Sample records for nadph oxidase activity

  1. Phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol directly activate NADPH oxidase by interacting with enzyme components.

    PubMed

    Palicz, A; Foubert, T R; Jesaitis, A J; Marodi, L; McPhail, L C

    2001-02-01

    The enzyme NADPH oxidase is regulated by phospholipase D in intact neutrophils and is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) plus diacylglycerol (DG) in cell-free systems. We showed previously that cell-free NADPH oxidase activation by these lipids involves both protein kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. Here we demonstrate that only the protein kinase-independent pathway is operative in a cell-free system of purified and recombinant NADPH oxidase components. Activation by PA + DG was ATP-independent and unaffected by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, indicating the lack of protein kinase involvement. Both PA and DG were required for optimal activation to occur. The drug reduced activation of NADPH oxidase by either arachidonic acid or PA + DG, with IC(50) values of 46 and 25 microm, respectively. The optimal concentration of arachidonic acid or PA + DG for oxidase activation was shifted to the right with, indicating interference of the drug with the interaction of lipid activators and enzyme components. inhibited the lipid-induced aggregation/sedimentation of oxidase components p47(phox) and p67(phox), suggesting a disruption of the lipid-mediated assembly process. The direct effects of on NADPH oxidase activation complicate its use as a "specific" inhibitor of DG kinase. We conclude that the protein kinase-independent pathway of NADPH oxidase activation by PA and DG involves direct interaction with NADPH oxidase components. Thus, NADPH oxidase proteins are functional targets for these lipid messengers in the neutrophil. PMID:11060300

  2. Activation of antibacterial autophagy by NADPH oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju Huang; Veronica Canadien; Grace Y. Lam; Benjamin E. Steinberg; Mary C. Dinauer; Michael Glogauer; Sergio Grinstein; John H. Brumell

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in immunity to microbial pathogens. The autophagy system can target bacteria in phagosomes, promoting phagosome maturation and preventing pathogen escape into the cytosol. Recently, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling from phagosomes was found to initiate their targeting by the autophagy system, but the mechanism by which TLR signaling activates autophagy is unclear. Here we show that

  3. Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase and Akt activation play a key role in angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    -regulated Nox2-containing NADPH oxi- dase is a key upstream mediator of ANG II-induced activation of serineNox2-containing NADPH oxidase and Akt activation play a key role in angiotensin II. Peek, Yihe Wu, Ram V. Sharma, John F. Engelhardt, and Robin L. Davisson. Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase

  4. Ethanol Augments PDGF-Induced NADPH Oxidase Activity and Proliferation in Rat Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Hu; Yan-Ling Wang; Mouad Edderkaoui; Aurelia Lugea; Minoti V. Apte; Stephen J. Pandol

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Activated stellate cells are considered the principal mediators of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis\\/fibrosis. However the mechanisms of alcohol action on pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to determine the presence and role of the NADPH oxidase system in mediating alcohol effects on PaSCs with specific emphasis on proliferation. Methods:PaSC NADPH oxidase components mRNA

  5. Hypoglycemic neuronal death is triggered by glucose reperfusion and activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sang Won; Gum, Elizabeth T.; Hamby, Aaron M.; Chan, Pak H.; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2007-01-01

    Hypoglycemic coma and brain injury are potential complications of insulin therapy. Certain neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex are uniquely vulnerable to hypoglycemic cell death, and oxidative stress is a key event in this cell death process. Here we show that hypoglycemia-induced oxidative stress and neuronal death are attributable primarily to the activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase during glucose reperfusion. Superoxide production and neuronal death were blocked by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin in both cell culture and in vivo models of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Superoxide production and neuronal death were also blocked in studies using mice or cultured neurons deficient in the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. Chelation of zinc with calcium disodium EDTA blocked both the assembly of the neuronal NADPH oxidase complex and superoxide production. Inhibition of the hexose monophosphate shunt, which utilizes glucose to regenerate NADPH, also prevented superoxide formation and neuronal death, suggesting a mechanism linking glucose reperfusion to superoxide formation. Moreover, the degree of superoxide production and neuronal death increased with increasing glucose concentrations during the reperfusion period. These results suggest that high blood glucose concentrations following hypoglycemic coma can initiate neuronal death by a mechanism involving extracellular zinc release and activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase. PMID:17404617

  6. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

  7. Cholesterol: A modulator of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity - A cell-free study

    PubMed Central

    Masoud, Rawand; Bizouarn, Tania; Houée-Levin, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase Nox2, a multi-subunit enzyme complex comprising membrane and cytosolic proteins, catalyzes a very intense production of superoxide ions O2•?, which are transformed into other reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, it has to be activated by addition of amphiphiles like arachidonic acid (AA). It has been shown that the membrane part of phagocyte NADPH oxidase is present in lipid rafts rich in cholesterol. Cholesterol plays a significant role in the development of cardio-vascular diseases that are always accompanied by oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the influence of cholesterol on the activation process of NADPH oxidase. Our results clearly show that, in a cell-free system, cholesterol is not an efficient activator of NADPH oxidase like arachidonic acid (AA), however it triggers a basal low superoxide production at concentrations similar to what found in neutrophile. A higher concentration, if present during the assembly process of the enzyme, has an inhibitory role on the production of O2•?. Added cholesterol acts on both cytosolic and membrane components, leading to imperfect assembly and decreasing the affinity of cytosolic subunits to the membrane ones. Added to the cytosolic proteins, it retains their conformations but still allows some conformational change induced by AA addition, indispensable to activation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:25462061

  8. Residual NADPH Oxidase Activity and Isolated Lung Involvement in X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maria J.; McSherry, George D.; Ishmael, Faoud T.; Horwitz, Alexandra A.; Nino, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by inherited immune defects resulting from mutations in the NADPH oxidase complex genes. The X-linked type of CGD is caused by defects in the CYBB gene that encodes gp91-phox, a fundamental component of the NADPH oxidase complex. This mutation originates the most common and severe form of CGD, which typically has absence of NADPH oxidase function and aggressive multisystemic infections. We present the case of a 9-year-old child with a rare CYBB mutation that preserves some NADPH oxidase activity, resulting in an atypical mild form of X-linked CGD with isolated lung involvement. Although the clinical picture and partially preserved oxidase function suggested an autosomal recessive form of CGD, genetic testing demonstrated a mutation in the exon 3 of CYBB gene (c.252 G>A, p.Ala84Ala), an uncommon X-linked CGD variant that affects splicing. Atypical presentation and diagnostic difficulties are discussed. This case highlights that the diagnosis of mild forms of X-linked CGD caused by rare CYBB mutations and partially preserved NADPH function should be considered early in the evaluation of atypical and recurrent lung infections. PMID:23193493

  9. Rotenone induces neurotoxicity through Rac1-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase in SHSY-5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rituraj; Monroe, Tanner O.; Palmieri, Michela; Sardiello, Marco; Rodney, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are attributed to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Oxidative stress has been considered a contributing factor in the pathology of impaired UPS by promoting protein misfolding and subsequent protein aggregate formation. Increasing evidence suggests that NADPH oxidase is a likely source of excessive oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanism of activation and its role in impaired UPS is not understood. We show that activation of NADPH oxidase in a neuroblastoma cell line (SHSY-5Y) resulted in increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, elevated cytosolic calcium, ER-stress, impaired UPS, and apoptosis. Rac1 inhibition mitigated the oxidative/nitrosative stress, prevented calcium-dependent ER-stress, and partially rescued UPS function. These findings demonstrate that Rac1 and NADPH oxidase play an important role in rotenone neurotoxicity. PMID:24374334

  10. PKC? activation mediates angiogenesis via NADPH oxidase activity in PC-3 prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeewon; Koyanagi, Tomoyoshi; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2012-01-01

    Background PKC? is generally known as a pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative enzyme in human prostate cancer cells. Methods Here, we investigated the role of PKC? on the growth of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Results We found that sustained treatment with a specific PKC? activator (?? receptor for active C kinase, ??RACK) increased growth of PC-3 xenografts. There was increased levels of HIF-1?, vascular endothelial growth factor and CD31-positive cells in PC-3 xenografts, representative of increased tumor angiogenesis. Mechanistically, PKC? activation increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by binding to and phosphorylating NADPH oxidase, which induced its activity. Also, PKC?-induced activation of NADPH oxidase increased the level of HIF-1?. Conclusions Our results using tumors from the PC-3 xenograft model suggest that PKC? activation increases angiogenic activity in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cells by increasing NADPH oxidase activity and HIF-1? levels and thus may partly be responsible for increased angiogenesis in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:21541971

  11. Rotenone activates phagocyte NADPH oxidase through binding to its membrane subunit gp91 phox

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhou; Feng Zhang; Shih-heng Chen; Dan Zhang; Belinda Wilson; Jau-shyong Hong; Hui-Ming Gao

    Rotenone, a widely used pesticide, reproduces Parkinsonism in rodents and associates with increased risk for Parkinson's disease. We previously reported rotenone increased superoxide production through stimulating microglial phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX). The present study identified a novel mechanism by which rotenone activates PHOX. Ligand-binding assay revealed that rotenone directly bound to membrane gp91phox, the catalytic subunit of PHOX; such binding

  12. NADPH oxidases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Roy, Krishnendu; Wu, Yongzhong; Meitzler, Jennifer L; Juhasz, Agnes; Liu, Han; Jiang, Guojian; Lu, Jiamo; Antony, Smitha; Doroshow, James H

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by tumour cells remained incompletely understood until the discovery over the last 15 years of the family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs 1-5 and dual oxidases DUOX1/2) which are structural homologues of gp91phox, the major membrane-bound component of the respiratory burst oxidase of leucocytes. Knowledge of the roles of the NOX isoforms in cancer is rapidly expanding. Recent evidence suggests that both NOX1 and DUOX2 species produce ROS in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of chronic inflammatory stress; cytokine induction (by interferon-?, tumour necrosis factor ?, and interleukins IL-4 and IL-13) of NOX1 and DUOX2 may contribute to the development of colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis, respectively. NOX4 expression is increased in pre-malignant fibrotic states which may lead to carcinomas of the lung and liver. NOX5 is highly expressed in malignant melanomas, prostate cancer and Barrett's oesophagus-associated adenocarcinomas, and in the last it is related to chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux and inflammation. Over-expression of functional NOX proteins in many tissues helps to explain tissue injury and DNA damage from ROS that accompany pre-malignant conditions, as well as elucidating the potential mechanisms of NOX-related damage that contribute to both the initiation and the progression of a wide range of solid and haematopoietic malignancies. PMID:25818486

  13. NADPH Oxidases and Angiotensin II Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Abel Martin; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade many studies have demonstrated the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidases in angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling, as well as a role for ROS in the development of different diseases in which Ang II is a central component. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of activation of NADPH oxidases by Ang II and describe the molecular targets of ROS in Ang II signaling in the vasculature, kidney and brain. We also discuss the effects of genetic manipulation of NADPH oxidase function on the physiology and pathophysiology of the renin angiotensin system. PMID:19059306

  14. Molecular interface of S100A8 with cytochrome b558 and NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Sylvie; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Baillet, Athan; Hograindleur, Marc-André; Paclet, Marie-Hélène; Polack, Benoît; Morel, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    S100A8 and S100A9 are two calcium binding Myeloid Related Proteins, and important mediators of inflammatory diseases. They were recently introduced as partners for phagocyte NADPH oxidase regulation. However, the precise mechanism of their interaction remains elusive. We had for aim (i) to evaluate the impact of S100 proteins on NADPH oxidase activity; (ii) to characterize molecular interaction of either S100A8, S100A9, or S100A8/S100A9 heterocomplex with cytochrome b(558); and (iii) to determine the S100A8 consensus site involved in cytochrome b(558)/S100 interface. Recombinant full length or S100A9-A8 truncated chimera proteins and ExoS-S100 fusion proteins were expressed in E. coli and in P. aeruginosa respectively. Our results showed that S100A8 is the functional partner for NADPH oxidase activation contrary to S100A9, however, the loading with calcium and a combination with phosphorylated S100A9 are essential in vivo. Endogenous S100A9 and S100A8 colocalize in differentiated and PMA stimulated PLB985 cells, with Nox2/gp91(phox) and p22(phox). Recombinant S100A8, loaded with calcium and fused with the first 129 or 54 N-terminal amino acid residues of the P. aeruginosa ExoS toxin, induced a similar oxidase activation in vitro, to the one observed with S100A8 in the presence of S100A9 in vivo. This suggests that S100A8 is the essential component of the S100A9/S100A8 heterocomplex for oxidase activation. In this context, recombinant full-length rS100A9-A8 and rS100A9-A8 truncated 90 chimera proteins as opposed to rS100A9-A8 truncated 86 and rS100A9-A8 truncated 57 chimeras, activate the NADPH oxidase function of purified cytochrome b(558) suggesting that the C-terminal region of S100A8 is directly involved in the molecular interface with the hemoprotein. The data point to four strategic (87)HEES(90) amino acid residues of the S100A8 C-terminal sequence that are involved directly in the molecular interaction with cytochrome b(558) and then in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:22808130

  15. Molecular Insights of p47phox Phosphorylation Dynamics in the Regulation of NADPH Oxidase Activation and Superoxide Production*

    PubMed Central

    Meijles, Daniel N.; Fan, Lampson M.; Howlin, Brendan J.; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47phox is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47phox phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47phox protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47phox is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22phox binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47phox?/? coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47phox cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47phox membrane translocation, binding to p22phox and endothelial O2? production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47phox C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47phox conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells. PMID:24970888

  16. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibo; Jiang, Yanchao; Shi, Dallas; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Wittchen, Erika S.; Li, Dean Y.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Activation of Rap1 GTPase can improve the integrity of the barrier of the retina pigment epithelium (RPE) and reduce choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation also reduces CNV. We hypothesize that Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and thereby reduces CNV formation. Using a murine model of laser-induced CNV, we determined that reduced Rap1 activity in RPE/choroid occurred with CNV formation and that activation of Rap1 by 2?-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT)-reduced laser-induced CNV via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. In RPE, inhibition of Rap1 by Rap1 GTPase-activating protein (Rap1GAP) increased ROS generation, whereas activation of Rap1 by 8CPT reduced ROS by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit p22phox with NOX4 or cytoplasmic subunit p47phox. Activation of NADPH oxidase with Rap1GAP reduced RPE barrier integrity via cadherin phosphorylation and facilitated choroidal EC migration across the RPE monolayer. Rap1GAP-induced ROS generation was inhibited by active Rap1a, but not Rap1b, and activation of Rap1a by 8CPT in Rap1b?/? mice reduced laser-induced CNV, in correlation with decreased ROS generation in RPE/choroid. These findings provide evidence that active Rap1 reduces CNV by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits and increasing the integrity of the RPE barrier.—Wang, H., Jiang, Y., Shi, D., Quilliam, L. A., Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, M., Wittchen, E. S., Li, D. Y., Hartnett, M. E. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization. PMID:24043260

  17. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of ?-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: ?-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  18. Biochem. J. (2008) 411, 531541 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20071534 531 Endosomal NADPH oxidase regulates c-Src activation following

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    2008-01-01

    NADPH oxidase regulates c-Src activation following hypoxia/reoxygenation injury Qiang LI, Yulong ZHANG by endosomal Noxs (NADPH oxidases) are critical for this process. Endocytosis following H/R was required for the activation of endosomal Noxs, c-Src activation, and the ability of c-Src to tyrosine-phosphorylate IB

  19. Activation of apocynin-sensitive NADPH oxidase (Nox2) activity in INS-1 832/13 cells under glucotoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abiy M; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of recent evidence provided compelling evidence to suggest increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as causal for mitochondrial dysregulation and apoptosis in islet ?-cells exposed to noxious stimuli including high glucose, lipids and proinflammatory cytokines. Studies along these lines are also suggestive of a significant contributory role for NADPH oxidase in the generation of ROS under the above conditions. We have recently reported a marked increase in the expression and activation of cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase (p47phox, Rac1) in cell culture models of glucotoxicity and in islets from T2DM animals (Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat) and humans. In this communication, we provide further evidence indicating significant activation of NADPH activity (~2-fold) in INS-1 832/13 cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemic conditions (20 mM; 48 h). We also report marked attenuation of this activity, by apocynin, a selective inhibitor of phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase (Nox2) activity. Together, our findings implicate Nox2 as a source for ROS generation in ?-cells exposed to glucotoxic conditions. PMID:23695780

  20. NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content of human Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed B lymphocytes correlate with expression of genes encoding components of the oxidase system.

    PubMed

    Condino-Neto, A; Newburger, P E

    1998-12-15

    We investigated the NADPH oxidase activity, cytochrome b558 content, and gene expression of gp91-phox and p47-phox in normal Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-transformed B lymphocytes, compared to EBV-transformed B lymphocytes from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), normal peripheral blood neutrophils or mononuclear cells, and the A301 or C8166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. CGD phenotypes included both "classic" disease with no detectable gp91-phox protein (termed X91(0)) and "variant" phenotype with reduced but detectable gp91-phox protein (X91(-)). Normal EBV-transformed B lymphocytes show a dose-dependent PMA-induced superoxide release. Culturing these cells with IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and TNF-alpha (1000 U/ml), alone or in combination for 7 days, caused a modest increase in their NADPH oxidase activity (P > 0.05 in all situations). Normal EBV-transformed B lymphocytes have lower NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content than peripheral blood neutrophils or mononuclear cells (P < 0.05 in all situations). In contrast, they have higher NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content than X91(-) CGD EBV-transformed B lymphocytes (P < 0.05 in all situations). A301 or C8166 lymphoblastoid cell lines and X91(0) CGD EBV-transformed B lymphocytes have barely detectable NADPH oxidase activity or cytochrome b558 content (P < 0.05 in all situations). Gene expression studies also show a modest increase in expression and transcription rates of gp91-phox and p47-phox genes in normal EBV-transformed B cells cultured with IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and TNF-alpha (1000 U/ml), alone or in combination for 7 days. We conclude that NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content correlate with gp91-phox and p47-phox gene expression in EBV-transformed B lymphocytes. PMID:9851826

  1. Targeting NADPH oxidases in vascular pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, Agata; Matusik, Pawe?; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a molecular dysregulation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is characterized by a loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Large clinical trials such as HOPE and HPS have not shown a clinical benefit of antioxidant vitamin C or vitamin E treatment, putting into question the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. A change in the understanding of the molecular nature of oxidative stress has been driven by the results of these trials. Oxidative stress is no longer perceived as a simple imbalance between the production and scavenging of ROS, but as a dysfunction of enzymes involved in ROS production. NADPH oxidases are at the center of these events, underlying the dysfunction of other oxidases including eNOS uncoupling, xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus NADPH oxidases are important therapeutic targets. Indeed, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) as well as drugs interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibit NADPH oxidase activation and expression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, AT1 receptor antagonists (sartans) and aliskiren, as well as spironolactone or eplerenone, have been discussed. Molecular aspects of NADPH oxidase regulation must be considered, while thinking about novel pharmacological targeting of this family of enzymes consisting of several homologs Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4 and Nox5 in humans. In order to properly design trials of antioxidant therapies, we must develop reliable techniques for the assessment of local and systemic oxidative stress. Classical antioxidants could be combined with novel oxidase inhibitors. In this review, we discuss NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as VAS2870, VAS3947, GK-136901, S17834 or plumbagin. Therefore, our efforts must focus on generating small molecular weight inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, allowing the selective inhibition of dysfunctional NADPH oxidase homologs. This appears to be the most reasonable approach, potentially much more efficient than non-selective scavenging of all ROS by the administration of antioxidants. PMID:22405985

  2. NADPH oxidase and cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Junya; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-08-01

    Increases in oxidative stress in the heart play an important role in mediating hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the consequent development of heart failure. Although it has been widely believed that electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the primary source of oxidative stress in the failing heart, increasing lines of evidence suggest that enzymes which produce reactive oxygen species may also contribute to it. NADPH oxidases are transmembrane enzymes dedicated to producing superoxide (O(2)(-)) by transferring an electron from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen. Nox4 is a major NADPH oxidase isoform expressed in the heart. Nox4 is localized primarily at mitochondria in cardiac myocytes, and upregulation of Nox4 hypertrophic stimuli enhances O(2)(-) production, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby playing an important role in mediating cardiac dysfunction. Since Nox4 could be a key molecule mediating oxidative stress and pathological hypertrophy, it may serve as an important target of heart failure treatment. In this review, the importance of NADPH oxidases as sources of increased oxidative stress in the failing heart and the role of Nox4 in mediating growth and death of cardiac myocytes are discussed. PMID:20559780

  3. NADPH Oxidase and Cardiac Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junya; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Increases in oxidative stress in the heart play an important role in mediating hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and the consequent development of heart failure. Although it has been widely believed that electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the primary source of oxidative stress in the failing heart, increasing lines of evidence suggest that enzymes which produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) may also contribute to it. NADPH oxidases are transmembrane enzymes dedicated to producing superoxide (O2-) by transferring an electron from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen. Nox4 is a major NADPH oxidase isoform expressed in the heart. Nox4 is localized primarily at mitochondria in cardiac myocytes, and upregulation of Nox4 hypertrophic stimuli enhances O2- production, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby playing an important role in mediating cardiac dysfunction. Since Nox4 could be a key molecule mediating oxidative stress and pathological hypertrophy, it may serve as an important target of heart failure treatment. In this review, the importance of NADPH oxidases as sources of increased oxidative stress in the failing heart and the role of Nox4 in mediating growth and death of cardiac myocytes are discussed. PMID:20559780

  4. Elimination of NADPH Oxidase Activity Promotes Reductive Stress and Sensitizes the Heart to Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiujun; Lee, Chi Fung; Wang, Wang; Karamanlidis, Georgios; Kuroda, Junya; Matsushima, Shouji; Sadoshima, Junichi; Tian, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Background The NADPH oxidase family (Nox) produces reactive oxygen species by adding the electron donated by NADPH to oxygen. Excessive reactive oxygen species production under a variety of pathological conditions has been attributed to increased Nox activity. Here, we aimed at investigating the role of Nox in cardiac ischemic injury through gain? and loss?of?function approaches. Methods and Results We modulated Nox activity in the heart by cardiac?specific expression of Nox4 and dominant negative Nox4. Modulation of Nox activity drastically changes the cellular redox status. Increasing Nox activity by cardiac?specific overexpression of Nox4 imposed oxidative stress on the myocardium [increased NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H and decreased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio] and worsened cardiac energetics and contractile function after ischemia?reperfusion. Overexpression of the dominant negative Nox4 (DN), which abolished the Nox function, led to a markedly reduced state [decreased NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H and increased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio] at baseline and paradoxically promoted mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production during ischemia resulting in no recovery of heart function after reperfusion. Limiting the generation of reducing equivalent through modulating carbon substrates availability partially restored the NAD+/NADH ratio and protected dominant negative Nox4 hearts from ischemic injury. Conclusions This study reveals an important role of Nox in cardiac redox regulation and highlights the complexity of developing therapies that affect the intricately connected redox states. PMID:24470522

  5. NADPH oxidases and cardiac remodelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Nabeebaccus; Min Zhang; Ajay M. Shah

    2011-01-01

    A heart under chronic stress undergoes cardiac remodelling, a process that comprises structural and functional changes including\\u000a cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, contractile dysfunction, cell death and ventricular dilatation. Reactive\\u000a oxygen species (ROS)-dependent modulation of intracellular signalling is implicated in the development of cardiac remodelling.\\u000a Among the different ROS sources that are present in the heart, NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are particularly

  6. Upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and NADPH oxidases are involved in restenosis after balloon injury.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hai-Dong; Huang, Dan; Weng, Xiao-Dan; Xu, Feng

    2009-11-01

    Restenosis is a major complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and is characterized by increased superoxide formation and accumulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The mechanisms through which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) modulates the pathological process are incompletely defined. In this study, balloon injury of porcine coronary arteries in vivo and cell scraping model in vitro were used to elucidate the pathway via this molecule. PPAR-gamma and NADPH oxidase expression significantly increased both in neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury or in the cultured SMCs after scraping injury. In vitro, PPAR-gamma agonist 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostagladlin J(2) (15d-PGJ2) decreased cell-scraping-induced superoxide generation through suppression of NADPH oxidase activity via down-regulation of p22(phox) and gp91(phox). Furthermore, 15d-PGJ2 could suppress scraping-stimulated proliferation of SMCs. These data demonstrate that upregulation of PPAR-gamma and NADPH oxidases are involved in restenosis and activation of PPAR-gamma can inhibit the NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide generation in SMCs after injury. These findings will provide a new potential drug target for restenosis after balloon injury. PMID:19562688

  7. Sphingomyelinase promotes oxidant production and skeletal muscle contractile dysfunction through activation of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, James A.; Abo-Zahrah, Reem; Pal, Rituraj; Rodney, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sphingomyelinase (SMase) have been detected in a variety of diseases. SMase has been shown to increase muscle derived oxidants and decrease skeletal muscle force; however, the sub-cellular site of oxidant production has not been elucidated. Using redox sensitive biosensors targeted to the mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (Nox2), we demonstrate that SMase increased Nox2-dependent ROS and had no effect on mitochondrial ROS in isolated FDB fibers. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of Nox2 activity prevented SMase induced ROS production and provided protection against decreased force production in the diaphragm. In contrast, genetic overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the mitochondria did not prevent increased ROS production and offered no protection against decreased diaphragm function in response to SMase. Our study shows that SMase induced ROS production occurs in specific sub-cellular regions of skeletal muscle; however, the increased ROS does not completely account for the decrease in muscle function. PMID:25653619

  8. NADPH Oxidase Promotes Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Röhm, Marc; Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous, filamentous fungi, which can cause invasive aspergillosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD, reflecting the critical role for NADPH oxidase in antifungal host defense. Activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils can be coupled to the release of proteins and chromatin that comingle in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can augment extracellular antimicrobial host defense. NETosis can be driven by NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore undertook an analysis of whether NADPH oxidase was required for NETosis in Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Oropharyngeal instillation of live Aspergillus hyphae induced neutrophilic pneumonitis in both wild-type and NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox?/?) mice which had resolved in wild-type mice by day 5 but progressed in p47phox?/? mice. NETs, identified by immunostaining, were observed in lungs of wild-type mice but were absent in p47phox?/? mice. Using bona fide NETs and nuclear chromatin decondensation as an early NETosis marker, we found that NETosis required a functional NADPH oxidase in vivo and ex vivo. In addition, NADPH oxidase increased the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils. Together, our results show that NADPH oxidase is required for pulmonary clearance of Aspergillus hyphae and generation of NETs in vivo. We speculate that dual modulation of NETosis and apoptosis by NADPH oxidase enhances antifungal host defense and promotes resolution of inflammation upon infection clearance. PMID:24549323

  9. p-Cresyl sulfate causes renal tubular cell damage by inducing oxidative stress by activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Yohei; Honda, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hisae; Wu, Qiong; Endo, Masayuki; Noguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Ishima, Yu; Kotani, Shunsuke; Nakajima, Makoto; Kataoka, Keiichiro; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Tanaka, Motoko; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2013-04-01

    The accumulation of p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a uremic toxin, is associated with the mortality rate of chronic kidney disease patients; however, the biological functions and the mechanism of its action remain largely unknown. Here we determine whether PCS enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular cells resulting in cytotoxicity. PCS exhibited pro-oxidant properties in human tubular epithelial cells by enhancing NADPH oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) activity. PCS also upregulated mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and active TGF-?1 protein secretion associated with renal fibrosis. Knockdown of p22(phox) or Nox4 expression suppressed the effect of PCS, underlining the importance of NADPH oxidase activation on its mechanism of action. PCS also reduced cell viability by increasing ROS production. The toxicity of PCS was largely suppressed in the presence of probenecid, an organic acid transport inhibitor. Administration of PCS for 4 weeks caused significant renal tubular damage in 5/6-nephrectomized rats by enhancing oxidative stress. Thus, the renal toxicity of PCS is attributed to its intracellular accumulation, leading to both increased NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production, which, in turn, triggers induction of inflammatory cytokines involved in renal fibrosis. This mechanism is similar to that for the renal toxicity of indoxyl sulfate. PMID:23325087

  10. Regulation of Superoxide?Producing NADPH Oxidases in Nonphagocytic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryu Takeya; Noriko Ueno; Hideki Sumimoto

    2006-01-01

    The membrane?integrated protein gp91phox functions as the catalytic center of the superoxide?producing phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Recent studies have identified homologs of gp91phox in nonphagocytic cells, which constitute the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family. Activation of the Nox oxidases leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby participating in a variety of biological events, such as host defense, hormone biosynthesis, and

  11. Diacylglycerol Kinases Terminate Diacylglycerol Signaling during the Respiratory Burst Leading to Heterogeneous Phagosomal NADPH Oxidase Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Bohdanowicz, Michal; Chatilialoglu, Alexandros; Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Ueyama, Takehiko; Du, Guangwei; Grinstein, Sergio; Fairn, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that all phagosomes have identical molecular composition. This assumption has remained largely unchallenged due to a paucity of methods to distinguish individual phagosomes. We devised an assay that extends the utility of nitro blue tetrazolium for detection and quantification of NAPDH oxidase (NOX) activity in individual phagosomes. Implementation of this assay revealed that in murine macrophages there is heterogeneity in the ability of individual phagosomes to generate superoxide, both between and within cells. To elucidate the molecular basis of the variability in NOX activation, we employed genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors to evaluate the uniformity in the distribution of phospholipid mediators of the oxidative response. Despite variability in superoxide generation, the distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, and phosphatidic acid was nearly identical in all phagosomes. In contrast, diacylglycerol (DAG) was not generated uniformly across the phagosomal population, varying in a manner that directly mirrored superoxide production. Modulation of DAG levels suggested that NOX activation is precluded when phagosomes fail to reach a critical DAG concentration. In particular, forced expression of diacylglycerol kinase ? abrogated DAG accumulation at the phagosome, leading to impaired respiratory burst. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of DAG kinases or expression of an inactive diacylglycerol kinase ? mutant increased the proportion of DAG-positive phagosomes, concomitantly potentiating phagosomal NOX activity. Our data suggest that diacylglycerol kinases limit the extent of NADPH oxidase activation, curtailing the production of potentially harmful reactive oxygen species. The resulting heterogeneity in phagosome responsiveness could enable the survival of a fraction of invading microorganisms. PMID:23814057

  12. Preferential inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase (NOX) activity by diphenyleneiodonium chloride with NADPH as donor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    The cell-surface NADH oxidase (NOX) protein of plant and animal cells will utilize both NADH and NADPH as reduced electron donors for activity. The two activities are distinguished by a differential inhibition by the redox inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Using both plasma membranes and cells, activity with NADPH as donor was markedly inhibited by DPI at submicromolar concentrations, whereas with NADH as donor, DPI was much less effective or had no effect on the activity. The possibility of the inhibition being the result of two different enzymes was eliminated by the use of a recombinant NOX protein. The findings support the concept that NOX proteins serve as terminal oxidases for plasma membrane electron transport involving cytosolic reduced pyridine nucleotides as the natural electron donors and with molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor.

  13. Zinc pyrithione salvages reperfusion injury by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation in cardiomyocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viswanath Kasi; Sreedhar Bodiga; Upendra Nadh Kommuguri; Suneetha Sankuru; Vijaya Lakshmi Bodiga

    2011-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT), has a strong anti-apoptotic effect when administered just before reperfusion. Because oxidative stress has been proposed to contribute to myocardial reperfusion injury, we tested whether ZPT can reduce the production of reactive oxygen species during reoxygenation in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and evaluated the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia\\/reoxygenation (H\\/R) injury. The cells were subjected

  14. Natural Compounds as Modulators of NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells, but their relative unbalance triggers also diseases through intracellular damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. The NOX physiological functions concern host defence, cellular signaling, regulation of gene expression, and cell differentiation. On the other hand, increased NOX activity contributes to a wide range of pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, organ failure, and cancer. Therefore targeting these enzymatic ROS sources by natural compounds, without affecting the physiological redox state, may be an important tool. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of NOX enzymes in physiology and pathology and provides an overview of the currently available NADPH oxidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts such as polyphenols. PMID:24381714

  15. Dependence of cathepsin L-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction upon activation of NAD(P)H oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Zhang; Yang Zhang; Pin-Lan Li

    2009-01-01

    Cathepsin L is a cysteine protease that can generate endogenous endostatin in vascular and epithelial basement membranes and importantly participates in a variety of pathophysiological processes. The present study was designed to determine whether this cathepsin L-derived endogenous endostatin alters endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses in coronary arteries via NAD(P)H oxidase activation. In isolated and perfused small bovine coronary arteries, administration of

  16. Current status of NADPH oxidase research in cardiovascular pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Rodiño-Janeiro, Bruno K; Paradela-Dobarro, Beatriz; Castiñeiras-Landeira, María Isabel; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; González-Juanatey, José R; Álvarez, Ezequiel

    2013-01-01

    The implications of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease have been known for some decades. Rationally, therapeutic antioxidant strategies combating oxidative stress have been developed, but the results of clinical trials have not been as good as expected. Therefore, to move forward in the design of new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease based on prevention of production of reactive oxygen species, steps must be taken on two fronts, ie, comprehension of reduction-oxidation signaling pathways and the pathophysiologic roles of reactive oxygen species, and development of new, less toxic, and more selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitors, to clarify both the role of each NADPH oxidase isoform and their utility in clinical practice. In this review, we analyze the value of NADPH oxidase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and the old and new pharmacologic agents or strategies to prevent NADPH oxidase activity. Some inhibitors and different direct or indirect approaches are available. Regarding direct NADPH oxidase inhibition, the specificity of NADPH oxidase is the focus of current investigations, whereas the chemical structure-activity relationship studies of known inhibitors have provided pharmacophore models with which to search for new molecules. From a general point of view, small-molecule inhibitors are preferred because of their hydrosolubility and oral bioavailability. However, other possibilities are not closed, with peptide inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against NADPH oxidase isoforms continuing to be under investigation as well as the ongoing search for naturally occurring compounds. Likewise, some different approaches include inhibition of assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex, subcellular translocation, post-transductional modifications, calcium entry/release, electron transfer, and genetic expression. High-throughput screens for any of these activities could provide new inhibitors. All this knowledge and the research presently underway will likely result in development of new drugs for inhibition of NADPH oxidase and application of therapeutic approaches based on their action, for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in the next few years. PMID:23983473

  17. Substance P Exacerbates Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration through Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Independent Activation of Microglial NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1?/?), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose–response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91phox and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25209287

  18. Substance P exacerbates dopaminergic neurodegeneration through neurokinin-1 receptor-independent activation of microglial NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingshan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2014-09-10

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1(-/-)), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose-response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91(phox) and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox). The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25209287

  19. Adiponectin as a link between type 2 diabetes and vascular NADPH oxidase activity in the human arterial wall: the regulatory role of perivascular adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Alexios S; Margaritis, Marios; Coutinho, Patricia; Shirodaria, Cheerag; Psarros, Costas; Herdman, Laura; Sanna, Fabio; De Silva, Ravi; Petrou, Mario; Sayeed, Rana; Krasopoulos, George; Lee, Regent; Digby, Janet; Reilly, Svetlana; Bakogiannis, Constantinos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Kessler, Benedikt; Casadei, Barbara; Channon, Keith M; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. We examined the effect of type 2 diabetes on NADPH oxidase in human vessels and explored the mechanisms of this interaction. Segments of internal mammary arteries (IMAs) with their perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and thoracic adipose tissue were obtained from 386 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery (127 with type 2 diabetes). Type 2 diabetes was strongly correlated with hypoadiponectinemia and increased vascular NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anions (O2?(-)). The genetic variability of the ADIPOQ gene and circulating adiponectin (but not interleukin-6) were independent predictors of NADPH oxidase-derived O2?(-). However, adiponectin expression in PVAT was positively correlated with vascular NADPH oxidase-derived O2?(-). Recombinant adiponectin directly inhibited NADPH oxidase in human arteries ex vivo by preventing the activation/membrane translocation of Rac1 and downregulating p22(phox) through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-mediated mechanism. In ex vivo coincubation models of IMA/PVAT, the activation of arterial NADPH oxidase triggered a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-mediated upregulation of the adiponectin gene in the neighboring PVAT via the release of vascular oxidation products. We demonstrate for the first time in humans that reduced adiponectin levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes stimulates vascular NADPH oxidase, while PVAT "senses" the increased NADPH oxidase activity in the underlying vessel and responds by upregulating adiponectin gene expression. This PVAT-vessel interaction is identified as a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25552596

  20. NOXO1 phosphorylation on serine 154 is critical for optimal NADPH oxidase 1 assembly and activation.

    PubMed

    Debbabi, Maya; Kroviarski, Yolande; Bournier, Odile; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; El-Benna, Jamel; Dang, Pham My-Chan

    2013-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), which is mainly expressed in colon epithelial cells, requires the membrane-bound component p22(PHOX) and the cytosolic partners NOX organizer 1 (NOXO1), NOX activator 1 (NOXA1), and Rac1. Contrary to that of its phagocyte counterpart NOX2, the molecular basis of NOX1 regulation is not clear. Because NOXO1 lacks the phosphorylated region found in its homolog p47(PHOX), the current view is that NOX1 activation occurs without NOXO1 phosphorylation. Here, however, we demonstrate that phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulates NOXO1 phosphorylation in a transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 epithelial cell model via protein kinase C and identify Ser-154 as the major phosphorylated site. Endogenous NOXO1 from T84 colon epithelial cells was also phosphorylated, suggesting that NOXO1 phosphorylation is physiologically relevant. In transfected HEK-293 cells, PMA-induced phosphorylation on Ser-154 enhanced NOXO1 binding to NOXA1 (+97%) and to the p22(PHOX) C-terminal region (+384%), increased NOXO1 colocalization with p22(PHOX), and allowed optimal ROS production by NOX1 as demonstrated by the use of S154A and S154D mutants compared with that by wild-type NOXO1 (P<0.05). Pulldown experiments revealed that phos-phorylation on Ser-154 was sufficient to markedly enhance NOXO1 binding to NOXA1, which in turn acts as a molecular switch, allowing optimal interaction of NOXO1 with p22(PHOX). This study unexpectedly revealed that full assembly and activation of NOX1 is a tightly regulated process in which NOXO1 phosphorylation on Ser-154 is the initial trigger. PMID:23322165

  1. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium activates the human TRPA1 nociceptor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroka; Hatano, Noriyuki; Muraki, Yukiko; Itoh, Yuka; Kimura, Satoko; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Onozaki, Kikuo; Ohi, Yoshiaki; Haji, Akira; Muraki, Katsuhiko

    2014-08-15

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal cells and plays an important role in acute and inflammatory pain. Here, we show that an NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), functions as a TRPA1 activator in human embryonic kidney cells expressing human TRPA1 (HEK-TRPA1) and in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Application of DPI at 0.03-10 ?M induced a Ca(2+) response in HEK-TRPA1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca(2+) response was effectively blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031 (HC). In contrast, DPI had no effect on HEK cells expressing TRPV1-V4 or TRPM8. Four other NOX inhibitors, apocynin (APO), VAS2870 (VAS), plumbagin, and 2-acetylphenothiazine, also induced a Ca(2+) response in HEK-TRPA1 cells, which was inhibited by pretreatment with HC. In the presence of 5 mM glutathione, the Ca(2+) response to DPI was effectively reduced. Moreover, mutation of cysteine 621 in TRPA1 substantially inhibited the DPI-induced Ca(2+) response, while it did not inhibit the APO- and VAS-induced responses. The channel activity was induced by DPI in excised membrane patches with both outside-out and inside-out configurations. Internal application of neomycin significantly inhibited the DPI-induced inward currents. In inflammatory synoviocytes with TRPA1, DPI evoked a Ca(2+) response that was sensitive to HC. In mice, intraplantar injection of DPI caused a pain-related response which was inhibited by preadministration with HC. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that DPI and other NOX inhibitors activate human TRPA1 without mediating NOX. PMID:24944203

  2. Activation of human neutrophil NADPH oxidase by phosphatidic acid or diacylglycerol in a cell-free system. Activity of diacylglycerol is dependent on its conversion to phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R W; Langel-Peveri, P; Traynor-Kaplan, A E; Heyworth, P G; Curnutte, J T

    1999-08-01

    The superoxide-generating neutrophil NADPH oxidase can be activated in cell-free reconstitution systems by several agonists, most notably arachidonic acid and the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. In this study, we show that both phosphatidic acids and diacylglycerols can serve separately as potent, physiologic activators of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system. Stimulation of superoxide generation by these lipids was dependent upon both Mg(2+) and agonist concentration. Activation of NADPH oxidase by phosphatidic acids did not appear to require their conversion to corresponding diacylglycerols by phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, since diacylglycerols were much slower than phosphatidic acids to activate the system and required the presence of ATP. Stimulation of the oxidase by dioctanoylglycerol proved to be by a means other than the activation of protein kinase C. Instead, dioctanoylglycerol was converted to dioctanoylphosphatidic acid by an endogenous diacylglycerol kinase present in the cell-free reaction system. This conversion was sensitive to the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59949 and explains the markedly slower kinetics of activation and the novel ATP requirement seen with dioctanoylglycerol. The level of dioctanoylphosphatidic acid formed was suboptimal for NADPH oxidase activation but could synergize with the unmetabolized dioctanoylglycerol to activate superoxide generation. PMID:10428791

  3. Calcium-dependent protein kinase/NADPH oxidase activation circuit is required for rapid defense signal propagation.

    PubMed

    Dubiella, Ullrich; Seybold, Heike; Durian, Guido; Komander, Eileen; Lassig, Roman; Witte, Claus-Peter; Schulze, Waltraud X; Romeis, Tina

    2013-05-21

    In animals and plants, pathogen recognition triggers the local activation of intracellular signaling that is prerequisite for mounting systemic defenses in the whole organism. We identified that Arabidopsis thaliana isoform CPK5 of the plant calcium-dependent protein kinase family becomes rapidly biochemically activated in response to pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) stimulation. CPK5 signaling resulted in enhanced salicylic acid-mediated resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000, differential plant defense gene expression, and synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using selected reaction monitoring MS, we identified the plant NADPH oxidase, respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (RBOHD), as an in vivo phosphorylation target of CPK5. Remarkably, CPK5-dependent in vivo phosphorylation of RBOHD occurs on both PAMP- and ROS stimulation. Furthermore, rapid CPK5-dependent biochemical and transcriptional activation of defense reactions at distal sites is compromised in cpk5 and rbohd mutants. Our data not only identify CPK5 as a key regulator of innate immune responses in plants but also support a model of ROS-mediated cell-to-cell communication, where a self-propagating mutual activation circuit consisting of the protein kinase, CPK5, and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD facilitates rapid signal propagation as a prerequisite for defense response activation at distal sites within the plant. PMID:23650383

  4. NADPH oxidase activation contributes to native low-density lipoprotein-induced proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Hwan; Hwang, Hye Mi; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Kwon, Hyung-Joo; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentration of native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) is associated with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the mechanisms of superoxide generation and its contribution to pathophysiological cell proliferation in response to nLDL stimulation. Lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence was used to measure nLDL-induced superoxide production in human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs). Superoxide production was increased by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and decreased by NADPH oxidase inhibitors in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMC and hAoSMC homogenates, as well as in prepared membrane fractions. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), protein kinase C-? (PKC?) and protein kinase C-? (PKC?) were phosphorylated and maximally activated within 3?min of nLDL stimulation. Phosphorylated Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase, PKC? and PKC? stimulated interactions between p47phox and p22phox; these interactions were prevented by MEK and PKC inhibitors (PD98059 and calphostin C, respectively). These inhibitors decreased nLDL-dependent superoxide production and blocked translocation of p47phox to the membrane, as shown by epifluorescence imaging and cellular fractionation experiments. Proliferation assays showed that a small interfering RNA against p47phox, as well as superoxide scavenger and NADPH oxidase inhibitors, blocked nLDL-induced hAoSMC proliferation. The nLDL stimulation in deendothelialized aortic rings from C57BL/6J mice increased dihydroethidine fluorescence and induced p47phox translocation that was blocked by PD98059 or calphostin C. Isolated aortic SMCs from p47phox?/? mice (mAoSMCs) did not respond to nLDL stimulation. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was responsible for superoxide generation and cell proliferation in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs. These data demonstrated that NADPH oxidase activation contributed to cell proliferation in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs. PMID:26065917

  5. Positive feedback regulation of maize NADPH oxidase by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in abscisic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fan; Ding, Haidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Aying; Zhang, Yun; Tan, Mingpu; Dong, Wen; Jiang, Mingyi

    2009-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), abscisic acid (ABA)-induced H2O2 production activates a 46 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (p46MAPK), and the activation of p46MAPK also regulates the production of H2O2. However, the mechanism for the regulation of H2O2 production by MAPK in ABA signalling remains to be elucidated. In this study, four reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (rboh) genes (ZmrbohA–D) were isolated and characterized in maize leaves. ABA treatment induced a biphasic response (phase I and phase II) in the expression of ZmrbohA–D and the activity of NADPH oxidase. Phase II induced by ABA was blocked by pretreatments with two MAPK kinase (MPKKK) inhibitors and two H2O2 scavengers, but phase I was not affected by these inhibitors or scavengers. Treatment with H2O2 alone also only induced phase II, and the induction was arrested by the MAPKK inhibitors. Furthermore, the ABA-activated p46MAPK was partially purified. Using primers corresponding to the sequences of internal tryptic peptides, the p46MAPK gene was cloned. Analysis of the tryptic peptides and the p46MAPK sequence indicate it is the known ZmMPK5. Treatments with ABA and H2O2 led to a significant increase in the activity of ZmMPK5, although ABA treatment only induced a slight increase in the expression of ZmMPK5. The data indicate that H2O2-activated ZmMPK5 is involved in the activation of phase II in ABA signalling, but not in phase I. The results suggest that there is a positive feedback loop involving NADPH oxidase, H2O2, and ZmMPK5 in ABA signalling. PMID:19592501

  6. Positive feedback regulation of maize NADPH oxidase by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in abscisic acid signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Lin; Haidong Ding; Jinxiang Wang; Hong Zhang; Aying Zhang; Yun Zhang; Mingpu Tan; Wen Dong; Mingyi Jiang

    2010-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), abscisic acid (ABA)-induced H2O2 production activates a 46 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (p46MAPK), and the activation of p46MAPK also regulates the production of H2O2. However, the mechanism for the regulation of H2O2 production by MAPK in ABA signalling remains to be elucidated. In this study, four reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (rboh) genes (ZmrbohA-D) were

  7. A Nonpolar Blueberry Fraction Blunts NADPH Oxidase Activation in Neuronal Cells Exposed to Tumor Necrosis Factor-?

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Sally J.; Dunlap, Kriya L.; McGill, Colin M.; Kuhn, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are key to the progressive neuronal degeneration common to chronic pathologies, traumatic injuries, and aging processes in the CNS. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) orchestrates cellular stress by stimulating the production and release of neurotoxic mediators including reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidases (NOX), ubiquitously expressed in all cells, have recently emerged as pivotal ROS sources in aging and disease. We demonstrated the presence of potent NOX inhibitors in wild Alaska bog blueberries partitioning discretely into a nonpolar fraction with minimal antioxidant capacity and largely devoid of polyphenols. Incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with nonpolar blueberry fractions obstructed the coalescing of lipid rafts into large domains disrupting NOX assembly therein and abolishing ROS production characteristic for TNF-? exposure. These findings illuminate nutrition-derived lipid raft modulation as a novel therapeutic approach to blunt inflammatory and oxidative stress in the aging or diseased CNS. PMID:22530077

  8. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between Noxes and the ER may provide relevant insights in Nox-related (patho)physiology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2755–2775. PMID:24386930

  9. The ADP-stimulated NADPH oxidase activates the ASK-1/MKK4/JNK pathway in alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honglei; Zhang, Hongqiao; Iles, Karen E.; Rinna, Alessandra; Merrill, Gary; Yodoi, Junji; Torres, Martine; Forman, Henry Jay

    2009-01-01

    The role of H2O2 as a second messenger in signal transduction pathways is well established. We show here that the NADPH oxidase-dependent production of O2•? and H2O2 or respiratory burst in alveolar macrophages (AM) (NR8383 cells) is required for ADP-stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation and the activation of JNK1/2, MKK4 (but not MKK7) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1). ASK1 binds only to the reduced form of thioredoxin (Trx). ADP induced the dissociation of ASK1/Trx complex and thus resulted in ASK1 activation, as assessed by phosphorylation at Thr845, which was enhanced after treatment with aurothioglucose (ATG), an inhibitor of Trx reductase. While dissociation of the complex implies Trx oxidation, protein electrophoretic mobility shift assay detected oxidation of Trx only after bolus H2O2 but not after ADP stimulation. These results demonstrate that the ADP-stimulated respiratory burst activated the ASK1-MKK4-JNK1/c-Jun signaling pathway in AM and suggest that transient and localized oxidation of Trx by the NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of H2O2 may play a critical role in ASK1 activation and the inflammatory response. PMID:17015265

  10. Siglec-E promotes ?2-integrin-dependent NADPH oxidase activation to suppress neutrophil recruitment to the lung.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Sarah J; Sharma, Ritu S; Richards, Hannah E; Hegde, Vikas; Crocker, Paul R

    2014-07-18

    Siglec-E is a sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin expressed on murine myeloid cells. It has recently been shown to function as a negative regulator of ?2-integrin-dependent neutrophil recruitment to the lung following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we demonstrate that siglec-E promoted neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following CD11b ?2-integrin ligation with fibrinogen in a sialic acid-dependent manner, but it had no effect on ROS triggered by a variety of other stimulants. Siglec-E promotion of ROS was likely mediated via Akt activation, because siglec-E-deficient neutrophils plated on fibrinogen exhibited reduced phosphorylation of Akt, and the Akt inhibitor, MK2206, blocked fibrinogen-induced ROS. In vivo imaging showed that siglec-E also promoted ROS in acutely inflamed lungs following exposure of mice to LPS. Importantly, siglec-E-promoted ROS were required for its inhibitory function, as the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, reversed the siglec-E-mediated suppression of neutrophil recruitment and blocked neutrophil ROS production in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that siglec-E functions as an inhibitory receptor of neutrophils via positive regulation of NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production. Our findings have implications for the inhibitory role of siglec-9 on human neutrophils in sepsis and acute lung injury. PMID:24895121

  11. Increase in Anthraquinone Content in Rubia cordifolia Cells Transformed by rol Genes Does Not Involve Activation of the NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Bulgakov; G. K. Tchernoded; N. P. Mischenko; Yu. N. Shkryl; V. P. Glazunov; S. A. Fedoreyev; Yu. N. Zhuravlev

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that rol plant oncogenes located in Ri-plasmids of Agrobacterium rhizogenes activated synthesis of secondary metabolites in the transformed plant cells. The activator mechanism is still unknown. In this work, we studied whether the NADPH oxidase-signaling pathway, which regulates the synthesis of defense metabolites in plants, is involved in the activator function of the rol genes. It

  12. Early Events Induced by the Elicitor Cryptogein in Tobacco Cells: Involvement of a Plasma Membrane NADPH Oxidase and Activation of Glycolysis and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, A.; Frachisse, J. M.; Tavernier, E.; Bligny, R.; Gout, E.; Douce, R.; Guern, J.

    1997-01-01

    Application of the elicitor cryptogein to tobacco (cv Xanthi) is known to evoke external medium alkalinization, active oxygen species production, and phytoalexin synthesis. These are all dependent on an influx of calcium. We show here that cryptogein also induces calcium-dependent plasma membrane depolarization, chloride efflux, cytoplasm acidification, and NADPH oxidation without changes in NAD+ and ATP levels, indicating that the elicitor-activated redox system, responsible for active oxygen species production, uses NADPH in vivo. NADPH oxidation activates the functioning of the pentose phosphate pathway, leading to a decrease in glucose 6-phosphate and to the accumulation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, 3- and 2-phosphoglyceric acid, and phosphoenolpyruvate. By inhibiting the pentose phosphate pathway, we demonstrate that the activation of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase is responsible for active oxygen species production, external alkalinization, and acidification of the cytoplasm. A model is proposed for the organization of the cryptogein responses measured to date. PMID:12237354

  13. Neuroprotection conferred by post-ischemia ethanol therapy in experimental stroke: an inhibitory effect on hyperglycolysis and NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Kochanski, Ryan; Peng, Changya; Higashida, Tetsuhiro; Geng, Xiaokun; Hüttemann, Maik; Guthikonda, Murali; Ding, Yuchuan

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol provides neuroprotection following ischemia/reperfusion. This study assessed ethanol's effect on hyperglycolysis and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Three sets of experiments were conducted to determine ethanol's effect on (i) conferring neuroprotection by measuring infarct volume and neurological deficits 24 h post reperfusion; (ii) cerebral glucose metabolism and lactic acidosis by measuring brain and blood glucose concentrations and protein expression of glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1, GLUT3), phosphofructokinase (PFK), as well as lactic acidosis by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lactate; and (iii) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activation by detecting enzymatic activity and subunit expression at 3 h after reperfusion. When administered upon reperfusion, ethanol (1.5 g/kg) reduced infarct volume by 40% (p < 0.01) and neurological deficits by 48% at 24 h post reperfusion while reducing (p < 0.01) elevations in glycolytic protein expression and lactate levels during early reperfusion (3 h). Ethanol increased the reductions in cerebral glucose concentration at 3 h post reperfusion by 64% (p < 0.01) while enhancing (p < 0.01) post stroke blood glucose concentration, suggesting a reduced cellular glucose uptake and utilization. Ethanol decreased (p < 0.01) stroke-induced NOX activation by reducing enzymatic activity and gp91(phox) expression by 45% and 38%, respectively. Post-ischemia ethanol treatment exerts neuroprotection through attenuation of hyperglycolysis and associated NOX activation. Because of the lack of associated hypoglycemia and selectivity toward decreasing cerebral metabolism, further investigation of ethanol's use as a post-stroke therapy, especially in the context of hyperglycemia, seems warranted. PMID:23350720

  14. Activation of caspase-1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome regulates the NADPH oxidase NOX2 to control phagosome function

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovska, Anna; Becker, Christine E.; Eddie Ip, WK; Rathinam, Vijay A.K.; Brudner, Matthew; Paquette, Nicholas; Tanne, Antoine; Vanaja, Sivapriya K.; Moore, Kathryn J.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M.

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a fundamental cellular process that is pivotal for immunity as it coordinates microbial killing, innate immune activation and antigen presentation. An essential step in this process is phagosome acidification, which regulates a number of functions of these organelles that allow them to participate in processes essential to both innate and adaptive immunity. Here we report that acidification of phagosomes containing Gram-positive bacteria is regulated by the NLRP3-inflammasome and caspase-1. Active caspase-1 accumulates on phagosomes and acts locally to control the pH by modulating buffering by the NADPH oxidase NOX2. These data provide insight into a mechanism by which innate immune signals can modify cellular defenses and establish a new function for the NLRP3-inflammasome and caspase-1 in host defense. PMID:23644505

  15. Antimicrobial Actions of the NADPH Phagocyte Oxidase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimental Salmonellosis. I. Effects on Microbial Killing by Activated Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Vazquez-Torres; Jessica Jones-Carson; Pietro Mastroeni; Harry Ischiropoulos; Ferric C. Fang

    The contribution of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase (phox) and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) to the antimicrobial activity of macrophages for Salmonella typhimurium was studied by using peritoneal phagocytes from C57BL\\/6, congenic gp91 phox 2 \\/ 2 , iNOS 2 \\/ 2 , and doubly immunodeficient phox 2 \\/ 2 iNOS 2 \\/ 2 mice. The respiratory burst and

  16. Adverse cognitive effects of high-fat diet in a murine model of sleep apnea are mediated by NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Nair, D; Ramesh, V; Gozal, D

    2012-12-27

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, such as occurs in sleep apnea (SA), induces increased NADPH oxidase activation and deficits in hippocampal learning and memory. Similar to IH, high fat-refined carbohydrate diet (HFD), a frequent occurrence in patients with SA, can also induce similar oxidative stress and cognitive deficits under normoxic conditions, suggesting that excessive NADPH oxidase activity may underlie CNS dysfunction in both conditions. The effect of HFD and IH during the light period on two forms of spatial learning in the water maze as well as on markers of oxidative stress was assessed in male mice lacking NADPH oxidase activity (gp91phox?/Y) and wild-type littermates fed on HFD. On a standard place training task, gp91phox?/Y displayed normal learning, and was protected from the spatial learning deficits observed in wild-type littermates exposed to IH. Moreover, anxiety levels were increased in wild-type mice exposed to HFD and IH as compared to controls, while no changes emerged in gp91phox?/Y mice. Additionally, wild-type mice, but not gp91phox?/Y mice, had significantly elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hippocampal lysates following IH-HFD exposures. The cognitive deficits of obesity and westernized diets and those of sleep disorders that are characterized by IH during sleep are both mediated, at least in part, by excessive NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:23064009

  17. Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing; Niu Nannan; Li Wenjie; Liu Fangli; Zhao Yang; Yu Zengli, E-mail: zly@zzu.edu.cn

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. > GSE reduced arsenic-mediated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). > Beneficial effects of GSE on As-induced liver injury was via inhibition of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation.

  18. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chuen-Mao, E-mail: chuenmao@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Heart Failure Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Lee, I-Ta [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthetics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-? induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-? induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF-? induces MMP-9 expression via a NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent NF-?B signaling. • TNF-? activates MAPK phosphorylation through NADPH oxidase/ROS generation.

  19. P2X7 receptor is critical in ?-synuclein-mediated microglial NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianfang; Hoekstra, Jake; Heng, Xin; Kang, Wenyan; Ding, Jianqing; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shengdi; Zhang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Activated microglia are commonly observed in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and are believed to contribute to neuronal death. This process occurs at least due partially to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (PHOX) activation, which leads to the production of superoxide and oxidative stress. ?-Synuclein (?-Syn), a key protein implicated in PD pathogenesis, can activate microglia, contributing to death of dopaminergic neurons. Here, microglial cells (BV2) and primary cultured microglia were used to study the role that the purinergic receptor P2X7 plays in recognizing ?-Syn and promoting PHOX activation. We demonstrate that both wild type and A53T mutant ?-Syn readily activate PHOX, with the A53T form producing more rapid and sustained effects,that is, oxidative stress and cellular injuries. Furthermore, this process involves the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT (protein kinase B) pathway. Thus, it is concluded that stimulation of the microglial P2X7 receptor by extracellular ?-Syn, with PI3K/AKT activation and increased oxidative stress, could be an important mechanism and a potential therapeutic target for PD. PMID:25983062

  20. Role of NADPH Oxidase versus Neutrophil Proteases in Antimicrobial Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Melissa J.; Lewandowski, David C.; Pham, Christine T. N.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Walsh, Thomas J.; Urban, Constantin F.; Segal, Brahm H.

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in mediating antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Patients with chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates (ROIs), suffer from life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. The mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase mediate host defense are unclear. In addition to ROI generation, neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation is linked to the release of sequestered proteases that are posited to be critical effectors of host defense. To definitively determine the contribution of NADPH oxidase versus neutrophil serine proteases, we evaluated susceptibility to fungal and bacterial infection in mice with engineered disruptions of these pathways. NADPH oxidase-deficient mice (p47phox?/?) were highly susceptible to pulmonary infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. In contrast, double knockout neutrophil elastase (NE)?/?×cathepsin G (CG)?/? mice and lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin C/dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI)-deficient mice that are defective in neutrophil serine protease activation demonstrated no impairment in antifungal host defense. In separate studies of systemic Burkholderia cepacia infection, uniform fatality occurred in p47phox?/? mice, whereas NE?/?×CG?/? mice cleared infection. Together, these results show a critical role for NADPH oxidase in antimicrobial host defense against A. fumigatus and B. cepacia, whereas the proteases we evaluated were dispensable. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase dependent pathways separate from neutrophil serine protease activation are required for host defense against specific pathogens. PMID:22163282

  1. Premature skin aging features rescued by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in XPC-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Raad, Houssam; Harfouche, Ghida; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Mazurier, Frederic; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type C (XP-C) is characterized mostly by a predisposition to skin cancers and accelerated photoaging, but little is known about premature skin aging in this disease. By comparing young and old mice, we found that the level of progerin and p16(INK4a) expression, ?-galactosidase activity, and reactive oxygen species, which increase with age, were higher in young Xpc(-/-) mice than in young Xpc(+/+) ones. The expression level of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial functions in the skin of young Xpc(-/-) was as low as in control aged Xpc(+/+)animals. Furthermore, the metabolic profile in young Xpc(-/-) mice resembled that found in aged Xpc(+/+) mice. Furthermore, premature skin aging features in young Xpc(-/-) mice were mostly rescued by inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity by using a NOX1 peptide inhibitor, suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress due to overactivation of NOX1 has a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25437426

  2. Khz (Fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus Mycelia) Induces Apoptosis by Increasing Intracellular Calcium Levels and Activating JNK and NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju sung; Kim, Zoo haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Khz is a compound derived from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia that inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The results of the present study show that Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz induced apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activating JNK to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was demonstrated by the translocation of regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz. Khz triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i, which activated JNK. JNK plays a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47phox and p67phox subunits and ROS generation. In summary, these data indicate that Khz preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells, and the signaling mechanisms involve an increase in [Ca2+]i, JNK activation, and ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and mitochondria. PMID:23056263

  3. Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating JNK and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju sung; Kim, Zoo haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Khz is a compound derived from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia that inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The results of the present study show that Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz induced apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and activating JNK to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was demonstrated by the translocation of regulatory subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox) to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz. Khz triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which activated JNK. JNK plays a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47(phox) and p67(phox) subunits and ROS generation. In summary, these data indicate that Khz preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells, and the signaling mechanisms involve an increase in [Ca(2+)](i), JNK activation, and ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and mitochondria. PMID:23056263

  4. Quercetin and its metabolites inhibit the membrane NADPH oxidase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, R; Lopez-Sepulveda, R; Romero, M; Toral, M; Cogolludo, A; Perez-Vizcaino, F; Duarte, J

    2015-02-11

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts antioxidant effects reducing vascular superoxide (O2(-)) and improving endothelial function in animal models of cardiovascular disease. Herein we evaluated the effects of quercetin, and its plasma metabolites, on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity, the main source of O2(-) in the vessel wall, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin and kaempferol inhibited the NADPH-stimulated lucigenin-chemiluminescence signal in VSMCs from both strains. The inhibitory effect of quercetin-3-glucuronide increased after prolonged incubation and was inhibited in the presence of the ?-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharolactone. These effects were unrelated to their O2(-) scavenging properties, since they induced only a small inhibition of the rate of pyrogallol autoxidation at high concentrations. All bioflavonoids tested acted as non-competitive inhibitors with respect to NADPH. In conclusion, quercetin and its metabolites inhibit the NADPH oxidase activity in VSMCs reducing O2(-) generation more efficiently than their effect as O2(-) scavengers. The effect of quercetin-3-glucuronide was due to deconjugation and release of free quercetin. The effect is similar in VSMCs from normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25562607

  5. Impaired priming and activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase in patients with IRAK4 or NEMO deficiency.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjali; Zarember, Kol A; Kuhns, Douglas B; Gallin, John I

    2009-05-15

    The NADPH oxidase (NOX), an oligomeric enzyme, plays a key role in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-mediated host defense by producing cytotoxic superoxide anion (O(2)( )). Whereas in vitro and biochemical studies have examined the assembly and activation of this important host immune defense system, few studies have examined the function of NOX in human patients with primary immunodeficiency other than chronic granulomatous disease. We studied the activation of NOX in PMN from patients with two distinct immunodeficiencies, IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 deficiency and NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO or IkappaB kinase gamma) deficiency. We observed impaired O(2)( ) generation by LPS-treated and fMLP-activated IRAK4-deficient PMN that correlated with decreased phosphorylation of p47(phox) and subnormal translocation of p47(phox), p67(phox), Rac2, and gp91(phox)/Nox2 to the membranes indicating that TLR4 signaling to the NOX activation pathway requires IRAK4. NEMO-deficient PMN generated significantly less O(2)( ) in response to LPS-primed fMLP and translocated less p67(phox) than normal PMN, although p47(phox) and Rac2 translocation were normal. Generally, responses of NEMO-deficient cells were intermediate between IRAK4-deficient cells and normal cells. Decreased LPS- and fMLP-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in both IRAK4- and NEMO-deficient PMN implicates additional signal transduction pathways in regulating PMN activation by LPS and fMLP. Decreased activation of NOX may contribute to the increased risk of infection seen in patients with IRAK4 and NEMO deficiency. PMID:19414794

  6. Impaired Priming and Activation of the Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase in Patients with IRAK4- or NEMO-deficiency *

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anjali; Zarember, Kol A.; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Gallin, John I.

