix (ECM), which in plants corresponds to the cell wall, can influence intracellular activities in ways that go far beyond their supposedly passive mechanical support. In plants, growing cells use mechanisms sensing cell wall integrity to coordinate cell wall performance with the internal growth machinery to avoid growth cessation or loss of integrity. How this coordination precisely works is unknown. Previously, we reported that in the tip-growing pollen tube the ANXUR receptor-like kinases (RLKs) of the CrRLK1L subfamily are essential to sustain growth without loss of cell wall integrity in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that over-expression of the ANXUR RLKs inhibits growth by over-activating exocytosis and the over-accumulation of secreted cell wall material. Moreover, the characterization of mutations in two partially redundant pollen-expressed NADPH oxidases coupled with genetic interaction studies demonstrate that the ANXUR RLKs function upstream of these NADPH oxidases. Using the H2O2-sensitive HyPer and the Ca2+-sensitive YC3.60 sensors in NADPH oxidase-deficient mutants, we reveal that NADPH oxidases generate tip-localized, pulsating H2O2 production that functions, possibly through Ca2+ channel activation, to maintain a steady tip-focused Ca2+ gradient during growth. Our findings support a model where ECM-sensing receptors regulate reactive oxygen species production, Ca2+ homeostasis, and exocytosis to coordinate ECM-performance with the internal growth machinery. PMID:24302886

Boisson-Dernier, Aurélien; Lituiev, Dmytro S.; Nestorova, Anna; Franck, Christina Maria; Thirugnanarajah, Sharme; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2013-01-01

163

Potential role of NADPH oxidase in pathogenesis of pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to inflammatory disorders. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), originally found in phagocytes, is the main source of ROS in nonphagocytic cells. Besides directly producing the detrimental highly reactive ROS to act on biomolecules (lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids), NOX can also activate multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis by producing ROS. Recently, research on pancreatic NOX is no longer limited to inflammatory cells, but extends to the aspect of pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatic stellate cells, which are considered to be potentially associated with pancreatitis. In this review, we summarize the literature on NOX protein structure, activation, function and its role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. PMID:25133019

Cao, Wei-Li; Xiang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Kai; Xu, Wei; Xia, Shi-Hai

2014-01-01

164

NADPH Oxidase 4 Deficiency Reduces Aquaporin-2 mRNA Expression in Cultured Renal Collecting Duct Principal Cells via Increased PDE3 and PDE4 Activity  

PubMed Central

The final control of renal water reabsorption occurs in the collecting duct (CD) and relies on regulated expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in principal CD cells. AQP2 transcription is primarily induced by type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R)-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling but also by other factors, including TonEBP and NF-?B. NAPDH oxidase 4 (NOX4) represents a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney. Because NOX-derived ROS may alter PKA, TonEBP and NF-?B activity, we examined the effects of NOX4 depletion on AQP2 expression. Depleted NOX4 expression by siRNA (siNOX4) in mpkCCDcl4 cells attenuated increased AQP2 mRNA expression by arginine vasopressin (AVP) but not by hypertonicity, which induces both TonEBP and NF-?B activity. AVP-induced AQP2 expression was similarly decreased by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. siNOX4 altered neither TonEBP nor NF-?B activity but attenuated AVP-inducible cellular cAMP concentration, PKA activity and CREB phosphorylation as well as AQP2 mRNA expression induced by forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase. The repressive effect of siNOX4 on AVP-induced AQP2 mRNA expression was abolished by the non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and was significantly decreased by selective PDE antagonists cilostamide and rolipram, but not vinpocetine, which respectively target PDE3, PDE4 and PDE1. Thus, by inhibiting PDE3 and PDE4 activity NOX4-derived ROS may contribute to V2R-cAMP-PKA signaling and enhance AQP2 transcription. PMID:24466344

Féraille, Eric; Dizin, Eva; Roth, Isabelle; Derouette, Jean-Paul; Szanto, Ildiko; Martin, Pierre-Yves; de Seigneux, Sophie; Hasler, Udo

2014-01-01

165

NADPH oxidase 4 deficiency reduces aquaporin-2 mRNA expression in cultured renal collecting duct principal cells via increased PDE3 and PDE4 activity.  

PubMed

The final control of renal water reabsorption occurs in the collecting duct (CD) and relies on regulated expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in principal CD cells. AQP2 transcription is primarily induced by type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R)-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling but also by other factors, including TonEBP and NF-?B. NAPDH oxidase 4 (NOX4) represents a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney. Because NOX-derived ROS may alter PKA, TonEBP and NF-?B activity, we examined the effects of NOX4 depletion on AQP2 expression. Depleted NOX4 expression by siRNA (siNOX4) in mpkCCDcl4 cells attenuated increased AQP2 mRNA expression by arginine vasopressin (AVP) but not by hypertonicity, which induces both TonEBP and NF-?B activity. AVP-induced AQP2 expression was similarly decreased by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. siNOX4 altered neither TonEBP nor NF-?B activity but attenuated AVP-inducible cellular cAMP concentration, PKA activity and CREB phosphorylation as well as AQP2 mRNA expression induced by forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase. The repressive effect of siNOX4 on AVP-induced AQP2 mRNA expression was abolished by the non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and was significantly decreased by selective PDE antagonists cilostamide and rolipram, but not vinpocetine, which respectively target PDE3, PDE4 and PDE1. Thus, by inhibiting PDE3 and PDE4 activity NOX4-derived ROS may contribute to V2R-cAMP-PKA signaling and enhance AQP2 transcription. PMID:24466344

Féraille, Eric; Dizin, Eva; Roth, Isabelle; Derouette, Jean-Paul; Szanto, Ildiko; Martin, Pierre-Yves; de Seigneux, Sophie; Hasler, Udo

2014-01-01

166

A Fluorescently Tagged C-Terminal Fragment of p47phox Detects NADPH Oxidase Dynamics during Phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

The assembly of cytosolic p47phox and p67phox with flavocytochrome b558 at the membrane is crucial for activating the leukocyte NADPH oxidase that generates superoxide for microbial killing. p47phox and p67phox are linked via a high-affinity, tail-to-tail interaction involving a proline-rich region (PRR) and a C-terminal SH3 domain (SH3b), respectively, in their C-termini. This interaction mediates p67phox translocation in neutrophils, but is not required for oxidase activity in model systems. Here we examined phagocytosis-induced NADPH oxidase assembly, showing the sequential recruitment of YFP-tagged p67phox to the phagosomal cup, and, after phagosome internalization, a probe for PI(3)P followed by a YFP-tagged fragment derived from the p47phox PRR. This fragment was recruited in a flavocytochrome b558-dependent, p67phox-specific, and PI(3)P-independent manner. These findings indicate that p47PRR fragment probes the status of the p67phox SH3b domain and suggest that the p47phox/p67phox tail-to-tail interaction is disrupted after oxidase assembly such that the p67phox-SH3b domain becomes accessible. Superoxide generation was sustained within phagosomes, indicating that this change does not correlate with loss of enzyme activity. This study defines a sequence of events during phagocytosis-induced NADPH oxidase assembly and provides experimental evidence that intermolecular interactions within this complex are dynamic and modulated after assembly on phagosomes. PMID:19129478

Li, Xing Jun; Tian, Wei; Stull, Natalie D.; Grinstein, Sergio; Atkinson, Simon

2009-01-01

167

Argirein alleviates diabetic nephropathy through attenuating NADPH oxidase, Cx43, and PERK in renal tissue.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) due to microvascular complication is a serious status characterized by continuously progressive until occurrence of the end stage of renal disease. It is attractive to investigate further mechanisms underlying the entity of DN and new drug discovery. We hypothesized that the entity of DN is inflammatory and is characterized by upregulated inflammatory/pro-inflammatory factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, NADPH oxidase, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), and endothelin receptor A (ET(A)) and downregulated connexin 43 (Cx43) in the kidney. Aminoguanidine is a special blocker to advanced glycation end products and argirein, a new compound contains a molecule of rhein linked to L: -arginine by a hydrogen bond. Rhein possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been chemically modified to produce a new compound diacerein launched in European market for treating osteoarthritis. Argirein with two active molecules rhein and L: -arginine may be effective in suppressing the inflammatory cytokines contributing to the pathogenesis of DN. With a single injection of streptozotocin 65 mg/kg, ip in rats, early diabetic nephropathy was produced and revealed as an increased microalbuminuria, elevated creatinine and urea in serum, associated with upregulation of mRNA and protein of NADPH oxidase p22phox, p47phox, and p67phox and ET(A), upregulated PKR-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2? kinase (PERK), and downregulated Cx43 in the renal tissue. Upregulation of PERK suggested that there is an ER stress involved in the diabetic kidney, along with an increase in inflammatory/pro-inflammatory factors indicating an entity of chronic inflammation. Abnormalities of biomarkers were blunted by either aminoguanidine or argirein significantly. The new compound argirein is potential in alleviating and retarding microvascular complications of diabetes such as DN in clinical settings. PMID:21267711

Hu, C; Cong, X D; Dai, De-Zai; Zhang, Y; Zhang, G L; Dai, Y

2011-03-01

168

Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages  

SciTech Connect

Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. • p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon, E-mail: parkp@yu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-15

169

The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox  

PubMed Central

The superoxide (O·?2)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O·?2 generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: (1) Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; (2) Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; (3) Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; (4) Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; (5) A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; (6) p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.

Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Federman Gross, Aya; Rafalowski, Meirav; Pick, Edgar

2015-01-01

170

Endothelin-1 Stimulates Arterial VCAM-1 Expression Via NADPH OxidaseDerived Superoxide in  

E-print Network

Endothelin-1 Stimulates Arterial VCAM-1 Expression Via NADPH Oxidase­Derived Superoxide elevated in carotid arteries of deoxycortico- sterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats, a model known for its suppressed plasma renin levels. This study tested the hypothesis that ET-1 augments arterial VCAM

Engelhardt, John F.

171

NADPH Oxidases in Heart Failure: Poachers or Gamekeepers?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure but clinical antioxidant trials have been unsuccessful. This may be because effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) depend upon their source, location, and concentration. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox) proteins generate ROS in a highly regulated fashion and modulate several components of the heart failure phenotype. Recent Advances: Two Nox isoforms, Nox2 and Nox4, are expressed in the heart. Studies using gene-modified mice deficient in Nox2 activity indicate that Nox2 activation contributes to angiotensin II–induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation, and the development of interstitial fibrosis but may also positively modulate physiological excitation-contraction coupling. Nox2 contributes to myocyte death under stress situations and plays important roles in postmyocardial infarction remodeling, in part by modulating matrix metalloprotease activity. In contrast to Nox2, Nox4 is constitutively active at a low level and induces protective effects in the heart under chronic stress, for example, by maintaining myocardial capillary density. However, high levels of Nox4 could have detrimental effects. Critical Issues: The effects of Nox proteins during the development of heart failure likely depend upon the isoform, activation level, and cellular distribution, and may include beneficial as well as detrimental effects. More needs to be learnt about the precise regulation of abundance and biochemical activity of these proteins in the heart as well as the downstream signaling pathways that they regulate. Future Directions: The development of specific approaches to target individual Nox isoforms and/or specific cell types may be important for the achievement of therapeutic efficacy in heart failure. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1024–1041. PMID:22747566

Zhang, Min; Perino, Alessia; Ghigo, Alessandra; Hirsch, Emilio

2013-01-01

172

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Infection in NADPH Oxidase Deficiency: Defective Mycobacterial Sequestration and Granuloma Formation  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) lack generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. CGD is an immune deficiency that leads to frequent infections with certain pathogens; this is well documented for S. aureus and A. fumigatus, but less clear for mycobacteria. We therefore performed an extensive literature search which yielded 297 cases of CGD patients with mycobacterial infections; M. bovis BCG was most commonly described (74%). The relationship between NOX2 deficiency and BCG infection however has never been studied in a mouse model. We therefore investigated BCG infection in three different mouse models of CGD: Ncf1 mutants in two different genetic backgrounds and Cybb knock-out mice. In addition, we investigated a macrophage-specific rescue (transgenic expression of Ncf1 under the control of the CD68 promoter). Wild-type mice did not develop severe disease upon BCG injection. In contrast, all three types of CGD mice were highly susceptible to BCG, as witnessed by a severe weight loss, development of hemorrhagic pneumonia, and a high mortality (?50%). Rescue of NOX2 activity in macrophages restored BCG resistance, similar as seen in wild-type mice. Granulomas from mycobacteria-infected wild-type mice generated ROS, while granulomas from CGD mice did not. Bacterial load in CGD mice was only moderately increased, suggesting that it was not crucial for the observed phenotype. CGD mice responded with massively enhanced cytokine release (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-17 and IL-12) early after BCG infection, which might account for severity of the disease. Finally, in wild-type mice, macrophages formed clusters and restricted mycobacteria to granulomas, while macrophages and mycobacteria were diffusely distributed in lung tissue from CGD mice. Our results demonstrate that lack of the NADPH oxidase leads to a markedly increased severity of BCG infection through mechanisms including increased cytokine production and impaired granuloma formation. PMID:25188296

Deffert, Christine; Schäppi, Michela G.; Pache, Jean-Claude; Cachat, Julien; Vesin, Dominique; Bisig, Ruth; Ma Mulone, Xiaojuan; Kelkka, Tiina; Holmdahl, Rikard

2014-01-01

173

Bacillus calmette-guerin infection in NADPH oxidase deficiency: defective mycobacterial sequestration and granuloma formation.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) lack generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. CGD is an immune deficiency that leads to frequent infections with certain pathogens; this is well documented for S. aureus and A. fumigatus, but less clear for mycobacteria. We therefore performed an extensive literature search which yielded 297 cases of CGD patients with mycobacterial infections; M. bovis BCG was most commonly described (74%). The relationship between NOX2 deficiency and BCG infection however has never been studied in a mouse model. We therefore investigated BCG infection in three different mouse models of CGD: Ncf1 mutants in two different genetic backgrounds and Cybb knock-out mice. In addition, we investigated a macrophage-specific rescue (transgenic expression of Ncf1 under the control of the CD68 promoter). Wild-type mice did not develop severe disease upon BCG injection. In contrast, all three types of CGD mice were highly susceptible to BCG, as witnessed by a severe weight loss, development of hemorrhagic pneumonia, and a high mortality (? 50%). Rescue of NOX2 activity in macrophages restored BCG resistance, similar as seen in wild-type mice. Granulomas from mycobacteria-infected wild-type mice generated ROS, while granulomas from CGD mice did not. Bacterial load in CGD mice was only moderately increased, suggesting that it was not crucial for the observed phenotype. CGD mice responded with massively enhanced cytokine release (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-17 and IL-12) early after BCG infection, which might account for severity of the disease. Finally, in wild-type mice, macrophages formed clusters and restricted mycobacteria to granulomas, while macrophages and mycobacteria were diffusely distributed in lung tissue from CGD mice. Our results demonstrate that lack of the NADPH oxidase leads to a markedly increased severity of BCG infection through mechanisms including increased cytokine production and impaired granuloma formation. PMID:25188296

Deffert, Christine; Schäppi, Michela G; Pache, Jean-Claude; Cachat, Julien; Vesin, Dominique; Bisig, Ruth; Ma Mulone, Xiaojuan; Kelkka, Tiina; Holmdahl, Rikard; Garcia, Irene; Olleros, Maria L; Krause, Karl-Heinz

2014-09-01

174

Pyocyanin-Enhanced Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Requires the NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Beyond intracellular killing, a novel neutrophil-based antimicrobial mechanism has been recently discovered: entrapment and killing by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs consist of extruded nuclear DNA webs decorated with granule proteins. Although NET formation is an important innate immune mechanism, uncontrolled NET release damages host tissues and has been linked to several diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF). The major CF airway pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes chronic infection. Pseudomonas imbedded within biofilms is protected against the immune system, but maintains chronic inflammation that worsens disease symptoms. Aberrant NET release from recruited neutrophils was found in CF, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most important Pseudomonas virulence factors is pyocyanin, a redox-active pigment that has been associated with diminished lung function in CF. Here we show that pyocyanin promotes NET formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Most CF Pseudomonas clinical isolates tested produce pyocyanin in vitro. Pyocyanin-derived reactive oxygen species are required for its NET release. Inhibitor experiments demonstrated involvement of Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) in pyocyanin-induced NET formation. Pyocyanin-induced NETs also require the NADPH oxidase because NET release in chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils was greatly reduced. Comparison of neutrophils from gp91phox- and p47phox-deficient patients revealed that pyocyanin-triggered NET formation is proportional to their residual superoxide production. Our studies identify pyocyanin as the first secreted bacterial toxin that enhances NET formation. The involvement of NADPH oxidase in pyocyanin-induced NET formation represents a novel mechanism of pyocyanin toxicity. PMID:23342104

Rada, Balázs; Jendrysik, Meghan A.; Pang, Lan; Hayes, Craig P.; Yoo, Dae-goon; Park, Jonathan J.; Moskowitz, Samuel M.; Malech, Harry L.; Leto, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

175

Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common pathophysiological process resulting from chronic liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Although significant research has been carried out on the role of leptin-induced NADPH oxidase in fibrogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that connect the leptin-NADPH oxidase axis in upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling have been unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis. Human NASH livers and a high-fat (60% kcal) diet-fed chronic mouse model, where hepatotoxin bromodichloromethane was used to induce NASH, were used for this study. To prove the role of the leptin-NADPH oxidase-miR21 axis, mice deficient in genes for leptin, p47phox, and miR21 were used. Results showed that wild-type mice and human livers with NASH had increased oxidative stress, increased p47phox expression, augmented NF-?B activation, and increased miR21 levels. These mice and human livers showed increased TGF-?, SMAD2/3-SMAD4 colocalizations in the nucleus, increased immunoreactivity against Col1?, and ?-SMA with a concomitant decrease in protein levels of SMAD7. Mice that were deficient in leptin or p47phox had decreased activated NF-?B and miR21 levels, suggesting the role of leptin and NADPH oxidase in inducing NF-?B-mediated miR21 expression. Further miR21 knockout mice had decreased colocalization events of SMAD2/3-SMAD4 in the nucleus, increased SMAD7 levels, and decreased fibrogenesis. Taken together, the studies show the novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-? signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH. PMID:25501551

Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

2015-02-15

176

Norepinephrine increases NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells via ?-adrenergic receptors  

PubMed Central

Many diseases associated with sympathoexcitation also exhibit elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). A recent animal study indicated that exogenous administration of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) increased systemic ROS via circulating leukocytes. The mechanisms contributing to this effect of NE and whether these findings can be translated to humans is unknown. Thus we tested the hypothesis that NE increases superoxide production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) via NADPH oxidase. Primary human PBMCs were freshly isolated from healthy young men and placed in culture. After NE (50 pg/ml, 50 ng/ml, and 50 ?g/ml concentrations) or control treatments, NADPH oxidase mRNA expression (gp91phox, p22phox, and p67phox) was assessed using real-time RT-PCR, and intracellular superoxide production was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence. PBMCs were also treated with selective adrenergic agonists-antagonists to determine the receptor population involved. In addition, CD14+ monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was determined using a fluorescent-based assay. NE significantly increased NADPH oxidase gene expression and intracellular superoxide production in a time-dependent manner (superoxide: 0.9 ± 0.2 fold, 6 h vs. 3.0 ± 0.3 fold, 36 h; NE, 50 ?g/ml; P < 0.05). The sustained increase in NE-induced superoxide production was primarily mediated via ?-adrenergic receptors, preferentially ?2-receptors. The NADPH oxidase blocker diphenylene iodonium and protein kinase C inhibitor Staurosporine significantly attenuated NE-induced increases in superoxide production. Importantly, NE treatment increased CD14+ monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. These findings indicate for the first time that NE increases superoxide production in freshly isolated primary human PBMCs via NADPH oxidase through ?-adrenergic receptors, an effect facilitating monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. PMID:24068047

Deo, Shekhar H.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Padilla, Jaume; Parrish, Alan R.

2013-01-01

177

The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.

Riganti, Chiara [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: chiara.riganti@unito.it; Costamagna, Costanzo; Doublier, Sophie; Miraglia, Erica; Polimeni, Manuela; Bosia, Amalia; Ghigo, Dario [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

2008-05-01

178

Indicaxanthin inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 activation and NF-?B-dependent release of inflammatory mediators and prevents the increase of epithelial permeability in IL-1?-exposed Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1?, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1? brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-?B, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 ?M), and IL-1? prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1? also prevented the IL-1?-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-?B was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level. PMID:23931157

Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

2014-02-01

179

Annexin peptide Ac2-26 suppresses TNF?-induced inflammatory responses via inhibition of Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase in human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory peptide annexin-1 binds to formyl peptide receptors (FPR) but little is known about its mechanism of action in the vasculature. Here we investigate the effect of annexin peptide Ac2-26 on NADPH oxidase activity induced by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) in human endothelial cells. Superoxide release and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from NADPH oxidase was measured with lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively. Expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Promoter activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) was measured by luciferase activity assay. TNF? stimulated NADPH-dependent superoxide release, total ROS formation and expression of ICAM-1and VCAM-1. Pre-treatment with N-terminal peptide of annexin-1 (Ac2-26, 0.5-1.5 µM) reduced all these effects, and the inhibition was blocked by the FPRL-1 antagonist WRW4. Furthermore, TNF?-induced NF?B promoter activity was attenuated by both Ac2-26 and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium (DPI). Surprisingly, Nox4 gene expression was reduced by TNF? whilst expression of Nox2, p22phox and p67phox remained unchanged. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity by either dominant negative Rac1 (N17Rac1) or DPI significantly attenuated TNF?-induced ICAM-1and VCAM-1 expression. Ac2-26 failed to suppress further TNF?-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in N17Rac1-transfected cells. Thus, Ac2-26 peptide inhibits TNF?-activated, Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase derived ROS formation, attenuates NF?B pathways and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. This suggests that Ac2-26 peptide blocks NADPH oxidase activity and has anti-inflammatory properties in the vasculature which contributes to modulate in reperfusion injury inflammation and vascular disease. PMID:23637767

Peshavariya, Hitesh M; Taylor, Caroline J; Goh, Celeste; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Jiang, Fan; Chan, Elsa C; Dusting, Gregory J

2013-01-01

180

NADPH oxidase-dependent H2O2 production is required for salt-induced antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) in the antioxidant defense system was assessed in salt-challenged Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. In the wild-type, short-term salt exposure led to a transient and significant increase of H2O2 concentration, followed by a marked increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.16), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities. Pre-treatment with either a chemical trap for H2O2 (dimethylthiourea) or two widely used NADPH oxidase inhibitors (imidazol and diphenylene iodonium) significantly decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities under salinity. Double mutant atrbohd/f plants failed to induce the antioxidant response under the culture conditions. Under long-term salinity, the wild-type was more salt-tolerant than the mutant based on the plant biomass production. The better performance of the wild-type was related to a significantly higher photosynthetic activity, a more efficient K(+) selective uptake, and to the plants' ability to deal with the salt-induced oxidative stress as compared to atrbohd/f. Altogether, these data suggest that the early H2O2 generation by NADPH oxidase under salt stress could be the beginning of a reaction cascade that triggers the antioxidant response in A. thaliana in order to overcome the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thereby mitigating the salt stress-derived injuries. PMID:25462961

Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Benzarti, Maâli; Debez, Ahmed; Bailly, Christophe; Savouré, Arnould; Abdelly, Chedly

2015-02-01

181

Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

McNally, J. Scott; Davis, Michael E.; Giddens, Don P.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

2003-01-01

182

Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats through PKC-?/NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW) is a Chinese herbal prescription used to treat kidney deficiency. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of HLBW on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetic rats. The rat model of DN was established by being fed a high-fat diet and intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Then, HLBW decoction was administered for 16 weeks. Blood glucose level, lipid profile, renal function, 24-hour total urinary protein, and albumin content were examined. Renal morphology and superoxide anion levels were evaluated. The activity of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-?) related genes expression in renal tissue were also determined. Our data demonstrated that HLBW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in diabetic rats compared with those of control group. HLBW also alleviated glomerular expansion and fibrosis, extracellular matrix accumulation and effacement of the foot processes. Additionally, HLBW reduced superoxide anion level, NADPH oxidase activity, the protein and mRNA expressions of p47phox, and the protein expression of phosphorylated PKC-? in renal tissue. These results suggest that HLBW is effective in the treatment of DN in rats. The underlying mechanism may be related to the attenuation of renal oxidative stress via PKC-?/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway. PMID:23878600

Zhou, Lishan; Dong, Hui; Huang, Yi; Xu, Lijun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kaifu; Chen, Guang; Lu, Fuer

2013-01-01

183

Oral treatment with the NADPH oxidase antagonist apocynin mitigates clinical and pathological features of parkinsonism in the MPTP marmoset model.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, isolated as principal bioactive component from the medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, in a marmoset MPTP model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The methoxy-substituted catechol apocynin has a similar structure as homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of dopamine (DA). Apocynin acquires its selective inhibitory capacity of the reactive oxygen species generating NADPH oxidase via metabolic activation by myeloperoxidase (MPO). As MPO is upregulated in activated brain microglia cells of PD patients and in MPTP animal models, the conditions for metabolic activation of apocynin and inhibition of microglia NADPH oxidase are in place. Marmoset monkeys received oral apocynin (100 mg/kg; p.o.) (n?=?5) or Gum Arabica (controls; n?=?5) three times daily until the end of the study, starting 1 week before PD induction with MPTP (1 mg/kg?s.c. for 8 days). Parkinsonian symptoms, motor function, home-cage activity and body weight were monitored to assess the disease development and severity. Post-mortem numbers of the tyrosine hydroxylase expressing DA neurons in the substantia nigra were counted. During the MPTP injections, apocynin limited the body weight loss and relieved parkinsonian symptoms compared to controls (Linear regression, P?activity with 32 % (P?=?0.029), indicating anti-Parkinson efficacy. Apocynin also increased the number of surviving DA neurons in MPTP-treated marmosets with 8.5 % (P?=?0.059), indicating a tendency towards a neuroprotective efficacy. In conclusion, compensation for the loss of DA and its metabolite HVA by apocynin mitigates the PD progression and limits the parkinsonian signs and motor-function deterioration. PMID:23504289

Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Wubben, Jacqueline A; Finsen, Bente; 't Hart, Bert A

2013-06-01

184

Essential role of ATF-1 in induction of NOX1, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase: involvement of mitochondrial respiratory chain  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase is the major source of superoxide production in cardiovascular tissues. We and others reported that PG (prostaglandin) F2?, PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and angiotensin II cause hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells by induction of NOX1 (NADPH oxidase 1), a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. We found DPI (diphenylene iodonium), an inhibitor of flavoproteins, including NADPH oxidase itself, almost completely suppressed induction of NOX1 mRNA by PGF2? or PDGF in a rat vascular smooth muscle cell line, A7r5. Exploration into the site of action of DPI using various inhibitors suggested the involvement of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in PGF2?- or PDGF-induced increase in NOX1 mRNA. In a luciferase reporter assay, activation of the CRE (cAMP-response element)-dependent gene transcription by PGF2? was attenuated by oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial FoF1-ATPase. Oligomycin and other mitochondrial inhibitors also suppressed PGF2?-induced phosphorylation of ATF (activating transcription factor)-1, a transcription factor of the CREB (CRE-binding protein)/ATF family. Silencing of the ATF-1 gene by RNA interference significantly reduced the induction of NOX1 by PGF2? or PDGF, while overexpression of ATF-1 recovered NOX1 induction suppressed by oligomycin. Taken together, ATF-1 may play a pivotal role in the up-regulation of NOX1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15491278

Katsuyama, Masato; Fan, ChunYuan; Arakawa, Noriaki; Nishinaka, Toru; Miyagishi, Makoto; Taira, Kazunari; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro

2004-01-01

185

Glutathionylation Mediates Angiotensin II–Induced eNOS Uncoupling, Amplifying NADPH Oxidase?Dependent Endothelial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Glutathionylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) “uncouples” the enzyme, switching its function from nitric oxide (NO) to O2•? generation. We examined whether this reversible redox modification plays a role in angiotensin II (Ang II)?induced endothelial dysfunction. Methods and Results Ang II increased eNOS glutathionylation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), rabbit aorta, and human arteries in vitro. This was associated with decreased NO bioavailability and eNOS activity as well as increased O2•? generation. Ang II?induced decrease in eNOS activity was mediated by glutathionylation, as shown by restoration of function by glutaredoxin?1. Moreover, Ang II?induced increase in O2•? and decrease in NO were abolished in HUVECs transiently transfected, with mutant eNOS rendered resistant to glutathionylation. Ang II effects were nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase dependent because preincubation with gp 91ds?tat, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, abolished the increase in eNOS glutathionylation and loss of eNOS activity. Functional significance of glutathionylation in intact vessels was supported by Ang II?induced impairment of endothelium?dependent vasorelaxation that was abolished by the disulfide reducing agent, dithiothreitol. Furthermore, attenuation of Ang II signaling in vivo by administration of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor reduced eNOS glutathionylation, increased NO, diminished O2•?, improved endothelium?dependent vasorelaxation and reduced blood pressure. Conclusions Uncoupling of eNOS by glutathionylation is a key mediator of Ang II?induced endothelial dysfunction, and its reversal is a mechanism for cardiovascular protection by ACE inhibition. We suggest that Ang II?induced O2•? generation in endothelial cells, although dependent on NADPH oxidase, is amplified by glutathionylation?dependent eNOS uncoupling. PMID:24755153

Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi; Liu, Chia?Chi; Gentile, Carmine; Kok, Cindy; Nunez, Andrea; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A. S.; Davies, Michael J.; Hawkins, Clare L.; Rasmussen, Helge H.; Figtree, Gemma A.