    2013-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase (NOX), an oligomeric enzyme, plays a key role in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-mediated host defense by producing cytotoxic superoxide anion (O2.?). Whereas in vitro and biochemical studies have examined the assembly and activation of this important host immune defense system, few studies have examined the function of NOX in human patients with primary immunodeficiencies other than chronic granulomatous disease. We studied the activation of NOX in PMN from patients with two distinct immunodeficiencies, interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) deficiency and nuclear factor kappa (NF-?B) essential modulator (NEMO or IKK?) deficiency. We observed impaired O2.? generation by LPS-treated and fMLP-activated IRAK4-deficient PMN that correlated with decreased phosphorylation of p47phox and subnormal translocation of p47phox, p67phox, Rac2, and gp91phox/Nox2 to the membranes indicating that TLR4 signaling to the NOX activation pathway requires IRAK4. NEMO-deficient PMN generated significantly less O2.? in response to LPS-primed fMLP and translocated less p67phox than normal PMN although p47phox and Rac2 translocation were normal. Generally, responses of NEMO-deficient cells were intermediate between IRAK4-deficient cells and normal cells. Decreased LPS and fMLP induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in both IRAK4- and NEMO-deficient PMN implicates additional signal transduction pathways in regulating PMN activation by LPS and fMLP. Decreased activation of NOX may contribute to the increased risk of infection seen in patients with IRAK4- and NEMO-deficiency. PMID:19414794

  7. A Novel Nontoxic Inhibitor of the Activation of NADPH Oxidase Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Mouse LungS?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Intae; Dodia, Chandra; Chatterjee, Shampa; Zagorski, John; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Jain, Mahendra

    2013-01-01

    1-Hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33) is a fluorinated phospholipid analog that inhibits the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6). Prdx6 PLA2 activity is required for activation of NADPH oxidase 2 and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, MJ33 inhibited agonist-stimulated production of ROS by the isolated perfused mouse lung, lung microvascular endothelial cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. MJ33 (0.02–0.5 µmol MJ33/kg body weight) in mixed unilamellar liposomes was administered to C57BL/6 mice by either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. routes. Lung MJ33 content, measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, showed uptake of 67–87% of the injected dose for i.t. and 23–42% for i.v. administration at 4 hours postinjection. PLA2 activity of lung homogenates was markedly inhibited (>85%) at 4 hours postadministration. Both MJ33 content and PLA2 activity gradually returned to near control levels over the subsequent 24–72 hours. Mice treated with MJ33 at 12.5–25 µmol/kg did not show changes (compared with control) in clinical symptomatology, body weight, hematocrit, and histology of lung, liver, and kidney during a 30- to 50-day observation period. Thus, the toxic dose of MJ33 was >25 µmol/kg, whereas the PLA2 inhibitory dose was approximately 0.02 µmol/kg, indicating a high margin of safety. MJ33 administered to mice prior to lung isolation markedly reduced ROS production and tissue lipid and protein oxidation during ischemia followed by reperfusion. Thus, MJ33 could be useful as a therapeutic agent to prevent ROS-mediated tissue injury associated with lung inflammation or in harvested lungs prior to transplantation. PMID:23475902

  8. NADPH oxidase NOX1 is involved in activation of protein kinase C and premature senescence in early stage diabetic kidney.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Kakehi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Misaki; Iwata, Kazumi; Ibi, Masakazu; Ohshima, Yoichi; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Junjie; Wen, Xiaopeng; Taye, Ashraf; Fan, Chunyuan; Katsuyama, Masato; Sharma, Kumar; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro

    2015-06-01

    Increased oxidative stress and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) under hyperglycemia have been implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Because reactive oxygen species derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, NOX1 accelerate the translocation of PKC isoforms, NOX1 is postulated to play a causative role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia was induced in wild-type and Nox1-deficient mice (KO) by two doses of streptozotocin injection. At 3 weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia, glomeruli and cortical tubules were isolated from kidneys. The mRNA level of Nox1 was significantly upregulated in the renal cortex at 3 weeks of hyperglycemia. Urinary albumin and expression of inflammatory or fibrotic mediators were similarly elevated in diabetic wild-type and KO; however, increases in glomerular volume and mesangial matrix area were attenuated in diabetic KO. Nox1 deficiency significantly reduced the levels of renal thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, membranous translocation of PKC?/?, activity of PKC, and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, increased staining of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase in glomeruli and cortical tubules of diabetic mice was significantly suppressed in KO. Whereas the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p16(INK4A) and p21(Cip1), were equivalent between the genotypes, increased levels of p27(Kip1) and ?-H2AX, a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks, were significantly attenuated in isolated glomeruli and cortical tubules of diabetic KO. Taken together, NOX1 modulates the p38/p27(Kip1) signaling pathway by activating PKC and promotes premature senescence in early stage diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25701431

  9. NADPH oxidases are critical targets for prevention of ethanol-induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanisms through which chronic alcohol consumption induce bone loss and osteoporosis are largely unknown. Ethanol increases expression and activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzymes (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen spe...

  10. Reductive activation of mitomycin C and mitomycin C metabolites catalyzed by NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Pan, S S; Andrews, P A; Glover, C J; Bachur, N R

    1984-01-25

    Under anaerobic conditions and with proper electron donors, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase (EC 1.6.2.4) and xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2) similarly reductively metabolized mitomycin C. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to separate, detect, and isolate several metabolites. Three metabolites were identified by mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography as 1,2-cis- and trans-2,7-diamino-1-hydroxymitosene and 2,7-diaminomitosene. Three metabolites were phosphate-dependent, and two of them were identified to be 1,2-cis- and trans-2,7-diaminomitosene 1-phosphate. The amounts of the five identified metabolites generated during the reduction of mitomycin C varied with pH and nucleophile concentration. At pH 6.5, 2,7-diaminomitosene was essentially the only metabolite formed, whereas from pH 6.8 to 8.0, trans- and cis-2,7-diamino-1-hydroxymitosene increased in quantity as 2,7-diaminomitosene decreased. The disappearance of mitomycin C and the production of metabolites were enzyme and mitomycin C concentration-dependent. Substrate saturation was not reached for either enzyme up to 5 mM mitomycin C. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies demonstrated the formation of mitomycin C radical anion as an intermediate during enzymatic activation. Our results indicate that either enzyme catalyzed the initial activation of mitomycin C to a radical anion intermediate. Subsequent spontaneous reactions, including the elimination of methanol and the opening of the aziridine ring, generate one active center at C-1 which facilitates nucleophilic attack. Simultaneous generation of two reactive centers was not observed. All five primary metabolites were metabolized further by either flavoenzyme. The secondary metabolites exhibited similar changes in their absorbance spectra and were unlike the primary metabolites, suggesting that a second alkylating center other than C-1 was generated during secondary activation. We propose that secondary activation of monofunctionally bound mitomycin C is probably a main route for the bifunctional binding of mitomycin C to macromolecules and that the cytotoxic actions of mitomycin C result from multiple metabolic activations and reactions. PMID:6319393

  11. NADPH Oxidases in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Hecker, Louise; Luckhardt, Tracy R.; Cheng, Guangjie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The evolution of the lungs and circulatory systems in vertebrates ensured the availability of molecular oxygen (O2; dioxygen) for aerobic cellular metabolism of internal organs in large animals. O2 serves as the physiologic terminal acceptor of mitochondrial electron transfer and of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of oxidoreductases to generate primarily water and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Recent advances: The purposeful generation of ROS by Nox family enzymes suggests important roles in normal physiology and adaptation, most notably in host defense against invading pathogens and in cellular signaling. Critical issues: However, there is emerging evidence that, in the context of chronic stress and/or aging, Nox enzymes contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Future Directions: Here, we review evolving functions of Nox enzymes in normal lung physiology and emerging pathophysiologic roles in lung disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2838–2853. PMID:24093231

  12. NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion-induced apoptosis is mediated via the JNK-dependent activation of NF-?B in cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Hsi; Wang, Wei-Jan; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pai, Peiying; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Tsai, Chen-Yen; Kuo, Wei-Wen

    2012-04-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which high glucose causes cardiomyocyte apoptosis is not clear. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in NADPH oxidase-derived ROS-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under hyperglycemic conditions. H9c2 cells were treated with 5.5 or 33 mM glucose for 36 h. We found that 33 mM glucose resulted in a time-dependent increase in ROS generation as well as a time-dependent increase in protein expression of p22(phox), p47(phox), gp91(phox), phosphorylated I?B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-kB. Treatment with apocynin or diphenylene iodonium (DPI), NADPH oxidase inhibitors, resulted in reduced expression of p22(phox), p47(phox), gp91(phox), phosphorylated I?B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. In addition, treatment with JNK and NF-kB siRNAs blocked the activity of caspase-3. Furthermore, treatment with JNK, but not p38, siRNA inhibited the glucose-induced activation of NF-?B. Similar results were obtained in neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations. Therefore, we propose that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS-induced apoptosis is mediated via the JNK-dependent activation of NF-?B in cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. PMID:21604272

  13. Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF/Nampt/visfatin) primes neutrophils for augmented respiratory burst activity through partial assembly of the NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Malam, Zeenat; Parodo, Jean; Waheed, Faiza; Szaszi, Katalin; Kapus, Andras; Marshall, John C

    2011-06-01

    Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor ([PBEF] also known as Nampt/visfatin) is a pleiotropic 52-kDa cytokine-like molecule whose activity has been implicated in multiple inflammatory disease states. PBEF promotes polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) proinflammatory function by inhibiting constitutive PMN apoptosis. We investigated whether PBEF activates or primes for PMN respiratory burst. We found that although PBEF did not activate respiratory burst on its own, it primed for increased reactive oxygen species generation through the NADPH oxidase. PBEF promoted membrane translocation of cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunits p40 and p47, but not p67, induced p40 phosphorylation on Thr(154), and activated the small GTPase Rac. Priming, translocation, and phosphorylation were dependent on activation of p38 and ERK MAPKs, but not of PI3K. Priming by PBEF occurred independent of its NAD-generating capacity because neither nicotinamide mononucleotide or NAD could recapitulate the effects, and a specific inhibitor of PBEF, APO-866, could not inhibit priming. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PBEF can prime for PMN respiratory burst activity by promoting p40 and p47 translocation to the membrane, and this occurs in a MAPK-dependent fashion. PMID:21518975

  14. NAD(P)H Oxidase Role in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy K. Griendling; Dan Sorescu; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; David G. Harrison

    Reactive oxygen species have emerged as important molecules in cardiovascular function. Recent work has shown that NAD(P)H oxidases are major sources of superoxide in vascular cells and myocytes. The biochemical characterization, activation paradigms, structure, and function of this enzyme are now partly understood. Vascular NAD(P)H oxidases share some, but not all, characteristics of the neutrophil enzyme. In response to growth

  15. Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2013-05-01

    Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway. PMID:23500715

  16. Prolactin-induced activation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase in the teleost fish gilthead seabream involves the phosphorylation of p47phox by protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Olavarría, Víctor H; Figueroa, Jaime E; Mulero, Victoriano

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional polypeptide which act as a key component of the neuroendocrine-immune loop and as a local regulator of the macrophage response. The involvement of PRL in regulating monocyte/macrophage functions is suggested by the presence of PRL receptors in these cells. Recently, we reported that physiological concentrations of native PRL were able to induce the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF?, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in head kidney leukocytes and macrophages from the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). In this study, we show that the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox becomes phosphorylated in leukocytes stimulated with PRL, an effect that is blocked when neutralizing polyclonal antibodies to PRL are added. Additionally, the pharmacological inhibition of either protein kinase C (PKC) with calphostin C or the Jak/Stat signaling pathway with AG490 impaired PKC activation, p47phox phosphorylation and ROS production in seabream leukocytes activated with PRL. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the need for PKC in regulating the PRL-mediated phosphorylation of p47phox, the activation of NADPH oxidase and the production of ROS by macrophages in vertebrates. PMID:21884725

  17. NADPH Oxidase 4-Derived H2O2 Promotes Aberrant Retinal Neovascularization via Activation of VEGF Receptor 2 Pathway in Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingming; Wang, Joshua J.; Zhang, Sarah X.

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major isoform of NADPH oxidase in retinal endothelial cells. Our previous study suggests that upregulation of Nox4 in retinal endothelial cells contributes to retinal vascular leakage in diabetes. In the current study, we investigated the role and mechanism of Nox4 in regulation of retinal neovascularization (NV), a hallmark of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Our results confirmed that Nox4 was expressed predominantly in retinal vasculature of mouse retina. Retinal expression of Nox4 was markedly increased in OIR, in parallel with enhanced phosphorylation of ERK. In human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs), overexpression of Nox4 by adenovirus significantly increased extracellular H2O2 generation, resulting in intensified VEGFR2 activation and exacerbated angiogenesis upon VEGF stimulation. In contrast, silencing Nox4 expression or scavenging H2O2 by polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) conjugated catalase inhibited endothelial migration, tube formation, and VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 signaling. Importantly, knockdown of retinal Nox4 by adenovirus-delivered siRNA significantly reduced ERK activation and attenuated retinal NV formation in OIR. Taken together, our data indicate that Nox4 promotes retinal NV formation through H2O2/VEGFR2/ERK signaling pathway. Reducing retinal Nox4 expression may represent a promising therapeutic approach for neovascular retinal diseases such as PDR. PMID:25866826

  18. Differential effects of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibition on sympathetic reinnervation in postinfarct rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Chien-Chang; Hsu, Yu-Jung

    2011-06-01

    Superoxide has been shown to play a major role in ventricular remodeling and arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. However, the source of increased myocardial superoxide production and the role of superoxide in sympathetic innervation remain to be further characterized. Male Wistar rats, after coronary artery ligation, were randomized to vehicle, allopurinol, or apocynin for 4weeks. To determine the role of peroxynitrite in sympathetic reinnervation, we also used 3-morpholinosydnonimine (a peroxynitrite generator). The postinfarction period was associated with increased oxidative stress, as measured by myocardial superoxide, nitrotyrosine, xanthine oxidase activity, NADPH oxidase activity, and dihydroethidium fluorescent staining. Measurement of myocardial norepinephrine levels revealed a significant elevation in vehicle-treated infarcted rats compared with sham. Sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted after administration of allopurinol. Arrhythmic scores in the allopurinol-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. For similar levels of ventricular remodeling, apocynin had no beneficial effects on oxidative stress, sympathetic hyperinnervation, or arrhythmia vulnerability. Allopurinol-treated hearts had significantly decreased nerve growth factor expression, which was substantially increased after coadministration of 3-morpholinosydnonimine. These results indicate that xanthine oxidase but not NADPH oxidase largely mediates superoxide production after myocardial infarction. Xanthine oxidase inhibition ameliorates sympathetic innervation and arrhythmias possibly via inhibition of the peroxynitrite-mediated nerve growth factor pathway. PMID:21295134

  19. NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production activates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) via the ERK pathway after hyperthermia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eui Jung; Sonveaux, Pierre; Porporato, Paolo E.; Danhier, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Nien, Yu-Chih; Schroeder, Thies; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperthermia (HT) is a strong adjuvant treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy because it causes tumor reoxygenation. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of how HT enhances tumor oxygenation have not been elucidated. Here we report that 1 h of HT activates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in tumors and its downstream targets, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). Consistent with HIF-1 activation and up-regulation of its downstream genes, HT also enhances tumor perfusion/vascularization and decreases oxygen consumption. As a result, tumor hypoxia is reduced after HT, suggesting that these physiological changes contribute to HT-induced tumor reoxygenation. Because HIF-1 is a potent regulator of tumor vascularization and metabolism, our findings suggest that HIF-1 plays a role in HT-induced tumor reoxygenation by transactivating its downstream targets. We demonstrate that NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production, as a mechanism, up-regulates HIF-1 after HT. Furthermore, we determine that this pathway is initiated by increased transcription of NADPH oxidase-1 through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, this study determines that, although HIF-1 is a good therapeutic target, the timing of its inhibition needs to be optimized to achieve the most beneficial outcome when it is combined with other treatments of HT, radiation, and chemotherapy. PMID:21059928

  20. Influence of rosuvastatin on the NAD(P)H oxidase activity in the retina and electroretinographic response of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, P; Acar, N; Grégoire, S; Lauzier, B; Bron, A M; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bretillon, L; Vergely, C; Rochette, L

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Retinal complications may be encountered during the development of hypertension as a response to oxidative stress. Statins may reduce the risk of developing hypertension and ocular diseases. We evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin (ROSU) on retinal functionality and oxidative stress levels in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experimental approach: Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and SHR were treated for 3 weeks with rosuvastatin (10?mg?kg?1?day?1). Electroretinograms (ERG) were recorded before and after rosuvastatin treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in the retina with dihydroethidium staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity was evaluated. Key results: Retinal ganglion cell ROS and retinal NAD(P)H oxidase activity were higher in SHR than in WKY rats, respectively (17.1±1.1 vs 10.2±1.2?AU, P<0.01; 38095±8900 vs 14081±5820?RLU?mg?1; P<0.05). The ERG b-wave amplitude in SHR was significantly lower than that in WKY rats. Rosuvastatin reduced SBP in SHR but did not change plasma lipid levels. Rosuvastatin treatment in SHR significantly decreased ROS levels (11.2±1.3, P<0.01), NAD(P)H activity in retinal ganglion cells (9889±4290; P<0.05), and increased retinal plasmalogen content in SHR, but did not modify the ERG response. Conclusions and implications: Rosuvastatin, beyond lowering cholesterol levels, was able to lower ROS in the retina induced by hypertension, but without improving retinal function in SHR. These findings point to a complex relationship between ROS in the pathogenesis of retinal disease and hypertension. PMID:17572703

  1. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Riboside Induces Apoptosis Through AMP-activated Protein Kinase-independent and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Sae Mi

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is involved in anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic signaling. AICAR treatment increases AMPK-?1 phosphorylation, decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and significantly increases Annexin V-positive cells, DNA laddering, and caspase activity in human myeloid cell. AMPK activation is therefore implicated in apoptosis. However, AMPK-?1-knockdown THP-1 cells are more sensitive to apoptosis than control THP-1 cells are, suggesting that the apoptosis is AMPK-independent. Low doses of AICAR induce cell proliferation, whereas high doses of AICAR suppress cell proliferation. Moreover, these effects are significantly correlated with the downregulation of intracellular ROS, strongly suggesting that AICAR-induced apoptosis is critically associated with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase by AICAR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that in AICAR-induced apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels are far more relevant than AMPK activation. PMID:25360075

  2. Reactive oxygen species produced by NAD(P)H oxidase inhibit apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Eva C; Edderkaoui, Mouad; Pandol, Stephen J; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S

    2004-08-13

    One reason why pancreatic cancer is so aggressive and unresponsive to treatments is its resistance to apoptosis. We report here that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a prosurvival, antiapoptotic factor in pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells generated ROS, which was stimulated by growth factors (serum, insulin-like growth factor I, or fibroblast growth factor-2). Growth factors also stimulated membrane NAD(P)H oxidase activity in these cells. Both intracellular ROS and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were inhibited by antioxidants tiron and N-acetylcysteine and the inhibitor of flavoprotein-dependent oxidases, diphenylene iodonium, but not by inhibitors of various other ROS-generating enzymes. Using Rho(0) cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA, we showed that a nonmitochondrial NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of growth factor-induced ROS in pancreatic cancer cells. Among proteins that have been implicated in NAD(P)H oxidase activity, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells do not express the phagocytic gp91(phox) subunit but express several nonphagocytic oxidase (NOX) isoforms. Transfection with Nox4 antisense oligonucleotide inhibited NAD(P)H oxidase activity and ROS production in MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. Inhibiting ROS with the antioxidants, Nox4 antisense, or MnSOD overexpression all stimulated apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells as measured by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, cytochrome c release, and effector caspase activation. The results show that growth factor-induced ROS produced by NAD(P)H oxidase (probably Nox4) protect pancreatic cancer cells from apoptosis. This mechanism may play an important role in pancreatic cancer resistance to treatment and thus represent a novel therapeutic target. PMID:15155719

  3. Protocatechuic acid alkyl esters: hydrophobicity as a determinant factor for inhibition of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    de Faria, C M Q G; Nazaré, A C; Petrônio, M S; Paracatu, L C; Zeraik, M L; Regasini, L O; Silva, D H S; da Fonseca, L M; Ximenes, V F

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the increased efficiency of NADPH oxidase inhibition produced by esterification of protocatechuic acid (P0). Alkyl esters bearing chain lengths of 4 (P4), 7 (P7) and 10 (P10) carbons were synthesized and their oxidation potential, hydrophobicity, antiradical activity, inhibition of superoxide anion (O2°(-)), and the abilities to affect hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production by leukocytes and inhibit myeloperoxidase (MPO) chlorinating activity were studied. The increased hydrophobicity (logP, 0.81-4.82) of the esters was not correlated with a significant alteration in their oxidation potential (0.222-0.298 V). However, except for P10, the esters were ~ 2-fold more effective than the acid precursor for the scavenging of DPPH and peroxyl radicals. The esters were strong inhibitors of O2°(-) released by activated neutrophils (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). A correlation was found between the carbon chain length and the relative inhibitory potency. P7, the most active ester, was ~ 10-fold more efficient as NADPH oxidase inhibitor than apocynin. The esters strongly inhibited the release of HOCl by PMNs, which was a consequence of the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in these cells. In conclusion, as effective inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, the esters of protocatechuic acid are promising drugs for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Moreover, this is the first demonstration that, besides the redox active moiety, the hydrophobicity can also be a determinant factor for the design of NADPH oxidase inhibitors. PMID:22934778

  4. Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP-1 Secretion and Chondrocyte Cell Death via Nox4 NADPH Oxidase Activity in Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rousset, Francis; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Grange, Laurent; Morel, Françoise; Lardy, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of MMPs as well as chondrocyte apoptosis. Those events lead to matrix breakdown and are key features of osteoarthritis (OA). We confirmed that in human C-20/A4 chondrocytes the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is the main source of ROS upon IL-1? stimulation. Since heme molecules are essential for the NADPH oxidase maturation and activity, we therefore investigated the consequences of the modulation of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, on the IL-1? signaling pathway and more specifically on Nox4 activity. Induction of HO-1 expression decreased dramatically Nox4 activity in C-20/A4 and HEK293 T-REx™ Nox4 cell lines. Unexpectedly, this decrease was not accompanied by any change in the expression, the subcellular localization or the maturation of Nox4. In fact, the inhibition of the heme synthesis by succinylacetone rather than heme catabolism by HO-1, led to a confinement of the Nox4/p22phox heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum with an absence of redox differential spectrum highlighting an incomplete maturation. Therefore, the downregulation of Nox4 activity by HO-1 induction appeared to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO) generated from the heme degradation process. Interestingly, either HO-1 or CO caused a significant decrease in the expression of MMP-1 and DNA fragmentation of chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1?. These results all together suggest that a modulation of Nox4 activity via heme oxygenase-1 may represent a promising therapeutic tool in osteoarthritis. PMID:23840483

  5. Activation of Plasma Membrane NADPH Oxidase and Generation of H2O2 Mediate the Induction of PAL Activity and Saponin Synthesis by Endogenous Elicitor in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Panax ginseng

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HU Xiang-Yang; Steven J NEILL; CAI Wei-Ming; TANG Zhang-Cheng

    Endogenous elicitor, termed cellulase-degraded cell wall (CDW), was prepared from the cell wall of suspension-cultured ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) cells via cellulase degradation. CDW acti- vated the NADPH oxidase activity of isolated plasma membranes and stimulated in vivo H2O2 generation in ginseng cell suspensions. CDW also increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), expres- sion of a P.

  6. Upregulation of cannabinoid receptor-1 and fibrotic activation of mouse hepatic stellate cells during Schistosoma J. infection: role of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mi; Abais, Justine M; Meng, Nan; Zhang, Yang; Ritter, Joseph K; Li, Pin-Lan; Tang, Wang-Xian

    2014-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system (CS) has been implicated in the development of hepatic fibrosis such as schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis (SSLF). However, the mechanisms mediating the action of the CS in hepatic fibrosis are unclear. The present study hypothesized that Schistosoma J. infection upregulates cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) due to activation of NADPH oxidase leading to a fibrotic phenotype in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The SSLF model was developed by infecting mice with Schistosoma J. cercariae in the skin, and HSCs from control and infected mice were then isolated, cultured, and confirmed by analysis of HSC markers ?-SMA and desmin. CB1 significantly increased in HSCs isolated from mice with SSLF, which was accompanied by a greater expression of fibrotic markers ?-SMA, collagen I, and TIMP-1. CB1 upregulation and enhanced fibrotic changes were also observed in normal HSCs treated with soluble egg antigen (SEA) from Schistosoma J. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis further demonstrated that superoxide (O2(-)) production was increased in infected HSCs or normal HSCs stimulated with SEA. Both Nox4 and Nox1 siRNA prevented SEA-induced upregulation of CB1, ?-SMA, collagen I, and TIMP-1 by inhibition of O2(-) production, while CB1 siRNA blocked SEA-induced fibrotic changes without effect on O2(-) production in these HSCs. Taken together, these data suggest that the fibrotic activation of HSCs on Schistosoma J. infection or SEA stimulation is associated with NADPH oxidase-mediated redox regulation of CB1 expression, which may be a triggering mechanism for SSLF. PMID:24657416

  7. Trimer hydroxylated quinone (IIIHyQ) derived from apocynin targets cysteine residues of p47phox preventing the activation of human vascular NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Pale, Mauricio; Joon-Kwon, Seok; Linhardt, Robert J.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic derived oligophenols from apocynin can be effective inhibitors of human vascular NADPH oxidase. An isolated IIIHyQ has been shown to inhibit endothelial NADPH oxidase with an IC50 ~30 nM. In vitro studies demonstrated that IIIHyQ is capable on disrupting the interaction between p47phox and p22phox, thereby blocking the activation of the Nox2 isoform. Herein, we report the role of key cysteine residues in p47phox as targets for the IIIHyQ. Incubation of p47phox with IIIHyQ results in a decrease of ~80% of the protein free cysteine residues; similar results were observed using 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinoes, while apocynin was unreactive. Mutants of p47phox, where each Cys was individually replaced by Ala (at residues 111, 196 and 378) and Gly (at residue 98), were generated to evaluate their individual importance in IIIHyQ-mediated inhibition of p47phox interaction with p22phox. Specific Michael addition on Cys196, within the N-SH3 domain, by the IIIHyQ is critical for disrupting the p47phox-p22phox interaction. When a C196A mutation was tested, the IIIHyQ was unable to disrupt the p47phox-p22phox interaction. However, the IIIHyQ was effective at disrupting this interaction with the other mutants, displaying IC50 values (4.9, 21.0, and 2.3 ?M for the C111A, C378A, and C98G mutants, respectively) comparable to that of wild type p47phox. PMID:22240153

  8. Physiological roles of NOX/NADPH oxidase, the superoxide-generating enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Katsuyama, Masato; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a superoxide (O2•?)-generating enzyme first identified in phagocytes, essential for their bactericidal activities. Later, in non-phagocytes, production of O2•? was also demonstrated in an NADPH-dependent manner. In the last decade, several non-phagocyte-type NADPH oxidases have been identified. The catalytic subunit of these oxidases, NOX, constitutes the NOX family. There are five homologs in the family, NOX1 to NOX5, and two related enzymes, DUOX1 and DUOX2. Transgenic or gene-disrupted mice of the NOX family have also been established. NOX/DUOX proteins possess distinct features in the dependency on other components for their enzymatic activities, tissue distributions, and physiological functions. This review summarized the characteristics of the NOX family proteins, especially focused on their functions clarified through studies using gene-modified mice. PMID:22247596

  9. Marinobufagenin and cyclic strain may activate endothelial NADPH oxidase, contributing to the adverse impact of salty diets on vascular and cerebral health.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-02-01

    Limited but provocative ecologic epidemiology suggests that dietary salt may play a central role in the genesis of not only of stroke, but also dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Impairment of nitric oxide bioactivity in the cerebral microvasculature is a likely mediator of this effect. Salted diets evoke increased adrenal secretion of the natriuretic steroid marinobufagenin (MBG), which promotes natriuresis via inhibition of renal tubular Na+/K+-ATPase; this effect is notably robust in salt-sensitive rodent strains in which other compensatory natriuretic mechanisms are subnormally efficient. MBG-mediated inhibition of sodium pumps in vascular smooth muscle likely plays a role in the hypertension induced by salty diets in these rodents. However, salt sensitivity in humans is associated with increased vascular mortality and ventricular hypertrophy independent of blood pressure; this suggests that MBG may be pathogenic via mechanisms unrelated to blood pressure control. Indeed, recent evidence indicates that MBG, via interaction with alpha1 isoforms of the sodium pump, can activate various intracellular signaling pathways at physiological concentrations too low to notably inhibit pump activity. An overview of current evidence suggests the hypothesis that MBG - as well as the cyclic strain induced by hypertension per se - may induce endothelial oxidative stress by activating NADPH oxidase. If so, this could rationalize the increase in vascular and systemic oxidative stress observed in salt-sensitive rodents fed salty diets, or in rodents infused with MBG; moreover, if this effect is a particularly prominent determinant of oxidative stress in cerebrovascular endothelium, it might help to explain the virtual absence of stroke and dementia in low-salt societies. As a corollary of this hypothesis, it can be predicted that spirulina-derived phycobilins, which appear to mimic the physiological role of bilirubin as an inhibitor of NAPDH oxidase complexes, may have potential for ameliorating the adverse health impacts of MBG and of salty diets. Potassium-rich diets are also likely to be protective in this regard, as they should suppress MBG production via their natriuretic impact, while their stimulatory effect on sodium pump activity may exert a hyperpolarizing effect on plasma membranes that suppresses NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:21968275

  10. Thapsigargin Triggers Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction via NADPH Oxidase -Mediated Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Role of Akt Dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2011-01-01

    ER stress triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Given that NADPH oxidase was recently implicated in ER stress-induced tissue injury, this study was designed to examine the role of NADPH oxidase in the ER stress-induced cardiac mechanical defects and the impact of Akt activation on ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies. WT and transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of active mutant of Akt (MyAkt) were subjected to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p. for 48 hr). Thapsigargin compromised echocardiographic parameters including elevated LVESD and reduced fractional shortening, suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ handling and cell survival, along with enhanced carbonyl formation, apoptosis, superoxide production, NADPH oxidase expression and mitochondrial damage. Interestingly, these anomalies were attenuated or mitigated by chronic Akt activation. Treatment with thapsigargin also dephosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal GSK3? (leading to activation of GSK3?), the effect of which was abrogated in MyAkt hearts. Knockdown of cytosolic subunit of NADPH oxidase p47phox using siRNA abrogated thapsigargin-induced apoptosis and cell death in H9C2 myoblasts. In vitro exposure of thapsigargin induced murine cardiomyocyte dysfunction reminiscent of the in vivo setting, the effects of which were ablated by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake inhibitor Ru360. In addition, apocynin abrogated thapsigargin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and permeation pore opening, similar to those induced by chronic Akt activation. In summary, these data suggest that ER stress interrupts cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, cell survival and mitochondrial integrity through an Akt dephosphorylation and NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism. PMID:21996563

  11. The NADPH oxidase Nox4 and aging in the heart.

    PubMed

    Ago, Tetsuro; Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Zablocki, Daniela; Kitazono, Takanari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress in mitochondria is believed to promote aging. Although passive leakage of electron from the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been considered as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart and the cardiomyocytes therein, enzymes actively producing reactive oxygen species may also exist in mitochondria. We have shown recently that Nox4, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is localized on intracellular membranes, primarily at mitochondria, in cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial expression of Nox4 is upregulated by cardiac stress and aging in the heart, where Nox4 could become a major source of oxidative stress. This raises an intriguing possibility that Nox4 may play an important role in mediating aging of the heart. Here we discuss the potential involvement of Nox4 in mitochondrial oxidative stress and aging in the heart. PMID:21212466

  12. The NADPH Oxidase Nox4 and Aging in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ago, Tetsuro; Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Zablocki, Daniela; Kitazono, Takanari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress in mitochondria is believed to promote aging. Although passive leakage of electron from the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been considered as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart and the cardiomyocytes therein, enzymes actively producing reactive oxygen species may also exist in mitochondria. We have shown recently that Nox4, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is localized on intracellular membranes, primarily at mitochondria, in cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial expression of Nox4 is upregulated by cardiac stress and aging in the heart, where Nox4 could become a major source of oxidative stress. This raises an intriguing possibility that Nox4 may play an important role in mediating aging of the heart. Here we discuss the potential involvement of Nox4 in mitochondrial oxidative stress and aging in the heart. PMID:21212466

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADPH oxidase 4 control STAT3 activity in melanoma cells through a pathway involving reactive oxygen species, c-SRC and SHP2

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tianchi; Kuang, Yingmin; Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Long; Li, Bo; Li, Yuqian; Wang, Yanling; Yang, Huixin; Han, Qiaoqiao; Zhu, Yuechun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) participates in glucose utilization by catalysing the first step of the pentose-phosphate pathway in mammalian cells. Previous studies have shown that changes in G6PD levels can promote tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis via the STAT3/5 pathway in a human melanoma xenograft model. G6PD cooperates with NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) in the cellular metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in maintaining the intracellular redox state. Methods: In this study, the effect of G6PD or NOX4 silencing in the melanoma line A375 was examined in terms of redox state, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src) and the tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase SHP2 expression as well as cell cycle progression. Results: The results demonstrate that: (1) Downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and up-regulation of p53 and p21 occurred in response to silencing of G6PD and NOX4 thus resulting in G1/S cell cycle arrest and inhibition of A375 cell proliferation. (2) The blockade of cell proliferation is primarily due to a reduced DNA-binding activity of STAT3. (3) The DNA-binding activity of STAT3 was regulated by the upstream factors, c-SRC and SHP2. Silencing of NOX4 in A375 cells inhibited c-SRC and SHP2 regulated STAT3 activity. Conclusion: The data are consistent with a novel G6PD-NOX4-NADPH-ROS-c-SRC/SHP2 pathway controlling STAT3 activity in A375 melanoma cells.

  14. NETosis and NADPH oxidase: at the intersection of host defense, inflammation, and injury

    PubMed Central

    Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.; Grimm, Melissa J.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Röhm, Marc; Urban, Constantin F.; Segal, Brahm H.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are armed with both oxidant-dependent and -independent pathways for killing pathogens. Activation of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase constitutes an emergency response to infectious threat and results in the generation of antimicrobial reactive oxidants. In addition, NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils is linked to activation of granular proteases and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETosis involves the release of nuclear and granular components that can target extracellular pathogens. NETosis is activated during microbial threat and in certain conditions mimicking sepsis, and can result in both augmented host defense and inflammatory injury. In contrast, apoptosis, the physiological form of neutrophil death, not only leads to non-inflammatory cell death but also contributes to alleviate inflammation. Although there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the specific contribution of NETs to host defense, we speculate that the coordinated activation of NADPH oxidase and NETosis maximizes microbial killing. Work in engineered mice and limited patient experience point to varying susceptibility of bacterial and fungal pathogens to NADPH oxidase versus NET constituents. Since reactive oxidants and NET constituents can injure host tissue, it is important that these pathways be tightly regulated. Recent work supports a role for NETosis in both acute lung injury and in autoimmunity. Knowledge gained about mechanisms that modulate NETosis may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to limit inflammation-associated injury. PMID:23459634

  15. Apocynin is not an inhibitor of vascular NADPH oxidases but an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Heumüller, Sabine; Wind, Sven; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Busse, Rudi; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P

    2008-02-01

    A large body of literature suggest that vascular reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species. Many studies, however, relied on data obtained with the inhibitor apocynin (4'-hydroxy-3'methoxyacetophenone). Because the mode of action of apocynin, however, is elusive, we determined its mechanism of inhibition on vascular NADPH oxidases. In HEK293 cells overexpressing NADPH oxidase isoforms (Nox1, Nox2, or Nox4), apocynin failed to inhibit superoxide anion generation detected by lucigenin chemiluminescence. In contrast, apocynin interfered with the detection of reactive oxygen species in assay systems selective for hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radicals. Importantly, apocynin interfered directly with the detection of peroxides but not superoxide, if generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase or nonenzymatic systems. In leukocytes, apocynin is a prodrug that is activated by myeloperoxidase, a process that results in the formation of apocynin dimers. Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells failed to form these dimers and, therefore, are not able to activate apocynin. Dimer formation was, however, observed in Nox-overexpressing HEK293 cells when myeloperoxidase was supplemented. As a consequence, apocynin should only inhibit NADPH oxidase in leukocytes, whereas in vascular cells, the compound could act as an antioxidant. Indeed, in vascular smooth muscle cells, the activation of the redox-sensitive kinases p38-mitogen-activate protein kinase, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 by hydrogen peroxide and by the intracellular radical generator menadione was prevented in the presence of apocynin. These observations indicate that apocynin predominantly acts as an antioxidant in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and should not be used as an NADPH oxidase inhibitor in vascular systems. PMID:18086956

  16. The microglial NADPH oxidase complex as a source of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Brandy L; Landreth, Gary E

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, and manifests as progressive cognitive decline and profound neuronal loss. The principal neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are the senile plaques and the neurofibrillary tangles. The senile plaques are surrounded by activated microglia, which are largely responsible for the proinflammatory environment within the diseased brain. Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the brain. In response to contact with fibrillar beta-amyloid, microglia secrete a diverse array of proinflammatory molecules. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress emanating from activated microglia contribute to the neuronal loss characteristic of this disease. The source of fibrillar beta-amyloid induced reactive oxygen species is primarily the microglial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. The NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme complex that, upon activation, produces the highly reactive free radical superoxide. The cascade of intracellular signaling events leading to NADPH oxidase assembly and the subsequent release of superoxide in fibrillar beta-amyloid stimulated microglia has recently been elucidated. The induction of reactive oxygen species, as well as nitric oxide, from activated microglia can enhance the production of more potent free radicals such as peroxynitrite. The formation of peroxynitrite causes protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, which ultimately lead to neuronal cell death. The elimination of beta-amyloid-induced oxidative damage through the inhibition of the NADPH oxidase represents an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17094809

  17. Molecular composition and regulation of the Nox family NAD(P)H oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Sumimoto; Kei Miyano; Ryu Takeya

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are conventionally regarded as inevitable deleterious by-products in aerobic metabolism with a few exceptions such as their significant role in host defense. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase, dormant in resting cells, becomes activated during phagocytosis to deliberately produce superoxide, a precursor of other microbicidal ROS, thereby playing a crucial role in killing pathogens. The catalytic center of

  18. NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes: red algae provide new hints!

    PubMed

    Hervé, Cécile; Tonon, Thierry; Collén, Jonas; Corre, Erwan; Boyen, Catherine

    2006-03-01

    The red macro-alga Chondrus crispus is known to produce superoxide radicals in response to cell-free extracts of its green algal pathogenic endophyte Acrochaete operculata. So far, no enzymes involved in this metabolism have been isolated from red algae. We report here the isolation of a gene encoding a homologue of the respiratory burst oxidase gp91(phox) in C. crispus, named Ccrboh. This single copy gene encodes a polypeptide of 825 amino acids. Search performed in available genome and EST algal databases identified sequences showing common features of NADPH oxidases in other algae such as the red unicellular Cyanidioschyzon merolae, the economically valuable red macro-alga Porphyra yezoensis and the two diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Domain organization and phylogenetic relationships with plant, animal, fungal and algal NADPH oxidase homologues were analyzed. Transcription analysis of the C. crispus gene revealed that it was over-transcribed during infection of C. crispus gametophyte by the endophyte A. operculata, and after incubation in presence of atrazine, methyl jasmonate and hydroxyperoxides derived from C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also illustrate the interest of exploring the red algal lineage for gaining insight into the deep evolution of NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes. PMID:16344959

  19. Phosphorylation of NADPH oxidase activator 1 (NOXA1) on serine 282 by MAP kinases and on serine 172 by protein kinase C and protein kinase A prevents NOX1 hyperactivation.

    PubMed

    Kroviarski, Yolande; Debbabi, Maya; Bachoual, Rafik; Périanin, Axel; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; El-Benna, Jamel; Dang, Pham My-Chan

    2010-06-01

    NADPH oxidase activator 1 (NOXA1) together with NADPH oxidase organizer 1 (NOXO1) are key regulatory subunits of the NADPH oxidase NOX1. NOX1 is expressed mainly in colon epithelial cells and could be involved in mucosal innate immunity by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Contrary to its phagocyte counterpart NOX2, the mechanisms involved in NOX1 activation and regulation remain unclear. Here we report that NOX1 activity is regulated through MAP kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of NOXA1. We identified Ser-282 as target of MAPK and Ser-172 as target of PKC and PKA in vitro and in a transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cell model using site directed mutagenesis and phosphopeptide mapping analysis. In HEK293 cells, phosphorylation of these sites occurred at a basal level and down-regulated constitutive NOX1 activity. Indeed, S172A and S282A single mutants of NOXA1 significantly up-regulated constitutive NOX1-derived ROS production, and S172A/S282A double mutant further increased it, as compared to wild-type NOXA1. Furthermore, phosphorylation of NOXA1 on Ser-282 and Ser-172 decreased its binding to NOX1 and Rac1. These results demonstrated a critical role of NOXA1 phosphorylation on Ser-282 and Ser-172 in preventing NOX1 hyperactivation through the decrease of NOXA1 interaction to NOX1 and Rac1. PMID:20110267

  20. Targeting NADPH Oxidase and Phospholipases A2 in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; He, Yan; Sheng, Wenwen; Sun, Albert Y.; Wood, W. Gibson; Weisman, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is marked by an increase in the production of extracellular beta amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles associated with a decline in brain function. Increases in oxidative stress are regarded as an early sign of AD pathophysiology, although the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mechanism(s) whereby beta amyloid peptides (A?) impact oxidative stress have not been adequately investigated. Recent studies provide strong evidence for the involvement of NADPH oxidase and its downstream oxidative signaling pathways in the toxic effects elicited by A?. ROS produced by NADPH oxidase activate multiple signaling pathways leading to neuronal excitotoxicity and glial cell-mediated inflammation. This review describes recent studies demonstrating the neurotoxic effects of A? in conjunction with ROS produced by NADPH oxidase and the downstream pathways leading to activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and secretory PLA2. In addition, this review also describes recent studies using botanical antioxidants to protect against oxidative damage associated with AD. Investigating the metabolic and signaling pathways involving A? NADPH oxidase and PLA2 can help understand the mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative effects of oxidative stress in AD. This information should provide new therapeutic approaches for prevention of this debilitating disease. PMID:20195796

  1. NADPH Oxidase versus Mitochondria-Derived ROS in Glucose-Induced Apoptosis of Pericytes in Early Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mustapha, Nik M.; Tarr, Joanna M.; Kohner, Eva M.; Chibber, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Using apocynin (inhibitor of NADPH oxidase), and Mitoquinol 10 nitrate (MitoQ; mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant), we addressed the importance of mitochondria versus NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in glucose-induced apoptosis of pericytes. Methods. NADPH oxidase was localised using Western blot analysis and cytochrome C reduction assay. Apoptosis was detected by measuring caspase-3 activity. Intracellular glucose concentration, ROS formation and N?-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) content were measured using Amplex Red assay kit, dihydroethidium (DHE), and competitive immunoabsorbant enzyme-linked assay (ELISA), respectively. Results. NADPH oxidase was localised in the cytoplasm of pericytes suggesting ROS production within intracellular compartments. High glucose (25?mM) significantly increased apoptosis, intracellular glucose concentration, and CML content. Apoptosis was associated with increased gp91phox expression, activity of NADPH oxidase, and intracellular ROS production. Apocynin and not MitoQ significantly blunted the generation of ROS, formation of intracellular CML and apoptosis. Conclusions. NADPH oxidase and not mitochondria-derived ROS is responsible for the accelerated apoptosis of pericytes in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:20652059

  2. Upregulation of Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels (KCNN4) in Porcine Coronary Smooth Muscle Requires NADPH Oxidase 5 (NOX5)

    PubMed Central

    Gole, Hope K. A.; Tharp, Darla L.; Bowles, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims NADPH oxidase (NOX) is the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and is proposed to play a key role in redox signaling involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Growth factors and cytokines stimulate coronary SMC (CSMC) phenotypic modulation, proliferation, and migration during atherosclerotic plaque development and restenosis. We previously demonstrated that increased expression and activity of intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCNN4) is necessary for CSMC phenotypic modulation and progression of stenotic lesions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether NOX is required for KCNN4 upregulation induced by mitogenic growth factors. Methods and Results Dihydroethidium micro-fluorography in porcine CSMCs demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) increased superoxide production, which was blocked by the NOX inhibitor apocynin (Apo). Apo also blocked bFGF-induced increases in KCNN4 mRNA levels in both right coronary artery sections and CSMCs. Similarly, immunohistochemistry and whole cell voltage clamp showed bFGF-induced increases in CSMC KCNN4 protein expression and channel activity were abolished by Apo. Treatment with Apo also inhibited bFGF-induced increases in activator protein-1 promoter activity, as measured by luciferase activity assay. qRT-PCR demonstrated porcine coronary smooth muscle expression of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NOX5 isoforms. Knockdown of NOX5 alone prevented both bFGF-induced upregulation of KCNN4 mRNA and CSMC migration. Conclusions Our findings provide novel evidence that NOX5-derived ROS increase functional expression of KCNN4 through activator protein-1, providing another potential link between NOX, CSMC phenotypic modulation, and atherosclerosis. PMID:25144362

  3. Spinal sigma-1 receptors activate NADPH oxidase 2 leading to the induction of pain hypersensitivity in mice and mechanical allodynia in neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sheu-Ran; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Kang, Suk-Yun; Moon, Ji-Young; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Oh, Seog-Bae; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2013-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated that spinal sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) mediate pain hypersensitivity in mice and neuropathic pain in rats. In this study, we examine the role of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) on Sig-1R-induced pain hypersensitivity and the induction of chronic neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve in rats. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated in mice and CCI-rats. Western blotting and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining were performed to assess the changes in Nox2 activation and ROS production in spinal cord, respectively. Direct activation of spinal Sig-1Rs with the Sig-1R agonist, PRE084 induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, which were dose-dependently attenuated by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, NAC or the Nox inhibitor, apocynin. PRE084 also induced an increase in Nox2 activation and ROS production, which were attenuated by pretreatment with the Sig-1R antagonist, BD1047 or apocynin. CCI-induced nerve injury produced an increase in Nox2 activation and ROS production in the spinal cord, all of which were attenuated by intrathecal administration with BD1047 during the induction phase of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, administration with BD1047 or apocynin reversed CCI-induced mechanical allodynia during the induction phase, but not the maintenance phase. These findings demonstrate that spinal Sig-1Rs modulate Nox2 activation and ROS production in the spinal cord, and ultimately contribute to the Sig-1R-induced pain hypersensitivity and the peripheral nerve injury-induced induction of chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:23732704

  4. Protective action of NADPH oxidase inhibitors and role of NADPH oxidase in pathogenesis of colon inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramonaite, Rima; Skieceviciene, Jurgita; Juzenas, Simonas; Salteniene, Violeta; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Matusevicius, Paulius; Borutaite, Vilmante; Kupcinskas, Limas

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in colon epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic colon inflammation in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: 8 mice with acute DSS-induced colitis (3.5% DSS solution; 7 d), 8 mice with chronic DSS-induced colitis (3.5% DSS solution for 5 d + water for 6 d; 4 cycles; total: 44 d) and 12 mice without DSS supplementation as a control group. Primary colonic epithelial cells were isolated using chelation method. The cells were cultivated in the presence of mediators (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), apocynin or diphenyleneiodonium). Viability of cells was assessed by fluorescent microscopy. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the cells was measured fluorometrically using Amplex Red. Production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) by the colonic epithelial cells was analysed by ELISA. Nox1 gene expression was assessed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Our study showed that TNF-? level was increased in unstimulated primary colonic cells both in the acute and chronic colitis groups, whereas decreased viability, increased ROS production, and expression of Nox1 was characteristic only for chronic DSS colitis mice when compared to the controls. The stimulation by LPS increased ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and decreased cell viability in mice with acute colitis. Treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors increased cell viability and decreased the levels of ROS and TNF-? in the LPS-treated cells isolated from mice of both acute and chronic colitis groups. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed the importance of NADPH oxidase in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic inflammation of the colon. PMID:25253955

  5. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase 5 by Protein Kinase C Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Haigh, Steven; Johnson, John; Lucas, Rudolf; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J. R.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase5 (Nox5) is a novel Nox isoform which has recently been recognized as having important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, fetal ventricular septal defect and cancer. The activity of Nox5 and production of reactive oxygen species is regulated by intracellular calcium levels and phosphorylation. However, the kinases that phosphorylate Nox5 remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the phosphorylation of Nox5 is PKC dependent, but this contention was based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors and the isoforms of PKC involved remain unknown. Thus, the major goals of this study were to determine whether PKC can directly regulate Nox5 phosphorylation and activity, to identify which isoforms are involved in the process, and to understand the functional significance of this pathway in disease. We found that a relatively specific PKC? inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, dose-dependently inhibited PMA-induced superoxide production from Nox5. PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity was significantly reduced in cells with genetic silencing of PKC? and PKC?, enhanced by loss of PKC? and the silencing of PKC? expression was without effect. A constitutively active form of PKC? robustly increased basal and PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity and promoted the phosphorylation of Nox5 on Ser490, Thr494, and Ser498. In contrast, constitutively active PKC? potently inhibited both basal and PMA-dependent Nox5 activity. Co-IP and in vitro kinase assay experiments demonstrated that PKC? directly binds to Nox5 and modifies Nox5 phosphorylation and activity. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose significantly increased PKC? activation, and enhanced Nox5 derived superoxide in a manner that was in prevented by a PKC? inhibitor, Go 6976. In summary, our study reveals that PKC? is the primary isoform mediating the activation of Nox5 and this maybe of significance in our understanding of the vascular complications of diabetes and other diseases with increased ROS production. PMID:24505490

  6. Role of the NADPH oxidases in the subfornical organ in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lob, Heinrich E; Schultz, David; Marvar, Paul J; Davisson, Robin L; Harrison, David G

    2013-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species and the NADPH oxidases contribute to hypertension via mechanisms that remain undefined. Reactive oxygen species produced in the central nervous system have been proposed to promote sympathetic outflow, inflammation, and hypertension, but the contribution of the NADPH oxidases to these processes in chronic hypertension is uncertain. We therefore sought to identify how NADPH oxidases in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain regulate blood pressure and vascular inflammation during sustained hypertension. We produced mice with loxP sites flanking the coding region of the NADPH oxidase docking subunit p22(phox). SFO-targeted injections of an adenovirus encoding cre-recombinase markedly diminished p22(phox), Nox2, and Nox4 mRNA in the SFO, as compared with a control adenovirus encoding red-fluorescent protein injection. Increased superoxide production in the SFO by chronic angiotensin II infusion (490 ng/kg min(-1) × 2 weeks) was blunted in adenovirus encoding cre-recombinase-treated mice, as detected by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Deletion of p22(phox) in the SFO eliminated the hypertensive response observed at 2 weeks of angiotensin II infusion compared with control adenovirus encoding red-fluorescent protein-treated mice (mean arterial pressures=97 ± 15 versus 154 ± 6 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.0001). Angiotensin II infusion also promoted marked vascular inflammation, as characterized by accumulation of activated T-cells and other leukocytes, and this was prevented by deletion of the SFO p22(phox). These experiments definitively identify the NADPH oxidases in the SFO as a critical determinant of the blood pressure and vascular inflammatory responses to chronic angiotensin II, and further support a role of reactive oxygen species in central nervous system signaling in hypertension. PMID:23248154

  7. Correction of Aberrant NADPH Oxidase Activity in Blood-Derived Mononuclear Cells from Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients by a Naturally Fermented Papaya Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Ryan; Deshpande, Bhakthi; Gnyawali, Urmila; Lynch, Debbie; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Supplementation of standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) to adult diabetic mice improves dermal wound healing outcomes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients elicit a compromised respiratory burst activity resulting in increased risk of infections for the diabetic patients. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to determine the effect of FPP supplementation on human diabetic PBMC respiratory burst activity and to understand underlying mechanisms of such action of FPP. Results: When stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the production of reactive oxygen species by T2DM PBMC was markedly compromised compared to that of the PBMC from non-DM donors. FPP treated ex vivo improved respiratory burst outcomes in T2DM PBMC. FPP treatment significantly increased phosphorylation of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. In addition, the protein and mRNA expression of Rac2 was potently upregulated after FPP supplemention. The proximal human Rac2 gene promoter is G–C rich and contains consensus binding sites for Sp1 and AP-1. While FPP had no significant effect on the AP-1 DNA binding activity, the Sp1 DNA binding activity was significantly upregulated in PBMC after treatment of the cells with FPP. Innovation: This work provided first evidence that compromised respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC may be corrected by a nutritional supplement. Conclusion: FPP can correct respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC via an Sp-1-dependant pathway. Studies testing the outcome of FPP supplementation in diabetic patients are warranted. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 485–491. PMID:22369197

  8. Amyloid-? and Proinflammatory Cytokines Utilize a Prion Protein-Dependent Pathway to Activate NADPH Oxidase and Induce Cofilin-Actin Rods in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Sarah J.; Shaw, Alisa E.; Brown, David R.; Pulford, Bruce; Zabel, Mark D.; Lambeth, J. David; Bamburg, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Neurites of neurons under acute or chronic stress form bundles of filaments (rods) containing 1?1 cofilin?actin, which impair transport and synaptic function. Rods contain disulfide cross-linked cofilin and are induced by treatments resulting in oxidative stress. Rods form rapidly (5–30 min) in >80% of cultured hippocampal or cortical neurons treated with excitotoxic levels of glutamate or energy depleted (hypoxia/ischemia or mitochondrial inhibitors). In contrast, slow rod formation (50% of maximum response in ?6 h) occurs in a subpopulation (?20%) of hippocampal neurons upon exposure to soluble human amyloid-? dimer/trimer (A?d/t) at subnanomolar concentrations. Here we show that proinflammatory cytokines (TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6) also induce rods at the same rate and within the same neuronal population as A?d/t. Neurons from prion (PrPC)-null mice form rods in response to glutamate or antimycin A, but not in response to proinflammatory cytokines or A?d/t. Two pathways inducing rod formation were confirmed by demonstrating that NADPH-oxidase (NOX) activity is required for prion-dependent rod formation, but not for rods induced by glutamate or energy depletion. Surprisingly, overexpression of PrPC is by itself sufficient to induce rods in over 40% of hippocampal neurons through the NOX-dependent pathway. Persistence of PrPC-dependent rods requires the continuous activity of NOX. Removing inducers or inhibiting NOX activity in cells containing PrPC-dependent rods causes rod disappearance with a half-life of about 36 min. Cofilin-actin rods provide a mechanism for synapse loss bridging the amyloid and cytokine hypotheses for Alzheimer disease, and may explain how functionally diverse A?-binding membrane proteins induce synaptic dysfunction. PMID:24760020

  9. Role of PKC?-p(38)MAPK-G(i)? axis in NADPH oxidase derived O(2)(·-)-mediated activation of cPLA(2) under U46619 stimulation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Sajal; Roy, Soumitra; Mandal, Amritlal; Dey, Kuntal; Chowdhury, Animesh; Shaikh, Soni; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2012-07-15

    We have recently reported that treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with the thromboxane A(2) mimetic, U46619 stimulated NADPH oxidase derived O(2)(·-) level, which subsequently caused marked increase in [Ca(2+)](i)[17]. Herein, we demonstrated that O(2)(·-)-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) stimulates an aprotinin sensitive proteinase activity, which proteolytically activates PKC-? under U46619 treatment to the cells. The activated PKC-? then phosphorylates p(38)MAPK and that subsequently caused G(i)? phosphorylation leading to stimulation of cPLA(2) activity in the cell membrane. PMID:22568895

  10. NADPH Oxidase Mediates Hypersomnolence and Brain Oxidative Injury in a Murine Model of Sleep Apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanxia Zhan; Faridis Serrano; Polina Fenik; Ray Hsu; Linghao Kong; Domenico Pratico; Eric Klann; Sigrid C. Veasey

    2005-01-01

    Rationale:Personswithobstructivesleepapneamayhavesignificant residual hypersomnolence, despite therapy. Long-term hypoxia\\/ reoxygenation events in adult mice, simulating oxygenation pat- ternsofmoderate-severesleepapnea,resultinlastinghypersomno- lence, oxidative injury, and proinflammatory responses in wake- active brain regions. We hypothesized that long-term intermittent hypoxia activates brain NADPH oxidase and that this enzyme serves as a critical source of superoxide in the oxidation injury and in hypersomnolence. Objectives: We sought to determine

  11. NADPH Oxidase-Derived Peroxynitrite Drives Inflammation in Mice and Human Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis via TLR4-Lipid Raft Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2015-07-01

    The molecular events that link NADPH oxidase activation and the induction of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 recruitment into hepatic lipid rafts in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are unclear. We hypothesized that in liver, NADPH oxidase activation is key in TLR4 recruitment into lipid rafts, which in turn up-regulates NF-?B translocation to the nucleus and subsequent DNA binding, leading to NASH progression. Results from confocal microscopy showed that liver from murine and human NASH had NADPH oxidase activation, which led to the formation of highly reactive peroxynitrite, as shown by 3-nitrotyrosine formation in diseased liver. Expression and recruitment of TLR4 into the lipid rafts were significantly greater in rodent and human NASH. The described phenomenon was NADPH oxidase, p47phox, and peroxynitrite dependent, as liver from p47phox-deficient mice and from mice treated with a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst [iron(III) tetrakis(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin] or a peroxynitrite scavenger (phenylboronic acid) had markedly less Tlr4 recruitment into lipid rafts. Mechanistically, peroxynitrite-induced TLR4 recruitment was linked to increased IL-1?, sinusoidal injury, and Kupffer cell activation while blocking peroxynitrite-attenuated NASH symptoms. The results strongly suggest that NADPH oxidase-mediated peroxynitrite drove TLR4 recruitment into hepatic lipid rafts and inflammation, whereas the in vivo use of the peroxynitrite scavenger phenylboronic acid, a novel synthetic molecule having high reactivity with peroxynitrite, attenuates inflammatory pathogenesis in NASH. PMID:25989356

  12. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast switch is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase generated reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Alili, Lirija; Sack, Maren; Puschmann, Katharina; Brenneisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Tumour–stroma interaction is a prerequisite for tumour progression in skin cancer. Hereby, a critical step in stromal function is the transition of tumour-associated fibroblasts to MFs (myofibroblasts) by growth factors, for example TGF? (transforming growth factor beta(). In this study, the question was addressed of whether fibroblast-associated NAD(P)H oxidase (NADH/NADPH oxidase), known to be activated by TGF?1, is involved in the fibroblast-to-MF switch. The up-regulation of ?SMA (alpha smooth muscle actin), a biomarker for MFs, is mediated by a TGF?1-dependent increase in the intracellular level of ROS (reactive oxygen species). This report demonstrates two novel aspects of the TGF?1 signalling cascade, namely the generation of ROS due to a biphasic NAD(P)H oxidase activity and a ROS-dependent downstream activation of p38 leading to a transition of dermal fibroblasts to MFs that can be inhibited by the selective NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin. These data suggest that inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase activity prevents the fibroblast-to-MF switch and may be important for chemoprevention in context of a ‘stromal therapy’ which was described earlier. PMID:24299025

  13. Angiotensin II, NADPH Oxidase, and Redox Signaling in the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Montezano, Augusto C.; Burger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Angiotensin II (Ang II) influences the function of many cell types and regulates many organ systems, in large part through redox-sensitive processes. In the vascular system, Ang II is a potent vasoconstrictor and also promotes inflammation, hypertrophy, and fibrosis, which are important in vascular damage and remodeling in cardiovascular diseases. The diverse actions of Ang II are mediated via Ang II type 1 and Ang II type 2 receptors, which couple to various signaling molecules, including NADPH oxidase (Nox), which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are now recognized as signaling molecules, critically placed in pathways activated by Ang II. Mechanisms linking Nox and Ang II are complex and not fully understood. Recent Advances: Ang II regulates vascular cell production of ROS through various recently characterized Noxs, including Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5. Activation of these Noxs leads to ROS generation, which in turn influences many downstream signaling targets of Ang II, including MAP kinases, RhoA/Rho kinase, transcription factors, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and tyrosine kinases. Activation of these redox-sensitive pathways regulates vascular cell growth, inflammation, contraction, and senescence. Critical Issues: Although there is much evidence indicating a role for Nox/ROS in Ang II function, there is still a paucity of information on how Ang II exerts cell-specific effects through ROS and how Nox isoforms are differentially regulated by Ang II. Moreover, exact mechanisms whereby ROS induce oxidative modifications of signaling molecules mediating Ang II actions remain elusive. Future Directions: Future research should elucidate these issues to better understand the significance of Ang II and ROS in vascular (patho) biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1110–1120. PMID:22530599

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species and Angiogenesis: NADPH Oxidase as Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth, metastasis, arteriosclerosis as well as embryonic development and wound healing. Its process is dependent on cell proliferation, migration and capillary tube formation in endothelia cells (ECs). High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and H2O2 are observed in various cancer cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that ROS function as signaling molecules to mediate various growth-related responses including angiogenesis. ROS-dependent angiogenesis can be regulated by endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and thioredoxin. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the major angiogenesis factor, is induced in growing tumors and stimulates EC proliferation and migration primarily through the VEGF receptor type2 (VEGFR2, Flk1/KDR). Major source of ROS in ECs is a NADPH oxidase which consists of Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, Nox5, p22phox, p47phox and the small G protein Rac1. NADPH oxidase is activated by various growth factors including VEGF and angiopoietin-1 as well as hypoxia and ischemia, and ROS derived from this oxidase are involved in VEGFR2 autophosphorylation, and diverse redox signaling pathways leading to induction of transcription factors and genes involved in angiogenesis. Dietary antioxidants appear to be effective for treatment of tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the recent progress on role of ROS derived from NADPH oxidase and redox signaling events involved in angiogenesis. Understanding these mechanisms may provide insight into the NADPH oxidase and redox signaling components as potential therapeutic targets for tumor angiogenesis. PMID:18406051

  15. Versatile roles of plant NADPH oxidases and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Ashutosh; Guruprasad, Kunchur; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a key player in the network of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing enzymes. It catalyzes the production of superoxide (O2(-)), that in turn regulates a wide range of biological functions in a broad range of organisms. Plant Noxes are known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) and are homologs of catalytic subunit of mammalian phagocyte gp91(phox). They are unique among other ROS producing mechanisms in plants as they integrate different signal transduction pathways in plants. In recent years, there has been addition of knowledge on various aspects related to its structure, regulatory components and associated mechanisms, and its plethora of biological functions. This update highlights some of the recent developments in the field with particular reference to important members of the plant kingdom. PMID:24561450

  16. NADPH Oxidase and the Cardiovascular Toxicity Associated with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mikyung; Han, Chang-ho

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most serious but preventable causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Key aspects of pathological process associated with smoking include endothelial dysfunction, a prothrombotic state, inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and hypoxia. Multiple molecular events are involved in smokinginduced CVD. However, the dysregulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and metabolism mainly contribute to the development of diverse CVDs, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been established as a source of ROS responsible for the pathogenesis of CVD. NOX activation and resultant ROS production by cigarette smoke (CS) treatment have been widely observed in isolated blood vessels and cultured vascular cells, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells. NOX-mediated oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in animal studies. Of the various NOX isoforms, NOX2 has been reported to mediate ROS generation by CS, but other isoforms were not tested thoroughly. Of the many CS constituents, nicotine, methyl vinyl ketone, and ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, such as, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, appear to be primarily responsible for NOX-mediated cytotoxicity, but additional validation will be needed. Human epidemiological studies have reported relationships between polymorphisms in the CYBA gene encoding p22phox, a catalytic subunit of NOX and susceptibility to smoking-related CVDs. In particular, G allele carriers of A640G and -930A/G polymorphisms were found to be vulnerable to smoking-induced cardiovascular toxicity, but results for C242T studies are conflicting. On the whole, evidence implicates the etiological role of NOX in smoking-induced CVD, but the clinical relevance of NOX activation by smoking and its contribution to CVD require further validation in human studies. A detailed understanding of the role of NOX would be helpful to assess the risk of smoking to human health, to define high-risk subgroups, and to develop strategies to prevent or treat smoking-induced CVD. PMID:25343008

  17. Cardiac oxidative stress and remodeling following infarction: role of NADPH oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenyuan Zhao; Dawn Zhao; Ran Yan; Yao Sun

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThere is growing recognition that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogeneses of myocardial repair\\/remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). Nicotinamide adenine denucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is a major source for cardiac reactive oxygen species production. Herein, we studied the importance of NADPH oxidase in development of cardiac oxidative stress and its induced molecular and cellular changes related to myocardial

  18. Unconventional Roles of the NADPH Oxidase: Signaling, Ion Homeostasis, and Cell Death

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benjamin E. Steinberg (Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto; Program in Cell Biology REV)

    2007-03-27

    Although the central role of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase in mediating bacterial killing has long been appreciated, this sophisticated enzyme complex serves various other important functions. This Perspective focuses on these underappreciated roles of phagocytic NADPH oxidase, highlighting recent work implicating reactive oxygen species in triggering an unconventional form of cell death.

  19. Nrf2 regulates ROS production by mitochondria and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Stjepana; Angelova, Plamena R.; Holmström, Kira M.; Zhang, Ying; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Abramov, Andrey Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) factor 2 (Nrf2) is a crucial transcription factor mediating protection against oxidants. Nrf2 is negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) thereby providing inducible antioxidant defence. Antioxidant properties of Nrf2 are thought to be mainly exerted by stimulating transcription of antioxidant proteins, whereas its effects on ROS production within the cell are uncertain. Methods Live cell imaging and qPCR in brain hippocampal glio-neuronal cultures and explants slice cultures with graded expression of Nrf2, i.e. Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO), wild-type (WT), and Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD). Results We here show that ROS production in Nrf2-KO cells and tissues is increased compared to their WT counterparts. Mitochondrial ROS production is regulated by the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway by controlling mitochondrial bioenergetics. Surprisingly, Keap1-KD cells and tissues also showed higher rates of ROS production when compared to WT, although with a smaller magnitude. Analysis of the mRNA expression levels of the two NOX isoforms implicated in brain pathology showed, that NOX2 is dramatically upregulated under conditions of Nrf2 deficiency, whereas NOX4 is upregulated when Nrf2 is constitutively activated (Keap1-KD) to a degree which paralleled the increases in ROS production. Conclusions These observations suggest that the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway regulates both mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS production through NADPH oxidase. General significance Findings supports a key role of the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway in redox homeostasis within the cell. PMID:25484314

  20. Cytotoxin-induced NADPH oxides activation: roles in regulation of cell death.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongtao; Bi, Xiaolei; Jiang, Fan

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a variety of cytotoxic agents can activate the NADPH oxidase system and induce redox-dependent regulation of cellular functions. Cytotoxin-induced NADPH oxidase activation may either exert cytoprotective actions (e.g., survival, proliferation, and stress tolerance) or cause cell death. Here we summarize the experimental evidence showing the context-dependent dichotomous effects of NADPH oxidase on cell fate under cytotoxic stress conditions and the potential redox signaling mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Clearly, it is difficult to create a unified paradigm on the toxicological implications of NADPH oxidase activation in response to cytotoxic stimuli. We suggest that interventional strategies targeting the NADPH oxidase system to prevent the adverse impacts of cytotoxins need to be contemplated in a stimuli- and cell type-specific manner. PMID:25690733

  1. Differential roles of NADPH oxidases in vascular physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Amanso, Angelica M.; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by all vascular cells and regulate the major physiological functions of the vasculature. Production and removal of ROS are tightly controlled and occur in discrete subcellular locations, allowing for specific, compartmentalized signaling. Among the many sources of ROS in the vessel wall, NADPH oxidases are implicated in physiological functions such as control of vasomotor tone, regulation of extracellular matrix and phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells. They are involved in the response to injury, whether as an oxygen sensor during hypoxia, as a regulator of protein processing, as an angiogenic stimulus, or as a mechanism of wound healing. These enzymes have also been linked to processes leading to disease development, including migration, proliferation, hypertrophy, apoptosis and autophagy. As a result, NADPH oxidases participate in atherogenesis, systemic and pulmonary hypertension and diabetic vascular disease. The role of ROS in each of these processes and diseases is complex, and a more full understanding of the sources, targets, cell-specific responses and counterbalancing mechanisms is critical for the rational development of future therapeutics. PMID:22202108

  2. S-nitrosylation of NADPH oxidase regulates cell death in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Yun, Byung-Wook; Feechan, Angela; Yin, Minghui; Saidi, Noor B B; Le Bihan, Thierry; Yu, Manda; Moore, John W; Kang, Jeong-Gu; Kwon, Eunjung; Spoel, Steven H; Pallas, Jacqueline A; Loake, Gary J

    2011-10-13

    Changes in redox status are a conspicuous feature of immune responses in a variety of eukaryotes, but the associated signalling mechanisms are not well understood. In plants, attempted microbial infection triggers the rapid synthesis of nitric oxide and a parallel accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates, the latter generated by NADPH oxidases related to those responsible for the pathogen-activated respiratory burst in phagocytes. Both nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates have been implicated in controlling the hypersensitive response, a programmed execution of plant cells at sites of attempted infection. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin their function and coordinate their synthesis are unknown. Here we show genetic evidence that increases in cysteine thiols modified using nitric oxide, termed S-nitrosothiols, facilitate the hypersensitive response in the absence of the cell death agonist salicylic acid and the synthesis of reactive oxygen intermediates. Surprisingly, when concentrations of S-nitrosothiols were high, nitric oxide function also governed a negative feedback loop limiting the hypersensitive response, mediated by S-nitrosylation of the NADPH oxidase, AtRBOHD, at Cys 890, abolishing its ability to synthesize reactive oxygen intermediates. Accordingly, mutation of Cys 890 compromised S-nitrosothiol-mediated control of AtRBOHD activity, perturbing the magnitude of cell death development. This cysteine is evolutionarily conserved and specifically S-nitrosylated in both human and fly NADPH oxidase, suggesting that this mechanism may govern immune responses in both plants and animals. PMID:21964330

  3. TLR8, but not TLR7, induces the priming of the NADPH oxidase activation in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Makni-Maalej, Karama; Marzaioli, Viviana; Boussetta, Tarek; Belambri, Sahra Amel; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Dang, Pham My-Chan; El-Benna, Jamel

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils play a key role in host defense against invading pathogens by releasing toxic agents, such as ROS and antimicrobial peptides. Human neutrophils express several TLRs that recognize a variety of microbial motifs. The interaction between TLR and their agonists is believed to help neutrophils to recognize and to kill pathogens efficiently by increasing their activation, a process called priming. However, excessive activation can induce tissue injury and thereby, contribute to inflammatory disorders. Agonists that activate TLR7 and TLR8 induce priming of neutrophil ROS production; however, which receptor is involved in this process has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that the selective TLR8 agonist, CL075 (3M002), induced a dramatic increase of fMLF-stimulated NOX2 activation, whereas the selective TLR7 agonist, loxoribine, failed to induce any priming effect. Interestingly, CL075, but not loxoribine, induced the phosphorylation of the NOX2 cytosolic component p47phox on several serines and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2. The inhibitor of p38MAPK completely blocked CL075-induced phosphorylation of p47phox Ser345. Moreover, CL075, but not loxoribine, induced the activation of the proline isomerase Pin1, and juglone, a Pin1 inhibitor, prevented CL075-mediated priming of fMLF-induced superoxide production. These results indicate that TLR8, but not TLR7, is involved in priming of human neutrophil ROS production by inducing the phosphorylation of p47phox and p38MAPK and that Pin1 is also involved in this process. PMID:25877926

  4. Broad Suppression of NADPH Oxidase Activity Exacerbates Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through Inadvertent Downregulation of HIF-1? and Upregulation of PPAR?

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Ago, Tetsuro; Zhai, Peiyong; Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Shinichi; Fong, Guo-Hua; Tian, Rong; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Nox2 and Nox4 are major components of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family, which purposefully produce reactive oxidative species (ROS), namely O2? and H2O2, in the heart. The isoform-specific contribution of Nox2 and Nox4 to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is poorly understood. Objective We investigated the role of Nox2 and Nox4 in mediating oxidative stress and myocardial injury during I/R using loss of function mouse models. Methods and Results Systemic (s) Nox2 KO, sNox4 KO, and cardiac-specific (c) Nox4 KO mice were subjected to I (30 min)/R (24 h). Both myocardial infarct size/area at risk (MI/AAR) and O2? production were lower in sNox2 KO, sNox4 KO, and cNox4 KO than in wild-type (WT) mice. Unexpectedly, however, the MI/AAR was greater, despite less O2? production, in sNox2 KO+cNox4 KO (DKO) mice and transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of dominant-negative Nox (Tg-DN-Nox), which suppresses both Nox2 and Nox4, than in WT or single KO mice. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) was downregulated while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR?) was upregulated in Tg-DN-Nox mice. A cross with mice deficient in prolyl hydroxylase 2, which hydroxylates HIF-1?, rescued the I/R injury and prevented upregulation of PPAR? in Tg-DN-Nox mice. A cross with PPAR? KO mice also attenuated the injury in Tg-DN-Nox mice. Conclusions nBoth Nox2 and Nox4 contribute to the increase in ROS and injury by I/R. However, low levels of ROS produced by either Nox2 or Nox4 regulate HIF-1? and PPAR?, thereby protecting the heart against I/R, suggesting that Noxs also act as a physiological sensor for myocardial adaptation. PMID:23476056

  5. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

  6. Novel Role of NADPH Oxidase in Angiogenesis and Stem/Progenitor Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Urao, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Neovascularization is involved in normal development and wound repair as well as ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease. Both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis [de novo new vessel formation through mobilization of stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow (BM) and their homing to the ischemic sites] contribute to the formation of new blood vessels after tissue ischemia. Angiogenesis is dependent on cell proliferation, migration, and capillary tube formation in endothelial cells (ECs). Stem/progenitor cells have been used for cell-based therapy to promote revascularization after peripheral or myocardial ischemia. Excess amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in senescence and apoptosis of ECs and stem/progenitor cells, causing defective neovascularization. ROS at low levels function as signaling molecules to mediate cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and gene expression. NADPH oxidase is one of the major sources of ROS in ECs and stem/progenitor cells, and is activated by various growth factors, cytokines, hypoxia, and ischemia. ROS derived from NADPH oxidase play an important role in redox signaling linked to angiogenesis ECs, as well as stem/progenitor cell mobilization, homing, and differentiation, thereby promoting neovascularization. Understanding these mechanisms may provide insight into NADPH oxidase and its mediators as potential therapeutic targets for ischemic heart and limb disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2517–2533. PMID:19309262

  7. Role of PKC-? in NADPH oxidase-PKC?-Gi? axis dependent inhibition of ?-adrenergic response by U46619 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Sajal; Roy, Soumitra; Mandal, Amritlal; Chowdhury, Animesh; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (BPASMCs) with U46619 attenuated isoproterenol caused stimulation of adenyl cyclase activity and cAMP production. Pretreatment with SQ29548 (Tp receptor antagonist), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and Go6976 (PKC-? inhibitor) eliminated U46619 caused attenuation of isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. Pretreatment with SQ29548 and apocynin prevented U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, PKC-? activity and Gi? phosphorylation. However, pretreatment with CZI, a PKC-? inhibitor, markedly, but not completely, inhibited U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, PKC-? activity, Gi? phosphorylation and also significantly eliminated U46619 caused attenuation of isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. Pretreatment with Go6976 inhibited U46619 induced increase in Gi? phosphorylation, but not PKC-? activity and NADPH oxidase activity. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin eliminated U46619 caused attenuation of isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity without any discernible change in PKC-?, NADPH oxidase and PKC-? activities. Transfection of the cells with Tp, PKC-? and PKC-? siRNA duplexes corroborate the findings observed with their respective pharmacological inhibitors on the responses produced by U46619. Taken together, we suggest involvement of PKC-? in U46619 caused attenuation of isoproterenol stimulated ?-adrenergic response, which is regulated by NADPH oxidase-PKC?-Gi? axis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. PMID:24184446

  8. Spironolactone Inhibits NADPH Oxidase-Induced Oxidative Stress and Enhances eNOS in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Ashraf; Morawietz, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that aldosterone plays a critical role in the mediation of oxidative stress and vascular damage. NADPH oxidase has been recognized as a major source of oxidative stress in vasculature. However, the relation between NADPH oxidase in aldosterone-mediated oxidative stress in endothelial cells remains to be ascertained. The present study aimed to investigate the relevant role of NADPH oxidase in aldosterone induced oxidative stress and the functional consequence of this effect on endothelial function. Additionally, we attempted to examine the potential role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist; spironolactone (spiro) in this scenario. Human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs) were incubated with aldosterone (100 nmol/L, 24 h) in the absence and presence of Spiro (1 µmol/L). The results showed that aldosterone significantly increased the protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, p47phox and p22phox) and that spiro markedly inhibited these changes. Functionally, this was associated with an elevation in NADPH oxidase activity and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) as a biochemical marker of oxidative stress. However, pre-incubation with spiro inhibited these consequences. Moreover, MR protein expression was upregulated by aldosterone whereas this effect was suppressed by Spiro. While aldosterone effectively inhibited endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) protein expression, pretreatment with spiro markedly restored it to its normal level. In conclusion, the results achieved suggest that aldosterone may play a critical role in NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress resulting in reduced eNOS expression in human endothelial cells. Spiro effectively reversed these consequences, suggesting its potential vasculoprotective effect in endothelial dysfunction. PMID:24250362

  9. Residual NADPH Oxidase and Survival in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Douglas B.; Alvord, W. Gregory; Heller, Theo; Feld, Jordan J.; Pike, Kristen M.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Uzel, Gulbu; DeRavin, Suk See; Long Priel, Debra A.; Soule, Benjamin P.; Zarember, Kol A.; Malech, Harry L.; Holland, Steven M.; Gallin, John I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Failure to generate phagocyte-derived superoxide and related reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) is the major defect in chronic granulomatous disease, causing recurrent infections and granulomatous complications. Chronic granulomatous disease is caused by missense, nonsense, frameshift, splice, or deletion mutations in the genes for p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox (autosomal chronic granulomatous disease), or gp91phox (X-linked chronic granulomatous disease), which result in variable production of neutrophil-derived ROIs. We hypothesized that residual ROI production might be linked to survival in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Methods We assessed the risks of illness and death among 287 patients with chronic granulomatous disease from 244 kindreds. Residual ROI production was measured with the use of superoxide-dependent ferricytochrome c reduction and flow cytometry with dihydrorhodamine oxidation assays. Expression of NADPH oxidase component protein was detected by means of immunoblotting, and the affected genes were sequenced to identify causal mutations. Results Survival of patients with chronic granulomatous disease was strongly associated with residual ROI production as a continuous variable, independently of the specific gene affected. Patients with mutations in p47phox and most missense mutations in gp91phox (with the exception of missense mutations in the nucleotide-binding and heme-binding domains) had more residual ROI production than patients with nonsense, frameshift, splice, or deletion mutations in gp91phox. After adolescence, mortality curves diverged according to the extent of residual ROI production. Conclusions Patients with chronic granulomatous disease and modest residual production of ROI have significantly less severe illness and a greater likelihood of long-term survival than patients with little residual ROI production. The production of residual ROI is predicted by the specific NADPH oxidase mutation, regardless of the specific gene affected, and it is a predictor of survival in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:21190454

  10. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Induces Endoplasmatic Reticulum Stress in Neutrophil-Like HL60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba; Zhang, Liling; Schuiki, Irmgard; Curi, Rui; Volchuk, Allen; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily produced via NADPH oxidase play an important role for killing microorganisms in neutrophils. In this study we examined if ROS production in Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) differentiated into neutrophil-like cells (dHL60) induces ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). To cause ROS production cells were treated with PMA or by chronic hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia failed to induce ROS production and did not cause activation of the UPR in dHL60 cells. PMA, a pharmacologic NADPH oxidase activator, induced ER stress in dHL60 cells as monitored by IRE-1 and PERK pathway activation, and this was independent of calcium signaling. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI, abolished both ROS production and UPR activation. These results show that ROS produced by NADPH oxidase induces ER stress and suggests a close association between the redox state of the cell and the activation of the UPR in neutrophil-like HL60 cells. PMID:25668518

  11. Regulation of myocardial growth and death by NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Yasuhiro; Kuroda, Junya; Matsushima, Shouji; Ago, Tetsuro; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    The NADPH oxidases (Nox) are transmembrane proteins dedicated to producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, by transferring electrons from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen. Nox2 and Nox4 are expressed in the heart and play an important role in mediating oxidative stress at baseline and under stress. Nox2 is primarily localized on the plasma membrane, whereas Nox4 is found primarily on intracellular membranes, on mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum or the nucleus. Although Nox2 plays an important role in mediating angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, Nox4 mediates cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in response to pressure overload. Expression of Nox4 is upregulated by hypertrophic stimuli, and Nox4 in mitochondria plays an essential role in mediating oxidative stress during pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Upregulation of Nox4 induces oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, including aconitase, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial cell death. On the other hand, Noxs also appear to mediate physiological functions, such as erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of Noxs in mediating oxidative stress and both pathological and physiological functions of Noxs in the heart. PMID:21215757

  12. Regulation of myocardial growth and death by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yasuhiro; Kuroda, Junya; Matsushima, Shouji; Ago, Tetsuro; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2011-03-01

    The NADPH oxidases (Nox) are transmembrane proteins dedicated to producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, by transferring electrons from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen. Nox2 and Nox4 are expressed in the heart and play an important role in mediating oxidative stress at baseline and under stress. Nox2 is primarily localized on the plasma membrane, whereas Nox4 is found primarily on intracellular membranes, on mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum or the nucleus. Although Nox2 plays an important role in mediating angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, Nox4 mediates cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in response to pressure overload. Expression of Nox4 is upregulated by hypertrophic stimuli, and Nox4 in mitochondria plays an essential role in mediating oxidative stress during pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Upregulation of Nox4 induces oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, including aconitase, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial cell death. On the other hand, Noxs also appear to mediate physiological functions, such as erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of Noxs in mediating oxidative stress and both pathological and physiological functions of Noxs in the heart. PMID:21215757

  13. INCREASED NADPH OXIDASE DERIVED SUPEROXIDE IS INVOLVED IN THE NEURONAL CELL DEATH INDUCED BY HYPOXIA ISCHEMIA IN NEONATAL HIPPOCAMPAL SLICE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing; Wainwright, Mark S.; Harris, Valerie A.; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Hou, Yali; Rau, Thomas; Poulsen, David J.; Black, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal brain hypoxia ischemia (HI) results in neuronal cell death. Previous studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, play a key role in this process. However, the cellular sources have not been established. In this study we examined the role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex in neonatal HI brain injury and elucidated its mechanism of activation. Rat hippocampal slices were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic the conditions seen in HI. Initial studies confirmed an important role for NADPH oxidase derived superoxide in the oxidative stress associated with OGD. Further, the OGD-mediated increase in apoptotic cell death was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. The activation of NADPH oxidase was found to be dependent on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated phosphorylation and activation of the p47phox subunit. Using an adeno-associated virus antisense construct to selectively decrease p47phox expression in neurons, and showed that this lead to inhibition both of the increase in superoxide and neuronal cell death associated with OGD. We also found that NADPH oxidase inhibition in a neonatal rat model of HI or scavenging hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduced brain injury. Thus, we conclude that activation of the NADPH oxidase complex contributes to the oxidative stress during HI and that therapies targeted against this complex could exhibit neuroprotection against the brain injury associated with neonatal HI. PMID:22728269

  14. Nebivolol Reduces Proteinuria and Renal NADPH Oxidase-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species in the Transgenic Ren2 Rat

    PubMed Central

    Whaley-Connell, Adam; Habibi, Javad; Johnson, Megan; Tilmon, Roger; Rehmer, Nathan; Rehmer, Jenna; Wiedmeyer, Charles; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Sowers, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system activation are crucial in the pathogenesis of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease. NADPH oxidase-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important mediator for RAAS-induced cardiovascular and renal injury. Increased levels of ROS can diminish the bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO), a critical modulator of RAAS effects on the kidney. Thereby, we hypothesized that in vivo nebivolol therapy in a rodent model of activated RAAS would attenuate glomerular damage and proteinuria through its actions to reduce NADPH oxidase activity/ROS and increase bioavailable NO. Methods We utilized the transgenic Ren2 rat which displays heightened tissue RAAS, hypertension, and proteinuria. Ren2 rats (6–9 weeks of age) and age-matched Sprague-Dawley littermates were treated with nebivolol 10 mg/kg/day (osmotic mini-pump) for 21 days. Results Ren2 rats exhibited increases in systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, kidney cortical tissue total NADPH oxidase activity and subunits (Rac1, p67phox, and p47phox), ROS and 3-nitrotyrosine, as well as reductions in podocyte protein markers; each of these parameters improved with nebivolol treatment along with increases in renal endothelial NO synthase expression. Conclusions Our data suggest that nebivolol improves proteinuria through reductions in renal RAAS-mediated increases in NADPH oxidase/ROS and increases in bioavailable NO. PMID:19609077

  15. NADPH oxidases regulate cell growth and migration in myeloid cells transformed by oncogenic tyrosine kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M M Reddy; M S Fernandes; R Salgia; R L Levine; J D Griffin; M Sattler

    2011-01-01

    Transformation by tyrosine kinase oncogenes (TKOs) in myeloid malignancies, including BCR–ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia, FLT3ITD in acute myeloid leukemia or JAK2V617F in myeloproliferative neoplasms, is associated with increased growth and cytoskeletal abnormalities. Using targeted approaches against components of the superoxide-producing NADPH-oxidases, including NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), NOX4 and the common p22phox subunit of NOX1–4, myeloid cells were found to

  16. NADPH oxidases in fungi: Diverse roles of reactive oxygen species in fungal cellular differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daigo Takemoto; Aiko Tanaka; Barry Scott

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by specific NADPH oxidases (Nox) can serve both defense and differentiation signaling roles in animals and plants. Fungi have three subfamilies of NADPH oxidase. NoxA and NoxB have a structure very similar to the human gp91phox. NoxC has in addition a Ca2+ binding motif as found in the human Nox5 and plant Rboh families

  17. NOS1 induces NADPH oxidases and impairs contraction kinetics in aged murine ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Villmow, Marten; Klöckner, Udo; Heymes, Christophe; Gekle, Michael; Rueckschloss, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates calcium transients and contraction of cardiomyocytes. However, it is largely unknown whether NO contributes also to alterations in the contractile function of cardiomyocytes during aging. Therefore, we analyzed the putative role of nitric oxide synthases and NO for the age-related alterations of cardiomyocyte contraction. We used C57BL/6 mice, nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1)-deficient mice (NOS1(-/-)) and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific NOS1-overexpression to analyze contractions, calcium transients (Indo-1 fluorescence), acto-myosin ATPase activity (malachite green assay), NADPH oxidase activity (lucigenin chemiluminescence) of isolated ventricular myocytes and cardiac gene expression (Western blots, qPCR). In C57BL/6 mice, cardiac expression of NOS1 was upregulated by aging. Since we found a negative regulation of NOS1 expression by cAMP in isolated cardiomyocytes, we suggest that reduced efficacy of ?-adrenergic signaling that is evident in aged hearts promotes upregulation of NOS1. Shortening and relengthening of cardiomyocytes from aged C57BL/6 mice were decelerated, but were normalized by pharmacological inhibition of NOS1/NO. Cardiomyocytes from NOS1(-/-) mice displayed no age-related changes in contraction, calcium transients or acto-myosin ATPase activity. Aging increased cardiac expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX2 and NOX4 in C57BL/6 mice, but not in NOS1(-/-) mice. Similarly, cardiac expression of NOX2 and NOX4 was upregulated in a murine model with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of NOS1. We conclude that age-dependently upregulated NOS1, putatively via reduced efficacy of ?-adrenergic signaling, induces NADPH oxidases. By increasing nitrosative and oxidative stress, both enzyme systems act synergistically to decelerate contraction of aged cardiomyocytes. PMID:26173391

  18. Priming of neutrophil oxidative burst in diabetes requires preassembly of the NADPH oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Omori; Taisuke Ohira; Yushi Uchida; Srinivas Ayilavarapu; Eraldo L. Batista Jr; Motohiko Yagi; Tomoyuki Iwata; Hongsheng Liu; Hatice Hasturk; Alpdogan Kantarci; Thomas E. Van Dyke

    2008-01-01

    Hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus results in the priming of neutrophils lead- ing to oxidative stress that is, in part, responsible for diabetic complications. p47phox, a NADPH ox- idase cytosolic subunit, is a key protein in the as- sembly of the NADPH oxidase leading to superox- ide generation. Little is known about the priming mechanism of oxidative pathways in neutrophils

  19. Helicobacter pylori disrupts NADPH oxidase targeting in human neutrophils to induce extracellular superoxide release.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lee-Ann H; Beecher, Benjamin R; Lynch, Jeffrey T; Rohner, Olga V; Wittine, Lara M

    2005-03-15

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection triggers a chronic influx of polymorphonuclear leukocyte neutrophils (PMNs) into the gastric mucosa. Although Hp reside in a neutrophil-rich environment, how these organisms evade phagocytic killing is largely unexplored. We now show that live Hp (strains 11637, 60190, DT61A, and 11916) are readily ingested by PMNs and induce a rapid and strong respiratory burst that is comparable to PMA. Relative to other particulate stimuli, Hp are more potent activators of PMNs than opsonized zymosan, Staphylococcus aureus, or Salmonella. Strikingly, biochemical and microscopic analyses demonstrate that Hp disrupt NADPH oxidase targeting such that superoxide anions are released into the extracellular milieu and do not accumulate inside Hp phagosomes. Specifically, nascent Hp phagosomes acquire flavocytochrome b558 but do not efficiently recruit or retain p47phox or p67phox. Superoxide release peaks at 16 min coincident with the appearance of assembled oxidase complexes in patches at the cell surface. Oxidant release is regulated by formalin-resistant and heat-sensitive bacterial surface factors distinct from urease and Hp(2-20). Following opsonization with fresh serum, Hp triggers a modest respiratory burst that is confined to the phagosome, and ingested bacteria are eliminated. We conclude that disruption of NADPH oxidase targeting allows unopsonized Hp to escape phagocytic killing, and our findings support the hypothesis that bacteria and PMNs act in concert to damage the gastric mucosa. PMID:15749904

  20. Suppression of NADPH oxidase- and mitochondrion-derived superoxide by Notoginsenoside R1 protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through estrogen receptor-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways.

    PubMed

    Meng, X; Wang, M; Wang, X; Sun, G; Ye, J; Xu, H; Sun, X

    2014-07-01

    Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel phytoestrogen that is isolated from Panax notoginseng. We have recently found that NGR1 showed neuroprotection in vitro against oxidative stress through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways. However, whether NGR1 has neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo is unknown. In this study, we used in vivo and in vitro models of cerebral I/R injury that demonstrate middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats, as well as oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R) in primary cortical neurons. These models were used to evaluate NGR1 neuroprotection. Three-day pretreatment with NGR1 (20 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly improved neurologic outcomes and reduced cerebral infarct volume. Pretreatment of primary cortical neurons with NGR1 (25 ?M) for 24 h prevented apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by OGD/R. NGR1 inhibited apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. NGR1 prevented oxidative stress by suppressing NADPH oxidase- and mitochondrion-derived superoxide and inhibiting production of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in vivo and in vitro. NGR1 induced ER-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways by increasing ER?, ER?, phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK3?, nuclear Nrf2, and HO-1 expression in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with ICI-182780, LY294002, or Snpp abolished NGR1-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro. In conclusion, NGR1 showed neuroprotection against cerebral I/R injury in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism of NGR1 neuroprotection involves inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction via ER-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways. PMID:24720662

  1. NADPH Oxidase 4 is required for interleukin-1?-mediated activation of protein kinase C? and downstream activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling in smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ginnan, Roman; Jourd’heuil, Frances L.; Guikema, Benjamin; Simons, Malorie; Singer, Harold A.; Jourd’heuil, David

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the vascular wall upon stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines and are important mediators of diverse cellular responses that occur as a result of vascular injury. Member of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of proteins have been identified in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSM) as important sources of ROS. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NOX4 is a proximal mediator of IL-1?-dependent activation of PKC? and increases IL-1? stimulated c-Jun kinase (JNK) signaling in primary rat aortic VSM cells. We found that stimulation of VSM cells with IL-1? increased PKC? activity and intracellular ROS generation. SiRNA silencing of NOX4 but not NOX1 ablated the IL-1?-dependent increase in ROS production. Pharmacological inhibition of PKC? activity as well as siRNA depletion of PKC? or NOX4 blocked the IL-1?-dependent activation of JNK. Further studies showed that the IL-1?-dependent upregulation of iNOS expression was inhibited through JNK inhibition and NOX4 silencing. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-1?-dependent activation of PKC? is modulated by NOX4-derived ROS. Our study positions PKC? as an important redox sensitive mediator of IL-1?-dependent signaling and downstream activation of inflammatory mediators in VSM cells. PMID:23022406

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulates Nuclear Factor-?B Activation and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression via c-Src, NADPH Oxidase, PI3K, and Akt in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Gi-Shih; Wu, Ming-Shun; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Bing-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Previous report showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes tumor progression. Several studies demonstrated that growth factors can induce heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression, protect against cellular injury and cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the c-Src, NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/Akt, and NF-?B signaling pathways in EGF-induced HO-1 expression in human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF caused HO-1 to be expressed in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Treatment of HT-29 cells with AG1478 (an EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibitor), small interfering RNA of EGFR (EGFR siRNA), a dominant negative mutant of c-Src (c-Src DN), DPI (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), glutathione (an ROS inhibitor), LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), and an Akt DN inhibited EGF-induced HO-1 expression. Stimulation of cells with EGF caused an increase in c-Src phosphorylation at Tyr406 in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF induced an increase in p47phox translocation from the cytosol to membranes. The EGF-induced ROS production was inhibited by DPI. Stimulation of cells with EGF resulted in an increase in Akt phosphorylation at Ser473, which was inhibited by c-Src DN, DPI, and LY 294002. Moreover, treatment of HT-29 cells with a dominant negative mutant of I?B (I?B?M) inhibited EGF-induced HO-1 expression. Stimulation of cells with EGF induced p65 translocation from the cytosol to nuclei. Treatment of HT-29 cells with EGF induced an increase in ?B-luciferase activity, which was inhibited by a c-Src DN, LY 294002, and an Akt DN. Furthermore, EGF-induced colon cancer cell proliferation was inhibited by Sn(IV)protoporphyrin-IX (snPP, an HO-1 inhibitor). Taken together, these results suggest that the c-Src, NADPH oxidase, PI3K, and Akt signaling pathways play important roles in EGF-induced NF-?B activation and HO-1 expression in HT-29 cells. Moreover, overexpression of HO-1 mediates EGF-induced colon cancer cell proliferation. PMID:25122478

  3. Molecular evolution of the reactive oxygen-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox\\/Duox) family of enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Kawahara; Mark T Quinn; J David Lambeth

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: NADPH-oxidases (Nox) and the related Dual oxidases (Duox) play varied biological and pathological roles via regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Members of the Nox\\/Duox family have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, including mammals, nematodes, fruit fly, green plants, fungi, and slime molds; however, little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes.

  4. The anorexigenic effect of serotonin is mediated by the generation of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Ling; Shu, Gang; Yu, Jian-Jian; Wang, Li-Na; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Qing-Jie; Cheng, Xiao; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Qing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a central inhibitor of food intake in mammals. Thus far, the intracellular mechanisms for the effect of serotonin on appetite regulation remain unclear. It has been recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus are a crucial integrative target for the regulation of food intake. To investigate the role of ROS in the serotonin-induced anorexigenic effects, conscious mice were treated with 5-HT alone or combination with Trolox (a ROS scavenger) or Apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) by acute intracerebroventricular injection. Both Trolox and Apocynin reversed the anorexigenic action of 5-HT and the 5-HT-induced hypothalamic ROS elevation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were dramatically increased after ICV injection with 5-HT. The anorexigenic action of 5-HT was accompanied by markedly elevated hypothalamic MDA levels and GSH-Px activity, while the SOD activity was decreased. Moreover, 5-HT significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP-2 but reduced the levels of UCP-3. Both Trolox and Apocynin could block the 5-HT-induced changes in UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the anorexigenic effect of 5-HT is mediated by the generation of ROS in the hypothalamus through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway. PMID:23326391

  5. NADPH oxidase mediates glucolipotoxicity-induced beta cell dysfunction--clinical implications.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2010-03-01

    An impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion--reflecting decreased glucokinase expression--and a moderate decrease in beta cell mass attributable to increased apoptosis, constitute the key features of beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress, provoked by prolonged exposure to excessive levels of glucose and/or fatty acids (glucolipotoxicity), appears to be a key mediator of these defects. Oxidant-provoked JNK activation induces nuclear export of the PDX-1 transcription factor, required for expression of glucokinase and other beta cell proteins. Conversely, increases in cAMP induced by incretin hormones promote the nuclear importation of PDX-1, counteracting the diabetogenic impact of oxidant stress; this may explain the utility of measures that slow dietary carbohydrate absorption for diabetes prevention. The ability of oxidative stress to boost apoptosis in beta cells is poorly understood, but may also entail JNK activation. Recent work establishes a phagocyte-type NADPH oxidase as the chief source of glucotoxicity-mediated oxidative stress in beta cells. Since bilirubin is now known to function physiologically as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and phycocyanobilin (PCB) derived from spirulina likewise can inhibit this enzyme complex, supplemental PCB may have utility in the prevention and control of diabetes, and Gilbert syndrome, associated with chronically elevated free bilirubin, may be associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:19576699

  6. NADPH Oxidase Biology and the Regulation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Signaling and Cancer Drug Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The outdated idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are only dangerous products of cellular metabolism, causing toxic and mutagenic effects on cellular components, is being replaced by the view that ROS have several important functions in cell signaling. In aerobic organisms, ROS can be generated from different sources, including the mitochondrial electron transport chain, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and lipoxygenase, but the only enzyme family that produces ROS as its main product is the NADPH oxidase family (NOX enzymes). These transfer electrons from NADPH (converting it to NADP?) to oxygen to make O2•?. Due to their stability, the products of NADPH oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide are considered the most favorable ROS to act as signaling molecules. Transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in carcinogenesis are modulated by NADPH oxidase, and it has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapies. The present review discusses the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates signal transduction pathways in view of tyrosine kinase receptors, which are pivotal to regulating the hallmarks of cancer, and how ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of several cancer drugs employed in clinical practice. PMID:23434665

  7. NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase dependent superoxide production is increased in proliferative lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Jim C.; Mashmoushi, Ahmad K.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Gilkeson, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lupus nephritis (LN) is an immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Proliferative LN (PLN, International Society of Nephrology and Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classes III and IV)) often leads to renal injury or failure despite traditional induction and maintenance therapy. Successful targeted therapeutic development requires insight into mediators of inflammation in PLN. Superoxide (SO) and its metabolites are mediators of the innate immune response through their ability to mediate reduction-oxidation signaling. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) modulates inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that markers of SO production would be increased in active PLN and that SO production would be dependent on the activity of select enzymes in the renal cortex. Methods Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were enrolled at the time of renal biopsy for active LN of all classes. Serum collected at baseline was analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection for markers of SO production (durable modifications of serum protein Tyr ultimately requiring SO as a substrate). Renal cortex from MRL/MpJ-FASlpr (MRL/lpr) mice with and without functional eNOS was analyzed during active disease for superoxide (SO) production with and without inhibitors of SO producing enzymes. Results Serum protein modifications indicative of total SO production were significantly higher in patients with PLN. These markers were increased in association with more active, inflammatory PLN. Mice lacking functional eNOS had 80% higher levels of renal cortical SO during active disease, and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase reduced these levels by 60% and 77%, respectively. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that SO production is unique to active PLN in a NOS and NADPH oxidase-dependent fashion. These findings suggest the emulating or augmenting eNOS activity or inhibiting NADPH oxidase SO production may be targets of therapy in patients with PLN. The markers of SO production used in this study could rationally be used to select SO-modulating therapies and serve as pharmacodynamic indicators for dose titration. PMID:24106214

  8. Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Mediates Protective Effect of Cardiotonic Pills against Rat Heart Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhao, Na; Liu, Yu-Ying; Hu, Bai-He; Sun, Kai; Chang, Xin; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiotonic pill (CP) is a compound Chinese medicine currently used in China for treatment of ischemic angina pectoris. Our previous results indicated that a single dosing of CP pretreatment at 0.8?g/kg attenuates ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R-) induced myocardial injury and cardiac microcirculatory disturbance. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of CP at low dosage in a multiple dosing manner and to uncover the mechanism of antioxidative activity of CP. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending artery occlusion for 30?min followed by 60?min reperfusion. CP was administrated daily by gavage for six days at 0.1, 0.4, and 0.8?g/kg/day before I/R. Results showed that multiple dosing of CP at three doses significantly reduced I/R-induced myocardial injury, microcirculatory disturbance, and oxidative stress. CP dramatically inhibited I/R-induced nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit gp91phox expression and p67phox and p47phox translocation from cytosol to cell membrane. Translocation of cytosolic subunits to membrane is required for the activation of NADPH oxidase. These data suggested that multiple dosing of CP at doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.8?g/kg/day reduced I/R-induced rat myocardial injury and microcirculatory disturbance, which was mediated by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:23840265

  9. FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo is mediated by PKC?, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Park, Edward; Mori, Yusaku; Haber, C Andrew; Han, Ping; Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Stavar, Laura; Oprescu, Andrei I; Koulajian, Khajag; Ivovic, Alexander; Yu, Zhiwen; Li, Deling; Bowman, Thomas A; Dewald, Jay; El-Benna, Jamel; Brindley, David N; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Lam, Tony K T; Najjar, Sonia M; McKay, Robert A; Bhanot, Sanjay; Fantus, I George; Giacca, Adria

    2014-07-01

    Fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although PKC and inflammatory pathways have been implicated in fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance, the sequence of events leading to impaired insulin signaling is unknown. We used Wistar rats to investigate whether PKC? and oxidative stress play causal roles in this process and whether this occurs via IKK?- and JNK-dependent pathways. Rats received a 7-h infusion of Intralipid plus heparin (IH) to elevate circulating free fatty acids (FFA). During the last 2 h of the infusion, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with tracer was performed to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), prevented IH-induced hepatic insulin resistance in parallel with prevention of decreased I?B? content, increased JNK phosphorylation (markers of IKK? and JNK activation, respectively), increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, and impaired insulin signaling in the liver without affecting IH-induced hepatic PKC? activation. Furthermore, an antisense oligonucleotide against PKC? prevented IH-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) (marker of NADPH oxidase activation) and hepatic insulin resistance. Apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevented IH-induced hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance similarly to NAC. These results demonstrate that PKC?, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress play a causal role in FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo and suggest that the pathway of FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance is FFA ? PKC? ? NADPH oxidase and oxidative stress ? IKK?/JNK ? impaired hepatic insulin signaling. PMID:24824652

  10. Characterization of bovine endothelial nitric oxide synthase as a homodimer with down-regulated uncoupled NADPH oxidase activity: tetrahydrobiopterin binding kinetics and role of haem in dimerization.

    PubMed Central

    List, B M; Klösch, B; Völker, C; Gorren, A C; Sessa, W C; Werner, E R; Kukovetz, W R; Schmidt, K; Mayer, B

    1997-01-01

    The fatty-acylation-deficient bovine endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) mutant (Gly-2 to Ala-2, G2AeNOS) was purified from a baculovirus overexpression system. The purified protein was soluble and highly active (0.2-0.7 micromol of l-citrulline. mg-1.min-1), contained 0. 77+/-0.01 equivalent of haem per subunit, showed a Soret maximum at 396 nm, and exhibited only minor uncoupling of NADPH oxidation in the absence of l-arginine or tetrahydrobiopterin. Radioligand binding studies revealed KD values of 147+/-24.1 nM and 52+/-9.2 nM for specific binding of tetrahydrobiopterin in the absence and presence of 0.1 mM l-arginine respectively. The positive co-operative effect of l-arginine was due to a pronounced decrease in the rate of tetrahydrobiopterin dissociation (from 1.6+/-0.5 to 0. 3+/-0.1 min-1). Low-temperature SDS gel electrophoresis showed that approx. 80% of the protein migrated as haem-containing dimer after preincubation with l-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin. Gel-filtration chromatography yielded one peak with a Stokes radius of 6.8+/-0.04 nm, corresponding to a hydrodynamic volume of 1. 32x10(-24) m3, whereas haem-deficient preparations (approx. 0.3 equivalent per subunit) contained an additional protein species with a hydrodynamic radius of 5.1+/-0.2 nm and a corresponding volume of 0.55x10(-24) m3, suggesting that haem availability regulates eNOS dimerization. PMID:9173876

  11. A Fluorescently Tagged C-Terminal Fragment of p47phox Detects NADPH Oxidase Dynamics during Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing Jun; Tian, Wei; Stull, Natalie D.; Grinstein, Sergio; Atkinson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The assembly of cytosolic p47phox and p67phox with flavocytochrome b558 at the membrane is crucial for activating the leukocyte NADPH oxidase that generates superoxide for microbial killing. p47phox and p67phox are linked via a high-affinity, tail-to-tail interaction involving a proline-rich region (PRR) and a C-terminal SH3 domain (SH3b), respectively, in their C-termini. This interaction mediates p67phox translocation in neutrophils, but is not required for oxidase activity in model systems. Here we examined phagocytosis-induced NADPH oxidase assembly, showing the sequential recruitment of YFP-tagged p67phox to the phagosomal cup, and, after phagosome internalization, a probe for PI(3)P followed by a YFP-tagged fragment derived from the p47phox PRR. This fragment was recruited in a flavocytochrome b558-dependent, p67phox-specific, and PI(3)P-independent manner. These findings indicate that p47PRR fragment probes the status of the p67phox SH3b domain and suggest that the p47phox/p67phox tail-to-tail interaction is disrupted after oxidase assembly such that the p67phox-SH3b domain becomes accessible. Superoxide generation was sustained within phagosomes, indicating that this change does not correlate with loss of enzyme activity. This study defines a sequence of events during phagocytosis-induced NADPH oxidase assembly and provides experimental evidence that intermolecular interactions within this complex are dynamic and modulated after assembly on phagosomes. PMID:19129478

  12. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon, E-mail: parkp@yu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. • p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

  13. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Rafalowski, Meirav; Federman-Gross, Aya; Pick, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    The superoxide (O2.-)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O2.- generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: 1. Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; 2. Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; 3. Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; 4. Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; 5. A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; 6. p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.

  14. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67 (phox.).

    PubMed

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Federman Gross, Aya; Rafalowski, Meirav; Pick, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide (O(·-) 2)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b 558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22 (phox) ), and four cytosolic components, p47 (phox) , p67 (phox) , p40 (phox) , and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O(·-) 2 generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67 (phox) . Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a (369)CysGlyCys(371) triad (CGC) bound p67 (phox) with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67 (phox) only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67 (phox) via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: (1) Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; (2) Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; (3) Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; (4) Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; (5) A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; (6) p67 (phox) , in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67 (phox) to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components. PMID:25699251

  15. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox

    PubMed Central

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Federman Gross, Aya; Rafalowski, Meirav; Pick, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide (O·?2)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O·?2 generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: (1) Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; (2) Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; (3) Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; (4) Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; (5) A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; (6) p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components. PMID:25699251

  16. NADPH oxidase-independent formation of extracellular DNA traps by basophils.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Mahbubul; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Simon, Dagmar; Walls, Andrew F; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Karasuyama, Hajime; Djonov, Valentin; Eggel, Alexander; Kaufmann, Thomas; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Yousefi, Shida

    2014-06-01

    Basophils are primarily associated with a proinflammatory and immunoregulatory role in allergic diseases and parasitic infections. Recent studies have shown that basophils can also bind various bacteria both in the presence and the absence of opsonizing Abs. In this report, we show that both human and mouse basophils are able to produce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and to form extracellular DNA traps upon IL-3 priming and subsequent activation of the complement factor 5 a receptor or Fc?RI. Such basophil extracellular traps (BETs) contain mitochondrial, but not nuclear DNA, as well as the granule proteins basogranulin and mouse mast cell protease 8. BET formation occurs despite the absence of any functional NADPH oxidase in basophils. BETs can be found in both human and mouse inflamed tissues, suggesting that they also play a role under in vivo inflammatory conditions. Taken together, these findings suggest that basophils exert direct innate immune effector functions in the extracellular space. PMID:24771850

  17. Role of the NADPH Oxidases DUOX and NOX4 in Thyroid Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise P.; Dupuy, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations are present at high levels in the rat thyroid gland, indicating that the thyrocyte is under oxidative stress, a state in which cellular oxidant levels are high. The most important class of free radicals, or reactive metabolites, is reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main source of ROS in every cell type seems to be mitochondrial respiration; however, recent data support the idea that NADPH:O(2) oxidoreductase flavoproteins or simply NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes specialized in controlled ROS generation at the subcellular level. Several decades ago, high concentrations of H2O2 were detected at the apical surface of thyrocytes, where thyroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. Only in the last decade has the enzymatic source of H2O2 involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis been well characterized. The cloning of two thyroid genes encoding NADPH oxidases dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DUOX1 and DUOX2) revealed that DUOX2 mutations lead to hereditary hypothyroidism in humans. Recent reports have also described the presence of NOX4 in the thyroid gland and have suggested a pathophysiological role of this member of the NOX family. In the present review, we describe the participation of NADPH oxidases not only in thyroid physiology but also in gland pathophysiology, particularly the involvement of these enzymes in the regulation of thyroid oxidative stress. PMID:24847449

  18. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  19. NADPH oxidase-derived ROS: Key modulators of heme-induced mitochondrial stability in human neutrophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Augusta Arruda; Pedro Barcellos-de-Souza; André Luiz Franco Sampaio; Adriano G. Rossi; Aurélio V. Graça-Souza; Christina Barja-Fidalgo

    2006-01-01

    Heme is a proinflammatory molecule able to cause a profound delay of constitutive apoptosis of human neutrophils, an effect that likely contributes to chronic inflammation associated with hemolytic diseases. Herein we show that heme-induced delay of neutrophil apoptosis correlates with the prevention of mitochondrial potential (??m) dissipation by a mechanism dependent on NADPH oxidase (NADPHox)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and

  20. Silencing of DUOX NADPH Oxidases by Promoter Hypermethylation in Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Luxen; Steven A. Belinsky; Ulla G. Knaus

    2008-01-01

    The development of lung cancer is associated with aberrant promoter methylation and thus transcriptional silencing of many tumor suppressor genes or genes critical for cellular maintenance. Here we report that the NADPH oxidases DUOX1 and DUOX2, which are one of the main sources for reactive oxygen species production in the airway, are frequently silenced in human lung cancer. Screening of

  1. Regulation of smooth muscle by inducible nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase in vascular proliferative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Ginnan; Benjamin J. Guikema; Katharine E. Halligan; Harold A. Singer; David Jourd'heuil

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation plays a critical role in promoting smooth muscle migration and proliferation during vascular diseases such as postangioplasty restenosis and atherosclerosis. Another common feature of many vascular diseases is the contribution of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species to vascular injury. Primary sources of ROS and RNS in smooth muscle are several isoforms of NADPH oxidase (Nox) and

  2. Endothelin-1 Stimulates Arterial VCAM-1 Expression Via NADPH OxidaseDerived Superoxide in

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    Endothelin-1 Stimulates Arterial VCAM-1 Expression Via NADPH Oxidase­Derived Superoxide elevated in carotid arteries of deoxycortico- sterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats, a model known for its suppressed plasma renin levels. This study tested the hypothesis that ET-1 augments arterial VCAM

  3. Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2015-02-15

    Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common pathophysiological process resulting from chronic liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Although significant research has been carried out on the role of leptin-induced NADPH oxidase in fibrogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that connect the leptin-NADPH oxidase axis in upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling have been unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis. Human NASH livers and a high-fat (60% kcal) diet-fed chronic mouse model, where hepatotoxin bromodichloromethane was used to induce NASH, were used for this study. To prove the role of the leptin-NADPH oxidase-miR21 axis, mice deficient in genes for leptin, p47phox, and miR21 were used. Results showed that wild-type mice and human livers with NASH had increased oxidative stress, increased p47phox expression, augmented NF-?B activation, and increased miR21 levels. These mice and human livers showed increased TGF-?, SMAD2/3-SMAD4 colocalizations in the nucleus, increased immunoreactivity against Col1?, and ?-SMA with a concomitant decrease in protein levels of SMAD7. Mice that were deficient in leptin or p47phox had decreased activated NF-?B and miR21 levels, suggesting the role of leptin and NADPH oxidase in inducing NF-?B-mediated miR21 expression. Further miR21 knockout mice had decreased colocalization events of SMAD2/3-SMAD4 in the nucleus, increased SMAD7 levels, and decreased fibrogenesis. Taken together, the studies show the novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-? signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH. PMID:25501551

  4. Pyocyanin-enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap formation requires the NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rada, Balázs; Jendrysik, Meghan A; Pang, Lan; Hayes, Craig P; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Park, Jonathan J; Moskowitz, Samuel M; Malech, Harry L; Leto, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    Beyond intracellular killing, a novel neutrophil-based antimicrobial mechanism has been recently discovered: entrapment and killing by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs consist of extruded nuclear DNA webs decorated with granule proteins. Although NET formation is an important innate immune mechanism, uncontrolled NET release damages host tissues and has been linked to several diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF). The major CF airway pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes chronic infection. Pseudomonas imbedded within biofilms is protected against the immune system, but maintains chronic inflammation that worsens disease symptoms. Aberrant NET release from recruited neutrophils was found in CF, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most important Pseudomonas virulence factors is pyocyanin, a redox-active pigment that has been associated with diminished lung function in CF. Here we show that pyocyanin promotes NET formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Most CF Pseudomonas clinical isolates tested produce pyocyanin in vitro. Pyocyanin-derived reactive oxygen species are required for its NET release. Inhibitor experiments demonstrated involvement of Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) in pyocyanin-induced NET formation. Pyocyanin-induced NETs also require the NADPH oxidase because NET release in chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils was greatly reduced. Comparison of neutrophils from gp91phox- and p47phox-deficient patients revealed that pyocyanin-triggered NET formation is proportional to their residual superoxide production. Our studies identify pyocyanin as the first secreted bacterial toxin that enhances NET formation. The involvement of NADPH oxidase in pyocyanin-induced NET formation represents a novel mechanism of pyocyanin toxicity. PMID:23342104

  5. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: chiara.riganti@unito.it; Costamagna, Costanzo; Doublier, Sophie; Miraglia, Erica; Polimeni, Manuela; Bosia, Amalia; Ghigo, Dario [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2008-05-01

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.

  6. Indicaxanthin inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 activation and NF-?B-dependent release of inflammatory mediators and prevents the increase of epithelial permeability in IL-1?-exposed Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2014-02-01

    Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1?, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1? brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-?B, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 ?M), and IL-1? prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1? also prevented the IL-1?-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-?B was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level. PMID:23931157

  7. Bilirubin inhibits the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated by the toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Idelman, Gila; Smith, Darcey L.H.; Zucker, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously shown that bilirubin prevents the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in response to LPS. The present study examines whether this effect is exerted through modulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling. LPS-stimulated iNOS and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was assessed by measuring cellular nitrate and superoxide (O2?) production, respectively. The generation of both nitrate and O2? in response to LPS was suppressed by TLR4 inhibitors, indicating that activation of iNOS and Nox is TLR4-dependent. While treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and bilirubin effectively abolished LPS-mediated O2? production, hydrogen peroxide and nitrate release were inhibited by bilirubin and PEG-catalase, but not SOD, supporting that iNOS activation is primarily dependent upon intracellular H2O2. LPS treatment increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1? (HIF-1?), an effect that was abolished by bilirubin. Cells transfected with murine iNOS reporter constructs in which the HIF-1?-specific hypoxia response element was disrupted exhibited a blunted response to LPS, supporting that HIF-1? mediates Nox-dependent iNOS expression. Bilirubin, but not SOD, blocked the cellular production of interferon-?, while interleukin-6 production remained unaffected. These data support that bilirubin inhibits the TLR4-mediated up-regulation of iNOS by preventing activation of HIF-1? through scavenging of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species. Bilirubin also suppresses interferon-? release via a ROS-independent mechanism. These findings characterize potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of bilirubin. PMID:26163808

  8. Role of protein kinase C in NADPH oxidase derived O2*(-)-mediated regulation of KV-LVOCC axis under U46619 induced increase in [Ca2+]i in pulmonary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Sajal; Chowdhury, Animesh; Kar, Pulak; Das, Partha; Shaikh, Soni; Roy, Soumitra; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2009-07-15

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary smooth muscle cells with the TxA(2) mimetic, U46619 stimulated [Ca(2+)](i), which was inhibited upon pretreatment with apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor). Pretreatment with cromakalim (K(V) channel opener) or nifedepine (L-VOCC inhibitor) inhibited U46619 induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i), indicating a role of K(V)-LVOCC axis in this scenario. Neither cromakalim nor nifedepine inhibited U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting that the NADPH oxidase activation is proximal to the K(V)-LVOCC axis in the cells. Pretreatment with calphostin C (PKC inhibitor) markedly reduced U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity and [Ca(2+)](i) in the cells. Calphostin C pretreatment also markedly reduced p(47phox) phosphorylation and translocation to the membrane and association with p(22phox), a component of Cyt.b(558) of NADPH oxidase in the membrane. Overall, PKC plays an important role in NADPH oxidase derived O(2)(-)-mediated regulation of K(V)-LVOCC axis leading to an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by U46619 in the cells. PMID:19497296

  9. Leonurine (SCM-198) attenuates myocardial fibrotic response via inhibition of NADPH oxidase 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Pan, Li-Long; Deng, Hai-Yan; Xiong, Qing-Hui; Wu, Dan; Huang, Guo-Ying; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we have reported that leonurine, a plant phenolic alkaloid in Herba leonuri, exerted cardioprotective properties in a number of preclinical experiments. Herein, we investigated the roles and the possible mechanisms of leonurine for reducing fibrotic responses in angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. In in vitro experiments performed in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, leonurine (10-20 ?M) pretreatment attenuated Ang II-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9, and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and types I and III collagen. A small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown strategy for NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) revealed that Nox4 was required for Ang II-induced activation of cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo studies using a post-MI model in rats indicated that administration of leonurine inhibited myocardial fibrosis while reducing cardiac Nox4 expression, ROS production, NF-?B activation, and plasma MMP-2 activity. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that leonurine could prevent cardiac fibrosis and the activation of cardiac fibroblasts partly through modulation of a Nox4-ROS pathway. PMID:23127783

  10. Dieckol Attenuates Microglia-mediated Neuronal Cell Death via ERK, Akt and NADPH Oxidase-mediated Pathways.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanji; Park, Jee-Yun; Wu, Jinji; Lee, Ji Hyung; Yang, Yoon-Sil; Kang, Moon-Seok; Jung, Sung-Cherl; Park, Joo Min; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kim, Seong-Ho; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Suk, Kyoungho; Eun, Su-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Excessive microglial activation and subsequent neuroinflammation lead to synaptic loss and dysfunction as well as neuronal cell death, which are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the regulation of microglial activation has been evaluated as effective therapeutic strategies. Although dieckol (DEK), one of the phlorotannins isolated from marine brown alga Ecklonia cava, has been previously reported to inhibit microglial activation, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated here molecular mechanism of DEK via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt and nicotinamide adenine dinuclelotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-mediated pathways. In addition, the neuroprotective mechanism of DEK was investigated in microglia-mediated neurotoxicity models such as neuron-microglia co-culture and microglial conditioned media system. Our results demonstrated that treatment of anti-oxidant DEK potently suppressed phosphorylation of ERK in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 µg/ml)-stimulated BV-2 microglia. In addition, DEK markedly attenuated Akt phosphorylation and increased expression of gp91 (phox) , which is the catalytic component of NADPH oxidase complex responsible for microglial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Finally, DEK significantly attenuated neuronal cell death that is induced by treatment of microglial conditioned media containing neurotoxic secretary molecules. These neuroprotective effects of DEK were also confirmed in a neuron-microglia co-culture system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-transfected B35 neuroblastoma cell line. Taken together, these results suggest that DEK suppresses excessive microglial activation and microglia-mediated neuronal cell death via downregulation of ERK, Akt and NADPH oxidase-mediated pathways. PMID:25954126

  11. Essential role of ATF-1 in induction of NOX1, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase: involvement of mitochondrial respiratory chain

    PubMed Central

    Katsuyama, Masato; Fan, ChunYuan; Arakawa, Noriaki; Nishinaka, Toru; Miyagishi, Makoto; Taira, Kazunari; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro

    2004-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is the major source of superoxide production in cardiovascular tissues. We and others reported that PG (prostaglandin) F2?, PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and angiotensin II cause hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells by induction of NOX1 (NADPH oxidase 1), a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. We found DPI (diphenylene iodonium), an inhibitor of flavoproteins, including NADPH oxidase itself, almost completely suppressed induction of NOX1 mRNA by PGF2? or PDGF in a rat vascular smooth muscle cell line, A7r5. Exploration into the site of action of DPI using various inhibitors suggested the involvement of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in PGF2?- or PDGF-induced increase in NOX1 mRNA. In a luciferase reporter assay, activation of the CRE (cAMP-response element)-dependent gene transcription by PGF2? was attenuated by oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial FoF1-ATPase. Oligomycin and other mitochondrial inhibitors also suppressed PGF2?-induced phosphorylation of ATF (activating transcription factor)-1, a transcription factor of the CREB (CRE-binding protein)/ATF family. Silencing of the ATF-1 gene by RNA interference significantly reduced the induction of NOX1 by PGF2? or PDGF, while overexpression of ATF-1 recovered NOX1 induction suppressed by oligomycin. Taken together, ATF-1 may play a pivotal role in the up-regulation of NOX1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15491278

  12. NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes: red algae provide new hints!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cécile Hervé; Thierry Tonon; Jonas Collén; Erwan Corre; Catherine Boyen

    2006-01-01

    The red macro-alga Chondrus crispus is known to produce superoxide radicals in response to cell-free extracts of its green algal pathogenic endophyte Acrochaete operculata. So far, no enzymes involved in this metabolism have been isolated from red algae. We report here the isolation of a gene\\u000a encoding a homologue of the respiratory burst oxidase gp91phox in C. crispus, named Ccrboh.