2014-01-01

186

Methamphetamine alters occludin expression via NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative insult and intact caveolae.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse with neurotoxic and vascular effects that may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, potential sources of METH-induced generation of ROS are not fully understood. This study is focused on the role of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) in METH-induced dysfunction of brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced a time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of NOX subunit p47, followed by its binding with gp91 and p22, and the formation of an active NOX complex. An increase in NOX activity was associated with elevated production of ROS, alterations of occludin levels and increased transendothelial migration of monocytes. Inhibition of NOX by NSC 23766 attenuated METH-induced ROS generation, changes in occludin protein levels and monocyte migration. Because an active NOX complex is localized to caveolae, we next evaluated the role of caveolae in METH-mediated toxicity to brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and caveolin-1 protein. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity or caveolin-1 silencing protected against METH-induced alterations of occludin levels. These findings indicate an important role of NOX and functional caveolae in METH-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells that contribute to the subsequent alterations of occludin levels and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells. PMID:21435178

Park, Minseon; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

2012-02-01

187

METHAMPHETAMINE ALTERS OCCLUDIN EXPRESSION VIA NADPH OXIDASE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE INSULT AND INTACT CAVEOLAE  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse with neurotoxic and vascular effects that may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, potential sources of METH-induced generation of ROS are not fully understood. The present study is focused on the role of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) in METH-induced dysfunction of brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced a time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of NOX subunit p47, followed by its binding with gp91 and p22, and the formation of an active NOX complex. An increase in NOX activity was associated with elevated production of ROS, alterations of occludin levels, and increased transendothelial migration of monocytes. Inhibition of NOX by NSC 23766 attenuated METH-induced ROS generation, changes in occludin protein levels, and monocyte migration. Because an active NOX complex is localized to caveolae, we next evaluated the role of caveolae in METH-mediated toxicity to brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and caveolin-1 protein. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity or caveolin-1 silencing protected against METH-induced alterations of occludin levels. These findings indicate an important role of NOX and functional caveolae in METH-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells that contribute to the subsequent alterations of occludin levels and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells. PMID:21435178

Park, Minseon; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

2011-01-01

188

NADPH Oxidase Contributes to Angiotensin II Signaling in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II (AngII), acting through angiotensin type 1 (AT1 ) receptors, exerts powerful effects on central autonomic networks regulating cardiovascular homeostasis and fluid balance; however, the mechanisms of AngII signaling in functionally defined central autonomic neurons have not been fully elucidated. In vascular cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the enzyme NADPH oxidase play a major role in AngII

Gang Wang; Josef Anrather; Jie Huang; Robert C. Speth; Virginia M. Pickel; Costantino Iadecola

2004-01-01

189

Evolution of NADPH Oxidase Inhibitors: Selectivity and Mechanisms for Target Engagement.  

PubMed

Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress, an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production versus consumption, may be involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. The only known enzymes solely dedicated to ROS generation are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases with their catalytic subunits (NOX). After the clinical failure of most antioxidant trials, NOX inhibitors are the most promising therapeutic option for diseases associated with oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Historical NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenylene iodonium, are un-specific and not isoform selective. Novel NOX inhibitors stemming from rational drug discovery approaches, for example, GKT137831, ML171, and VAS2870, show improved specificity for NADPH oxidases and moderate NOX isoform selectivity. Along with NOX2 docking sequence (NOX2ds)-tat, a peptide-based inhibitor, the use of these novel small molecules in animal models has provided preliminary in vivo evidence for a pathophysiological role of specific NOX isoforms. Critical Issues: Here, we discuss whether novel NOX inhibitors enable reliable validation of NOX isoforms' pathological roles and whether this knowledge supports translation into pharmacological applications. Modern NOX inhibitors have increased the evidence for pathophysiological roles of NADPH oxidases. However, in comparison to knockout mouse models, NOX inhibitors have limited isoform selectivity. Thus, their use does not enable clear statements on the involvement of individual NOX isoforms in a given disease. Future Directions: The development of isoform-selective NOX inhibitors and biologicals will enable reliable validation of specific NOX isoforms in disease models other than the mouse. Finally, GKT137831, the first NOX inhibitor in clinical development, is poised to provide proof of principle for the clinical potential of NOX inhibition. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00: 000-000. PMID:24383718

Altenhöfer, Sebastian; Radermacher, Kim A; Kleikers, Pamela W M; Wingler, Kirstin; Schmidt, Harald H H W

2014-02-26

190

Androgens induce oxidative stress and radiation resistance in prostate cancer cells though NADPH oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) facilitates the response of prostate cancer (PC) to radiation. Androgens have been shown to induce elevated basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC, leading to adaptation to radiation-induced cytotoxic oxidative stress. Here, we show that androgens increase the expression of p22phox and gp91phox subunits of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and ROS production by NOX2 and

J P Lu; L Monardo; I Bryskin; Z F Hou; J Trachtenberg; B C Wilson; J H Pinthus

2010-01-01

191

Role of increased production of superoxide anions by NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase in prolonged endotoxemia.  

PubMed

Superoxide anions (O2-) are supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. We investigated whether the enhanced formation of O2- is involved in the attenuation of endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg IP), the aorta was removed after 12 or 30 hours, and generation of O2-, H2O2, and ONOO- was measured using chemiluminescence assays. Protein tyrosine nitration and expression of xanthine oxidase (XO), NAD(P)H oxidase, and manganese superoxide dismutase were determined by Western or Northern blotting, and endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings was studied. LPS treatment increased vascular O2- (from 35+/-2 cpm/ring at baseline to 166+/-21 cpm/ring at 12 hours and 225+/-16 cpm/ring at 30 hours) and H2O2 formation, which was partially sensitive to the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium at both time points studied and to the XO inhibitor oxypurinol only 30 hours after LPS treatment. Expression of XO and NAD(P)H oxidase (p22phox, p67phox, and gp91phox) were increased by LPS in a time-dependent manner, as were protein tyrosine nitration and ONOO- formation. LPS also induced expression of the oxidative stress-sensitive protein manganese superoxide dismutase. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was impaired after LPS treatment and could not be restored by inhibition of inducible NO synthase. Inhibition of O2- with superoxide dismutase, oxypurinol, tiron, or the superoxide dismutase mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride did not restore but further deteriorated the relaxation of LPS-treated rings. In summary, treatment of rats with LPS enhances vascular expression of XO and NAD(P)H oxidase and increases formation of O2- and ONOO-. Because removal of O2- compromised rather than restored endothelium-dependent relaxation, a direct role of O2- in the induction of endothelial dysfunction is unlikely. Other mechanisms, such as prolonged protein tyrosine nitration by peroxynitrite (which is formed from NO and O2-) or downregulation of the NO effector pathway, are more likely to be involved. PMID:10334819

Brandes, R P; Koddenberg, G; Gwinner, W; Kim, D y; Kruse, H J; Busse, R; Mügge, A

1999-05-01

192

NADPH oxidases regulate septin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during plant infection by the rice blast fungus  

PubMed Central

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae infects plants with a specialized cell called an appressorium, which uses turgor to drive a rigid penetration peg through the rice leaf cuticle. Here, we show that NADPH oxidases (Nox) are necessary for septin-mediated reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton to facilitate cuticle rupture and plant cell invasion. We report that the Nox2–NoxR complex spatially organizes a heteroligomeric septin ring at the appressorium pore, required for assembly of a toroidal F-actin network at the point of penetration peg emergence. Maintenance of the cortical F-actin network during plant infection independently requires Nox1, a second NADPH oxidase, which is necessary for penetration hypha elongation. Organization of F-actin in appressoria is disrupted by application of antioxidants, whereas latrunculin-mediated depolymerization of appressorial F-actin is competitively inhibited by reactive oxygen species, providing evidence that regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species by fungal NADPH oxidases directly controls septin and F-actin dynamics. PMID:23382235

Ryder, Lauren S.; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Mentlak, Thomas A.; Kershaw, Michael J.; Thornton, Christopher R.; Schuster, Martin; Chen, Jisheng; Wang, Zonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

193

The NADPH oxidase Cpnox1 is required for full pathogenicity of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.  

PubMed

The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in interactions between phytopathogenic fungi and their hosts is well established. An oxidative burst mainly caused by superoxide formation by membrane-associated NADPH oxidases is an essential element of plant defence reactions. Apart from primary effects, ROS play a major role as a second messenger in host response. Recently, NADPH oxidase (nox)-encoding genes have been identified in filamentous fungi. Functional analyses have shown that these fungal enzymes are involved in sexual differentiation, and there is growing evidence that they also affect developmental programmes involved in fungus-plant interactions. Here we show that in the biotrophic plant pathogen Claviceps purpurea deletion of the cpnox1 gene, probably encoding an NADPH oxidase, has impact on germination of conidia and pathogenicity: Deltacpnox1 mutants can penetrate the host epidermis, but they are impaired in colonization of the plant ovarian tissue. In the few cases where macroscopic signs of infection (honeydew) appear, they are extremely delayed and fully developed sclerotia have never been observed. C. purpurea Nox1 is important for the interaction with its host, probably by directly affecting pathogenic differentiation of the fungus. PMID:18705873

Giesbert, Sabine; Schürg, Timo; Scheele, Sandra; Tudzynski, Paul

2008-05-01

194

Novel role of NADPH oxidase in ischemic myocardium: a study with Nox2 knockout mice.  

PubMed

Several potential sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells exist. One source is NADPH oxidase, which is especially important for superoxide radical production. Nox2 is a primary regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase. In the present study, we examined the role of ROS and NADPH oxidase in ischemic preconditioning (IP)-mediated cardioprotection by using Nox2(-/-) mice. Both wild-type (WT) and Nox2(-/-) mice were subjected to either 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion (IR) or IP prior to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Reduction in left ventricular developed pressure (60.1 versus 63 mmHg), dp/dt (max) (893 versus 1,027 mmHg/s), and aortic flow (0.9 versus 1.8 ml/min) was observed in Nox2(-/-)IPIR compared to WTIPIR along with increased infarct size (33% versus 22%) and apoptosis after 120 min of reperfusion. Differentially regulated genes were demonstrated by comparing gene expression in WTIPIR versus Nox2(-/-) IPIR hearts. Selected differentially regulated genes such as ?-catenin, SRPK3, ERDR1, ACIN1, Syntaxin-8, and STC1 were validated by real-time PCR. Taken together, this is the first report identifying important, differentially expressed genes during ischemic preconditioning in Nox2(-/-) mice by using microarray analysis. PMID:22038056

Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Adluri, Ram Sudheer; Juhasz, Bela; Samuel, Samson Mathews; Zhan, Lijun; Kaur, Anupinder; Maulik, Gautam; Sanchez, Juan A; Hager, Janet; Maulik, Nilanjana

2012-08-01

195

Oxidative Stress in Atrial Fibrillation: An Emerging Role of NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Patients with AF have up to seven-fold higher risk of suffering from ischemic stroke. Better understanding of etiologies of AF and its thromboembolic complications are required for improved patient care, as current anti-arrhythmic therapies have limited efficacy and off target effects. Accumulating evidence has implicated a potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AF. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is likely involved in the structural and electrical remodeling of the heart, contributing to fibrosis and thrombosis. In particular, NADPH oxidase (NOX) has emerged as a potential enzymatic source for ROS production in AF based on growing evidence from clinical and animal studies. Indeed, NOX can be activated by known upstream triggers of AF such as angiotensin II and atrial stretch. In addition, treatments such as Statins, antioxidants, ACEI or AT1RB have been shown to prevent post-operative AF; among which ACEI/AT1RB and Statins can attenuate NOX activity. On the other hand, detailed molecular mechanisms by which specific NOX isoform(s) are involved in the pathogenesis of AF and the extent to which activation of NOX plays a causal role in AF development remains to be determined. The current review discusses causes and consequences of oxidative stress in AF with a special focus on the emerging role of NOX pathways. PMID:23643589

Youn, Ji-Youn; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yixuan; Chen, Houzao; Liu, Depei; Ping, Peipei; Weiss, James N.; Cai, Hua

2013-01-01

196

Endothelin-1 Regulates Cardiac L-Type Calcium Channels via NAD(P)H Oxidase-Derived Superoxide  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the intracellular signaling response to G-protein coupled receptor stimuli in vascular smooth muscle cells and in neurons. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS are involved endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced L-type calcium channel activation in isolated cardiac myocytes. ET-1 (10 nM) induced a 2-fold increase in L-type calcium channel open-state probability (NPo). This effect of ET-1 was abolished by the ETA receptor antagonist cyclo(D-Trp-D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu) [BQ-123 (1 ?M)] but was not altered in the presence of an ETB receptor antagonist N-cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidinocarbonyl-b-tBu-Ala-D-Trp(1-methoxycarbonyl)-D-Nle-OH [BQ-788 (1 ?M)]. Pre-treatment of cells with the ROS scavenger tempol (100 ?M), polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 25 U/ml), or the NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat ([H]RKKRRQRRR-CSTRIRRQL[NH3]) (5 ?M) significantly attenuated ET-1-induced increases in calcium channel NPo. Tempol, SOD, and gp91ds-tat alone had no effect on basal calcium channel activity. In addition, ET-1 significantly increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity and elevated intracellular superoxide levels in cultured cardiac myocytes. The superoxide generator, xanthine-xanthine oxidase (10 mM, 20 mU/ ml), also increased calcium channel NPo in cardiac myocytes, mimicking the effect of ET-1. These observations provide the first evidence that ET-1 induces the activation of L-type Ca2+ channels via stimulation of NAD(P)H-derived superoxide production in cardiac myocytes. PMID:18539650

Zeng, Qinghua; Zhou, Qingwei; Yao, Fanrong; O’Rourke, Stephen T.; Sun, Chengwen

2015-01-01

197

NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Amplified TLR4 Signaling and Sepsis-Induced Mortality in Nrf2-deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Sepsis syndrome is characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to infection. NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) play significant roles in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We previously showed that disruption of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defenses, caused a dysregulation of innate immune response that resulted in greater mortality in a polymicrobial sepsis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock model; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, compared to wild-type (Nrf2+/+) macrophages, we observed greater PKC-induced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in Nrf2-disrupted (Nrf2?/?) macrophages that was modulated by glutathione (GSH) levels. To address the NADPH oxidase-mediated hyper-inflammatory response and sepsis-induced lung injury and mortality in Nrf2?/? mice, we used double knockout mice lacking Nrf2 and NADPH oxidase subunit, gp91phox (Nrf2?/?//Gp91phox?/?). Compared to Nrf2+/+ macrophages, LPS induced greater activation of TLR4 as evident by TLR4 surface trafficking and downstream recruitment of MYD88 and TRIF in Nrf2?/? macrophages that was diminished by ablation of gp91phox. Similarly, phosphorylation of I?B and IRF3 as well as cytokine expression was markedly higher in Nrf2?/? macrophages, while it was similar in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2?/?//Gp91phox?/?. In vivo studies showed greater LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation in Nrf2?/? mice that was significantly reduced by ablation of gp91phox. Furthermore, LPS shock and polymicrobial sepsis induced early and greater mortality in Nrf2?/? mice, while Nrf2?/?//Gp91phox?/? showed prolong survival. Together, these results demonstrate that Nrf2 is essential for the regulation of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS-mediated TLR4 activation and lethal innate immune response in sepsis. PMID:20511556

Kong, Xiaoni; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Kombairaju, Ponvijay; Biswal, Shyam

2010-01-01

198

Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase Restrains the Inflammasome in ANCA-Induced GN.  

PubMed

ANCA-activated phagocytes cause vasculitis and necrotizing crescentic GN (NCGN). ANCA-induced phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Phox) may contribute by generating tissue-damaging reactive oxygen species. We tested an alternative hypothesis, in which Phox restrains inflammation by downregulating caspase-1, thereby reducing IL-1? generation and limiting NCGN. In an antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) antibody-mediated disease model, mice transplanted with either gp91(phox)-deficient or p47(phox)-deficient bone marrow showed accelerated disease with increased crescents, necrosis, glomerular monocytes, and renal IL-1? levels compared with mice transplanted with wild-type bone marrow. IL-1? receptor blockade abrogated aggravated NCGN in gp91(phox)-deficient mice. In vitro, challenge with anti-MPO antibody strongly enhanced caspase-1 activity and IL-1? generation in gp91(phox)-deficient and p47(phox)-deficient monocytes compared with wild-type monocytes. This enhanced IL-1? generation was abrogated when caspase-1 was blocked. ANCA-induced superoxide and IL-1? generation were inversely related in human monocytes. Furthermore, transplantation of gp91(phox)/caspase-1 double-deficient bone marrow rescued the accelerated NCGN phenotype in gp91(phox) bone marrow-deficient mice. These results suggest that Phox-generated reactive oxygen species downregulate caspase-1, thereby keeping the inflammasome in check and limiting ANCA-induced inflammation. IL-1 receptor blockade may provide a promising strategy in NCGN, whereas our data question the benefit of antioxidants. PMID:25012177

Schreiber, Adrian; Luft, Friedrich C; Kettritz, Ralph

2014-07-10

199

JNK and NADPH Oxidase Involved in Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress in BV-2 Microglia Cells  

PubMed Central

Excessive fluoride may cause central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, and oxidative stress is a recognized mode of action of fluoride toxicity. In CNS, activated microglial cells can release more reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NADPH oxidase (NOX) is the major enzyme for the production of extracellular superoxide in microglia. ROS have been characterized as an important secondary messenger and modulator for various mammalian intracellular signaling pathways, including the MAPK pathways. In this study we examined ROS production and TNF-?, IL-1? inflammatory cytokines releasing, and the expression of MAPKs in BV-2 microglia cells treated with fluoride. We found that fluoride increased JNK phosphorylation level of BV-2 cells and pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 markedly reduced the levels of intracellular O2·? and NO. NOX inhibitor apocynin and iNOS inhibitor SMT dramatically decreased NaF-induced ROS and NO generations, respectively. Antioxidant melatonin (MEL) resulted in a reduction in JNK phosphorylation in fluoride-stimulated BV-2 microglia. The results confirmed that NOX and iNOS played an important role in fluoride inducing oxidative stress and NO production and JNK took part in the oxidative stress induced by fluoride and meanwhile also could be activated by ROS in fluoride-treated BV-2 cells. PMID:24072958

Yan, Ling; Liu, Shengnan; Wang, Chen; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Yan, Nan; Xi, Shuhua; Liu, Ziyou; Sun, Guifan

2013-01-01

200

Urotensin II Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport Signaling Pathways via the NADPH Oxidase Pathway  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have demonstrated that the urotensin (UII) and its receptor are up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of mice with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the significance of UII in skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UII on NADPH oxidase and glucose transport signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of mice with T2DM and in C2C12 mouse myotube cells. KK/upj-AY/J mice (KK) mice were divided into the following groups: KK group, with saline treatment for 2 weeks; KK+ urantide group, with daily 30 µg/kg body weight injections over the same time period of urantide, a potent urotensin II antagonist peptide; Non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice were used as normal controls. After urantide treatment, mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, in addition to measurements of the levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase and the phosphorylated AKT, PKC and ERK. C2C12 cells were incubated with serum-free DMEM for 24 hours before conducting the experiments, and then administrated with 100 nM UII for 2 hours or 24 hours. Urantide treatment improved glucose tolerance, decreased the translocation of the NADPH subunits p40-phox and p47-phox, and increased levels of the phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK. In contrast, UII treatment increased ROS production and p47-phox and p67-phox translocation, and decreased the phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK; Apocynin abrogated this effect. In conclusion, UII increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase, leading to the inhibition of signaling pathways involving glucose transport, such as AKT/PKC/ERK. Our data imply a role for UII at the molecular level in glucose homeostasis, and possibly in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2DM. PMID:24116164

Wang, Hong-Xia; Wu, Xin-Rui; Yang, Hui; Yin, Chun-Lin; Shi, Li-Jin; Wang, Xue-Jiang

2013-01-01

201

Fulvene-5 potently inhibits NADPH oxidase 4 and blocks the growth of endothelial tumors in mice  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are the most common type of tumor in infants. As they are endothelial cell–derived neoplasias, their growth can be regulated by the autocrine-acting Tie2 ligand angiopoietin 2 (Ang2). Using an experimental model of human hemangiomas, in which polyoma middle T–transformed brain endothelial (bEnd) cells are grafted subcutaneously into nude mice, we compared hemangioma growth originating from bEnd cells derived from wild-type, Ang2+/–, and Ang2–/– mice. Surprisingly, Ang2-deficient bEnd cells formed endothelial tumors that grew rapidly and were devoid of the typical cavernous architecture of slow-growing Ang2-expressing hemangiomas, while Ang2+/– cells were greatly impaired in their in vivo growth. Gene array analysis identified a strong downregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in Ang2+/– cells. Correspondingly, lentiviral silencing of Nox4 in an Ang2-sufficient bEnd cell line decreased Ang2 mRNA levels and greatly impaired hemangioma growth in vivo. Using a structure-based approach, we identified fulvenes as what we believe to be a novel class of Nox inhibitors. We therefore produced and began the initial characterization of fulvenes as potential Nox inhibitors, finding that fulvene-5 efficiently inhibited Nox activity in vitro and potently inhibited hemangioma growth in vivo. In conclusion, the present study establishes Nox4 as a critical regulator of hemangioma growth and identifies fulvenes as a potential class of candidate inhibitor to therapeutically interfere with Nox function. PMID:19620773

Bhandarkar, Sulochana S.; Jaconi, Marisa; Fried, Levi E.; Bonner, Michael Y.; Lefkove, Benjamin; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Perry, Betsy N.; Parhar, Ravi; Mackelfresh, Jamie; Sohn, Allie; Stouffs, Michael; Knaus, Ulla; Yancopoulos, George; Reiss, Yvonne; Benest, Andrew V.; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Arbiser, Jack L.

2009-01-01

202

Fulvene-5 potently inhibits NADPH oxidase 4 and blocks the growth of endothelial tumors in mice.  

PubMed

Hemangiomas are the most common type of tumor in infants. As they are endothelial cell-derived neoplasias, their growth can be regulated by the autocrine-acting Tie2 ligand angiopoietin 2 (Ang2). Using an experimental model of human hemangiomas, in which polyoma middle T-transformed brain endothelial (bEnd) cells are grafted subcutaneously into nude mice, we compared hemangioma growth originating from bEnd cells derived from wild-type, Ang2+/-, and Ang2-/- mice. Surprisingly, Ang2-deficient bEnd cells formed endothelial tumors that grew rapidly and were devoid of the typical cavernous architecture of slow-growing Ang2-expressing hemangiomas, while Ang2+/- cells were greatly impaired in their in vivo growth. Gene array analysis identified a strong downregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in Ang2+/- cells. Correspondingly, lentiviral silencing of Nox4 in an Ang2-sufficient bEnd cell line decreased Ang2 mRNA levels and greatly impaired hemangioma growth in vivo. Using a structure-based approach, we identified fulvenes as what we believe to be a novel class of Nox inhibitors. We therefore produced and began the initial characterization of fulvenes as potential Nox inhibitors, finding that fulvene-5 efficiently inhibited Nox activity in vitro and potently inhibited hemangioma growth in vivo. In conclusion, the present study establishes Nox4 as a critical regulator of hemangioma growth and identifies fulvenes as a potential class of candidate inhibitor to therapeutically interfere with Nox function. PMID:19620773

Bhandarkar, Sulochana S; Jaconi, Marisa; Fried, Levi E; Bonner, Michael Y; Lefkove, Benjamin; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Perry, Betsy N; Parhar, Ravi; Mackelfresh, Jamie; Sohn, Allie; Stouffs, Michael; Knaus, Ulla; Yancopoulos, George; Reiss, Yvonne; Benest, Andrew V; Augustin, Hellmut G; Arbiser, Jack L

2009-08-01

203

Implication of NADPH Oxidases in the Early Inflammation Process Generated by Cystic Fibrosis Cells  

PubMed Central

In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, pulmonary inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to further investigate whether oxidative stress could be involved in the early inflammatory process associated with CF pathogenesis. We used a model of CFTR defective epithelial cell line (IB3-1) and its reconstituted CFTR control (S9) cell line cultured in various ionic conditions. This study showed that IB3-1 and S9 cells expressed the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) DUOX1/2 and NOX2 at the same level. Nevertheless, several parameters participating in oxidative stress (increased ROS production and apoptosis, decreased total thiol content) were observed in IB3-1 cells cultured in hypertonic environment as compared to S9 cells and were inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a well-known inhibitor of NOXs; besides, increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by IB3-1 cells was also inhibited by DPI as compared to S9 cells. Furthermore, calcium ionophore (A23187), which upregulates DUOX and NOX2 activities, strongly induced oxidative stress and IL-8 and IL-6 overexpression in IB3-1 cells. All these events were suppressed by DPI, supporting the involvement of NOXs in the oxidative stress, which can upregulate proinflammatory cytokine production by the airway CFTR-deficient cells and trigger early pulmonary inflammation in CF patients. PMID:24049649

Pongnimitprasert, Nushjira; Hurtado, Margarita; Lamari, Foudil; El Benna, Jamel; Dupuy, Corinne; Fay, Michèle; Foglietti, Marie-José; Bernard, Maguy; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Braut-Boucher, Françoise

2012-01-01

204

Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases rat sternohyoid muscle NADPH oxidase expression with attendant modest oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) causes upper airway muscle dysfunction. We hypothesized that the superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) is upregulated in CIH-exposed muscle causing oxidative stress. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (5% O2 at the nadir for 90 s followed by 210 s of normoxia), for 8 h per day for 14 days. The effect of CIH exposure on the expression of NOX subunits, total myosin and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adducts in sternohyoid muscle was determined by western blotting and densitometry. Sternohyoid protein free thiol and carbonyl group contents were determined by 1D electrophoresis using specific fluorophore probes. Aconitase and glutathione reductase activities were measured as indices of oxidative stress. HIF-1? content and key oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were determined. Contractile properties of sternohyoid muscle were determined ex vivo in the absence and presence of apocynin (putative NOX inhibitor). We observed an increase in NOX 2 and p47 phox expression in CIH-exposed sternohyoid muscle with decreased aconitase and glutathione reductase activities. There was no evidence, however, of increased lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation in CIH-exposed muscle. CIH exposure did not affect sternohyoid HIF-1? content or aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. Citrate synthase activity was also unaffected by CIH exposure. Apocynin significantly increased sternohyoid force and power. We conclude that CIH exposure upregulates NOX expression in rat sternohyoid muscle with concomitant modest oxidative stress but it does not result in a HIF-1?-dependent increase in glycolytic enzyme activity. Constitutive NOX activity decreases sternohyoid force and power. Our results implicate NOX-dependent reactive oxygen species in CIH-induced upper airway muscle dysfunction which likely relates to redox modulation of key regulatory proteins in excitation-contraction coupling.