  13. Methamphetamine alters occludin expression via NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative insult and intact caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minseon; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse with neurotoxic and vascular effects that may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, potential sources of METH-induced generation of ROS are not fully understood. This study is focused on the role of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) in METH-induced dysfunction of brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced a time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of NOX subunit p47, followed by its binding with gp91 and p22, and the formation of an active NOX complex. An increase in NOX activity was associated with elevated production of ROS, alterations of occludin levels and increased transendothelial migration of monocytes. Inhibition of NOX by NSC 23766 attenuated METH-induced ROS generation, changes in occludin protein levels and monocyte migration. Because an active NOX complex is localized to caveolae, we next evaluated the role of caveolae in METH-mediated toxicity to brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and caveolin-1 protein. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity or caveolin-1 silencing protected against METH-induced alterations of occludin levels. These findings indicate an important role of NOX and functional caveolae in METH-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells that contribute to the subsequent alterations of occludin levels and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells. PMID:21435178

  14. NADPH Oxidase 4 Mediates TGF?1-induced CCN2 in Gingival Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, W H; Deng, Y T; Hsieh, Y P; Wu, K J; Kuo, M Y P

    2015-07-01

    Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth (GO). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; or CCN2) is induced by TGF? in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and is overexpressed in GO tissues. CCN2 creates an environment favorable for fibrogenesis and is required for the maximal profibrotic effects of TGF?. We previously showed that Src, JNK, and Smad3 mediate TGF?1-induced CCN2 protein expression in HGFs. Moreover, Src is an upstream signaling transducer of JNK and Smad3. Recent studies suggested that NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent redox mechanisms are involved in mediating the profibrotic effects of TGF?. In this study, we demonstrated that TGF?1 upregulated NOX4 protein expression and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HGFs. Genetic or pharmacologic targeting of NOX4 abrogated TGF?1-induced ROS production; Src, JNK, and Smad3 activation; and CCN2 and type I collagen protein expression in HGFs. Our results indicated that NOX4-derived ROS play pivotal roles in activating Src kinase activity leading to the activation of canonical (Smad3) and noncanonical (JNK) cascades that cooperate to attain maximum CCN2 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that curcumin significantly inhibited the TGF?1-induced NOX4 protein expression in HGFs. Curcumin potentially qualifies as an agent to control GO by suppressing TGF?1-induced NOX4 expression in HGFs. PMID:25858818

  15. NADPH oxidases in cardiovascular disease: insights from in vivo models and clinical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Sirker; Min Zhang; Ajay M. Shah

    NADPH oxidase family enzymes (or NOXs) are the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are implicated in the pathophysiology\\u000a of many cardiovascular diseases. These enzymes appear to be especially important in the modulation of redox-sensitive signalling\\u000a pathways that underlie key cellular functions such as growth, differentiation, migration and proliferation. Seven distinct\\u000a members of the family have been identified

  16. NOX2S is a new member of the NOX family of NADPH oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasin Heidari; Ajay M Shah; Chris Gove

    2004-01-01

    A novel isoform of the NOX-2 subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase has been identified using expressed sequence tag (EST) database mining. The novel isoform, NOX-2S, is a splice variant of NOX-2 and includes a previously unidentified exon, mapped 6.4 kb downstream of exon III, and encodes an in-frame stop codon generating a predicted truncated protein of approximately

  17. Pathophysiological roles of NADPH oxidase/nox family proteins in the vascular system. -Review and perspective-.

    PubMed

    Ago, Tetsuro; Kuroda, Junya; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Sadoshima, Junichi; Kitazono, Takanari

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development and progression of vascular diseases. Besides the mitochondria, the NADPH oxidase/Nox family proteins are now thought to be important origins of the reactive oxygen species that underlie various vascular disease states, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. This review summarizes the basis of vascular Nox proteins and discusses their pathophysiological roles in the vascular system. PMID:21673456

  18. Endothelin-1 regulates cardiac L-type calcium channels via NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhou, Qingwei; Yao, Fanrong; O'Rourke, Stephen T; Sun, Chengwen

    2008-09-01

    It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the intracellular signaling response to G-protein coupled receptor stimuli in vascular smooth muscle cells and in neurons. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS are involved endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced L-type calcium channel activation in isolated cardiac myocytes. ET-1 (10 nM) induced a 2-fold increase in L-type calcium channel open-state probability (NPo). This effect of ET-1 was abolished by the ET(A) receptor antagonist cyclo(D-Trp-D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu) [BQ-123 (1 microM)] but was not altered in the presence of an ET(B) receptor antagonist N-cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidinocarbonyl-b-tBu-Ala-D-Trp(1-methoxycarbonyl)-D-Nle-OH [BQ-788 (1 microM)]. Pretreatment of cells with the ROS scavenger tempol (100 microM), polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 25 U/ml), or the NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat ([H]RKKRRQRRR-CSTRIRRQL[NH(3)]) (5 microM) significantly attenuated ET-1-induced increases in calcium channel NPo. Tempol, SOD, and gp91ds-tat alone had no effect on basal calcium channel activity. In addition, ET-1 significantly increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity and elevated intracellular superoxide levels in cultured cardiac myocytes. The superoxide generator, xanthine-xanthine oxidase (10 mM, 20 mU/ml), also increased calcium channel NPo in cardiac myocytes, mimicking the effect of ET-1. These observations provide the first evidence that ET-1 induces the activation of L-type Ca(2+) channels via stimulation of NAD(P)H-derived superoxide production in cardiac myocytes. PMID:18539650

  19. Nox Family NADPH Oxidases in Mechano-Transduction: Mechanisms and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann, Norbert; Schröder, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The majority of cells in a multi-cellular organism are continuously exposed to ever-changing physical forces. Mechano-transduction links these events to appropriate reactions of the cells involving stimulation of signaling cascades, reorganization of the cytoskeleton and alteration of gene expression. Recent Advances: Mechano-transduction alters the cellular redox balance and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADPH) oxidases of the Nox family are prominent ROS generators and thus, contribute to this stress-induced ROS formation. Critical Issues: Different types and patterns of mechano-stress lead to Nox-dependent ROS formation and Nox-mediated ROS formation contributes to cellular responses and adaptation to physical forces. Thereby, Nox enzymes can mediate vascular protection during physiological mechano-stress. Despite this, over-activation and induction of Nox enzymes and a subsequent substantial increase in ROS formation also promotes oxidative stress in pathological situations like disturbed blood flow or extensive stretch. Future Directions: Individual protein targets of Nox-mediated redox-signaling will be identified to better understand the specificity of Nox-dependent ROS signaling in mechano-transduction. Nox-inhibitors will be tested to reduce cellular activation in response to mechano-stimuli. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 887–898. PMID:23682993

  20. Release of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors and cell death are mediated by CK2 and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gab Seok; Jung, Joo Eun; Narasimhan, Purnima; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Song, Yun Seon; Okami, Nobuya; Chan, Pak H

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the NADPH oxidase subunit, NOX2, and increased oxidative stress are associated with neuronal death after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Inhibition of NOX2 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) leads to neuronal survival, but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we show that in copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase transgenic (SOD1 Tg) mice, degradation of CK2? and CK2?? and dephosphorylation of CK2? against oxidative stress were markedly reduced compared with wild-type (WT) mice that underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Inhibition of CK2 pharmacologically or by ischemic reperfusion facilitated accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers, the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and cytochrome c release from mitochondria after ischemic injury. The eventual enhancement of CK2 inhibition under ischemic injury strongly increased 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine and phosphorylation of H2A.X. Furthermore, CK2 inhibition by tetrabromocinnamic acid (TBCA) in SOD1 Tg and gp91 knockout (KO) mice after ischemia reperfusion induced less release of AIF and cytochrome c than in TBCA-treated WT mice. Inhibition of CK2 in gp91 KO mice subjected to ischemia reperfusion did not increase brain infarction compared with TBCA-treated WT mice. These results strongly suggest that NOX2 activation releases reactive oxygen species after CK2 inhibition, triggering release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria and inducing DNA damage after ischemic brain injury. PMID:22146192

  1. Physiological and pathological functions of NADPH oxidases during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Shouji; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress, the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in excess of the antioxidant capacity in the heart induces myocardial damage, accumulation of which leads to ischemic heart disease and heart failure. NADPH oxidase (Nox) 2 and 4 are the major sources of O2- and H2O2 in the heart and play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and death in cardiomyocytes. Both Nox2 and Nox4 are upregulated in response to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), thereby contributing to ROS production and consequent myocardial injury. Suppression of either one of them can reduce ROS and I/R injury in the heart. Importantly, however, a minimum level of ROS production by either Nox2 or Nox4 is essential for the activation of HIF-1? and inhibition of PPAR? during I/R, such that combined suppression of both Nox2 and Nox4 exacerbates myocardial I/R injury. Thus, either excessive activation or suppression of Noxs below physiological levels can induce cardiac injury. Here we discuss both detrimental and salutary functions of Nox isoforms during myocardial I/R. PMID:24880746

  2. The two neutrophil members of the formylpeptide receptor family activate the NADPH-oxidase through signals that differ in sensitivity to a gelsolin derived phosphoinositide-binding peptide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huamei Fu; Lena Björkman; Paul Janmey; Anna Karlsson; Jennie Karlsson; Charlotta Movitz; Claes Dahlgren

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The formylpeptide receptor family members FPR and FPRL1, expressed in myeloid phagocytes, belong to the G-protein coupled seven transmembrane receptor family (GPCRs). They share a high degree of sequence similarity, particularly in the cytoplasmic domains involved in intracellular signaling. The established model of cell activation through GPCRs states that the receptors isomerize from an inactive to an active state

  3. Fulvene-5 potently inhibits NADPH oxidase 4 and blocks the growth of endothelial tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Sulochana S.; Jaconi, Marisa; Fried, Levi E.; Bonner, Michael Y.; Lefkove, Benjamin; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Perry, Betsy N.; Parhar, Ravi; Mackelfresh, Jamie; Sohn, Allie; Stouffs, Michael; Knaus, Ulla; Yancopoulos, George; Reiss, Yvonne; Benest, Andrew V.; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2009-01-01

    Hemangiomas are the most common type of tumor in infants. As they are endothelial cell–derived neoplasias, their growth can be regulated by the autocrine-acting Tie2 ligand angiopoietin 2 (Ang2). Using an experimental model of human hemangiomas, in which polyoma middle T–transformed brain endothelial (bEnd) cells are grafted subcutaneously into nude mice, we compared hemangioma growth originating from bEnd cells derived from wild-type, Ang2+/–, and Ang2–/– mice. Surprisingly, Ang2-deficient bEnd cells formed endothelial tumors that grew rapidly and were devoid of the typical cavernous architecture of slow-growing Ang2-expressing hemangiomas, while Ang2+/– cells were greatly impaired in their in vivo growth. Gene array analysis identified a strong downregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in Ang2+/– cells. Correspondingly, lentiviral silencing of Nox4 in an Ang2-sufficient bEnd cell line decreased Ang2 mRNA levels and greatly impaired hemangioma growth in vivo. Using a structure-based approach, we identified fulvenes as what we believe to be a novel class of Nox inhibitors. We therefore produced and began the initial characterization of fulvenes as potential Nox inhibitors, finding that fulvene-5 efficiently inhibited Nox activity in vitro and potently inhibited hemangioma growth in vivo. In conclusion, the present study establishes Nox4 as a critical regulator of hemangioma growth and identifies fulvenes as a potential class of candidate inhibitor to therapeutically interfere with Nox function. PMID:19620773

  4. Implication of NADPH oxidases in the early inflammation process generated by cystic fibrosis cells.

    PubMed

    Pongnimitprasert, Nushjira; Hurtado, Margarita; Lamari, Foudil; El Benna, Jamel; Dupuy, Corinne; Fay, Michèle; Foglietti, Marie-José; Bernard, Maguy; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Braut-Boucher, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, pulmonary inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to further investigate whether oxidative stress could be involved in the early inflammatory process associated with CF pathogenesis. We used a model of CFTR defective epithelial cell line (IB3-1) and its reconstituted CFTR control (S9) cell line cultured in various ionic conditions. This study showed that IB3-1 and S9 cells expressed the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) DUOX1/2 and NOX2 at the same level. Nevertheless, several parameters participating in oxidative stress (increased ROS production and apoptosis, decreased total thiol content) were observed in IB3-1 cells cultured in hypertonic environment as compared to S9 cells and were inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a well-known inhibitor of NOXs; besides, increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by IB3-1 cells was also inhibited by DPI as compared to S9 cells. Furthermore, calcium ionophore (A23187), which upregulates DUOX and NOX2 activities, strongly induced oxidative stress and IL-8 and IL-6 overexpression in IB3-1 cells. All these events were suppressed by DPI, supporting the involvement of NOXs in the oxidative stress, which can upregulate proinflammatory cytokine production by the airway CFTR-deficient cells and trigger early pulmonary inflammation in CF patients. PMID:24049649

  5. Implication of NADPH Oxidases in the Early Inflammation Process Generated by Cystic Fibrosis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pongnimitprasert, Nushjira; Hurtado, Margarita; Lamari, Foudil; El Benna, Jamel; Dupuy, Corinne; Fay, Michèle; Foglietti, Marie-José; Bernard, Maguy; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Braut-Boucher, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, pulmonary inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to further investigate whether oxidative stress could be involved in the early inflammatory process associated with CF pathogenesis. We used a model of CFTR defective epithelial cell line (IB3-1) and its reconstituted CFTR control (S9) cell line cultured in various ionic conditions. This study showed that IB3-1 and S9 cells expressed the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) DUOX1/2 and NOX2 at the same level. Nevertheless, several parameters participating in oxidative stress (increased ROS production and apoptosis, decreased total thiol content) were observed in IB3-1 cells cultured in hypertonic environment as compared to S9 cells and were inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a well-known inhibitor of NOXs; besides, increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by IB3-1 cells was also inhibited by DPI as compared to S9 cells. Furthermore, calcium ionophore (A23187), which upregulates DUOX and NOX2 activities, strongly induced oxidative stress and IL-8 and IL-6 overexpression in IB3-1 cells. All these events were suppressed by DPI, supporting the involvement of NOXs in the oxidative stress, which can upregulate proinflammatory cytokine production by the airway CFTR-deficient cells and trigger early pulmonary inflammation in CF patients. PMID:24049649

  6. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of oxidative stress in the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junya; Ago, Tetsuro; Matsushima, Shouji; Zhai, Peiyong; Schneider, Michael D.; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    NAD(P)H oxidases (Noxs) produce O2? and play an important role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. The Nox4 isoform is expressed primarily in the mitochondria in cardiac myocytes. To elucidate the function of endogenous Nox4 in the heart, we generated cardiac-specific Nox4?/? (c-Nox4?/?) mice. Nox4 expression was inhibited in c-Nox4?/? mice in a heart-specific manner, and there was no compensatory up-regulation in other Nox enzymes. These mice exhibited reduced levels of O2? in the heart, indicating that Nox4 is a significant source of O2? in cardiac myocytes. The baseline cardiac phenotype was normal in young c-Nox4?/? mice. In response to pressure overload (PO), however, increases in Nox4 expression and O2? production in mitochondria were abolished in c-Nox4?/? mice, and c-Nox4?/? mice exhibited significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis, and better cardiac function compared with WT mice. Mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c release, and decreases in both mitochondrial DNA and aconitase activity in response to PO were attenuated in c-Nox4?/? mice. On the other hand, overexpression of Nox4 in mouse hearts exacerbated cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis, and apoptosis in response to PO. These results suggest that Nox4 in cardiac myocytes is a major source of mitochondrial oxidative stress, thereby mediating mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction during PO. PMID:20713697

  7. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of oxidative stress in the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Junya; Ago, Tetsuro; Matsushima, Shouji; Zhai, Peiyong; Schneider, Michael D; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-08-31

    NAD(P)H oxidases (Noxs) produce O(2)(-) and play an important role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. The Nox4 isoform is expressed primarily in the mitochondria in cardiac myocytes. To elucidate the function of endogenous Nox4 in the heart, we generated cardiac-specific Nox4(-/-) (c-Nox4(-/-)) mice. Nox4 expression was inhibited in c-Nox4(-/-) mice in a heart-specific manner, and there was no compensatory up-regulation in other Nox enzymes. These mice exhibited reduced levels of O(2)(-) in the heart, indicating that Nox4 is a significant source of O(2)(-) in cardiac myocytes. The baseline cardiac phenotype was normal in young c-Nox4(-/-) mice. In response to pressure overload (PO), however, increases in Nox4 expression and O(2)(-) production in mitochondria were abolished in c-Nox4(-/-) mice, and c-Nox4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis, and better cardiac function compared with WT mice. Mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c release, and decreases in both mitochondrial DNA and aconitase activity in response to PO were attenuated in c-Nox4(-/-) mice. On the other hand, overexpression of Nox4 in mouse hearts exacerbated cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis, and apoptosis in response to PO. These results suggest that Nox4 in cardiac myocytes is a major source of mitochondrial oxidative stress, thereby mediating mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction during PO. PMID:20713697

  8. The two neutrophil members of the formylpeptide receptor family activate the NADPH-oxidase through signals that differ in sensitivity to a gelsolin derived phosphoinositide-binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Huamei; Björkman, Lena; Janmey, Paul; Karlsson, Anna; Karlsson, Jennie; Movitz, Charlotta; Dahlgren, Claes

    2004-01-01

    Background The formylpeptide receptor family members FPR and FPRL1, expressed in myeloid phagocytes, belong to the G-protein coupled seven transmembrane receptor family (GPCRs). They share a high degree of sequence similarity, particularly in the cytoplasmic domains involved in intracellular signaling. The established model of cell activation through GPCRs states that the receptors isomerize from an inactive to an active state upon ligand binding, and this receptor transformation subsequently activates the signal transducing G-protein. Accordingly, the activation of human neutrophil FPR and FPRL1 induces identical, pertussis toxin-sensitive functional responses and a transient increase in intracellular calcium is followed by a secretory response leading to mobilization of receptors from intracellular stores, as well as a release of reactive oxygen metabolites. Results We report that a cell permeable ten amino acid peptide (PBP10) derived from the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding region of gelsolin (an uncapper of actin filaments) blocks granule mobilization as well as secretion of oxygen radicals. The inhibitory effect of PBP10 is, however, receptor specific and affects the FPRL1-, but not the FPR-, induced cellular response. The transient rise in intracellular calcium induced by the active receptors is not affected by PBP10, suggesting that the blockage occurs in a parallel, novel signaling pathway used by FPRL1 to induce oxygen radical production and secretion. Also the FPR can activate neutrophils through a PBP10-sensitive signaling pathway, but this signal is normally blocked by the cytoskeleton. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the two very closely related chemoattractant receptors, FPR and FPRL1, use distinct signaling pathways in activation of human neutrophils. The PIP2-binding peptide PBP10 selectively inhibits FPRL1-mediated superoxide production and granule mobilization. Furthermore, the activity of this novel PBP10 sensitive pathway in neutrophils is modulated by the actin cytoskeleton network. PMID:15625007

  9. NADPH oxidase of neutrophils elevates o,o'-dityrosine cross-links in proteins and urine during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, S; Pennathur, S; Byun, J; Crowley, J; Mueller, D; Gischler, J; Hotchkiss, R S; Heinecke, J W

    2001-11-01

    Reactive intermediates generated by phagocytic white blood cells are of central importance in destroying microorganisms, but they may also damage normal tissue at sites of inflammation. To investigate the potential role of such oxidants in tissue injury, we used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to quantify levels of o,o'-dityrosine in mouse peritoneal neutrophils and urine. In wild-type animals, neutrophils markedly increased their content of protein-bound dityrosine when they were activated in vivo. This increase failed to occur in mice that were deficient in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Levels of o,o'-dityrosine in urine mirrored those in neutrophil proteins. When o,o'-[(14)C]dityrosine was injected intravenously into mice, the radiolabel was not metabolized or incorporated into tissue proteins: instead, it was recovered in urine with near-quantitative yield. Patients with sepsis markedly increased their output of o,o'-dityrosine into urine, suggesting that systemic inflammation also may be a potent source of oxidative stress in humans. These observations demonstrate that activated neutrophils produce o,o'-dityrosine cross-links in tissue proteins, which may subsequently be degraded into free amino acids and excreted into urine. Our results indicate that mouse phagocytes use oxidants produced by the NADPH oxidase to create o,o'-dityrosine cross-links in vivo and raise the possibility that reactive intermediates produced by this pathway promote inflammatory tissue damage in humans. PMID:11673867

  10. Priming of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation: role of p47phox phosphorylation and NOX2 mobilization to the plasma membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamel El-Benna; Pham My-Chan Dang; Marie-Anne Gougerot-Pocidalo

    2008-01-01

    Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense against microbial pathogens and in the inflammatory reaction. Upon activation,\\u000a neutrophils produce superoxide anion ($${\\\\text{O}}_2 ^{ - .} $$), which generates other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical ($${\\\\text{OH}}^{ \\\\bullet } $$) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), together with microbicidal peptides and proteases. The enzyme responsible for $${\\\\text{O}}_2

  11. Targeting NADPH oxidase with a novel dual Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor attenuates renal pathology in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Yves; Cavaglieri, Rita C; Khazim, Khaled; Lee, Doug-Yoon; Bruno, Francesca; Thakur, Sachin; Fanti, Paolo; Szyndralewiez, Cédric; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Block, Karen; Abboud, Hanna E

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by Nox NADPH oxidases may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The efficacy of the Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor GKT137831 on the manifestations of DN was studied in OVE26 mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. Starting at 4-5 mo of age, OVE26 mice were treated with GKT137831 at 10 or 40 mg/kg, once-a-day for 4 wk. At both doses, GKT137831 inhibited NADPH oxidase activity, superoxide generation, and hydrogen peroxide production in the renal cortex from diabetic mice without affecting Nox1 or Nox4 protein expression. The increased expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen was reduced in the renal cortex, including glomeruli, of diabetic mice treated with GKT137831. GKT137831 significantly reduced glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix expansion, urinary albumin excretion, and podocyte loss in OVE26 mice. GKT137831 also attenuated macrophage infiltration in glomeruli and tubulointerstitium. Collectively, our data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of Nox1/4 affords broad renoprotection in mice with preexisting diabetes and established kidney disease. This study validates the relevance of targeting Nox4 and identifies GKT137831 as a promising compound for the treatment of DN in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25656366

  12. Inactivation of a bacterial virulence pheromone by phagocyte-derived oxidants: New role for the NADPH oxidase in host defense

    PubMed Central

    Rothfork, Jacob M.; Timmins, Graham S.; Harris, Michael N.; Chen, Xian; Lusis, Aldons J.; Otto, Michael; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Gresham, Hattie D.

    2004-01-01

    Quorum sensing triggers virulence factor expression in medically important bacterial pathogens in response to a density-dependent increase in one or more autoinducing pheromones. Here, we show that phagocyte-derived oxidants target these autoinducers for inactivation as an innate defense mechanism of the host. In a skin infection model, expression of phagocyte NADPH oxidase, myeloperoxidase, or inducible nitric oxide synthase was critical for defense against a quorum-sensing pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, but not for defense against a quorum sensing-deficient mutant. A virulence-inducing peptide of S. aureus was inactivated in vitro and in vivo by reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, including HOCl and ONOO–. Inactivation of the autoinducer prevented both the up-regulation of virulence gene expression and the downstream sequelae. MS analysis of the inactivated peptide demonstrated that oxidation of the C-terminal methionine was primarily responsible for loss of activity. Treatment of WT but not NADPH oxidase-deficient mice with N-acetyl methionine to scavenge the inhibitory oxidants increased in vivo quorum sensing independently of the bacterial burden at the site of infection. Thus, oxidant-mediated inactivation of an autoinducing peptide from S. aureus is a critical innate defense mechanism against infection with this pathogen. PMID:15353593

  13. High glucose downregulates the number of caveolae in monocytes through oxidative stress from NADPH oxidase: implications for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshio; Juliet, Packiasamy A R; Miyazaki, Asaka; Ignarro, Louis J; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2007-03-01

    Atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease, is closely associated with hyperglycemia, major sign of diabetes mellitus. Caveolae are vesicular invaginations of the plasma membrane that mediate the intracellular transport of lipids such as cholesterol. We evaluated the relationship between the expression of caveolin-1 and the number of caveolae in macrophages under conditions of high glucose concentration. Increased superoxide production, induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and decreased caveolin-1 were observed in a concentration-dependent manner in THP-1 derived macrophages with high glucose concentrations. Mannitol, used as an osmotic control, showed no effects. Furthermore, co-localization of the NADPH oxidase component, p47(phox), and caveolin was confirmed by confocal microscopy. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study showed that high glucose concentrations reduced the number and size of the caveolae. The percentage of cells with fragmented DNA was increased in cells grown in hyperglycemic media. Taken together, high glucose concentrations suppress the levels of caveolin-1 expression and reduce the number of caveolae. This might be due to the actions of superoxide via the activation of NADPH oxidase by translocation of its component and uncoupling of induced iNOS in macrophages. Furthermore, the apoptosis of macrophages might occur with high glucose concentrations, leading to the spreading of lipids from macrophages into intracellular spaces in the vessel wall. PMID:17240121

  14. C/EBP transcription factors regulate NADPH oxidase in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Manea, Simona-Adriana; Todirita, Andra; Raicu, Monica; Manea, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    In atherosclerosis, oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) dysfunction is partially mediated by up-regulated NADPH oxidase (Nox); the mechanisms of enzyme regulation are not entirely defined. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, and the expression of many inflammatory and immune genes. We aimed at elucidating the role of C/EBP in the regulation of Nox in SMCs exposed to pro-inflammatory conditions. Human aortic SMCs were treated with interferon-? (IFN-?) for up to 24 hrs. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, real-time PCR, Western blot, promoter-luciferase reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed to investigate Nox regulation. IFN-? dose-dependently induced Nox activity and expression, nuclear translocation and up-regulation of C/EBP?, C/EBP? and C/EBP? protein expression levels. Silencing of C/EBP?, C/EBP? or C/EBP? reduced significantly but differentially the IFN-?-induced up-regulation of Nox activity, gene and protein expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical C/EBP sites within Nox1, Nox4 and Nox5 promoters. Transient overexpression of C/EBP?, C/EBP? or C/EBP? enhanced the luciferase level directed by the promoters of the Nox subtypes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the physical interaction of C/EBP?, C/EBP? and C/EBP? proteins with the Nox1/4/5 promoters. C/EBP transcription factors are important regulators of Nox enzymes in IFN-?-exposed SMCs. Activation of C/EBP may induce excessive Nox-derived reactive oxygen species formation, further contributing to SMCs dysfunction and atherosclerotic plaque development. Pharmacological targeting of C/EBP-related signalling pathways may be used to counteract the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:24797079

  15. C/EBP transcription factors regulate NADPH oxidase in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Manea, Simona-Adriana; Todirita, Andra; Raicu, Monica; Manea, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In atherosclerosis, oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) dysfunction is partially mediated by up-regulated NADPH oxidase (Nox); the mechanisms of enzyme regulation are not entirely defined. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, and the expression of many inflammatory and immune genes. We aimed at elucidating the role of C/EBP in the regulation of Nox in SMCs exposed to pro-inflammatory conditions. Human aortic SMCs were treated with interferon-? (IFN-?) for up to 24 hrs. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, real-time PCR, Western blot, promoter-luciferase reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed to investigate Nox regulation. IFN-? dose-dependently induced Nox activity and expression, nuclear translocation and up-regulation of C/EBP?, C/EBP? and C/EBP? protein expression levels. Silencing of C/EBP?, C/EBP? or C/EBP? reduced significantly but differentially the IFN-?-induced up-regulation of Nox activity, gene and protein expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical C/EBP sites within Nox1, Nox4 and Nox5 promoters. Transient overexpression of C/EBP?, C/EBP? or C/EBP? enhanced the luciferase level directed by the promoters of the Nox subtypes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the physical interaction of C/EBP?, C/EBP? and C/EBP? proteins with the Nox1/4/5 promoters. C/EBP transcription factors are important regulators of Nox enzymes in IFN-?-exposed SMCs. Activation of C/EBP may induce excessive Nox-derived reactive oxygen species formation, further contributing to SMCs dysfunction and atherosclerotic plaque development. Pharmacological targeting of C/EBP-related signalling pathways may be used to counteract the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:24797079

  16. Molecular evolution of Phox-related regulatory subunits for NADPH oxidase enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Tsukasa; Lambeth, J David

    2007-01-01

    Background The reactive oxygen-generating NADPH oxidases (Noxes) function in a variety of biological roles, and can be broadly classified into those that are regulated by subunit interactions and those that are regulated by calcium. The prototypical subunit-regulated Nox, Nox2, is the membrane-associated catalytic subunit of the phagocyte NADPH-oxidase. Nox2 forms a heterodimer with the integral membrane protein, p22phox, and this heterodimer binds to the regulatory subunits p47phox, p67phox, p40phox and the small GTPase Rac, triggering superoxide generation. Nox-organizer protein 1 (NOXO1) and Nox-activator 1 (NOXA1), respective homologs of p47phox and p67phox, together with p22phox and Rac, activate Nox1, a non-phagocytic homolog of Nox2. NOXO1 and p22phox also regulate Nox3, whereas Nox4 requires only p22phox. In this study, we have assembled and analyzed amino acid sequences of Nox regulatory subunit orthologs from vertebrates, a urochordate, an echinoderm, a mollusc, a cnidarian, a choanoflagellate, fungi and a slime mold amoeba to investigate the evolutionary history of these subunits. Results Ancestral p47phox, p67phox, and p22phox genes are broadly seen in the metazoa, except for the ecdysozoans. The choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the unicellular organism that is the closest relatives of multicellular animals, encodes early prototypes of p22phox, p47phox as well as the earliest known Nox2-like ancestor of the Nox1-3 subfamily. p67phox- and p47phox-like genes are seen in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the limpet Lottia gigantea that also possess Nox2-like co-orthologs of vertebrate Nox1-3. Duplication of primordial p47phox and p67phox genes occurred in vertebrates, with the duplicated branches evolving into NOXO1 and NOXA1. Analysis of characteristic domains of regulatory subunits suggests a novel view of the evolution of Nox: in fish, p40phox participated in regulating both Nox1 and Nox2, but after the appearance of mammals, Nox1 (but not Nox2) became independent of p40phox. In the fish Oryzias latipes, a NOXO1 ortholog retains an autoinhibitory region that is characteristic of mammalian p47phox, and this was subsequently lost from NOXO1 in later vertebrates. Detailed amino acid sequence comparisons identified both putative key residues conserved in characteristic domains and previously unidentified conserved regions. Also, candidate organizer/activator proteins in fungi and amoeba are identified and hypothetical activation models are suggested. Conclusion This is the first report to provide the comprehensive view of the molecular evolution of regulatory subunits for Nox enzymes. This approach provides clues for understanding the evolution of biochemical and physiological functions for regulatory-subunit-dependent Nox enzymes. PMID:17900370

  17. Pathophysiology and Treatments of Oxidative Injury in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on the Phagocytic NADPH Oxidase 2.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Federico; Camillo Teixeira, Priscila; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Mach, François; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2014-04-22

    Abstract Significance: Phagocytes play a key role in promoting the oxidative stress after ischemic stroke occurrence. The phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 is a membrane-bound enzyme complex involved in the antimicrobial respiratory burst and free radical production in these cells. Recent Advances: Different oxidants have been shown to induce opposite effects on neuronal homeostasis after a stroke. However, several experimental models support the detrimental effects of NOX activity (especially the phagocytic isoform) on brain recovery after stroke. Therapeutic strategies selectively targeting the neurotoxic ROS and increasing neuroprotective oxidants have recently produced promising results. Critical Issues: NOX2 might promote carotid plaque rupture and stroke occurrence. In addition, NOX2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by resident and recruited phagocytes enhance cerebral ischemic injury, activating the inflammatory apoptotic pathways. The aim of this review is to update evidence on phagocyte-related oxidative stress, focusing on the role of NOX2 as a potential therapeutic target to reduce ROS-related cerebral injury after stroke. Future Directions: Radical scavenger compounds (such as Ebselen and Edaravone) are under clinical investigation as a therapeutic approach against stroke. On the other hand, NOX inhibition might represent a promising strategy to prevent the stroke-related injury. Although selective NOX inhibitors are not yet available, nonselective compounds (such as apocynin and fasudil) provided encouraging results in preclinical studies. Whereas additional studies are needed to better evaluate this therapeutic potential in human beings, the development of specific NOX inhibitors (such as monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors, or aptamers) might further improve brain recovery after stroke. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000. PMID:24635113

  18. Transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, by nuclear factor-?B in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Manea; Laurentia I. Tanase; Monica Raicu; Maya Simionescu

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation-induced changes in the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) play a key role in atherogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation are scantily elucidated. Since nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) controls the expression of many genes associated to inflammation-related diseases, in this study we have investigated the role of NF-?B signaling in the regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 transcription in

  19. NADPH Oxidases: A Perspective on Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Tumor Biology

    PubMed Central

    Meitzler, Jennifer L.; Antony, Smitha; Wu, Yongzhong; Juhasz, Agnes; Liu, Han; Jiang, Guojian; Lu, Jiamo; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote genomic instability, altered signal transduction, and an environment that can sustain tumor formation and growth. The NOX family of NADPH oxidases, membrane-bound epithelial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide producers, plays a critical role in the maintenance of immune function, cell growth, and apoptosis. The impact of NOX enzymes in carcinogenesis is currently being defined and may directly link chronic inflammation and NOX ROS-mediated tumor formation. Recent Advances: Increased interest in the function of NOX enzymes in tumor biology has spurred a surge of investigative effort to understand the variability of NOX expression levels in tumors and the effect of NOX activity on tumor cell proliferation. These initial efforts have demonstrated a wide variance in NOX distribution and expression levels across numerous cancers as well as in common tumor cell lines, suggesting that much remains to be discovered about the unique role of NOX-related ROS production within each system. Progression from in vitro cell line studies toward in vivo tumor tissue screening and xenograft models has begun to provide evidence supporting the importance of NOX expression in carcinogenesis. Critical Issues: A lack of universally available, isoform-specific antibodies and animal tumor models of inducible knockout or over-expression of NOX isoforms has hindered progress toward the completion of in vivo studies. Future Directions: In vivo validation experiments and the use of large, existing gene expression data sets should help define the best model systems for studying the NOX homologues in the context of cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2873–2889. PMID:24156355

  20. NADPH Oxidase 1, a Novel Molecular Source of ROS in Hippocampal Neuronal Death in Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Seo, Ju-Ha; Kim, Hahn Young; Shin, Chan Young; Han, Jung-Soo; Han, Seol-Heui; Kim, Yoon-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common pathological factor that contributes to neurodegenerative diseases such as vascular dementia (VaD). Although oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD, the molecular mechanism underlying the selective vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to oxidative damage remains unknown. We assessed whether the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) complex, a specialized superoxide generation system, plays a role in VaD by permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries in rats. Results: Male Wistar rats (10 weeks of age) were subjected to bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]). Nox1 expression gradually increased in hippocampal neurons, starting at 1 week after 2VO and for approximately 15 weeks after 2VO. The levels of superoxide, DNA oxidation, and neuronal death in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, as well as consequential cognitive impairment, were increased in 2VO rats. Both inhibition of Nox by apocynin, a putative Nox inhibitor, and adeno-associated virus-mediated Nox1 knockdown significantly reduced 2VO-induced reactive oxygen species generation, oxidative DNA damage, hippocampal neuronal degeneration, and cognitive impairment. Innovation and Conclusion: We provided evidence that neuronal Nox1 is activated in the hippocampus under CCH, causing oxidative stress and consequential hippocampal neuronal death and cognitive impairment. This evidence implies that Nox1-mediated oxidative stress plays an important role in neuronal cell death and cognitive dysfunction in VaD. Nox1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for VaD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 533–550. PMID:24294978

  1. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Formation and Function of Multinucleated Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Mark T.; Schepetkin, Igor A.

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages play essential roles in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. One of the unique features of these phagocytic leukocytes is their ability to fuse, forming multinucleated giant cells. Multinucleated giant cells are important mediators of tissue remodeling and repair and are also responsible for removal or sequestration of foreign material, intracellular bacteria and non-phagocytosable pathogens, such as parasites and fungi. Depending on the tissue where fusion occurs and the inflammatory insult, multinucleated giant cells assume distinctly different phenotypes. Nevertheless, the ultimate outcome is the formation of large cells that can resorb bone tissue (osteoclasts) or foreign material and pathogens (giant cells) extracellularly. While progress has been made in recent years, the mechanisms and factors involved in macrophage fusion are still not fully understood. In addition to cytokines and a number of adhesion proteins and receptors, it is becoming increasingly clear that NADPH oxidase-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) also play an important role in macrophage fusion. In this review, we provide an overview of macrophage multinucleation, with a specific focus on the role of NADPH oxidases and ROS in macrophage fusion and in the function of multinucleated giant cells. In addition, we provide an updated overview of the role of these cells in inflammation and various autoimmune diseases. PMID:20375608

  2. Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced vascular changes by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Rocchina; Fornai, Matteo; Duranti, Emiliano; Antonioli, Luca; Rugani, Ilaria; Aydinoglu, Fatma; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Bernardini, Nunzia; Taddei, Stefano; Blandizzi, Corrado; Virdis, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1 participate in vascular damage induced by angiotensin II. We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, changes in extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of small mesenteric arteries from angiotensin II-infused rats. Experimental Approach Male rats received angiotensin II (120 ng·kg?1·min?1, subcutaneously) for 14 days with or without rosuvastatin (10 mg·kg?1·day?1, oral gavage) or vehicle. Vascular functions and morphological parameters were assessed by pressurized myography. Key Results In angiotensin II-infused rats, ACh-induced relaxation was attenuated compared with controls, less sensitive to L-NAME, enhanced by SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or SQ-29548 (prostanoid TP receptor antagonist), and normalized by the antioxidant ascorbic acid or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. After rosuvastatin, relaxations to ACh were normalized, fully sensitive to L-NAME, and no longer affected by SC-560, SQ-29548 or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. Angiotensin II enhanced intravascular superoxide generation, eutrophic remodelling, collagen and fibronectin depositions, and decreased elastin content, resulting in increased vessel stiffness. All these changes were prevented by rosuvastatin. Angiotensin II increased phosphorylation of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox and its binding to subunit p67phox, effects inhibited by rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin down-regulated vascular Nox4/NAD(P)H isoform and COX-1 expression, attenuated the vascular release of 6-keto-PGF1?, and enhanced copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase expression. Conclusion and Implications Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced alterations in resistance arteries in terms of function, structure, mechanics and composition. These effects depend on restoration of NO availability, prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidant excess, reversal of COX-1 induction and its prostanoid production, and stimulation of endogenous vascular antioxidant defences. PMID:22817606

  3. NADPH oxidase mediates oxidative stress in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Du-Chu; Teismann, Peter; Tieu, Kim; Vila, Miquel; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Przedborski, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of uncertain pathogenesis characterized by a loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and can be modeled by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Both inflammatory processes and oxidative stress may contribute to MPTP- and PD-related neurodegeneration. However, whether inflammation may cause oxidative damage in MPTP and PD is unknown. Here we show that NADPH-oxidase, the main reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme during inflammation, is up-regulated in SNpc of human PD and MPTP mice. These changes coincide with the local production of ROS, microglial activation, and DA neuronal loss seen after MPTP injections. Mutant mice defective in NADPH-oxidase exhibit less SNpc DA neuronal loss and protein oxidation than their WT littermates after MPTP injections. We show that extracellular ROS are a main determinant in inflammation-mediated DA neurotoxicity in the MPTP model of PD. This study supports a critical role for NADPH-oxidase in the pathogenesis of PD and suggests that targeting this enzyme or enhancing extracellular antioxidants may provide novel therapies for PD. PMID:12721370

  4. Practical strategies for targeting NF-kappaB and NADPH oxidase may improve survival during lethal influenza epidemics.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The most foolproof way to promote survival in epidemics of potentially lethal influenza is to target, not highly mutable viral proteins, but rather intracellular signaling pathways which promote viral propagation or lung inflammation. NF-kappaB, activated in influenza-infected lung epithelial cells and macrophages, is one likely target in this regard, as it plays a role both in viral replication and in the excessive lung inflammation often evoked by influenza infection. Indeed, salicylates, which suppress NF-kappaB activation, have been shown to reduce the lethality of H5N1 avian-type influenza in mice. Another potential target is NADPH oxidase, as this may be a major source of influenza-evoked oxidant stress in lung epithelial cells as well as in phagocytes attracted to lung parenchyma. A number of studies demonstrate that oxidant stress contributes to overexuberant lung inflammation and lethality in influenza-infected mice. The documented utility of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, for promoting survival in influenza-infected mice, and diminishing the severity of influenza-like infections in elderly humans, presumably reflects a key role for oxidative stress in influenza. The lethality of influenza is also reduced in mice pretreated with adenovirus carrying the gene for heme oxygenase-1; this benefit may be mediated, at least in part, by the ability of bilirubin to inhibit NADPH oxidase. It may be feasible to replicate this benefit clinically by administering biliverdin or its homolog phycocyanobilin, richly supplied by spirulina. If this latter speculation can be confirmed in rodent studies, a practical and inexpensive regimen consisting of high-dose salicylates, spirulina, and N-acetylcysteine, initiated at the earliest feasible time, may prove to have life-saving efficacy when the next killer influenza pandemic strikes. PMID:19573997

  5. Resveratrol treatment rescues neurovascular coupling in aged mice: role of improved cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and downregulation of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Ashpole, Nicole M.; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Ballabh, Praveen; Koller, Akos; Sonntag, William E.; Csiszar, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling is essential for the maintenance of normal neuronal function. Increased oxidative stress that occurs with aging was shown to impair neurovascular coupling, which likely contributes to a significant age-related decline in higher cortical function, increasing the risk for vascular cognitive impairment. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that exerts significant antiaging protective effects in large vessels, but its effects on the cerebromicrovasculature remain poorly defined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the capacity of resveratrol to improve neurovascular coupling in aging. In aged (24-mo-old) C57BL/6 mice N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive, nitric oxide-mediated CBF responses to whisker stimulation and to the endothelium-dependent dilator acethylcholine (ACh) were impaired compared with those in young (3-mo-old) mice. Treatment of aged mice with resveratrol rescued neurovascular coupling and ACh-induced responses, which was associated with downregulation of cortical expression of NADPH oxidase and decreased levels of biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress (3-nitrotyrosine, 8-isoprostanes). Resveratrol also attenuated age-related increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cultured cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (DCF fluorescence, flow cytometry). In conclusion, treatment with resveratrol rescues cortical neurovascular coupling responses to increased neuronal activity in aged mice, likely by restoring cerebromicrovascular endothelial function via downregulation of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production. Beneficial cerebromicrovascular effects of resveratrol may contribute to its protective effects on cognitive function in aging. PMID:24322615

  6. Resveratrol decreases fructose-induced oxidative stress, mediated by NADPH oxidase via an AMPK-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Ho, Wen-Yu; Su, Yu-Ting; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Bo-Zone; Cheng, Wen-Han; Lu, Wen-Hsien; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Yeh, Tung-Chen; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in the development of hypertension. Resveratrol, the main antioxidant in red wine, improves NO bioavailability and prevents cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol decreases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby reducing BP in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Experimental Approach Rats were fed 10% fructose with or without resveratrol (10?mg·kg?1·day?1) for 1 week or for 4 weeks with resveratrol treatment beginning at week 2; systolic BP (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff method. Endogenous in vivo O2? production in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) was determined with dihydroethidium. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting analyses were used to quantify RNA and protein expression levels. Key Results In fructose-fed rats, ROS levels in the NTS were higher, whereas the NO level was significantly decreased. Also, RNA and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (p67, p22-phox) were elevated, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) reduced and AMP-activated PK (AMPK) T172 phosphorylation levels in the NTS were lower in fructose-fed rats. Treatment with the AMPK activator resveratrol decreased levels of NADPH oxidase subunits and ROS, and increased NO and SOD2 levels in the NTS of fructose-fed rats. Administration of resveratrol, in combination with fructose at week 0 and later at week 2, significantly reduced the SBP of fructose-fed rats. Conclusions and Implications Collectively, resveratrol decreased BP through the phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and neuronal NOS in fructose-fed rats. These novel findings suggest that resveratrol may be a potential pharmacological candidate for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:24547812

  7. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) associates with NADPH oxidase and is required for phagocytosis of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes by macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celio X. C. Santos; Beatriz S. Stolf; Paulo V. A. Takemoto; Angelica M. Amanso; Lucia R. Lopes; Edna B. Souza; Hiro Goto; Francisco R. M. Laurindo

    2009-01-01

    PDI, a redox chaperone, is involved in host cell uptake of bacteria\\/viruses, phagosome formation, and vascular NADPH oxidase regulation. PDI involvement in phagocyte infection by parasites has been poorly explored. Here, we investigated the role of PDI in in vitro infection of J774 macrophages by amastigote and promastigote forms of the protozoan Leishmania chagasi and assessed whether PDI associates with

  8. Partial characterization of lipids that develop during the routine storage of blood and prime the neutrophil NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Christopher C.; Clay, Keith L.; Thurman, Gail W.; Johnson, Chris A.; Ambruso, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Factors developed during the routine storage of whole blood and packed red blood cells that primed the neutrophil (PMN) reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase significantly by 2 weeks of storage, with maximal priming activity by product outdate (2.5 to 3.7 fold). These agents appeared to be generated by cellular constituents because stored, acellular plasma did not demonstrate PMN priming. The priming activity was soluble in chloroform. Priming of the oxidase by plasma and plasma extracts was inhibited by WEB 2170, a platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist. Separation of the chloroform-soluble compounds from plasma by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated two peaks of priming activity at the retention times of neutral lipids and lysophos-phatidylcholines (lyso-PCs) for both whole blood and packed red blood cells, Analysis of the latter peak of PMN priming by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy identified several specific lyso-PC species including C16 and C16 lyso-PAF. Further evaluation by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy demonstrated that three of these species increased dramatically over product storage time, while the other two species increased modestly, and paralleled the Increase in priming activity. Commercially available, purified mixtures of these lyso-PCs primed the PMN oxidase by twofold. When PMNs were incubated with this mixture of lyso-PCs, acetylated analogs of these compounds rapidly accumulated. Thus lipids, including specific lyso-PC species, develop during routine storage of cellular blood components, prime PMNs, and possibly play a role in the severe complications of transfusion therapy. PMID:7964126

  9. NADPH oxidase DUOX1 promotes long-term persistence of oxidative stress after an exposure to irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Talbot, Monique; de Souza Dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Hartl, Dana; Bidart, Jean-Michel; De Deken, Xavier; Miot, Françoise; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2015-04-21

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage, but also late effects in several cell generations after the initial exposure. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of IR, and we have recently highlighted that an oxidative stress is responsible for the chromosomal rearrangements found in radio-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma. Using both a human thyroid cell line and primary thyrocytes, we investigated the mechanism by which IR induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) several days after irradiation. We focused on NADPH oxidases, which are specialized ROS-generating enzymes known as NOX/DUOX. Our results show that IR induces delayed NADPH oxidase DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in a dose-dependent manner, which is sustained for several days. We report that p38 MAPK, activated after IR, increased DUOX1 via IL-13 expression, leading to persistent DNA damage and growth arrest. Pretreatment of cells with catalase, a scavenger of H2O2, or DUOX1 down-regulation by siRNA abrogated IR-induced DNA damage. Analysis of human thyroid tissues showed that DUOX1 is elevated not only in human radio-induced thyroid tumors, but also in sporadic thyroid tumors. Taken together, our data reveal a key role of DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in long-term persistent radio-induced DNA damage. Our data also show that DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production, which induces DNA double-strand breaks, can cause genomic instability and promote the generation of neoplastic cells through its mutagenic effect. PMID:25848056

  10. Protein disulfide isomerase expression increases in resistance arteries during hypertension development. Effects on Nox1 NADPH oxidase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Androwiki, Aline C. D.; Camargo, Lívia de Lucca; Sartoretto, Simone; Couto, Gisele K.; Ribeiro, Izabela M. R.; Veríssimo-Filho, Sidney; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Lopes, Lucia R.

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in vascular function and remodeling in hypertension through redox signaling processes. Previous studies demonstrated that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) regulates Nox1 expression and ROS generation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the role of PDI in conductance and resistance arteries during hypertension development remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate PDI expression and NADPH oxidase dependent ROS generation during hypertension development. Mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) and thoracic aorta were isolated from 6, 8, and 12 week-old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar rats. ROS production (dihydroethidium fluorescence), PDI (WB, imunofluorescence), Nox1 and NOX4 (RT-PCR) expression were evaluated. Results show a progressive increase in ROS generation in MRA and aorta from 8 to 12 week-old SHR. This effect was associated with a concomitant increase in PDI and Nox1 expression only in MRA. Therefore, suggesting a positive correlation between PDI and Nox1 expression during the development of hypertension in MRA. In order to investigate if this effect was due to an increase in arterial blood pressure, pre hypertensive SHR were treated with losartan (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days), an AT1 receptor antagonist. Losartan decreased blood pressure and ROS generation in both vascular beds. However, only in SHR MRA losartan treatment lowered PDI and Nox1 expression to control levels. In MRA PDI inhibition (bacitracin, 0.5 mM) decreased Ang II redox signaling (p-ERK 1/2). Altogether, our results suggest that PDI plays a role in triggering oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction in resistance but not in conductance arteries, increasing Nox1 expression and activity. Therefore, PDI could be a new player in oxidative stress and functional alterations in resistance arteries during the establishment of hypertension. PMID:25870854

  11. 12/15-Lipoxygenase-derived lipid metabolites induce retinal endothelial cell barrier dysfunction: contribution of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Othman, Amira; Ahmad, Saif; Megyerdi, Sylvia; Mussell, Rene; Choksi, Karishma; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Elmarakby, Ahmed; Rizk, Nasser; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) metabolites on retinal endothelial cell (REC) barrier function. FITC-dextran flux across the REC monolayers and electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) were used to evaluate the effect of 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetreanoic acids (HETE) on REC permeability and transcellular electrical resistance (TER). Effect of 12- or 15-HETE on the levels of zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), NOX2, pVEGF-R2 and pSHP1 was examined in the presence or absence of inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. In vivo studies were performed using Ins2(Akita) mice treated with or without the 12/15-LOX inhibitor baicalein. Levels of HETE and inflammatory mediators were examined by LC/MS and Multiplex Immunoassay respectively. ROS generation and NOX2 expression were also measured in mice retinas. 12- and 15- HETE significantly increased permeability and reduced TER and ZO-1 expression in REC. VEGF-R2 inhibitor reduced the permeability effect of 12-HETE. Treatment of REC with HETE also increased ROS generation and expression of NOX2 and pVEGF-R2 and decreased pSHP1 expression. Treatment of diabetic mice with baicalein significantly decreased retinal HETE, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-6, ROS generation, and NOX2 expression. Baicalein also reduced pVEGF-R2 while restored pSHP1 levels in diabetic retina. Our findings suggest that 12/15-LOX contributes to vascular hyperpermeability during DR via NADPH oxidase dependent mechanism which involves suppression of protein tyrosine phosphatase and activation of VEGF-R2 signal pathway. PMID:23437353

  12. In silico sequence analysis reveals new characteristics of fungal NADPH oxidase genes.

    PubMed

    Détry, Nicolas; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Asiegbu, Fred O; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    NADPH oxidases (Noxes), transmembrane proteins found in most eukaryotic species, generate reactive oxygen species and are thereby involved in essential biological processes. However, the fact that genes encoding ferric reductases and ferric-chelate reductases share high sequence similarities and domains with Nox genes represents a challenge for bioinformatic approaches used to identify Nox-encoding genes. Further, most studies on fungal Nox genes have focused mainly on functionality, rather than sequence properties, and consequently clear differentiation among the various Nox isoforms has not been achieved. We conducted an extensive sequence analysis to identify putative Nox genes among 34 eukaryotes, including 28 fungal genomes and one Oomycota genome. Analyses were performed with respect to phylogeny, transmembrane helices, di-histidine distance and glycosylation. Our analyses indicate that the sequence properties of fungal Nox genes are different from those of human and plant Nox genes, thus providing novel insight that will enable more accurate identification and characterization of fungal Nox genes. PMID:25346600

  13. Biochemistry, Physiology and Pathophysiology of NADPH Oxidases in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Lassègue, Bernard; San Martín, Alejandra; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2012-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes are critical mediators of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. These proteins are expressed in virtually all cardiovascular cells, and regulate such diverse functions as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, inflammatory responses and oxygen sensing. They target a number of important signaling molecules, including kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors, ion channels and proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. Nox enzymes have been implicated in many different cardiovascular pathologies: atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, angiogenesis and collateral formation, stroke and heart failure. In this review, we discuss in detail the biochemistry of Nox enzymes expressed in the cardiovascular system (Nox1, 2, 4 and 5), their roles in cardiovascular cell biology, and their contributions to disease development. PMID:22581922

  14. Testosterone induces vascular smooth muscle cell migration by NADPH oxidase and c-Src-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chignalia, Andreia Z; Schuldt, Elke Z; Camargo, Lívia L; Montezano, Augusto C; Callera, Gláucia E; Laurindo, Francisco R; Lopes, Lucia R; Avellar, Maria Christina W; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Fortes, Zuleica B; Touyz, Rhian M; Tostes, Rita C

    2012-06-01

    Testosterone has been implicated in vascular remodeling associated with hypertension. Molecular mechanisms underlying this are elusive, but oxidative stress may be important. We hypothesized that testosterone stimulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), with enhanced effects in cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The mechanisms (genomic and nongenomic) whereby testosterone induces ROS generation and the role of c-Src, a regulator of redox-sensitive migration, were determined. VSMCs from male Wistar-Kyoto rats and SHRs were stimulated with testosterone (10(-7) mol/L, 0-120 minutes). Testosterone increased ROS generation, assessed by dihydroethidium fluorescence and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (30 minutes [SHR] and 60 minutes [both strains]). Flutamide (androgen receptor antagonist) and actinomycin D (gene transcription inhibitor) diminished ROS production (60 minutes). Testosterone increased Nox1 and Nox4 mRNA levels and p47phox protein expression, determined by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Flutamide, actinomycin D, and cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) diminished testosterone effects on p47phox. c-Src phosphorylation was observed at 30 minutes (SHR) and 120 minutes (Wistar-Kyoto rat). Testosterone-induced ROS generation was repressed by 3-(4-chlorophenyl) 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-day]pyrimidin-4-amine (c-Src inhibitor) in SHRs and reduced by apocynin (antioxidant/NADPH oxidase inhibitor) in both strains. Testosterone stimulated VSMCs migration, assessed by the wound healing technique, with greater effects in SHRs. Flutamide, apocynin, and 3-(4-chlorophenyl) 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-day]pyrimidin-4-amine blocked testosterone-induced VSMCs migration in both strains. Our study demonstrates that testosterone induces VSMCs migration via NADPH oxidase-derived ROS and c-Src-dependent pathways by genomic and nongenomic mechanisms, which are differentially regulated in VSMCs from Wistar-Kyoto rats and SHRs. PMID:22566500

  15. Which NADPH Oxidase Isoform Is Relevant for Ischemic Stroke? The Case for Nox 2

    PubMed Central

    Kahles, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance and Recent Advances: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability and third in mortality in industrialized nations. Immediate restoration of cerebral blood flow is crucial to salvage brain tissue, but only few patients are eligible for recanalization therapy. Thus, the need for alternative neuroprotective strategies is huge, and antioxidant interventions have long been studied in this context. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) physiologically serve as signaling molecules, but excessive amounts of ROS, as generated during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), contribute to tissue injury. Critical Issues: Nevertheless and despite a strong rational of ROS being a pharmacological target, all antioxidant interventions failed to improve functional outcome in human clinical trials. Antioxidants may interfere with physiological functions of ROS or do not reach the crucial target structures of ROS-induced injury effectively. Future Directions: Thus, a potentially more promising approach is the inhibition of the source of disease-promoting ROS. Within recent years, NADPH oxidases (Nox) of the Nox family have been identified as mediators of neuronal pathology. As, however, several Nox homologs are expressed in neuronal tissue, and as many of the pharmacological inhibitors employed are rather unspecific, the concept of Nox as mediators of brain damage is far from being settled. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of Nox homologs to I/R injury at large as well as to neuronal damage in particular. We will illustrate that the current data provide evidence for Nox2 as the most important NADPH oxidase mediating cerebral injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1400–1417. PMID:22746273

  16. Eicosanoids up-regulate production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH-dependent oxidase in Spodoptera exigua phagocytic hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngjin; Stanley, David W; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-08-01

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular immune responses in insects, including phagocytosis of invading microbes. Phagocytosis entails two major steps, the internalization of microbes and the subsequent killing of them via formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we posed the hypothesis that eicosanoids mediate ROS production by activating NADPH-dependent oxidase (NOX) and tested the idea in the model insect, Spodoptera exigua. A NOX gene (we named SeNOX4) was identified and cloned, yielding a full open reading frame encoding 547 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 63,410Da and an isoelectric point at 9.28. A transmembrane domain and a large intracellular domain containing NADPH and FAD-binding sites were predicted. Phylogenetic analysis indicated SeNOX4 clusters with other NOX4 genes. SeNOX4 was expressed in all life stages except eggs, and exclusively in hemocytes. Bacterial challenge and, separately, arachidonic acid (AA, a precursor of eicosanoid biosynthesis) injection increased its expression. The internalization step was assessed by counting hemocytes engulfing fluorescence-labeled bacteria. The phagocytic behavior was inhibited by dsRNA suppression of SeNOX4 expression and, separately by dexamethasone (DEX, a specific inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis) treatments. However, injecting AA to dsSeNOX4-treated larvae did not rescue the phagocytic activity. Hemocytic ROS production increased following bacterial challenge, which was sharply reduced in dsSeNOX4-treated, and separately, in DEX-treated larvae. AA partially reversed the suppressed ROS production in dsSeNOX4-treated larvae. Treating larvae with either the ROS-suppressing dsSeNOX4 construct or DEX rendered experimental larvae unable to inhibit bacterial proliferation in their hemocoels. We infer that eicosanoids mediate ROS production during phagocytosis by inducing expression of SeNOX4. PMID:26071791

  17. Up-regulation of kidney NAD(P)H oxidase and calcineurin in SHR: Reversal by lifelong antioxidant supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHANG-DE ZHAN; Ram K. Sindhu; Nosratola D. Vaziri

    2004-01-01

    Up-regulation of kidney NAD(P)H oxidase and calcineurin in SHR: Reversal by lifelong antioxidant supplementation.BackgroundSpontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are born normotensive and develop hypertension (HTN) later in life (age 4 to 5 weeks). HTN in SHR is associated with and caused in part, by oxidative stress and renal interstitial inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that lifelong antioxidant supplementation beginning at

  18. The expression of NADPH oxidases and production of reactive oxygen species by human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Kolá?ová, H; Binó, L; Pejchalová, K; Kubala, L

    2010-01-01

    Controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases in non-phagocytic cells has recently been suggested to participate in the regulation of cellular functions. Due to the role of ROS in control of cellular functions, precise and accurate detection of ROS is of essential importance. However, various methodological approaches currently used for ROS determination vary in sensitivity, specificity, as well as in requirements for specialized equipment. In this study, human lung epithelial cell line A549 was screened for expression of NADPH oxidases NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, NOX5, DUOX1 and DUOX2 by quantitative RT-PCR. Fluorometric, colorimetric, and chemiluminometric methods were applied to determine ROS production. A549 cells were found to significantly express NOX1, NOX2, DUOX1 and DUOX2. ROS production by A549 cells was detected with fluorometric probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein- diacetate, dihydroethidium, and amplex red or colorimetric probe nitrobluetetrazolium. The production of ROS detected by these probes was partially reduced by NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. The inhibitory effect of diphenyleneiodonium was the most significant regarding amplex red detection of phorbol myristate acetateactivated ROS production. In contrast to other probes, neither cytochrome c colorimetric determination nor luminol- and L-012-amplified chemiluminescence, regardless of the addition of horseradish peroxidase, exerted sufficient sensitivity to detect ROS production by A549. The results revealed differences among methods used for ROS formation measurement by human lung epithelial cell line A549 and highlighted the sensitivity of fluorometric determination for this purpose. PMID:21138653

  19. Neonatal hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in the rat brain: the role of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Andrea Pereira; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo Dias; de Souza, Laila Oliveira; Bitencourt, Fernanda; Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Coelho, Juliana Gonzales; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the consequences of diabetes on the central nervous system (CNS) have received great attention. However, the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia affects the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In addition, recent studies have shown that hyperglycemia induces oxidative damage in the adult rat brain. In this regard, no study has assessed oxidative stress as a possible mechanism that affects the brain normal function in neonatal hyperglycemic rats. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether neonatal hyperglycemia elicits oxidative stress in the brain of neonate rats subjected to a streptozotocin-induced neonatal hyperglycemia model (5-day-old rats). The activities of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase (6-PGD), NADPH oxidase (Nox), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), the production of superoxide anion, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), and the protein carbonyl content were measured. Neonatal hyperglycemic rats presented increased activities of G6PD, 6PGD, and Nox, which altogether may be responsible for the enhanced production of superoxide radical anion that was observed. The enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and GSHPx) that were observed in neonatal hyperglycemic rats, which may be caused by a rebound effect of oxidative stress, were not able to hinder the observed lipid peroxidation (TBA-RS) and protein damage in the brain. Consequently, these results suggest that oxidative stress could represent a mechanism that explains the harmful effects of neonatal hyperglycemia on the CNS. PMID:25682169

  20. Salvianolic acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced MMP-2 upregulation in human aortic smooth muscle cells via suppression of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Sheng; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2006-07-01

    Activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with acute coronary syndromes may contribute to plaque destabilization. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) enhances NAD (P) H oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and ROS induce MMP-2. In the present study, the effects of a potent water-soluble antioxidant, salvianolic acid B (SalB), derived from a Chinese herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza, on the expression of MMP-2 by TNF-alpha-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were investigated. In this study, salvianolic acid B scavenged H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner in test tube. We found that SalB, as well as NADPH oxidase inhibitors, DPI or apocynin, and antioxidant NAC, inhibited TNF-alpha-induced MMP-2 mRNA, protein expression, and gelatinolytic activity in HASMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. We also observed a dose-dependent decrease in ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity induced by TNF-alpha in the presence of SalB. SalB also significantly inhibited angiotensin II or H2O2-induced MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression and gelatinolytic activity in HASMCs. Our data point out that the importance of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in the control of SalB inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced MMP-2 expression and activity. PMID:16713603

  1. Tea polyphenols alleviate high fat and high glucose-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by attenuating ROS production via NADPH oxidase pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to cardiovascular disorders and macro-vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway. Methods Male Wistar rats fed on a high fat diet (HF) were treated with GTPs (0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L in drinking water) for 26 weeks. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with high glucose (HG, 33 mmol/L) and GTPs (0.0, 0.4, or 4 ?g/mL) for 24 hours in vitro. The endothelial permeabilities in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by Evans blue injection method and efflux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2?, 7?-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe, respectively. Protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were determined by Western-blot. Results HF diet-fed increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in rat aorta while HG treatments increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in cultured BAECs. Co-treatment with GTPs alleviated those changes both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro studies, GTPs treatments protected against the HG-induced over-expressions of p22phox and p67phox. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, alleviated the hyperpermeability induced by HG. Conclusions GTPs could alleviate endothelial hyperpermeabilities in HF diet-fed rat aorta and in HG treated BAECs. The decrease of ROS production resulting from down-regulation of NADPH oxidase contributed to the alleviation of endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:24580748

  2. The regulatory roles of NADPH oxidase, intra- and extra-cellular HSP70 in pancreatic islet function, dysfunction and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Mauricio; Bock, Patricia Martins; Takahashi, Hilton Kenji; Homem De Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo; Newsholme, Philip

    2015-06-01

    The 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70) family is important for a dynamic range of cellular processes that include protection against cell stress, modulation of cell signalling, gene expression, protein synthesis, protein folding and inflammation. Within this family, the inducible 72 kDa and the cognate 73 kDa forms are found at the highest level. HSP70 has dual functions depending on location. For example, intracellular HSP70 (iHSP70) is anti-inflammatory whereas extracellular HSP70 (eHSP70) has a pro-inflammatory function, resulting in local and systemic inflammation. We have recently identified a divergence in the levels of eHSP70 and iHSP70 in subjects with diabetes compared with healthy subjects and also reported that eHSP70 was correlated with insulin resistance and pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction/death. In the present review, we describe possible mechanisms by which HSP70 participates in cell function/dysfunction, including the activation of NADPH oxidase isoforms leading to oxidative stress, focusing on the possible role of HSPs and signalling in pancreatic islet ?- and ?-cell physiological function in health and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25881670

  3. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from NADPH and xanthine oxidase modulate the cutaneous local heating response in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Medow, Marvin S; Bamji, Natasha; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony J; Stewart, Julian M

    2011-07-01

    Local cutaneous heating produces vasodilation that is largely nitric oxide (NO) dependent. We showed that angiotensin II (ANG II) attenuates this by an ANG II receptor, type 1 (AT1R)-dependent mechanism that is reversible with the antioxidant ascorbate, indicating oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by ANG II employ NADPH and xanthine oxidase pathways. To determine whether these mechanisms pertain to skin, we measured cutaneous local heating with 10 ?M ANG II, using apocynin to inhibit NADPH oxidase and allopurinol to inhibit xanthine oxidase. We also inhibited superoxide with tempol, and H(2)O(2) with ebselen. We heated the skin of the calf in 8 healthy volunteers (24.5-29.9 yr old) to 42°C and measured local blood flow to assess the percentage of maximum cutaneous vascular conductance. We remeasured while perfusing allopurinol, apocynin, ebselen, and tempol through individual microdialysis catheters. This was then repeated with ANG II combined with antioxidant drugs. tempol and apocynin alone had no effect on the heat response. Allopurinol enhanced the entire response (125% of heat alone), while ebselen suppressed the heat plateau (76% of heat alone). ANG II alone caused significant attenuation of the entire heat response (52%). When added to ANG II, Allopurinol partially reversed the ANG II attenuation. Heat with ebselen and ANG II were similar to heat and ANG II; ebselen only partially reversed the ANG II attenuation. Apocynin and tempol each partially reversed the attenuation caused by ANG II. This suggests that ROS, produced by ANG II via NADPH and xanthine oxidase pathways, modulates the response of skin to the application of heat, and thus contributes to the control of local cutaneous blood flow. PMID:21436462

  4. Superoxide deficiency attenuates promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by cytotoxicity in NADPH oxidase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Parzefall, Wolfram; Freiler, Constanze; Lorenz, Olga; Koudelka, Helga; Riegler, Teresa; Nejabat, Marzieh; Kainzbauer, Eveline; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to carcinogens combined with chronic hepatitis contributes greatly to the worldwide high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is still unclear to which extent the release of pro-inflammatory reactive oxygen or nitrogen species contributes to the development of this malignancy. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of superoxide in a model of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. p47(phox) knockout mice (KO), lacking superoxide formation by phagocytic NADPH oxidase (phox), and wild-type animals (WT) were subjected to two different initiation-promotion protocols: (1) single dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 6 weeks of age followed by phenobarbital (PB) via diet, or ethanol (EtOH) in drinking water; (2) DEN at neonatal age followed by three cytotoxic doses of DEN at intervals of 6-7 weeks. The appearance of tumors and prestages was quantified. There was no obvious difference in the capacity of DEN to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis in KO and WT mice. PB promoted tumor development in both genotypes without significant difference. EtOH induced steatosis significantly less in KO than in WT liver, but had no effect on tumor formation in either genotype. However, hepatocarcinogenesis by three cytotoxic DEN doses after neonatal initiation was attenuated significantly in KO. Macrophages/monocytes identified by the specific antigen F4/80 were more abundant in KO than in WT liver, possibly reflecting a compensatory response. We conclude that phox-derived superoxide is not essential but is supportive for the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by cytotoxic doses of DEN. The production of superoxide may therefore contribute to the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by cytotoxic/pro-inflammatory stimuli. PMID:25182417

  5. A novel role of microglial NADPH oxidase in mediating extra-synaptic function of norepinephrine in regulating brain immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shi-Jun; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Sanders, Virginia; Xie, Keqin; Wang, Qingshan; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2015-06-01

    Although the peripheral anti-inflammatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) is well documented, the mechanism by which this neurotransmitter functions as an anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system (CNS) is unclear. This article aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of NE in inflammation-based dopaminergic neurotoxicity models. In mice, NE-depleting toxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) was injected at 6 months of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. It was found that NE depletion enhanced LPS-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. This piece of in vivo data prompted us to conduct a series of studies in an effort to elucidate the mechanism as to how NE affects dopamine neuron survival by using primary midbrain neuron/glia cultures. Results showed that submicromolar concentrations of NE dose-dependently protected dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. However, NE-elicited neuroprotection was not totally abolished in cultures from ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR)-deficient mice, suggesting that novel pathways other than ?2-AR are involved. To this end, It was found that submicromolar NE dose-dependently inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX2)-generated superoxide, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of NE. This novel mechanism was indeed adrenergic receptors independent since both (+) and (-) optic isomers of NE displayed the same potency. We further demonstrated that NE inhibited LPS-induced NOX2 activation by blocking the translocation of its cytosolic subunit to plasma membranes. In summary, we revealed a potential physiological role of NE in maintaining brain immune homeostasis and protecting neurons via a novel mechanism. GLIA 2015;63:1057-1072. PMID:25740080

  6. Alzheimer's disease: a gas model. The NADPH oxidase-Nitric Oxide system as an antibubble biomachinery.

    PubMed

    Denis, Pierre A

    2013-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease of unknown origin. The pathological lesions that define AD would be linked to the insidious accumulation of nitrogen, having invaded the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) from the blood via the physiological cycling pool of vascular glucose transporters (GLUT-1). According to this hypothesis, the nitrogen nanobubbles, being chemically inert and actually indestructible for human beings, can not escape from the ISF anymore. They would exert a huge and deleterious pressure against cellular components, especially in microglia and in astrocytes. They could enhance the existing cell oxygen anisotropy, which might enhance the natural bubble nucleation of O2-2O2 in cells or in mitochondria. Indeed, with the help of a new symbolic representation for gas nuclei in chemical reactions, the NADPH oxidase-NO system is identified for the first time, as an antibubble biomachinery, able to break O2-2O2 bubbles up as it releases superoxide O2-. Superoxide is considered as a quantum bubble, which collapses through the reactivity of the gaseous NO radical. Their combination in soluble peroxinitrite provides the change from one state of matter to another, avoiding any risk of a bubble enlargement, and finally avoiding the risk of enzyme crowding or of a bulk pressure variation. However, a bubble is expected to entrap Nitric Oxide (NO), which leads theoretically to a decrease in its bioavailability, and is expected to trigger a guanylyl-cyclase-mediated inflammatory cascade, that could explain the inflammation in AD. In vitro, any increase in the hydrostatic pressure has already been linked to the microtubule disorganization. The amyloid deposits, also known as senile plaques, would behave as a sponge toward ISF nitrogen; A? is considered as a foam-stabilizing agent. By taking the shape of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, the amyloid could confine the nitrogen leak from the blood, and progressively insulate the Blood-Brain Barrier against the pollutant. All these theoretical features finally lead to the death of the neurons. The comprehensive statement of the theoretical pro-inflammatory action of inert gases is a real upheaval for the whole medicine. PMID:24119763

  7. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Parvalbumin-Immunoreactive Interneurons Loss and Neurobehavioral Impairment is Mediated by NADPH-Oxidase-2.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Jiang; Li, Guowei; Liang, Dong

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea usually contribute to psychiatric diseases and cognitive impairments in adults. Loss of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive interneurons (PV-IN) in the brain cortex is an important feature of psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. Here we investigate the causal contribution of oxidative stress in the brain cortex to neuropathological alterations in a mouse model of sleep apnea. Wild-type (WT) and the NADPH-oxidase-2 (gp91-phox/NOX2) knock-out adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) or standard room air in the same chamber. In vivo we determined the impact (1) of IH exposures on NOX2 expression, (2) of genetic gp91-phox/NOX2 knock-out and (3) of pharmacological NOX2 inhibition on IH-induced neuropathological alterations in adult mice. Endpoints were oxidative stress, PV-IN and neurobehavioral alterations. The results showed IH exposures increased NOX2 expression in the prefrontal cortex of WT mice, which was accompanied with elevations of indirect markers of oxidative stress (HNE, HIF-1?, 8-OHDG). WT mice showed loss of PV-IN in the prefrontal cortex and increased locomotion activity and anxiety levels after exposed to IH, while no change emerged in NOX2 knock-out mice. Treatment of WT mice with the antioxidant/NOX inhibitor apocynin prevented the neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations induced by IH exposures. Our data suggest that NOX2-derived oxidative stress is involved in the loss of PV-IN in the prefrontal cortex and development of neurobehavioral alterations for adult mice exposed to IH. These results provide a molecular mechanism for the coupling between sleep apnea and brain oxidative stress as well as potential new therapeutic avenues. PMID:25911467

  8. QSYQ Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Induced Heart Remodeling Rats through Different Subtypes of NADPH-Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Ouyang, Yuli; Shi, Tianjiao; Yang, Xiaomin; Yu, Junda; Qiu, Qi; Han, Jing; Wu, Yan; Tang, Binghua; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We aim to investigate the therapeutic effects of QSYQ, a drug of heart failure (HF) in clinical practice in China, on a rat heart failure (HF) model. 3 groups were divided: HF model group (LAD ligation), QSYQ group (LAD ligation and treated with QSYQ), and sham-operated group. After 4 weeks, rats were sacrificed for cardiac injury measurements. Rats with HF showed obvious histological changes including necrosis and inflammation foci, elevated ventricular remodeling markers levels(matrix metalloproteinases-2, MMP-2), deregulated ejection fraction (EF) value, increased formation of oxidative stress (Malondialdehyde, MDA), and up-regulated levels of apoptotic cells (caspase-3, p53 and tunnel) in myocardial tissue. Treatment of QSYQ improved cardiac remodeling through counter-acting those events. The improvement of QSYQ was accompanied with a restoration of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) pathways in different patterns. Administration of QSYQ could attenuate LAD-induced HF, and AngII-NOX2-ROS-MMPs pathway seemed to be the critical potential targets for QSYQ to reduce the remodeling. Moreover, NOX4 was another key targets to inhibit the p53 and Caspase3, thus to reduce the hypertrophy and apoptosis, and eventually provide a synergetic cardiac protective effect. PMID:23861715

  9. NADPH oxidase 2-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in the ventral cochlear nucleus of D-galactose-induced aging rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Z; Yang, Q; Liu, L; Li, S; Zhao, J; Hu, J; Liu, C; Qian, D; Gao, C

    2015-02-12

    Aging has been associated with oxidative stress and the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. The previous study has established a mimetic rat model of aging using D-galactose (D-gal) and revealed that chronic injection of D-gal can increase NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in the peripheral auditory system. However, the effects of NOXs in the central auditory system (CAS) were still obscure. The current study was designed to investigate potential causative mechanisms of central presbycusis by using the D-gal-induced aging rats. We found that the levels of H2O2 and the expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and its corresponding subunits P22(phox), P47(phox) and P67(phox) were greatly increased in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of D-gal-treated rats as compared with controls. And, the levels of a typical biomarker of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the accumulation of mtDNA common deletion (CD) were also increased in the VCN of D-gal-treated rats as compared with controls. Moreover, the damage of mitochondrial ultrastructure, a decline in ATP levels, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), an increase in the amount of cytochrome c (cyt c) translocated to the cytoplasm and caspase-3 activation were observed in the VCN induced by D-gal. In addition, we also found that the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the VCN were increased in D-gal-treated rats. Taken together, these findings suggest that NOX2-dependent oxidative stress may contribute to mitochondrial damage and activate a caspase-3-dependent apoptosis pathway in the CAS during aging. This study also provides new insights into the development of presbycusis. PMID:25499316

  10. Point mutation in the cytoplasmic domain of the neutrophil p22-phox cytochrome b subunit is associated with a nonfunctional NADPH oxidase and chronic granulomatous disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Dinauer; E. A. Pierce; R. W. Erickson; J. T. Curnutte; T. J. Muhlbeach; R. A. Seger; H. Messner; S. H. Orkin

    1991-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a congenital disorder in which phagocytes cannot generate superoxide (Oâ⁻) and other microbial oxidants due to mutations in any one of four components of the Oâ⁻-generating complex, NADPH oxidase. The authors report here a female CGD patient in whom a missense mutation in one of these components, the p22-phox subunit of the neutrophil membrane cytochrome

  11. Increased accumulation of neutrophils and decreased fibrosis in the lung of NADPH oxidase-deficient C57BL/6 mice exposed to carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Shvedova, A.A. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Physiology and Pharmacology Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)], E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov; Kisin, E.R. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Murray, A.R. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Physiology and Pharmacology Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kommineni, C. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Castranova, V. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Physiology and Pharmacology Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fadeel, B. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute Stockholm (Sweden); Kagan, V.E. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have been introduced into a large number of new technologies and consumer products. The combination of their exceptional features with very broad applications raised concerns regarding their potential health effects. The prime target for SWCNT toxicity is believed to be the lung where exposure may occur through inhalation, particularly in occupational settings. Our previous work has demonstrated that SWCNT cause robust inflammatory responses in rodents with very early termination of the acute phase and rapid onset of chronic fibrosis. Timely elimination of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) through apoptosis and their subsequent clearance by macrophages is a necessary stage in the resolution of pulmonary inflammation whereby NADPH oxidase contributes to control of apoptotic cell death and clearance of PMNs. Thus, we hypothesized that NADPH oxidase may be an important regulator of the transition from the acute inflammation to the chronic fibrotic stage in response to SWCNT. To experimentally address the hypothesis, we employed NADPH oxidase-deficient mice which lack the gp91{sup phox} subunit of the enzymatic complex. We found that NADPH oxidase null mice responded to SWCNT exposure with a marked accumulation of PMNs and elevated levels of apoptotic cells in the lungs, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased production of the anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokine, TGF-{beta}, and significantly lower levels of collagen deposition, as compared to C57BL/6 control mice. These results demonstrate a role for NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in determining course of pulmonary response to SWCNT.

  12. Mitochondrial-localized NADPH oxidase 4 is a source of superoxide in angiotensin II-stimulated neurons.

    PubMed

    Case, Adam J; Li, Shumin; Basu, Urmi; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2013-07-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays an important role in the central regulation of systemic cardiovascular function. ANG II-mediated intraneuronal signaling has been shown to be predicated by an increase in mitochondrial superoxide (O??-), yet the source of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains unclear. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a member of the NADPH oxidase family, has been reported to be localized in mitochondria of various cell types and has been implicated in brain angiotensinergic signaling. However, the subcellular localization and function of Nox4 in neurons has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that Nox4 is expressed in neuron mitochondria and is involved in ANG II-dependent O??--mediated intraneuronal signaling. To query this, Nox4 immunofluorescent staining and mitochondrial enrichment were performed in a mouse catecholaminergic neuronal cell model (CATH.a). Nox4 was shown to be present in neuron mitochondria as evidenced by colocalization with both the mitochondrial-localized protein manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and dye MitoTracker Red. Moreover, Nox4 expression was significantly increased in enriched mitochondrial fractions compared with whole cell lysates. Additionally, adenoviral-encoded small interfering RNA for Nox4 (AdsiNox4) caused a robust knockdown in Nox4 mRNA and protein levels, which led to the attenuation of ANG II-induced mitochondrial O??- production. Finally, in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain, Nox4 not only demonstrated mitochondrial localization but was induced by chronic, peripheral infusion of ANG II. Collectively, these data suggest that Nox4 is a source of O??- in neuron mitochondria that contributes to ANG II intraneuronal signaling. PMID:23624625

  13. Differential upregulation of Nox homologues of NADPH oxidase by tumor necrosis factor-? in human aortic smooth muscle and embryonic kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Moe, K T; Aulia, S; Jiang, F; Chua, Y L; Koh, T H; Wong, M C; Dusting, G J

    2006-01-01

    NADPH oxidases are important sources of vascular superoxide, which has been linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Previously we demonstrated that the Nox4 subunit of NADPH oxidase is a critical catalytic component for superoxide production in quiescent vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study we sought to determine the role of Nox4 in superoxide production in human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) and embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells under proinflammatory conditions. Incubation with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, 10 ng/ml) for 12h increased superoxide production in both cell types, whereas angiotensin II, platelet-derived growth factor or interleukin-1? had little effects. Superoxide production was completely abolished by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors diphenyline iodonium and apocynin, but not by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase or mitochondrial electron transport. TNF-? upregulated the expression of Nox4 in AoSMC at both message and protein levels, while Nox1 and Nox2 were unchanged. In contrast, upregulation of Nox2 appeared to mediate the enhanced superoxide production by TNF-? in HEK293 cells. We suggest that Nox4 may be involved in increased superoxide generation in vascular smooth muscle cells under proinflammatory conditions. PMID:16563235

  14. Organochlorine insecticides induce NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species in human monocytic cells via phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Mangum, Lee C; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Stokes, John V; Matthews, Anberitha T; Lee, Jung Hwa; Chambers, Janice E; Ross, Matthew K

    2015-04-20

    Bioaccumulative organohalogen chemicals, such as organochlorine (OC) insecticides, have been increasingly associated with disease etiology; however, the mechanistic link between chemical exposure and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes, is complex and poorly defined. Systemic oxidative stress stemming from OC exposure might play a vital role in the development of these pathologies. Monocytes are important surveillance cells of the innate immune system that respond to extracellular signals possessing danger-associated molecular patterns by synthesizing oxyradicals, such as superoxide, for the purpose of combating infectious pathogens. We hypothesized that OC chemicals can be toxic to monocytes because of an inappropriate elevation in superoxide-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing cellular oxidative damage. Reactive oxyradicals are generated in monocytes in large part by NADPH oxidase (Nox). The present study was conducted to examine the ability of two chlorinated cyclodiene compounds, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin, as well as p,p'-DDE, a chlorinated alicyclic metabolite of DDT, to stimulate Nox activity in a human monocytic cell line and to elucidate the mechanisms for this activation. Human THP-1 monocytes treated with either trans-nonachlor or dieldrin (0.1-10 ?M in the culture medium) exhibited elevated levels of intracellular ROS, as evidenced by complementary methods, including flow cytometry analysis using the probe DCFH-DA and hydroethidine-based fluorometric and UPLC-MS assays. In addition, the induced reactive oxygen flux caused by trans-nonachlor was also observed in two other cell lines, murine J774 macrophages and human HL-60 cells. The central role of Nox in OC-mediated oxidative stress was demonstrated by the attenuated superoxide production in OC-exposed monocytes treated with the Nox inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium and VAS-2870. Moreover, monocytes challenged with OCs exhibited increased phospho-p47(phox) levels and enhanced p47(phox) membrane localization compared to that in vehicle-treated cells. p47(phox) is a cytosolic regulatory subunit of Nox, and its phosphorylation and translocation to the NOX2 catalytic subunit in membranes is a requisite step for Nox assembly and activation. Dieldrin and trans-nonachlor treatments of monocytes also resulted in marked increases in arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosanoid production, which could be abrogated by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor arachidonoyltrifluoromethyl ketone (ATK) but not by calcium-independent PLA2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone. This suggested that cytosolic PLA2 plays a crucial role in the induction of Nox activity by increasing the intracellular pool of AA that activates protein kinase C, which phosphorylates p47(phox). In addition, ATK also blocked OC-induced p47(phox) serine phosphorylation and attenuated ROS levels, which further supports the notion that the AA pool liberated by cytosolic PLA2 is responsible for Nox activation. Together, the results suggest that trans-nonachlor and dieldrin are capable of increasing intracellular superoxide levels via a Nox-dependent mechanism that relies on elevated intracellular AA levels. These findings are significant because chronic activation of monocytes by environmental toxicants might contribute to pathogenic oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25633958

  15. Effects of Iodonium-Class Flavin Dehydrogenase Inhibitors on Growth, Reactive Oxygen Production, Cell Cycle Progression, NADPH Oxidase 1 Levels, and Gene Expression in Human Colon Cancer Cells and Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Doroshow, James H.; Gaur, Shikha; Markel, Susan; Lu, Jiamo; van Balgooy, Josephus; Synold, Timothy W.; Xi, Bixin; Wu, Xiwei; Juhasz, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explain the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remain an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1 [Nox1]). We found that diphenylene iodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodoniumdiphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10–250 nM for DPI, 0.5–2.5 ?M for DTI, and 155 nM to 10 ?M for iodoniumdiphenyl) substantially lower than for DU145 human prostate cancer cells that do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24 hr, following short-term (1-hr) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced peak plasma concentrations similar to those utilized for our in vitro experiments. These findings suggest that iodonium analogs have therapeutic potential for NADPH oxidase-containing human colon cancers in vivo, and that at least part of their antineoplastic mechanism of action may be related to targeting Nox1. PMID:23314043

  16. Effects of iodonium-class flavin dehydrogenase inhibitors on growth, reactive oxygen production, cell cycle progression, NADPH oxidase 1 levels, and gene expression in human colon cancer cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Doroshow, James H; Gaur, Shikha; Markel, Susan; Lu, Jiamo; van Balgooy, Josephus; Synold, Timothy W; Xi, Bixin; Wu, Xiwei; Juhasz, Agnes

    2013-04-01

    Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explains the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1, or Nox1). We found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodonium diphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10-250nM for DPI, 0.5-2.5?M for DTI, and 155nM to 10?M for iodonium diphenyl) substantially lower than needed for DU145 human prostate cancer cells, which do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24h, after short-term (1-h) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced peak plasma concentrations similar to those utilized for our in vitro experiments. These findings suggest that iodonium analogs have therapeutic potential for NADPH oxidase-containing human colon cancers in vivo and that at least part of their antineoplastic mechanism of action may be related to targeting Nox1. PMID:23314043

  17. Activation of polyphenol oxidase of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, N E

    1973-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase of leaves is located mainly in chloroplasts isolated by differential or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. This activity is part of the lamellar structure that is not lost on repeated washing of the plastids. The oxidase activity was stable during prolonged storage of the particles at 4 C or -18 C. The Km (dihydroxyphenylalanine) for spinach leaf polyphenol oxidase was 7 mm by a spectrophotometric assay and 2 mm by the manometric assay. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaf peroxisomal fraction, after isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient, did not coincide with the peroxisomal enzymes but was attributed to proplastids at nearly the same specific density.Plants were grouped by the latency properties for polyphenol oxidase in their isolated chloroplasts. In a group including spinach, Swiss chard, and beet leaves the plastids immediately after preparation from fresh leaves required a small amount of light for maximal rates of oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the dark or light increased many fold during aging of these chloroplasts for 1 to 5 days. Soluble polyphenol oxidase of the cytoplasm was not so stimulated. Chloroplasts prepared from stored leaves were also much more active than from fresh leaves. Maximum rates of dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidation were 2 to 6 mmoles x mg(-1) chlorophyll x hr(-1). Equal stimulation of latent polyphenol oxidase in fresh or aged chloroplasts in this group was obtained by either light, an aged trypsin digest, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, or antimycin A. A variety of other treatments did not activate or had little effect on the oxidase, including various peptides, salts, detergents, and other proteolytic enzymes.Activation of latent polyphenol oxidase in spinach chloroplasts by trypsin amounted to as much as 30-fold. The trypsin activation occurred even after the trypsin had been treated with 10% trichloroacetic acid, 1.0 n HCl or boiled for 30 minutes. No single peptide from the digested trypsin was found to be the sole activating factor. About 0.25 mug of trypsin activated 50% the polyphenol oxidase activity in a standard chloroplast assay containing 2.1 mug of chlorophyll. Treatment of spinach chloroplasts with tris buffer or ethylenediamine tetraacetate extracted the ATPase activity, but the polyphenol oxidase activity remained with the broken plastids. However these treatments increased the latent polyphenol oxidase activity 50- to 100-fold.Chloroplasts from a second group of plants, including alfalfa, wheat, oats, peas, and sugarcane leaves, oxidized dihydroxyphenylalanine at a rate of 11 to 120 mumoles x mg(-1) chlorophyll x hr(-1). Polyphenol oxidase in these chloroplasts required a low intensity of red light for activity. Fifty or 75% activation of the oxidase in wheat chloroplasts required 4 to 6 foot candles of light and more light was required for alfalfa chloroplasts. Blue or far red light were ineffective. Trypsin was inhibitory. Upon aging chloroplasts from wheat leaves, but not alfalfa or peas, for 5 to 7 days at 4 C the total polyphenol oxidase activity did not increase, but the activation characteristics changed to those of chloroplasts from the spinach group. Chloroplasts from a third group of plants, including bean, tomato, and corn leaves, slowly oxidized dihydroxyphenylalanine in the dark and exhibited no latency. PMID:16658308

  18. Phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase (Nox2) promotes activation of p38MAPK in pancreatic ?-cells under glucotoxic conditions: Evidence for a requisite role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1).

    PubMed

    Sidarala, Vaibhav; Veluthakal, Rajakrishnan; Syeda, Khadija; Vlaar, Cornelis; Newsholme, Philip; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that glucotoxicity (caused by high glucose concentrations; HG) underlies pathogenesis of islet dysfunction in diabetes. We have recently demonstrated that Nox2 plays a requisite role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under HG conditions, resulting in mitochondrial dysregulation and loss of islet ?-cell function. Herein, we investigated roles of Nox2 in the regulation of downstream stress kinase (p38MAPK) activation under HG conditions (20mM; 24h) in normal rodent islets and INS-1 832/13 cells. We observed that gp91-ds-tat, a specific inhibitor of Nox2, but not its inactive analog, significantly attenuated HG-induced Nox2 activation, ROS generation and p38MAPK activation, thus suggesting that Nox2 activation couples with p38MAPK activation. Since Rac1, is an integral member of the Nox2 holoenzyme, we also assessed the effects of Rac1 inhibitors (EHT 1864, NSC23766 and Ehop-016) on HG-induced p38MAPK activation in isolated ?-cells. We report a significant inhibition of p38MAPK phosphorylation by Rac1 inhibitors, implying a regulatory role for Rac1 in promoting the Nox2-p38MAPK signaling axis in the ?-cell under the duress of HG. 2-Bromopalmitate, a known inhibitor of protein (Rac1) palmitoylation, significantly reduced HG-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation. However, GGTI-2147, a specific inhibitor of geranylgeranylation of Rac1, failed to exert any significant effects on HG-induced p38MAPK activation. In conclusion, we present the first evidence that the Rac1-Nox2 signaling module plays novel regulatory roles in HG-induced p38MAPK activation and loss in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) culminating in metabolic dysfunction and the onset of diabetes. PMID:25881746

  19. NDS27 combines the effect of curcumin lysinate and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin to inhibit equine PKC? and NADPH oxidase involved in the oxidative burst of neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Derochette, Sandrine; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Franck, Thierry; Collienne, Simon; Ceusters, Justine; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Serteyn, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are involved in host defence against infections by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but excessive PMN stimulation is associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. After appropriate stimuli, protein kinase C (PKC) triggers the assembly of NADPH oxidase (Nox2) which produces superoxide anion (O2•?), from which ROS derive. The therapeutic use of polyphenols is proposed to lower ROS production by limiting Nox2 and PKC activities. The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant effect of NDS27 and NDS28, two water-soluble forms of curcumin lysinate respectively complexed with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), on the activity of Nox2 and PKC?, involved in the Nox2 activation pathway. Our results, showed that NDS27 is the best inhibitor for Nox2 and PKC?. This was illustrated by the combined effect of HP?CD and curcumin lysinate: HP?CD, but not ?-CD, improved the release of curcumin lysinate and its exchange against lipid or cholesterol as demonstrated by the lipid colouration with Oil Red O, the extraction of radical lipophilic probes recorded by ESR and the HPLC measurements of curcumin. HP?CD not only solubilised and transported curcumin, but also indirectly enhanced its action on both PKC and Nox2 activities. The modulatory effect of NDS27 on the Nox2 activation pathway of neutrophils may open therapeutic perspectives for the control of pathologies with excessive inflammatory reactions. PMID:25493216

  20. NDS27 combines the effect of curcumin lysinate and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin to inhibit equine PKC? and NADPH oxidase involved in the oxidative burst of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Derochette, Sandrine; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Franck, Thierry; Collienne, Simon; Ceusters, Justine; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Serteyn, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are involved in host defence against infections by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but excessive PMN stimulation is associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. After appropriate stimuli, protein kinase C (PKC) triggers the assembly of NADPH oxidase (Nox2) which produces superoxide anion (O2 (•) (-)), from which ROS derive. The therapeutic use of polyphenols is proposed to lower ROS production by limiting Nox2 and PKC activities. The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant effect of NDS27 and NDS28, two water-soluble forms of curcumin lysinate respectively complexed with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), on the activity of Nox2 and PKC?, involved in the Nox2 activation pathway. Our results, showed that NDS27 is the best inhibitor for Nox2 and PKC?. This was illustrated by the combined effect of HP?CD and curcumin lysinate: HP?CD, but not ?-CD, improved the release of curcumin lysinate and its exchange against lipid or cholesterol as demonstrated by the lipid colouration with Oil Red O, the extraction of radical lipophilic probes recorded by ESR and the HPLC measurements of curcumin. HP?CD not only solubilised and transported curcumin, but also indirectly enhanced its action on both PKC and Nox2 activities. The modulatory effect of NDS27 on the Nox2 activation pathway of neutrophils may open therapeutic perspectives for the control of pathologies with excessive inflammatory reactions. PMID:25493216

  1. Oxidative inhibition of the vascular Na+-K+ pump via NADPH oxidase-dependent ?1-subunit glutathionylation: implications for angiotensin II-induced vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Weisbrod, Robert M; Hansen, Thomas; Ravaie, Ramtin; Nunez, Andrea; Liu, Yi B; Fry, Natasha; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Sweadner, Kathleen J; Cohen, Richard A; Figtree, Gemma A

    2013-12-01

    Glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump's ?1-subunit is a key molecular mechanism of physiological and pathophysiological pump inhibition in cardiac myocytes. Its contribution to Na(+)-K(+) pump regulation in other tissues is unknown, and cannot be assumed given the dependence on specific ?-subunit isoform expression and receptor-coupled pathways. As Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is an important determinant of vascular tone through effects on [Ca(2+)]i, we have examined the role of oxidative regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in mediating angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in vascular reactivity. ?1-subunit glutathione adducts were present at baseline and increased by exposure to Ang II in rabbit aortic rings, primary rabbit aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and human arterial segments. In VSMCs, Ang II-induced glutathionylation was associated with marked reduction in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, an effect that was abolished by the NADPH oxidase inhibitory peptide, tat-gp91ds. In aortic segments, Ang II-induced glutathionylation was associated with decreased K(+)-induced vasorelaxation, a validated index of pump activity. Ang II-induced oxidative inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and decrease in K(+)-induced relaxation were reversed by preincubation of VSMCs and rings with recombinant FXYD3 protein that is known to facilitate deglutathionylation of ?1-subunit. Knock-out of FXYD1 dramatically decreased K(+)-induced relaxation in a mouse model. Attenuation of Ang II signaling in vivo by captopril (8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) decreased superoxide-sensitive DHE levels in the media of rabbit aorta, decreased ?1-subunit glutathionylation, and enhanced K(+)-induced vasorelaxation. Ang II inhibits the Na(+)-K(+) pump in VSMCs via NADPH oxidase-dependent glutathionylation of the pump's ?1-subunit, and this newly identified signaling pathway may contribute to altered vascular tone. FXYD proteins reduce oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump and may have an important protective role in the vasculature under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:23816524

  2. Critical role of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox on vascular TLR expression and neointimal lesion formation in high-fat diet-induced obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Xiong Chen; Amanda Stinnett

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is associated with inflammation and vasculature dysfunction. We investigated the potential role of the NADPH oxidase on vascular Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and carotid neointimal formation in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) model. Using mice DIO and common carotid artery flow cessation-induced lesion formation models, we examined vascular TLR2 and TLR4 expression and neointimal formation

  3. Effects of the NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism on endurance exercise performance and oxidative DNA damage in response to aerobic exercise training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Il-Young Paik; Chan-Ho Jin; Hwa-Eun Jin; Young-Il Kim; Su-Youn Cho; Hee-Tae Roh; Ah-Ram Suh; Sang-Hoon Suh

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of the NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism on endurance exercise performance and oxidative DNA\\u000a damage in response to acute and chronic exercises. One hundred three subjects were recruited, among which 26 healthy subjects\\u000a (CC: 12, TC: 12, and TT: 2) were studied during rest, exercise at 85% VO2max, and recovery before and after 8 weeks of

  4. Relationship Between Coronary Plaque Formation and NAD(P)H Oxidase-derived Reactive Oxygen Species - Comparison of Intravascular Ultrasound Finding of Atherosclerotic Lesions with Histochemical Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MITSUYASU TERASHIMA; NOBUTAKA INOUE; YOSHITAKA OHASHI; MITSUHIRO YOKOYAMA

    Background: Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vessel wall plays an essential role in atherogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that the generation of ROS via NAD(P)H oxidase was correlated with plaque instability using coronary specimens obtained by directional coronary atherectomy (DCA). In this study, the relation between plaque formation and ROS generation was studied based on pre-interventional

  5. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  6. Resveratrol inhibits foam cell formation via NADPH oxidase 1- mediated reactive oxygen species and monocyte chemotactic protein-1.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Weon; Baek, Kheewoong; Kim, Jae Ryong; Lee, Jae Jin; Ryu, Sang Ho; Chin, Byung Rho; Baek, Suk Hwan

    2009-03-31

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound in red wine that has anti-oxidant and cardioprotective effects in animal models. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) play key roles in foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. We studied LPS-mediated foam cell formation and the effect of resveratrol. Resveratrol pretreatment strongly suppressed LPS-induced foam cell formation. To determine if resveratrol affected the expression of genes that control ROS generation in macrophages, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was measured. Resveratrol treatment of macrophages inhibited LPS-induced Nox1 expression as well as ROS generation, and also suppressed LPS-induced MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. We investigated the upstream targets of Nox1 and MCP-1 expression and found that Akt-forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO3a) is an important signaling pathway that regulates both genes. These inhibitory effects of resveratrol on Nox1 expression and MCP-1 production may target to the Akt and FoxO3a signaling pathways. PMID:19293636

  7. Inactivation of NADPH oxidases NOX4 and NOX5 protects human primary fibroblasts from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E; Aziz, Towqir; Choudhuri, Rohini; Maeda, Daisuke; Parekh, Palak R; Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L; Bonner, William M

    2015-03-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation from medical procedures has increased sharply in the last three decades. Recent epidemiological studies suggest a direct relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and health problems, including cancer incidence. Therefore, minimizing the impact of radiation exposure in patients has become a priority in the development of future clinical practices. Crucial players in radiation-induced DNA damage include reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the sources of these have remained elusive. To the best of our knowledge, we show here for the first time that two members of the ROS-generating NADPH oxidase family (NOXs), NOX4 and NOX5, are involved in radiation-induced DNA damage. Depleting these two NOXs in human primary fibroblasts resulted in reduced levels of DNA damage as measured by levels of radiation-induced foci, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the comet assay coupled with increased cell survival. NOX involvement was substantiated with fulvene-5, a NOXs-specific inhibitor. Moreover, fulvene-5 mitigated radiation-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo. Our results provide evidence that the inactivation of NOXs protects cells from radiation-induced DNA damage and cell death. These findings suggest that NOXs inhibition may be considered as a future pharmacological target to help minimize the negative effects of radiation exposure for millions of patients each year. PMID:25706776

  8. Chemical approaches to discovery and study of sources and targets of hydrogen peroxide redox signaling through NADPH oxidase proteins.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Thomas F; Garcia, Francisco J; Onak, Carl S; Carroll, Kate S; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a prime member of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) family of molecules produced during normal cell function and in response to various stimuli, but if left unchecked, it can inflict oxidative damage on all types of biological macromolecules and lead to cell death. In this context, a major source of H2O2 for redox signaling purposes is the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of enzymes, which were classically studied for their roles in phagocytic immune response but have now been found to exist in virtually all mammalian cell types in various isoforms with distinct tissue and subcellular localizations. Downstream of this tightly regulated ROS generation, site-specific, reversible covalent modification of proteins, particularly oxidation of cysteine thiols to sulfenic acids, represents a prominent posttranslational modification akin to phosphorylation as an emerging molecular mechanism for transforming an oxidant signal into a dynamic biological response. We review two complementary types of chemical tools that enable (a) specific detection of H2O2 generated at its sources and (b) mapping of sulfenic acid posttranslational modification targets that mediate its signaling functions, which can be used to study this important chemical signal in biological systems. PMID:26034893

  9. IFN?/TNF? synergism induces a non-canonical STAT2/IRF9-dependent pathway triggering a novel DUOX2 NADPH Oxidase-mediated airway antiviral response

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Karin; Martin, Lydie; Mukawera, Esperance; Chartier, Stéfany; De Deken, Xavier; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Miot, Françoise; Grandvaux, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are key initial innate immune responders in the fight against respiratory viruses, primarily via the secretion of antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines that act in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to trigger the establishment of an antiviral state. It is currently thought that the early antiviral state in airway epithelial cells primarily relies on IFN? secretion and the subsequent activation of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor complex, composed of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9, which regulates the expression of a panoply of interferon-stimulated genes encoding proteins with antiviral activities. However, the specific pathways engaged by the synergistic action of different cytokines during viral infections, and the resulting physiological outcomes are still ill-defined. Here, we unveil a novel delayed antiviral response in the airways, which is initiated by the synergistic autocrine/paracrine action of IFN? and TNF?, and signals through a non-canonical STAT2- and IRF9-dependent, but STAT1-independent cascade. This pathway ultimately leads to the late induction of the DUOX2 NADPH oxidase expression. Importantly, our study uncovers that the development of the antiviral state relies on DUOX2-dependent H2O2 production. Key antiviral pathways are often targeted by evasion strategies evolved by various pathogenic viruses. In this regard, the importance of the novel DUOX2-dependent antiviral pathway is further underlined by the observation that the human respiratory syncytial virus is able to subvert DUOX2 induction. PMID:23545780

  10. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2beta-Akt signaling is involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced NADPH oxidase 1 expression and foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hye; Park, Dae-Weon; Park, Sung Chul; Park, Yun-Ki; Hong, Seong Yeon; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Lee, Chu-Hee; Baek, Suk-Hwan

    2009-12-01

    Foam cell formation is the most important process in atherosclerosis, and low density lipoprotein oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the key step in the conversion of macrophages to foam cells. This study reveals the control mechanism of the gene for NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), which produces ROS in the formation of foam cells by stimulating TLR4. Treatment of macrophages by the TLR4 agonist LPS stimulated ROS production and ROS-mediated macrophage to foam cell conversion. This LPS-induced ROS production and foam cell formation could be abrogated by pretreatment of macrophages with N-acetyl cysteine or apocynin. LPS increased Nox1 promoter activity, and resultant expression of mRNA and protein. Small interfering RNA mediated inhibition of Nox1 expression decreased LPS-induced ROS production and foam cell formation. LPS-mediated Nox1 expression and the responses occurred in a calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2))-dependent manner. The iPLA(2)beta-specific inhibitor S-BEL or iPLA(2)beta small interfering RNA attenuated LPS-induced Nox1 expression, ROS production, and foam cell formation. In addition, activation of iPLA(2)beta by LPS caused Akt phosphorylation and was followed by increased Nox1 expression. These results suggest that the binding of LPS and TLR4 increases Nox1 expression through the iPLA(2)beta-Akt signaling pathway, and control ROS production and foam cell formation. PMID:19917703

  11. Role of NADPH oxidase NOX5-S, NF-?B, and DNMT1 in acid-induced p16 hypermethylation in Barrett's cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jie; Li, Dan; Wands, Jack; Souza, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via promoter hypermethylation may play an important role in the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). We have previously shown that acid-induced p16 gene promoter hypermethylation may depend on activation of NADPH oxidase NOX5-S in BAR-T cells and OE33 EA cells. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is known to participate in maintaining established patterns of DNA methylation in dividing cells and may play an important role in the development of cancer. Therefore, we examined whether DNMT1 is involved in acid-induced p16 gene promoter hypermethylation in BAR-T cells. We found that the acid significantly increased p16 gene promoter methylation, decreased p16 mRNA, and increased cell proliferation, effects that may depend on activation of DNMT1 in BAR-T cells. DNMT1 is overexpressed in EA cells FLO and OE33 and EA tissues. Acid treatment upregulated DNMT1 mRNA expression and increased DNMT1 promoter activity. Acid-induced increases in DNMT1 mRNA expression and promoter activity were significantly decreased by knockdown of NOX5-S and NF-?B1 p50. Conversely, overexpression of NOX5-S, p50, or p65 significantly increased DNMT1 promoter activity. Knockdown of NOX5-S significantly decreased the acid-induced increase in luciferase activity in cells transfected with pNF?B-Luc. An NF-?B binding element GGGGTATCCC was identified in the DNMT1 gene promoter. We conclude that the acid-induced increase in p16 gene promoter methylation, downregulation of p16 mRNA, and increase in cell proliferation may depend on activation of DNMT1 in BAR-T cells. Acid-induced DNMT1 expression may depend on sequential activation of NOX5-S and NF-?B1 p50. PMID:24025864

  12. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to residual oil fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Natalia D; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O2 species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O2 species involved in lung O2 metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1h after instillation. Tissue O2 consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H2O2 and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O2 consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O2 consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H2O2 production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O2 consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O2(-) production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O2 species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. PMID:23583299

  13. The role of NADPH oxidase in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alexandria J.; Dreve, Nathan; Yin, Huaizhi; Tamayo, Esther; Saade, George; Bytautiene, Egle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common cause of nongenetic mental retardation. Oxidative stress is one of the purported mechanisms. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme involved in the production of reactive oxygen species. Our objective was to evaluate NOX in the fetal brain of a well-validated mouse model of FAS. STUDY DESIGN Timed, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.03 mL/g of either 25% ethyl alcohol or saline. Fetal brain, liver, and placenta were harvested on gestational day 18. The unit of analysis was the litter; tissue from 6–8 litters in the alcohol and control group was isolated. Evaluation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of NOX subunits (DUOX1, DUOX2, NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, NOXA1, NOXO1, RAC1, p22phox, and p67phox) was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; alcohol vs placebo groups were compared using a Student t test or a Mann-Whitney test (P < .05). RESULTS Alcohol exposed fetal brains showed significant up-regulation in subunits DUOX2 (1.61 ± 0.28 vs 0.84 ± 0.09; P = .03), NOXA1 (1.75 ± 0.27 vs 1.09 ± 0.06; P = .04), and NOXO1 (1.59 ± 0.10 vs 1.28 ± 0.05; P = .02). Differences in mRNA expression in the placenta were not significant; p67phox was significantly up-regulated in alcohol-exposed livers. CONCLUSION Various NOX subunits are up-regulated in fetal brains exposed to alcohol. This effect was not observed in the fetal liver or placenta. Given the available evidence, the NOX system may be involved in the causation of FAS through the generation of reactive oxygen species and may be a potential target for preventative treatment in FAS. PMID:24334207

  14. Relationship between expression of NADPH oxidase 2 and invasion and prognosis of human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Shi, Qiao; Deng, Wen-Hong; Yu, Jia; Zuo, Teng; Mei, Fang-Chao; Wang, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the expression and prognostic value of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) in gastric cancer, and its correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). METHODS: Tumor and adjacent tissues were obtained from 123 patients who underwent radical surgery for gastric cancer at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2008-2009. The expression of NOX2, VEGF, EGFR and CD68 in tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of NOX2 in gastric cancer and adjacent tissues was detected by Western blot analysis. Spearman’s correlation was performed to elucidate the relationship of NOX2 with VEGF and EGFR. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival time, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate differences in survival. Cox‘s proportional hazards regression model was applied in a stepwise manner to analyze the independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: NOX2 exhibited positive expression in 47.2% (58/123) of the gastric cancer tissues. Western blot analysis revealed that NOX2 was up-regulated in tumor tissues compared to the adjacent tissue [39.0% (48/123)]. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed that CD68, which is a specific marker of macrophages, and NOX expression presented a similar localization and staining intensity. The expression of NOX2 was positively correlated with that of VEGF and EGFR. Comparison of the 5-year survival rates of the NOX2 positive and NOX2 negative groups showed that the NOX2 positive group presented a poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: NOX2 positively correlates with the levels of VEGF and EGFR. NOX2 may be used as a new biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. PMID:26034362

  15. The NADPH oxidase NOX5 protects against apoptosis in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Carnesecchi, S; Rougemont, A-L; Doroshow, J H; Nagy, M; Mouche, S; Gumy-Pause, F; Szanto, I

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key modulators of apoptosis and carcinogenesis. One of the important sources of ROS is NADPH oxidases (NOXs). The isoform NOX5 is highly expressed in lymphoid tissues, but it has not been detected in any common Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. In diverse, nonlymphoid malignant cells NOX5 exerts an antiapoptotic effect. Apoptosis suppression is the hallmark feature of a rare type of lymphoma, termed anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK(+)) anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), and a major factor in the therapy resistance and relapse of ALK(+) ALCL tumors. We applied RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to detect NOX5 expression in three ALK(+) ALCL cell lines (Karpas-299, SR-786, SUP-M2). We investigated the role of NOX5 in apoptosis by small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing and chemical inhibition of NOX5 using FACS analysis and examining caspase 3 cleavage in Karpas-299 cells. We used immunohistochemistry to detect NOX5 in ALK(+) ALCL pediatric tumors. NOX5 mRNA was uniquely detected in ALK(+) ALCL cells, whereas cell lines of other lymphoma classes were devoid of NOX5. Transfection of NOX5-specific siRNA and chemical inhibition of NOX5 abrogated calcium-induced superoxide production and increased caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in Karpas-299 cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed focal NOX5 reactivity in pediatric ALK(+) ALCL tumor cells. These results indicate that NOX5-derived ROS contribute to apoptosis blockage in ALK(+) ALCL cell lines and suggest NOX5 as a potential pharmaceutical target to enhance apoptosis and thus to suppress tumor progression and prevent relapse in pediatric ALK(+) ALCL patients that resist classical therapeutic approaches. PMID:25797883

  16. Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Maria; Wirtz, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Hescheler, Jürgen; Peters, Saskia C; Sauer, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dose-dependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1), which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment. PMID:17786977

  17. Polyphenol oxidase activity in annual forage clovers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated phenol reactions in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) bind forage protein and reduce proteolysis, producing beneficial effects on forage protein degradability, silage fermentation, and soil-N cycling. We evaluated PPO activity in seven previously untested annual c...

  18. RELEASE OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS AIRWAY INFLAMMATORY MARKERS FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA-STIMULATED HUMAN NEUTROPHILS INVOLVES NADPH OXIDASE-DEPENDENT EXTRACELLULAR DNA TRAP FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae-goon; Winn, Matthew; Pang, Lan; Moskowitz, Samuel M.; Malech, Harry L.; Leto, Thomas L.; Rada, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are characterized by bacterial infections, excess mucus production and robust neutrophil recruitment. The main CF airway pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Neutrophils are not capable of clearing the infection. Neutrophil primary granule components, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE), are inflammatory markers in CF airways, and their elevated levels are associated with poor lung function. Identifying the mechanism of MPO and HNE release from neutrophils is of high clinical relevance for CF. Here we show that human neutrophils release large amounts of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacteria are entangled in NETs and co-localize with extracellular DNA. MPO, HNE and citrullinated histone H4 are all associated with DNA in Pseudomonas-triggered NETs. Both, laboratory standard strains and CF isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa induce DNA, MPO and HNE release from human neutrophils. The increase in peroxidase activity of neutrophil supernatants after Pseudomonas exposure indicates that enzymatically active MPO is released. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces a robust respiratory burst in neutrophils that is required for extracellular DNA release. Inhibition of the cytoskeleton prevents Pseudomonas-initiated superoxide production and DNA release. NADPH oxidase inhibition suppresses Pseudomonas-induced release of active MPO and HNE. Blocking MEK/ERK signaling results in only minimal inhibition of DNA release induced by Pseudomonas. Our data describe in vitro details of DNA, MPO and HNE release from neutrophils activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We propose that Pseudomonas-induced NET formation is an important mechanism contributing to inflammatory conditions characteristic of CF airways. PMID:24740504

  19. Bilirubin Oxidase Activity of Bacillus subtilis CotA

    PubMed Central

    Sakasegawa, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Hidehiko; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Goda, Shuichiro; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2006-01-01

    The spore coat protein CotA from Bacillus subtilis was previously identified as a laccase. We have now found that CotA also shows strong bilirubin oxidase activity and markedly higher affinity for bilirubin than conventional bilirubin oxidase. This is the first characterization of bilirubin oxidase activity in a bacterial protein. PMID:16391148

  20. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Pasqualini; Emma Tedeschini; Giuseppe Frenguelli; Nicole Wopfner; Fatima Ferreira; Gennaro D’Amato; Luisa Ederli

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

  1. Argirein alleviates diabetic nephropathy through attenuating NADPH oxidase, Cx43, and PERK in renal tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hu; X. D. Cong; De-Zai Dai; Y. Zhang; G. L. Zhang; Y. Dai

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) due to microvascular complication is a serious status characterized by continuously progressive\\u000a until occurrence of the end stage of renal disease. It is attractive to investigate further mechanisms underlying the entity\\u000a of DN and new drug discovery. We hypothesized that the entity of DN is inflammatory and is characterized by upregulated inflammatory\\/pro-inflammatory\\u000a factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated

  2. NADPH Oxidase p22phox C242T Polymorphism and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pingping; Qiu, Tangmeng; Qin, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies on the associations between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease have recently been published, but the results remain inconsistent. Material/Methods We performed an updated meta-analysis to evaluate this association. Eight case-control studies were included, involving 2045 cases and 2102 controls. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q test and the I2 statistic. Begg and Egger’s tests were conducted to evaluate publication bias. Odds ratio (OR) was tested to identify the associations. Results Significant associations between p22phox gene C242T polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) risk were observed in the allelic genetic model (OR=1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.77, p=0.048). No statistical significant association was found in the dominant model (OR=0.74, 95% CI 0.54–1.02, p=0.064) and recessive model (OR=1.40, 95% CI 0.89–2.19, p=0.146). Subgroup analysis showed an association in European populations for recessive model (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.06–4.26, p=0.034) and no significant evidence of association in Asian populations was found (dominant model: OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.41–1.00, p=0.05; recessive model: OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.53–1.81, p=0.948; allelic model: OR=1.51, 95% CI 0.98–2.32, p=0.061). Conclusions p22phox gene C242T polymorphism was associated with ICVD risk in the allelic genetic model, as well as in European populations for recessive model. No evidence showed association between p22phox gene C242T polymorphism and ICVD risk in the dominant model and recessive model. Furthermore, no association existed in Asian populations for any of the 3 genetic models and European populations in the dominant model and allelic model. PMID:25619262

  3. NADPH oxidase, MPO, NE, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and Ca(2+) influx are essential for Cryptosporidium parvum-induced NET formation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Caro, Tamara; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja

    2015-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum causes a zoonotic infection with worldwide distribution. Besides humans, cryptosporidiosis affects a wide range of animals leading to significant economic losses due to severe enteritis in neonatal livestock. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation has been demonstrated as an important host effector mechanism of PMN acting against several invading pathogens. In the present study, C. parvum-mediated NET formation was investigated in human and bovine PMN in vitro. We here demonstrate that C. parvum sporozoites indeed trigger NET formation in a time-dependent manner. Thereby, the classical characteristics of NETs were demonstrated by co-localization of extracellular DNA with histones, neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). A significant reduction of NET formation was measured following treatments of PMN with NADPH oxidase-, NE- and MPO-inhibitors, confirming the key role of these enzymes in C. parvum-induced NETs. Additionally, sporozoite-triggered NETosis revealed as dependent on intracellular Ca(++) concentration and the ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathway. Moreover, sporozoite-triggered NET formation led to significant parasite entrapment since 15% of the parasites were immobilized in NET structures. Consequently, PMN-pre-exposed sporozoites showed significantly reduced infectivity for epithelial host cells confirming the capability of NETs to prevent active parasite invasion. Besides NETs, we here show that C. parvum significantly up-regulated CXCL8, IL6, TNF-? and of GM-CSF gene transcription upon sporozoite confrontation, indicating a pivotal role of PMN not only in the bovine and human system but most probably in other final hosts for C. parvum. PMID:26026247

  4. Sesamin ameliorates arterial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats via downregulation of NADPH oxidase subunits and upregulation of eNOS expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-xiu; Yang, Jie-ren; Chen, Guo-xiang; Tang, Li-juan; Li, Wen-xing; Yang, Hui; Kong, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Sesamin is one of the major lignans in sesame seeds with antihyperlipidemic, antioxidative and antihypertensive activities. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sesamin on arterial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Methods: SHRs were orally administered sesamin (40, 80 and 160 mg·kg?1·d?1) for 16 weeks. After the rats were killed, thoracic aortas were dissected out. The vasorelaxation responses of aortic rings to ACh and nitroprusside were measured. The expression of eNOS and NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox and p22phox in aortas were detected using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Aortic nitrotyrosine was measured with ELISA. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and MDA levels in aortas were also determined. Results: The aortic rings of SHRs showed significantly smaller ACh-induced and nitroprusside-induced relaxation than those of control rats. Treatment of SHRs with sesamin increased both the endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner. In aortas of SHRs, the level of T-AOC and the expression of nitrotyrosine, p22phox and p47phox proteins were markedly increased, while the level of MDA and the expression of eNOS protein were significantly decreased. Treatment of SHRs with sesamin dose-dependently reversed these biochemical and molecular abnormalities in aortas. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with sesamin improves arterial function in SHR through the upregulation of eNOS expression and downregulation of p22phox and p47phox expression. PMID:23624755

  5. Genetic silencing of Nox2 and Nox4 reveals differential roles of these NADPH oxidase homologues in the vasopressor and dipsogenic effects of brain angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jeffrey R; Burmeister, Melissa A; Tian, Xin; Zhou, Yi; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Stupinski, John A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2009-11-01

    The renin-angiotensin system exerts a tremendous influence over fluid balance and arterial pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, acts in the central nervous system to regulate neurohumoral outflow and thirst. Dysregulation of Ang-II signaling in the central nervous system is implicated in cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently we established that NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide acting in the forebrain subfornical organ is critical in the physiological responses to central Ang-II. In addition, we have found that Nox2 and Nox4 are the most abundantly expressed Nox homologues within Ang-II-sensitive sites in the forebrain. To dissect out the functional importance and unique roles of these Nox enzymes in the pressor and dipsogenic effects of central Ang-II, we developed adenoviral vectors expressing small interfering RNA to selectively silence Nox2 or Nox4 expression in the subfornical organ. Our results demonstrate that both Nox2 and Nox4 are required for the full vasopressor effects of brain Ang-II but that only Nox2 is coupled to the Ang-II-induced water intake response. These studies establish the importance of both Nox2- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidases in the actions of Ang-II in the central nervous system and are the first to reveal differential involvement of these Nox enzymes in the various physiological effects of central Ang-II. PMID:19805637

  6. Spinal nNOS regulates phrenic motor facilitation by a 5-HT2B receptor- and NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, PM; Vinit, S

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) by a mechanism that requires spinal serotonin (5-HT) receptor activation and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. Here, we investigated whether: 1) spinal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is necessary for AIH-induced pLTF; 2) episodic exogenous nitric oxide (NO) is sufficient to elicit phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) without AIH (i.e. pharmacologically); and 3) NO-induced pMF requires spinal 5-HT2B receptor and NOX activation. In anesthetised, mechanically ventilated adult male rats, AIH (3×5min episodes; 10% O2; 5min) elicited a progressive increase in the amplitude of integrated phrenic nerve bursts (i.e. pLTF), which lasted 60 min post-AIH (45.1 ± 8.6% baseline). Pre-treatment with intrathecal (i.t.) injections of a neuronal NOS inhibitor (nNOS-inhibitor-1) near the phrenic motor nucleus attenuated pLTF (14.7 ± 2.5%), whereas an inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor (1400W) had no effect (56.3 ± 8.0%). Episodic i.t. injections (3×5?l volume; 5mins) of a NO donor (sodium nitroprusside; SNP) elicited pMF similar in time-course and magnitude (40.4 ± 6.0%, 60 min post-injection) to AIH-induced pLTF. SNP-induced pMF was blocked by a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist (SB206553), a superoxide dismutase mimetic (MnTMPyP), and two NOX inhibitors (apocynin and DPI). Neither pLTF nor pMF were affected by pre-treatment with a PKG inhibitor (KT-5823). Thus, spinal nNOS activity is necessary for AIH-induced pLTF, and episodic spinal NO is sufficient to elicit pMF by a mechanism that requires 5-HT2B receptor activation and NOX-derived ROS formation, which indicates AIH (and NO) elicits spinal respiratory plasticity by a nitrergic-serotonergic mechanism. PMID:24680940

  7. Isoobtusilactone A-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells is mediated via increased NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the mitochondria-associated apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein; Wu, Chih-Chung; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey; Yiin, Shuenn-Jiun; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Wu, Mei-Jem; Chern, Chi-Liang

    2007-07-01

    Chemoprevention by the use of naturally occurring substances is becoming a promising strategy to prevent cancer. In this study, the effects of isoobtusilactone A, a novel constituent isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum kotoense, on the proliferation of human hepatoma Hep G2 cells were studied. Under our experimental conditions, isoobtusilactone A was found to elicit a concentration-dependent growth impediment (IC(50)=37.5 microM). The demise of these cells induced by isoobtusilactone A was apoptotic in nature, exhibiting a concentration-dependent increase in sub-G(1) fraction and DNA fragmentation. Subcellular fractionation analysis further revealed that Bax translocation to mitochondria resulted in a rapid release of cytochrome c, followed by activation of caspase 3 and PARP cleavage, and finally cell death. Isoobtusilactone A-treated cells also displayed transient increase of ROS during the earlier stage of the experiment, followed by the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). The presence of a ROS scavenger (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) and an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride) blocked ROS production and the subsequent apoptotic cell death. In addition, in order to investigate the acute toxicity of isoobtusilactone A, groups of 5-6-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to oral administration of 350, or 700 mg/kg bw isoobtusilactone A four times each week for two weeks. There was no significant difference between control animals and treated animals with respect to the body weight gain, the body weight ratio of liver, spleen and kidney, haematological and clinical chemistry parameters. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS generated through the activation of NADPH oxidase plays an essential role in apoptosis induced by isoobtusilactone A, and the dosages of isoobtusilactone A tested in this study did not cause animal toxicity. PMID:17321026

  8. External NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain of plants and some fungi contains multiple rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, of which at least two are located on the outer surface of the inner membrane (i.e., external NADH and external NADPH dehydrogenases). Annotated sequences of the putative alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii demonstrated similarity to plant and fungal sequences. We also studied activity of these dehydrogenases in isolated A. castellanii mitochondria. External NADPH oxidation was observed for the first time in protist mitochondria. The coupling parameters were similar for external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation, indicating similar efficiencies of ATP synthesis. Both external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation had an optimal pH of 6.8 independent of relevant ubiquinol-oxidizing pathways, the cytochrome pathway or a GMP-stimulated alternative oxidase. The maximal oxidizing activity with external NADH was almost double that with external NADPH. However, a lower Michaelis constant (K(M)) value for external NADPH oxidation was observed compared to that for external NADH oxidation. Stimulation by Ca(2+) was approximately 10 times higher for external NADPH oxidation, while NADH dehydrogenase(s) appeared to be slightly dependent on Ca(2+). Our results indicate that external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases similar to those in plant and fungal mitochondria function in mitochondria of A. castellanii. PMID:25113830

  9. Studies of Mitochondrial and Nonmitochondrial Sources Implicate Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase(s) in the Increased Skeletal Muscle Superoxide Generation That Occurs During Contractile Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Giorgos Konstantinos; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Palomero, Jesus; Kayani, Anna; Zibrik, Lea; McArdle, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims The sources of cytosolic superoxide in skeletal muscle have not been defined. This study examined the subcellular sites that contribute to cytosolic superoxide in mature single muscle fibers at rest and during contractile activity. Results: Isolated fibers from mouse flexor digitorum brevis loaded with superoxide and nitric-oxide-sensitive fluorescent probes, specific pathway inhibitors and immunolocalization techniques were used to identify subcellular sites contributing to cytosolic superoxide. Treatment with the electron transport chain complex III inhibitor, antimycin A, but not the complex I inhibitor, rotenone, caused increased cytosolic superoxide through release from the mitochondrial intermembrane space via voltage-dependent anion or Bax channels, but inhibition of these channels did not affect contraction-induced increases in cytosolic superoxide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitors decreased cytosolic superoxide at rest and following contractions. Protein and mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase subunits was demonstrated in single fibers. NOX2, NOX4, and p22phox subunits localized to the sarcolemma and transverse tubules; NOX4 was additionally expressed in mitochondria. Regulatory p40phox and p67phox proteins were found in the cytoplasm of resting fibers, but following contractions, p40phox appeared to translocate to the sarcolemma. Innovation: Superoxide and other reactive oxygen species generated by skeletal muscle are important regulators of muscle force production and adaptations to contractions. This study has defined the relative contribution of mitochondrial and cytosolic sources of superoxide within the cytosol of single muscle fibers at rest and during contractions. Conclusion: Muscle mitochondria do not modulate cytosolic superoxide in skeletal muscle but NADPH oxidase is a major contributor both at rest and during contractions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 603–621. PMID:23050834

  10. Naloxone inhibits immune cell function by suppressing superoxide production through a direct interaction with gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Both (-) and (+)-naloxone attenuate inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration by inhibition of microglial activation through superoxide reduction in an opioid receptor-independent manner. Multiple lines of evidence have documented a pivotal role of overactivated NADPH oxidase (NOX2) in inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that NOX2 might be a novel action site of naloxone to mediate its anti-inflammatory actions. Methods Inhibition of NOX-2-derived superoxide by (-) and (+)-naloxone was measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated midbrain neuron-glia cultures and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated neutrophil membranes by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable reduction of tetrazolium salt (WST-1) or ferricytochrome c. Further, various ligand (3H-naloxone) binding assays were performed in wild type and gp91phox-/- neutrophils and transfected COS-7 and HEK293 cells. The translocation of cytosolic subunit p47phox to plasma membrane was assessed by western blot. Results Both (-) and (+)-naloxone equally inhibited LPS- and PMA-induced superoxide production with an IC50 of 1.96 and 2.52 ?M, respectively. Competitive binding of 3H-naloxone with cold (-) and (+)-naloxone in microglia showed equal potency with an IC50 of 2.73 and 1.57 ?M, respectively. 3H-Naloxone binding was elevated in COS-7 and HEK293 cells transfected with gp91phox; in contrast, reduced 3H-naloxone binding was found in neutrophils deficient in gp91phox or in the presence of a NOX2 inhibitor. The specificity and an increase in binding capacity of 3H-naloxone were further demonstrated by 1) an immunoprecipitation study using gp91phox antibody, and 2) activation of NOX2 by PMA. Finally, western blot studies showed that naloxone suppressed translocation of the cytosolic subunit p47phox to the membrane, leading to NOX2 inactivation. Conclusions Strong evidence is provided indicating that NOX2 is a non-opioid novel binding site for naloxone, which is critical in mediating its inhibitory effect on microglia overactivation and superoxide production. PMID:22340895

  11. Spatiotemporal Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by NADPH Oxidase Is Critical for Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Tao; Wan, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Male sterility in angiosperms has wide applications in agriculture, particularly in hybrid crop breeding and gene flow control. Microspores develop adjacent to the tapetum, a layer of cells that provides nutrients for pollen development and materials for pollen wall formation. Proper pollen development requires programmed cell death (PCD) of the tapetum, which requires transcriptional cascades and proteolytic enzymes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also affect tapetal PCD, and failures in ROS scavenging cause male sterility. However, many aspects of tapetal PCD remain unclear, including what sources generate ROS, whether ROS production has a temporal pattern, and how the ROS-producing system interacts with the tapetal transcriptional network. We report here that stage-specific expression of NADPH oxidases in the Arabidopsis thaliana tapetum contributes to a temporal peak of ROS production. Genetic interference with the temporal ROS pattern, by manipulating RESPIRATORY-BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG (RBOH) genes, affected the timing of tapetal PCD and resulted in aborted male gametophytes. We further show that the tapetal transcriptional network regulates RBOH expression, indicating that the temporal pattern of ROS production intimately connects to other signaling pathways regulated by the tapetal transcriptional network to ensure the proper timing of tapetal PCD. PMID:24808050

  12. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  13. NADPH as a co-substrate for studies of the chlorinating activity of myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Auchère, F; Capeillère-Blandin, C

    1999-01-01

    The reinvestigation of the kinetics of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity with the use of NADPH as a probe has allowed us to determine the effects of H(2)O(2), Cl(-) ion and pH on the MPO-dependent production of HOCl. The chlorination rate of NADPH did not depend on NADPH concentration and was entirely related to the rate of production of HOCl by MPO. The overall oxidation of NADPH occurred similarly in the absence of O(2) and was insensitive to scavengers of the superoxide radical anion. Experiments performed on the direct oxidation of NADPH by MPO in the presence and the absence of H(2)O(2) showed that neither the rate nor the stoichiometry of the reaction could interfere in the NADPH oxidation process involved in the steady-state chlorination cycle. The oxidation of NADPH was characterized by a decrease in the A(339) of the reduced nicotinamide with the concomitant appearance of a new chromophore with absorbance maximum at 274 nm, characterized by isosbestic points at 300 and 238 nm. The reaction product did not possess any enzymic properties with dehydrogenases and led to a metabolite other than NADP(+). Its amount accounted for a stoichiometric conversion of H(2)O(2) into HOCl. Analyses of the NADPH reaction allowed the determination of both kinetic (k(cat) and K(m)) and thermodynamic (K(d)) parameters. When the values of kinetic parameters were compared with previously published ones, the main discrepancy was found with data obtained with the chlorination of monochlorodimedon and a better agreement with diethanolchloramine formation or H(2)O(2) consumption. Variations in the extent of NADPH oxidation with Cl(-) concentration enabled us to determine the dissociation constant for the enzyme-Cl(-) complex. In the course of titration studies, the spectral properties of NADPH reacting with either HOCl or the MPO/H(2)O(2)/Cl(-) system were quantitatively similar in terms of stoichiometry and absorbance coefficient and thus led to identical chlorinated products. However, no spectral modification occurred with NADP(+) and adenine nucleotide analogues under the same conditions. A quantitative comparison of difference spectra obtained with NADPH and NMNH indicated that chlorination occurred on the nicotinamide part of the molecule. PMID:10527939

  14. Nicorandil prevents endothelial dysfunction due to antioxidative effects via normalisation of NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase in streptozotocin diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nicorandil, an anti-angina agent, reportedly improves outcomes even in angina patients with diabetes. However, the precise mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of nicorandil on diabetic patients has not been examined. We investigated the protective effect of nicorandil on endothelial function in diabetic rats because endothelial dysfunction is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, once a day for 3 days) to induce diabetes. Nicorandil (15 mg/kg/day) and tempol (20 mg/kg/day, superoxide dismutase mimetic) were administered in drinking water for one week, starting 3 weeks after STZ injection. Endothelial function was evaluated by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the femoral arteries of anaesthetised rats. Cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with high glucose (35.6 mM, 24 h) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with or without L-NAME (300 ?M), apocynin (100 ?M) or nicorandil (100 ?M) was measured using fluorescent probes. Results Endothelial function as evaluated by FMD was significantly reduced in diabetic as compared with normal rats (diabetes, 9.7 ± 1.4%; normal, 19.5 ± 1.7%; n = 6-7). There was a 2.4-fold increase in p47phox expression, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, and a 1.8-fold increase in total eNOS expression in diabetic rat femoral arteries. Nicorandil and tempol significantly improved FMD in diabetic rats (nicorandil, 17.7 ± 2.6%; tempol, 13.3 ± 1.4%; n = 6). Nicorandil significantly inhibited the increased expressions of p47phox and total eNOS in diabetic rat femoral arteries. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly inhibited the decreased expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I and the decreased dimer/monomer ratio of eNOS. ROS production in HCAECs was increased by high-glucose treatment, which was prevented by L-NAME and nicorandil suggesting that eNOS itself might serve as a superoxide source under high-glucose conditions and that nicorandil might prevent ROS production from eNOS. Conclusions These results suggest that nicorandil improved diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction through antioxidative effects by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling. PMID:22107602

  15. Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.