Williams, Robert; Lemaire, Paul; Lewis, Philip; McDonald, Fiona B.; Lucking, Eric; Hogan, Sean; Sheehan, David; Healy, Vincent; O'Halloran, Ken D.

2015-01-01

205

Andrographolide inhibits TNF?-induced ICAM-1 expression via suppression of NADPH oxidase activation and induction of HO-1 and GCLM expression through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 and PI3K/Akt/AP-1 pathways in human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Andrographolide, the major bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, has been demonstrated to have various biological properties including anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and anti-hepatotoxicity. Oxidative stress is considered a major risk factor in aging, inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus. NADPH oxidase is a major source of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we used EA.hy926 endothelial-like cells to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide. Andrographolide attenuated TNF?-induced ROS generation, Src phosphorylation, membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox), and ICAM-1 gene expression. In the small hairpin RNA interference assay, shp47(phox) abolished TNF?-induced p65 nuclear translocation, ICAM-1 gene expression, and adhesion of HL-60 cells. Andrographolide induced the gene expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) in a time-dependent manner. Cellular glutathione (GSH) content was increased by andrographolide. shGCLM attenuated the andrographolide-induced increase in GSH content and reversed the andrographolide inhibition of HL-60 adhesion. shHO-1 showed a similar effect on andrographolide inhibition of HL-60 adhesion to shGCLM. The mechanism underlying the up-regulation of HO-1 and GCLM by andrographolide was dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway, and both the Nrf2 and AP-1 transcriptional factors were involved. Our results suggest that andrographolide attenuates TNF?-induced ICAM-1 expression at least partially through suppression of NADPH oxidase activation and induction of HO-1 and GCLM expression, which is PI3K/Akt pathway-dependent. PMID:24998495

Lu, Chia-Yang; Yang, Ya-Chen; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Kai-Li; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen

2014-09-01

206

The Effect of Orexin-A on Cardiac Dysfunction Mediated by NADPH Oxidase-Derived Superoxide Anion in Ventrolateral Medulla  

PubMed Central

Hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons, located in the perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) and projecting to the brain sites of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), involve in the increase of sympathetic activity, thereby regulating cardiovascular function. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the central orexin-A (OXA) could be involved in the cardiovascular dysfunction of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by releasing NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide anion (O2?) generation in RVLM, AMI rat model established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce manifestation of cardiac dysfunction, monitored by the indicators as heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and left intraventricular pressure. The results showed that the expressions of OXA in LHA and orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) increased in RVLM of AMI rats. The double immunofluorescent staining indicated that OX1R positive cells and NAD(P)H oxidative subunit gp91phox or p47phox-immunoreactive (IR) cells were co-localized in RVLM. Microinjection of OXA into the cerebral ventricle significantly increased O2? production and mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits when compared with aCSF-treated ones. Exogenous OXA administration in RVLM produced pressor and tachycardiac effects. Furthermore, the antagonist of OX1R and OX2R (SB-408124 and TCS OX2 29, respectively) or apocynin (APO), an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase, partly abolished those cardiovascular responses of OXA. HRV power spectral analysis showed that exogenous OXA led to decreased HF component of HRV and increased LF/HF ratio in comparison with aCSF, which suggested that OXA might be related to sympathovagal imbalance. As indicated by the results, OXA might participate in the central regulation of cardiovascular activities by disturbing the sympathovagal balance in AMI, which could be explained by the possibility that OXR and NAD(P)H-derived O2? in RVLM mediates OXA-induced cardiovascular responses. PMID:23922819

Chen, Jun; Xia, Chunmei; Wang, Jin; Jiang, Meiyan; Zhang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Chengrong; Zhu, Minxia; Shen, Linlin; Zhu, Danian

2013-01-01

207

Evolutionary dynamics of the human NADPH oxidase genes CYBB, CYBA, NCF2, and NCF4: functional implications.  

PubMed

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of O2 to reactive oxygen species with microbicidal activity. It is composed of two membrane-spanning subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox (encoded by CYBB and CYBA, respectively), and three cytoplasmic subunits, p40-phox, p47-phox, and p67-phox (encoded by NCF4, NCF1, and NCF2, respectively). Mutations in any of these genes can result in chronic granulomatous disease, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections. Using evolutionary mapping, we determined that episodes of adaptive natural selection have shaped the extracellular portion of gp91-phox during the evolution of mammals, which suggests that this region may have a function in host-pathogen interactions. On the basis of a resequencing analysis of approximately 35 kb of CYBB, CYBA, NCF2, and NCF4 in 102 ethnically diverse individuals (24 of African ancestry, 31 of European ancestry, 24 of Asian/Oceanians, and 23 US Hispanics), we show that the pattern of CYBA diversity is compatible with balancing natural selection, perhaps mediated by catalase-positive pathogens. NCF2 in Asian populations shows a pattern of diversity characterized by a differentiated haplotype structure. Our study provides insight into the role of pathogen-driven natural selection in an innate immune pathway and sheds light on the role of CYBA in endothelial, nonphagocytic NADPH oxidases, which are relevant in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and other complex diseases. PMID:23821607

Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Machado, Moara; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Chen, Renee; Lyon, Fernanda; Burdett, Laurie; Crenshaw, Andrew; Fabbri, Cristina; Pereira, Latife; Pinto, Laelia; Redondo, Rodrigo A F; Sestanovich, Ben; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

2013-09-01

208

High glucose downregulates the number of caveolae in monocytes through oxidative stress from NADPH oxidase: implications for atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease, is closely associated with hyperglycemia, major sign of diabetes mellitus. Caveolae are vesicular invaginations of the plasma membrane that mediate the intracellular transport of lipids such as cholesterol. We evaluated the relationship between the expression of caveolin-1 and the number of caveolae in macrophages under conditions of high glucose concentration. Increased superoxide production, induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and decreased caveolin-1 were observed in a concentration-dependent manner in THP-1 derived macrophages with high glucose concentrations. Mannitol, used as an osmotic control, showed no effects. Furthermore, co-localization of the NADPH oxidase component, p47(phox), and caveolin was confirmed by confocal microscopy. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study showed that high glucose concentrations reduced the number and size of the caveolae. The percentage of cells with fragmented DNA was increased in cells grown in hyperglycemic media. Taken together, high glucose concentrations suppress the levels of caveolin-1 expression and reduce the number of caveolae. This might be due to the actions of superoxide via the activation of NADPH oxidase by translocation of its component and uncoupling of induced iNOS in macrophages. Furthermore, the apoptosis of macrophages might occur with high glucose concentrations, leading to the spreading of lipids from macrophages into intracellular spaces in the vessel wall. PMID:17240121

Hayashi, Toshio; Juliet, Packiasamy A R; Miyazaki, Asaka; Ignarro, Louis J; Iguchi, Akihisa

2007-03-01

209

ROLE OF RAC-1 DEPENDENT NADPH OXIDASE IN THE GROWTH OF PANCREATIC CANCER  

PubMed Central

K-ras mutations occur in as high as 95% of patients with pancreatic cancer. K-ras activates Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase, a key source of superoxide. Superoxide plays an important role in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and scavenging or decreasing the levels of superoxide inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. DNA microarray analysis and RT-PCR has demonstrated that Rac1 is also upregulated in pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if inhibiting Rac1 would alter pancreatic tumor cell behavior. Human pancreatic cancer cells with mutant K-ras (MIA PaCa-2), wild-type K-ras (BxPC-3), and the immortal H6c7 cell line (pancreatic ductal epithelium) expressing K-ras oncogene (H6c7eR-KrasT) that is tumorigenic, were infected with a dominant/negative Rac1 construct (AdN17Rac1). In cells with mutant K-ras, AdN17Rac1 decreased rac activity, decreased superoxide levels, and inhibited in vitro growth. However in the BxPC-3 cell line, AdN17Rac1 did not change rac activity, superoxide levels, or in vitro cell growth. Additionally, AdN17Rac1 decreased superoxide levels and inhibited in vitro growth in the KrasT tumorigenic cell line, but had no effect in the immortalized H6c7 cell line. In human pancreatic tumor xenografts, intratumoral injections of AdN17Rac1 inhibited tumor growth. These results suggest that activation of Rac1-dependent superoxide generation leads to pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. In pancreatic cancer inhibition of Rac1 may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21037555

Du, Juan; Liu, Jingru; Smith, Brian J.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Cullen, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

210

C/EBP transcription factors regulate NADPH oxidase in human aortic smooth muscle cells  

PubMed Central

In atherosclerosis, oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) dysfunction is partially mediated by up-regulated NADPH oxidase (Nox); the mechanisms of enzyme regulation are not entirely defined. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, and the expression of many inflammatory and immune genes. We aimed at elucidating the role of C/EBP in the regulation of Nox in SMCs exposed to pro-inflammatory conditions. Human aortic SMCs were treated with interferon-? (IFN-?) for up to 24 hrs. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, real-time PCR, Western blot, promoter-luciferase reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed to investigate Nox regulation. IFN-? dose-dependently induced Nox activity and expression, nuclear translocation and up-regulation of C/EBP?, C/EBP? and C/EBP? protein expression levels. Silencing of C/EBP?, C/EBP? or C/EBP? reduced significantly but differentially the IFN-?-induced up-regulation of Nox activity, gene and protein expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical C/EBP sites within Nox1, Nox4 and Nox5 promoters. Transient overexpression of C/EBP?, C/EBP? or C/EBP? enhanced the luciferase level directed by the promoters of the Nox subtypes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the physical interaction of C/EBP?, C/EBP? and C/EBP? proteins with the Nox1/4/5 promoters. C/EBP transcription factors are important regulators of Nox enzymes in IFN-?-exposed SMCs. Activation of C/EBP may induce excessive Nox-derived reactive oxygen species formation, further contributing to SMCs dysfunction and atherosclerotic plaque development. Pharmacological targeting of C/EBP-related signalling pathways may be used to counteract the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:24797079

Manea, Simona-Adriana; Todirita, Andra; Raicu, Monica; Manea, Adrian

2014-01-01

211

Molecular evolution of Phox-related regulatory subunits for NADPH oxidase enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background The reactive oxygen-generating NADPH oxidases (Noxes) function in a variety of biological roles, and can be broadly classified into those that are regulated by subunit interactions and those that are regulated by calcium. The prototypical subunit-regulated Nox, Nox2, is the membrane-associated catalytic subunit of the phagocyte NADPH-oxidase. Nox2 forms a heterodimer with the integral membrane protein, p22phox, and this heterodimer binds to the regulatory subunits p47phox, p67phox, p40phox and the small GTPase Rac, triggering superoxide generation. Nox-organizer protein 1 (NOXO1) and Nox-activator 1 (NOXA1), respective homologs of p47phox and p67phox, together with p22phox and Rac, activate Nox1, a non-phagocytic homolog of Nox2. NOXO1 and p22phox also regulate Nox3, whereas Nox4 requires only p22phox. In this study, we have assembled and analyzed amino acid sequences of Nox regulatory subunit orthologs from vertebrates, a urochordate, an echinoderm, a mollusc, a cnidarian, a choanoflagellate, fungi and a slime mold amoeba to investigate the evolutionary history of these subunits. Results Ancestral p47phox, p67phox, and p22phox genes are broadly seen in the metazoa, except for the ecdysozoans. The choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the unicellular organism that is the closest relatives of multicellular animals, encodes early prototypes of p22phox, p47phox as well as the earliest known Nox2-like ancestor of the Nox1-3 subfamily. p67phox- and p47phox-like genes are seen in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the limpet Lottia gigantea that also possess Nox2-like co-orthologs of vertebrate Nox1-3. Duplication of primordial p47phox and p67phox genes occurred in vertebrates, with the duplicated branches evolving into NOXO1 and NOXA1. Analysis of characteristic domains of regulatory subunits suggests a novel view of the evolution of Nox: in fish, p40phox participated in regulating both Nox1 and Nox2, but after the appearance of mammals, Nox1 (but not Nox2) became independent of p40phox. In the fish Oryzias latipes, a NOXO1 ortholog retains an autoinhibitory region that is characteristic of mammalian p47phox, and this was subsequently lost from NOXO1 in later vertebrates. Detailed amino acid sequence comparisons identified both putative key residues conserved in characteristic domains and previously unidentified conserved regions. Also, candidate organizer/activator proteins in fungi and amoeba are identified and hypothetical activation models are suggested. Conclusion This is the first report to provide the comprehensive view of the molecular evolution of regulatory subunits for Nox enzymes. This approach provides clues for understanding the evolution of biochemical and physiological functions for regulatory-subunit-dependent Nox enzymes. PMID:17900370

Kawahara, Tsukasa; Lambeth, J David

2007-01-01

212

Pathophysiology and Treatments of Oxidative Injury in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on the Phagocytic NADPH Oxidase 2.  

PubMed

Abstract Significance: Phagocytes play a key role in promoting the oxidative stress after ischemic stroke occurrence. The phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 is a membrane-bound enzyme complex involved in the antimicrobial respiratory burst and free radical production in these cells. Recent Advances: Different oxidants have been shown to induce opposite effects on neuronal homeostasis after a stroke. However, several experimental models support the detrimental effects of NOX activity (especially the phagocytic isoform) on brain recovery after stroke. Therapeutic strategies selectively targeting the neurotoxic ROS and increasing neuroprotective oxidants have recently produced promising results. Critical Issues: NOX2 might promote carotid plaque rupture and stroke occurrence. In addition, NOX2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by resident and recruited phagocytes enhance cerebral ischemic injury, activating the inflammatory apoptotic pathways. The aim of this review is to update evidence on phagocyte-related oxidative stress, focusing on the role of NOX2 as a potential therapeutic target to reduce ROS-related cerebral injury after stroke. Future Directions: Radical scavenger compounds (such as Ebselen and Edaravone) are under clinical investigation as a therapeutic approach against stroke. On the other hand, NOX inhibition might represent a promising strategy to prevent the stroke-related injury. Although selective NOX inhibitors are not yet available, nonselective compounds (such as apocynin and fasudil) provided encouraging results in preclinical studies. Whereas additional studies are needed to better evaluate this therapeutic potential in human beings, the development of specific NOX inhibitors (such as monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors, or aptamers) might further improve brain recovery after stroke. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000. PMID:24635113

Carbone, Federico; Camillo Teixeira, Priscila; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Mach, François; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Montecucco, Fabrizio

2014-04-22

213

NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, improves renal glutathione status in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a comparison with melatonin.  

PubMed

Apocynin (4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone) is the most commonly used NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor. However, its application raises serious controversies, as the compound has been reported to reveal some prooxidative effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate apocynin action on glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidant, metabolism in kidneys of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, a well established model of diabetes type 2. Additionally, apocynin effects were compared with those of melatonin. The experiments were performed on five groups of animals: (1) untreated lean (?/+) ZDF rats, (2) ZDF ?/+ rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, (3) untreated obese diabetic (fa/fa) ZDF rats, (4) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, and (5) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with melatonin (20 mg/l) in drinking water. After 8weeks of the treatment, the following parameters were measured in kidneys: NADPH oxidase activity, the rate of hydroxyl free radicals (HFR) production, GSH and GSSG content and the activities of the enzymes of glutathione metabolism: ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Compared to ?/+ controls, ZDF fa/fa rats exhibited increased Nox activity, accelerated HFR generation and dramatically lowered GSH/GSSG ratio accompanied by increased GPx and diminished GCS activities. In case of diabetic animals, apocynin treatment resulted in attenuation of both Nox activity and HFR production, restoration of control GSH/GSSG ratio (due to both an increase in GSH and a decline in GSSG content), normalization of GPx activity and a slight increase in GCS activity. Similar observations were made upon melatonin application to ZDF fa/fa rats. Thus, it is concluded that, in the diabetic model studied, apocynin extends a beneficial effect on renal glutathione homeostasis. The mechanism of this phenomenon involves attenuation of glutathione peroxidase activity, which is overstimulated under conditions of oxidative stress accompanying diabetes. PMID:24797087

Winiarska, Katarzyna; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz; Lewandowski, Krystian; Orlowska, Marta; Usarek, Michal

2014-07-25

214

Antimutagenic activity of oxidase enzymes  

SciTech Connect

By means of a cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in plant cells (Welsh onion, wheat) it was found that the cofactors nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and riboflavin possess antimutagenic activity.

Agabeili, R.A.

1986-11-01

215

Selective inhibition of NADPH oxidase reverses the over contraction of diabetic rat aorta?  

PubMed Central

Abnormal vascular responsiveness in diabetes has been attributed to a number of changes in contractile pathways, affected in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that NADPH oxidase (NOX) is increased in diabetic (streptozotocin treated; STZ) rat arteries; however the pharmacological agents used to inhibit NOX activity are known to be unsuitable for in vitro studies and have a high level of non-selectivity. Here we have used the highly selective NOX inhibitor VAS2870 in diabetic rat aorta and compared its effects with apocynin, SOD, and allopurinol on phenylephrine and U46619 induced contraction. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 65 mg/kg STZ and development of diabetes was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation, and the thoracic aorta removed and mounted in an organ bath under a tension of 1 g. Diabetic rat aortas exhibit a greatly increased response to phenylephrine, which was reduced to a level consistent with control rat aorta by 10?5 M VAS2870 and 150 U/ml SOD. Incubation with VAS2870 led to an increase in normal rat aorta contraction, but led to a significant reduction in phenylephrine and U46619 induced tone in diabetic rat aorta, which indicates that ROS in diabetic rats directly contributes to these contractile responses. Apocynin and allopurinol had no effect on contraction in diabetic or normal rat aorta. This data is the first to show that selective inhibition of NOX reduces diabetic arterial contraction in direct comparison with inhibition of other known contributors of ROS. PMID:25460721

Rehman, Atif ur; Dugic, Elma; Benham, Chris; Lione, Lisa; Mackenzie, Louise S.

2013-01-01

216

Glutathione attenuates ethanol-induced alveolar macrophage oxidative stress and dysfunction by downregulating NADPH oxidases.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol abuse increases lung oxidative stress and susceptibility to respiratory infections by impairing alveolar macrophage (AM) function. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major sources of reactive oxygen species in AMs. We hypothesized that treatment with the critical antioxidant glutathione (GSH) attenuates chronic alcohol-induced oxidative stress by downregulating Noxes and restores AM phagocytic function. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and AMs were isolated from male C57BL/6J mice (8-10 wk) treated ± ethanol in drinking water (20% wt/vol, 12 wk) ± orally gavaged GSH in methylcellulose vehicle (300 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1), during week 12). MH-S cells, a mouse AM cell line, were treated ± ethanol (0.08%, 3 days) ± GSH (500 ?M, 3 days or last 1 day of ethanol). BAL and AMs were also isolated from ethanol-fed and control mice ± inoculated airway Klebsiella pneumoniae (200 colony-forming units, 28 h) ± orally gavaged GSH (300 mg/kg, 24 h). GSH levels (HPLC), Nox mRNA (quantitative RT-PCR) and protein levels (Western blot and immunostaining), oxidative stress (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate and Amplex Red), and phagocytosis (Staphylococcus aureus internalization) were measured. Chronic alcohol decreased GSH levels, increased Nox expression and activity, enhanced oxidative stress, impaired phagocytic function in AMs in vivo and in vitro, and exacerbated K. pneumonia-induced oxidative stress. Although how oral GSH restored GSH pools in ethanol-fed mice is unknown, oral GSH treatments abrogated the detrimental effects of chronic alcohol exposure and improved AM function. These studies provide GSH as a novel therapeutic approach for attenuating alcohol-induced derangements in AM Nox expression, oxidative stress, dysfunction, and risk for pneumonia. PMID:24441868

Yeligar, Samantha M; Harris, Frank L; Hart, C Michael; Brown, Lou Ann S

2014-03-01

217

Apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppresses progression of prostate cancer via Rac1 dephosphorylation.  

PubMed

Recently, considerable evidence has been generated that oxidative stress contributes to the etiology and pathogenesis of prostate cancer. The present study focused on the effects of apocynin, an inhibitor of the NADPH oxidase which generates intracellular superoxide, on a rat androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line (PLS10) in vitro and in vivo. Apocynin significantly inhibited cell proliferation of PLS10 cells via G1 arrest of the cell cycle in vitro. Surprisingly, it did not affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) but inhibited phosphorylation of Rac1, one component of the NADPH oxidase complex. A Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, also inhibited cell proliferation, and both apocynin and NSC23766 reduced phosphorylation of Rac1 and NF-?B, as well as cyclin D1. Furthermore, in a xenograft model of prostate cancer with PLS10, apocynin suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in a dose dependent manner in vivo, with reduction of cell proliferation and vessel number in the tumors. Expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were reduced by apocynin treatment in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In conclusion, despite no apparent direct relationship with oxidative stress, apocynin inhibited growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Apocynin thus warrants further attention as a potential anti-tumor drug. PMID:23664830

Suzuki, Shugo; Pitchakarn, Pornsiri; Sato, Shinya; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Satoru

2013-11-01

218

Role of NADPH Oxidase in Formation and Function of Multinucleated Giant Cells  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play essential roles in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. One of the unique features of these phagocytic leukocytes is their ability to fuse, forming multinucleated giant cells. Multinucleated giant cells are important mediators of tissue remodeling and repair and are also responsible for removal or sequestration of foreign material, intracellular bacteria and non-phagocytosable pathogens, such as parasites and fungi. Depending on the tissue where fusion occurs and the inflammatory insult, multinucleated giant cells assume distinctly different phenotypes. Nevertheless, the ultimate outcome is the formation of large cells that can resorb bone tissue (osteoclasts) or foreign material and pathogens (giant cells) extracellularly. While progress has been made in recent years, the mechanisms and factors involved in macrophage fusion are still not fully understood. In addition to cytokines and a number of adhesion proteins and receptors, it is becoming increasingly clear that NADPH oxidase-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) also play an important role in macrophage fusion. In this review, we provide an overview of macrophage multinucleation, with a specific focus on the role of NADPH oxidases and ROS in macrophage fusion and in the function of multinucleated giant cells. In addition, we provide an updated overview of the role of these cells in inflammation and various autoimmune diseases. PMID:20375608

Quinn, Mark T.; Schepetkin, Igor A.

2009-01-01

219

Resveratrol prevents high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular epithelial cells by inhibiting NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK pathway.  

PubMed

Resveratrol (RSV) is reported to have renoprotective activity against diabetic nephropathy, while the mechanisms underlying its function have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effect and related mechanism of RSV against high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). A typical EMT is induced by high glucose in HK-2 cells, accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). RSV exhibits a strong ability to inhibit high glucose-induced EMT by decreasing intracellular ROS levels via down-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX1 and NOX4. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) is found to be involved in high glucose-induced EMT in HK-2 cells. RSV, like NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium, can block ERK1/2 activation induced by high glucose. Our results demonstrate that RSV is a potent agent against high glucose-induced EMT in renal tubular cells via inhibition of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25540919

He, Ting; Guan, Xu; Wang, Song; Xiao, Tangli; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xinli; Wang, Junping; Zhao, Jinghong

2015-02-15

220

Mild exposure of RIN-5F ?-cells to human islet amyloid polypeptide aggregates upregulates antioxidant enzymes via NADPH oxidase-RAGE: An hormetic stimulus?  

PubMed Central

The presence of amyloid aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, contributes to pancreatic ?-cell impairment, where oxidative stress plays a key role. A contribution of NADPH oxidase to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation after cell exposure to micromolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates has been suggested. However, little is known about ?-cells exposure to lower amounts of hIAPP aggregates, similar to those found in human pancreas. Thus, we aimed to investigate the events resulting from RIN-5F cells exposure to nanomolar concentrations of toxic hIAPP aggregates. We found an early and transient rise of NADPH oxidase activity resulting from increased Nox1 expression following the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) by hIAPP aggregates. Unexpectedly, NADPH oxidase activation was not accompanied by a significant ROS increase and the lipoperoxidation level was significantly reduced. Indeed, cell exposure to hIAPP aggregates affected the antioxidant defences, inducing a significant increase of the expression and activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase. We conclude that exposure of pancreatic ?-cells to nanomolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates for a short time induces an hormetic response via the RAGE-Nox1 axis; the latter stimulates the enzymatic antioxidant defences that preserve the cells against oxidative stress damage. PMID:24416718

Borchi, Elisabetta; Bargelli, Valentina; Guidotti, Valentina; Berti, Andrea; Stefani, Massimo; Nediani, Chiara; Rigacci, Stefania

2013-01-01

221

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent induction of the NADPH oxidase subunit NCF1/p47 phox expression leading to priming of human macrophage oxidative burst.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are toxic environmental contaminants known to regulate gene expression through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the present study, we demonstrated that acute treatment by BaP markedly increased expression of the NADPH oxidase subunit gene neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1)/p47(phox) in primary human macrophages; NCF1 was similarly up-regulated in alveolar macrophages from BaP-instilled rats. NCF1 induction in BaP-treated human macrophages was prevented by targeting AhR, through its chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-modulation of its expression. BaP moreover induced activity of the NCF1 promoter sequence, containing a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE), and electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that BaP-triggered binding of AhR to this XRE. Finally, we showed that BaP exposure resulted in p47(phox) protein translocation to the plasma membrane and in potentiation of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced superoxide anion production in macrophages. This BaP priming effect toward NADPH oxidase activity was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase specific inhibitor apocynin and the chemical AhR inhibitor alpha-naphtoflavone. These results indicated that BaP induced NCF1/p47(phox) expression and subsequently enhanced superoxide anion production in PMA-treated human macrophages, in an AhR-dependent manner; such an NCF1/NADPH oxidase regulation by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may participate in deleterious effects toward human health triggered by these environmental contaminants, including atherosclerosis and smoking-related diseases. PMID:19559082

Pinel-Marie, Marie-Laure; Sparfel, Lydie; Desmots, Sophie; Fardel, Olivier

2009-09-15

222

virB-Mediated survival of Brucella abortus in mice and macrophages is independent of a functional inducible nitric oxide synthase or NADPH oxidase in macrophages.  