    2013-08-01

    In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

  16. NADPH Oxidase NOX2 Defines a New Antagonistic Role for Reactive Oxygen Species and cAMP/PKA in the Regulation of Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Li, Bin; Brun, Thierry; Deffert-Delbouille, Christine; Mahiout, Zahia; Daali, Youssef; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In insulin-secreting cells, expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a potent source of ROS, has been reported, along with controversial findings regarding its function. Here, the role of NOXs was investigated: first by expression and cellular localization in mouse and human pancreatic islets, and then by functional studies in islets isolated from Nox isoform–specific knockout mice. Both human and mouse ?-cells express NOX, in particular NOX2. With use of Nox isoform–specific knockout mice, functional analysis revealed Nox2 as the predominant isoform. In human islets, NOX2 colocalized with both insulin granules and endosome/lysosome membranes. Nox2-deficient islets stimulated with 22.8 mmol/L glucose exhibited potentiation of insulin release compared with controls, an effect confirmed with in vitro knockdown of Nox2. The enhanced secretory function in Nox2-deficient islets was associated with both lower superoxide levels and elevated cAMP concentrations. In control islets, GLP-1 and other cAMP inducers suppressed glucose-induced ROS production similarly to Nox2 deficiency. Inhibiting cAMP-dependent protein kinase reduced the secretory response in Nox2-null islets, although not in control islets. This study ascribes a new role for NOX2 in pancreatic ?-cells as negative modulator of the secretory response, reducing cAMP/PKA signaling secondary to ROS generation. Results also show reciprocal inhibition between the cAMP/PKA pathway and ROS. PMID:22933115

  17. TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor gene: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4

    SciTech Connect

    St Hilaire, Cynthia; Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon H.; Smith, Barbara D. [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Ravid, Katya [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)], E-mail: ravid@biochem.bumc.bu.edu

    2008-10-24

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), oxidative stress, and elevated inflammatory cytokines are some of the components that contribute to plaque formation in the vasculature. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is released during vascular injury, and contributes to lesion formation also by affecting VSMC proliferation. Recently, an A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2B}AR) knockout mouse illustrated that this receptor is a tissue protector, in that it inhibits VSMC proliferation and attenuates the inflammatory response following injury, including the release of TNF-{alpha}. Here, we show a regulatory loop by which TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR in VSMC in vitro and in vivo. The effect of this cytokine is mimicked by its known downstream target, NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4). Nox4 upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR, and Nox inhibitors dampen the effect of TNF-{alpha}. Hence, our study is the first to show that signaling associated with Nox4 is also able to upregulate the tissue protecting A{sub 2B}AR.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated angiopoietin-2-dependent autocrine angiogenesis is regulated by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Menden, Heather; Welak, Scott; Cossette, Stephanie; Ramchandran, Ramani; Sampath, Venkatesh

    2015-02-27

    Sepsis-mediated endothelial Angiopoeitin-2 (Ang2) signaling may contribute to microvascular remodeling in the developing lung. The mechanisms by which bacterial cell wall components such as LPS mediate Ang2 signaling in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) remain understudied. In HPMEC, LPS-induced Ang2, Tie2, and VEGF-A protein expression was preceded by increased superoxide formation. NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) inhibition, but not Nox4 or Nox1 inhibition, attenuated LPS-induced superoxide formation and Ang2, Tie2, and VEGF-A expression. Nox2 silencing, but not Nox4 or Nox1 silencing, inhibited LPS-mediated inhibitor of ?-B kinase ? (IKK?) and p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B and AP-1. In HPMECs, LPS increased the number of angiogenic tube and network formations in Matrigel by >3-fold. Conditioned media from LPS-treated cells also induced angiogenic tube and network formation in the presence of Toll-like receptor 4 blockade but not in the presence of Ang2 and VEGF blockade. Nox2 inhibition or conditioned media from Nox2-silenced cells attenuated LPS-induced tube and network formation. Ang2 and VEGF-A treatment rescued angiogenesis in Nox2-silenced cells. We propose that Nox2 regulates LPS-mediated Ang2-dependent autocrine angiogenesis in HPMECs through the IKK?/NF-?B and MAPK/AP-1 pathways. PMID:25568324

  19. A COUPLED MICROSOMAL-ACTIVATING/EMBRYO CULTURE SYSTEM: TOXICITY OF REDUCED BETA-NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE (NADPH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An NADPH-dependent microsomal-activating system has been coupled to a rat embryo culture in vitro. No embryonic morphological abnormalities or decrease in final yolk sac or embryo DNA and protein contents occurred when 0.2 mM NADPH was used in this coupled system. In contrast, 1....

  20. Joint Functions of Protein Residues and NADP(H) in Oxygen Activation by Flavin-containing Monooxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Orru, Roberto; Pazmiño, Daniel E. Torres; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The reactivity of flavoenzymes with dioxygen is at the heart of a number of biochemical reactions with far reaching implications for cell physiology and pathology. Flavin-containing monooxygenases are an attractive model system to study flavin-mediated oxygenation. In these enzymes, the NADP(H) cofactor is essential for stabilizing the flavin intermediate, which activates dioxygen and makes it ready to react with the substrate undergoing oxygenation. Our studies combine site-directed mutagenesis with the usage of NADP+ analogues to dissect the specific roles of the cofactors and surrounding protein matrix. The highlight of this “double-engineering” approach is that subtle alterations in the hydrogen bonding and stereochemical environment can drastically alter the efficiency and outcome of the reaction with oxygen. This is illustrated by the seemingly marginal replacement of an Asn to Ser in the oxygen-reacting site, which inactivates the enzyme by effectively converting it into an oxidase. These data rationalize the effect of mutations that cause enzyme deficiency in patients affected by the fish odor syndrome. A crucial role of NADP+ in the oxygenation reaction is to shield the reacting flavin N5 atom by H-bond interactions. A Tyr residue functions as backdoor that stabilizes this crucial binding conformation of the nicotinamide cofactor. A general concept emerging from this analysis is that the two alternative pathways of flavoprotein-oxygen reactivity (oxidation versus monooxygenation) are predicted to have very similar activation barriers. The necessity of fine tuning the hydrogen-bonding, electrostatics, and accessibility of the flavin will represent a challenge for the design and development of oxidases and monoxygenases for biotechnological applications. PMID:20807767

  1. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M; Braun, Caroline L; Davis, Lawrence C; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

    2015-04-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surprising because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  2. ?-Adrenergic receptors desensitization is not involved in exercise-induced cardiac fatigue: NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress as a new trigger.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Damien; Boissière, Julien; Doucende, Grégory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Polge, Anne; Faure, Patrice; Goux, Aurélie; Tanguy, Stéphane; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Nottin, Stéphane

    2011-11-01

    Prolonged strenuous exercise (PSE) induces transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that ?-adrenergic pathway desensitization could be involved in this phenomenon, but it remains to be confirmed. Moreover, other underlying mechanisms involving oxidative stress have been recently proposed. The present study aimed to evaluate the involvement of both the ?-adrenergic pathway and NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzyme-induced oxidative stress in myocardial dysfunction in rats following PSE. Rats were divided into 4 groups: controls (Ctrl), 4-h exercised on treadmill (PSE), and 2 groups in which Nox enzyme was inhibited with apocynin treatment (Ctrl APO and PSE APO, respectively). We evaluated cardiac function in vivo and ex vivo during basal conditions and isoproterenol stress. GSH/GSSG ratio, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) release, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were evaluated. PSE induced a decrease in LV developed pressure, intrinsic myocardial contractility, and relaxation associated with an increase in plasma cTnI release. Our in vivo and ex vivo results demonstrated no differences in myocardial response to isoproterenol and of effective dose 50 between control and PSE rats. Interestingly, the LV dysfunction was reversed by apocynin treatment. Moreover, apocynin prevented cellular oxidation [GSH/GSSG ratio: PSE APO rats vs. PSE rats in arbitrary units (au): 1.98 ± 0.07 vs. 1.35 ± 0.10; P < 0.001]. However, no differences in MDA were observed between groups. These data suggest that myocardial dysfunction observed after PSE was not due to ?-adrenergic receptor desensitization but could be due to a signaling oxidative stress from the Nox enzyme. PMID:21719731

  3. Combined NADPH Oxidase 1 and Interleukin 10 Deficiency Induces Chronic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Causes Ulcerative Colitis-Like Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tréton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallée, Mélissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyère, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frédérick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which progressively extents. Its etiology remains unknown and the number of treatments available is limited. Studies of UC patients have identified an unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the non-inflamed colonic mucosa. Animal models with impaired ER stress are sensitive to intestinal inflammation, suggesting that an unbalanced ER stress could cause inflammation. However, there are no ER stress-regulating strategies proposed in the management of UC partly because of the lack of relevant preclinical model mimicking the disease. Here we generated the IL10/Nox1dKO mouse model which combines immune dysfunction (IL-10 deficiency) and abnormal epithelium (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) deficiency) and spontaneously develops a UC-like phenotype with similar complications (colorectal cancer) than UC. Our data identified an unanticipated combined role of IL10 and Nox1 in the fine-tuning of ER stress responses in goblet cells. As in humans, the ER stress was unbalanced in mice with decreased eIF2? phosphorylation preceding inflammation. In IL10/Nox1dKO mice, salubrinal preserved eIF2? phosphorylation through inhibition of the regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 PP1R15A/GADD34 and prevented colitis. Thus, this new experimental model highlighted the central role of epithelial ER stress abnormalities in the development of colitis and defined the defective eIF2? pathway as a key pathophysiological target for UC. Therefore, specific regulators able to restore the defective eIF2? pathway could lead to the molecular remission needed to treat UC. PMID:25014110

  4. Ovarian Dual Oxidase (Duox) Activity Is Essential for Insect Eggshell Hardening and Waterproofing*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Felipe A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Raquel L. L.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Braz, Glória R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2013-01-01

    In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing. PMID:24174530

  5. Demographic, Biologic, and Other Variables Affecting Monoamine Oxidase Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald S. Robinson; Alexander Nies

    1980-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity has been shown to be influenced by a variety of demographic, biologic, and other variables. Human platelet, plasma, and brain enzyme activities correlate with age and are higher in women. Brain catecholamines tend to decrease with age. The acute effects of ethanol on platelet MAO do not appear to be significant, but chronic ethanol ingestion could

  6. Both Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and NADPH Oxidase Contribute to the Control of Virulent Phase I Coxiella burnetii Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Brennan; Kasi Russell; Guoquan Zhang; James E. Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Host control of Coxiella burnetii infections is believed to be mediated primarily by activated monocytes\\/ macrophages. The activation of macrophages by cytokines leads to the production of reactive oxygen interme- diates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that have potent antimicrobial activities. The contri- butions of ROI and RNI to the inhibition of C. burnetii replication were examined in vitro

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit cigarette smoke condensate-induced lung cancer cell migration through inhibition of NADPH oxidase and reduction in the binding of p22(phox) and p47(phox) proteins.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. It is therefore important to develop effective strategies that target molecular abnormalities induced by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Cigarette smoking increases oxidative stress particularly via activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a key source of superoxide anion production. Here, we report that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) exert an inhibitory effect on the CSC-induced migration of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells (A549, H460, and H1299). Using an in vitro invasion assay, we found that treatment of NSCLC cells with CSC increased NSCLC cell migration by enhancing NOX mediated-oxidative stress. Treatment of NSCLC cells with GSPs inhibited the CSC-induced cell migration through reduction in oxidative stress levels and a reduction in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. To identify the molecular targets of GSPs, we examined the effects of GSPs on CSC-induced alterations in the levels of key NOX components, namely p22(phox) and p47(phox) proteins, using A549 cells. We also determined the effect of GSPs on CSC-induced interaction/binding between these proteins, which is a key event in NOX activation. We found that treatment of A549 cells with GSPs not only inhibited the CSC-induced increase in the expression levels of p22(phox) and p47(phox) , but also reduced the binding of p22(phox) to p47(phox) proteins. This new insight into the anti-lung cancer cell migration activity of GSPs could serve as a basis for development of improved chemopreventive or therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24798688

  8. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate attenuates endothelial cyclooxygenase-2 induction through both NADP(H) oxidase and PKC inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marika Massaro; Aida Habib; Laura Lubrano; S. D. Turco; Guido Lazzerini; Todd Bourcier; Babette B. Weksler; R. de Caterina

    2006-01-01

    A high intake of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] has been associated with systemic antiinflammatory effects and cardiovascular protection. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is responsible for the overproduction of prostaglandins (PG) at inflammatory sites, and its expression is increased in atheroma. We studied the effects of DHA on COX-2 expression and activity in human saphenous vein endothelial cells challenged

  9. A proposed reaction mechanism for rice NADPH thioredoxin reductase C, an enzyme with protein disulfide reductase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Manuel Pérez-Ruiz; Francisco Javier Cejudo

    2009-01-01

    NADPH thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is an interesting NTR with a thioredoxin (Trx) domain at the C-terminus, able to conjugate both activities for 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) reduction. NTRC is dimeric in the presence of NADPH and interacted with dimeric 2-Cys Prx through the Trx module by a mixed disulfide between Cys377 of NTRC and Cys61 of the 2-Cys Prx. NTRC

  10. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E., E-mail: christa.flueck@dkf.unibe.ch [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Mallet, Delphine [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Hofer, Gaby [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Samara-Boustani, Dinane [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Leger, Juliane [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)] [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Polak, Michel [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Morel, Yves [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  11. Ethanol Alters Alveolar Fluid Balance via Nadph Oxidase (NOX) Signaling to Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaC) in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Charles A.; Kreiner, Lisa H.; Eaton, Amity F.; Johnson, Nicholle M.; Brown, Lou Ann

    2013-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased incidence of ICU-related morbidity and mortality, primarily from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. One explanation is that alcohol regulates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) via oxidant signaling to promote a pro- injury environment. We used small rodent models to mimic acute and chronic alcohol consumption and tested the hypothesis that ethanol (EtOH) would affect lung fluid clearance by up-regulating ENaC activity in the lung. Fluorescence labeling of rat lung slices and in vivo mouse lung revealed an increase in ROS production in response to acute EtOH exposure. Using western blots and fluorescein-5-maleimide labeling, we conclude that EtOH exposure modifies cysteines of ?-ENaC while data from single channel patch clamp analysis confirm that 0.16% EtOH increased ENaC activity in rat alveolar cells. In vivo lung fluid clearance demonstrated a latent increase in fluid clearance in mice receiving EtOH diet. Ethanol mice given a tracheal instillation of LPS demonstrated early lung fluid clearance compared to caloric control mice and C57Bl/6 mice. Standard biochemical techniques reveal that chronic EtOH consumption resulted in greater protein expression of the catalytic gp91phox subunit and the obligate Rac1 protein. Collectively these data suggest that chronic EtOH consumption may lead to altered regulation of ENaC, contributing to a ‘pro-injury’ environment in the alcohol lung. PMID:23382956

  12. Activation of Plasma Membrane NADH Oxidase Activity by Products of Phospholipase A

    PubMed Central

    Brightman, Andrew O.; Zhu, Xiao Zhong; Morré, D. James

    1991-01-01

    An auxin-stimulated NADH oxidase activity (NADH oxidase I) of plasma membrane vesicles, highly purified by aqueous two-phase partition from soybean (Glycine max Merr.) hypocotyls was activated by lysophospholipids and fatty acids, both products of phospholipase A action. The activation of NADH oxidase activity occurred slowly, suggesting a mechanism whereby the lipids acted to stabilize the enzyme in a more active configuration. In contrast to activation by lipids, the activation by auxin was rapid. The average Km of the NADH oxidase after activation by lipids was four- to fivefold less than the Km before activation. The Vmax was unchanged by activation. The increases occurred in the presence of detergent and thus were not a result of exposure of latent active sites. Also, the activation did not result from activation of a peroxidase or lipoxygenase. Fatty acid esters, where growth promoting effects have been reported, also activated the auxin-stimulated oxidase. However, the auxin stimulation of NADH oxidase I did not appear to be obligatorily mediated by phospholipase A, nor did inhibitors of phospholipase A2 block the stimulation of the oxidase by auxins. PMID:16668336

  13. Conformational plasticity surrounding the active site of NADH oxidase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Miletti, Teresa; Di Trani, Justin; Jr Levros, Louis-Charles; Mittermaier, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnological applications of enzymes can involve the use of these molecules under nonphysiological conditions. Thus, it is of interest to understand how environmental variables affect protein structure and dynamics and how this ultimately modulates enzyme function. NADH oxidase (NOX) from Thermus thermophilus exemplifies how enzyme activity can be tuned by reaction conditions, such as temperature, cofactor substitution, and the addition of cosolutes. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of reduced NAD(P)H to NAD(P)(+) with the concurrent reduction of O2 to H2 O2 , with relevance to biosensing applications. It is thermophilic, with an optimum temperature of approximately 65°C and sevenfold lower activity at 25°C. Moderate concentrations (?1M) of urea and other chaotropes increase NOX activity by up to a factor of 2.5 at room temperature. Furthermore, it is a flavoprotein that accepts either FMN or the much larger FAD as cofactor. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration and (15) N spin relaxation experiments together with isothermal titration calorimetry to study how NOX structure and dynamics are affected by changes in temperature, the addition of urea and the substitution of the FMN cofactor with FAD. The majority of signals from NOX are quite insensitive to changes in temperature, cosolute addition, and cofactor substitution. However, a small cluster of residues surrounding the active site shows significant changes. These residues are implicated in coupling changes in the solution conditions of the enzyme to changes in catalytic activity. PMID:25970557

  14. NADPH-diaphorase activity and nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the trophoblast of Calomys callosus

    PubMed Central

    MORAES, NECI; ZAGO, DOUGLAS; GAGIOTI, SONIA; HOSHIDA, MARA SANDRA; BEVILACQUA, ESTELA

    2001-01-01

    The pattern of expression of a variety of placental nitric oxide synthase isoforms has contributed to elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis during gestation. The maintenance of vascular tone, attenuation of vasoconstriction, prevention of platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the trophoblast surface, and possible participation in uterine blood flow seem to be the main functions of NO generated at the fetal-maternal interface in humans and mice. Extending this knowledge to other rodent species commonly used as laboratory animals, in this study we focus on NADPH-diaphorase activity and the distribution of nitric oxide synthase isoforms (NOS) in the trophoblast cells of Calomys callosus during different phases of pregnancy. NADPH-diaphorase activity was evaluated cytochemically and the presence of NOS isoforms detected by immunohistochemistry. These techniques were performed on pre- and postimplantation embryos in situ and in vitro, as well as in placentae on d 14 and 18 of pregnancy. Neither NADPH-diaphorase activity nor inducible or endothelial NOS isoforms were found in pre-implanting embryos except after culturing for at least 48 h, when some of the embryonic cells were positive for the diaphorase reaction. On d 6·5 of pregnancy, trophoblast cells showed intense diaphorase activity both in situ and under in vitro conditions. A positive reaction was also found in the different placental trophoblast cells on d 14 and 18 of pregnancy. The inducible NOS (iNOS) isoform, but not the endothelial isoform, was immunodetected in trophoblast cells from the placenta and from postimplantation embryos in situ and under in vitro conditions. These results strongly suggest the production of NO by the iNOS isoform in the trophoblast of Calomys callosus after embryo implantation. The data also emphasise a possible role for the trophoblast in producing and releasing cytotoxic molecules at the fetal-maternal interface. PMID:11327206

  15. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sty?a, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Pozna?, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wysko? ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at ?max=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci et al. (2000). In peat the highest activities of phenol oxidase was observed in the combinations marked as Shelterbelt and whereas the lowest - in Zbechy, Bridge and Hirudo. Activities of this enzyme in peat ranged from 15.35 to 38.33 ?mol h-1g d.m soil. Increased activities of phenol oxidase have been recorded on the depth 50-100cm - catotelm (21.74-38.33 ?mol h-1g d.m soil) in comparison with the depth 0-50cm - acrotelm (15.35-28.32 ?mol h-1g d.m soil). References Freeman, C., Ostle N.J., Fener, N., Kang H. 2004. A regulatory role for phenol oxidase during decomposition in peatlands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 1663-1667. Matocha Ch.J., Haszler G.R., Grove J.H. 2004. Nitrogen fertilization suppresses soil phenol oxidase enzyme activity in no-tillage systems. Soil Science, 169/10, 708-714. Perucci P., Casucci C., Dumontet S. 2000. An improved method to evaluate the o-diphenol oxidase activity of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1927-1933. Sokolowska Z., Szajdak L., Matyka-Sarzy?ska D. 2005. Impact of the degree of secondary transformation on amid-base properties of organic compounds in mucks. Geoderma, 127, 80-90. Szajdak L., Szczepa?ski M., Bogacz A. 2007. Impact of secondary transformation of peat-moorsh soils on the decrease of nitrogen and carbon compounds in ground water. Agronomy Research, 5/2, 189-200.

  16. Activation of monocytes by interferon-gamma has no effect on the level or affinity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-phosphate oxidase and on agonist-dependent superoxide formation.

    PubMed Central

    Thelen, M; Wolf, M; Baggiolini, M

    1988-01-01

    Human monocytes purified by elutriation were cultured for 3 d in Teflon bags with or without human recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN gamma). The cells were then collected and used in suspension to determine the rate of stimulus-dependent superoxide or hydrogen peroxide formation as a measure of the NADPH-oxidase. The treatment with IFN gamma increased this rate two- to threefold when phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was used as the stimulus. By contrast, no IFN gamma-dependent increase in superoxide production was observed when the cells were stimulated with different concentrations of the receptor agonist N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-Met-Leu-Phe) alone or in combination with another receptor agonist, platelet-activating factor (PAF). At optimum concentrations, f-Met-Leu-Phe elicited rates of superoxide formation that could not be exceeded under other stimulatory conditions including PMA after treatment with IFN gamma. It thus appears that f-Met-Leu-Phe can lead to maximum activation of the NADPH-oxidase, and that this response is not influenced by IFN gamma. Treatment with IFN gamma also failed to affect the affinity of PMA- or f-Met-Leu-Phe-stimulated oxidase for NADPH, the Km values being 30 to 40 microM under all conditions. IFN gamma did not alter the cellular levels of cytochrome b558, as measured by low-temperature spectroscopy, and protein kinase C, as measured by [3H]phorbol dibutyrate binding, and did not appreciably influence the stimulus-dependent increase of cytosolic free calcium. These results indicate that activation of human mononuclear phagocytes by IFN gamma does not affect the level and the kinetic properties of NADPH-oxidase or its activation by receptor agonists. They confirm, however, that IFN gamma enhances the respiratory burst response to PMA. PMID:2838524

  17. PtdIns3P and Rac direct the assembly of the NADPH oxidase on a novel, pre-phagosomal compartment during FcR-mediated phagocytosis in primary mouse neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Karen E; Chessa, Tamara A M; Davidson, Keith; Henderson, Robert B; Walker, Simon; Tolmachova, Tanya; Grys, Katarzyna; Rausch, Oliver; Seabra, Miguel C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T

    2010-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is an important mechanism by which neutrophils kill pathogens. The oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome and 4 soluble proteins (p67(phox), p40(phox), p47(phox), and GTP-Rac). These components form an active complex at the correct time and subcellular location through a series of incompletely understood mutual interactions, regulated, in part, by GTP/GDP exchange on Rac, protein phosphorylation, and binding to lipid messengers. We have used a variety of assays to follow the spatiotemporal assembly of the oxidase in genetically engineered primary mouse neutrophils, during phagocytosis of both serum- and immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. The oxidase assembles directly on serum-Staphylococcus aureus-containing phagosomes within seconds of phagosome formation; this process is only partially dependent (? 30%) on PtdIns3P binding to p40(phox), but totally dependent on Rac1/2 binding to p67(phox). In contrast, in response to immunoglobulin G-targets, the oxidase first assembles on a tubulovesicular compartment that develops at sites of granule fusion to the base of the emerging phagosome; oxidase assembly and activation is highly dependent on both PtdIns3P-p40(phox) and Rac2-p67(phox) interactions and delivery to the phagosome is regulated by Rab27a. These results define a novel pathway for oxidase assembly downstream of FcR-activation. PMID:20813901

  18. PtdIns3P and Rac direct the assembly of the NADPH oxidase on a novel, pre-phagosomal compartment during FcR-mediated phagocytosis in primary mouse neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Karen E.; Chessa, Tamara A. M.; Davidson, Keith; Henderson, Robert B.; Walker, Simon; Tolmachova, Tanya; Grys, Katarzyna; Rausch, Oliver; Seabra, Miguel C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Stephens, Len R.

    2010-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is an important mechanism by which neutrophils kill pathogens. The oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome and 4 soluble proteins (p67phox, p40phox, p47phox, and GTP-Rac). These components form an active complex at the correct time and subcellular location through a series of incompletely understood mutual interactions, regulated, in part, by GTP/GDP exchange on Rac, protein phosphorylation, and binding to lipid messengers. We have used a variety of assays to follow the spatiotemporal assembly of the oxidase in genetically engineered primary mouse neutrophils, during phagocytosis of both serum- and immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. The oxidase assembles directly on serum-Staphylococcus aureus–containing phagosomes within seconds of phagosome formation; this process is only partially dependent (? 30%) on PtdIns3P binding to p40phox, but totally dependent on Rac1/2 binding to p67phox. In contrast, in response to immunoglobulin G-targets, the oxidase first assembles on a tubulovesicular compartment that develops at sites of granule fusion to the base of the emerging phagosome; oxidase assembly and activation is highly dependent on both PtdIns3P-p40phox and Rac2-p67phox interactions and delivery to the phagosome is regulated by Rab27a. These results define a novel pathway for oxidase assembly downstream of FcR-activation. PMID:20813901

  19. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    González, Alberto; Moenne, Fabiola; Gómez, Melissa; Sáez, Claudio A; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa at 1 mg mL(-1), or treated with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH) syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR) activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX) activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS), adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), involved in C, N, and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle, and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses, and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees. PMID:25352851

  20. The distribution of NADPH diaphorase activity and immunoreactivity to nitric oxide synthase in the nervous system of the pulmonate mollusc Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian R. C. Cooke; Susan L. Edwards; Colin R. Anderson

    1994-01-01

    Enzyme histochemistry and immunocytochemistry were used to determine the distribution of neurons in the snail Helix aspersa which exhibited nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase activity and\\/or immunoreactivity to nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NADPH diaphorase-positive cells and fibres were distributed extensively throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. NADPH diaphorase-positive fibres were present in all neuropil regions of the central

  1. Cellular Localization of Protoporphyrinogen-Oxidizing Activities of Etiolated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves (Relationship to Mechanism of Action of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Herbicides).

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H. J.; Duke, M. V.; Duke, S. O.

    1993-01-01

    Seven-day-old, etiolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var Post) leaves were fractionated into crude and purified etioplast, microsomal, and plasma membrane (PM) fractions. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) specific activities of crude etioplast, purified etioplast, microsome, and PM fractions were approximately 29, 26, 23, and 12 nmol h-1 mg-1 of protein, respectively. The herbicide acifluorfen-methyl (AFM), at 1 [mu]M, inhibited Protox activity from crude etioplasts, purified etioplasts, microsomes, and PM by 58, 59, 23, and 0% in the absence of reductants. Reductants (ascorbate, glutathione [GSH], dithiothreitol [DTT], and NADPH) individually reduced the Protox activity of all fractions, except that microsomal Protox activity was slightly stimulated by NADPH. Ascorbate, GSH, or a combination of the two reductants enhanced Protox inhibition by AFM, and AFM inhibition of Protox was greatest in all fractions with DTT. NADPH enhanced AFM inhibition significantly only in etioplast fractions. Uroporphyrinogen I (Urogen I) and coproporphyrinogen I (Coprogen I) oxidase activities were found in all fractions; however, etioplast fractions had significantly more substrate specificity for protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen IX) than the other fractions. Urogen I and Coprogen I oxidase activities were unaffected by AFM in all fractions, and 2 mM DTT almost completely inhibited these activities from all fractions. Diethyldithiocarbamate inhibited PM Protox activity by 62% but had less effect on microsome and little or no effect on etioplast Protox. Juglone and duroquinone stimulated microsomal and PM Protox activity, whereas the lesser effect of these quinones on etioplast Protox activity was judged to be due to PM and/or microsomal contaminants. These data indicate that there are microsomal and PM Protogen IX-oxidizing activities that are not the same as those associated with the etioplast and that these activities are not inhibited in vivo by AFM. In summary, these data support the view that the primary source of high protoporphyrin IX concentrations in AFM-treated plant tissues is from Protogen IX exported by plastids and oxidized by AFM-resistant extraorganellar oxidases. PMID:12231874

  2. Acetylation of human mitochondrial citrate carrier modulates mitochondrial citrate/malate exchange activity to sustain NADPH production during macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Erika M; Spera, Iolanda; Menga, Alessio; Infantino, Vittoria; Porcelli, Vito; Iacobazzi, Vito; Pierri, Ciro L; Hooper, Douglas C; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Castegna, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial citrate-malate exchanger (CIC), a known target of acetylation, is up-regulated in activated immune cells and plays a key role in the production of inflammatory mediators. However, the role of acetylation in CIC activity is elusive. We show that CIC is acetylated in activated primary human macrophages and U937 cells and the level of acetylation is higher in glucose-deprived compared to normal glucose medium. Acetylation enhances CIC transport activity, leading to a higher citrate efflux from mitochondria in exchange with malate. Cytosolic citrate levels do not increase upon activation of cells grown in deprived compared to normal glucose media, indicating that citrate, transported from mitochondria at higher rates from acetylated CIC, is consumed at higher rates. Malate levels in the cytosol are lower in activated cells grown in glucose-deprived compared to normal glucose medium, indicating that this TCA intermediate is rapidly recycled back into the cytosol where it is used by the malic enzyme. Additionally, in activated cells CIC inhibition increases the NADP(+)/NADPH ratio in glucose-deprived cells; this ratio is unchanged in glucose-rich grown cells due to the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Consistently, the NADPH-producing isocitrate dehydrogenase level is higher in activated glucose-deprived as compared to glucose rich cells. These results demonstrate that, in the absence of glucose, activated macrophages increase CIC acetylation to enhance citrate efflux from mitochondria not only to produce inflammatory mediators but also to meet the NADPH demand through the actions of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. PMID:25917893

  3. An active supercomplex of NADPH dehydrogenase mediated cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I from the panicle chloroplast of Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Shi, Nan; Li, Qinghua; Mi, Hualing

    2014-09-01

    Chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) plays a crucial role in the protection of plants against oxidative stress. In higher plants, NDH interacts with Photosystem I (PSI) to form an NDH-PSI supercomplex. However, the chloroplast supercomplex with NADPH oxidation activity remains to be identified. Here, we reported the identification of a supercomplex of NDH with NADPH-nitroblue tetrazolium oxidoreductase activity in the chloroplast of rice panicle. The active supercomplex from the panicle chloroplast contained higher amounts of the NDH subunits (NdhH, NdhK, and NdhA) than that from the flag leaf chloroplast. The highly active supercomplex might underlie the high activity of the NADPH-dependent NDH pathway and the larger proton gradient across thylakoid membranes via cyclic electron flow around PSI, as well as the higher maximal photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II at the flowering to grain-filling stage. The supercomplex is suggested to be essential for the high efficiency of photosynthesis and play a protective role in the grain formation in rice plant. PMID:25074414

  4. How Vascular NAD(P)H Oxidase Activity and Nox Isoform Expression are Regulated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Yokoyama; Nobutaka Inoue

    factors that are related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, including hypercholesterolemia, hy- pertension, cigarette smoking, and diabetes mellitus, are found to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Some studies have shown that the risk for developing endothelial dysfunction increases with the number of risk factors present in an individual. Endothelial dysfunction is not confined to the coronary arteries but

  5. NADPH oxidase-derived production of reactive oxygen species is involved in learning and memory impairments in 16-month-old female rats.

    PubMed

    Kan, Hongwei; Hu, Wen; Wang, Yuchan; Wu, Wangyang; Yin, Yanyan; Liang, Yan; Wang, Chunyan; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu

    2015-09-01

    Women undergoing the natural menopause can experience progressive cognitive dysfunction, particularly in the form of memory impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying memory impairments in the menopause remain to be elucidated. There is increasing evidence that oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may correlate with age?associated cognitive impairment. The nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) family is important in the generation of ROS in the brain. It has been hypothesized that the accumulation of ROS, derived from NOX, may be involved in menopause?associated learning and memory impairments. The present study investigated whether NOX?derived ROS generation affected the learning and memory ability in 3?month and 16?month?old female rats. The results of a morris water maze assessment revealed that there were significant learning and memory impairments in the 16?month?old female rats. Furthermore, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), level of malondialdehyde (MDA), production of ROS and expression levels of NOX2, p47phox, Ras?related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) and protein kinase C ? (PKC?) were investigated in the cortex and hippocampus of 3?month and 16?month old female rats. The results demonstrated that the activity of SOD was significantly decreased, whereas the levels of MDA, production of ROS and expression levels of NOX2, p47phox, RAC1 and PKC? were significantly increased in the 16?month old female rats. These results suggested that NOX?mediated oxidative stress may be important in menopause?associated learning and memory impairments. PMID:26058943

  6. A theoretical study of the dioxygen activation by glucose oxidase and copper amine oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Prabhakar; Per E. M. Siegbahn; Boris F. Minaev

    2003-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GO) and copper amine oxidase (CAO) catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. If a closed-shell cofactor (like FADH2 in GO and topaquinone (TPQ) in CAO) is electron donor in dioxygen reduction, the formation of a closed-shell species (H2O2) is a spin forbidden process. Both in GO and CAO, formation of a superoxide ion that leads

  7. Cofactor Specificity Engineering of Streptococcus mutans NADH Oxidase 2 for NAD(P)+ Regeneration in Biocatalytic Oxidations

    PubMed Central

    Petschacher, Barbara; Staunig, Nicole; Müller, Monika; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; De Wildeman, Stefaan; Gruber, Karl; Glieder, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Soluble water-forming NAD(P)H oxidases constitute a promising NAD(P)+ regeneration method as they only need oxygen as cosubstrate and produce water as sole byproduct. Moreover, the thermodynamic equilibrium of O2 reduction is a valuable driving force for mostly energetically unfavorable biocatalytic oxidations. Here, we present the generation of an NAD(P)H oxidase with high activity for both cofactors, NADH and NADPH. Starting from the strictly NADH specific water-forming Streptococcus mutans NADH oxidase 2 several rationally designed cofactor binding site mutants were created and kinetic values for NADH and NADPH conversion were determined. Double mutant 193R194H showed comparable high rates and low K m values for NADPH (k cat 20 s-1, K m 6 µM) and NADH (k cat 25 s-1, K m 9 µM) with retention of 70% of wild type activity towards NADH. Moreover, by screening of a SeSaM library S. mutans NADH oxidase 2 variants showing predominantly NADPH activity were found, giving further insight into cofactor binding site architecture. Applicability for cofactor regeneration is shown for coupling with alcohol dehydrogenase from Sphyngobium yanoikuyae for 2-heptanone production. PMID:24757503

  8. Inheritance of polyphenol oxidase activity in wheat breeding lines derived from matings of low polyphenol oxidase parents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in grain plays a major role in time-dependent discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products, especially fresh noodles. Breeding wheat cultivars with low or nil PPO activity can reduce the undesirable product darkening. The low PPO line PI 117635 was crossed to two...

  9. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Lychnophora species from Brazil ("Arnica").

    PubMed

    Filha, Z S Ferraz; Vitolo, I F; Fietto, L G; Lombardi, J A; Saúde-Guimarães, D A

    2006-08-11

    Twenty-two extracts from five Lychnophora species and one Lychnophoriopsis species, traditionally used in Brazil as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and to treat bruise and rheumatism were examined for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), the enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid. Sixteen extracts were tested. All of them were found to have excellent XO inhibitory activity, with inhibitions greater than 38% at 100 microg/mL in the assay mixture. The most active plants examined were Lychnophora trichocarpha, Lychnophora ericoides, Lychnophora staavioides and Lychnophoriopsis candelabrum, with inhibitions of 77%, 78%, 66% and 63% at 100 microg/mL, respectively, and IC(50) values of 6.16, 8.28, 33.97 and 37.70 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16621372

  10. Purification of enzymatically active human lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like protein from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang Taek; Kim, Moon Suk; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyung Chul; Kim, Youngho

    2003-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular copper dependent enzyme catalyzing lysine-derived cross-links in extracellular matrix proteins. Recent molecular cloning has revealed the existence of a LOX family consisting of LOX and four lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs; LOXL, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4). Each member of the LOX family contains a copper-binding domain, residues for lysyl-tyrosyl quinone, and a cytokine receptor-like domain. Very recently, novel functions, such as tumor suppression, cellular senescence, and chemotaxis, have been attributed to this family of amine oxidases, but functional differences among the family members have yet to be determined. For efficient expression and purification, we cloned the cDNAs corresponding to proteolytically processed forms of LOX (LOX-p) and LOXL (LOXL-p1 and LOXL-p2) into a bacterial expression vector pET21a with six continuous histidine codons attached to the 3' of the gene. The recombinant proteins were purified with nickel-chelating affinity chromatography and converted into enzymatically active forms by stepwise dialysis in the presence of N-lauroylsarcosinate and Cu2+. The purified LOX-p, LOXL-p1, and LOXL-p2 proteins showed specific amine oxidase activity of 0.097, 0.054, and 0.150 U/mg, respectively, which was inhibited by beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific inhibitor of LOX. Availability of these pure and active forms of LOX and LOXLs will be significantly helpful in functional studies related to substrate specificity and crystal structures of this family of amine oxidases. PMID:14550642

  11. Changes in lysyl oxidase (LOX) distribution and its decreased activity in keratoconus corneas.

    PubMed

    Dudakova, Lubica; Liskova, Petra; Trojek, Tomas; Palos, Michalis; Kalasova, Sarka; Jirsova, Katerina

    2012-11-01

    Inadequate cross-linking between collagen lamellae is a characteristic feature of keratoconus corneas. The formation of covalent bonds between collagen and elastin fibrils, which maintain the biomechanical properties of the cornea, is mediated by the cuproenzyme lysyl oxidase and four lysyl oxidase-like enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of lysyl oxidase and the total lysyl oxidase activity (lysyl oxidase and the four lysyl oxidase-like enzymes) in control and keratoconic corneas. Seven control and eight keratoconic corneas were used for the imunohistochemical detection of lysyl oxidase in corneal cryosections using two different antibodies. The total lysyl oxidase activity in the culture medium of corneal fibroblasts from six explanted keratoconic and four control corneas was measured using a fluorometric assay in the presence and absence of the lysyl oxidase inhibitor beta-aminopropionitrile and determined as the production of H(2)O(2) in nM per ?g of total protein. In the control tissue, the most intense signal for lysyl oxidase was present in the corneal epithelium, in which perinuclear dots brightly projecting from more or less homogenous cytoplasmic staining may represent the lysyl oxidase propeptide. Less intense staining was present in keratocytes, the extracellular matrix and in the corneal endothelium. The epithelium of the limbus and the perilimbal conjunctiva showed intense to very intense staining. The distribution of lysyl oxidase was clearly decreased in at least five of the eight keratoconic specimens. The most marked signal reduction was observed in the stromal matrix and in keratocytes. Moreover, the signal in pathological specimens revealed a more irregular pattern, including the presence of intra- and extracellular clumps in the epithelium. Interestingly, endothelial cells showed no or very weak staining in areas just beneath negative stromal tissue. The mean activity of total lysyl oxidase in the keratoconic samples (2.60 ± 2.23 nM H(2)O(2)/?g of total protein) was more than 2.5-fold lower than in control tissue (6.83 ± 2.53 nM H(2)O(2)/?g of total protein), and the decrease was statistically significant (p = 0.0178). The location of lysyl oxidase in the healthy cornea, limbus and perilimbal conjunctiva was described. We hypothesize that the restricted lysyl oxidase distribution in keratoconic corneas, and particularly the decrease of total lysyl oxidase activity in cultured keratoconic fibroblasts, is one potential reason for the inadequate collagen cross-linking that is a hallmark of this disease. PMID:23041260

  12. L-cysteine oxidase activity in the membrane of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, E K; DeVoe, I W

    1981-01-01

    Among the L-amino acids, only L-cysteine was oxidized by isolated washed membranes of group B Neisseria meningitidis SD1C. The cysteine oxidase in the membrane obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was heat labile. The pH optimum for the maximum velocity of the reaction was 9.8. Specific activity of the enzyme increased as cell growth progressed through the exponential phase toward the stationary phase of growth. The enzyme activity was markedly sensitive to inhibition by metal chelators, but was resistant to inhibitors of terminal oxidases with the exception of cyanide. All known cytochromes in the membrane, except b563, were reduced with L-cysteine. The additive nature of L-cysteine oxidase and succinate oxidase activities suggests that an unidentified oxidase is involved in the oxidation of cysteine. PMID:6780513

  13. Permanently compromised NADPH-diaphorase activity within the osmotically activated supraoptic nucleus after in utero but not adult exposure to Aroclor 1254.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Cary Glenn; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Hou, Borin; Cheetham, Chad; Gillard, Elizabeth Rachel; Lin, Lisa; León-Olea, Martha; Sánchez-Islas, Eduardo; Mucio-Ramírez, Samuel; Currás-Collazo, Margarita Concepcion

    2015-03-01

    Stimulated vasopressin (VP) release from magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hyperosmotic rats is inhibited by treatment with the industrial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, Aroclor 1254. Because VP responses to hyperosmotic stimulation are regulated by nitric oxide (NO) signaling, we studied NO synthase (NOS) activity in the SON of hyperosmotic rats as potential target of PCB-induced disruption of neuroendocrine processes necessary for osmoregulation. To examine PCB-induced changes in NOS activity under normosmotic and hyperosmotic conditions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Aroclor 1254 (30mg/kg/day) in utero and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity was assessed in SON sections at three ages: postnatal day 10, early adult (3-5 months) or late adult (14-16 months). Hyperosmotic treatment increased mean NADPH-d staining density of oil hyperosmotic controls by 19.9% in early adults and 58% in late adulthood vs normosmotic controls. In utero exposure to PCBs reduced hyperosmotic-induced upregulation of NADPH-d activity to control levels in early adults and by 28% in late adults. Basal NADPH-d was reduced in postnatal rats. Rats receiving PCB exposure as early adults orally for 14 days displayed normal responses. Our findings show that developmental but not adult exposure to PCBs significantly reduces NOS responses to hyperosmolality in neuroendocrine cells. Moreover, reduced NADPH-d activity produced by in utero exposure persisted in stimulated late adult rats concomitant with reduced osmoregulatory capacity vs oil controls (375±9 vs 349±5mOsm/L). These findings suggest that developmental PCBs permanently compromise NOS signaling in the activated neuroendocrine hypothalamus with potential osmoregulatory consequences. PMID:25572879

  14. The Escherichia coli CydX Protein Is a Member of the CydAB Cytochrome bd Oxidase Complex and Is Required for Cytochrome bd Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    VanOrsdel, Caitlin E.; Bhatt, Shantanu; Allen, Rondine J.; Brenner, Evan P.; Hobson, Jessica J.; Jamil, Aqsa; Haynes, Brittany M.; Genson, Allyson M.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome bd oxidase operons from more than 50 species of bacteria contain a short gene encoding a small protein that ranges from ?30 to 50 amino acids and is predicted to localize to the cell membrane. Although cytochrome bd oxidases have been studied for more than 70 years, little is known about the role of this small protein, denoted CydX, in oxidase activity. Here we report that Escherichia coli mutants lacking CydX exhibit phenotypes associated with reduced oxidase activity. In addition, cell membrane extracts from ?cydX mutant strains have reduced oxidase activity in vitro. Consistent with data showing that CydX is required for cytochrome bd oxidase activity, copurification experiments indicate that CydX interacts with the CydAB cytochrome bd oxidase complex. Together, these data support the hypothesis that CydX is a subunit of the CydAB cytochrome bd oxidase complex that is required for complex activity. The results of mutation analysis of CydX suggest that few individual amino acids in the small protein are essential for function, at least in the context of protein overexpression. In addition, the results of analysis of the paralogous small transmembrane protein AppX show that the two proteins could have some overlapping functionality in the cell and that both have the potential to interact with the CydAB complex. PMID:23749980

  15. Inhibition and oxygen activation in copper amine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Eric M; Dooley, David M

    2015-05-19

    Copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAOs) use both copper and 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ) to catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines. The CuAO active site is highly conserved and comprised of TPQ and a mononuclear type II copper center that exhibits five-coordinate, distorted square pyramidal coordination geometry with histidine ligands and equatorially and axially bound water in the oxidized, resting state. The active site is buried within the protein, and CuAOs from various sources display remarkable diversity with respect to the composition of the active site channel and cofactor accessibility. Structural and mechanistic factors that influence substrate preference and inhibitor sensitivity and selectivity have been defined. This Account summarizes the strategies used to design selective CuAO inhibitors based on active site channel characteristics, leading to either enhanced steric fits or the trapping of reactive electrophilic products. These findings provide a framework to support the future development of candidate molecules aimed at minimizing the negative side effects associated with drugs containing amine functionalities. This is vital given the existence of human diamine oxidase and vascular adhesion protein-1, which have distinct amine substrate preferences and are associated with different metabolic processes. Inhibition of these enzymes by antifungal or antiprotozoal agents, as well as classic monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, may contribute to the adverse side effects associated with drug treatment. These observations provide a rationale for the limited clinical value associated with certain amine-containing pharmaceuticals and emphasize the need for more selective AO inhibitors. This Account also discusses the novel roles of copper and TPQ in the chemistry of O2 activation and substrate oxidation. Reduced CuAOs exist in a redox equilibrium between the Cu(II)-TPQAMQ (aminoquinol) and Cu(I)-TPQSQ (semiquinone). Elucidating the roles of Cu(I), TPQSQ, and TPQAMQ in O2 activation, for example, distinguishing inner-sphere versus outer-sphere electron transfer mechanisms, has been actively investigated since the discovery of TPQSQ in 1991 and has only recently been clarified. Kinetics and spectroscopic studies encompassing metal substitution, stopped-flow and temperature-jump relaxation methods, and oxygen kinetic isotope experiments have provided strong support for an inner-sphere electron transfer step from Cu(I) to O2. Data for two enzymes support a mechanism wherein O2 prebinds to a three-coordinate Cu(I) site, yielding a [Cu(II)(?(1)-O2(-1))](+) intermediate, with H2O2 generated from ensuing rate-determining proton coupled electron transfer from TPQSQ. While kinetics data from the cobalt-substituted yeast enzyme indicated that O2 is reduced through an outer-sphere process involving TPQAMQ, new findings with a bacterial CuAO demonstrate that both the Cu(II) and Co(II) forms of the enzyme operate via parallel mechanisms involving metal-superoxide intermediates. Structural observations of a coordinated TPQSQ-Cu(I) complex in two CuAOs supports previous indications that Cu(II)/(I) ligand substitution chemistry may be mechanistically relevant. Substantial evidence indicates that rapid and reversible inner-sphere reduction of O2 at a three-coordinate Cu(I) site occurs, but the existence of a coordinated semiquinone in some AOs suggests that, in these enzymes, an outer-sphere reaction between O2 and TPQSQ may also be possible, since this is expected to be energetically favorable compared with outer-sphere electron transfer from TPQAMQ to O2. PMID:25897668

  16. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of extracts prepared from Polygonaceae species.

    PubMed

    Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Lajter, Ildikó; Hohmann, Judit; Jakab, Gusztáv; Vasas, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of aqueous and organic extracts of 27 selected species belonging in five genera (Fallopia, Oxyria, Persicaria, Polygonum and Rumex) of the family Polygonaceae occurring in the Carpathian Basin were tested in vitro. From different plant parts (aerial parts, leaves, flowers, fruits and roots), a total of 196 extracts were prepared by subsequent extraction with methanol and hot H2O and solvent-solvent partition of the MeOH extract yielding n-hexane, chloroform and 50% MeOH subextracts. It was found that the chloroform subextracts and/or the remaining 50% MeOH extracts of Fallopia species (F. bohemica, F. japonica and F. sachalinensis), Rumex species (R. acetosa, R. acetosella, R. alpinus, R. conglomeratus, R. crispus, R. hydrolapathus, R. pulcher, R. stenophyllus, R. thyrsiflorus, R. obtusifolius subsp. subalpinus, R. patientia) and Polygonum bistorta, Polygonum hydropiper, Polygonum lapathifolium and Polygonum viviparum demonstrated the highest XO inhibitory activity (>85% inhibition) at 400?µg/mL. The IC50 values of the active extracts were also determined. On the basis of the results, these plants, and especially P. hydropiper and R. acetosella, are considered worthy of activity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:25510560

  17. Synergistic effect of NADH on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in liver microsomes and its inhibition by cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Chifumi; Marumo, Fumiaki (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of NADH and cyanide on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in rat and mouse liver microsomes were studied. In both rat and mouse microsomes, NADPH-dependent acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate production was synergistically enhanced by the addition of NADH, whereas NADH alone did not initiate this reaction. The data suggest that the second electron in this reaction may be transferred from NADH. The present findings are different from a previous report in a reconstituted system that NADH decreases covalent binding of acetaminophen to proteins. This reaction was inhibited by low concentrations of sodium cyanide. The role of the cyanide sensitive factor in this reaction in liver microsomes remains to be further clarified.

  18. Hypoxia inhibits semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Repessé, Xavier; Moldes, Marthe; Muscat, Adeline; Vatier, Camille; Chetrite, Gérard; Gille, Thomas; Planes, Carole; Filip, Anna; Mercier, Nathalie; Duranteau, Jacques; Fève, Bruno

    2015-08-15

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), an enzyme highly expressed on adipocyte plasma membranes, converts primary amines into aldehydes, ammonium and hydrogen peroxide, and is likely involved in endothelial damage during the course of diabetes and obesity. We investigated whether in vitro, adipocyte SSAO was modulated under hypoxic conditions that is present in adipose tissue from obese or intensive care unit. Physical or pharmacological hypoxia decreased SSAO activity in murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue explants, while enzyme expression was preserved. This effect was time-, dose-dependent and reversible. This down-regulation was confirmed in vivo in subcutaneous adipose tissue from a rat model of hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced suppression in SSAO activity was independent of the HIF-1-? pathway or of oxidative stress, but was partially antagonized by medium acidification. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of SSAO activity could represent an adaptive mechanism to lower toxic molecules production, and may thus protect from tissue injury during these harmful conditions. PMID:25907140

  19. Channelling and formation of 'active' formaldehyde in dimethylglycine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Leys, David; Basran, Jaswir; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2003-08-15

    Here we report crystal structures of dimethylglycine oxidase (DMGO) from the bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of N,N-dimethyl glycine and the formation of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. The N-terminal region binds FAD covalently and oxidizes dimethylglycine to a labile iminium intermediate. The C-terminal region binds tetrahydrofolate, comprises three domains arranged in a ring-like structure and is related to the T-protein of the glycine cleavage system. The complex with folinic acid indicates that this enzyme selectively activates the N10 amino group for initial attack on the substrate. Dead-end reactions with oxidized folate are avoided by the strict stereochemical constraints imposed by the folate-binding funnel. The active sites in DMGO are approximately 40 A apart, connected by a large irregular internal cavity. The tetrahydrofolate-binding funnel serves as a transient entry-exit port, and access to the internal cavity is controlled kinetically by tetrahydrofolate binding. The internal cavity enables sequestration of the reactive iminium intermediate prior to reaction with tetrahydrofolate and avoids formation of toxic formaldehyde. This mode of channelling in DMGO is distinct from other channelling mechanisms. PMID:12912903

  20. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)] [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)] [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  1. Platelet monoamine oxidase: specific activity and turnover number in schizophrenics and their families.

    PubMed

    Summers, K M; Andrew, B; Gillespie, C; Watt, D C; Craig, I W

    1985-11-15

    Monoamine oxidase specific activities and molecular turnover numbers have been measured in families with at least two schizophrenic members. Neither measure of monoamine oxidase was different in schizophrenics compared with their first degree relatives. Molecular turnover number was remarkably similar in males and females and when the group was considered by age, diagnosis, drug status and family membership. Neither specific activity nor turnover number could be used in risk estimation for the development of schizophrenia in members of these families. PMID:4064335

  2. Enhanced light microscopic visualization of oxidase activity with the cerium capture method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gossrau; C. J. F. Noorden; W. M. Frederiks

    1989-01-01

    Visualization methods for the light microscopic detection of the activity of oxidases after being localized with cerium ions as reported by Angermüller and Fahimi (1988a, b) are not suitable for the demonstration of H2O2-genrating oxidases at sites with low activity. Therefore, the cerium-diaminobenzidine (DAB) visualization procedure of these authors was modified. Nickel or cobalt ions were added to the DAB

  3. NADPH-diaphorase and NOS enzymatic activities in some neurons of reptilian gut and their relationships with two neuropeptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lamanna; A. Costagliola; A. Vittoria; B. Mayer; L. Assisi; V. Botte; A. Cecio

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of neurons containing the enzymes NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been studied in the gastrointestinal tract of lizard (Podarcis s. sicula) and snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). The techniques employed were the NADPH-d\\/nitroblue tetrazolium histochemical method, and the indirect immunofluorescence applied to cryostat sections and to whole-mount preparations. The colocalization of NADPH-d with NOS, with vasoactive intestinal

  4. Cholesterol oxidase with high catalytic activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Screening, molecular genetic analysis, expression and characterization.

    PubMed

    Doukyu, Noriyuki; Nihei, Shyou

    2015-07-01

    An extracellular cholesterol oxidase producer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA157, was isolated by a screening method to detect 6?-hydroperoxycholest-4-en-3-one-forming cholesterol oxidase. On the basis of a putative cholesterol oxidase gene sequence in the genome sequence data of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, the cholesterol oxidase gene from strain PA157 was cloned. The mature form of the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The overexpressed enzyme formed inclusion bodies in recombinant E. coli cells grown at 20°C and 30°C. A soluble and active PA157 enzyme was obtained when the recombinant cells were grown at 10°C. The purified enzyme was stable at pH 5.5 to 10 and was most active at pH 7.5-8.0, showing optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 70°C. The enzyme retained about 90% of its activity after incubation for 30 min at 70°C. The enzyme oxidized 3?-hydroxysteroids such as cholesterol, ?-cholestanol, and ?-sitosterol at high rates. The Km value and Vmax value for the cholesterol were 92.6 ?M and 15.9 ?mol/min/mg of protein, respectively. The Vmax value of the enzyme was higher than those of commercially available cholesterol oxidases. This is the first report to characterize a cholesterol oxidase from P. aeruginosa. PMID:25573142

  5. Pterin6-aldehyde, an Inhibitor of Xanthine Oxidase, Has Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Watanabe; Toshiyuki Arai; Hiroko Mori; Shin-ichi Nakao; Toshinori Suzuki; Kunihiko Tajima; Keisuke Makino; Kenjiro Mori

    1997-01-01

    Superoxide anion radical (O•?2) scavenging activity of neopterin (NP) and its photodegraded products was studied. NP did not affect O•?2release in hypoxanthine\\/xanthine oxidase (HPX\\/XOD) reaction system, but pterin-6-aldehyde (P6A), one of photodegraded products of NP, suppressed it. The identification of P6A was successful by confirming inhibiting property of xanthine oxidase. In neutrophil\\/phorbol myristate acetate reaction system, NP did not affect

  6. Glucose oxidase and catalase activities of Penicillium variabile P16 immobilized in polyurethane sponge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Federici; M Petruccioli; P Piccioni

    1996-01-01

    Conidia ofPenicillium variabile P16 were immobilized in polyurethane sponge and used in repeated-batch processes in a fluidized-bed reactor. Optimal conditions for production of glucose oxidase and catalase were: inoculum size, 10%; glucose concentration, 80 g L-1; Ca-carbonate concentration, 15 g L-1; temperature, 28°C and aeration rate, 4 VV-1 min-1. In an extended repeated-batch process, glucose oxidase activity was highest after

  7. Cell-linked and extracellular cholesterol oxidase activities from Rhodococcus erythropolis. Isolation and physiological characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sojo; R. Bru; D. Lopez-Molina; F. Garcia-Carmona; J.-C. Argüelles

    1997-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis cells growing in a cholesterol-free glycerol-containing mineral medium displayed very low levels of a cell-wall-bound cholesterol\\u000a oxidase activity. Addition of cholesterol induced a marked increase in the synthesis of this enzyme, which reached a maximum\\u000a within 6 days and was subsequently followed by the appearance of extracellular cholesterol oxidase in the culture broth. Significant\\u000a levels of induction were

  8. Alteration of Amine Oxidase Activity in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virgile Visentin; Danielle Prévot; Véronique Durand De Saint Front; Nathalie Morin-Cussac; Claire Thalamas; Jean Galitzky; Philippe Valet; Antonio Zorzano; Christian Carpéné

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the activity of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAOs) in adipose tissue and blood of lean and moderately obese subjects and to study whether there is a link between these hydrogen peroxide-generating enzymes and blood markers of oxidative stress.Research Methods and Procedures: Nine obese male subjects (BMI 32.6 ± 0.4 kg\\/m2) and nine controls (BMI

  9. Use of caffeine metabolite ratios to explore CYP1A2 and xanthine oxidase activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Kalow; Bing-Kou Tang

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine was used as a metabolic probe to screen healthy subjects for their activities of two enzymes, deduced to be CYP1A2 (an inducible cytochrome P450) and xanthine oxidase. A longitudinal study revealed modest effects of caffeine dose, ethanol intake, and time-of-day on the CYP1A2 index, without any effect on the xanthine oxidase index. The coefficients of intraindividual variation not accounted

  10. Proteomic analysis identifies an NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)-mediated role for actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (ARPC2) in promoting smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Al Ghouleh, Imad; Rodríguez, Andrés; Pagano, Patrick J; Csányi, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    A variety of vascular pathologies, including hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis, are characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy and migration. NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) plays a pivotal role in these phenotypes via distinct downstream signaling. However, the mediators differentiating these distinct phenotypes and their precise role in vascular disease are still not clear. The present study was designed to identify novel targets of VSMC Nox1 signaling using 2D Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry (2D-DIGE/MS). VSMC treatment with scrambled (Scrmb) or Nox1 siRNA and incubation with the oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 50 µM, 3 h) followed by 2D-DIGE/MS on cell lysates identified 10 target proteins. Among these proteins, actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (ARPC2) with no previous link to Nox isozymes, H2O2, or other reactive oxygen species (ROS), was identified and postulated to play an intermediary role in VSMC migration. Western blot confirmed that Nox1 mediates H2O2-induced ARPC2 expression in VSMC. Treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) resulted in reduced ARPC2 expression in H2O2-treated VSMC. Additionally, wound-healing "scratch" assay confirmed that H2O2 stimulates VSMC migration via Nox1. Importantly, gene silencing of ARPC2 suppressed H2O2-stimulated VSMC migration. These results demonstrate for the first time that Nox1-mediated VSMC migration involves ARPC2 as a downstream signaling target. PMID:24152438

  11. Identification in Marinomonas mediterranea of a novel quinoprotein with glycine oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Campillo-Brocal, Jonatan Cristian; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A novel enzyme with lysine-epsilon oxidase activity was previously described in the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This enzyme differs from other l-amino acid oxidases in not being a flavoprotein but containing a quinone cofactor. It is encoded by an operon with two genes lodA and lodB. The first one codes for the oxidase, while the second one encodes a protein required for the expression of the former. Genome sequencing of M. mediterranea has revealed that it contains two additional operons encoding proteins with sequence similarity to LodA. In this study, it is shown that the product of one of such genes, Marme_1655, encodes a protein with glycine oxidase activity. This activity shows important differences in terms of substrate range and sensitivity to inhibitors to other glycine oxidases previously described which are flavoproteins synthesized by Bacillus. The results presented in this study indicate that the products of the genes with different degrees of similarity to lodA detected in bacterial genomes could constitute a reservoir of different oxidases. PMID:23873697

  12. Low activation barriers characterize intramolecular electron transfer in ascorbate oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic reduction kinetics of the zucchini squash ascorbate oxidase (AO; L-ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.3) by pulse radiolytically produced CO2- radical ions were investigated. Changes in the absorption bands of type 1 [Cu(II)] (610 nm) and type 3 [Cu(II)] (330 nm) were monitored over a range of reactant concentrations, pH, and temperature. The direct bimolecular reduction of type 1 [Cu(II)] [(1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(9) M-1.s-1] was followed by its subsequent reoxidation in three distinct phases, all found to be unimolecular processes with the respective specific rates of 201 +/- 8, 20 +/- 4, and 2.3 +/- 0.2 s-1 at pH 5.5 and 298 K. While at this pH no direct bimolecular reduction was resolved in the 330-nm band, at pH 7.0 such a direct process was observed [(6.5 +/- 1.2) x 10(8) M-1.s-1]. In the same slower time domains where type 1 [Cu(I)] reoxidation was monitored, reduction of type 3 [Cu(II)] was observed, which was also concentration independent and with identical rate constants and amplitudes commensurate with those of type 1 [Cu(II)] reoxidation. These results show that after electron uptake by type 1 [Cu(II)], its reoxidation takes place by intramolecular electron transfer to type 3 [Cu(II)]. The observed specific rates are similar to values reported for the limiting-rate constants of AO reduction by excess substrate, suggesting that internal electron transfer is the rate-determining step of AO activity. The temperature dependence of the intramolecular electron transfer rate constants was measured from 275 to 308 K at pH 5.5 and, from the Eyring plots, low activation enthalpies were calculated--namely, 9.1 +/- 1.1 and 6.8 +/- 1.0 kJ.mol-1 for the fastest and slowest phases, respectively. The activation entropies observed for these respective phases were -170 +/- 9 and -215 +/- 16 J.K-1.mol-1. The exceptionally low enthalpy barriers imply the involvement of highly optimized electron transfer pathways for internal electron transfer. PMID:1518859

  13. Blood Platelet Monoamine Oxidase Activity in Schizophrenic Children and Their Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda Campbell; Eitan Friedman; Wayne H. Green; Arthur M. Small; Eugene I. Burdock

    1976-01-01

    In this study monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was measured in blood platelets of 21 individuals (age 26\\/12–19 years) who were diagnosed at preschool age as schizophrenics; MAO activity was not significantly different from that found in normals. An insignificant correlation was found between MAO activity in patients and age; a similar correlation for normals was also insignificant. In a sample

  14. Structure-Based Alteration of Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of Sulfite Oxidase from Sulfite Oxidation to Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Rajagopalan, K.V. (Duke)

    2012-04-18

    Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate reductase is an evolutionarily related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study, we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase variants in which the active site has been modified to alter substrate specificity and activity from sulfite oxidation to nitrate reduction. On the basis of sequence alignments and the known crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase, two residues are conserved in nitrate reductases that align with residues in the active site of sulfite oxidase. On the basis of the crystal structure of yeast nitrate reductase, both positions were mutated in human sulfite oxidase and chicken sulfite oxidase. The resulting double-mutant variants demonstrated a marked decrease in sulfite oxidase activity but gained nitrate reductase activity. An additional methionine residue in the active site was proposed to be important in nitrate catalysis, and therefore, the triple variant was also produced. The nitrate reducing ability of the human sulfite oxidase triple mutant was nearly 3-fold greater than that of the double mutant. To obtain detailed structural data for the active site of these variants, we introduced the analogous mutations into chicken sulfite oxidase to perform crystallographic analysis. The crystal structures of the Mo domains of the double and triple mutants were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, respectively.

  15. Spinach thylakoid polyphenol oxidase isolation, activation, and properties of the native chloroplast enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Golbeck, J.H.; Cammarata, K.V.

    1981-05-01

    Polyphenol oxidase activity (E.C. 1.14,18.1) has been found in two enzyme species isolated from thylakoid membranes of spinach chloroplasts. The proteins were released from the membrane by sonication and purified >900-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzymes appear to be the tetramer and monomer of a subunit with a molecular weight of 42,500 as determined by lithium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Sonication releases polyphenol oxidase from the membrane largely in the latent state. In the absence of added fatty acids, the isolated enzyme spontaneously, but slowly, activates with time. Purified polyphenol oxidase utilizes o-diphenols as substrates and shows no detectable levels of monophenol or p-diphenol oxidase activities. Suitable substrates include chlorogenic acid, catechol, caffeic acid, pyrogallol, and dopamine; however, the enzyme is substrate-inhibited by the last four at concentrations near their K/sub m/. A large seasonal variation in polyphenol oxidase activity may result from a decrease in enzyme content rather than inhibition of the enzyme present.

  16. Effect of Afobazole on Mitochondrial Monoamine Oxidase A Activity In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Voronin; L. N. Aksenova; O. A. Buneena; A. E. Medvedev

    2009-01-01

    Selective anxiolytic afobazole (1 mM) inhibits monoamine oxidase A activity in mitochondria from rat brain and liver (IC50 0.36 and 0.43, respectively). Effect of the compound does not depend on the time of preincubation with mitochondria. Triple\\u000a washout of mitochondria is followed by complete recovery of initial enzyme activity.

  17. Effect of afobazole on mitochondrial monoamine oxidase A activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Voronin, M V; Aksenova, L N; Buneena, O A; Medvedev, A E

    2009-07-01

    Selective anxiolytic afobazole (1 mM) inhibits monoamine oxidase A activity in mitochondria from rat brain and liver (IC(50) 0.36 and 0.43, respectively). Effect of the compound does not depend on the time of preincubation with mitochondria. Triple washout of mitochondria is followed by complete recovery of initial enzyme activity. PMID:19902087

  18. Plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and platelet monoamine oxidase activities in pigs with different susceptibility

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and platelet monoamine oxidase activities in pigs with different DBH and platelet MAO activities were measured by radioenzymatic assay in 10 Large-White and 20 susceptibility. Platelet MAO was lower in Large-White pigs but was not affected by MH susceptibility in Piétrain

  19. Daily changes of cytochrome oxidase activity within the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Syrian hamster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Ximenes da Silva; G Gendrot; J Servière; M Lavialle

    2000-01-01

    Cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity was studied over a 24-h period in the Syrian hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (site of the biological clock), anterior hypothalamic area (AHA), and motor cortex. The SCN CO activity was highest at the middle of the day (Zeitgeber time (ZT) 05), decreased at the end of the light period (ZT 10) and continued at a low

  20. Dopa Oxidase Activity in Human Hairbulbs Measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DeWayne Townsend; David P. Olds; Richard A. King

    1986-01-01

    A method for measuring the dopa oxidase (DO) activity of human hairbulb tyrosinase has been developed and the results of this method have been compared with the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity of hairbulb tyrosinase for brown-, black-, blond-, and red-haired subjects. The method takes advantage of the rapid trapping of dopaquinone by cysteine with the subsequent formation of cysteinyldopas which

  1. A NOVEL STS MARKER FOR POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN BREAD WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in grain has been related to undersirable brown discoloration of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) based end-products, particularly for Asian noodles. Breeding wheat cultivars with low PPO activity is the best approach to restrain reduce the undesirab...

  2. Subpollen particles: Carriers of allergenic proteins and oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Bacsi, Attila; Choudhury, Barun K.; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Sur, Sanjiv; Boldogh, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen is known to induce allergic asthma in atopic individuals, although only a few inhaled pollen grains penetrate into the lower respiratory tract. Objective We sought to provide evidence that subpollen particles (SPPs) of respirable size, possessing both antigenic and redox properties, are released from weed pollen grains and to test their role in allergic airway inflammation. Methods The release of SPPs was analyzed by means of microscopic imaging and flow cytometry. The redox properties of SPPs and the SPP-mediated oxidative effect on epithelial cells were determined by using redox-sensitive probes and specific inhibitors. Western blotting and amino acid sequence analysis were used to examine the protein components of the SPP. The allergenic properties of the SPP were determined in a murine model of experimental asthma. Results Ragweed pollen grains released 0.5 to 4.5 ?m of SPPs on hydration. These contained Amb a 1, along with other allergenic proteins of ragweed pollen, and possessed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) [NAD(P)H] oxidase activity. The SPPs significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells and induced allergic airway inflammation in the experimental animals. Pretreatment of the SPPs with NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors attenuated their capacity to increase ROS levels in the airway epithelial cells and subsequent airway inflammation. Conclusions The allergenic potency of SPPs released from ragweed pollen grains is mediated in tandem by ROS generated by intrinsic NAD(P)H oxidases and antigenic proteins. Clinical implications Severe clinical symptoms associated with seasonal asthma might be explained by immune responses to inhaled SPPs carrying allergenic proteins and ROS-producing NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:17030236

  3. The ex vivo effects of procarbazine and methylhydrazine on some rat amine oxidase activities.

    PubMed

    Holt, A; Callingham, B A

    1994-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activities were examined in homogenates of various rat tissues following i.p. administration of procarbazine or methylhydrazine. Both compounds inhibited SSAO in a dose-dependent manner in all tissues examined, with methylhydrazine the more potent agent in this respect. Little inhibition of MAO could be detected in most cases. However, hepatic MAO-B activity was potentiated significantly in rats receiving methylhydrazine and both drugs caused a dose-dependent potentiation of MAO-A in homogenates of brown adipose tissue. The potential use of these compounds in vivo as selective SSAO inhibitors is discussed. PMID:7931263

  4. Mutational and crystallographic analysis of l-amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813: Interconversion between oxidase and monooxygenase activities

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Daisuke; Im, Do-Hyun; Sugawara, Asami; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Fushinobu, Shinya; Isobe, Kimiyasu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it was shown for the first time that l-amino acid oxidase of Pseudomonas sp. AIU813, renamed as l-amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase (l-AAO/MOG), exhibits l-lysine 2-monooxygenase as well as oxidase activity. l-Lysine oxidase activity of l-AAO/MOG was increased in a p-chloromercuribenzoate (p-CMB) concentration-dependent manner to a final level that was five fold higher than that of the non-treated enzyme. In order to explain the effects of modification by the sulfhydryl reagent, saturation mutagenesis studies were carried out on five cysteine residues, and we succeeded in identifying l-AAO/MOG C254I mutant enzyme, which showed five-times higher specific activity of oxidase activity than that of wild type. The monooxygenase activity shown by the C254I variant was decreased significantly. Moreover, we also determined a high-resolution three-dimensional structure of l-AAO/MOG to provide a structural basis for its biochemical characteristics. The key residue for the activity conversion of l-AAO/MOG, Cys-254, is located near the aromatic cage (Trp-418, Phe-473, and Trp-516). Although the location of Cys-254 indicates that it is not directly involved in the substrate binding, the chemical modification by p-CMB or C254I mutation would have a significant impact on the substrate binding via the side chain of Trp-516. It is suggested that a slight difference of the binding position of a substrate can dictate the activity of this type of enzyme as oxidase or monooxygenase. PMID:24693490

  5. Xanthine oxidase-catalyzed metabolism of 2-nitrofluorene, a carcinogenic air pollutant, in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Osamu; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Ohashi, Koji; Sugihara, Kazumi; Ohta, Shigeru

    2003-04-01

    The reductive metabolism of 2-nitrofluorene, a carcinogenic air pollutant, in rat skin microsomes and cytosol was investigated. 2-Nitrofluorene was reduced to the corresponding amine by the microsomes with NADPH and by the cytosol with 2-hydroxypyrimidine or 4-hydroxypyrimidine under anaerobic conditions. The cytosolic activity was much higher than that of skin microsomes. The 2- or 4-hydroxypyrimidine-linked nitroreductase activity was inhibited by oxypurinol and (+/-)-8-(3-methoxy-4-phenylsulfinylphenyl) pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine-4(1H)-one (BOF-4272), inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, but not by menadione, chlorpromazine and isovanillin, inhibitors of aldehyde oxidase. When skin cytosol was applied to a DEAE-cellulose column, the fractions containing xanthine oxidase exhibited a marked 2-hydroxypyrimidine-linked nitroreductase activity. In contrast, the aldehyde oxidase fraction showed little activity. Nitroreductase fractions obtained by ion exchange chromatography showed a band in Western blotting analysis using anti-rat xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the xanthine oxidase fraction exhibited a significant nitroreductase activity in the presence of 2-hydroxypyrimidine, 4-hydroxypyrimidine or hypoxanthine, and these activities were inhibited by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results indicated that reduction of 2-nitrofluorene in the skin was mainly catalyzed by xanthine oxidase. PMID:12642461

  6. Enhancement of Peroxidase, Polyphenol Oxidase and Superoxide Dismutase Activities by Triadimefon in NaCl Stressed Raphanus Sativus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muthukumarasamy; S. Dutta Gupta; R. Panneerselvam

    2000-01-01

    The activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in roots and leaves of NaCl stressed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants. Addition of triadimefon to the NaCl stressed plants increased peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and thereby ameliorated the negative effect of NaCl stress.

  7. Dopamine induces ERK activation in renal epithelial cells through H2O2 produced by monoamine oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cécile Vindis; Marie-Hélène Séguélas; Stephen Lanier; Angelo Parini; Claudie Cambon

    2001-01-01

    Dopamine induces ERK activation in renal epithelial cells through H2O2 produced by monoamine oxidase.BackgroundThe rat renal proximal tubule cells contain a large amount of monoamine oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of catecholamines such as dopamine (DA). The aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoform on regulation

  8. Virtual Screening Analysis and In-vitro Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Some Commercially Available Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Madeswaran, Arumugam; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy

    2013-01-01

    Allopurinol, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is the only drug available for the treatment of gout. We examined the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some commercially available flavonoids such asepigallocatechin, acacatechin, myricetin, naringenin, daidzein and glycitein by virtual screening and in-vitro studies. The interacting residues within the complex model and their contact types were identified. The virtual screening analysis were carried out using AutoDock 4.2 and in-vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was carried out using xanthine as the substrate. In addition, enzyme kinetics was performed using LineweaverBurkplot analysis. Allopurinol, a known xanthine oxidase inhibitor was used as the standard. The docking energy ofglycitein was found to be -8.49 kcal/mol which was less than that of the standard (-4.47 kcal/ mol). All the selected flavonoids were found to exhibit lower binding energy (-8.08 to -6.03 kcal/ mol) than allopurinol. The docking results confirm that flavonoids showed greater inhibition of xanthine oxidase due to their active binding sites and lesser binding energies compared to allopurinol. This may be attributed to the presence of benzopyran ring in the flavonoids. In the xanthine oxidase assay, IC50 value of glycitein was found to be 12±0.86 ?g/mL, whereas that of allopurinol was 24±0.28 ?g/mL. All the remaining compounds exhibited IC50 values ranging between 22±0.64 to 62±1.18 ?g/mL. In the enzyme kinetic studies, flavonoids showed competitive type of enzyme inhibition. It can be concluded that flavonoids could be a promising remedy for the treatment of gout and related inflammatory disorders. Further in-vivo studies are required to develop potential compounds with lesser side effects. PMID:24250638

  9. Virtual Screening Analysis and In-vitro Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Some Commercially Available Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Madeswaran, Arumugam; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy

    2013-01-01

    Allopurinol, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is the only drug available for the treatment of gout. We examined the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some commercially available flavonoids such asepigallocatechin, acacatechin, myricetin, naringenin, daidzein and glycitein by virtual screening and in-vitro studies. The interacting residues within the complex model and their contact types were identified. The virtual screening analysis were carried out using AutoDock 4.2 and in-vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was carried out using xanthine as the substrate. In addition, enzyme kinetics was performed using LineweaverBurkplot analysis. Allopurinol, a known xanthine oxidase inhibitor was used as the standard. The docking energy ofglycitein was found to be -8.49 kcal/mol which was less than that of the standard (-4.47 kcal/ mol). All the selected flavonoids were found to exhibit lower binding energy (-8.08 to -6.03 kcal/ mol) than allopurinol. The docking results confirm that flavonoids showed greater inhibition of xanthine oxidase due to their active binding sites and lesser binding energies compared to allopurinol. This may be attributed to the presence of benzopyran ring in the flavonoids. In the xanthine oxidase assay, IC50 value of glycitein was found to be 12±0.86 ?g/mL, whereas that of allopurinol was 24±0.28 ?g/mL. All the remaining compounds exhibited IC50 values ranging between 22±0.64 to 62±1.18 ?g/mL. In the enzyme kinetic studies, flavonoids showed competitive type of enzyme inhibition. It can be concluded that flavonoids could be a promising remedy for the treatment of gout and related inflammatory disorders. Further in-vivo studies are required to develop potential compounds with lesser side effects. PMID:24250638

  10. Fluorescence-activated sorting of rat hepatocytes based on their mixed function oxidase activities towards diethoxyfluorescein.

    PubMed

    White, I N; Green, M L; Legg, R F

    1987-10-01

    The formation of ethoxyfluorescein and fluorescein from diethoxyfluorescein by isolated rat hepatocytes has been used as a basis for separating such cells dependent on their mixed function oxidase activities by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry. Five equal fractions defined by computer-generated regions were isolated. Non-viable cells with low fluorescence (region 1) represented 10-15% of the population, while the remainder with higher mixed function oxidase activities (regions 2-5), were greater than 95% viable by Trypan Blue exclusion. In region 1, 30% of the viable cells were binucleate, 67% diploid while in region 5, 13% were binucleate and 69% tetraploid. At 3 h after sorting, following attachment to glass coverslips, exposure of cells to methyl methanesulphonate, retrorsine or norethindrone resulted in unscheduled DNA synthesis which was 2-fold higher in the tetraploid-rich region 5, while aflatoxin B1, benzo[a]pyrene or 2-acetylaminofluorene caused a 5-fold increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis in these cells, relative to the diploid-rich hepatocytes in region 2. PMID:3689348

  11. Kinetics of polyphenol oxidase activity inhibition and browning of avocado purée preserved by combined methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C Soliva-Fortuny; Pedro Elez-Mart??nez; Mercè Sebastián-Calderó; Olga Mart??n-Belloso

    2002-01-01

    Enzymatic browning reactions limit the commercial shelf life of avocado purée, thus color preservation throughout storage becomes one of the main objectives for fruit processors. The aim of this work was to model the color changes that occurred in avocado purée preserved by combined methods during four months under refrigeration. Changes in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and color were successfully

  12. EXPLORATION OF THE INHIBITION MECHANISM OF SODIUM CHLORITE ON APPLE POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mode of inhibition of sodium chlorite (SC) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from Red Delicious apples was investigated. The extent of inhibition was influenced by SC concentration and pH. Inhibition was most prominent at pH 4.5, where approximately 30% of the enzyme activity was lost in the presenc...

  13. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activation promotes adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, N; Moldes, M; El Hadri, K; Fève, B

    2001-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is an amine oxidase related to the copper-containing amine oxidase family. The tissular form of SSAO is located at the plasma membrane, and is mainly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and adipocytes. Recent studies have suggested that SSAO could activate glucose transport in fat cells. In the present work, we investigated the potential role of a chronic SSAO activation on adipocyte maturation of the 3T3-L1 pre-adipose cell line. Exposure of post-confluent 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes to methylamine, a physiological substrate of SSAO, promoted adipocyte differentiation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This effect could be related to SSAO activation, since it was antagonized in the presence of the SSAO inhibitor semicarbazide, but not in the presence of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline. In addition, methylamine-induced adipocyte maturation was mimicked by 3T3-L1 cell treatment with other SSAO substrates. Finally, the large reversion of methylamine action by catalase indicated that hydrogen peroxide generated by SSAO was involved, at least in part, in the modulation of adipocyte maturation. Taken together, our results suggest that SSAO may contribute to the control of adipose tissue development. PMID:11513731

  14. Purification of enzymatically active human lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like protein from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Taek Jung; Moon Suk Kim; Ji Yeon Seo; Hyung Chul Kim; Youngho Kim

    2003-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular copper dependent enzyme catalyzing lysine-derived cross-links in extracellular matrix proteins. Recent molecular cloning has revealed the existence of a LOX family consisting of LOX and four lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs; LOXL, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4). Each member of the LOX family contains a copper-binding domain, residues for lysyl-tyrosyl quinone, and a cytokine receptor-like domain.

  15. Myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of cysteamine.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, B E; Lindvall, S

    1988-01-01

    Cysteamine oxidation was shown to be catalysed by nanomolar concentrations of myeloperoxidase in a peroxidase-oxidase reaction, i.e. an O2-consuming oxidation of a compound catalysed by peroxidase without H2O2 addition. When auto-oxidation of the thiol was prevented by the metal-ion chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, native, but not heat-inactivated, myeloperoxidase induced changes in the u.v.-light-absorption spectrum of cysteamine. These changes were consistent with disulphide (cystamine) formation. Concomitantly, O2 was consumed and superoxide radical anion formation could be detected by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction. Both superoxide dismutase and catalase inhibited the reaction, whereas the hydroxyl-radical scavengers mannitol and ethanol did not. O2 consumption increased with increasing pH (between pH 6.0 and 8.0), and 50% inhibition was exhibited by about 3 mM-NaCl at pH 7.0 and by about 100 mM-NaCl at pH 8.0. Cysteamine was about 5 times as active (in terms of increased O2 consumption at pH 7.5) as the previously reported peroxidase-oxidase substrates NADPH, dihydroxyfumaric acid and indol-3-ylacetic acid. A possible reaction pathway for the myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of cysteamine is discussed. These results indicate that cysteamine is a very useful substrate for studies on myeloperoxidase-oxidase activity. PMID:2829860

  16. Homocysteine enhances superoxide anion release and NADPH oxidase assembly by human neutrophils. Effects on MAPK activation and neutrophil migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moisés Álvarez-Maqueda; Rajaa El Bekay; Javier Monteseir??n; Gonzalo Alba; Pedro Chacón; Antonio Vega; Consuelo Santa Mar??a; Juan R. Tejedo; José Mart??n-Nieto; Francisco J. Bedoya; Elisabeth Pintado; Francisco Sobrino

    2004-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia has recently been recognized as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. However, the action mechanisms of homocysteine (Hcy) are not well understood. Given that Hcy may be involved in the recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils to the vascular wall, we have investigated the role of Hcy in essential functions of human neutrophils. We show that Hcy increased superoxide anion

  17. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory and in vivo hypouricemic activity of herbal coded formulation (Gouticin).

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Usmanghani, Khan; Ahmed, Iqbal; Azhar, Iqbal; Hamid, Abdul

    2014-05-01

    Currently, natural products have been used in treating gouty arthritis and are recognized as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Current study was designed to evaluate in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of Gouticin and its ingredients extracts and in vivo hypouricemic activity of gouticin tablet 500 mg twice daily. Ethanol extracts of Gouticin and its ingredients were evaluated in vitro, at 200, 100, 50, 25 ? g/ml concentrations for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. IC(50) values of Gouticin and its ingredients were estimated. Further, in vivo therapeutic effect of Gouticin was investigated in comparison with allopathic medicine (Allopurinol) to treat gout. Total patients were 200 that were divided into test and control group. Herbal coded medicine (Gouticin) was given to test group and allopathic medicine allopurinol was administered to control group. In vitro, Gouticin has the highest percent inhibition at 96% followed by Allopurinol with 93% inhibition. In vivo study, mean serum uric acid level of patients was 4.62 mg/dl and 5.21mg/dl by use of Gouticin and Allopurinol at end of therapy. The study showed that herbal coded formulation gouticin and its ingredients are potential sources of natural xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Gouticin 500 mg twice daily is more effective than the allopurinol 300mg once daily in the management of gout. PMID:24811815

  18. Evolution of histamine oxidase activity for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Rosini, Elena; Tonin, Fabio; Vasylieva, Natalia; Marinesco, Stephane; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2014-01-01

    Histamine is present to various degrees in many foods, and concentrations in fish samples are considered a good indicator of freshness and hygienic food quality. Seeking for innovative methods to quantify histamine in foods, we used a synthetic gene designed on the sequence of histamine oxidase from Arthrobacter crystallopoietes (HOD) as the starting point in this study to develop a biosensor. HOD was expressed in Escherichia coli cells with a yield of ?7 mg protein/L of fermentation broth. Recombinant wild-type HOD oxidized histamine and tyramine whereas it was inactive toward putrescine and cadaverine (two amines present in fish samples). The putative residues involved in substrate binding were identified by an in silico docking procedure based on a model of the structure of HOD: site-saturation mutagenesis was performed on 8 positions. The most significant changes in kinetic properties were observed for the P143M HOD: this variant showed higher histamine affinity and lower substrate inhibition by tyramine than wild-type enzyme. Biosensor prototypes were produced using both the wild-type and the P143M variant HOD. These biosensors showed a good sensitivity and selectivity with respect to biogenic amines present in food specimens. Accordingly, the HOD-based biosensor was successfully used to assess histamine in fish samples, yielding values in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC analyses but in a few seconds and at a significantly lower cost per analysis. PMID:23995223

  19. Activity of carbohydrate oxidases as influenced by wheat flour dough components.

    PubMed

    Degrand, L; Rakotozafy, L; Nicolas, J

    2015-08-15

    The carbohydrate oxidase (COXMn) from Microdochium nivale may well have desired functionalities as a dough and bread improver, similarly to Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GOX). COXMn catalyses the oxidation of various monosaccharides as well as maltooligosaccharides for which the best activity is obtained towards the maltooligosaccharides of polymerisation degrees 3 and 4. For the same activity towards glucose under air saturation, we show that COXMn exhibits a similar efficiency towards maltose as GOX towards glucose whatever the oxygen supply. Assays with COXMn show that no competition exists between carbohydrates naturally present in the wheat flour. We show that reaction products (d-glucono-?-lactone and hydrogen peroxide) and the wheat flour dough component, ferulic acid, have no noticeable specific effect on the COXMn activity. The demonstrated differences in kinetics between COXMn and GOX allow predicting of differences in the functional behaviours of those enzymes during wheat flour dough formation. PMID:25794758

  20. Inactivation of cytochrome c oxidase activity in mitochondrial membranes during redox cycling of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Demant, E J

    1991-02-15

    Interactions of doxorubicin (DX) with the cardiolipin-dependent cytochrome c oxidase have been examined by using pig heart submitochondrial particles (SMP). A progressive and irreversible loss of oxidase activity is demonstrated in 2 hr incubations of the SMP with 10-100 microM DX in air-equilibrated medium with excess NADH to support redox-cycling of the drug. This oxidative mechanism for oxidase inactivation occurs in connection with a peroxidation process in the bulk membrane lipid, and is independent on turnover of the enzyme. It is related in a complex manner to the electron flux in the respiratory chain with antioxidant properties, and is maximal at the high reduction level of respiratory chain Complex I obtained in the presence of rotenone. Reduction of DX per se plays a minor role, and trace concentrations of chelatable metal ions (iron) are required to catalyse the reaction. Iron in the iron storage protein ferritin is released by DX, and at physiological low O2 concentrations ([O2] less than 20 microM), this iron is a better promoter of oxidase inactivation than is endogenous iron in the SMP. Kinetic analysis of inactivation data indicates the interaction of DX with low affinity (Km 35-55 microM) binding sites in the SMP membranes. Overall, the results point to the possible role of ferritin-iron in the mechanism of DX mitochondrial toxicity and argue against site specific effects of the DX-reduction/oxidation cycle on the cytochrome c oxidase or on its essential phospholipid (cardiolipin) environment. PMID:1847635

  1. Assessing Gibberellins Oxidase Activity by Anion Exchange/Hydrophobic Polymer Monolithic Capillary Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiu-Feng; Wu, Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yuan, Bi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) play a key regulatory role in plant growth and development. In the biosynthesis of GAs, GA3-oxidase catalyzes the final step to produce bioactive GAs. Thus, the evaluation of GA3-oxidase activity is critical for elucidating the regulation mechanism of plant growth controlled by GAs. However, assessing catalytic activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase remains challenging. In the current study, we developed a capillary liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (cLC-MS) method for the sensitive assay of in-vitro recombinant or endogenous GA3-oxidase by analyzing the catalytic substrates and products of GA3-oxidase (GA1, GA4, GA9, GA20). An anion exchange/hydrophobic poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium-co-divinylbenzene-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)(META-co-DVB-co-EDMA) monolithic column was successfully prepared for the separation of all target GAs. The limits of detection (LODs, Signal/Noise?=?3) of GAs were in the range of 0.62–0.90 fmol. We determined the kinetic parameters (Km) of recombinant GA3-oxidase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysates, which is consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, by using isotope labeled substrates, we successfully evaluated the activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase that converts GA9 to GA4 in four types of plant samples, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report for the quantification of the activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase in plant. Taken together, the method developed here provides a good solution for the evaluation of endogenous GA3-oxidase activity in plant, which may promote the in-depth study of the growth regulation mechanism governed by GAs in plant physiology. PMID:23922762

  2. Assessing gibberellins oxidase activity by anion exchange/hydrophobic polymer monolithic capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Luan; Su, Xin; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Jiu-Feng; Wu, Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yuan, Bi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) play a key regulatory role in plant growth and development. In the biosynthesis of GAs, GA3-oxidase catalyzes the final step to produce bioactive GAs. Thus, the evaluation of GA3-oxidase activity is critical for elucidating the regulation mechanism of plant growth controlled by GAs. However, assessing catalytic activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase remains challenging. In the current study, we developed a capillary liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry (cLC-MS) method for the sensitive assay of in-vitro recombinant or endogenous GA3-oxidase by analyzing the catalytic substrates and products of GA3-oxidase (GA1, GA4, GA9, GA20). An anion exchange/hydrophobic poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium-co-divinylbenzene-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)(META-co-DVB-co-EDMA) monolithic column was successfully prepared for the separation of all target GAs. The limits of detection (LODs, Signal/Noise = 3) of GAs were in the range of 0.62-0.90 fmol. We determined the kinetic parameters (K m) of recombinant GA3-oxidase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysates, which is consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, by using isotope labeled substrates, we successfully evaluated the activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase that converts GA9 to GA4 in four types of plant samples, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report for the quantification of the activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase in plant. Taken together, the method developed here provides a good solution for the evaluation of endogenous GA3-oxidase activity in plant, which may promote the in-depth study of the growth regulation mechanism governed by GAs in plant physiology. PMID:23922762

  3. Effects in-vitro of procarbazine metabolites on some amine oxidase activities in the rat.

    PubMed

    Holt, A; Sharman, D F; Callingham, B A

    1992-06-01

    The effects were examined of four metabolites of the anticancer agent, procarbazine (N-isopropyl-alpha-(2-methyl hydrazino)-p-toluamide hydrochloride) on semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) and monoamine oxidase-A and -B (MAO-A and -B) activities in rat brown adipose tissue and liver homogenates, respectively. Azoprocarbazine (AZO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) inhibited selectively the deamination of benzylamine by SSAO, when compared with their effects on MAO activities. The IC50 values against SSAO, of 32.7 nM (AZO) and 7.0 nM (MMH), were more than three orders of magnitude lower than those exhibited against MAO. Neither isomer of azoxyprocarbazine was an effective inhibitor of rat amine oxidase activities. The inhibition of SSAO by AZO was reversed very slowly by dialysis, in contrast to results seen for MMH. The non-competitive kinetics of MMH and the ability of B24, a rapidly reversible SSAO inhibitor, to protect SSAO against inhibition by MMH are consistent with the view that this compound binds to the enzyme cofactor at, or near, the active site. PMID:1359074

  4. Catalytically active bovine serum amine oxidase bound to fluorescent and magnetically drivable nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sinigaglia, Giulietta; Magro, Massimiliano; Miotto, Giovanni; Cardillo, Sara; Agostinelli, Enzo; Zboril, Radek; Bidollari, Eris; Vianello, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Novel superparamagnetic surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) characterized by a diameter of 10 ± 2 nm were modified with bovine serum amine oxidase, which used rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) adduct as a fluorescent spacer-arm. A fluorescent and magnetically drivable adduct comprised of bovine serum copper-containing amine oxidase (SAMN–RITC–BSAO) that immobilized on the surface of specifically functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was developed. The multifunctional nanomaterial was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and activity measurements. The results of this study demonstrated that bare magnetic nanoparticles form stable colloidal suspensions in aqueous solutions. The maximum binding capacity of bovine serum amine oxidase was approximately 6.4 mg g?1 nanoparticles. The immobilization procedure reduced the catalytic activity of the native enzyme to 30% ± 10% and the Michaelis constant was increased by a factor of 2. We suggest that the SAMN–RITC–BSAO complex, characterized by a specific activity of 0.81 IU g?1, could be used in the presence of polyamines to create a fluorescent magnetically drivable H2O2 and aldehydes-producing system. Selective tumor cell destruction is suggested as a potential future application of this system. PMID:22619559

  5. Catalytically active bovine serum amine oxidase bound to fluorescent and magnetically drivable nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sinigaglia, Giulietta; Magro, Massimiliano; Miotto, Giovanni; Cardillo, Sara; Agostinelli, Enzo; Zboril, Radek; Bidollari, Eris; Vianello, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Novel superparamagnetic surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) characterized by a diameter of 10 ± 2 nm were modified with bovine serum amine oxidase, which used rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) adduct as a fluorescent spacer-arm. A fluorescent and magnetically drivable adduct comprised of bovine serum copper-containing amine oxidase (SAMN-RITC-BSAO) that immobilized on the surface of specifically functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was developed. The multifunctional nanomaterial was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and activity measurements. The results of this study demonstrated that bare magnetic nanoparticles form stable colloidal suspensions in aqueous solutions. The maximum binding capacity of bovine serum amine oxidase was approximately 6.4 mg g(-1) nanoparticles. The immobilization procedure reduced the catalytic activity of the native enzyme to 30% ± 10% and the Michaelis constant was increased by a factor of 2. We suggest that the SAMN-RITC-BSAO complex, characterized by a specific activity of 0.81 IU g(-1,) could be used in the presence of polyamines to create a fluorescent magnetically drivable H(2)O(2) and aldehydes-producing system. Selective tumor cell destruction is suggested as a potential future application of this system. PMID:22619559

  6. NADPH-diaphorase and NOS enzymatic activities in some neurons of reptilian gut and their relationships with two neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, C; Costagliola, A; Vittoria, A; Mayer, B; Assisi, L; Botte, V; Cecio, A

    1999-05-01

    The distribution of neurons containing the enzymes NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been studied in the gastrointestinal tract of lizard (Podarcis s. sicula) and snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). The techniques employed were the NADPH-d/nitroblue tetrazolium histochemical method, and the indirect immunofluorescence applied to cryostat sections and to whole-mount preparations. The colocalization of NADPH-d with NOS, with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and with galanin (Gal) was also studied, and a Western blot analysis using an antibody directed against mammalian Gal was performed on lizard stomach extracts. NADPH-d positive nerve cell bodies and fibres were found in the myenteric and submucous plexuses throughout the gastrointestinal tract of both reptiles. These nerve structures were also present in the other intramural nerve plexuses, although in smaller quantities. Both in lizard and snake, the stomach revealed a positive nerve population that was more dense than elsewhere in the gut. The population of the NADPH-d-positive neurons observed in the lizard was larger than that observed in the snake. The distribution of both populations was similar to those that have been described in the gut of several mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. Both in lizard and snake, a one-to-one correspondence was noted between NOS- and NADPH-d-containing nerve cell bodies, and the nitrergic neurons containing Gal appeared to be more numerous than those containing VIP. Western blot analysis recognised a single band with a molecular weight (3.4 kDa) very similar to that of porcine Gal. It is hypothesised that at least some of the nitrergic neurons of the lizard and snake gut are inhibitory motor neurons innervating the circular smooth musculature. In addition, the colocalization of NOS and VIP in neurons enhances their inhibitory action. The role of the neurons containing both NOS and Gal remains unknown. PMID:10221451

  7. Reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the retrosplenial cortex after lesions to the anterior thalamic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena; Arias, Jorge L; Bontempi, Bruno; Wolff, Mathieu

    2013-08-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) make a critical contribution to hippocampal system functions. Growing experimental work shows that the effects of ATN lesions often resemble those of hippocampal lesions and both markedly reduce the expression of immediate-early gene markers in the retrosplenial cortex, which still appears normal by standard histological means. This study shows that moderate ATN damage was sufficient to produce severe spatial memory impairment as measured in a radial-arm maze. Furthermore, ATN rats exhibited reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the most superficial cortical layers of the granular retrosplenial cortex, and, to a lesser extent, in the anterior cingulate cortex. By contrast, no change in cytochrome oxidase activity was observed in other limbic cortical regions or in the hippocampal formation. Altogether our results indicate that endogenous long-term brain metabolic capacity within the granular retrosplenial cortex is compromised by even limited ATN damage. PMID:23660649

  8. Angiotensin II Induces Endothelial Xanthine Oxidase Activation Role for Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Coronary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Landmesser; Stephan Spiekermann; Christoph Preuss; Sajoscha Sorrentino; Dieter Fischer; Costantina Manes; Maja Mueller; Helmut Drexler

    2011-01-01

    Objective—Xanthine oxidase (XO), a major source of superoxide, has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Mechanisms, however, leading to endothelial XO activation remain poorly defined. We tested the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on endothelial XO and its relevance for endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary disease. Methods and Results—XO protein levels and XO-dependent superoxide production were determined

  9. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of northeastern North American plant remedies used for gout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick L. Owen; Timothy Johns

    1999-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (xanthine: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.2.3.2) inhibitory activity was assayed from 26 species belonging to 18 families traditionally used for the treatment of gout and related symptoms by Indigenous people of northeastern North America. The degree of inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295 nm associated with uric acid formation. Eighty-eight percent of the plants

  10. Mode of action of pesticides on aflatoxin biosynthesis and oxidase system activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. H. Hasan

    1999-01-01

    The effects of nine pesticides on the biosynthesis of aflatoxin and oxidase activity in wild-type Aspergillusflavus and mutant strains of A. parasiticus avr-1 (w 49) and A. parasiticus ver-1 (wh 1) were investigated. In A. parasiticus, phosphonic acid derivative (lancer) reduced the formation of aflatoxin B2 but B1, G1 and G2 and anthraquinones (versicolorin A, versiconal hemiacetal acetat and averufin)

  11. Xanthine oxidase activity associated with arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; DeLano, Frank A.; Parks, Dale A.; Jamshidi, Neema; Granger, D. Neil; Ishii, Hiromasa; Suematsu, Makoto; Zweifach, Benjamin W.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence in vivo indicates that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibit an increase in oxyradical production in and around microvascular endothelium. This study is aimed to examine whether xanthine oxidase plays a role in overproduction of oxidants and thereby may contribute to hypertensive states as a consequence of the increasing microvascular tone. The xanthine oxidase activity in SHR was inhibited by dietary supplement of tungsten (0.7 g/kg) that depletes molybdenum as a cofactor for the enzyme activity as well as by administration of (?)BOF4272 [(?)-8-(3-methoxy-4-phenylsulfinylphenyl)pyrazolo(1,5-?)-1,3,5-triazine-4-monohydrate], a synthetic inhibitor of the enzyme. The characteristic elevation of mean arterial pressure in SHR was normalized by the tungsten diet, whereas Wistar Koto (WKY) rats displayed no significant alteration in the pressure. Multifunctional intravital videomicroscopy in mesentery microvessels with hydroethidine, an oxidant-sensitive fluoroprobe, showed that SHR endothelium exhibited overproduction of oxyradicals that coincided with the elevated arteriolar tone as compared with WKY rats. The tungsten diet significantly repressed these changes toward the levels observed in WKY rats. The activity of oxyradical-producing form of xanthine oxidase in the mesenteric tissue of SHR was ?3-fold greater than that of WKY rats, and pretreatment with the tungsten diet eliminated detectable levels of the enzyme activity. The inhibitory effects of the tungsten diet on the increasing blood pressure and arteriolar tone in SHR were also reproducible by administration of (?)BOF4272. These results suggest that xanthine oxidase accounts for a putative source of oxyradical generation that is associated with an increasing arteriolar tone in this form of hypertension. PMID:9539811

  12. Coumarins with monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and antioxidative coumarino-lignans from Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Yun, B S; Lee, I K; Ryoo, I J; Yoo, I D

    2001-09-01

    A previously undescribed coumarin and a new coumarino-lignan, together with the known compounds scopoletin and cleomiscosins A, C, and D, have been isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus, and their structures were assigned on the basis of various spectral studies. The coumarin analogue and scopoletin inhibited monoamine oxidase with moderate IC(50) values. The new coumarino-lignan and cleomiscosin C showed lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity comparable to vitamin E. PMID:11575966

  13. Interspecific differences in mixed function oxidase activity in birds: a tool to identify ‘species at risk’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Fossi; A. Massi; L. Lari; C. Leonzio; S. Focardi; L. Marsili; A. Renzoni

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of diet on the development of interspecific differences in the detoxication capacity of the mixed function oxidase (MFO) system (monooxygenase) among birds. The role of MFO activity in the detoxication\\/bioaccumulation of organochlorines (e.g., PCBs) was also investigated. Seven different species of birds were analysed: the yellow-legged herring gull (Larus cachinnans),

  14. In vitro activation of dibromoacetonitrile to cyanide: role of xanthine oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed M. Mohamadin; Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim

    2003-01-01

    Dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) is a disinfection byproduct of chlorination of drinking water. Epidemiological studies indicate that it might present a potential hazard to human health. The present work provides evidence for DBAN activation to cyanide (CN-) by the hypoxanthine (HX)\\/xanthine oxidase (XO)\\/iron (Fe) system in vitro. Optimum conditions for the oxidation of DBAN to CN-were characterized. Addition of the sulfhydryl compounds

  15. Induction of mixed—function oxidase activity in mouse lymphoid tissues by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy D. Griffin; B. Zane Egan; Norman E. Lee; Carl A. Burtis

    1986-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure can cause mixed?function oxidase (MFO) enzyme induction in certain tissues of various organisms. Measurement of such induction might serve as a useful bioindicator of human exposure to PAHs, provided readily obtainable human tissues can be utilized for such measurements.We have investigated the MFO activity in various lymphoid tissues of the C3H mouse as a model

  16. Alterations of nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase activities of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet B radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Deliconstantinos; Vassiliki Villiotou; John C. Stavrides

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that NO synthase (cNOS) and xanthine oxidase (XO) of human keratinocytes can be activated to release NO, Superoxide (O2?) and peroxynitrite (ONOO?) following exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We defined that this photo induced response may be involved in the pathogenesis of sunburn erythema and inflammation. Treatment of human keratinocytes with UVB (290–320

  17. Role of sugars and organic acids in regulating the concentration and activity of the alternative oxidase in Poa annua roots.

    PubMed

    Millenaar, Frank F; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A; Siedow, James N; Wagner, Anneke M; Lambers, Hans

    2002-05-01

    Detached roots of Poa annua were used to study alternative oxidase protein expression upon the addition of sucrose, glucose, fructose, inositol, mannitol, citrate or malate, at a concentration of 1 or 10 mM for 24 h. After 24 h the capacity of cytochrome c oxidase was decreased equally in all treatments. Only citrate induced the expression of the alternative oxidase, especially at a concentration of 1 mM (15-fold). The activity of the alternative pathway (measured with the (18)O-fractionation technique) was not affected by the addition of sucrose for 24 h as compared with time zero. However, after the addition of citrate or mannitol the activity of the alternative pathway decreased to almost zero. The discrepancy between the large increase in alternative oxidase protein concentration when citrate was applied and the concomitant decrease in alternative pathway activity is discussed. PMID:11971919

  18. Valproic Acid Induces Monoamine Oxidase A via Akt/Forkhead Box O1 ActivationS?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jason Boyang

    2011-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been widely used in clinics for the treatment of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy and bipolar disorder. One of the mechanisms by which VPA exerts its effect is through regulating the brain levels of serotonin. However, the molecular basis of this VPA action is not fully understood. Here, we report for the first time that VPA activates monoamine oxidase (MAO) A catalytic activity, mRNA level, and promoter activity. MAO A is a key enzyme that degrades a number of monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonin. Our results show that VPA increased the phosphorylation of both Akt and Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), whereas pretreatment of cells with 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the VPA activation of MAO A. Overexpression of FoxO1 dramatically repressed both the basal and VPA-induced MAO A catalytic and promoter activities to 30 to 60%. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FoxO1 attenuated the stimulating effect of VPA on MAO A. Moreover, introduction of a constitutively active form of FoxO1 abolished the activation of MAO A by VPA and Akt. These results suggest that FoxO1 is a repressor for MAO A transcription, and its phosphorylation is involved in VPA activation of MAO A. Sequence analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed the presence of a functional FoxO1-binding site in MAO A core promoter. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MAO A is a novel target for VPA via Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway. This information provides new insights into the pharmacological mechanisms and therapeutic implications of VPA action. PMID:21775495

  19. Characterization of three bioenergetically active respiratory terminal oxidases in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Pils, D; Schmetterer, G

    2001-09-25

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains three respiratory terminal oxidases (RTOs): cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), quinol oxidase (Cyd), and alternate RTO (ARTO). Mutants lacking combinations of the RTOs were used to characterize these key enzymes of respiration. Pentachlorophenol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline-N-oxide inhibited Cyd completely, but had little effect on electron transport to the other RTOs. KCN inhibited all three RTOs but the in vivo K(I) for Cox and Cyd was quite different (7 vs. 27 microM), as was their affinity for oxygen (K(M) 1.0 vs. 0.35 microM). ARTO has a very low respiratory activity. However, when uptake of 3-O-methylglucose, an active H+ co-transport, was used to monitor energization of the cytoplasmic membrane, ARTO was similarly effective as the other RTOs. As removal of the gene for cytochrome c(553) had the same effects as removal of ARTO genes, we propose that the ARTO might be a second Cox. The possible functions, localization and regulation of the RTOs are discussed. PMID:11583851

  20. Enhanced hydrolysis of soluble cellulosic substrates by a metallocellulase with veratryl alcohol-oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Margalt, R.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A cellulose enzyme fraction was separated from Trichoderma reesei Pulpzyme HA{trademark}, and its characteristics suggested that it was mainly composed of cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II). The covalent attachment of pentaammineruthenium (III) to this enzyme resulted in threefold and fourfold enhancements of its hydrolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and barley {beta}-glucan, respectively, as well as endowing it with veratryl alcohol-oxidase activity. Enhancement of hydrolysis was not affected by addition of tartrate or hydrogen peroxide to the reaction mixture. Both native and pentaammineruthenium modified enzymes had negligible activity on cellobiose and p-nitrophenyl {beta}-cellobioside (PNPC).

  1. Brief Communications Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Rita

    aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy non- smoking men with positron emission-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results under), it may also provide an explanation for the high rate of cigarette smoking in depression (Glassman et al

  2. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Activity of Terpenoid and Pyrrole Compounds Isolated from Snake Fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) cv. Bongkok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herliani Afrianti Priyatno, Leni; Yulinah Sukandar, Elin; Ibrahim, Slamet; Ketut Adnyana, I.

    The compound of 3β-hydroxy-sitosterol (1) and 2-metylester-1-H-pyrrole-4-carboxilyc acid were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) cv. Bongkok, (2). Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by the two compounds were evaluated against enzyme of xanthine oxidase. Compound 1 could be regarded as inactive, while compound 2 was found to be active with IC50 value of 48.86 μg mL-1.

  3. NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic activity in brain slices: predominant role of mitochondrial function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M Brennan; John A Connor; C William Shuttleworth

    2006-01-01

    Excitatory stimulation in hippocampal slices results in biphasic NAD(P)H fluorescence transients. Previous studies using differing stimulus protocols agreed that the oxidation phase is a consequence of mitochondrial metabolism, but the reduction phase has been attributed to (1) mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) generation or (2) astrocytic glycolysis triggered by glutamate uptake. In an attempt to reconcile these two views, the

  4. The ALD6 gene product is indispensable for providing NADPH in yeast cells lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Dorota; Chelstowska, Anna

    2003-04-18

    Reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH are essential for many enzymatic steps involved in the biosynthesis of cellular macromolecules. An adequate level of NADPH is also required to protect cells against oxidative stress. The major enzymatic source of NADPH in the cell is the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway. Disruption of the ZWF1 gene, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, results in methionine auxotrophy and increased sensitivity to oxidizing agents. It is assumed that both phenotypes are due to an NADPH deficiency in the zwf1Delta strain. We used a Met(-) phenotype displayed by the zwf1Delta strain to look for multicopy suppressors of this deletion. We found that overexpression of the ALD6 gene coding for cytosolic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which utilizes NADP(+) as its cofactor, restores the Met(+) phenotype of the zwf1Delta strain. Another multicopy suppressor identified in our screen, the ZMS1 gene encoding a putative transcription factor, regulates the level of ALD6 expression. A strain bearing a double ZWF1 ALD6 gene disruption is not viable. Thus, our results indicate the reaction catalyzed by Ald6p as an important source of reducing equivalents in the yeast cells. PMID:12584194

  5. Absorption of enzymatically active sup 125 I-labeled bovine milk xanthine oxidase fed to rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Rzucidlo, S.J. (ICI Americas Inc., Wilmington, DE (USA)); Zikakis, J.P. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Rabbits fed a regular laboratory diet supplemented with a high-fat milk containing xanthine oxidase (XO) were studied to determine the presence of active XO in the blood. A pilot feeding study, where rabbits consumed a high-fat diet containing xanthine oxidase, showed a correlation between dairy food consumption and XO activity in the blood. Antibody to dietary XO was also found. In a second study, rabbits were fed ad libitum the high-fat milk and blood serum samples were tested weekly for XO activity. No elevation in serum XO activity was found. A third study showed that serum XO activity was increased when rabbits were force fed the high-fat milk. The final study consisted of force feeding {sup 125}I-labeled XO to one rabbit to ascertain whether the observed increase in serum XO was due to dietary or endogenous XO. Isoelectric focusing of sera collected from the test rabbit strongly suggested that at least a portion of the serum XO contained the radioactive label. This is the first direct evidence showing the uptake of dietary active XO from the gut.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 enhances renal mitochondrial transport carriers and cytochrome C oxidase activity in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Van Driesche, Sarah; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Yang, Li-Ming; Quan, Shuo; Goodman, Alvin I; Abraham, Nader G

    2006-06-01

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase (HO-1) by either cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or human gene transfer improves vascular and renal function by several mechanisms, including increases in antioxidant levels and decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular and renal tissue. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of HO-1 overexpression on mitochondrial transporters, cytochrome c oxidase, and anti-apoptotic proteins in diabetic rats (streptozotocin, (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes). Renal mitochondrial carnitine, deoxynucleotide, and ADP/ATP carriers were significantly reduced in diabetic compared with nondiabetic rats (p < 0.05). The citrate carrier was not significantly decreased in diabetic tissue. CoPP administration produced a robust increase in carnitine, citrate, deoxynucleotide, dicarboxylate, and ADP/ATP carriers and no significant change in oxoglutarate and aspartate/glutamate carriers. The increase in mitochondrial carriers (MCs) was associated with a significant increase in cytochrome c oxidase activity. The administration of tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an inhibitor of HO-1 activity, prevented the restoration of MCs in diabetic rats. Human HO-1 cDNA transfer into diabetic rats increased both HO-1 protein and activity, and restored mitochondrial ADP/ATP and deoxynucleotide carriers. The increase in HO-1 by CoPP administration was associated with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of AKT and levels of BcL-XL proteins. These observations in experimental diabetes suggest that the cytoprotective mechanism of HO-1 against oxidative stress involves an increase in the levels of MCs and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as in cytochrome c oxidase activity. PMID:16595661

  7. Cocaine reduces cytochrome oxidase activity in the prefrontal cortex and modifies its functional connectivity with brainstem nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Vélez-Hernández, M.E.; Padilla, E.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Jiménez-Rivera, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine-induced psychomotor stimulation may be mediated by metabolic hypofrontality and modification of brain functional connectivity. Functional connectivity refers to the pattern of relationships among brain regions, and one way to evaluate this pattern is using interactivity correlations of the metabolic marker cytochrome oxidase among different regions. This is the first study of how repeated cocaine modifies: (1) mean cytochrome oxidase activity in neural areas using quantitative enzyme histochemistry, and (2) functional connectivity among brain regions using inter-correlations of cytochrome oxidase activity. Rats were injected with 15 mg/kg i.p. cocaine or saline for 5 days, which lead to cocaine-enhanced total locomotion. Mean cytochrome oxidase activity was significantly decreased in cocaine-treated animals in the superficial dorsal and lateral frontal cortical association areas Fr2 and Fr3 when compared to saline-treated animals. Functional connectivity showed that the cytochrome oxidase activity of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the infralimbic cortex were positively inter-correlated in cocaine but not in control rats. Positive cytochrome oxidase activity inter-correlations were also observed between the dopaminergic substantia nigra compacta and Fr2 and Fr3 areas and the lateral orbital cortex in cocaine-treated animals. In contrast, cytochrome oxidase activity in the interpeduncular nucleus was negatively correlated with that of Fr2, anterior insular cortex, and lateral orbital cortex in saline but not in cocaine groups. After repeated cocaine specific prefrontal areas became hypometabolic and their functional connectivity changed in networks involving noradrenergic and dopaminergic brainstem nuclei. We suggest that this pattern of hypofrontality and altered functional connectivity may contribute to cocaine-induced psychomotor stimulation. PMID:24505625

  8. [Serum monoamine oxidase (MAO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and histamine level in the blood of women during the early puerperium].

    PubMed

    Szojkowits, Z; Jez, W; Kocha?ski, L

    1989-01-15

    In early puerperium various biochemical changes develop in the organism. Considering the role played by MAO, DAO and histamine, and absence of a comprehensive study of this problem in this life period a study was carried out on 36 women, who were selected randomly from women giving birth through the normal pathway. Blood samples were taken in morning hours on the 1, 2 and 3 days of puerperium. In each case the activity of serum monoamine oxidase, diamine oxidase and blood histamine level were measured. The results obtained on various days of puerperium were compared. Statistical analysis was carried out using the t test for paired measurements. Increased serum MAO activity was found on the second day and was decreased then on the third day of puerperium, but it was still above the level on the first day. A successive decrease of serum DAO activity was noted in these three days of puerperium. The blood histamine level increased successively on the successive days of puerperium. Normal values of the activity of these substances in the serum were established in women delivering the fetus through the vagina. The lower normal range of MAO activity, extension of the range of DAO activity, especially of its upper range, and decreased histamine level were found. The authors discuss the causes of these results. PMID:2510406

  9. Increase in ACC oxidase levels and activities during paradormancy release of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) buds.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wun S; Serpe, Marcelo; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Jia, Ying

    2013-07-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is known to affect various developmental processes including dormancy and growth. Yet, little information is available about the role of ethylene during paradormancy release in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge. In this study, we examined changes in ethylene evolution and the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme ACC oxidase following paradormancy release (growth induction). Our results did not show an obvious increase in ethylene during bud growth. However, when buds were incubated with 1 mM ACC, ethylene levels were higher in growing than non-growing buds, suggesting that the levels of ACC oxidase increased in growing buds. Real-time qPCR indicated that the transcript of a Euphorbia esula ACC oxidase (Ee-ACO) increased up to threefold following growth induction. In addition, a 2.5- to 4-fold increase in ACO activity was observed 4 days after decapitation, and the Ee-ACO accounted for 40 % of the total ACO activity. Immunoblot analyses identified a 36-kD Ee-ACO protein that increased in expression during bud growth. This protein was highly expressed in leaves, moderately expressed in crown buds, stems and meristems, and weakly expressed in roots and flowers. Immunolocalization of Ee-ACO on growing bud sections revealed strong labeling of the nucleus and cytoplasm in cells at the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. An exception to this pattern occurred in cells undergoing mitosis, where labeling of Ee-ACO was negligible. Taken together, our results indicated an increase in the levels of Ee-ACO during paradormancy release of leafy spurge that was not correlated with an increase in ethylene synthesis. PMID:23625016

  10. EXOGENOUS CYTOCHROME C RESTORES MYOCARDIAL CYTOCHROME OXIDASE ACTIVITY INTO THE LATE PHASE OF SEPSIS

    PubMed Central

    Piel, David A.; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Levy, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of disease states, including sepsis. An acquired defect in oxidative phosphorylation potentially causes sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Cytochrome oxidase (CcOX), the terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain, is competitively inhibited early in sepsis and progresses, becoming noncompetitive during the late phase. We have previously demonstrated that exogenous cytochrome c can overcome myocardial CcOX competitive inhibition and improve cardiac function during murine sepsis at the 24-h point. Here, we evaluate the effect of exogenous cytochrome c on CcOX activity and survival in mice at the later time points. Exogenous cytochrome c (800 ?g) or saline was intravenously injected 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation. Steady-state mitochondrial cytochrome c levels and heme c content increased significantly 48 h post-CLP and remained elevated at 72 h in cytochrome c-injected mice compared with saline injection. Cecal ligation and puncture inhibited CcOX at 48 h in saline-injected mice. However, cytochrome c injection abrogated this inhibition and restored CcOX kinetic activity to sham values at 48 h. Survival after CLP to 96 h after cytochrome c injection approached 50% compared with only 15% after saline injection. Thus, a single injection of exogenous cytochrome c 24 h post-CLP repletes mitochondrial substrate levels for up to 72 h, restores myocardial COX activity, and significantly improves survival. PMID:18414235

  11. Phenol contents, oxidase activities, and the resistance of coffee to the leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Guerreiro-Filho, Oliveiro; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2006-09-01

    We examined the role of phenolic compounds, and the enzymes peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, in the expression of resistance of coffee plants to Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae). The concentrations of total soluble phenols and chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid), and the activities of the oxidative enzymes peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), were estimated in leaves of Coffea arabica, C. racemosa, and progenies of crosses between these species, which have different levels of resistance, before and after attack by this insect. The results indicate that phenols do not play a central role in resistance to the coffee leaf miner. Differences were detected between the parental species in terms of total soluble phenol concentrations and activities of the oxidative enzymes. However, resistant and susceptible hybrid plants did not differ in any of these characteristics. Significant induction of chlorogenic acid and PPO was only found in C. racemosa, the parental donator of the resistance genes against L. coffeella. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis also showed qualitative similarity between hybrids and the susceptible C. arabica. These results suggest that the phenolic content and activities of POD and PPO in response to the attack by the leaf miner may not be a strong evidence of their participation in direct defensive mechanisms. PMID:16906360

  12. Effects of special blue fluorescent light on hepatic mixed-function oxidase activity in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.R.; Yeary, R.A.; Randall, G.