PubMed

The Brucella abortus virB locus is required for establishing chronic infection in the mouse. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated whether virB is involved in evasion of the bactericidal activity of NADPH oxidase and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages. Elimination of NADPH oxidase or iNOS activity in macrophages in vitro increased recovery of wild-type B. abortus but not recovery of a virB mutant. In mice lacking either NADPH oxidase or iNOS, however, B. abortus infected and persisted to the same extent as it did in congenic C57BL/6 mice up until 60 days postinfection, suggesting that these host defense mechanisms are not critical for limiting bacterial growth in the mouse. A virB mutant did not exhibit increased survival in either of the knockout mouse strains, indicating that this locus does not contribute to evasion of nitrosative or oxidative killing mechanisms in vivo. PMID:12183526

Sun, Yao-Hui; den Hartigh, Andreas B; Santos, Renato Lima; Adams, L Garry; Tsolis, Renée M

2002-09-01

223

Extracellular ATP Induces the Accumulation of Superoxide via NADPH Oxidases in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Extracellular ATP can serve as a signaling agent in animal cells, and, as suggested by recent reports, may also do so in plant cells. In animal cells it induces the production of reactive oxygen species through the mediation of NADPH oxidase. Similarly, here we report that in leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), applied ATP, but not AMP or phosphate, induces the accumulation of superoxide (O2?) in a biphasic, dose-dependent manner, with a threshold at 500 nm ATP. This effect did not require ATP hydrolysis for it was mimicked by ATP?S. ATP also induced increased levels of Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (AtrbohD) mRNA, but ATP-treated plants that had disrupted AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes did not accumulate O2?, indicating that NADPH oxidases are responsible for the induced O2? accumulation. Inhibitors of mammalian P2-type ATP receptors abolished ATP-induced O2? production, suggesting that the ATP effects may be mediated through P2-like receptors in plants. Cytosolic Ca2+ and calmodulin are likely to help transduce the ATP responses, as they do in animal cells, because a Ca2+ channel blocker, a Ca2+ chelator, and calmodulin antagonist all reduced ATP-induced O2? accumulation. Furthermore, ATP treatment enhanced the expression of genes that are induced by wounds and other stresses. The ATP measured at wound sites averaged 40 ?m, well above the level needed to induce O2? accumulation and gene expression changes. Transgenic plants overexpressing an apyrase gene had reduced O2? production in response to applied ATP and wounding. Together, these data suggest a possible role for extracellular ATP as a signal potentially in wound and stress responses. PMID:16428598

Song, Charlotte J.; Steinebrunner, Iris; Wang, Xuanzhi; Stout, Stephen C.; Roux, Stanley J.

2006-01-01

224

Identification of NADPH oxidase as a key mediator in the post-ischemia-induced sequestration and degradation of the GluA2 AMPA receptor subunit.  

PubMed

A hallmark of ischemic/reperfusion injury is a change in subunit composition of synaptic AMPARs. This change in AMPAR subunit composition leads to an increase in surface expression of GluA2-lacking Ca(2+) /Zn(2+) permeable AMPARs. These GluA2-lacking AMPARs play a key role in promoting delayed neuronal death following ischemic injury. At present, the mechanism(s) responsible for the ischemia/reperfusion-induced subunit composition switch and degradation of the GluA2 subunit remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase, and its importance in mediating endocytosis and subsequent degradation of the GluA2 AMPAR subunit in adult rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. In hippocampal slices pretreated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin attenuated OGD/R-mediated sequestration of GluA2 and GluA1 as well as prevent the degradation of GluA2. We provide compelling evidence that NADPH oxidase mediated sequestration of GluA1- and GluA2- involved activation of p38 MAPK. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inhibition of NADPH oxidase blunts the OGD/R-induced association of GluA2 with protein interacting with C kinase-1 (PICK1). In summary, this study identifies a novel mechanism that may underlie the ischemia/reperfusion-induced AMPAR subunit composition switch and a potential therapeutic target. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25475532

Beske, Phillip H; Byrnes, Nicole M; Astruc-Diaz, Fanny; Jackson, Darrell A

2014-12-01

225

Resveratrol treatment rescues neurovascular coupling in aged mice: role of improved cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and downregulation of NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling is essential for the maintenance of normal neuronal function. Increased oxidative stress that occurs with aging was shown to impair neurovascular coupling, which likely contributes to a significant age-related decline in higher cortical function, increasing the risk for vascular cognitive impairment. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that exerts significant antiaging protective effects in large vessels, but its effects on the cerebromicrovasculature remain poorly defined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the capacity of resveratrol to improve neurovascular coupling in aging. In aged (24-mo-old) C57BL/6 mice N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive, nitric oxide-mediated CBF responses to whisker stimulation and to the endothelium-dependent dilator acethylcholine (ACh) were impaired compared with those in young (3-mo-old) mice. Treatment of aged mice with resveratrol rescued neurovascular coupling and ACh-induced responses, which was associated with downregulation of cortical expression of NADPH oxidase and decreased levels of biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress (3-nitrotyrosine, 8-isoprostanes). Resveratrol also attenuated age-related increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cultured cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (DCF fluorescence, flow cytometry). In conclusion, treatment with resveratrol rescues cortical neurovascular coupling responses to increased neuronal activity in aged mice, likely by restoring cerebromicrovascular endothelial function via downregulation of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production. Beneficial cerebromicrovascular effects of resveratrol may contribute to its protective effects on cognitive function in aging. PMID:24322615

Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Ashpole, Nicole M.; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Ballabh, Praveen; Koller, Akos; Sonntag, William E.; Csiszar, Anna

2013-01-01

226

Oxidized-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine induces vascular endothelial superoxide production: Implication of NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by vascular cells. It is unknown if specific oxidized components in these LDL particles such as oxidized-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (ox-PAPC) can stimulate ROS production. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were incubated with ox-PAPC (50 ?g/ml). At 4 h, ox-PAPC significantly enhanced the rate of O2?• production. Pretreatment of BAEC in glucose-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium plus 10 mM 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG), the latter being an antimetabolite that blocks NADPH production by the pentose shunt, significantly reduced the rate of O2?• production. The intensity of NAD(P)H autofluorescence decreased by 28 ± 12% in BAEC incubated with ox-PAPC compared to untreated cells, with a further decrease in the presence of 2-DOG. Ox-PAPC also increased Nox4 mRNA expression by 2.4-fold ± 0.1 while pretreatment of BAEC with the small interfering RNA (siNox4) attenuated Nox4 RNA expression. Ox-PAPC further reduced the level of glutathione while pretreatment with apocynin (100 ?M) restored the GSH level (control = 22.54 ± 0.23, GSH = 18.06 ± 0.98, apocynin = 22.55 ± 0.60, ox-PAPC + apocynin = 21.17 ± 0.36 nmol/106 cells). Treatment with ox-PAPC also increased MMP-2 mRNA expression accompanied by a 1.5-fold increase in MMP-2 activity. Ox-PAPC induced vascular endothelial O2?• production that appears to be mediated largely by NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:16274886

Rouhanizadeh, Mahsa; Hwang, Juliana; Clempus, Roza E.; Marcu, Laura; Lassègue, Bernard; Sevanian, Alex; Hsiai, Tzung K.

2007-01-01

227

Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

228

Superoxide Production in Galleria mellonella Hemocytes: Identification of Proteins Homologous to the NADPH Oxidase Complex of Human Neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insect immune response has a number of structural and functional similarities to the innate immune response of mammals. The objective of the work presented here was to establish the mechanism by which insect hemocytes produce superoxide and to ascertain whether the proteins involved in superoxide production are similar to those involved in the NADPH oxidase-induced superoxide production in human

David Bergin; Emer P. Reeves; Julie Renwick; Frans B. Wientjes; Kevin Kavanagh

2005-01-01

229

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) associates with NADPH oxidase and is required for phagocytosis of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes by macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

PDI, a redox chaperone, is involved in host cell uptake of bacteria\\/viruses, phagosome formation, and vascular NADPH oxidase regulation. PDI involvement in phagocyte infection by parasites has been poorly explored. Here, we investigated the role of PDI in in vitro infection of J774 macrophages by amastigote and promastigote forms of the protozoan Leishmania chagasi and assessed whether PDI associates with

Celio X. C. Santos; Beatriz S. Stolf; Paulo V. A. Takemoto; Angelica M. Amanso; Lucia R. Lopes; Edna B. Souza; Hiro Goto; Francisco R. M. Laurindo

2009-01-01

230

Biochemistry, Physiology and Pathophysiology of NADPH Oxidases in the Cardiovascular System  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes are critical mediators of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. These proteins are expressed in virtually all cardiovascular cells, and regulate such diverse functions as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, inflammatory responses and oxygen sensing. They target a number of important signaling molecules, including kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors, ion channels and proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. Nox enzymes have been implicated in many different cardiovascular pathologies: atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, angiogenesis and collateral formation, stroke and heart failure. In this review, we discuss in detail the biochemistry of Nox enzymes expressed in the cardiovascular system (Nox1, 2, 4 and 5), their roles in cardiovascular cell biology, and their contributions to disease development. PMID:22581922

Lassègue, Bernard; San Martín, Alejandra; Griendling, Kathy K.

2012-01-01

231

In Silico Sequence Analysis Reveals New Characteristics of Fungal NADPH Oxidase Genes  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases (Noxes), transmembrane proteins found in most eukaryotic species, generate reactive oxygen species and are thereby involved in essential biological processes. However, the fact that genes encoding ferric reductases and ferric-chelate reductases share high sequence similarities and domains with Nox genes represents a challenge for bioinformatic approaches used to identify Nox-encoding genes. Further, most studies on fungal Nox genes have focused mainly on functionality, rather than sequence properties, and consequently clear differentiation among the various Nox isoforms has not been achieved. We conducted an extensive sequence analysis to identify putative Nox genes among 34 eukaryotes, including 28 fungal genomes and one Oomycota genome. Analyses were performed with respect to phylogeny, transmembrane helices, di-histidine distance and glycosylation. Our analyses indicate that the sequence properties of fungal Nox genes are different from those of human and plant Nox genes, thus providing novel insight that will enable more accurate identification and characterization of fungal Nox genes. PMID:25346600

Détry, Nicolas; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Asiegbu, Fred O.

2014-01-01

232

Catechol oxidase — structure and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently determined structures of copper-containing plant catechol oxidase in three different catalytic states have provided new insights into the mechanism of this enzyme and its relationship to other copper type-3 proteins. Moreover, the active site of catechol oxidase has been found to be structurally conserved with the oxygen-binding site of a molluscan hemocyanin.

Christoph Eicken; Bernt Krebs; James C Sacchettini

1999-01-01

233

NADPH oxidase pathway is involved in aortic contraction induced by A3 adenosine receptor in mice.  

PubMed

The NADPH oxidase (Nox) subunits 1, 2 (gp91 phox), and 4 are the major sources for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular tissues. In conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion and hypoxia, both ROS and adenosine are released, suggesting a possible interaction. Our aim in this study was to examine the A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR)-induced vascular effects and its relation to ROS and Nox1, 2, and 4 using aortic tissues from wild-type (WT) and A(3)AR knockout (A(3)KO) mice. The selective A(3)AR agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (Cl-IBMECA) (10(-10)-10(-5) M) induced contraction of the aorta from WT but not from A(3)KO mice, and this contraction was inhibited by the Nox inhibitor apocynin (10(-5) M) and the ROS scavengers superoxide dismutase-polyethylene glycol and catalase-polyethylene glycol (100 U/ml each). Cl-IBMECA-induced contraction was not affected by the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 (100 ?g/ml) or the stabilizer cromolyn sodium (10(-4) M). In addition, Cl-IBMECA (10(-7) M) increased intracellular ROS generation by 35 ± 14% in WT but not in A(3)KO aorta, and this increase was inhibited by apocynin (10(-5) M), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (10(-5) M), and the A(3)AR antagonist 3-propyl-6-ethyl-5-[(ethylthio)carbonyl]-2 phenyl-4-propyl-3-pyridine carboxylate (MRS1523) (10(-5) M). Furthermore, Cl-IBMECA selectively increased the protein expression of the Nox2 subunit by 150 ± 15% in WT but not in A(3)KO mice without affecting either Nox1 or 4, and this increase was inhibited by apocynin. The mRNA of Nox2 was unchanged by Cl-IBMECA in either WT or A(3)KO aortas. In conclusion, A(3)AR enhances ROS generation, possibly through activation of Nox2, with subsequent contraction of the mouse aorta. PMID:21606175

El-Awady, Mohammed S; Ansari, Habib R; Fil, Daniel; Tilley, Stephen L; Mustafa, S Jamal

2011-08-01

234

Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases Regulate the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Potato NADPH Oxidase [W][OA  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in plant innate immunity. NADPH oxidase (RBOH; for Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog) plays a central role in the oxidative burst, and EF-hand motifs in the N terminus of this protein suggest possible regulation by Ca2+. However, regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. We identified Ser-82 and Ser-97 in the N terminus of potato (Solanum tuberosum) St RBOHB as potential phosphorylation sites. An anti-phosphopeptide antibody (pSer82) indicated that Ser-82 was phosphorylated by pathogen signals in planta. We cloned two potato calcium-dependent protein kinases, St CDPK4 and St CDPK5, and mass spectrometry analyses showed that these CDPKs phosphorylated only Ser-82 and Ser-97 in the N terminus of St RBOHB in a calcium-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of the constitutively active mutant of St CDPK5, St CDPK5VK, provoked ROS production in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The CDPK-mediated ROS production was disrupted by knockdown of Nb RBOHB in N. benthamiana. The loss of function was complemented by heterologous expression of wild-type potato St RBOHB but not by a mutant (S82A/S97A). Furthermore, the heterologous expression of St CDPK5VK phosphorylated Ser-82 of St RBOHB in N. benthamiana. These results suggest that St CDPK5 induces the phosphorylation of St RBOHB and regulates the oxidative burst. PMID:17400895

Kobayashi, Michie; Ohura, Ikuko; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Yokota, Naohiko; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Shimamoto, Ko; Doke, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

2007-01-01

235

Tempol attenuates atherosclerosis associated with metabolic syndrome via decreased vascular inflammation and NADPH-2 oxidase expression.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is an important factor in the generation of vascular injury in atherosclerosis. Chronic administration of fructose in rodents is able to facilitate oxidative damage. In the present study we evaluated the role of Tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, on the effect of high fructose intake in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO) mice. Rodents were fed with fructose overload (FF, 10% w/v) for 8 weeks and treated with Tempol 1 mg/kg/day the latest 4 weeks. Tempol revert the pro-oxidant effects caused by FF, diminished lipid peroxidation and impaired vascular NADPH oxidase system through the downregulation of p47phox expression in the vascular wall. Tempol inhibited the expression of vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in aorta and reduced the development of atheroma plaques. Our results indicate that tempol attenuates oxidative stress by interfering with the correct assembly of Nox2 oxidase complex in the vascular wall and is able to reduce atherosclerosis. Thus tempol represents a potential therapeutic target for preventing risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24490696

Cannizzo, B; Quesada, I; Militello, R; Amaya, C; Miatello, R; Cruzado, M; Castro, C

2014-05-01

236

Plasma postheparin diamine oxidase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity may reflect intestinal involvement in Crohn's disease. The purpose of this study was\\u000a to develop a simple heparin stimulation test for assessing postheparin plasma diamine oxidase activity in Crohn's disease.\\u000a Ten volunteers and five patients with Crohn's disease received 1000 units and 3000 units of heparin intravenously and plasma\\u000a samples were obtained at timed intervals.

Jon S. Thompson; David A. Burnett; Robert A. Cormier; William P. Vaughan

1988-01-01

237

NADPH-binding component of the respiratory burst oxidase system: studies using neutrophil membranes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease lacking the beta-subunit of cytochrome b558  

PubMed Central

The NADPH-binding site of the respiratory burst oxidase system of neutrophils has been proposed to be either at a cytosolic component or at the beta-subunit of cytochrome b558. In this study, affinity labeling of resting and stimulated membranes, the latter having been assembled by all of the oxidase components from both membrane and cytosol, was carried out using [32P]NADPH dialdehyde (oNADPH). Stimulation of human neutrophils with PMA greatly increased O2(-)- generating activity and caused considerable translocation of the cytosolic components p47phox and p67phox. Nevertheless, PMA stimulation did not produce a labeled band which included positions at 47, 67, and approximately 32 kD. The most intense band reflected a molecular mass of 84 kD regardless of the state of activation, but a labeled band was never found near the beta-subunit (91 kD) of cytochrome b558. This 84- kD protein was further confirmed in neutrophils of 14 patients with gp91phox-deficient X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. These results indicate that the NADPH-binding component is not recruited from the cytosol, and also, that a membranous redox component besides cytochrome b558 must be involved in the NADPH oxidase system. PMID:8270871

1994-01-01

238

Scavenging of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anions improves depressed baroreflex sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

In pathological conditions, such as hypertension, there is impairment in the autonomic control of blood pressure resulting in changes in baroreflex sensitivity. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that acute superoxide scavenging would restore the depressed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male 10-week-old SHR (n = 14) and their controls (Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats; n = 14) underwent femoral artery and vein catheterization for conscious blood pressure recording and drug administration. The BRS was obtained by the drug-induced method using phenylephrine (8 ?g/kg, i.v.) and sodium nitroprusside (25 ?g/kg, i.v.) before and after the administration of tiron (30 mg/kg, i.v.), a superoxide dismutase mimetic, or apocynin (30 ?g/kg), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Spontaneously hypertensive rats was significantly hypertensive compared with WKY rats (160 ± 7 vs 105 ± 2 mmHg, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in heart rate between the two groups (388 ± 10 vs 370 ± 20 b.p.m.). In addition, SHR exhibited a diminished BRS compared with WKY rats (-1.34 ± 0.11 vs -2.91 ± 0.20 b.p.m./mmHg, respectively). Administration of tiron improved BRS in SHR (from -1.34 ± 0.11 to 2.26 ± 0.21 b.p.m./mmHg), as did apocynin (to -2.14 ± 0.23 b.p.m./mmHg). Serum samples from SHR (n = 20) and WKY rats (n = 20) were collected for thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assays before and after tiron or apocynin to confirm the reduction in oxidative stress. There was considerably greater oxidative stress in SHR compared with WKY rats (36.2 ± 3.0 vs 13.3 ± 2.6 nmol/L, respectively). Both apocynin and tiron treatment reduced the oxidative stress in SHR (from 36.2 ± 3.0 to 21.5 ± 3.0 nmol/L and from 37.2 ± 3.9 to 21.9 ± 1.6 nmol/L, respectively). The data suggest that acute scavenging of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide improves baroreflex sensitivity in SHR. PMID:22283703

Guimarães, D D; Carvalho, C C; Braga, V A

2012-04-01

239

Anandamide Protects HT22 Cells Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide by Inhibiting CB1 Receptor-Mediated Type 2 NADPH Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Background. Endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) protects neurons from oxidative injury in rodent models; however the mechanism of AEA-induced neuroprotection remains to be determined. Activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) contributes to oxidative damage of the brain, and inhibition of Nox2 can attenuate cerebral oxidative stress. We aimed to determine whether the neuronal Nox2 was involved in protection mediated by AEA. Methods. The mouse hippocampal neuron cell line HT22 was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to mimic oxidative injury of neurons. The protective effect of AEA was assessed by measuring cell metabolic activity, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, cellular morphology, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant and oxidant levels and Nox2 expression. Results. HT22 cells exposed to H2O2 demonstrated morphological changes, decreased LDH release, reduced metabolic activity, increased levels of intracellular ROS and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased expression of Nox2. AEA prevented these effects, a property abolished by simultaneous administration of CB1 antagonist AM251 or CB1-siRNA. Conclusion. Nox2 inhibition is involved in AEA-induced cytoprotection against oxidative stress through CB1 activation in HT22 cells. PMID:25136404

Jia, Ji; Wu, Mingchun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiajing; Zhai, Qian; Jiang, Tao; Xiong, Lize

2014-01-01

240

Requirement for Rac1-Dependent NADPH Oxidase in the Cardiovascular and Dipsogenic Actions of Angiotensin II in  

E-print Network

in vitro and in vivo studies using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated expression of dominant-negative Rac1 (AdN17Rac1 by pretreatment with AdN17Rac1 or the NADPH oxidase inhibitors apocynin or diphenylene iodonium. AdN17Rac1 also undergone gene transfer of AdN17Rac1 or AdwtRac1 to the brain. AdN17Rac1 abolished the increase in blood

Engelhardt, John F.

241

Surgical stress induced depressive and anxiety like behavior are improved by dapsone via modulating NADPH oxidase level.  

PubMed

Surgical stress induced depression and anxiety like behavior are common complications among aged individuals suffering from surgery. Recent studies proposed that accumulation of oxidative stress is involved in the etiology of stress induced depression and anxiety. Dapsone possesses antioxidant properties, however, whether dapsone is effective in modulating surgical stress induced brain oxidative damage remains uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dapsone on surgical stress induced depressive and anxiety like behavior, and brain oxidative stress in a well-established surgical stress model. Depressive and anxiety like behavior accompanied by elevated brain oxidative stress were observed in aged mice underwent abdominal surgery. Pretreatment with 5mg/kg dapsone significantly improved the behavioral disorder and ameliorated brain oxidative stress in this model. Further investigation, revealed that surgical stress increased brain NADPH oxidase level, while pretreatment with dapsone abrogated the elevation of NADPH oxidase triggered by surgical stress. These findings suggest that dapsone is effective in improving surgical stress induced brain oxidative damage via down-regulating NADPH oxidase level in aged mice. PMID:25438157

Zhang, Tao; Tian, Xiaosheng; Wang, Qiudian; Tong, Yawei; Wang, Hecheng; Li, Zhengqian; Li, Lunxu; Zhou, Ting; Zhan, Rui; Zhao, Lei; Sun, Yang; Fan, Dongsheng; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Jin, Yinglan; Xiao, Weizhong; Guo, Xiangyang; Chui, Dehua

2015-01-12

242

Reactive oxygen species produced by the NADPH oxidase 2 complex in monocytes protect mice from bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. CGD results from defective production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes caused by mutations in genes encoding the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex subunits. Mice with a spontaneous mutation in Ncf1, which encodes the NCF1 (p47(phox)) subunit of NOX2, have defective phagocyte NOX2 activity. These mice occasionally develop local spontaneous infections by Staphylococcus xylosus or by the common CGD pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Ncf1 mutant mice were more susceptible to systemic challenge with these bacteria than were wild-type mice. Transgenic Ncf1 mutant mice harboring the wild-type Ncf1 gene under the human CD68 promoter (MN(+) mice) gained the expression of NCF1 and functional NOX2 activity specifically in monocytes/macrophages, although minimal NOX2 activity was also detected in some CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) cells defined as neutrophils. MN(+) mice did not develop spontaneous infection and were more resistant to administered staphylococcal infections compared with MN(-) mice. Most strikingly, MN(+) mice survived after being administered Burkholderia cepacia, an opportunistic pathogen in CGD patients, whereas MN(-) mice died. Thus, monocyte/macrophage expression of functional NCF1 protected against spontaneous and administered bacterial infections. PMID:22491245

Pizzolla, Angela; Hultqvist, Malin; Nilson, Bo; Grimm, Melissa J; Eneljung, Tove; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Verdrengh, Margareta; Kelkka, Tiina; Gjertsson, Inger; Segal, Brahm H; Holmdahl, Rikard

2012-05-15

243

The NADPH-oxidase AtrbohB plays a role in Arabidopsis seed after-ripening.  

PubMed

*Seeds can enter a state of dormancy, in which they do not germinate under optimal environmental conditions. Dormancy can be broken during seed after-ripening in the low-hydrated state. *By screening enhancer trap lines of Arabidopsis, we identified a role for the NADPH-oxidase AtrbohB in after-ripening. Semiquantitative PCR was used to investigate AtrbohB transcripts in seeds. These methods were complemented with a pharmacological approach using the inhibitor diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) and biomechanical measurements in the Brassicaceae seed model system cress (Lepidium sativum) as well as protein carbonylation assays. *atrbohB mutants fail to after-ripen and show reduced protein oxidation. AtrbohB pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced in seeds in a hormonally and developmentally regulated manner. AtrbohB is a major producer of superoxide in germinating Arabidopsis seeds, and inhibition of superoxide production by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) leads to a delay in Arabidopsis and cress seed germination and cress endosperm weakening. *Reactive oxygen species produced by AtrbohB during after-ripening could act via abscisic acid (ABA) signalling or post-translational protein modifications. Alternative splicing could be a general mechanism in after-ripening: by altered processing of stored pre-mRNAs seeds could react quickly to environmental changes. PMID:19761445

Müller, Kerstin; Carstens, Anna Catharina; Linkies, Ada; Torres, Miguel Angel; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

2009-12-01

244

The Role of the NADPH Oxidase NOX2 in Prion Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis. PMID:25502554

Sorce, Silvia; Nuvolone, Mario; Keller, Annika; Falsig, Jeppe; Varol, Ahmet; Schwarz, Petra; Bieri, Monika; Budka, Herbert; Aguzzi, Adriano

2014-01-01

245

Role of Neuronal NADPH Oxidase 1 in the Peri-Infarct Regions after Stroke  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanism underlying the selective vulnerability of neurons to oxidative damage caused by ischemia—reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. We sought to determine the role of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) in cerebral I/R-induced brain injury and survival of newborn cells in the ischemic injured region. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. After reperfusion, infarction size, level of superoxide and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-2dG), and Nox1 immunoreactivity were determined. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Nox1 was used to investigate the role of Nox1 in I/R-induced oxidative damage, neuronal death, motor function recovery, and ischemic neurogenesis. After I/R, Nox1 expression and 8-oxo-2dG immunoreactivity was increased in cortical neurons of the peri-infarct regions. Both infarction size and neuronal death in I/R injury were significantly reduced by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated transduction of Nox1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). AAV-mediated Nox1 knockdown enhanced functional recovery after MCAO. The level of survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the peri-infarct regions were increased by Nox1 inhibition. Our data suggest that Nox-1 may be responsible for oxidative damage to DNA, subsequent cortical neuronal degeneration, functional recovery, and regulation of ischemic neurogenesis in the peri-infarct regions after stroke. PMID:25617620

Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Hahn-Young; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Choi, Wahn Soo; Lee, Jongmin

2015-01-01

246

Downregulation of Blood-Brain Barrier Phenotype by Proinflammatory Cytokines Involves NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Generation: Consequences for Interendothelial Adherens and Tight Junctions  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is an integral feature of neurological disorders and involves the action of multiple proinflammatory cytokines on the microvascular endothelial cells lining cerebral capillaries. There is still however, considerable ambiguity throughout the scientific literature regarding the mechanistic role(s) of cytokines in this context, thereby warranting a comprehensive in vitro investigation into how different cytokines may cause dysregulation of adherens and tight junctions leading to BBB permeabilization. Methods The present study employs human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMvECs) to compare/contrast the effects of TNF-? and IL-6 on BBB characteristics ranging from the expression of interendothelial junction proteins (VE-cadherin, occludin and claudin-5) to endothelial monolayer permeability. The contribution of cytokine-induced NADPH oxidase activation to altered barrier phenotype was also investigated. Results In response to treatment with either TNF-? or IL-6 (0–100 ng/ml, 0–24 hrs), our studies consistently demonstrated significant dose- and time-dependent decreases in the expression of all interendothelial junction proteins examined, in parallel with dose- and time-dependent increases in ROS generation and HBMvEC permeability. Increased expression and co-association of gp91 and p47, pivotal NADPH oxidase subunits, was also observed in response to either cytokine. Finally, cytokine-dependent effects on junctional protein expression, ROS generation and endothelial permeability could all be attenuated to a comparable extent using a range of antioxidant strategies, which included ROS depleting agents (superoxide dismutase, catalase, N-acetylcysteine, apocynin) and targeted NADPH oxidase blockade (gp91 and p47 siRNA, NSC23766). Conclusion A timely and wide-ranging investigation comparing the permeabilizing actions of TNF-? and IL-6 in HBMvECs is presented, in which we demonstrate how either cytokine can similarly downregulate the expression of interendothelial adherens and tight junction proteins leading to elevation of paracellular permeability. The cytokine-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase leading to ROS generation was also confirmed to be responsible in-part for these events. PMID:24992685

Rochfort, Keith D.; Collins, Laura E.; Murphy, Ronan P.; Cummins, Philip M.

2014-01-01

247

Subcellular localisation of the p40phox component of NADPH oxidase involves direct interactions between the Phox homology domain and F-actin  

PubMed Central

Cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase interact with the actin cytoskeleton. These interactions are thought to be important for the activation of this enzyme system but they are poorly characterised at the molecular level. Here we have explored the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and p40phox, one of the cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase. Full length p40phox expressed in COS cells co-localised with F-actin in a peripheral lamellar compartment. The co-localisation was lost after deletion of the Phox homology (PX) domain and the PX domain in isolation (p40PX) showed the same F-actin co-localisation as the full length protein. PX domains are known lipid-binding modules however, a mutant p40PX which did not bind lipids still co-localised with F-actin suggesting that lipid-independent interactions underlie the localisation. Affinity chromatography identified actin as a binding partner for p40PX in neutrophil extracts. Pure actin interacted with both p40phox and with p40PX suggesting it is a direct interaction. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D resulted in actin rearrangement and concomitantly the localisation of full length p40phox proteins and that of p40PX changed. Thus p40PX is a dual F-actin/lipid-binding module and F-actin interactions with the PX domain dictate at least in part the intracellular localisation of the cytosolic p40phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase. PMID:20637895

Shao, Dongmin; Segal, Anthony W.; Dekker, Lodewijk V.

2010-01-01

248

SOD1 mutations disrupt redox-sensitive Rac regulation of NADPH oxidase in a familial ALS model  

PubMed Central

Neurodegeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with enhanced redox stress caused by dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase–1 (SOD1). SOD1 is a cytosolic enzyme that facilitates the conversion of superoxide (O2•–) to H2O2. Here we demonstrate that SOD1 is not just a catabolic enzyme, but can also directly regulate NADPH oxidase–dependent (Nox-dependent) O2•– production by binding Rac1 and inhibiting its GTPase activity. Oxidation of Rac1 by H2O2 uncoupled SOD1 binding in a reversible fashion, producing a self-regulating redox sensor for Nox-derived O2•– production. This process of redox-sensitive uncoupling of SOD1 from Rac1 was defective in SOD1 ALS mutants, leading to enhanced Rac1/Nox activation in transgenic mouse tissues and cell lines expressing ALS SOD1 mutants. Glial cell toxicity associated with expression of SOD1 mutants in culture was significantly attenuated by treatment with the Nox inhibitor apocynin. Treatment of ALS mice with apocynin also significantly increased their average life span. This redox sensor mechanism may explain the gain-of-function seen with certain SOD1 mutations associated with ALS and defines new therapeutic targets. PMID:18219391

Harraz, Maged M.; Marden, Jennifer J.; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Yulong; Williams, Aislinn; Sharov, Victor S.; Nelson, Kathryn; Luo, Meihui; Paulson, Henry; Schöneich, Christian; Engelhardt, John F.

2008-01-01

249

Direct regulation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by the PRR-associated kinase BIK1 during plant immunity.  

PubMed

The rapid production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst is a conserved signaling output in immunity across kingdoms. In plants, perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that RBOHD exists in complex with the receptor kinases EFR and FLS2, which are the PRRs for bacterial EF-Tu and flagellin, respectively. The plasma-membrane-associated kinase BIK1, which is a direct substrate of the PRR complex, directly interacts with and phosphorylates RBOHD upon PAMP perception. BIK1 phosphorylates different residues than calcium-dependent protein kinases, and both PAMP-induced BIK1 activation and BIK1-mediated phosphorylation of RBOHD are calcium independent. Importantly, phosphorylation of these residues is critical for the PAMP-induced ROS burst and antibacterial immunity. Our study reveals a rapid regulatory mechanism of a plant RBOH, which occurs in parallel with and is essential for its paradigmatic calcium-based regulation. PMID:24630626

Kadota, Yasuhiro; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Stransfeld, Lena; Asai, Shuta; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Jones, Jonathan Dg; Shirasu, Ken; Menke, Frank; Jones, Alexandra; Zipfel, Cyril

2014-04-10

250

The involvement of P2Y12 receptors, NADPH oxidase, and lipid rafts in the action of extracellular ATP on synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction.  

PubMed

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main co-transmitter accompanying the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals. Previously, we revealed the direct inhibitory action of extracellular ATP on transmitter release via redox-dependent mechanism. However, the receptor mechanism of ATP action and ATP-induced sources of reactive oxygen sources (ROS) remained not fully understood. In the current study, using microelectrode recordings of synaptic currents from the frog neuromuscular junction, we analyzed the receptor subtype involved in synaptic action of ATP, receptor coupling to NADPH oxidase and potential location of ATP receptors within the lipid rafts. Using subtype-specific antagonists, we found that the P2Y13 blocker 2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde did not prevent the depressant action of ATP. In contrast, the P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate abolished the inhibitory action of ATP, suggesting the key role of P2Y12 receptors in ATP action. As the action of ATP is redox-dependent, we also tested potential involvement of the NADPH oxidase, known as a common inducer of ROS. The depressant action of extracellular ATP was significantly reduced by diphenyleneiodonium chloride and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, two structurally different inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, indicating that this enzyme indeed mediates the action of ATP. Since the location and activity of various receptors are often associated with lipid rafts, we next tested whether ATP-driven inhibition depends on lipid rafts. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reduced and largely delayed the action of ATP. Taken together, these data revealed key steps in the purinergic control of synaptic transmission via P2Y12 receptors associated with lipid rafts, and identified NADPH oxidase as the main source of ATP-induced inhibitory ROS at the neuromuscular junction. Our data suggest that the location of P2Y receptors in lipid rafts speeds up the modulatory effect of ATP. Uncovered mechanisms may contribute to motor dysfunctions and neuromuscular diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25463521

Giniatullin, A; Petrov, A; Giniatullin, R

2015-01-29

251

Prednisolone augments superoxide formation in porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells through differential effects on the expression of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Prednisolone, a potent anti-inflammatory drug, has proved ineffective in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is associated with superoxide (O2•?) generation, which negates nitric oxide (NO). NO also downregulates NADPH oxidase and inhibits O2•? formation. A possible reason for the lack of effect of prednisolone may due to an inhibition of eNOS expression. In order to test this proposal, the effect of prednisolone on O2•? formation and the expression of gp91phox (catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase) and eNOS in pig pulmonary artery (PA) segments and PA endothelial cells (PAECs) and PA vascular smooth muscle cells (PAVSMCs) was investigated. PA segments and cells were incubated with prednisolone and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) for 16?h. O2•? formation was measured spectrophometrically and gp91phox and eNOS expression by Western blotting. The role of the NO–cGMP axis was studied using morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride, the diethylamine/NO complex (DETA-NONOate), the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-{1,2,4}oxadiazolo{4,3-a}quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and the stable cGMP analogues, 8-bromo cGMP and 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cGMP (8-pCPT-cGMP). NO release was studied using a fluorescence assay and O2•?–NO interactions with a nitrite/nitrate assay. Prednisolone elicited significant increase in O2•? formation in intact PA segments and PAECs, but not PAVSMCs, in a concentration-dependent manner. In endothelium-denuded segments, prednisolone slightly enhanced O2•? release. TNF-? further increased prednisolone-enhanced O2•? formation in intact PA segments and PAECs. NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, inhibited O2•? formation. Increased O2•? release and gp91phox expression in PAECs elicited by prednisolone was blocked by SIN-1 (3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride), DETA-NONOate, 8-pCPT-cGMP and 8-bromo cGMP. The effects of SIN-1 on gp91phox expression were reversed by ODQ. Finally, eNOS protein expression was significantly reduced by prednisolone. Prednisolone increases O2•? in porcine PAECs through a downregulation of endogenous eNOS expression. Since the NO–cGMP axis inhibits gp91phox expression, the resultant decrease in endogenous NO formation then augments NADPH oxidase activity, which in turn results in increased O2•? formation. Since O2•? promotes inflammation, this mechanism may explain why prednisolone is ineffective in treating ARDS. Therapeutically, the coadministration of an NO donor may render prednisolone more effective in treating ARDS. PMID:15852033

Muzaffar, Saima; Shukla, Nilima; Angelini, Gianni D; Jeremy, Jamie Y

2005-01-01

252

Origin of cadmium-induced reactive oxygen species production: mitochondrial electron transfer versus plasma membrane NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

* Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is an environmental pollutant that causes increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To determine the site of ROS production, the effect of Cd(2+) on ROS production was studied in isolated soybean (Glycine max) plasma membranes, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria and roots of intact seedlings of soybean or cucumber (Cucumis sativus). * The effects of Cd(2+) on the kinetics of superoxide (O2*-), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical ((*OH) generation were followed using absorption, fluorescence and spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. * In isolated plasma membranes, Cd(2+) inhibited O2*- production. This inhibition was reversed by calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)). In isolated mitochondria, Cd(2+) increased and H(2)O(2) production. In intact roots, Cd(2+) stimulated H(2)O(2) production whereas it inhibited O2*- and (*)OH production in a Ca(2+)-reversible manner. * Cd(2+) can be used to distinguish between ROS originating from mitochondria and from the plasma membrane. This is achieved by measuring different ROS individually. The immediate (NADPH oxidase activity in the plasma membrane. PMID:18537884

Heyno, Eiri; Klose, Cornelia; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

2008-01-01

253

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from NADPH and xanthine oxidase modulate the cutaneous local heating response in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Local cutaneous heating produces vasodilation that is largely nitric oxide (NO) dependent. We showed that angiotensin II (ANG II) attenuates this by an ANG II receptor, type 1 (AT1R)-dependent mechanism that is reversible with the antioxidant ascorbate, indicating oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by ANG II employ NADPH and xanthine oxidase pathways. To determine whether these mechanisms pertain to skin, we measured cutaneous local heating with 10 ?M ANG II, using apocynin to inhibit NADPH oxidase and allopurinol to inhibit xanthine oxidase. We also inhibited superoxide with tempol, and H(2)O(2) with ebselen. We heated the skin of the calf in 8 healthy volunteers (24.5-29.9 yr old) to 42°C and measured local blood flow to assess the percentage of maximum cutaneous vascular conductance. We remeasured while perfusing allopurinol, apocynin, ebselen, and tempol through individual microdialysis catheters. This was then repeated with ANG II combined with antioxidant drugs. tempol and apocynin alone had no effect on the heat response. Allopurinol enhanced the entire response (125% of heat alone), while ebselen suppressed the heat plateau (76% of heat alone). ANG II alone caused significant attenuation of the entire heat response (52%). When added to ANG II, Allopurinol partially reversed the ANG II attenuation. Heat with ebselen and ANG II were similar to heat and ANG II; ebselen only partially reversed the ANG II attenuation. Apocynin and tempol each partially reversed the attenuation caused by ANG II. This suggests that ROS, produced by ANG II via NADPH and xanthine oxidase pathways, modulates the response of skin to the application of heat, and thus contributes to the control of local cutaneous blood flow. PMID:21436462

Medow, Marvin S; Bamji, Natasha; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony J; Stewart, Julian M

2011-07-01

254

Tanshinone IIA prevents the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and iNOS in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Tanshinone IIA is one of the major constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge known as Danshen. Recent reports have shown that Tanshinone IIA has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and traumatic injury of the spinal cord in rats. However, whether Tanshinone IIA has any neuroprotective effect in Parkinson's disease remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether Tanshinone IIA promotes the survival of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. MPTP induced degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons and microglial activation as visualized by tyrosine hydroxylase and CD11b immunoreactivity. The results of Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of NADPH oxidase and iNOS in the MPTP-treated substantia nigra pars compacta. Treatment with Tanshinone IIA prevented degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons and increased the level of striatal dopamine content. This neuroprotection afforded by Tanshinone IIA was associated with the suppression of microglial activation and reduced expression of NADPH oxidase and iNOS. The present findings show that Tanshinone IIA may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties and may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25491263

Ren, Bo; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Sun, Fa-Wei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wei, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Cheng-Yun; Si, Dao-Wen

2015-01-15

255

NADPH oxidase-2 inhibition restores contractility and intracellular calcium handling and reduces arrhythmogenicity in dystrophic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy may affect cardiac muscle, producing a dystrophic cardiomyopathy in humans and the mdx mouse. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress participates in disrupting calcium handling and contractility in the mdx mouse with established cardiomyopathy. We found increased expression (fivefold) of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 in the mdx hearts compared with wild type, along with increased superoxide production. Next, we tested the impact of NOX2 inhibition on contractility and calcium handling in isolated cardiomyocytes. Contractility was decreased in mdx myocytes compared with wild type, and this was restored toward normal by pretreating with apocynin. In addition, the amplitude of evoked intracellular Ca(2+) concentration transients that was diminished in mdx myocytes was also restored with NOX2 inhibition. Total sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content was reduced in mdx hearts and normalized by apocynin treatment. Additionally, NOX2 inhibition decreased the production of spontaneous diastolic calcium release events and decreased the SR calcium leak in mdx myocytes. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) synthase 1 (NOS-1) expression was increased eightfold in mdx hearts compared with wild type. Nevertheless, cardiac NO production was reduced. To test whether this paradox implied NOS-1 uncoupling, we treated cardiac myocytes with exogenous tetrahydrobioterin, along with the NOX inhibitor VAS2870. These agents restored NO production and phospholamban phosphorylation in mdx toward normal. Together, these results demonstrate that, in mdx hearts, NOX2 inhibition improves the SR calcium handling and contractility, partially by recoupling NOS-1. These findings reveal a new layer of nitroso-redox imbalance in dystrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25015966

Gonzalez, Daniel R; Treuer, Adriana V; Lamirault, Guillaume; Mayo, Vera; Cao, Yenong; Dulce, Raul A; Hare, Joshua M

2014-09-01

256

The NADPH oxidase inhibitor imipramine-blue in the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma.  

PubMed

Burkitt lymphoma is a rare malignancy arising from B cells. Current chemotherapeutic regimens achieve excellent overall survival rates in children, but less impressive rates in adults. There are cases with poor outcome caused by toxic effects of the therapy, tumor lysis syndrome, or metastatic spread of lymphomas to the central nervous system. Modulators of reactive oxygen species are currently discussed as potential drugs for the treatment of cancer. The NADPH oxidase 4 inhibitor imipramine-blue might satisfy the aforementioned requirements, and was studied here. We used MTT assay, crystal violet assay, and thymidine 3H-incorporation assay to analyze the effects of imipramine-blue on Burkitt lymphoma (BL2, BL2B95, BL30B95, BL41B95), neuroblastoma (KELLY, SH-SY5Y, SMS-KAN), cervix carcinoma (HeLa), breast cancer (MDA-MB231), angiosarcoma (AS-M), human embryonic kidney (HEK293WT), and nonmalignant (FLP1) cell lines. The effects of imipramine-blue on BL2B95 cells in vivo were investigated in xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We report that imipramine-blue is a potent growth inhibitor for several cancer cell lines in vitro with IC(50) values comparable to those of doxorubicin (0.16-7.7 ?mol/L). Tumor size of BL2B95 cells inoculated in the CAM was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment with 10 ?mol/L imipramine-blue. Lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 and the formation of blood and lymphatic vessels in experimental tumors were not affected. We show that imipramine-blue can be used to decrease the viability of cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Imipramine-blue reduces the size of experimental Burkitt lymphoma significantly but does not affect the dissemination of BL2B95 cells, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24482381

Klingenberg, Marcel; Becker, Jürgen; Eberth, Sonja; Kube, Dieter; Wilting, Jörg

2014-04-01

257

The E-loop is involved in hydrogen peroxide formation by the NADPH oxidase Nox4.  

PubMed

In contrast to the NADPH oxidases Nox1 and Nox2, which generate superoxide (O(2)(·-)), Nox4 produces hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). We constructed chimeric proteins and mutants to address the protein region that specifies which reactive oxygen species is produced. Reactive oxygen species were measured with luminol/horseradish peroxidase and Amplex Red for H(2)O(2) versus L-012 and cytochrome c for O(2)(·-). The third extracytosolic loop (E-loop) of Nox4 is 28 amino acids longer than that of Nox1 or Nox2. Deletion of E-loop amino acids only present in Nox4 or exchange of the two cysteines in these stretches switched Nox4 from H(2)O(2) to O(2)(·-) generation while preserving expression and intracellular localization. In the presence of an NO donor, the O(2)()-producing Nox4 mutants, but not wild-type Nox4, generated peroxynitrite, excluding artifacts of the detection system as the apparent origin of O(2)(·-). In Cos7 cells, in which Nox4 partially localizes to the plasma membrane, an antibody directed against the E-loop decreased H(2)O(2) but increased O(2)(·-) formation by Nox4 without affecting Nox1-dependent O(2)(·-) formation. The E-loop of Nox4 but not Nox1 and Nox2 contains a highly conserved histidine that could serve as a source for protons to accelerate spontaneous dismutation of superoxide to form H(2)O(2). Mutation of this but not of four other conserved histidines also switched Nox4 from H(2)O(2) to O(2)(·-) formation. Thus, H(2)O(2) formation is an intrinsic property of Nox4 that involves its E-loop. The structure of the E-loop may hinder O(2)(·-) egress and/or provide a source for protons, allowing dismutation to form H(2)O(2). PMID:21343298

Takac, Ina; Schröder, Katrin; Zhang, Leilei; Lardy, Bernard; Anilkumar, Narayana; Lambeth, J David; Shah, Ajay M; Morel, Francoise; Brandes, Ralf P

2011-04-15

258

Ethanol induces oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages via upregulation of NADPH oxidases  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol abuse is a comorbid variable of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Previous studies showed that, in the lung, chronic alcohol consumption increased oxidative stress and impaired alveolar macrophage (AM) function. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in AMs. Therefore, we hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption increases AM oxidant stress through modulation of Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 expression. METHODS AMs were isolated from male C57BL/6J mice, aged 8-10 weeks, which were treated ± ethanol in drinking water (20% w/v, 12 weeks). MH-S cells, a mouse AM cell line, were treated ± ethanol (0.08%, 3 days) for in vitro studies. Selected cells were treated with apocynin (300 ?M), a Nox1 and Nox2 complex formation inhibitor, or were transfected with Nox siRNAs (20-35 nM), prior to ethanol exposure. Human AMs were isolated from alcoholic and control patients’ bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Nox mRNA levels (qRT-PCR), protein levels (western blot and immunostaining), oxidative stress (DCFH-DA and Amplex Red analysis), and phagocytosis (S. aureus internalization) were measured. RESULTS Chronic alcohol increased Nox expression and oxidative stress in mouse AMs in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using apocynin and Nox siRNAs demonstrated that ethanol-induced Nox4 expression, oxidative stress, and AM dysfunction were modulated through Nox1 and Nox2 upregulation. Further, Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 protein levels were augmented in human AMs from alcoholics compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Ethanol induces AM oxidative stress initially through upregulation of Nox1 and Nox2 with downstream Nox4 upregulation and subsequent impairment of AM function. PMID:22412195

Yeligar, Samantha M.; Harris, Frank L.; Hart, C. Michael; Brown, Lou Ann S.

2012-01-01

259

beta-aminobutyric acid primes an NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production during grapevine-triggered immunity.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms underlying the process of priming are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the early signaling events triggered by beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), a well-known priming-mediated plant resistance inducer. Our results indicate that, in contrast to oligogalacturonides (OG), BABA does not elicit typical defense-related early signaling events nor defense-gene expression in grapevine. However, in OG-elicited cells pretreated with BABA, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of the respiratory-burst oxidase homolog RbohD gene were primed. In response to the causal agent of downy mildew Plasmopara viticola, a stronger ROS production was specifically observed in BABA-treated leaves. This process was correlated with an increased resistance. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) abolished this primed ROS production and reduced the BABA-induced resistance (BABA-IR). These results suggest that priming of an NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production contributes to BABA-IR in the Vitis-Plasmopara pathosystem. PMID:20615112

Dubreuil-Maurizi, Carole; Trouvelot, Sophie; Frettinger, Patrick; Pugin, Alain; Wendehenne, David; Poinssot, Benoît

2010-08-01

260

NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

Eum, Sung Yong [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)], E-mail: sungyong.eum@uky.edu; Andras, Ibolya [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

2009-10-15

261

Original article Variation for polyphenol oxidase activity  

E-print Network

Original article Variation for polyphenol oxidase activity in stems of Medicago species Michele) Abstract - Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was detected in stems of both glandular-haired and glabrous; Inra/Elsevier, Paris.) insect resistance / Medicago spp / Leguminosae / polyphenol oxidase Résumé - L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

The crystal structure of the plant small GTPase OsRac1 reveals its mode of binding to NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Rac/Rop proteins are Rho-type small GTPases that act as molecular switches in plants. Recent studies have identified these proteins as key components in many major plant signaling pathways, such as innate immunity, pollen tube growth, and root hair formation. In rice, the Rac/Rop protein OsRac1 plays an important role in regulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase OsRbohB during innate immunity. However, the molecular mechanism by which OsRac1 regulates OsRbohB remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of OsRac1 complexed with the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-(?,?-imido)triphosphate at 1.9 Å resolution; this represents the first active-form structure of a plant small GTPase. To elucidate the ROS production in rice cells, structural information was used to design OsRac1 mutants that displayed reduced binding to OsRbohB. Only mutations in the OsRac1 Switch I region showed attenuated interactions with OsRbohB in vitro. In particular, Tyr(39) and Asp(45) substitutions suppressed ROS production in rice cells, indicating that these residues are critical for interaction with and activation of OsRbohB. Structural comparison of active-form OsRac1 with AtRop9 in its GDP-bound inactive form showed a large conformational difference in the vicinity of these residues. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of the immune response through OsRac1 and the various cellular responses associated with plant Rac/Rop proteins. PMID:25128531

Kosami, Ken-ichi; Ohki, Izuru; Nagano, Minoru; Furuita, Kyoko; Sugiki, Toshihiko; Kawano, Yoji; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Shimamoto, Ko; Kojima, Chojiro

2014-10-10

263

The imbalanced redox status in senescent endothelial cells is due to dysregulated Thioredoxin-1 and NADPH oxidase 4.  

PubMed

Environmental stressors as well as genetic modifications are known to enhance oxidative stress and aging processes. Mitochondrial and nuclear dysfunctions contribute to the onset of aging. One of the most important redox regulators in primary human endothelial cells is Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), a 12 kD protein with additional anti-apoptotic properties. Cellular generators of reactive oxygen species are NADPH oxidases (NOXs), of which NOX4 shows highest expression levels in endothelial cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate how Trx-1 and NOX4 are regulated during stress-induced premature senescence in endothelial cells. We treated primary human endothelial cells for two weeks with H2O2 to generate stress-induced premature senescence in these cells. In this model senescence-associated ?-Galactosidase and nuclear p21 as senescence markers are increased. Moreover, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation is enhanced. An imbalanced redox homeostasis is detected by elevated NOX4 and decreased Trx-1 levels. This can be rescued by lentiviral expression of Trx-1. Moreover, the lysosomal protease Cathepsin D is over-activated, which results in reduced Trx-1 protein levels. Inhibition of "over-active" Cathepsin D by the specific, cell-permeable inhibitor pepstatin A abolishes the increase in nuclear p21 protein, ROS formation and degradation of Trx-1 protein, thus leading to blockade of stress-induced premature senescence by stabilizing the cellular redox homeostasis. Aortic Trx-1 levels are decreased and Cathepsin D activity is increased in NOX4 transgenic mice exclusively expressing NOX4 in the endothelium when compared to their wildtype littermates. Thus, loss of Trx-1 and upregulation of NOX4 importantly contribute to the imbalance in the redox-status of senescent endothelial cells ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24632182

Goy, Christine; Czypiorski, Philip; Altschmied, Joachim; Jakob, Sascha; Rabanter, Lothar L; Brewer, Alison C; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Dyballa-Rukes, Nadine; Shah, Ajay M; Haendeler, Judith

2014-08-01

264

Modulation of mitochondrial capacity and angiogenesis by red wine polyphenols via estrogen receptor, NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase pathways.  