    1981-01-01

    Phototherapy has been widely used in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Recent reports, however, have indicated that fluorescent light may be toxic and mutagenic to mammalian cells. these findings suggest possible long-term side effects with the use of phototherapy. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of phototherapy on hepatic microsomal enzyme activity. The exposure of Sprague-Dawley and Gunn rats to special blue fluorescent light at an average irradiance of 1,200 microW/cm2 resulted in no significant changes in liver microsomal enzyme activity for aniline hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole-O-demethylase, ethylmorphine-N-demethylase, cytochrome c reductase or the quantity of cytochrome P-450. A significant decrease in aniline hydroxylase and p-nitroanisole-O-demethylase activity was observed when liver microsomes were exposed in vitro to special blue fluorescent light. Photoactivated bilirubin did not effect the activity of the mixed-function oxidase enzymes measured under the conditions of this study.

  13. Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Iyanagi, Takashi [Biometal Science Laboratory, RIKEN Harima Institute/Spring8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)]. E-mail: iyanagi@spring8.or.jp

    2005-12-09

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD-FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH {sup {center_dot}}/FMNH{sub 2} couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant oxidation-reduction potential. Although the interflavin electron transfer between FAD and FMN is not strictly regulated in CPR, electron transfer is activated in neuronal NOS reductase domain upon binding calmodulin (CaM), in which the CaM-bound activated form can function by a similar mechanism to that of CPR. The oxygenated form and spin state of substrate-bound cytochrome P450 in perfused rat liver are also discussed in terms of stepwise one-electron transfer from CPR. This review provides a historical perspective of the microsomal mixed-function oxidases including CPR and P450. In addition, a new model for the redox-linked conformational changes during the catalytic cycle for both CPR and NOS reductase domain is also discussed.

  14. Histamine content, diamine oxidase activity and histamine methyltransferase activity in human tissues: fact or fictions?

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, R; Sattler, J; Lorenz, W; Stahlknecht, C D; Barth, H; Crombach, M; Weber, D

    1984-04-01

    To understand the role of histamine in the aetiology and pathogenesis of human diseases reliable data are urgently needed for the histamine content and for the activities of histamine-forming and -inactivating enzymes in human tissues. In order to make a substantial progress toward this aim a tissue-sampling programme during surgical interventions was carefully conceived and conducted. From March 1982 until January 1983 106 tissue specimens were taken from 56 patients who underwent surgery. Only healthy tissues, not injured or oedematous, and without adherent structures were taken by only one surgeon who was interested in this research and experienced in tissue preparation procedures in biochemistry. The times of 'warm' ischaemia during the operative procedures were visually estimated, the times between resection of the organs or specimens and deep-freezing of the tissues were precisely recorded. Compared to previous work in the literature and especially to our own work using the same assays for determination higher histamine contents were found in this study in most of the tissues, in particular in the gastrointestinal tract. Also the diamine oxidase activities were considerably higher in many organs, e.g. 3-4 times higher in the gastrointestinal tract when compared with those in publications of our group who used always the same analytical test. However, the histamine methyltransferase activities in this study were not at variance to those determined in previous investigations. Many of them were reported in this communication for the first time. Since the methods for histamine determination and those for measuring enzymic activities were not different in this study and in previous communications of our group we are convinced that the optimized tissue-sampling and -preparation techniques were responsible for the higher values in this communication. But the problem of the 'warm' ischaemia period could not be solved by sample-taking procedures of this type during operations. There are good reasons to prefer biopsy specimens for the analysis of histamine storage and metabolism in human tissues in health and disease, but - unfortunately - they are not always available. PMID:6428188

  15. Further studies on the ex-vivo effects of procarbazine and monomethylhydrazine on rat semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase activities.

    PubMed

    Holt, A; Callingham, B A

    1995-10-01

    Following administration of the anticancer agent, procarbazine, or one of its metabolites, monomethylhydrazine, to rats, activities of monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and MAO B) and of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) were measured ex-vivo. Both compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of SSAO in tissue homogenates, exhibiting ID50 values in most tissues of approximately 8 mg kg-1 (procarbazine) and 0.08 mg kg-1 (monomethylhydrazine). Concurrent dose-dependent inhibition of MAO activities did not occur. However, in liver, potentiation of MAO B activity, to 140% of that in controls, was apparent following monomethyl-hydrazine and this effect was independent of the drug dose. Both compounds produced a dose-dependent potentiation of MAO A in brown adipose tissue, the elevation being more pronounced following monomethylhydrazine, with activity rising to 350% of that in control homogenates. In a parallel in-vitro study, monomethylhydrazine was without effect on MAO A in brown adipose tissue homogenates. By perfusing the SSAO substrate, benzylamine, through the isolated mesenteric arterial bed of the rat, it was found that pretreatment of animals with procarbazine or monomethylhydrazine reduced metabolism of this amine by a similar degree as had been determined ex-vivo in blood vessel homogenates. The results presented suggest that these compounds would be suitable for use as selective inhibitors in pharmacological examinations of SSAO function in isolated tissues and organs. PMID:8583353

  16. Dithiocarbamates are teratogenic to developing zebrafish through inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boxtel, Antonius L. van, E-mail: thijs.van.boxtel@ivm.vu.n [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kamstra, Jorke H. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fluitsma, Donna M. [VU University Medical Centre (VUMC), VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Legler, Juliette [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are a class of compounds that are extensively used in agriculture as pesticides. As such, humans and wildlife are undoubtedly exposed to these chemicals. Although DTCs are thought to be relatively safe due to their short half lives, it is well established that they are teratogenic to vertebrates, especially to fish. In zebrafish, these teratogenic effects are characterized by distorted notochord development and shortened anterior to posterior axis. DTCs are known copper (Cu) chelators but this does not fully explain the observed teratogenic effects. We show here that DTCs cause malformations in zebrafish that highly resemble teratogenic effects observed by direct inhibition of a group of cuproenzymes termed lysyl oxidases (LOX). Additionally, we demonstrate that partial knockdown of three LOX genes, lox, loxl1 and loxl5b, sensitizes the developing embryo to DTC exposure. Finally, we show that DTCs directly inhibit zebrafish LOX activity in an ex vivo amine oxidase assay. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that DTC induced teratogenic effects are, at least in part, caused by direct inhibition of LOX activity.

  17. Effect of afforestation on urate oxidase activity in two kinds of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysner, Teresa; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Researches were carried out in soils under a 125-m-long the afforestation located in the Ko?cian Plain in Turew, which is a part of West Poland Lowland. Soil samples were taken from four chosen sites marked as Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 near wells. One part of this afforestation was allocated on mineral, whereas the second part was on mineral-organic soil. Times of sampling were from March to November in 2009 from the layer at 0-20 cm depth after removing leaf litter. Urate oxidase activity in soils was determined colorimetrically by measuring the absorbance at ?=293 nm. Urate oxidase is a homotetrameric enzyme containing four identical active sites situated at the interfaces between its four subunits. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid, a final product of purine catabolism to 5-hydroxyisourate, which is non-enzymatically transformed into allantoin, carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. Uricase is also an essential enzyme in the ureide pathway, where nitrogen fixation occurs in the root nodules of legumes. Nitrogen heterocyclic compounds such as allantoin may serve as nitrogen sources or nitrogen transport compounds in plants that are not able to fix nitrogen. It has been estimated that heterocyclic nitrogen compounds represent about 30% of the reduced nitrogen in soils. These studies indicated that the flow of ground water was accompanied by an increase of uricase activity from 16 to 71% (from point 1 to point 2) in all periods of sampling in mineral soils. Similar trend was shown in mineral-organic soils. There was an increase of uricase activity from the point 3 to 4 and ranged from 13 to 37% similar to the direction of the flow of ground water. However, no significant differences of urate oxidase activity between two kinds of soils were observed. This study showed that the uricase activity ranged from 1.99 to 7.16 ?mol×h-1×g-1 in the mineral soils and from 1.79 to 8.36 ?mol×h-1×g-1. The study indicated an impact of the afforestation located on mineral and mineral-organic soils on the changes of uricase activity similar to the flow of ground water. This work was supported by a grant No. N N305 3204 36 founded by Polish Ministry of Education.

  18. Why Orange Guaymas Basin Beggiatoa spp. Are Orange: Single-Filament-Genome-Enabled Identification of an Abundant Octaheme Cytochrome with Hydroxylamine Oxidase, Hydrazine Oxidase, and Nitrite Reductase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Siebert, Jason R.; Staunton, Eric; Hegg, Eric L.; Matthysse, Ann G.; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Orange, white, and yellow vacuolated Beggiatoaceae filaments are visually dominant members of microbial mats found near sea floor hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, with orange filaments typically concentrated toward the mat centers. No marine vacuolate Beggiatoaceae are yet in pure culture, but evidence to date suggests they are nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The nearly complete genome sequence of a single orange Beggiatoa (“Candidatus Maribeggiatoa”) filament from a microbial mat sample collected in 2008 at a hydrothermal site in Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California, Mexico) was recently obtained. From this sequence, the gene encoding an abundant soluble orange-pigmented protein in Guaymas Basin mat samples (collected in 2009) was identified by microcapillary reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (?LC–MS-MS) of a pigmented band excised from a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. The predicted protein sequence is related to a large group of octaheme cytochromes whose few characterized representatives are hydroxylamine or hydrazine oxidases. The protein was partially purified and shown by in vitro assays to have hydroxylamine oxidase, hydrazine oxidase, and nitrite reductase activities. From what is known of Beggiatoaceae physiology, nitrite reduction is the most likely in vivo role of the octaheme protein, but future experiments are required to confirm this tentative conclusion. Thus, while present-day genomic and proteomic techniques have allowed precise identification of an abundant mat protein, and its potential activities could be assayed, proof of its physiological role remains elusive in the absence of a pure culture that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23220958

  19. The role of the alternative oxidase in stabilizing the in vivo reduction state of the ubiquinone pool and the activation state of the alternative oxidase

    PubMed

    Millenaar; Benschop; Wagner; Lambers

    1998-10-01

    A possible function for the alternative (nonphosphorylating) pathway is to stabilize the reduction state of the ubiquinone pool (Qr/Qt), thereby avoiding an increase in free radical production. If the Qr/Qt were stabilized by the alternative pathway, then Qr/Qt should be less stable when the alternative pathway is blocked. Qr/Qt increased when we exposed roots of Poa annua (L.) to increasing concentrations of KCN (an inhibitor of the cytochrome pathway). However, when salicylhydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of the alternative pathway, was added at the same time, Qr/Qt increased significantly more. Therefore, we conclude that the alternative pathway stabilizes Qr/Qt. Salicylhydroxamic acid increasingly inhibited respiration with increasing concentrations of KCN. In the experiments described here the alternative oxidase protein was invariably in its reduced (high-activity) state. Therefore, changes in the reduction state of the alternative oxidase cannot account for an increase in activity of the alternative pathway upon titration with KCN. The pyruvate concentration in intact roots increased only after the alternative pathway was blocked or the cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited. The significance of the pyruvate concentration and Qr/Qt on the activity of the alternative pathway in intact roots is discussed. PMID:9765546

  20. Inhibition effects of Vernonia cinerea active compounds against cytochrome P450 2A6 and human monoamine oxidases, possible targets for reduction of tobacco dependence.

    PubMed

    Prasopthum, Aruna; Pouyfung, Phisit; Sarapusit, Songklod; Srisook, Ekaruth; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2015-04-01

    The human cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) and monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B), catalyzing nicotine and dopamine metabolisms, respectively, are two therapeutic targets of nicotine dependence. Vernonia cinerea, a medicinal plant commonly used for treatment of diseases such as asthma and bronchitis, has been shown reducing tobacco dependence effect among tobacco users. In the present study, we found eight active compounds isolated from V. cinerea that comprise inhibitory activity toward CYP2A6 and MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes using activity-guided assays, with coumarin as substrate of CYP2A6 and kynuramine of MAOs. These compounds were three flavones (apigenin, chrysoeriol, luteolin), one flavonol (quercetin), and four hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactones (8?-(2-methylacryloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, 8?-(4-hydroxymethacryloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, 8?-tigloyloxyhirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, and 8?-(4-hydroxytigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate). Modes and kinetics of inhibition against the three enzymes were determined. Flavonoids possessed strong inhibitory effect on CYP2A6 in reversible mode, while inhibition by hirsutinolides was mechanism-based (NADPH-, concentration-, and time-dependence) and irreversible. Inhibition by hirsutinolides could not be reversed by dialysis and by addition of trapping agents or potassium ferricyanide. Flavonoids inhibited MAOs with variable degrees and were more prominent in inhibition toward MAO-A than hirsutinolides, while two of hirsutinolides inhibited MAO-B approximately comparable to two flavonoids. These results could have implications in combination of drug therapy for smoking cessation. PMID:25857233

  1. Correlation of active site metal content in human diamine oxidase with trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone cofactor biogenesis .

    PubMed

    McGrath, Aaron P; Caradoc-Davies, Tom; Collyer, Charles A; Guss, J Mitchell

    2010-09-28

    Copper-containing amine oxidases (CAOs) require a protein-derived topaquinone cofactor (TPQ) for activity. TPQ biogenesis is a self-processing reaction requiring the presence of copper and molecular oxygen. Recombinant human diamine oxidase (hDAO) was heterologously expressed in Drosophila S2 cells, and analysis indicates that the purified hDAO contains substoichiometric amounts of copper and TPQ. The crystal structure of a complex of an inhibitor, aminoguanidine, and hDAO at 2.05 Å resolution shows that the aminoguanidine forms a covalent adduct with the TPQ and that the site is ?75% occupied. Aminoguanidine is a potent inhibitor of hDAO with an IC(50) of 153 ± 9 nM. The structure indicates that the catalytic metal site, normally occupied by copper, is fully occupied. X-ray diffraction data recorded below the copper edge, between the copper and zinc edges, and above the zinc edge have been used to show that the metal site is occupied approximately 75% by copper and 25% by zinc and the formation of the TPQ cofactor is correlated with copper occupancy. PMID:20722416

  2. Crystallization and preliminary analysis of active nitroalkane oxidase in three crystal forms

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Akanksha; Valley, Michael P.; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.; Orville, Allen M.

    2006-01-01

    Nitroalkane oxidase (NAO), a flavoprotein cloned and purified from Fusarium oxysporum, catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, with the production of H2O2 and nitrite. In this paper, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of active nitroalkane oxidase are described. The first crystal form belongs to a trigonal space group (either P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.8, c = 487.0 ?) and diffracts to at least 1.6 ? resolution. Several data sets were collected using 2? and ? geometry in order to obtain a complete data set to 2.07 ? resolution. Solvent-content and Matthews coefficient analysis suggests that crystal form 1 contains two homotetramers per asymmetric unit. Crystal form 2 (P212121; a = 147.3, b = 153.5, c = 169.5 ?) and crystal form 3 (P31 or P32; a = b = 108.9, c = 342.5 ?) are obtained from slightly different conditions and also contain two homotetramers per asymmetric unit, but have different solvent contents. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from selenomethionine-enriched NAO (SeMet-NAO) in crystal form 3 and will be used for phasing. PMID:15272176

  3. Forum Review Article Signaling Components of Redox Active Endosomes: The Redoxosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrick D. Oakley; Duane Abbott; Qiang Li; John F. Engelhardt

    Subcellular compartmentalization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in transmitting cell signals in response to environmental stimuli. In this regard, signals at the plasma membrane have been shown to trigger NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production within the endosomal compartment and this step can be required for redox-dependent signal transduction. Unique features of redox-active signaling endosomes can include NADPH

  4. Asymmetric synthesis of D-glyceric acid by an alditol oxidase and directed evolution for enhanced oxidative activity towards glycerol.

    PubMed

    Gerstenbruch, Sandra; Wulf, Hauke; Mussmann, Nina; O'Connell, Timothy; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-12-01

    Glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production is an attractive precursor for producing d-glyceric acid. Here, we demonstrate the successful production of d-glyceric acid based on glycerol via glyceraldehyde in a two-step enzyme reaction with the FAD-dependent alditol oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The hydrogen peroxide generated in the reaction can be used in detergent, food, and paper industry. In order to apply the alditol oxidase in industry, the enzyme was subjected to protein engineering. Different strategies were used to enhance the substrate specificity towards glycerol. Initial attempts based on rational protein design in the active site region were found unsuccessful to increase activity. However, through directed evolution, an alditol oxidase double mutant (V125M/A244T) with 1.5-fold improved activity for glycerol was found by screening 8,000 clones. Further improvement of activity was achieved by combinatorial experiments, which led to a quadruple mutant (V125M/A244T/V133M/G399R) with 2.4-fold higher specific activity towards glycerol compared to the wild-type enzyme. Through studying the effects of mutations created, we were able to understand the importance of certain amino acids in the structure of alditol oxidase, not only for conferring enzymatic structural stability but also with respect to their influence on oxidative activity. PMID:22290646

  5. Oral phycocyanobilin may diminish the pathogenicity of activated brain microglia in neurodegenerative disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark F. McCarty; Jorge Barroso-Aranda; Francisco Contreras

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that activated microglia play a central role in the pathogenesis of many prominent neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The elevated NADPH oxidase activity of these microglia contributes importantly to their pathogenic impact, collaborating with increased iNOS activity to generate the cytotoxic oxidant peroxynitrite. Phycocyanobilin (PCB), a chromophore derived from biliverdin that constitutes up to

  6. Modulation of lysyl oxidase-like 2 enzymatic activity by an allosteric antibody inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Hector M; Vaysberg, Maria; Mikels, Amanda; McCauley, Scott; Velayo, Arleene C; Garcia, Carlos; Smith, Victoria

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we assessed the steady-state enzymatic activity of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) against the substrates 1,5-diaminopentane (DAP), spermine, and fibrillar type I collagen. We find that both DAP and spermine are capable of activating LOXL2 to the same extent and have similar Michaelis constants (K(m) approximately 1 mm) and catalytic rates (k(cat) approximately 0.02 s(-1)). We also show that LOXL2 is capable of being inhibited by a known suicide inhibitor of lysyl oxidase (LOX), beta-aminopropionitrile, which we find is a potent inhibitor of LOXL2 activity. The modality of inhibition of beta-aminopropionitrile was also examined and found to be competitive with respect to the substrates DAP and spermine. In addition, we identified an antibody inhibitor (AB0023) of LOXL2 enzymatic function and have found that the inhibition occurs in a non-competitive manner with respect to both spermine and DAP. The binding epitope of AB0023 was mapped to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain four of human LOXL2. AB0023 binds to a region remote from the catalytic domain making AB0023 an allosteric inhibitor of LOXL2. This affords AB0023 several advantages, because it is specific for LOXL2 and inhibits the enzymatic function of LOXL2 in a non-competitive manner thereby allowing inhibition of LOXL2 regardless of substrate concentration. These results suggest that antibody allosteric modulators of enzymatic function represent a novel drug development strategy and, in the context of LOXL2, suggest that inhibitors such as these might be useful therapeutics in oncology, fibrosis, and inflammation. PMID:20439985

  7. The microsomal mixed function oxidase system of amphibians and reptiles: components, activities and induction.

    PubMed

    Ertl, R P; Winston, G W

    1998-11-01

    This article reviews current research in amphibian and reptilian cytochromes P450, important to the overall understanding of xenobiotic metabolism in the ecosystem and the evolution of P450s. Amphibians and reptilians contain the normal mixed function oxidase system (MFO). In general the MFO content and activities are less than those found in mammals, but only a few of the known activities have been examined in these vertebrate classes. Research to date has focused on two families of cytochromes P450, CYP1 and 2. The isoforms examined catalyze the classic activities but there have been notable absences. The total number of isoforms present and the breadth of substrates metabolized are yet unknown. Induction by foreign compounds (xenobiotics) is lengthier and yields lower levels of induced activity than is typically found in mammals. When these animals are pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and beta-naphthaflavone (BNF), which are known to induce the same isoform in mammals, multiple isoforms are induced with different activities. Phenobarbital-pretreatment in turtles and alligators induces cytochromes P450 and suggestive data indicates induction in the lizard Agama lizard and the newt Pleurodeles waltl. In amphibians and reptiles a CYP2B protein does appear to be present along with constitutive activities associated with the 2 family of cytochromes P450. The markedly different response to classic inducers combined with lower or absent activities alters the view of how amphibians and reptilians respond to xenobiotic challenges. PMID:9972453

  8. Mia40 combines thiol oxidase and disulfide isomerase activity to efficiently catalyze oxidative folding in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koch, Johanna R; Schmid, Franz X

    2014-12-12

    Mia40 (a mitochondrial import and assembly protein) catalyzes disulfide bond formation in proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. By using Cox17 (a mitochondrial copper-binding protein) as a natural substrate, we discovered that, in the presence of Mia40, the formation of native disulfides is strongly favored. The catalytic mechanism of Mia40 involves a functional interplay between the chaperone site and the catalytic disulfide. Mia40 forms a specific native disulfide in Cox17 much more rapidly than other disulfides, in particular, non-native ones, which originates from the recently described high affinity for hydrophobic regions near target cysteines and the long lifetime of the mixed disulfide. In addition to its thiol oxidase function, Mia40 is active also as a disulfide reductase and isomerase. We found that species with inadvertently formed incorrect disulfides are rebound by Mia40 and reshuffled, revealing a proofreading mechanism that is steered by the conformational folding of the substrate protein. PMID:25451030

  9. Blueberry polyphenol oxidase: Characterization and the kinetics of thermal and high pressure activation and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-12-01

    Partially purified blueberry polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in Mcllvaine buffer (pH=3.6, typical pH of blueberry juice) was subjected to processing at isothermal-isobaric conditions at temperatures from 30 to 80°C and pressure from 0.1 to 700MPa. High pressure processing at 30-50°C at all pressures studied caused irreversible PPO activity increase with a maximum of 6.1 fold increase at 500MPa and 30°C. Treatments at mild pressure-mild temperature conditions (0.1-400MPa, 60°C) also caused up to 3 fold PPO activity increase. Initial activity increase followed by a decrease occurred at relatively high pressure-mild temperature (400-600MPa, 60°C) and mild pressure-high temperature (0.1-400MPa, 70-80°C) combinations. At temperatures higher than 76°C, monotonic decrease in PPO activity occurred at 0.1MPa and pressures higher than 500MPa. The activation/inactivation kinetics of the enzyme was successfully modelled assuming consecutive reactions in series with activation followed by inactivation. PMID:26041182

  10. Measurement of polyphenol oxidase activity using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2015-02-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important quality index during food processing involving heat-treatment and sensitive determination of PPO activity has been a critical concern in the food industry. In this study, a new measurement of PPO activity exploiting an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor is presented using a polyclonal anti-PPO antibody that was immobilized in situ to the surface of a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated optical grating coupler activated with glutaraldehyde. When analysed with a purified PPO fraction from potato tubers, a linear relationship was found between PPO activities of 0.0005607-560.7U/mL and the sensor responses obtained. The sensor was applicable to measurement of PPO activity in real samples that were prepared from potato tubers, grapes and Kimchi cabbage, and the analytical results were compared with those obtained by a conventional colorimetric assay measuring PPO activity. When tested for long-term stability, the sensor was reusable up to 10th day after preparation. PMID:25236218

  11. Isolation and characterisation of a class of carbohydrate oxidases from higher plants, with a role in active defence.

    PubMed

    Custers, Jerôme H H V; Harrison, Stuart J; Sela-Buurlage, Marianne B; van Deventer, Els; Lageweg, Wessel; Howe, Peter W; van der Meijs, Pieter J; Ponstein, Anne S; Simons, Bert H; Melchers, Leo S; Stuiver, Maarten H

    2004-07-01

    In a search for novel plant-derived antimicrobial proteins, we screened extracts from salicylic acid (SA)-treated lettuce and sunflower leaves. These extracts displayed very potent antimicrobial activity against a set of phytopathogens. Characterisation of these extracts revealed that in both extracts, proteins of approximately 60 kDa were responsible for the antimicrobial activity. Further characterisation of these proteins and cloning of the respective cDNAs revealed close homology to a range of (plant) oxidases. Dissection of the enzymatic activity of both proteins revealed them to be carbohydrate oxidases (Helianthus annuus carbohydrate oxidase (Ha-CHOX) and Lactuca sativa carbohydrate oxidase (Ls-CHOX)) with broad substrate specificity and with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as one of the reaction products. The sunflower transcript, in addition to being SA inducible, was also inducible by fungal pathogens but not by ethylene and jasmonate. To determine whether Ha-CHOX plays a role in pathogen defence, it was transformed into tobacco and the effect of resistance to Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum was examined. Transgenic plants overexpressing Ha-CHOX displayed enhanced resistance to infection by this pathogen, and the resistance level was proportional to enzyme expression. PMID:15225281

  12. Potato and mushroom polyphenol oxidase activities are differently modulated by natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; van Herk, Teunie; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Janssen, Renske H; Narh, Deborah L; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the outcome of such screening, this study compared the effect of 60 plant extracts on the activity of PPO from mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus , AbPPO) and PPO from potato ( Solanum tuberosum , StPPO). Some plant extracts had different effects on the two PPOs: an extract that inhibited one PPO could be an activator for the other. As an example of this, the mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) extract was investigated in more detail. In the presence of mate extract, oxygen consumption by AbPPO was found to be reduced >5-fold compared to a control reaction, whereas that of StPPO was increased >9-fold. RP-UHPLC-MS analysis showed that the mate extract contained a mixture of phenolic compounds and saponins. Upon incubation of mate extract with StPPO, phenolic compounds disappeared completely and saponins remained. Flash chromatography was used to separate saponins and phenolic compounds. It was found that the phenolic fraction was mainly responsible for inhibition of AbPPO and activation of StPPO. Activation of StPPO was probably caused by activation of latent StPPO by chlorogenic acid quinones. PMID:24344979

  13. Peroxygenase and Oxidase Activities of Dehaloperoxidase-Hemoglobin from Amphitrite ornata

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The marine globin dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin (DHP) from Amphitrite ornata was found to catalyze the H2O2-dependent oxidation of monohaloindoles, a previously unknown class of substrate for DHP. Using 5-Br-indole as a representative substrate, the major monooxygenated products were found to be 5-Br-2-oxindole and 5-Br-3-oxindolenine. Isotope labeling studies confirmed that the oxygen atom incorporated was derived exclusively from H2O2, indicative of a previously unreported peroxygenase activity for DHP. Peroxygenase activity could be initiated from either the ferric or oxyferrous states with equivalent substrate conversion and product distribution. It was found that 5-Br-3-oxindole, a precursor of the product 5-Br-3-oxindolenine, readily reduced the ferric enzyme to the oxyferrous state, demonstrating an unusual product-driven reduction of the enzyme. As such, DHP returns to the globin-active oxyferrous form after peroxygenase activity ceases. Reactivity with 5-Br-3-oxindole in the absence of H2O2 also yielded 5,5?-Br2-indigo above the expected reaction stoichiometry under aerobic conditions, and O2-concentration studies demonstrated dioxygen consumption. Nonenzymatic and anaerobic controls both confirmed the requirements for DHP and molecular oxygen in the catalytic generation of 5,5?-Br2-indigo, and together suggest a newly identified oxidase activity for DHP. PMID:24791647

  14. Activity of D-amino acid oxidase is widespread in the human central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Sasabe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Masataka; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) plays an essential role in degrading D-serine, an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. DAO shows genetic association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and schizophrenia, in whose pathophysiology aberrant metabolism of D-serine is implicated. Although the pathology of both essentially involves the forebrain, in rodents, enzymatic activity of DAO is hindbrain-shifted and absent in the region. Here, we show activity-based distribution of DAO in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans compared with that of mice. DAO activity in humans was generally higher than that in mice. In the human forebrain, DAO activity was distributed in the subcortical white matter and the posterior limb of internal capsule, while it was almost undetectable in those areas in mice. In the lower brain centers, DAO activity was detected in the gray and white matters in a coordinated fashion in both humans and mice. In humans, DAO activity was prominent along the corticospinal tract, rubrospinal tract, nigrostriatal system, ponto-/olivo-cerebellar fibers, and in the anterolateral system. In contrast, in mice, the reticulospinal tract and ponto-/olivo-cerebellar fibers were the major pathways showing strong DAO activity. In the human corticospinal tract, activity-based staining of DAO did not merge with a motoneuronal marker, but colocalized mostly with excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and in part with GFAP, suggesting that DAO activity-positive cells are astrocytes seen mainly in the motor pathway. These findings establish the distribution of DAO activity in cerebral white matter and the motor system in humans, providing evidence to support the involvement of DAO in schizophrenia and ALS. Our results raise further questions about the regulation of D-serine in DAO-rich regions as well as the physiological/pathological roles of DAO in white matter astrocytes. PMID:24959138

  15. Prenatal Hypoxia Reduces Mitochondrial Protein Levels and Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity in Offspring Guinea Pig Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasan, Yazan M.; Pinkas, Gerard A.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal hypoxia (HPX) reduces mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CCO and COX) activity in fetal guinea pig (GP) hearts. The aim of this study was to quantify the lasting effects of chronic prenatal HPX on cardiac mitochondrial enzyme activity and protein expression in offspring hearts. Pregnant GPs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or HPX (10.5%O2) during the last 14 days of pregnancy. Both NMX and HPX fetuses, delivered vaginally, were housed under NMX conditions until 90 days of age. Total RNA and mitochondrial fractions were isolated from hearts of anesthetized NMX and HPX offspring and showed decreased levels of CCO but not medium-chain acyl dehydrogenase activity, protein levels of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded COX4 and COX1, respectively, and messenger RNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, COX5b, and 4.1 compared to NMX controls. Prenatal HPX may alter mitochondrial function in the offspring by disrupting protein expression associated with the respiratory chain. PMID:24406790

  16. Methadone, monoamine oxidase, and depression: opioid distribution and acute effects on enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, C.A.; Kreek, M.J.; Raghunath, J.; Arns, P.

    1983-09-01

    Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined /sub 3/H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24 hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid.

  17. Cardiolipin linoleic acid content and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity are associated in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner-mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that is important for optimal mitochondrial function. Specifically, CL and CL linoleic (18:2?6) content are known to be positively associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. However, this association has not been examined in skeletal muscle. In this study, rats were fed high-fat diets with a naturally occurring gradient in linoleic acid (coconut oil [CO], 5.8%; flaxseed oil [FO], 13.2%; safflower oil [SO], 75.1%) in an attempt to alter both mitochondrial CL fatty acyl composition and COX activity in rat mixed hind-limb muscle. In general, mitochondrial membrane lipid composition was fairly resistant to dietary treatments as only modest changes in fatty acyl composition were detected in CL and other major mitochondrial phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). As a result of this resistance, CL 18:2?6 content was not different between the dietary groups. Consistent with the lack of changes in CL 18:2?6 content, mitochondrial COX activity was also not different between the dietary groups. However, correlational analysis using data obtained from rats across the dietary groups showed a significant relationship (p = 0.009, R(2) = 0.21). Specifically, our results suggest that CL 18:2?6 content may positively influence mitochondrial COX activity thereby making this lipid molecule a potential factor related to mitochondrial health and function in skeletal muscle. PMID:25727371

  18. CYP3A5-mediated metabolism of midazolam in recombinant systems is highly sensitive to NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Hege; Hestad, Anette L; Molden, Espen; Mathiesen, Liv

    2011-01-01

    Data from in vitro drug metabolism studies with recombinant enzyme systems are frequently used to predict human drug metabolism in vivo. However, for the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam (MDZ), considerable variability in enzyme kinetic parameters has been observed in different in vitro studies. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of varying activities of the electron donor NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) on CYP3A5-mediated metabolism of MDZ. Microsomes with similar levels of CYP3A5 but 12-fold difference in CPR activity showed a 30-fold difference in intrinsic clearance for the formation of 1'-OH-MDZ. Significantly higher K(m) and lower V(max) for the formation of 1'-OH-MDZ were found in microsomes with low CPR activity compared with microsomes with higher CPR activity (P?=?0.024 and 0.001). In the microsomes with lowest CPR activity, the formation of 1'-OH-MDZ displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, whereas substrate inhibition was observed in the two preparations with higher CPR activity. The present study shows that the CPR activity in different recombinant enzyme preparations is crucial for in vitro CYP3A5-mediated clearance of MDZ. This suggests that the CPR activity of enzyme preparations could be an important factor for the ability of in vitro data to predict human drug metabolism in vivo. PMID:20954901

  19. Identification of the catalytic base for alcohol activation in choline oxidase.

    PubMed

    Smitherman, Crystal; Rungsrisuriyachai, Kunchala; Germann, Markus W; Gadda, Giovanni

    2015-01-20

    Choline oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine through a two-step, four-electron reaction with betaine aldehyde as an intermediate. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor. Alcohol oxidation is initiated by the removal of the substrate hydroxyl proton by an unknown active site residue with a pKa value of ?7.5. In the crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with glycine betaine, H466 is ?3.1 Å from the carboxylate oxygen of the reaction product, suggesting a possible role in the proton abstraction reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. H466, along with another potential candidate, H351, was previously mutated to alanine, but this failed to establish if either residue was involved in activation of the substrate. In this study, single variants of choline oxidase with H466 and H351 substituted with glutamine were prepared, purified, and characterized. The kcat and kcat/Km values of the H351Q enzyme in atmospheric oxygen were 45- and 5000-fold lower than those of the wild-type enzyme, respectively, whereas the H466Q enzyme was inactive when assayed polarographically with choline. In the H466Q enzyme, the rate constant for anaerobic flavin reduction (kred) with choline was 1 million-fold lower than in the wild-type enzyme. A comparison of the fluorescence, circular dichroism, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic properties of the H466Q enzyme and the wild-type enzyme is consistent with the mutation not affecting the topology of the active site or the overall fold of the protein. Thus, the change in the kred value and the lack of oxygen consumption upon mutation of histidine to glutamine are not due to misfolded protein but rather to the variant enzyme being unable to catalyze substrate oxidation. On the basis of the kinetic and spectroscopic results presented here and the recent structural information, we propose that H466 is the residue that activates choline to the alkoxide for the subsequent hydride transfer reaction to the enzyme-bound flavin. PMID:25478900

  20. Changes in peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in susceptible and resistant wheat heads inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and induced resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Mohammadi; Homayoon Kazemi

    2002-01-01

    Guaiacol-peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were measured spectrophotometrically in resistant (cvs. Sumai#3 and Wang shui-bai) and susceptible (cvs. Falat and Golestan) wheat heads at flowering, milk, dough and ripening stages following the inoculation with Fusariumgraminearum at anthesis. POX specific activity in resistant and susceptible wheat cultivars showed a significant increase during the milk stage as compared with the

  1. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and hypouricemic effect of aspalathin from unfermented rooibos.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Nishio, Masahiro; Furuya, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Rooibos is rich in flavonoids such as aspalathin, which is a unique C-glycosyl dihydrochalcone, that is used as a traditional herbal tea. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity of the aspalathin-rich fraction (ARF) and purified aspalathin from rooibos. The hypouricemic effects of the ARF and aspalathin on hyperuricemic mice were also assessed. The ARF was prepared from aqueous extract of unfermented rooibos leaves and stems, and it was collected by column chromatography; the aspalathin content in this fraction was 21.4%. The ARF and aspalathin inhibited XOD in a dose-dependent manner. The concentrations of the ARF and aspalathin required to inhibit XOD at 50% (IC50 ) were 20.4 ?g/mL (4.4 ?g/mL aspalathin equivalents) and 4.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that aspalathin was a competitive inhibitor of XOD, and the inhibition constant (Ki) was 3.1 ?M. In hyperuricemic mice induced by inosine-5'-monophosphate, treatment with the ARF and aspalathin significantly suppressed the increased plasma uric acid level in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressed plasma uric acid level in mice could be attributed to the XOD inhibitory activity of the ARF and aspalathin. Further study is required to determine the effect of aspalathin or its metabolites on XOD activity in vivo. PMID:24261664

  2. Characterization of germin-like protein with polyphenol oxidase activity from Satsuma mandarine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi; Huang, Xingjian; Liu, Siyu; Tang, Mi; Hu, Wanfeng; Pan, Siyi

    2014-07-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) catalyzing the oxygen dependent oxidation of phenols to quinones are ubiquitously distributed in plants and are assumed to be involved in plant defense against pests and pathogens. A protein with high PPO activity was identified in Satsuma mandarine, extracted with Tris-HCl buffer, purified by salt precipitation and column chromatography, and characterized by mass spectrometry as germin-like protein (GLP), which belongs to pathogenesis related protein (PR) family. In the present study, the structure and enzymatic properties of GLP were characterized using spectroscopy methods. Based on native PAGE analysis, the molecular weight of GLP was estimated to be 108 kDa and GLP was identified as a pentamer containing five subunits of 22 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for PPO catalyzing activity of GLP was 6.5 and 65°C, respectively. Kinetic constants were 0.0365 M and 0.0196 M with the substrates catechol and pyrogallol, respectively. The structural characterization of GLP provided better insights into the regions responsible for its PPO activity. PMID:24845377

  3. Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui

    2010-02-24

    The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways. PMID:20112908

  4. Methodology to assay CYP2E1 mixed function oxidase catalytic activity and its induction

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Arthur I.

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase enzymes are the major catalysts involved in drug metabolism. There are many forms of P450. CYP2E1 metabolizes many toxicologically important compounds including ethanol and is active in generating reactive oxygen species. Since several of the contributions in the common theme series “Role of CYP2E1 and Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress in the Hepatotoxic Actions of Alcohol” discuss CYP2E1, this methodology review describes assays on how CYP2E1 catalytic activity and its induction by ethanol and other inducers can be measured using substrate probes such as the oxidation of para-nitrophenol to para-nitrocatechol and the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Approaches to validate that a particular reaction e.g. oxidation of a drug or toxin is catalyzed by CYP2E1 or that induction of that reaction is due to induction of CYP2E1 are important and specific examples using inhibitors of CYP2E1, anti-CYP2E1 IgG or CYP2E1 knockout and knockin mice will be discussed. PMID:25454746

  5. A conserved amphipathic ligand binding region influences k-path-dependent activity of cytochrome C oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hiser, Carrie; Buhrow, Leann; Liu, Jian; Kuhn, Leslie; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2013-02-26

    A conserved, crystallographically defined bile acid binding site was originally identified in the membrane domain of mammalian and bacterial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). Current studies show other amphipathic molecules including detergents, fatty acids, steroids, and porphyrins bind to this site and affect the already 50% inhibited activity of the E101A mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides CcO as well as altering the activity of wild-type and bovine enzymes. Dodecyl maltoside, Triton X100, C12E8, lysophophatidylcholine, and CHOBIMALT detergents further inhibit RsCcO E101A, with lesser inhibition observed in wild-type. The detergent inhibition is overcome in the presence of micromolar concentrations of steroids and porphyrin analogues including deoxycholate, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, bilirubin, and protoporphyrin IX. In addition to alleviating detergent inhibition, amphipathic carboxylates including arachidonic, docosahexanoic, and phytanic acids stimulate the activity of E101A to wild-type levels by providing the missing carboxyl group. Computational modeling of dodecyl maltoside, bilirubin, and protoporphyrin IX into the conserved steroid site shows energetically favorable binding modes for these ligands and suggests that a groove at the interface of subunit I and II, including the entrance to the K-path and helix VIII of subunit I, mediates the observed competitive ligand interactions involving two overlapping sites. Spectral analysis indicates that ligand binding to this region affects CcO activity by altering the K-path-dependent electron transfer equilibrium between heme a and heme a(3). The high affinity and specificity of a number of compounds for this region, and its conservation and impact on CcO activity, support its physiological significance. PMID:23351100

  6. Parameters That Enhance the Bacterial Expression of Active Plant Polyphenol Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E.; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs, EC 1.10.3.1) are type-3 copper proteins that enzymatically convert diphenolic compounds into their corresponding quinones. Although there is significant interest in these enzymes because of their role in food deterioration, the lack of a suitable expression system for the production of soluble and active plant PPOs has prevented detailed investigations of their structure and activity. Recently we developed a bacterial expression system that was sufficient for the production of PPO isoenzymes from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). The system comprised the Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 (DE3) [pLysSRARE2] strain combined with the pET-22b(+)-vector cultivated in auto-induction medium at a constant low temperature (26°C). Here we describe important parameters that enhance the production of active PPOs using dandelion PPO-2 for proof of concept. Low-temperature cultivation was essential for optimal yields, and the provision of CuCl2 in the growth medium was necessary to produce an active enzyme. By increasing the copper concentration in the production medium to 0.2 mM, the yield in terms of PPO activity per mol purified protein was improved 2.7-fold achieving a vmax of 0.48±0.1 µkat per mg purified PPO-2 for 4-methylcatechol used as a substrate. This is likely to reflect the replacement of an inactive apo-form of the enzyme with a correctly-folded, copper-containing counterpart. We demonstrated the transferability of the method by successfully expressing a PPO from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) showing that our optimized system is suitable for the analysis of further plant PPOs. Our new system therefore provides greater opportunities for the future of research into this economically-important class of enzymes. PMID:24204791

  7. Parameters that enhance the bacterial expression of active plant polyphenol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs, EC 1.10.3.1) are type-3 copper proteins that enzymatically convert diphenolic compounds into their corresponding quinones. Although there is significant interest in these enzymes because of their role in food deterioration, the lack of a suitable expression system for the production of soluble and active plant PPOs has prevented detailed investigations of their structure and activity. Recently we developed a bacterial expression system that was sufficient for the production of PPO isoenzymes from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). The system comprised the Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 (DE3) [pLysSRARE2] strain combined with the pET-22b(+)-vector cultivated in auto-induction medium at a constant low temperature (26 °C). Here we describe important parameters that enhance the production of active PPOs using dandelion PPO-2 for proof of concept. Low-temperature cultivation was essential for optimal yields, and the provision of CuCl2 in the growth medium was necessary to produce an active enzyme. By increasing the copper concentration in the production medium to 0.2 mM, the yield in terms of PPO activity per mol purified protein was improved 2.7-fold achieving a v(max) of 0.48 ± 0.1 µkat per mg purified PPO-2 for 4-methylcatechol used as a substrate. This is likely to reflect the replacement of an inactive apo-form of the enzyme with a correctly-folded, copper-containing counterpart. We demonstrated the transferability of the method by successfully expressing a PPO from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) showing that our optimized system is suitable for the analysis of further plant PPOs. Our new system therefore provides greater opportunities for the future of research into this economically-important class of enzymes. PMID:24204791

  8. Subunit CydX of Escherichia coli cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase is essential for assembly and stability of the di-heme active site.

    PubMed

    Hoeser, Jo; Hong, Sangjin; Gehmann, Gerfried; Gennis, Robert B; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    Cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase uses the electron transport from ubiquinol to oxygen to establish a proton gradient across the membrane. The enzyme complex consists of subunits CydA and B and contains two b- and one d-type hemes as cofactors. Recently, it was proposed that a third subunit named CydX is essential for the function of the complex. Here, we show that CydX is indeed a subunit of purified Escherichia coli cytochrome bd oxidase and that the small protein is needed either for the assembly or the stability of the active site di-heme center and, thus, is essential for oxidase activity. PMID:24681096

  9. Discovery of a gene involved in a third bacterial protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity through comparative genomic analysis and functional complementation.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Tye O; Gerdes, Svetlana; Craven, Sarah H; Neidle, Ellen L; Phillips, John D; Dailey, Harry A

    2011-07-01

    Tetrapyrroles are ubiquitous molecules in nearly all living organisms. Heme, an iron-containing tetrapyrrole, is widely distributed in nature, including most characterized aerobic and facultative bacteria. A large majority of bacteria that contain heme possess the ability to synthesize it. Despite this capability and the fact that the biosynthetic pathway has been well studied, enzymes catalyzing at least three steps have remained "missing" in many bacteria. In the current work, we have employed comparative genomics via the SEED genomic platform, coupled with experimental verification utilizing Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, to identify one of the missing enzymes, a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in heme biosynthesis. COG1981 was identified by genomic analysis as a candidate protein family for the missing enzyme in bacteria that lacked HemG or HemY, two known protoporphyrinogen oxidases. The predicted amino acid sequence of COG1981 is unlike those of the known enzymes HemG and HemY, but in some genomes, the gene encoding it is found neighboring other heme biosynthetic genes. When the COG1981 gene was deleted from the genome of A. baylyi, a bacterium that lacks both hemG and hemY, the organism became auxotrophic for heme. Cultures accumulated porphyrin intermediates, and crude cell extracts lacked protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity. The heme auxotrophy was rescued by the presence of a plasmid-borne protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene from a number of different organisms, such as hemG from Escherichia coli, hemY from Myxococcus xanthus, or the human gene for protoporphyrinogen oxidase. PMID:21642412

  10. Distribution of parvalbumin, cytochrome oxidase activity and 14C-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the brain of the zebra finch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Braun; Henning Scheich; Melitta Schachner; Claus W. Heizmann

    1985-01-01

    The visual system of adult zebra finches was investigated 1) immunocytochemically for the distribution of the Ca2+-binding protein parvalbumin, 2) for the activity of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, and 3) for the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose. In the visual system, only nuclei of the tecto-fugal pathway and related nuclei were labeled by the parvalbumin antiserum (ectostriatum, nucleus rotundus, tectum opticum,

  11. Identification of NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase Activity in Azoreductases from P. aeruginosa: Azoreductases and NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductases Belong to the Same FMN-Dependent Superfamily of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Ali; Kaplan, Elise; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Polycarpou, Elena; Crescente, Vincenzo; Lowe, Edward; Preston, Gail M.; Sim, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Water soluble quinones are a group of cytotoxic anti-bacterial compounds that are secreted by many species of plants, invertebrates, fungi and bacteria. Studies in a number of species have shown the importance of quinones in response to pathogenic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Two electron reduction is an important mechanism of quinone detoxification as it generates the less toxic quinol. In most organisms this reaction is carried out by a group of flavoenzymes known as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases. Azoreductases have previously been separate from this group, however using azoreductases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa we show that they can rapidly reduce quinones. Azoreductases from the same organism are also shown to have distinct substrate specificity profiles allowing them to reduce a wide range of quinones. The azoreductase family is also shown to be more extensive than originally thought, due to the large sequence divergence amongst its members. As both NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases and azoreductases have related reaction mechanisms it is proposed that they form an enzyme superfamily. The ubiquitous and diverse nature of azoreductases alongside their broad substrate specificity, indicates they play a wide role in cellular survival under adverse conditions. PMID:24915188

  12. Summer drought decreases soil fungal diversity and associated phenol oxidase activity in upland Calluna heathland soil.

    PubMed

    Toberman, Hannah; Freeman, Chris; Evans, Chris; Fenner, Nathalie; Artz, Rebekka R E

    2008-11-01

    Natural moisture limitation during summer drought can constitute a stress for microbial communities in soil. Given globally predicted increases in drought frequency, there is an urgent need for a greater understanding of the effects of drought events on soil microbial processes. Using a long-term field-scale drought manipulation experiment at Clocaenog, Wales, UK, we analysed fungal community dynamics, using internal transcribed spacer-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), over a 1-year period in the 6th year of drought manipulation. Ambient seasonality was found to be the dominant factor driving variation in fungal community dynamics. The summer drought manipulation resulted in a significant decline in the abundance of dominant fungal species, both independently of, and in interaction with, this seasonal variation. Furthermore, soil moisture was significantly correlated with the changes in fungal diversity over the drought manipulation period. While the relationship between species diversity and functional diversity remains equivocal, phenol oxidase activity was decreased by the summer drought conditions and there was a significant correlation with the decline of DGGE band richness among the most dominant fungal species during the drought season. Climatically driven events such as droughts may have significant implications for fungal community diversity and therefore, have the potential to interfere with crucial ecosystem processes, such as organic matter decomposition. PMID:18662311

  13. Polyphenol oxidase activity and antioxidant properties of Yomra apple (Malus communis L.) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Dincer, Barbaros; Sahin, Huseyin; Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, firstly, antioxidant and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) properties of Yomra apple were investigated. Seventeen phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic compounds (TPCs), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities were performed to measure antioxidant capacity. Some kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax), and inhibition behaviors against five different substrates were measured in the crude extract. Catechin and chlorogenic acid were found as the major components in the methanolic extract, while ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid were small quantities. Km values ranged from 0.70 to 10.10 mM in the substrates, and also 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (HPPA) and L-DOPA showed the highest affinity. The inhibition constant of Ki were ranged from 0.05 to 14.90 mM against sodium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid, sodium azide and benzoic acid, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite were the best inhibitors. PMID:24246090

  14. Enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase covalently wired via viologen to electrically conductive polypyrrole films.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Neoh, K G; Cen, Lian; Kang, E T

    2004-03-15

    The surface functionalization of an electrically conductive polypyrrole film (PPY) with a viologen, (N-(2-carboxyl-ethyl)-N'-(4-vinyl-benzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride, or CVV) for the covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) has been carried out. The viologen was first synthesized and graft polymerized on PPY film. It then served as an anchor via its carboxyl groups for the covalent immobilization of GOD. The surface composition of the as-functionalized substrates was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of the CVV monomer concentration on the CVV-graft polymer concentration and the amount of GOD immobilized on the surface were investigated. The activity of the immobilized GOD was compared with that of free GOD and the kinetic effects were also obtained. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) response of the GOD-functionalized PPY substrates was studied in a phosphate buffer solution under an argon atmosphere. The CV results support the mechanism in which CVV acts as a mediator to transfer electron between the electrode and enzyme, and hence regenerating the enzyme in the enzymatic reaction with glucose. High sensitivity and linear response of the enzyme electrode was observed with glucose concentration ranging from 0 to 20 mM. PMID:15128101

  15. Posttranslational ruling of xanthine oxidase activity in bovine milk by its substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Silanikove, Nissim [Ruminant Physiology, Institute of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250 (Israel)], E-mail: nsilanik@agri.huji.ac.il; Shapiro, Fira [Ruminant Physiology, Institute of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250 (Israel); Leitner, Gabriel [National Mastitis Reference Center, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan 50250 (Israel)

    2007-11-23

    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that the substrates of xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine and hypoxanthine, are consumed while the milk is stored in the gland between milkings, and to explore how XO activity responds to bacteria commonly associated with subclinical infections in the mammary gland. Freshly secreted milk was obtained following complete evacuation of the gland and induction of milk ejection with oxytocin. In bacteria-free fresh milk xanthine and hypoxanthine were converted to uric acid within 30 min (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 10 min), which in turn provides electrons for formation of hydrogen peroxide and endows the alveolar lumen with passive protection against invading bacteria. On the other hand, the longer residence time of milk in the cistern compartment was not associated with oxidative stress as a result of XO idleness caused by exhaustion of its physiological fuels. The specific response of XO to bacteria species and the resulting bacteria-dependent nitrosative stress further demonstrates that it is part of the gland immune system.

  16. Activity of glucose oxidase immobilized onto Fe3+ attached hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films.

    PubMed

    Sözügeçer, Sevgi; Bayramgil, Nursel Pekel

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HMPC) insoluble films were prepared by (60)Co-? irradiation of 10% (w/w) aqueous solutions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. The adsorption of Fe(3+) onto HPMC films was studied in the range of pH 3.0-7.0. The effect of initial concentrations of Fe(3+) solutions on adsorption capacity was studied in the range of 100-1000 ppm. Maximum adsorption capacity was found as 250 mg Fe(3+)/g dry HPMC film at pH 5.0. The structure and the morphology of Fe(3+)-attached HPMC film were evaluated by using FTIR/ATR and SEM-EDX methods. Glucose oxidase (GOX) immobilization on both pristine HPMC and maximum Fe(3+)-attached HPMC film was investigated in aqueous solutions containing different amount of GOX and at different pHs. Maximum GOX adsorption capacity was found as 500 mg/g Fe(3+)-attached HPMC film. Residual activity of GOX on pristine HPMC and Fe(3+)-attached HPMC films was investigated with changing pH. While maximum residual GOX activity was observed at pH 6.0 for free enzyme, it was obtained by HPMC and Fe(3+)-attached HPMC at pH 7.0. GOX desorption studies were achieved by using pH 6.0 buffer (I=0.02 M) and 0.1 M EDTA solutions. The long-term stability and activity studies of GOX, which is immobilized onto Fe(3+)-attached HPMC films are still under our investigation. PMID:23010019

  17. NAD(P)H nitroblue tetrazolium reductase levels in apparently normoxic tissues: a histochemical study correlating enzyme activity with binding of radiolabelled misonidazole.

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, L. M.; Hacker, T.; Nolan, J.

    1990-01-01

    Hack and Helmy's method for the histochemical identification of NAD(P)H nitroblue tetrazolium reductase activity was employed to pinpoint reductase activity in certain cells in the mouse. High activity was observed in the following: lower airway epithelium, liver (centrilobular zone), eyelid (meibomian and sebaceous glands), vulval gland and parotid gland (striated cells of intralobular ducts). All of these cells had previously been identified as sites of binding of the reactive metabolites formed from the enzymic reduction of misonidazole (MISO) (Cobb et al., 1989). It had previously been thought that MISO binding would only take place in significant amounts in hypoxic tissues (tumour and possibly liver) since in normoxic tissues oxygen should reverse the initial one electron enzymic reduction, thus preventing progressive reduction to reactive species. We suggest that the very high levels of reductase in the above listed, probably normoxic, tissues contribute significantly to the accumulation of bound reactive MISO metabolite(s). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2331439

  18. Phosphatase activity regulates superoxide anion generation and intracellular signaling in human neutrophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C Gay; Khadir Raddassi; Artis P Truett III; John J Murray

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorylation of components of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase plays a critical role in activation and maintenance of superoxide anion (O2?) generation. To investigate the role of dephosphorylation by phosphatases in regulating O2? production, human neutrophils were treated with calyculin A, a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, prior to stimulation. Calyculin A alone did not stimulate O2? production.

  19. Involvement of NADPH-Dependent and cAMP-PKA Sensitive H+ Channels in the Chorda Tympani Nerve Responses to Strong Acids

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, John A.; T. Phan, Tam-Hao; Heck, Gerard L.; Ren, ZuoJun; Coleman, Jamison; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Melone, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses to strong (HCl) and weak (CO2 and acetic acid) acidic stimuli are dependent upon NADPH oxidase–linked and cAMP-sensitive proton conductances in taste cell membranes, CT responses were monitored in rats, wild-type (WT) mice, and gp91phox knockout (KO) mice in the absence and presence of blockers (Zn2+ and diethyl pyrocarbonate [DEPC]) or activators (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP; 8-CPT-cAMP) of proton channels and activators of the NADPH oxidase enzyme (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA], H2O2, and nitrazepam). Zn2+ and DEPC inhibited and 8-CPT-cAMP, PMA, H2O2, and nitrazepam enhanced the tonic CT responses to HCl without altering responses to CO2 and acetic acid. In KO mice, the tonic HCl CT response was reduced by 64% relative to WT mice. The residual CT response was insensitive to H2O2 but was blocked by Zn2+. Its magnitude was further enhanced by 8-CPT-cAMP treatment, and the enhancement was blocked by 8-CPT-adenosine-3?-5?-cyclic monophospho-rothioate, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Under voltage-clamp conditions, before cAMP treatment, rat tonic HCl CT responses demonstrated voltage-dependence only at ±90 mV, suggesting the presence of H+ channels with voltage-dependent conductances. After cAMP treatment, the tonic HCl CT response had a quasi-linear dependence on voltage, suggesting that the cAMP-dependent part of the HCl CT response has a quasi-linear voltage dependence between +60 and ?60 mV, only becoming sigmoidal when approaching +90 and ?90 mV. The results suggest that CT responses to HCl involve 2 proton entry pathways, an NADPH oxidase–dependent proton channel, and a cAMP-PKA sensitive proton channel. PMID:21339339

  20. Protein kinase C epsilon activates lens mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Michael; Lin, Dingbo; Akoyev, Vladimir; Willard, Lloyd; Takemoto, Dolores

    2008-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have been identified as major cellular signaling proteins that act directly in response to oxidation conditions. In retina and lens two isoforms of PKC respond to changes in oxidative stress, PKCgamma and PKCepsilon, while only PKCepsilon is found in heart. In heart the PKCepsilon acts on connexin 43 to protect from hypoxia. The presence of both isoforms in the lens led to this study to determine if lens PKCepsilon had unique targets. Both lens epithelial cells in culture and whole mouse lens were examined using PKC isoform-specific enzyme activity assays, co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy, immunoblots, and light and electron microscopy. PKCepsilon was found in lens epithelium and cortex but not in the nucleus of mouse lens. The PKCepsilon isoform was activated in both epithelium and whole lens by 5% oxygen when compared to activity at 21% oxygen. In hypoxic conditions (5% oxygen) the PKCepsilon co-immunoprecipitated with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase IV subunit (CytCOx). Concomitant with this the CytCOx enzyme activity was elevated and increased co-localization of CytCOx with PCKvarepsilon was observed using immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. In contrast, no hypoxia-induced activation of CytCOx was observed in lenses from the PKCepsilon knockout mice. Lens from 6-week-old PKCepsilon knockout mice had a disorganized bow region which was filled with vacuoles indicating a possible loss of mitochondria but the size of the lens was not altered. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the nuclei of the PCKepsilon knockout mice were abnormal in shape. Thus, PKCepsilon is found to be activated by hypoxia and this results in the activation of the mitochondrial protein CytCOx. This could protect the lens from mitochondrial damage under the naturally hypoxic conditions observed in this tissue. Lens oxygen levels must remain low. Elevation of oxygen which occurs during vitreal detachment or liquification is associated with cataracts. We hypothesize that elevated oxygen could cause inhibition of PKCepsilon resulting in a loss of mitochondrial protection. PMID:18070622

  1. Calpain activation induced by glucose deprivation is mediated by oxidative stress and contributes to neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Páramo, Blanca; Montiel, Teresa; Hernández-Espinosa, Diego R; Rivera-Martínez, Marlene; Morán, Julio; Massieu, Lourdes

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms leading to neuronal death during glucose deprivation have not been fully elucidated, but a role of oxidative stress has been suggested. In the present study we have investigated whether the production of reactive oxygen species during glucose deprivation, contributes to the activation of calpain, a calcium-dependent protease involved in neuronal injury associated with brain ischemia and cerebral trauma. We have observed a rapid activation of calpain, as monitored by the cleavage of the cytoskeletal protein ?-spectrin, after glucose withdrawal, which is reduced by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase. Results suggest that phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase contribute to the early activation of calpain after glucose deprivation. In particular NOX2, a member of the NADPH oxidase family is involved, since reduced stimulation of calpain activity is observed after glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice lacking a functional NOX2. We observed an additive effect of the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and phospholipase A2 on both ROS production and calpain activity, suggesting a synergistic action of these two enzymes. The present results provide new evidence showing that reactive oxygen species stimulate calpain activation during glucose deprivation and that this mechanism is involved in neuronal death. PMID:23994487

  2. Effect of ammonium and nitrate ratio on glucose oxidase activity during gluconic acid fermentation by a mutant strain of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Banik, A K

    1999-04-01

    Of the factors tested, the source and concentration of carbon and nitrogen in the medium exerted maximum effect on growth and acid production. Glucose (15%) and urea (0.14%) induced glucose oxidase synthesis and optimum yield of calcium gluconate. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.2%) and magnesium sulphate (0.06%) stimulated glucose oxidase activity and calcium gluconate production. Borax at a concentration of 1.5 g/L induced maximum glucose oxidase and calcium gluconate production with increased glucose utilization. PMID:10641175

  3. Microfluidic Devices Integrating Microcavity Surface-Plasmon-Resonance Sensors: Glucose Oxidase Binding-Activity Detection

    PubMed Central

    Amarie, Dragos; Alileche, Abdelkrim; Dragnea, Bogdan; Glazier, James A.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed miniature (?1 ?m diameter) microcavity surface-plasmon-resonance sensors (MSPRS), integrated them with microfluidics and tested their sensitivity to refractive-index changes. We tested their biosensing capability by distinguishing the interaction of glucose oxidase (Mr 160 kDa) with its natural substrate (?-D-glucose, Mr 180 Da) from its interactions with non-specific substrates (L-glucose, D-mannose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose). We ran the identical protocol we had used with the MSPRS on a Biacore 3000 instrument using their bare gold chip. Only the MSPRS was able to detect ?-D-glucose binding to glucose oxidase. Each MSPRS can detect the binding to its surface of fewer than 35,000 glucose-oxidase molecules (representing 9.6 fg or 60 zmol of protein), about 106 times fewer than classical surface-plasmon-resonance biosensors. PMID:19968248

  4. Detection of xanthine oxidase activity products by EPR and HPLC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvano Pinamonti; Marilena Leis; Andrea Barbieri; Daniele Leoni; Mariavittoria Muzzoli; Silvana Sostero; Milvia C Chicca; Alberto Carrieri; Franco Ravenna; Leonardo M Fabbri; Adalberto Ciaccia

    1998-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (xanthine: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.3.22), a molybdenum-containing hydroxylase that produces superoxide and uric acid from purine substrates and molecular oxygen, is involved in the oxidative stress underlying several human pathologies including lung diseases. An enzymatic activity similar to xanthine