PubMed

Red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPC) are reported to exert vasculoprotective properties on endothelial cells, involving nitric oxide (NO) release via a redox-sensitive pathway. This NO release involves the activation of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?). Paradoxical effects of a RWPC treatment occur in a rat model of post-ischemic neovascularization, where a low-dose is pro-angiogenic while a higher dose is anti-angiogenic. NO and ER? are key regulators of mitochondrial capacity, and angiogenesis is a highly energetic process associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. However, whether RWPC induces changes in mitochondrial capacity has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of RWPC at low (10(-4)g/l, LCP) and high concentration (10(-2)g/l, HCP) in human endothelial cells. Mitochondrial respiration, expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content were assessed using oxygraphy and quantitative PCR respectively. In vitro capillary formation using ECM gel(®) was also performed. Treatment with LCP increased mitochondrial respiration, with a maximal effect achieved at 48h. LCP also increased expression of several mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, HCP did not affect these parameters. Furthermore, LCP modulated both mitochondrial capacity and angiogenesis through mechanisms sensitive to ER, NADPH oxidase and NO-synthase inhibitors. Finally, the inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis abolished the pro-angiogenic capacity of LCP. These results suggest a possible association between the modulation of mitochondrial capacity by LCP and its pro-angiogenic activity. These data provide evidence for a role of mitochondria in the regulation of angiogenesis by RWPC. PMID:23333619

Duluc, Lucie; Jacques, Caroline; Soleti, Raffaella; Iacobazzi, Francesco; Simard, Gilles; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

2013-04-01

265

Molecular Mechanisms of the Crosstalk Between Mitochondria and NADPH Oxidase Through Reactive Oxygen Species—Studies in White Blood Cells and in Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. There is a growing body of evidence for a crosstalk between different enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. With the present study, we sought to determine the underlying crosstalk mechanisms, the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and its link to endothelial dysfunction. Results: NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation (oxidative burst and translocation of cytosolic Nox subunits) was observed in response to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) formation in human leukocytes. In vitro, mtROS-induced Nox activation was prevented by inhibitors of the mPTP, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase cSrc, Nox itself, or an intracellular calcium chelator and was absent in leukocytes with p47phox deficiency (regulates Nox2) or with cyclophilin D deficiency (regulates mPTP). In contrast, the crosstalk in leukocytes was amplified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (type 2) (MnSOD+/?) deficiency. In vivo, increases in blood pressure, degree of endothelial dysfunction, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysregulation/uncoupling (e.g., eNOS S-glutathionylation) or Nox activity, p47phox phosphorylation in response to angiotensin-II (AT-II) in vivo treatment, or the aging process were more pronounced in MnSOD+/? mice as compared with untreated controls and improved by mPTP inhibition by cyclophilin D deficiency or sanglifehrin A therapy. Innovation: These results provide new mechanistic insights into what extent mtROS trigger Nox activation in phagocytes and cardiovascular tissue, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions: Our data show that mtROS trigger the activation of phagocytic and cardiovascular NADPH oxidases, which may have fundamental implications for immune cell activation and development of AT-II-induced hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 247–266. PMID:23845067

Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Steven, Sebastian; Kossmann, Sabine; Scholz, Alexander; Daub, Steffen; Oelze, Matthias; Xia, Ning; Hausding, Michael; Mikhed, Yuliya; Zinßius, Elena; Mader, Michael; Stamm, Paul; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Li, Huige; Schulz, Eberhard; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas

2014-01-01

266

Endothelial NADPH oxidase 4 mediates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2–induced intravitreal neovascularization in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity  

PubMed Central

Purpose NADPH oxidase–generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in angiogenesis. Isoforms of NADPH oxidase NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 are reported to be expressed in endothelial cells (ECs). Of these, NOX1 and NOX2 have been reported to contribute to intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV) in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) models. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the isoform NOX4 in ECs contributed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)–induced angiogenesis and IVNV. Methods Isoforms of NADPH oxidase mRNA were measured in several types of cultured vascular ECs: human retinal microvascular ECs (hRMVECs), choroidal ECs (CECs), and human umbilical vascular ECs (HUVECs) using real-time PCR. Newborn rat pups and dams were placed into an OIR model that cycled oxygen concentration between 50% and 10% every 24 h for 14 days, and then were placed in room air (RA) for an additional 4 days (rat OIR model). NOX4 expression in retinal lysates from the RA–raised pups at postnatal day 0 (P0), P14, and P18 was determined with western blots. STAT3 activation was determined as the ratio of phosphorylated STAT3 to total STAT3 with western blot analysis of retinal lysates from pups raised in RA or from the rat OIR model at P18. Semiquantitative assessment of the density of NOX4 colabeling with lectin-stained retinal ECs was determined by immunolabeling of retinal cryosections from P18 pups in OIR or in RA. In hRMVECs transfected with NOX4 siRNA and treated with VEGF or control, 1) ROS generation was measured using the 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester fluorescence assay and 2) phosphorylated VEGF receptor 2 and STAT3, and total VEGFR2 and STAT3 were measured in western blot analyses. VEGF-stimulated hRMVEC proliferation was measured following transfection with NOX4 siRNA or STAT3 siRNA, or respective controls. Results NOX4 was the most prevalent isoform of NADPH oxidase in vascular ECs. NOX4 expression in retinal lysates was significantly decreased during development in RA. Compared to RA, the expression of retinal NOX4 increased at P18. At p18 OIR, semiquantitative assessment of the density of lectin and NOX4 colabeling in retinal vascular ECs was greater in retinal cryosections and activated STAT3 was greater in retinal lysates when compared to the RA-raised pups. In cultured hRMVECs, knockdown of NOX4 by siRNA transfection inhibited VEGF-induced ROS generation. VEGF induced a physical interaction of phosphorylated-VEGFR2 and NOX4. Knockdown of NOX4: 1) reduced VEGFR2 activation but did not abolish it and 2) abolished STAT3 activation in response to VEGF. Knockdown of either NOX4 or STAT3 inhibited VEGF-induced EC proliferation. Conclusions Our data suggest that in a model representative of human retinopathy of prematurity, NOX4 was increased at a time point when IVNV developed. VEGF-activated NOX4 led to an interaction between VEGF-activated VEGFR2 and NOX4 that mediated EC proliferation via activation of STAT3. Altogether, our results suggest that NOX4 may regulate VEGFR2-mediated IVNV through activated STAT3. PMID:24623966

Wang, Haibo; Yang, Zhihong; Jiang, Yanchao

2014-01-01

267

Essential Role of NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Regulating MicroRNA-21 Expression and Function in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Oncogenic microRNAs (miRs) promote tumor growth and invasiveness. One of these, miR-21, contributes to carcinogenesis in prostate and other cancers. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the expression and function of miR-21 and its target proteins, maspin and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), in prostate cancer cells. Results: The highly aggressive androgen receptor negative PC-3M-MM2 prostate cancer cells demonstrated high expression of miR-21 and p47phox (an essential subunit of NADPH oxidase). Using loss-of-function strategy, we showed that transfection of PC-3M-MM2 cells with anti-miR-21- and p47phox siRNA (si-p47phox) led to reduced expression of miR-21 with concurrent increase in maspin and PDCD4, and decreased the invasiveness of the cells. Tail-vein injections of anti-miR-21- and si-p47phox-transfected PC-3M-MM2 cells in severe combined immunodeficient mice reduced lung metastases. Clinical samples from patients with advanced prostate cancer expressed high levels of miR-21 and p47phox, and low expression of maspin and PDCD4. Finally, ROS activated Akt in these cells, the inhibition of which reduced miR-21 expression. Innovation: The levels of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS are high in prostate cancer cells, which have been shown to be involved in their growth and migration. This study demonstrates that ROS produced by this pathway is essential for the expression and function of an onco-miR, miR-21, in androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cells. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that miR-21 is an important target of ROS, which contributes to the highly invasive and metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer cells. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1863–1876. PMID:23682737

Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheehan, Kelly E.; Sheth, Sandeep; Borse, Vikrant; Rybak, Leonard P.

2013-01-01

268

NADPH oxidase 2-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in the ventral cochlear nucleus of d-galactose-induced aging rats.  

PubMed

Aging has been associated with oxidative stress and the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. The previous study has established a mimetic rat model of aging using d-galactose (d-gal) and revealed that chronic injection of d-gal can increase NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in the peripheral auditory system. However, the effects of NOXs in the central auditory system (CAS) were still obscure. The current study was designed to investigate potential causative mechanisms of central presbycusis by using the d-gal-induced aging rats. We found that the levels of H2O2 and the expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and its corresponding subunits P22(phox), P47(phox) and P67(phox) were greatly increased in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of d-gal-treated rats as compared with controls. And, the levels of a typical biomarker of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the accumulation of mtDNA common deletion (CD) were also increased in the VCN of d-gal-treated rats as compared with controls. Moreover, the damage of mitochondrial ultrastructure, a decline in ATP levels, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), an increase in the amount of cytochrome c (cyt c) translocated to the cytoplasm and caspase-3 activation were observed in the VCN induced by d-gal. In addition, we also found that the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the VCN were increased in d-gal-treated rats. Taken together, these findings suggest that NOX2-dependent oxidative stress may contribute to mitochondrial damage and activate a caspase-3-dependent apoptosis pathway in the CAS during aging. This study also provides new insights into the development of presbycusis. PMID:25499316

Du, Z; Yang, Q; Liu, L; Li, S; Zhao, J; Hu, J; Liu, C; Qian, D; Gao, C

2015-02-12

269

Transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, by nuclear factor-{kappa}B in human aortic smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Inflammation-induced changes in the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) play a key role in atherogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation are scantily elucidated. Since nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) controls the expression of many genes associated to inflammation-related diseases, in this study we have investigated the role of NF-{kappa}B signaling in the regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 transcription in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cultured cells were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}), a potent inducer of both Nox and NF-{kappa}B, up to 24 h. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dichlorofluorescein assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis showed that inhibition of NF-{kappa}B pathway reduced significantly the TNF{alpha}-dependent up-regulation of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species production, Nox1 and Nox4 expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical NF-{kappa}B elements in the promoters of Nox1 and Nox4. Transient overexpression of p65/NF-{kappa}B significantly increased the promoter activities of both isoforms. Physical interaction of p65/NF-{kappa}B proteins with the predicted sites was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These findings demonstrate that NF-{kappa}B is an essential regulator of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase in SMCs. Elucidation of the complex relationships between NF-{kappa}B and Nox enzymes may lead to a novel pharmacological strategy to reduce both inflammation and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and its associated complications.

Manea, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.manea@icbp.ro [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology 'Nicolae Simionescu', 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania)] [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology 'Nicolae Simionescu', 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania); Tanase, Laurentia I.; Raicu, Monica; Simionescu, Maya [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology 'Nicolae Simionescu', 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania)] [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology 'Nicolae Simionescu', 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania)

2010-06-11

270

MS# THORAX/2009/113456 Re re revised NOX4/NADPH oxidase expression is increased in pulmonary fibroblasts from patients with  

E-print Network

in pulmonary fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and mediates TGF- 1-induced NOX4/NADPH oxidase in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis inserm-00515220,version1-6Sep2010 Author to the development of fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Transforming growth factor-Ã?1 (TGF-Ã?1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

An essential role of NAD(P)H oxidase 2 in UVA-induced calcium oscillations in mast cells.  

PubMed

Solar UVA radiation (320-400 nm) is known to have immunomodulatory effects, but the detailed mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. UVA irradiation has been shown to induce calcium oscillations in rat peritoneal mast cells due to NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activation, but the specific NOX isoforms have not been identified. In the present work effects of UVA irradiation were investigated in isolated rat peritoneal mast cells, in cultured rat mast cell line RBL-2H3, and in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). It was found that UVA irradiation by alternate 340/380 nm (3.2-5.6 ?W cm(-2)) or by LED (380 nm, 80 ?W cm(-2)) induced calcium oscillations in isolated rat peritoneal mast cells, in RBL-2H3, and in BMMC. Such UVA-induced calcium oscillations resembled closely those induced by surface IgE receptor (Fc?RI) activation. It was found that RBL-2H3 expressed high levels of gp91(phox) (NOX2), p22(phox), p67(phox), p47(phox), p40(phox), Rac1, Rac2, moderate levels of DUOX2, but did not express NOX1, NOX3, NOX4, or DUOX1. The specific cellular localizations of gp91(phox) (NOX2), p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox) and Rac1/2 were confirmed by immunocytochemistry. UVA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RBL-2H3 was completely suppressed by the NOX inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or by the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). siRNA suppression of gp91(phox) (NOX2), p22(phox) and p47(phox) expression inhibited markedly UVA-induced calcium oscillations, ROS and IL-6/LTC4 production in RBL-2H3. Taken together these data indicate that NOX2 plays an essential role in UVA irradiation-induced calcium oscillations, ROS and mediator production in mast cells. PMID:25460548

Li, Zhi Ying; Jiang, Wen Yi; Cui, Zong Jie

2014-12-01

272

Mitochondrial-localized NADPH oxidase 4 is a source of superoxide in angiotensin II-stimulated neurons.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays an important role in the central regulation of systemic cardiovascular function. ANG II-mediated intraneuronal signaling has been shown to be predicated by an increase in mitochondrial superoxide (O??-), yet the source of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains unclear. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a member of the NADPH oxidase family, has been reported to be localized in mitochondria of various cell types and has been implicated in brain angiotensinergic signaling. However, the subcellular localization and function of Nox4 in neurons has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that Nox4 is expressed in neuron mitochondria and is involved in ANG II-dependent O??--mediated intraneuronal signaling. To query this, Nox4 immunofluorescent staining and mitochondrial enrichment were performed in a mouse catecholaminergic neuronal cell model (CATH.a). Nox4 was shown to be present in neuron mitochondria as evidenced by colocalization with both the mitochondrial-localized protein manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and dye MitoTracker Red. Moreover, Nox4 expression was significantly increased in enriched mitochondrial fractions compared with whole cell lysates. Additionally, adenoviral-encoded small interfering RNA for Nox4 (AdsiNox4) caused a robust knockdown in Nox4 mRNA and protein levels, which led to the attenuation of ANG II-induced mitochondrial O??- production. Finally, in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain, Nox4 not only demonstrated mitochondrial localization but was induced by chronic, peripheral infusion of ANG II. Collectively, these data suggest that Nox4 is a source of O??- in neuron mitochondria that contributes to ANG II intraneuronal signaling. PMID:23624625

Case, Adam J; Li, Shumin; Basu, Urmi; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C

2013-07-01

273

Activation of Polyphenol Oxidase of Chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase ofleaves islocated mainlyinchloro- plasts isolated bydifferential orsucrose density gradient cen- trifugation. Thisactivity ispartofthelamellar structure that isnotlost onrepeated washing oftheplastids. Theoxidase ac- tivity wasstable during prolonged storage oftheparticles at 4C or-18C.TheKm (dihydroxyphenylalanine) forspinach leafpolyphenol oxidase was7mM byaspectrophotometric as- sayand2 mM bythemanometric assay. Polyphenol oxidase activity intheleafperoxisomal fraction, afterisopycnic cen- trifugation onalinear sucrose gradient, didnotcoincide with theperoxisomal enzymesbutwasattributed toproplastids at

N. E. Tolbert

1973-01-01

274

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-derived NADPH fuels superoxide production in the failing heart  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the failing heart, NADPH oxidase and uncoupled NO synthase utilize cytosolic NADPH to form superoxide. NADPH is supplied principally by the pentose phosphate pathway, whose rate-limiting enzyme is glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiac G6PD activation dr...

275

Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg Cells in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Show Alterations of Genes Encoding the NADPH Oxidase Complex and Impaired Reactive Oxygen Species Synthesis Capacity  

PubMed Central

The membrane bound NADPH oxidase involved in the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a multi-protein enzyme encoded by CYBA, CYBB, NCF1, NCF2 and NCF4 genes. Growing evidence suggests a role of ROS in the modulation of signaling pathways of non-phagocytic cells, including differentiation and proliferation of B-cell progenitors. Transcriptional downregulation of the CYBB gene has been previously reported in cell lines of the B-cell derived classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Thus, we explored functional consequences of CYBB downregulation on the NADPH complex. Using flow cytometry to detect and quantify superoxide anion synthesis in cHL cell lines we identified recurrent loss of superoxide anion production in all stimulated cHL cell lines in contrast to stimulated non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. As CYBB loss proved to exert a deleterious effect on the NADPH oxidase complex in cHL cell lines, we analyzed the CYBB locus in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of primary cHL biopsies by in situ hybridisation and identified recurrent deletions of the gene in 8/18 cases. Immunohistochemical analysis to 14 of these cases revealed a complete lack of detectable CYBB protein expression in all HRS cells in all cases studied. Moreover, by microarray profiling of cHL cell lines we identified additional alterations of NADPH oxidase genes including CYBA copy number loss in 3/7 cell lines and a significant downregulation of the NCF1 transcription (p=0.006) compared to normal B-cell subsets. Besides, NCF1 protein was significantly downregulated (p<0.005) in cHL compared to other lymphoma cell lines. Together this findings show recurrent alterations of the NADPH oxidase encoding genes that result in functional inactivation of the enzyme and reduced production of superoxide anion in cHL. PMID:24376854

Sosna, Justyna; Döring, Claudia; Klapper, Wolfram; Küppers, Ralf; Böttcher, Sebastian; Adam, Dieter; Siebert, Reiner; Schütze, Stefan

2013-01-01

276

Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma show alterations of genes encoding the NADPH oxidase complex and impaired reactive oxygen species synthesis capacity.  

PubMed

The membrane bound NADPH oxidase involved in the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a multi-protein enzyme encoded by CYBA, CYBB, NCF1, NCF2 and NCF4 genes. Growing evidence suggests a role of ROS in the modulation of signaling pathways of non-phagocytic cells, including differentiation and proliferation of B-cell progenitors. Transcriptional downregulation of the CYBB gene has been previously reported in cell lines of the B-cell derived classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Thus, we explored functional consequences of CYBB downregulation on the NADPH complex. Using flow cytometry to detect and quantify superoxide anion synthesis in cHL cell lines we identified recurrent loss of superoxide anion production in all stimulated cHL cell lines in contrast to stimulated non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. As CYBB loss proved to exert a deleterious effect on the NADPH oxidase complex in cHL cell lines, we analyzed the CYBB locus in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of primary cHL biopsies by in situ hybridisation and identified recurrent deletions of the gene in 8/18 cases. Immunohistochemical analysis to 14 of these cases revealed a complete lack of detectable CYBB protein expression in all HRS cells in all cases studied. Moreover, by microarray profiling of cHL cell lines we identified additional alterations of NADPH oxidase genes including CYBA copy number loss in 3/7 cell lines and a significant downregulation of the NCF1 transcription (p=0.006) compared to normal B-cell subsets. Besides, NCF1 protein was significantly downregulated (p<0.005) in cHL compared to other lymphoma cell lines. Together this findings show recurrent alterations of the NADPH oxidase encoding genes that result in functional inactivation of the enzyme and reduced production of superoxide anion in cHL. PMID:24376854

Giefing, Maciej; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Sosna, Justyna; Döring, Claudia; Klapper, Wolfram; Küppers, Ralf; Böttcher, Sebastian; Adam, Dieter; Siebert, Reiner; Schütze, Stefan

2013-01-01

277

NADPH Oxidase Deficient Mice Develop Colitis and Bacteremia upon Infection with Normally Avirulent, TTSS-1- and TTSS-2-Deficient Salmonella Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Infections, microbe sampling and occasional leakage of commensal microbiota and their products across the intestinal epithelial cell layer represent a permanent challenge to the intestinal immune system. The production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase is thought to be a key element of defense. Patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are deficient in one of the subunits of NADPH oxidase. They display a high incidence of Crohn’s disease-like intestinal inflammation and are hyper-susceptible to infection with fungi and bacteria, including a 10-fold increased risk of Salmonellosis. It is not completely understood which steps of the infection process are affected by the NADPH oxidase deficiency. We employed a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea to study how NADPH oxidase deficiency (Cybb?/?) affects microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa. In this animal model, wild type S. Typhimurium causes pronounced enteropathy in wild type mice. In contrast, an avirulent S. Typhimurium mutant (S.Tmavir; invGsseD), which lacks virulence factors boosting trans-epithelial penetration and growth in the lamina propria, cannot cause enteropathy in wild type mice. We found that Cybb?/? mice are efficiently infected by S.Tmavir and develop enteropathy by day 4 post infection. Cell depletion experiments and infections in Cybb?/?Myd88?/? mice indicated that the S.Tmavir-inflicted disease in Cybb?/? mice hinges on CD11c+CX3CR1+ monocytic phagocytes mediating colonization of the cecal lamina propria and on Myd88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses. Interestingly, in mixed bone marrow chimeras a partial reconstitution of Cybb-proficiency in the bone marrow derived compartment was sufficient to ameliorate disease severity. Our data indicate that NADPH oxidase expression is of key importance for restricting the growth of S.Tmavir in the mucosal lamina propria. This provides important insights into microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa and the role of NADPH oxidase in maintaining microbe-host mutualism at this exposed body surface. PMID:24143212

Slack, Emma Marie Caroline; Müller, Andreas J.; Kremer, Marcus; Van Maele, Laurye; Cayet, Delphine; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

2013-01-01

278

NADPH-diaphorase activity in area 17 of the squirrel monkey visual cortex: neuropil pattern, cell morphology and laminar distribution.  

PubMed

We studied the distribution of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the visual cortex of normal adult New World monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) using the malic enzyme "indirect" method. NADPH-diaphorase neuropil activity had a heterogeneous distribution. In coronal sections, it had a clear laminar pattern that was coincident with Nissl-stained layers. In tangential sections, we observed blobs in supragranular layers of V1 and stripes throughout the entire V2. We quantified and compared the tangential distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and cytochrome oxidase blobs in adjacent sections of the supragranular layers of V1. Although their spatial distributions were rather similar, the two enzymes did not always overlap. The histochemical reaction also revealed two different types of stained cells: a slightly stained subpopulation and a subgroup of deeply stained neurons resembling a Golgi impregnation. These neurons were sparsely spined non-pyramidal cells. Their dendritic arbors were very well stained but their axons were not always evident. In the gray matter, heavily stained neurons showed different dendritic arbor morphologies. However, most of the strongly reactive cells lay in the subjacent white matter, where they presented a more homogenous morphology. Our results demonstrate that the pattern of NADPH-diaphorase activity is similar to that previously described in Old World monkeys. PMID:9458970

Franca, J G; do-Nascimento, J L; Picanço-Diniz, C W; Quaresma, J A; Silva, A L

1997-09-01

279

The Variable Domain of a Plant Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase (CDPK) Confers Subcellular Localization and Substrate Recognition for NADPH Oxidase*  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are Ca2+ sensors that regulate diverse biological processes in plants and apicomplexans. However, how CDPKs discriminate specific substrates in vivo is still largely unknown. Previously, we found that a potato StCDPK5 is dominantly localized to the plasma membrane and activates the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase (RBOH; for respiratory burst oxidase homolog) StRBOHB by direct phosphorylation of the N-terminal region. Here, we report the contribution of the StCDPK5 N-terminal variable (V) domain to activation of StRBOHB in vivo using heterologous expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana. Mutations of N-terminal myristoylation and palmitoylation sites in the V domain eliminated the predominantly plasma membrane localization and the capacity of StCDPK5 to activate StRBOHB in vivo. A tomato SlCDPK2, which also contains myristoylation and palmitoylation sites in its N terminus, phosphorylated StRBOHB in vitro but not in vivo. Functional domains responsible for activation and phosphorylation of StRBOHB were identified by swapping regions for each domain between StCDPK5 and SlCDPK2. The substitution of the V domain of StCDPK5 with that of SlCDPK2 abolished the activation and phosphorylation abilities of StRBOHB in vivo and relocalized the chimeric CDPK to the trans-Golgi network, as observed for SlCDPK2. Conversely, SlCDPK2 substituted with the V domain of StCDPK5 localized to the plasma membrane and activated StRBOHB. These results suggest that the V domains confer substrate specificity in vivo by dictating proper subcellular localization of CDPKs. PMID:23569203

Asai, Shuta; Ichikawa, Tatsushi; Nomura, Hironari; Kobayashi, Michie; Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Mori, Hitoshi; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Zipfel, Cyril; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

280

Fibrillar beta-amyloid peptide Abeta1-40activates microglial proliferation via stimulating TNF-alpha release and H2O2derived from NADPH oxidase: a cell culture study  

E-print Network

Neuroinflammation 2005, 2:20. 9. Qin L, Liu Y, Cooper C, Liu B, Wilson B, Hong JS: Microglia enhance beta-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in cortical and mesencephalic neurons by producing reactive oxygen species. J Neurochem 2002, 83:973-983. 10. Mander PK... - ferongamma. J Neurosci Res 2004, 77:540-551. 12. Qin L, Li G, Qian X, Liu Y, Wu X, Liu B, Hong JS, Block ML: Interac- tive role of the toll-like receptor 4 and reactive oxygen spe- cies in LPS-induced microglia activation. Glia 2005, 52:78-84. 13. Bal...

Jekabsone, Aiste; Mander, Palwinder K; Tickler, Anna; Sharpe, Martyn; Brown, Guy C

2006-09-07

281

Diphenylene iodonium interferes with cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis by modulating NAD(P)H oxidase/ROS/cell cycle regulatory pathways in Burkitt's lymphoma cells.  

PubMed

Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and its encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) play oncogenic roles in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). Flow cytometry was used to measure cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations, and cellular lactate generation and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) cytotoxicity were determined by analyzing lactate concentrations and cell viability. We also measured NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activity. Reverse transcriptase PCR and qPCR assays were used to analyze LMP1 levels, and protein expression was measured by immunoblotting. In the present study, EBV was able to induce NOX activity and ROS generation in the BL cells. Inhibition of NOX activity by DPI suppressed ROS levels and elevated lactate levels. DPI treatment first resulted in a G2-M phase cell cycle arrest and then induced significant apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that DPI suppressed the expression of c-Myc and Cdc25A within 6 h, which may have caused the cell cycle arrest. Collectively, these findings indicate a close relationship between EBV infection and NOX activation, permitting a deeper understanding of ROS inhibition in cell cycle regulation and providing a novel therapeutic target for BL treatment. PMID:25591797

Ding, Ya; Zhu, Wenjun; Sun, Rui; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Fan, Yuhua; Sun, Jian

2015-03-01

282

Diapocynin, a Dimer of the NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin, Reduces ROS Production and Prevents Force Loss in Eccentrically Contracting Dystrophic Muscle  

PubMed Central

Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX) have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:25329652

Ismail, Hesham M.; Scapozza, Leonardo; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dorchies, Olivier M.

2014-01-01

283

Dual Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species and NADPH Oxidase RBOHD in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria Pathosystem1[W  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NADPH oxidases have been reported to suppress the spread of pathogen- and salicylic acid-induced cell death. Here, we present dual roles of RBOHD (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog D) in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria pathosystem, suggesting either initiation or prevention of cell death dependent on the distance from pathogen attack. Our data demonstrate that a rbohD knockout mutant exhibits increased spread of cell death at the macroscopic level upon inoculation with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. However, the cellular patterns of reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death are fundamentally different in the AtrbohD mutant compared with the wild type. Functional RBOHD causes marked extracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation as well as cell death in distinct, single cells of A. brassicicola-infected wild-type plants. This single cell response is missing in the AtrbohD mutant, where infection triggers spreading-type necrosis preceded by less distinct chloroplastic hydrogen peroxide accumulation in large clusters of cells. While the salicylic acid analog benzothiadiazole induces the action of RBOHD and the development of cell death in infected tissues, the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibits cell death, indicating that both salicylic acid and ethylene positively regulate RBOHD and cell death. Moreover, A. brassicicola-infected AtrbohD plants hyperaccumulate ethylene and free salicylic acid compared with the wild type, suggesting negative feedback regulation of salicylic acid and ethylene by RBOHD. We propose that functional RBOHD triggers death in cells that are damaged by fungal infection but simultaneously inhibits death in neighboring cells through the suppression of free salicylic acid and ethylene levels. PMID:19726575

Pogány, Miklós; von Rad, Uta; Grün, Sebastian; Dongó, Anita; Pintye, Alexandra; Simoneau, Philippe; Bahnweg, Günther; Kiss, Levente; Barna, Balázs; Durner, Jörg

2009-01-01

284

Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

2014-01-01

285

Inhibition of diamine oxidase activity by metronidazole.  

PubMed

Metronidazole was found to be a non-competitive inhibitor of man, rabbit and rat intestinal diamine oxidases with an inhibition constant value of approximately 10(-4) M. The purified bovine serum amine oxidase was not inhibited, whereas the purified swine kidney enzyme gave similar results. These findings suggest that metronidazole and similar compounds, used as antibacterial and antiprotozoal drugs, should be given under careful control, especially when administered for long times, because a decrease of intestinal diamine oxidase activity was proven to be a risk factor for several pathologies of this organ. PMID:7626074

Befani, O; Shiozaki, T S; Turini, P; Gerosa, P; Mondovi, B

1995-07-17

286

The NADPH oxidases NOX4 and DUOX2 regulate cell cycle entry via a p53-dependent pathway  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in growth factor signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation, but the mechanisms leading to ROS generation and the targets of ROS signals are not well understood. Using a focused siRNA screen to identify redox-related proteins required for growth factor induced cell cycle entry, we show that two ROS generating proteins, the NADPH oxidases NOX4 and DUOX2, are required for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induced retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation in normal human fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, NOX4 and DUOX2 knockdown did not inhibit the early signaling pathways leading to cyclin D1 upregulation. However, hours after growth factor stimulation, NOX4 and DUOX2 knockdown reduced ERK1 phosphorylation and increased levels of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and a cell cycle inhibitor protein p21 (Waf1/Cip1) that is transcriptionally regulated by p53. Co-knockdown of NOX4 or DUOX2 with either p53 or with p21 overcame the inhibition of Rb phosphorylation that occurred with NOX4 or DUOX2 knockdown alone. Our results argue that rather than primarily affecting growth factor receptor signaling, NOX4 and DUOX2 regulate cell cycle entry as part of a p53-dependent checkpoint for proliferation. PMID:20531308

Salmeen, Annette; Park, Byung Ouk; Meyer, Tobias

2010-01-01

287

Clostridium difficile toxin B-induced necrosis is mediated by the host epithelial cell NADPH oxidase complex  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea and has increased in incidence and severity over the last decade. Pathogenesis is mediated by two toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which cause fluid secretion, inflammation, and necrosis of the colonic mucosa. TcdB is a potent cytotoxin capable of inducing enzyme-independent necrosis in both cells and tissue. In this study, we show that TcdB-induced cell death depends on assembly of the host epithelial cell NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treating cells with siRNAs directed against key components of the NOX complex, chemical inhibitors of NOX function, or molecules that scavenge superoxide or ROS confers protection against toxin challenge. To test the hypothesis that chemical inhibition of TcdB-induced cytotoxicity can protect against TcdB-induced tissue damage, we treated colonic explants with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a flavoenzyme inhibitor, or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant. TcdB-induced ROS production in colonic tissue was inhibited with DPI, and both DPI and NAC conferred protection against TcdB-induced tissue damage. The efficacy of DPI and NAC provides proof of concept that chemical attenuation of ROS could serve as a viable strategy for protecting the colonic mucosa of patients with CDI. PMID:24167244

Farrow, Melissa A.; Chumbler, Nicole M.; Lapierre, Lynne A.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Rutherford, Stacey A.; Goldenring, James R.; Lacy, D. Borden

2013-01-01

288

A novel and specific NADPH oxidase-1 (Nox1) small-molecule inhibitor blocks the formation of functional invadopodia in human colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidase (Nox) proteins catalyze the regulated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which play key roles as signaling molecules in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. ROS generation by the Nox1 member of the Nox family is necessary for the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading, actin-rich cellular structures known as invadopodia. Selective inhibition of Nox isoforms can provide reversible, mechanistic insights into these cellular processes in contrast to scavenging or inhibition of ROS production. Currently no specific Nox inhibitors have been described. Here, by high-throughput screening, we identify a sub-set of phenothiazines, 2-acetylphenothiazine (here referred to as ML171) (and its related 2-(trifluoromethyl)-phenothiazine) as nanomolar, cell-active and specific Nox1 inhibitors that potently block Nox1-dependent ROS generation, with only marginal activity on other cellular ROS-producing enzymes and receptors including the other Nox isoforms. ML171 also blocks the ROS-dependent formation of ECM-degrading invadopodia in colon cancer cells. Such effects can be reversed by overexpression of Nox1 protein, which is suggestive of a selective mechanism of inhibition of Nox1 by this compound. These results elucidate the relevance of Nox1-dependent ROS generation in mechanisms of cancer invasion, and define ML171 as a useful Nox1 chemical probe and a potential therapeutic agent for inhibition of cancer cell invasion. PMID:20715845

Gianni, Davide; Taulet, Nicolas; Zhang, Hui; DerMardirossian, Celine; Kister, Jeremy; Martinez, Luis; Roush, William R.; Brown, Steve J.; Bokoch, Gary M.; Rosen, Hugh

2010-01-01

289

Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibition on the expression of kidney injury molecule and calcium oxalate crystal deposition in hydroxy-L-proline-induced hyperoxaluria in the male Sprague–Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Background. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is associated with epithelial injury and movement of inflammatory cells into the interstitium. We have proposed that oxalate (Ox)- and CaOx crystal-induced injury is most likely caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by activation of membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Methods. Present study was undertaken to determine the effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and renal CaOx crystal deposition in rats with hyperoxaluria. We also investigated the urinary excretion of KIM-1, osteopontin (OPN) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and renal expression of OPN and ED-1. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HLP) and 4 mmol apocynin to drink for 28 days. Urine was collected on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28. After that, rats were sacrificed and their kidneys processed for various microscopic and molecular investigations. Results. HLP consumption produced heavy deposits of CaOx crystals. Renal expression of KIM-1 and OPN and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, H2O2 and MCP-1 was significantly increased. ED-1-positive cells migrated into renal interstitium. Apocynin treatment caused significant reduction of crystal deposits, injured and dilated tubules; renal expression of KIM-1, OPN and ED-1 and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, MCP-1 and H2O2. Apocynin had no effect on the urinary excretion of Ox. Conclusions. This is the first study of urinary excretion and renal expression of KIM-1 in association with renal CaOx crystal deposition, experimental or clinical. The results indicate that NADPH oxidase inhibition leads to reduction in KIM-1 expression and urinary excretion as well as renal CaOx crystal deposition. KIM-1 is an important marker of renal epithelial injury. The results provide further support to our proposal that renal epithelial injury is critical for crystal retention and that injury is in part caused by the production of ROS with the involvement of NADPH oxidase. PMID:21378157

Zuo, Jian; Khan, Aslam; Glenton, Patricia A.; Khan, Saeed R.

2011-01-01

290

Bone-marrow derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells express multiple isoforms of NADPH oxidase and produce constitutively reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Consolidated evidence highlights the importance of redox signalling in poising the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in adult stem cells. The present study shows that human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) constitutively generate low levels of hydrogen peroxide whose production is inhibited by DPI, apocynin, catalase, and LY294002 and scarcely stimulated by PMA. Moreover, it is shown that HSCs express at the mRNA and protein levels the catalytic subunits of NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 isoforms of the NADPH oxidase family along with the complete battery of the regulatory subunits p22, p40, p47, p67, rac1, rac2, NOXO1, and NOXA1 as well as the splicing variant NOX2s and that the three NOX isoforms are largely co-expressed in the same HSC. These findings are interpreted in terms of a positive feed-back mechanism of NOXs activation enabling a fine tuning of the ROS level to be possibly used in redox-mediated signalling for growth and differentiation of HSCs. PMID:17204244

Piccoli, Claudia; D'Aprile, Annamaria; Ripoli, Maria; Scrima, Rosella; Lecce, Lucia; Boffoli, Domenico; Tabilio, Antonio; Capitanio, Nazzareno

2007-02-23

291

Antioxidant protection by PECAM-targeted delivery of a novel NADPH-oxidase inhibitor to the endothelium in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Oxidant stress caused by pathological elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the endothelial cells lining the vascular lumen is an important component of many vascular and pulmonary disease conditions. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activated by pathological mediators including angiotensin and cytokines is a major source of endothelial ROS. In order to intercept this pathological pathway, we have encapsulated an indirect NOX inhibitor, MJ33, into immunoliposomes (Ab-MJ33/IL) targeted to endothelial marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1). Ab-MJ33/IL, but not control IgG-MJ33/IL specifically bound to endothelium and attenuated angiotensin-induced ROS production in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, Ab-MJ33/IL inhibited endothelial expression of the inflammatory marker vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in cells and animals challenged with the cytokine TNF. Furthermore, Ab-MJ33/IL alleviated pathological disruption of endothelial permeability barrier function in cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and in the lungs of mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Of note, the latter beneficial effect has been achieved both by prophylactic and therapeutic injection of Ab-MJ33/IL in animals. Therefore, specific suppression of ROS production by NOX in endothelium, attainable by Ab-MJ33/IL targeting, may help deciphering mechanisms of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation, and potentially improve treatment of these conditions. PMID:22974832

Hood, Elizabeth D.; Greineder, Colin F.; Dodia, Chandra; Han, Jingyan; Mesaros, Clementina; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Blair, Ian A.; Fisher, Aron B.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

2012-01-01

292

Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dose-dependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1), which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment. PMID:17786977

Wartenberg, Maria; Wirtz, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Hescheler, Jürgen; Peters, Saskia C; Sauer, Heinrich

2008-01-01

293

The NADPH Oxidase Complexes in Botrytis cinerea: Evidence for a Close Association with the ER and the Tetraspanin Pls1  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic systems that generate reactive-oxygen species (ROS) in multicellular eukaryotes. In several fungi they have been shown to be involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to the well characterized mammalian systems, basic information on the composition, recruitment, and localization of fungal Nox complexes and on the molecular mechanisms of their cellular effects are still lacking. Here we give a detailed analysis of components of the Nox complexes in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It had previously been shown that the two catalytic transmembrane subunits BcNoxA and B are important for development of sclerotia and for full virulence, with BcNoxA being involved in spreading of lesions and BcNoxB in penetration; BcNoxR functions as a regulator of both subunits. Here we present evidence (using for the first time a functional GFP fusion able to complement the ?bcnoxA mutant) that BcNoxA localizes mainly to the ER and at the plasma membrane; BcNoxB shows a similar localization pattern, while the regulator BcNoxR is found in vesicles throughout the hyphae and at the hyphal tip. To identify possible interaction partners, which could be involved in the localization or recruitment of the Nox complexes, we functionally characterized the tetraspanin Pls1, a transmembrane protein, which had been suggested to be a NoxB-interacting partner in the saprophyte Podospora anserina. Knock-out experiments and GFP fusions substantiate a link between BcNoxB and BcPls1 because both deletion mutants have overlapping phenotypes (especially a defect in penetration), and the proteins show a similar localization pattern (ER). However, in contrast to the corresponding protein in P. anserina BcPls1 is important for female fertility, but not for ascospore germination. PMID:23418468

Siegmund, Ulrike; Heller, Jens; van Kann, Jan A. L.; Tudzynski, Paul

2013-01-01

294

Activation of polyphenol oxidase by polyamines.  

PubMed

Latent polyphenol oxidase was extracted and partially purified from grape cell suspension cultures. The enzyme was shown to be activated by polyamines. Activation of the enzyme increased with increasing polyamine concentrations and half-maximal activation was in the order of 8mM. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vm, were also calculated for the latent and activated enzymes. The activating effect of polyamines was studied at different pH values. Optimum pH was 4.5 for latent and activated enzymes. However, the highest degree of activation was obtained at pH 5. Activation caused a higher sensitivity of polyphenol oxidase to pH and temperature. The ability of polyamines to activate the enzyme may suggest a limited conformational change. PMID:1804105

Jiménez-Atiénzar, M; Angeles Pedreño, M; García-Carmona, F

1991-12-01

295

Polyamine Oxidase and Diamine Oxidase Activities in Acute Ureteral Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyamines (spermine, spermidine and putrescine) are present in all mammalian cells. These are essential for the normal growth and differentiation of animal tissues [1]. Their levels may dramatically increase in body fluids as a consequence of tissue damage and regeneration [2]. The major catabolic pathway for polyamines is oxidative deamination by polyamine oxidase (PAO) [3]. Diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6)

1998-01-01

296

Ethers and esters derived from apocynin avoid the interaction between p47phox and p22phox subunits of NADPH oxidase: evaluation in vitro and in silico  

PubMed Central

NOX (NADPH oxidase) plays an important role during several pathologies because it produces the superoxide anion (O2•?), which reacts with NO (nitric oxide), diminishing its vasodilator effect. Although different isoforms of NOX are expressed in ECs (endothelial cells) of blood vessels, the NOX2 isoform has been considered the principal therapeutic target for vascular diseases because it can be up-regulated by inhibiting the interaction between its p47phox (cytosolic protein) and p22phox (transmembrane protein) subunits. In this research, two ethers, 4-(4-acetyl-2-methoxy-phenoxy)-acetic acid (1) and 4-(4-acetyl-2-methoxy-phenoxy)-butyric acid (2) and two esters, pentanedioic acid mono-(4-acetyl-2-methoxy-phenyl) ester (3) and heptanedioic acid mono-(4-acetyl-2-methoxy-phenyl) ester (4), which are apocynin derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as NOX inhibitors by quantifying O2•? production using EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) measurements. In addition, the antioxidant activity of apocynin and its derivatives were determined. A docking study was used to identify the interactions between the NOX2?s p47phox subunit and apocynin or its derivatives. The results showed that all of the compounds exhibit inhibitory activity on NOX, being 4 the best derivative. However, neither apocynin nor its derivatives were free radical scavengers. On the other hand, the in silico studies demonstrated that the apocynin and its derivatives were recognized by the polybasic SH3A and SH3B domains, which are regions of p47phox that interact with p22phox. Therefore this experimental and theoretical study suggests that compound 4 could prevent the formation of the complex between p47phox and p22phox without needing to be activated by MPO (myeloperoxidase), this being an advantage over apocynin. PMID:23802190

Macías-Pérez, Martha Edith; Martínez-Ramos, Federico; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia Irene; Correa-Basurto, José; Kispert, Lowell; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena; Rosales-Hernández, Martha Cecilia

2013-01-01

297

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Stefania Pasqualini; Emma Tedeschini; Giuseppe Frenguelli; Nicole Wopfner; Fatima Ferreira; Gennaro D’Amato; Luisa Ederli

2011-01-01

298

Thorax . Author manuscript NOX4/NADPH oxidase expression is increased in pulmonary fibroblasts  

E-print Network

and procollagen I ( 1) mRNA and protein expression, ROS production and Smad2/3 phosphorylation, in the absence -SMA and procollagen I ( 1) expression by controlling(4) activation of Smad 2/3, and NOX4 modulated ; Smad2 Protein ; metabolism ; Smad3 Protein ; metabolism ; Transforming Growth Factor beta1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Targeting Vascular NADPH Oxidase 1 Blocks Tumor Angiogenesis through a PPAR? Mediated Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species, ROS, are regulators of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival, events critically involved in angiogenesis. Different isoforms of ROS-generating NOX enzymes are expressed in the vasculature and provide distinct signaling cues through differential localization and activation. We show that mice deficient in NOX1, but not NOX2 or NOX4, have impaired angiogenesis. NOX1 expression and activity is increased in primary mouse and human endothelial cells upon angiogenic stimulation. NOX1 silencing decreases endothelial cell migration and tube-like structure formation, through the inhibition of PPAR?, a regulator of NF-?B. Administration of a novel NOX-specific inhibitor reduced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo in a PPAR? dependent manner. In conclusion, vascular NOX1 is a critical mediator of angiogenesis and an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:21326871

Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Jemelin, Stephane; Deffert, Christine; Carnesecchi, Stéphanie; Basset, Olivier; Szyndralewiez, Cédric; Heitz, Freddy; Page, Patrick; Montet, Xavier; Michalik, Liliane; Arbiser, Jack; Rüegg, Curzio; Krause, Karl Heinz; Imhof, Beat

2011-01-01

300

NADPH Oxidase p22phox C242T Polymorphism and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A growing number of studies on the associations between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease have recently been published, but the results remain inconsistent. Material/Methods We performed an updated meta-analysis to evaluate this association. Eight case-control studies were included, involving 2045 cases and 2102 controls. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q test and the I2 statistic. Begg and Egger’s tests were conducted to evaluate publication bias. Odds ratio (OR) was tested to identify the associations. Results Significant associations between p22phox gene C242T polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) risk were observed in the allelic genetic model (OR=1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.77, p=0.048). No statistical significant association was found in the dominant model (OR=0.74, 95% CI 0.54–1.02, p=0.064) and recessive model (OR=1.40, 95% CI 0.89–2.19, p=0.146). Subgroup analysis showed an association in European populations for recessive model (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.06–4.26, p=0.034) and no significant evidence of association in Asian populations was found (dominant model: OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.41–1.00, p=0.05; recessive model: OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.53–1.81, p=0.948; allelic model: OR=1.51, 95% CI 0.98–2.32, p=0.061). Conclusions p22phox gene C242T polymorphism was associated with ICVD risk in the allelic genetic model, as well as in European populations for recessive model. No evidence showed association between p22phox gene C242T polymorphism and ICVD risk in the dominant model and recessive model. Furthermore, no association existed in Asian populations for any of the 3 genetic models and European populations in the dominant model and allelic model. PMID:25619262

Li, Pingping; Qiu, Tangmeng; Qin, Chao

2015-01-01

301

Diamine Oxidase Activity in Plasma and Urine in Uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamine oxidase activity was measured in plasma or urine in 12 normal men, 4 men with chronic liver or heart disease, 13 men with chronic renal failure, and 12 men undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Also in five studies in 4 patients, plasma diamine oxidase activity and total amine levels were measured at hourly intervals during a hemodialysis treatment. Plasma diamine oxidase

Chick Fai Tarn; Joel D. Kopple; Marian Wang; Marian E. Swendseid

1979-01-01

302

Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 ?M) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

2014-10-01

303

Bacterial phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C reversibly inhibits the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: implications for host defense.  

PubMed

Bacterial phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) has been recognized as a virulence factor and is implicated in the hemolytic and dermonecrotic properties associated with certain organisms. Moreover, recent data suggest that PC-PLC may be an important component in the signal transduction cascade by contributing to diacylglycerol (DAG) mass via the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). We have previously shown that PC-PLC can inhibit superoxide generation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). We now extend these observations and show that the mechanism of PC-PLC inhibition of superoxide generation is reversible inhibition of the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase (in a cell-free system) accompanied by expected generation of DAG and phosphorylcholine. Addition of PC reversed the effects of the enzyme. Surprisingly, we also found that phosphatidic acid (PA), the hydrolysis product of phospholipase D, was also produced in intact PMN following PC-PLC exposure. Subsequent addition of the agonist N-formylmethionyl-phenylalanine resulted in further PA production. Restoration of PA in cell-free preparations partially restored superoxide generating capability. We conclude that PC-PLC may enhance bacterial virulence by inhibiting superoxide generation by human PMN, and that this effect is due to direct inhibition of the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase. PMID:8258155

Traynor, A E; Weitzman, S A; Gordon, L I

1993-12-01

304

Genetic silencing of Nox2 and Nox4 reveals differential roles of these NADPH oxidase homologues in the vasopressor and dipsogenic effects of brain angiotensin II.  

PubMed

The renin-angiotensin system exerts a tremendous influence over fluid balance and arterial pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, acts in the central nervous system to regulate neurohumoral outflow and thirst. Dysregulation of Ang-II signaling in the central nervous system is implicated in cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently we established that NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide acting in the forebrain subfornical organ is critical in the physiological responses to central Ang-II. In addition, we have found that Nox2 and Nox4 are the most abundantly expressed Nox homologues within Ang-II-sensitive sites in the forebrain. To dissect out the functional importance and unique roles of these Nox enzymes in the pressor and dipsogenic effects of central Ang-II, we developed adenoviral vectors expressing small interfering RNA to selectively silence Nox2 or Nox4 expression in the subfornical organ. Our results demonstrate that both Nox2 and Nox4 are required for the full vasopressor effects of brain Ang-II but that only Nox2 is coupled to the Ang-II-induced water intake response. These studies establish the importance of both Nox2- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidases in the actions of Ang-II in the central nervous system and are the first to reveal differential involvement of these Nox enzymes in the various physiological effects of central Ang-II. PMID:19805637

Peterson, Jeffrey R; Burmeister, Melissa A; Tian, Xin; Zhou, Yi; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Stupinski, John A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

2009-11-01

305

Genetic silencing of Nox2 and Nox4 reveals differential roles of these NADPH oxidase homologues in the vasopressor and dipsogenic effects of brain angiotensin-II  

PubMed Central

The renin angiotensin system (RAS) exerts a tremendous influence over fluid balance and arterial pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the effector peptide of the RAS, acts in the CNS to regulate neurohumoral outflow and thirst. Dysregulation of Ang-II signaling in the CNS is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, however the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently we established that NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide acting in the forebrain subfornical organ (SFO) is critical in the physiologic responses to central Ang-II. In addition, we have found that Nox2 and Nox4 are the most abundantly expressed Nox homologues within Ang-II-sensitive sites in the forebrain. To dissect out the functional importance and unique roles of these Nox enzymes in the pressor and dipsogenic effects of central Ang-II, we developed adenoviral vectors expressing siRNA to selectively silence Nox2 or Nox4 expression in the SFO. Our results demonstrate that both Nox2 and Nox4 are required for the full vasopressor effects of brain Ang-II, but that only Nox2 is coupled to the Ang-II-induced water intake response. These studies establish the importance of both Nox2- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidases in the actions of Ang-II in the CNS, and are the first to reveal differential involvement of these Nox enzymes in the various physiologic effects of central Ang-II. PMID:19805637

Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Burmeister, Melissa A.; Tian, Xin; Zhou, Yi; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R.; Stupinski, John A.; Sharma, Ram V.; Davisson, Robin L.

2009-01-01

306

Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes  

SciTech Connect

Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·?} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA produces alterations in mitochondrial function. • ??{sub m} decrease in state 3 may be responsible for the decreased ATP production. • Mild uncoupling prevents mitochondrial oxidative damage.

Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2013-07-01

307

Effects of N-Acetylcysteine on Nicotinamide Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Activation and Antioxidant Status in Heart, Lung, Liver and Kidney in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Hyperglycemia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is one of the major sources of ROS production in diabetes. We, therefore, examined the possibility that NADPH oxidase activation is increased in various tissues, and that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may have tissue specific effects on NADPH oxidase and tissue antioxidant status in diabetes. Materials and Methods Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were treated either with NAC (1.5 g/kg/day) orally or placebo for 4 weeks. The plasma, heart, lung, liver, kidney were harvested immediately and stored for biochemical or immunoblot analysis. Results levels of free 15-F2t-isoprostane were increased in plasma, heart, lung, liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats, accompanied with significantly increased membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox in all tissues and increased expression of the membrane-bound subunit p22phox in heart, lung and kidney. The tissue antioxidant activity in lung, liver and kidney was decreased in diabetic rats, while it was increased in heart tissue. NAC reduced the expression of p22phox and p67phox, suppressed p67phox membrane translocation, and reduced free 15-F2t-isoprostane levels in all tissues. NAC increased antioxidant activity in liver and lung, but did not significantly affect antioxidant activity in heart and kidney. Conclusion The current study shows that NAC inhibits NADPH oxidase activation in diabetes and attenuates tissue oxidative damage in all organs, even though its effects on antioxidant activity are tissue specific. PMID:22318816

Lei, Shaoqing; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Huimin; Yu, Hong; Wang, Hui

2012-01-01

308

External NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases in Acanthamoeba castellanii Mitochondria.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial respiratory chain of plants and some fungi contains multiple rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, of which at least two are located on the outer surface of the inner membrane (i.e., external NADH and external NADPH dehydrogenases). Annotated sequences of the putative alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii demonstrated similarity to plant and fungal sequences. We also studied activity of these dehydrogenases in isolated A. castellanii mitochondria. External NADPH oxidation was observed for the first time in protist mitochondria. The coupling parameters were similar for external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation, indicating similar efficiencies of ATP synthesis. Both external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation had an optimal pH of 6.8 independent of relevant ubiquinol-oxidizing pathways, the cytochrome pathway or a GMP-stimulated alternative oxidase. The maximal oxidizing activity with external NADH was almost double that with external NADPH. However, a lower Michaelis constant (KM) value for external NADPH oxidation was observed compared to that for external NADH oxidation. Stimulation by Ca(2+) was approximately 10 times higher for external NADPH oxidation, while NADH dehydrogenase(s) appeared to be slightly dependent on Ca(2+). Our results indicate that external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases similar to those in plant and fungal mitochondria function in mitochondria of A. castellanii. PMID:25113830

Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

2014-09-01

309

Effect of neurotransmitters on NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in vitro activity.  

PubMed

Three neurotransmitters, namely adrenaline, serotonin and tryptamine inhibit the in vitro activity of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A). In order to test whether this effect is related to inhibition of the CYP-coupled NADPH reductase activity, we assayed the potential inhibitory effect of these neurotransmitters and their main metabolites on the NADPH reductase activity. Of the five compounds analyzed: tryptamine, tryptophol, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenaline, only adrenaline significantly decreased NADPH reductase activity at the fixed concentration of 500 microM. However, the effect became negligible when adrenaline concentration was decreased to 100 microM: whereas a high inhibitory effect was observed in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities, the NADPH reductase activity remains unchanged. This study indicates that the effect of these endogenous neurotransmitters on CYP enzymes is not related to changes in the reductase activity. In the light of these findings further studies on the inhibitory effect of these neurotransmitters on CYP enzymes can be designed ruling out the modulation of the coupled NADPH reductase activity as a confounding factor. PMID:19356039

Gervasini, Guillermo; Martinez, Carmen; Benitez, Julio; Agúndez, Jose A G

2007-08-01

310

Naloxone inhibits immune cell function by suppressing superoxide production through a direct interaction with gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

Background Both (-) and (+)-naloxone attenuate inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration by inhibition of microglial activation through superoxide reduction in an opioid receptor-independent manner. Multiple lines of evidence have documented a pivotal role of overactivated NADPH oxidase (NOX2) in inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that NOX2 might be a novel action site of naloxone to mediate its anti-inflammatory actions. Methods Inhibition of NOX-2-derived superoxide by (-) and (+)-naloxone was measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated midbrain neuron-glia cultures and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated neutrophil membranes by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable reduction of tetrazolium salt (WST-1) or ferricytochrome c. Further, various ligand (3H-naloxone) binding assays were performed in wild type and gp91phox-/- neutrophils and transfected COS-7 and HEK293 cells. The translocation of cytosolic subunit p47phox to plasma membrane was assessed by western blot. Results Both (-) and (+)-naloxone equally inhibited LPS- and PMA-induced superoxide production with an IC50 of 1.96 and 2.52 ?M, respectively. Competitive binding of 3H-naloxone with cold (-) and (+)-naloxone in microglia showed equal potency with an IC50 of 2.73 and 1.57 ?M, respectively. 3H-Naloxone binding was elevated in COS-7 and HEK293 cells transfected with gp91phox; in contrast, reduced 3H-naloxone binding was found in neutrophils deficient in gp91phox or in the presence of a NOX2 inhibitor. The specificity and an increase in binding capacity of 3H-naloxone were further demonstrated by 1) an immunoprecipitation study using gp91phox antibody, and 2) activation of NOX2 by PMA. Finally, western blot studies showed that naloxone suppressed translocation of the cytosolic subunit p47phox to the membrane, leading to NOX2 inactivation. Conclusions Strong evidence is provided indicating that NOX2 is a non-opioid novel binding site for naloxone, which is critical in mediating its inhibitory effect on microglia overactivation and superoxide production. PMID:22340895

2012-01-01

311

Eosinophil diamine oxidase activity in acute inflammation in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophil diamine oxidase, histaminase, activity was assayed in acute inflammatory states and correlated to disease activity. Correlation to serum and urine histamine, metabolites of histamine and granulocyte histamine metabolizing enzymes was also studied. Using a radiochromatagraphic assay, diamine oxidase, histaminese, activity was determined in human peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with acute inflammatory states including active asthma, cold-induced urticaria and

James Jay Herman; H. RICHTER; R. HESTERBERG; J. SCHMIDT; D. LECAVALIER; P. RYAN

1982-01-01

312

On the use of L-012, a luminol-based chemiluminescent probe, for detecting superoxide and identifying inhibitors of NADPH oxidase: A re-evaluation  

PubMed Central

L-012, a luminol-based chemiluminescent (CL) probe, is widely used in vitro and in vivo to detect NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide (O2·?) and identify Nox inhibitors. Yet understanding of the free radical chemistry of L-012 probe is still lacking. We report that peroxidase and H2O2 induce superoxide dismutase (SOD)-sensitive, L-012-derived CL in the presence of oxygen. O2·? alone does not react with L-012 to emit luminescence. Self-generated O2·? during oxidation of L-012 and luminol-analogs artifactually induce CL inhibitable by SOD. These aspects make assays based on luminol analogs less than ideal for specific detection and identification of O2·? and NOX inhibitors. PMID:24080119

Zielonka, Jacek; Lambeth, J. David; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

2014-01-01

313

Sympathoinhibition induced by centrally administered atorvastatin is associated with alteration of NAD(P)H and Mn superoxide dismutase activity in rostral ventrolateral medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) increases sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA). Oral treatment with atorvastatin decreases SNA through antioxidant effects in the RVLM of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). We aimed to examine whether centrally administered atorvastain reduces SNA in SHRSP and, if so, to determine whether it is associated with the reduction of oxidative stress induced by alteration of activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the RVLM of SHRSP. SHRSP received atorvastatin (S-ATOR) or vehicle (S-VEH) by continuous intracerebroventricular infusion for 14 days. Mean blood pressure, heart rate, and SNA were significantly lower in S-ATOR than in S-VEH. Oxidative stress, Rac1 activity, NAD(P)H oxidase activity, Rac1, gp91(phox) and p22(phox) expression in the membrane fraction, and p47(phox) and p40(phox) expression in the cytosolic fraction in the RVLM were significantly lower in S-ATOR than in S-VEH. Rac1 expression in the cytosolic fraction and Mn-SOD activity, however, were significantly higher in S-ATOR than in S-VEH. Our findings suggest that centrally administered atorvastatin decreases SNA and is associated with decreasing NAD(P)H oxidase activity and upregulation of Mn-SOD activity in the RVLM of SHRSP, leading to suppressing oxidative stress. PMID:20040888

Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Konno, Satomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

2010-02-01

314

Polyamine Oxidase5 Regulates Arabidopsis Growth through Thermospermine Oxidase Activity.  

PubMed

The major plant polyamines (PAs) are the tetraamines spermine (Spm) and thermospermine (T-Spm), the triamine spermidine, and the diamine putrescine. PA homeostasis is governed by the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism; the latter is catalyzed by polyamine oxidase (PAO). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has five PAO genes, AtPAO1 to AtPAO5, and all encoded proteins have been biochemically characterized. All AtPAO enzymes function in the back-conversion of tetraamine to triamine and/or triamine to diamine, albeit with different PA specificities. Here, we demonstrate that AtPAO5 loss-of-function mutants (pao5) contain 2-fold higher T-Spm levels and exhibit delayed transition from vegetative to reproductive growth compared with that of wild-type plants. Although the wild type and pao5 are indistinguishable at the early seedling stage, externally supplied low-dose T-Spm, but not other PAs, inhibits aerial growth of pao5 mutants in a dose-dependent manner. Introduction of wild-type AtPAO5 into pao5 mutants rescues growth and reduces the T-Spm content, demonstrating that AtPAO5 is a T-Spm oxidase. Recombinant AtPAO5 catalyzes the conversion of T-Spm and Spm to triamine spermidine in vitro. AtPAO5 specificity for T-Spm in planta may be explained by coexpression with T-Spm synthase but not with Spm synthase. The pao5 mutant lacking T-Spm oxidation and the acl5 mutant lacking T-Spm synthesis both exhibit growth defects. This study indicates a crucial role for T-Spm in plant growth and development. PMID:24906355

Kim, Dong Wook; Watanabe, Kanako; Murayama, Chihiro; Izawa, Sho; Niitsu, Masaru; Michael, Anthony J; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

2014-06-01

315

How Nox2-Containing NADPH Oxidase Affects Cortical Circuits in the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Model of Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder affecting around 1% of the population worldwide. Its mode of inheritance suggests a multigenic neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms appearing during late adolescence/early adulthood, with its onset strongly influenced by environmental stimuli. Many neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, show alterations in affected individuals, and the behavioral and physiological characteristics of the disease can be mimicked by drugs that produce blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Recent Advances: Mounting evidence suggests that drugs that block NMDARs specifically impair the inhibitory capacity of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) fast-spiking neurons in adult and developing rodents, and alterations in these inhibitory neurons is one of the most consistent findings in the schizophrenic postmortem brain. Disruption of the inhibitory capacity of PV+ inhibitory neurons will alter the functional balance between excitation and inhibition in prefrontal cortical circuits producing impairment of working memory processes such as those observed in schizophrenia. Critical Issues: Mechanistically, the effect of NMDAR antagonists can be attributed to the activation of the Nox2-dependent reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase pathway in cortical neurons, which is consistent with the emerging role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Here we review the mechanisms by which NMDAR antagonists produce lasting impairment of the cortical PV+ neuronal system and the roles played by Nox2-dependent oxidative stress mechanisms. Future Directions: The discovery of the pathways by which oxidative stress leads to unbalanced excitation and inhibition in cortical neural circuits opens a new perspective toward understanding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1444–1462. PMID:22938164

Wang, Xin; Pinto-Duarte, António; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

2013-01-01

316

Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.

2013-08-01

317

Inhibition of Diamine Oxidase Activity by Metronidazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metronidazole was found to be a non-competitive inhibitor of man, rabbit and rat intestinal diamine oxidases with an inhibition constant value of ? 10?4 M. The purified bovine serum amine oxidase was not inhibited, whereas the purified swine kidney enzyme gave similar results. These findings suggest that metronidazole and similar compounds, used as antibacterial and antiprotozoal drugs, should be given

O. Befani; T. S. Shiozaki; P. Turini; P. Gerosa; B. Mondovi

1995-01-01

318

HO-1 Induction by CO-RM2 Attenuates TNF-?-Induced Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Expression via Inhibition of PKC?-Dependent NADPH Oxidase/ROS and NF-?B  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic inflammatory infiltration of the synovium and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is involved in the development of inflammatory diseases. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of the study was to investigate the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced cPLA2 expression and to determine whether carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CO-RM2) suppresses TNF-?-induced expression of NF-?B-related proinflammatory genes, including cPLA2, via HO-1 induction in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). Here, we reported that TNF-?-induced cPLA2 expression was mediated through TNFR1/PKC?-dependent signaling pathways, including NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation/ROS production and NF-?B activation. CO-RM2 significantly suppressed TNF-?-induced cPLA2 expression by inhibiting the ROS generation and the phosphorylation of NF-?B p65 and IKK?/?, but not the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK1/2. These results were further confirmed by a ChIP assay to detect the NF-?B DNA-binding activity. Our results demonstrated that induction of HO-1 by CO-RM2 exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects which were required in concert to prevent the activation of NF-?B leading to induction of various inflammatory genes implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:24616552

Chi, Pei-Ling; Liu, Chun-Ju; Lee, I-Ta; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

2014-01-01

319

A COUPLED MICROSOMAL-ACTIVATING/EMBRYO CULTURE SYSTEM: TOXICITY OF REDUCED BETA-NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE (NADPH)  

EPA Science Inventory

An NADPH-dependent microsomal-activating system has been coupled to a rat embryo culture in vitro. No embryonic morphological abnormalities or decrease in final yolk sac or embryo DNA and protein contents occurred when 0.2 mM NADPH was used in this coupled system. In contrast, 1....

320

Aldehyde oxidase activity in fresh human skin.  

PubMed

Human aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdoflavoenzyme that commonly oxidizes azaheterocycles in therapeutic drugs. Although high metabolic clearance by AO resulted in several drug failures, existing in vitro-in vivo correlations are often poor and the extrahepatic role of AO practically unknown. This study investigated enzymatic activity of AO in fresh human skin, the largest organ of the body, frequently exposed to therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics. Fresh, full-thickness human skin was obtained from 13 individual donors and assayed with two specific AO substrates: carbazeran and zoniporide. Human skin explants from all donors metabolized carbazeran to 4-hydroxycarbazeran and zoniporide to 2-oxo-zoniporide. Average rates of carbazeran and zoniporide hydroxylations were 1.301 and 0.164 pmol?mg skin(-1)?h(-1), resulting in 13 and 2% substrate turnover, respectively, after 24 hours of incubation with 10 ?M substrate. Hydroxylation activities for the two substrates were significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.769), with interindividual variability ranging from 3-fold (zoniporide) to 6-fold (carbazeran). Inclusion of hydralazine, an irreversible inhibitor of AO, resulted in concentration-dependent decrease of hydroxylation activities, exceeding 90% inhibition of carbazeran 4-hydroxylation at 100 ?M inhibitor. Reaction rates were linear up to 4 hours and well described by Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Comparison of carbazeran and zoniporide hydroxylation with rates of triclosan glucuronidation and sulfation and p-toluidine N-acetylation showed that cutaneous AO activity is comparable to tested phase II metabolic reactions, indicating a significant role of AO in cutaneous drug metabolism. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of AO enzymatic activity in human skin. PMID:25249692

Manevski, Nenad; Balavenkatraman, Kamal Kumar; Bertschi, Barbara; Swart, Piet; Walles, Markus; Camenisch, Gian; Schiller, Hilmar; Kretz, Olivier; Ling, Barbara; Wettstein, Reto; Schaefer, Dirk J; Pognan, Francois; Wolf, Armin; Litherland, Karine

2014-12-01

321

Expanded ataxin-7 cause toxicity by inducing ROS production from NADPH oxidase complexes in a stable inducible Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) model  

PubMed Central

Background Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is one of nine inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions. Common mechanisms of disease pathogenesis suggested for polyQ disorders include aggregation of the polyQ protein and induction of oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism(s) of toxicity is still unclear. Results In this study we show that expression of polyQ expanded ATXN7 in a novel stable inducible cell model first results in a concomitant increase in ROS levels and aggregation of the disease protein and later cellular toxicity. The increase in ROS could be completely prevented by inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes suggesting that ATXN7 directly or indirectly causes oxidative stress by increasing superoxide anion production from these complexes. Moreover, we could observe that induction of mutant ATXN7 leads to a decrease in the levels of catalase, a key enzyme in detoxifying hydrogen peroxide produced from dismutation of superoxide anions. This could also contribute to the generation of oxidative stress. Most importantly, we found that treatment with a general anti-oxidant or inhibitors of NOX complexes reduced both the aggregation and toxicity of mutant ATXN7. In contrast, ATXN7 aggregation was aggravated by treatments promoting oxidative stress. Conclusion Our results demonstrates that oxidative stress contributes to ATXN7 aggregation as well as toxicity and show that anti-oxidants or NOX inhibition can ameliorate mutant ATXN7 toxicity. PMID:22827889

2012-01-01

322

TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor gene: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4  

SciTech Connect

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), oxidative stress, and elevated inflammatory cytokines are some of the components that contribute to plaque formation in the vasculature. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is released during vascular injury, and contributes to lesion formation also by affecting VSMC proliferation. Recently, an A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2B}AR) knockout mouse illustrated that this receptor is a tissue protector, in that it inhibits VSMC proliferation and attenuates the inflammatory response following injury, including the release of TNF-{alpha}. Here, we show a regulatory loop by which TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR in VSMC in vitro and in vivo. The effect of this cytokine is mimicked by its known downstream target, NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4). Nox4 upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR, and Nox inhibitors dampen the effect of TNF-{alpha}. Hence, our study is the first to show that signaling associated with Nox4 is also able to upregulate the tissue protecting A{sub 2B}AR.

St Hilaire, Cynthia; Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon H.; Smith, Barbara D. [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Ravid, Katya [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)], E-mail: ravid@biochem.bumc.bu.edu

2008-10-24

323

A bioluminescent assay for monoamine oxidase activity.  

PubMed

This article describes a novel two-step homogeneous bioluminescent assay for monoamine oxidase (MAO) that is simple, sensitive, and amenable to high-throughput screening. In the first step, MAO reacts with an aminopropylether analog of methyl ester luciferin. In the second step, a luciferin detection reagent inactivates MAO and converts the product of the first step into a luminescent signal. The amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of MAO and the time of incubation in the first step, but the luminescent signal is stable in the second step with a half-life greater than 5h. The assay has high precision, is more sensitive than current fluorescent methods, and can accurately measure the binding constants of known substrates and inhibitors. An automated screen of the Sigma-RBI Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC(1280)) revealed a surprisingly high percentage of MAO inhibitors (16%) with a low false hit rate (0.9%). This implies that a significant number of compounds interact with the MAO enzymes and suggests that it is important to include MAO assays in drug metabolism studies. Other advantages of this bioluminescent assay over comparable fluorescent assays are discussed. PMID:17084801

Valley, Michael P; Zhou, Wenhui; Hawkins, Erika M; Shultz, John; Cali, James J; Worzella, Tracy; Bernad, Laurent; Good, Troy; Good, Dave; Riss, Terry L; Klaubert, Dieter H; Wood, Keith V

2006-12-15

324

Lysyl oxidase activity regulates oncogenic stress response and tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest, is induced in response to various stresses. Oncogenic stress-induced senescence (OIS) results in blocked proliferation and constitutes a fail-safe program counteracting tumorigenesis. The events that enable a tumor in a benign senescent state to escape from OIS and become malignant are largely unknown. We show that lysyl oxidase activity contributes to the decision to maintain senescence. Indeed, in human epithelial cell the constitutive expression of the LOX or LOXL2 protein favored OIS escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize OIS. The relevance of these in vitro observations is supported by in vivo findings: in a transgenic mouse model of aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), increasing lysyl oxidase activity accelerates senescence escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize senescence, delay tumorigenesis, and increase survival. Mechanistically, we show that lysyl oxidase activity favors the escape of senescence by regulating the focal-adhesion kinase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that lysyl oxidase activity participates in primary tumor growth by directly impacting the senescence stability. PMID:24113189

Wiel, C; Augert, A; Vincent, D F; Gitenay, D; Vindrieux, D; Le Calvé, B; Arfi, V; Lallet-Daher, H; Reynaud, C; Treilleux, I; Bartholin, L; Lelievre, E; Bernard, D

2013-01-01

325

Lysyl oxidase activity regulates oncogenic stress response and tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest, is induced in response to various stresses. Oncogenic stress-induced senescence (OIS) results in blocked proliferation and constitutes a fail-safe program counteracting tumorigenesis. The events that enable a tumor in a benign senescent state to escape from OIS and become malignant are largely unknown. We show that lysyl oxidase activity contributes to the decision to maintain senescence. Indeed, in human epithelial cell the constitutive expression of the LOX or LOXL2 protein favored OIS escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize OIS. The relevance of these in vitro observations is supported by in vivo findings: in a transgenic mouse model of aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), increasing lysyl oxidase activity accelerates senescence escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize senescence, delay tumorigenesis, and increase survival. Mechanistically, we show that lysyl oxidase activity favors the escape of senescence by regulating the focal-adhesion kinase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that lysyl oxidase activity participates in primary tumor growth by directly impacting the senescence stability. PMID:24113189

Wiel, C; Augert, A; Vincent, D F; Gitenay, D; Vindrieux, D; Le Calvé, B; Arfi, V; Lallet-Daher, H; Reynaud, C; Treilleux, I; Bartholin, L; Lelievre, E; Bernard, D

2013-01-01

326

Early alterations of rat intestinal diamine oxidase activity by azoxymethane, an intestinal carcinogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some mutagenic hydrazino compounds are also diamine oxidase inhibitors. Therefore, this interrelationship was studied for the intestinal carcinogen azoxymethane.In vitro, azoxymethane was a very weak inhibitor of rat intestinal diamine oxidase activity.In vivo, after subcutaneous injection of a single dose of azoxymethane, diamine oxidase activity was increased in the duodenum but was mainly inhibited in the colon. Intestinal diamine oxidase

J. Kusche; R. Mennigen; L. Leisten

1989-01-01

327

Protective effect of apocynin, a NADPH-oxidase inhibitor, against contrast-induced nephropathy in the diabetic rats: a comparison with n-acetylcysteine.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apocynin, a NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-oxidase inhibitor, in diabetic rats with nephropathy induced by contrast medium (CIN). Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg i.v.). Animals were then divided into the following groups: 1) control group (diabetic rats treated i.v. with saline solution); 2) iomeprol group (iomeprol at 10 ml/kg was injected i.v. 30 min after saline administration); 3) apocynin group (identical to the iomeprol group, except for pre-treatment with apocynin 5mg/kg i.v., 30 min before iomeprol injection) and 4) N-acetylcysteine group (NAC) (same as iomeprol group, except for the treatment with NAC 20 mg/kg i.v. 30 min before iomeprol injection). CIN in animals were assessed 24h after administration of iomeprol. Apocynin significantly attenuates the impaired glomerular function, concentration of Na(+), K(+), alpha glutathione S-transferase levels in urine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in plasma caused by iomeprol. In kidney, immunohistochemical analysis of some inflammatory mediators, such as nitrotyrosine, poly-ADP-ribosyl polymerase, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1? as well as apoptosis (evaluated as terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end labeling assay) revealed positive staining in tissue obtained from iomeprol group. These parameters were markedly reduced in animals treated with apocynin. Similarly, these parameters were also markedly modified by NAC pre-treatment. Here, we have shown that apocynin attenuates the degree of iomeprol-induced nephropathy in diabetic rats. PMID:22094062

Ahmad, Akbar; Mondello, Stefania; Di Paola, Rosanna; Mazzon, Emanuela; Esposito, Emanuela; Catania, Maria Antonietta; Italiano, Domenico; Mondello, Patrizia; Aloisi, Carmela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

2012-01-15

328

Chronic granulomatous disease caused by mutations other than the common GT deletion in NCF1, the gene encoding the p47phox component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency caused by defects in any of four genes encoding components of the leukocyte nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH) oxidase. One of these is the autosomal neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1) gene encoding the p47phox protein. Most (>97%) CGD patients without p47phox (A47 degrees CGD) are homozygotes for one particular mutation in NCF1, a GT deletion in exon 2. This is due to recombination events between NCF1 and its two pseudogenes (psiNCF1) that contain this GT deletion. We have previously set up a gene-scan method to establish the ratio of NCF1 genes and pseudogenes. With this method we now found, in three CGD families patients with the normal number of two intact NCF1 genes (and four psiNCF1 genes) and in six CGD families, patients with one intact NCF1 gene (and five psiNCF1 genes). All patients lacked p47phox protein expression. These results indicate that other mutations were present in their NCF1 gene than the GT deletion. To identify these mutations, we designed PCR primers to specifically amplify the cDNA or parts of the genomic DNA from NCF1 but not from the psiNCF1 genes. We found point mutations in NCF1 in eight families. In another family, we found a 2,860-bp deletion starting in intron 2 and ending in intron 5. In six families the patients were compound heterozygotes for the GT deletion and one of these other mutations; in two families the patients had a homozygous missense mutation; and in one family the patient was a compound heterozygote for a splice defect and a nonsense mutation. Family members with either the GT deletion or one of these other mutations were identified as carriers. This knowledge was used in one of the families for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:16972229

Roos, Dirk; de Boer, Martin; Köker, M Yavuz; Dekker, Jan; Singh-Gupta, Vinita; Ahlin, Anders; Palmblad, Jan; Sanal, Ozden; Kurenko-Deptuch, Magdalena; Jolles, Stephen; Wolach, Baruch

2006-12-01

329

Evidence for the involvement of NADPH oxidase in adenosine receptors-mediated control of coronary flow using A1 and A3 knockout mice.  

PubMed

The NADPH oxidase (Nox) subunits 1, 2 (gp91 phox) and 4 are the major sources for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular system. In conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and hypoxia, both ROS and adenosine are released suggesting a possible interaction. We hypothesized that ROS generated through Nox is involved in adenosine-induced coronary flow (CF) responses. Adenosine (10(-8)-10(-5.5) M) increased CF in isolated hearts from wild type (WT; C57/BL6), A1 adenosine receptor (AR) knockout (A1KO), A3AR KO (A3KO) and A1 and A3AR double KO (A1/A3DKO) mice. The Nox inhibitors apocynin (10(-5) M) and gp91 ds-tat (10(-6) M) or the SOD and catalase-mimicking agent EUK134 (50 ?M) decreased the adenosine-enhanced CF in the WT and all the KOs. Additionally, adenosine increased phosphorylation of p47-phox subunit and ERK 1/2 without changing protein expression of Nox isoforms in WT. Moreover, intracellular superoxide production was increased by adenosine and CGS-21680 (a selective A2A agonist), but not BAY 60-6583 (a selective A2B agonist), in mouse coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) and endothelial cells (CAECs). This superoxide increase was inhibited by the gp91 ds-tat and ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059). In conclusion, adenosine-induced increase in CF in isolated heart involves Nox2-generated superoxide, possibly through ERK 1/2 phosphorylation with subsequent p47-phox subunit phosphorylation. This adenosine/Nox/ROS interaction occurs in both CASMCs and CAECs, and involves neither A1 nor A3 ARs, but possibly A2A ARs in mouse. PMID:24159377

El-Awady, Mohammed S; Rajamani, Uthra; Teng, Bunyen; Tilley, Stephen L; Mustafa, S Jamal

2013-08-01

330

Combined NADPH Oxidase 1 and Interleukin 10 Deficiency Induces Chronic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Causes Ulcerative Colitis-Like Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which progressively extents. Its etiology remains unknown and the number of treatments available is limited. Studies of UC patients have identified an unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the non-inflamed colonic mucosa. Animal models with impaired ER stress are sensitive to intestinal inflammation, suggesting that an unbalanced ER stress could cause inflammation. However, there are no ER stress-regulating strategies proposed in the management of UC partly because of the lack of relevant preclinical model mimicking the disease. Here we generated the IL10/Nox1dKO mouse model which combines immune dysfunction (IL-10 deficiency) and abnormal epithelium (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) deficiency) and spontaneously develops a UC-like phenotype with similar complications (colorectal cancer) than UC. Our data identified an unanticipated combined role of IL10 and Nox1 in the fine-tuning of ER stress responses in goblet cells. As in humans, the ER stress was unbalanced in mice with decreased eIF2? phosphorylation preceding inflammation. In IL10/Nox1dKO mice, salubrinal preserved eIF2? phosphorylation through inhibition of the regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 PP1R15A/GADD34 and prevented colitis. Thus, this new experimental model highlighted the central role of epithelial ER stress abnormalities in the development of colitis and defined the defective eIF2? pathway as a key pathophysiological target for UC. Therefore, specific regulators able to restore the defective eIF2? pathway could lead to the molecular remission needed to treat UC. PMID:25014110

Tréton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallée, Mélissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyère, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frédérick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

2014-01-01

331

Characterization of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands of NADPH oxidase 5 by fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism  

PubMed Central

Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs) is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD) of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD) and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q) and NCaBD(E63Q) showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ?Hs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its ?-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract PMID:22490336

2012-01-01

332

Both Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and NADPH Oxidase Contribute to the Control of Virulent Phase I Coxiella burnetii Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host control of Coxiella burnetii infections is believed to be mediated primarily by activated monocytes\\/ macrophages. The activation of macrophages by cytokines leads to the production of reactive oxygen interme- diates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that have potent antimicrobial activities. The contri- butions of ROI and RNI to the inhibition of C. burnetii replication were examined in vitro

Robert E. Brennan; Kasi Russell; Guoquan Zhang; James E. Samuel

2004-01-01

333

A novel microplate-based HPLC-fluorescence assay for determination of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity.  

PubMed

A 96-well microplate-based HPLC endpoint assay is described for the determination of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) activity. Novel sampling of NADPH into microplates was optimized. Separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C?? analytical 4.6?×?150?mm, 5?µm column. To validate the method, recombinant human NADPH-P450 reductase and microsomes with cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 were used. The mobile phase consisted of 80% acetonitrile and 20% water at a flow-rate of 0.8?mL/min. The CPR activity was quantified using NADPH fluorescence at ?(Ex) ?=?340?nm and ?(Em) ?=?450?nm. Enzymatic activity was directly proportional to the decrease in NADPH fluorescence. This analytical process enables a highly sensitive endpoint determination for reductase activity in vitro and monitoring of the consumption of NADPH in enzymatic reactions. The method avoids the use of substrates and of organic solvents that may affect CPR and cytochrome P450 activity. In the reaction, molecular oxygen served as a proton source. The method can substitute spectrophotometric detection methods for its accuracy, high reproducibility (~100%) and sensitivity. The lower limit of detection, shown using the Agilent 1200 aparatus, is in the 250?nmol range. In addition, using this method it is possible to set up reactions in a high-throughput format. PMID:22120726

Erban, Tomas; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Stara, Jitka

2012-09-01

334

Role of mitochondrial NADH kinase and NADPH supply in the respiratory chain activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride kinase Pos5p is required for a variety of essential cellular pathways, most importantly respiration. The Pos5p knockout strain pos5? grows poorly in non-fermentable media. A potential relationship between this respiratory deficiency and the ability of the cells to supply nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) was examined by analyzing the respiratory chain activity of pos5? and two NADP(+)-specific dehydrogenase mutants, idp1? and zwf1?. All of the respiratory chain complexes of pos5? exhibited poor relative activity of <26% at the middle-log phase and 62% at the stationary phase. The respiratory chain activity levels of idp1? and zwf1? also reduced to 22%-37% and 28%-84% at the middle-log phase, and 73%-81% and 67%-88% at the stationary phase, not as robustly as those of pos5?. The double-mutant idp1pos5? exhibited even lower activities of <20% at the middle-log phase, but zwf1pos5? showed similar activities with pos5?. The complemented strain POS5/pos5? exhibited 1.05- to 3-fold higher activities than pos5?. These data showed that Pos5p contributes to the maintenance of respiratory chain complex activities, with other NADPH sources, such as Idp1p and Zwf1p, making a smaller contribution. These contributions were partly related to the ability of the cells to supply NADPH, especially in the mitochondria. PMID:22011405

Shi, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Sun, Mingdi; Li, Yongfu

2011-12-01

335

Ovarian Dual Oxidase (Duox) Activity Is Essential for Insect Eggshell Hardening and Waterproofing*  

PubMed Central

In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing. PMID:24174530

Dias, Felipe A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Raquel L. L.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Braz, Glória R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

2013-01-01

336

Estrogenic regulation of diamine oxidase activity in rat uterus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamine oxidase activity was studied in female rat tissues during the estrous cycle and after 17 ?-estradiol administration. During the estrous cycle, uterine and hepatic enzyme activities were highest at proestrus and lowest at estrus, when estrogen plasma levels are known to be respectively high and low. The administration of 17 ?-estradiol to ovariectomized rats caused a rapid and prolonged

A. Sessa; M. A. Desiderio; A. Perin

1990-01-01

337

Effects of Starvation and Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on Diamine Oxidase Activity in Rat Ileum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starvation and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) administration have profound affects on intestinal proliferation, ornithine decarboxylase activity, and tissue polyamine levels. Diamine oxidase activity may play a role in the regulation of proliferation, and the activity of this enzyme may be influenced by ornithine decarboxylase activity. To determine if diamine oxidase is influenced by starvation and DFM administration, ileal diamine oxidase activities were

Steven H. Erdman

1990-01-01

338

CotA, a Multicopper Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, Exhibits Manganese-Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10?6±0.21 M·min?1 and 0.32±0.02 s?1, respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal. PMID:23577125

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-01-01

339

Both Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and NADPH Oxidase Contribute to the Control of Virulent Phase I Coxiella burnetii Infections  

PubMed Central

Host control of Coxiella burnetii infections is believed to be mediated primarily by activated monocytes/macrophages. The activation of macrophages by cytokines leads to the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that have potent antimicrobial activities. The contributions of ROI and RNI to the inhibition of C. burnetii replication were examined in vitro by the use of murine macrophage-like cell lines and primary mouse macrophages. A gamma interferon (IFN-?) treatment of infected cell lines and primary macrophages resulted in an increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a significant inhibition of C. burnetii replication. The inhibition of replication was reversed in the murine cell line J774.16 upon the addition of either the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (NGMMLA) or the H2O2 scavenger catalase. IFN-?-treated primary macrophages from iNOS?/? and p47phox?/? mice significantly inhibited replication but were less efficient at controlling infection than IFN-?-treated wild-type macrophages. To investigate the contributions of ROI and RNI to resistance to infection, we performed in vivo studies, using C57BL/6 wild-type mice and knockout mice lacking iNOS or p47phox. Both iNOS?/? and p47phox?/? mice were attenuated in the ability to control C. burnetii infection compared to wild-type mice. Together, these results strongly support a role for both RNI and ROI in the host control of C. burnetii infection. PMID:15501800

Brennan, Robert E.; Russell, Kasi; Zhang, Guoquan; Samuel, James E.

2004-01-01

340

Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

Flueck, Christa E., E-mail: christa.flueck@dkf.unibe.ch [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Mallet, Delphine [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Hofer, Gaby [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Samara-Boustani, Dinane [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Leger, Juliane [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)] [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Polak, Michel [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Morel, Yves [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

2011-09-09

341

Monoacylcadaverines as substrates for both monoamine oxidase and diamine oxidase; low rates of activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Monoacetylcadaverine and monopropionylcadaverine were found to be substrates for both rat liver monoamine oxidase and hog kidney diamine oxidase, but all the Km-values for the ox